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Sample records for soma size altered

  1. Measurement of neuron soma size by fluorescent Nissl stain

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: James Cronk, Noel Derecki & Jonathan Kipnis ### Abstract This protocol describes how to measure neuron soma size by fluorescent Nissl stain. Mice are sacrificed, and fixed by PFA perfusion. Brains are removed, and further PFA fixed, followed by sucrose cryoprotection. They are then snap frozen, sliced by cryostat, and stained with fluorescent Nissl as floating sections. Confocal microscopy is used to take images of neurons, and a computer graphics tablet is used to calculate ...

  2. JNK1 Controls Dendritic Field Size in L2/3 and L5 of the Motor Cortex, Constrains Soma Size and Influences Fine Motor Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia eKomulainen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic anomalies on the JNK pathway confer susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia and intellectual disability. The mechanism whereby a gain or loss of function in JNK signaling predisposes to these prevalent dendrite disorders, with associated motor dysfunction, remains unclear. Here we find that JNK1 regulates the dendritic field of L2/3 and L5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse motor cortex (M1, the main excitatory pathway controlling voluntary movement. In Jnk1-/- mice, basal dendrite branching of L5 pyramidal neurons is increased in M1, as is cell soma size, whereas in L2/3, dendritic arborization is decreased. We show that JNK1 phosphorylates rat HMW-MAP2 on T1619, T1622 and T1625 (Uniprot P15146 corresponding to mouse T1617, T1620, T1623, to create a binding motif, that is critical for MAP2 interaction with and stabilization of microtubules, and dendrite growth control. Targeted expression in M1 of GFP-HMW-MAP2 that is pseudo-phosphorylated on T1619, T1622 and T1625 increases dendrite complexity in L2/3 indicating that JNK1 phosphorylation of HMW-MAP2 regulates the dendritic field. Consistent with the morphological changes observed in L2/3 and L5, Jnk1-/- mice exhibit deficits in limb placement and motor coordination, while stride length is reduced in older animals. In summary, JNK1 phosphorylates HMW-MAP2 to increase its stabilization of microtubules while at the same time controlling dendritic fields in the main excitatory pathway of M1. Moreover, JNK1 contributes to normal functioning of fine motor coordination. We report for the first time, a quantitative sholl analysis of dendrite architecture, and of motor behavior in Jnk1-/- mice. Our results illustrate the molecular and behavioral consequences of interrupted JNK1 signaling and provide new ground for mechanistic understanding of those prevalent neuropyschiatric disorders where genetic disruption of the JNK pathway is central.

  3. Measurements of Neuronal Soma Size and Estimated Peptide Concentrations in Addition to Cell Abundance Offer a Higher Resolution of Seasonal and Reproductive Influences of GnRH-I and GnIH in European Starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorin, Nelson; Calisi, Rebecca M

    2015-08-01

    Hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in vertebrate reproduction, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH-I) and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), can vary in the abundance of immunoreactive cells as a function of the reproductive status and nest box occupation of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). While using the abundance of cells as an indicator of the activity of neurohormones is informative, incorporating information on cell size (readily observed using immunohistochemistry) can offer a more detailed understanding of environmentally-mediated changes in hormonal dynamics. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the size of cells' somas and the estimated concentration of peptides in cells immunoreactive (ir) for GnRH-I and GnIH would vary throughout the breeding season and as a function of nest-box status (resident or not). In the absence of a direct assay of protein, we estimated an index of the concentration of hypothalamic peptides via the relative optical density (i.e., the difference between the mean optical density and the optical density of background staining). In support of our hypothesis, we found that GnRH-I- and GnIH-ir soma size and peptide concentration changed both in males and females throughout the breeding season. Somas were largest and estimated peptide concentration was highest mid-season when compared with earlier in the season or to the non-breeding period. For nest-box residents, GnIH-ir soma size and peptide concentration were higher during the middle of the breeding season than earlier in the breeding season, although residence in the nest box was not related to GnRH-I-ir variables. Our results confirm that previously reported changes in cell abundance mimic changes we see in GnRH-I and GnIH-ir soma size and our proxy for peptide concentration. However, investigating changes in the soma of GnRH-I-ir cells revealed a peak in size during the middle of the breeding season, a change not evident when solely examining data on the

  4. Números reais e curiosidades das somas infinitas

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Priscila Klitzke

    2016-01-01

    Podemos encontrar muitas surpresas interessantes no estudo das somas infinitas de números reais (series). Nessa perspectiva, este trabalho traz um estudo sobre as somas infinitas e mostra algumas curiosidades sobre elas, em especial sobre a serie harmônica. Começamos nosso estudo sobre somas infinitas, considerando exemplos com interpretações geométricas que tornam o estudo de series mais atraente. Discutimos também propriedades aritméticas, comutativa e associativa, das somas ...

  5. Navigating neurites utilize cellular topography of Schwann cell somas and processes for optimal guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fagundo, Cristina; Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Ramchal, Talisha D.; Dingle, Yu-Ting L.; Hoffman-Kim, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The path created by aligned Schwann cells (SCs) after nerve injury underlies peripheral nerve regeneration. We developed geometric bioinspired substrates to extract key information needed for axon guidance by deconstructing the topographical cues presented by SCs. We have previously reported materials that directly replicate SC topography with micro- and nanoscale resolution, but a detailed explanation of the means of directed axon extension on SC topography has not yet been described. Here, using neurite tracing and time-lapse microscopy, we analyzed the SC features that influence axon guidance. Novel poly(dimethylsiloxane) materials, fabricated via photolithography, incorporated bioinspired topographical components with the shapes and sizes of aligned SCs, namely somas and processes, where the length of the processes were varied but the soma geometry and dimensions were kept constant. Rat dorsal root ganglia neurites aligned to all materials presenting bioinspired topography after a 5 days in culture and to bioinspired materials presenting soma and process features after only 17 hours in culture. Key findings of this study were: Neurite response to underlying bioinspired topographical features was time dependent, where at 5 days, neurites aligned most strongly to materials presenting combinations of soma and process features, with higher than average density of either process or soma features; but at 17 hours they aligned more strongly to materials presenting average densities of soma and process features and to materials presenting process features only. These studies elucidate the influence of SC topography on axon guidance in a time-dependent setting and have implications for the optimization of nerve regeneration strategies. PMID:23557939

  6. Soma of the Rigveda and an attempt to identify it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdihassan, S; Mehdi, F S

    1989-01-01

    Ephedra juice is used as the drink of longevity given even to the new born. This is an Aryan custom mentioned in Rigveda and followed even by the Romans. To trace the history of this custom would lead to identifying Soma = Ephedra. The original species of Ephedra or Soma proper would be Ephedra sinica, the Chinese plant. It is the one species with yellow stalks. This has been illustrated so that it confirms Rigveda speaking of Soma as "golden yellow." The name Soma is also a loan word from Chinese meaning "fire-yellow fibers of hemp." The plant Soma is described as "thousand boughs" and photographic evidence has been offered in support. Each stalk is rod-like resembling an arrow as Rigveda speaks of it. An illustration has been offered to show the plant with stalks which are straight and rod-like, comparable with an arrow.

  7. Sympathetic stimulation alters left ventricular relaxation and chamber size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwash, I G; Morgan, D E; Koilpillai, C J; Blackmore, G L; Johnstone, D E; Armour, J A

    1993-01-01

    Alterations in left ventricular (LV) contractility, relaxation, and chamber dimensions induced by efferent sympathetic nerve stimulation were investigated in nine anesthetized open-chest dogs in sinus rhythm. Supramaximal stimulation of acutely decentralized left stellate ganglia augmented heart rate, LV systolic pressure, and rate of LV pressure rise (maximum +dP/dt, 1,809 +/- 191 to 6,304 +/- 725 mmHg/s) and fall (maximum -dP/dt, -2,392 +/- 230 to -4,458 +/- 482 mmHg/s). It also reduced the time constant of isovolumic relaxation, tau (36.5 +/- 4.8 to 14.9 +/- 1.1 ms). Simultaneous two-dimensional echocardiography recorded reductions in end-diastolic and end-systolic LV cross-sectional chamber areas (23 and 31%, respectively), an increase in area ejection fraction (32%), and increases in end-diastolic and end-systolic wall thicknesses (14 and 13%, respectively). End-systolic and end-diastolic wall stresses were unchanged by stellate ganglion stimulation (98 +/- 12 to 95 +/- 9 dyn x 10(3)/cm2; 6.4 +/- 2.4 to 2.4 +/- 0.3 dyn x 10(3)/cm2, respectively). Atrial pacing to similar heart rates did not alter monitored indexes of contractility. Dobutamine and isoproterenol induced changes similar to those resulting from sympathetic neuronal stimulation. These data indicate that when the efferent sympathetic nervous system increases left ventricular contractility and relaxation, concomitant reductions in systolic and diastolic dimensions of that chamber occur that are associated with increasing wall thickness such that LV wall stress changes are minimized.

  8. Spike sorting based upon machine learning algorithms (SOMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, P M; Nicol, A U; Kendrick, K M; Feng, J F

    2007-02-15

    We have developed a spike sorting method, using a combination of various machine learning algorithms, to analyse electrophysiological data and automatically determine the number of sampled neurons from an individual electrode, and discriminate their activities. We discuss extensions to a standard unsupervised learning algorithm (Kohonen), as using a simple application of this technique would only identify a known number of clusters. Our extra techniques automatically identify the number of clusters within the dataset, and their sizes, thereby reducing the chance of misclassification. We also discuss a new pre-processing technique, which transforms the data into a higher dimensional feature space revealing separable clusters. Using principal component analysis (PCA) alone may not achieve this. Our new approach appends the features acquired using PCA with features describing the geometric shapes that constitute a spike waveform. To validate our new spike sorting approach, we have applied it to multi-electrode array datasets acquired from the rat olfactory bulb, and from the sheep infero-temporal cortex, and using simulated data. The SOMA sofware is available at http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Users/pmh20/spikes.

  9. Particle size alterations of feedstuffs during in situ NDF incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Nørgaard, P.; Lund, Peter

    2013-01-01

    feedstuffs with a decrease of 74 % between 24 h and 288 h in situ rumen incubation. Together with the highest mass proportion (20 %) of particles in the critical zone for escape (smaller than 0.005 mm2 in area) for late cut grass silage after 288 h in situ rumen incubation, this imposes a risk for particle...... evaluated in terms of particle size for a broad range of feedstuffs which typically serve as NDF sources in dairy cow rations. Early and late cut grass silages, corn silage, alfalfa silage, rapeseed meal and dried distillers grains were examined. Treatments were I) drying and grinding of forage samples...... and grinding of concentrates, II) neutral detergent soluble (NDS) extraction, III) machine-washing and NDS extraction, IV) 24 h rumen incubation, machine-washing and NDS extraction, and V) 288 h rumen incubation, machine-washing and NDS extraction. Degradation profiles for potentially degradable NDF were...

  10. Leading tip drives soma translocation via forward F-actin flow during neuronal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Zhang, Zheng-hong; Guan, Chen-bing; Xia, Di; Yuan, Xiao-bing

    2010-08-11

    Neuronal migration involves coordinated extension of the leading process and translocation of the soma, but the relative contribution of different subcellular regions, including the leading process and cell rear, in driving soma translocation remains unclear. By local manipulation of cytoskeletal components in restricted regions of cultured neurons, we examined the molecular machinery underlying the generation of traction force for soma translocation during neuronal migration. In actively migrating cerebellar granule cells in culture, a growth cone (GC)-like structure at the leading tip exhibits high dynamics, and severing the tip or disrupting its dynamics suppressed soma translocation within minutes. Soma translocation was also suppressed by local disruption of F-actin along the leading process but not at the soma, whereas disrupting microtubules along the leading process or at the soma accelerated soma translocation. Fluorescent speckle microscopy using GFP-alpha-actinin showed that a forward F-actin flow along the leading process correlated with and was required for soma translocation, and such F-actin flow depended on myosin II activity. In migrating neurons, myosin II activity was high at the leading tip but low at the soma, and increasing or decreasing this front-to-rear difference accelerated or impeded soma advance. Thus, the tip of the leading process actively pulls the soma forward during neuronal migration through a myosin II-dependent forward F-actin flow along the leading process.

  11. Psychosomatic symptoms as biomarkers: transcending the psyche-soma dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Yair

    2010-01-01

    Following the advancement in understanding dynamical systems, the author presents a novel metaphor of psychosomatic symptoms as low-dimensional biomarkers. This metaphor, which transcends the old binary of psyche-soma, resonates with classical psychoanalytic concepts and with Matte-Blanco's idea of repetition as indicative of dimensionality reduction. The relevance of this metaphor for explanation, diagnosis, and treatment is illustrated through a case study of a male patient suffering from hyperprolactinemia.

  12. Psyche and soma: New insights into the connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Yeragani, Vikram K

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of Psyche and Soma are well known and this interaction happens through a complex network of feedback, medication, and modulation among the central and autonomic nervous systems, the endocrine system, the immune system, and the stress system. These systems, which were previously considered pristinely independent, in fact, interact at myriad levels. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is an emerging discipline that focuses on various interactions among these body systems and provides the underpinnings of a scientific explanation for what is commonly referred to as the mind-body connection. This article reviews the relevant literature with an emphasis on Indian research.

  13. A brief account of the fractions of soma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdihassan, S

    1990-04-01

    Soma was originally Sauma as the Sanskrit form of the Avesta name Haoma. It is a loan word from the Chinese term, Hao-Ma, fire coloured hempior fibrous items like hemp and also coloured yellow with a tinge of brown. The Aryans as hunters took its juice as anti-fatigue drink. It was extolled as panacea and even as drink of longevity. The plant and its stalks were crushed between stones to produce juice. There arose different fractions and these have been given in a regular chart here.

  14. Muscle fiber type proportion and size is not altered in mcardle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Franclo; Cunninghame, Carol Anne; Martín, Miguel Angel; Rubio, Juan Carlos; Arenas, Joaquín; Lucia, Alejandro; HernáNdez-Laín, Aurelio; Kohn, Tertius Abraham

    2017-06-01

    McArdle disease is a metabolic myopathy that presents with exercise intolerance and episodic rhabdomyolysis. Excessive muscle recruitment has also been shown to be present during strenuous exercise, suggesting decreased power output. These findings could potentially be explained by either impaired contractility, decreased fiber size, or altered fiber type proportion. However, there is a paucity of data on the morphological features seen on muscle histology. We examined muscle biopsies of patients with McArdle disease from a Spanish cohort and compared the findings with healthy controls. We found no significant difference in the fiber type proportion or mean fiber size between McArdle patients and controls in the biceps brachii or vastus lateralis muscles. No alterations in muscle fiber type proportion or size were found on muscle histology of patients with McArdle disease. Future research should focus on assessment of muscle fiber contractility to investigate the functional impairment. Muscle Nerve 55: 916-918, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Litter size reduction accentuates maternal care and alters behavioral and physiological phenotypes in rat adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes-Marques, Silvia; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2018-01-27

    Maternal behavior has a substantial impact on the behavioral, endocrine, and neural development of the pups. This study investigated the effect of altering the neonatal nutritional environment by modifying the litter size on maternal care and anxiety- and fear-like behaviors in rats during adulthood. On postnatal day (PND) 2, litters were adjusted to a small litter (SL) size of three pups per dam or normal litter (NL) size of 12 pups per dam. Maternal behaviors were scored daily during lactation (PND2-21). The weight gain, food intake, adiposity, and biochemical landmarks of offspring rats were evaluated. On PND60, performances in the open field, elevated plus-maze (EPM), and fear conditioning test were measured. The reduction of the litter size enhanced maternal care in lactating rats, increasing the arched-back posture and licking pups. SL offspring exhibited accelerated weight gain, hyperphagia, increased visceral fat mass, dyslipidemia, and hyperleptinemia in adulthood. The SL offspring of both sexes showed an increase in the anti-thigmotactic effect in the open field, an intact anxious-phenotype in the EPM, and a decrease in the time spent freezing during the fear-conditioning test, compared to NL. The neonatal environment as determined by litter size plays a crucial role in programming the adult metabolic phenotype as well as behavioral responses to stressful stimuli, with an impact on anxiety-like and fear behaviors. These behavioral changes in offspring may be, at least in part, a result of increased maternal care.

  16. CT, MRI and PET image fusion using the ProSoma 3D simulation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalah, E.; Bradley, D.A.; Nisbet, A.; Reise, S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Multi-modality imaging is involved in almost all oncology applications focusing on the extent of disease and target volume delineation. Commercial image fusion software packages are becoming available but require comprehensive evaluation to ensure reliability of fusion and the underpinning registration algorithm particularly for radiotherapy. The present work seeks to assess such accuracy for a number of available registration methods provided by the commercial package ProSoma. A NEMA body phantom was used in evaluating CT, MR and PET images. In addition, discussion is provided concerning the choice and geometry of fiducial markers in phantom studies and the effect of window-level on target size, in particular in regard to the application of multi modality imaging in treatment planning. In general, the accuracy of fusion of multi-modality images was within 0.5-1.5 mm of actual feature diameters and < 2 ml volume of actual values, particularly in CT images. (author)

  17. Embracing First-Person Perspectives in Soma-Based Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Höök

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A set of prominent designers embarked on a research journey to explore aesthetics in movement-based design. Here we unpack one of the design sensitivities unique to our practice: a strong first person perspective—where the movements, somatics and aesthetic sensibilities of the designer, design researcher and user are at the forefront. We present an annotated portfolio of design exemplars and a brief introduction to some of the design methods and theory we use, together substantiating and explaining the first-person perspective. At the same time, we show how this felt dimension, despite its subjective nature, is what provides rigor and structure to our design research. Our aim is to assist researchers in soma-based design and designers wanting to consider the multiple facets when designing for the aesthetics of movement. The applications span a large field of designs, including slow introspective, contemplative interactions, arts, dance, health applications, games, work applications and many others.

  18. Permanent alterations in muscarinic receptors and pupil size produced by chronic atropinization in kittens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.L.; Redburn, D.A.; Harwerth, R.S.; Maguire, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Chronic mydriasis was induced in six kittens (four monocular, two binocular) and two adult cats (both monocular) by the daily topical application of atropine. Both the kittens and the adult cats were atropinized for a 13-week period with the treatment regimen beginning at the time of eye opening for the kittens. Pupil size measurements, obtained 1 year after the atropinization were discontinued, revealed that, although the pupils of the adult cats were normal, the pupils of the kittens' treated eyes were consistently smaller than pupils in control eyes. The status of the muscarinic receptors in the kittens' irides was investigated using 3 H-QNB binding assays. In comparison with iris muscle homogenates from the control eyes, those from the treated eyes demonstrated an eightfold increase in the number of receptor binding sites. The results indicate that pupil size can be altered permanently by chronic mydriasis initiated early in the life of a kitten and that the permanent change in pupil size may result, in part, from a type of permanent supersensitivity response in the muscle following chronic blockade of muscarinic transmission by atropine

  19. Alterations in Neural Control of Constant Isometric Contraction with the Size of Error Feedback.

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    Ing-Shiou Hwang

    Full Text Available Discharge patterns from a population of motor units (MUs were estimated with multi-channel surface electromyogram and signal processing techniques to investigate parametric differences in low-frequency force fluctuations, MU discharges, and force-discharge relation during static force-tracking with varying sizes of execution error presented via visual feedback. Fourteen healthy adults produced isometric force at 10% of maximal voluntary contraction through index abduction under three visual conditions that scaled execution errors with different amplification factors. Error-augmentation feedback that used a high amplification factor (HAF to potentiate visualized error size resulted in higher sample entropy, mean frequency, ratio of high-frequency components, and spectral dispersion of force fluctuations than those of error-reducing feedback using a low amplification factor (LAF. In the HAF condition, MUs with relatively high recruitment thresholds in the dorsal interosseous muscle exhibited a larger coefficient of variation for inter-spike intervals and a greater spectral peak of the pooled MU coherence at 13-35 Hz than did those in the LAF condition. Manipulation of the size of error feedback altered the force-discharge relation, which was characterized with non-linear approaches such as mutual information and cross sample entropy. The association of force fluctuations and global discharge trace decreased with increasing error amplification factor. Our findings provide direct neurophysiological evidence that favors motor training using error-augmentation feedback. Amplification of the visualized error size of visual feedback could enrich force gradation strategies during static force-tracking, pertaining to selective increases in the discharge variability of higher-threshold MUs that receive greater common oscillatory inputs in the β-band.

  20. Late effects of normal tissues (lent) scoring system: the soma scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, F.; Pavy, J.J.; Denekamp, J.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation tolerance of normal tissues remains the limiting factor for delivering tumoricidal dose. The late toxicity of normal tissues is the most critical element of an irradiation: somatic, functional and structural alterations occur during the actual treatment itself, but late effects manifest months to years after acute effects heal, and may progress with time. The optimal therapeutic ratio ultimately requires not only complete tumor clearance, but also minimal residual injury to surrounding vital normal tissues. The disparity between the intensity of acute and late effects and the inability to predict the eventual manifestation of late normal tissue injury has made radiation oncologists recognize the importance of careful patient follow-up. There is so far no uniform toxicity scoring system to compare several clinical studies in the absence of a 'common toxicity language'. This justifies the need to establish a precise evaluation system for the analysis of late effects of radiation on normal tissues. The SOMA/LENT scoring system results from an international collaboration. European Organization Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) have created subcommittees with the aim of addressing the question of standardized toxic effects criteria. This effort appeared as a necessity to standardize and improve the data recording, to then describe and evaluate uniform toxicity at regular time intervals. The current proposed scale is not yet validated, and should be used cautiously. (authors)

  1. Revisiting Wasson's Soma: exploring the effects of preparation on the chemistry of Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Kevin

    2010-12-01

    In 1968 R. Gordon Wasson first proposed his groundbreaking theory identifying Soma, the hallucinogenic sacrament of the Vedas, as the Amanita muscaria mushroom. While Wasson's theory has garnered acclaim, it is not without its faults. One omission in Wasson's theory is his failure to explain how pressing and filtering Soma, as described in the Rig Veda, supports his theory of Soma's identity. Several critics have reasoned that such preparation should be unnecessary if equivalent results can be obtained by consuming the raw plant, as is done with other psychoactive mushrooms. In order to address these specific criticisms over 600 anecdotal accounts of Amanita muscaria inebriation were collected and analyzed to determine the impact of preparation on Amanita muscaria's effects. The findings of this study demonstrated that the effects of Amanita muscaria were related to the type of preparation employed, and that its toxic effects were considerably reduced by preparations that paralleled those described for Soma in the Rig Veda. While unlikely to end debate over the identity of Soma, this study's findings help to solidify the foundation of Wasson's theory, and also to demonstrate the importance of preparation in understanding and uncovering the true identity of Soma.

  2. Improved detection of soma location and morphology in fluorescence microscopy images of neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayasandik, Cihan Bilge; Labate, Demetrio

    2016-12-01

    Automated detection and segmentation of somas in fluorescent images of neurons is a major goal in quantitative studies of neuronal networks, including applications of high-content-screenings where it is required to quantify multiple morphological properties of neurons. Despite recent advances in image processing targeted to neurobiological applications, existing algorithms of soma detection are often unreliable, especially when processing fluorescence image stacks of neuronal cultures. In this paper, we introduce an innovative algorithm for the detection and extraction of somas in fluorescent images of networks of cultured neurons where somas and other structures exist in the same fluorescent channel. Our method relies on a new geometrical descriptor called Directional Ratio and a collection of multiscale orientable filters to quantify the level of local isotropy in an image. To optimize the application of this approach, we introduce a new construction of multiscale anisotropic filters that is implemented by separable convolution. Extensive numerical experiments using 2D and 3D confocal images show that our automated algorithm reliably detects somas, accurately segments them, and separates contiguous ones. We include a detailed comparison with state-of-the-art existing methods to demonstrate that our algorithm is extremely competitive in terms of accuracy, reliability and computational efficiency. Our algorithm will facilitate the development of automated platforms for high content neuron image processing. A Matlab code is released open-source and freely available to the scientific community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Histological alterations in the liver of rats induced by different gold nanoparticle sizes, doses and exposure duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhalim Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanoparticles (NPs can potentially cause adverse effects on organ, tissue, cellular, subcellular and protein levels due to their unusual physicochemical properties. Advances in nanotechnology have identified promising candidates for many biological and biomedical applications. Since the properties of NPs differ from that of their bulk materials, they are being increasingly exploited for medical uses and other industrial applications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the particle-size effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs on the hepatic tissue in an attempt to cover and understand the toxicity and the potential threat of their therapeutic and diagnostic use. Methods To investigate particle-size effect of GNPs on the hepatic tissue, a total of 70 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to GNPs received 50 or 100 ul of GNPs infusion of size (10, 20 and 50 nm for 3 or 7 days. Results In comparison with respective control rats, exposure to GNPs doses has produced alterations in the hepatocytes, portal triads and the sinusoids. The alterations in the hepatocytes were mainly summarized as hydropic degeneration, cloudy swelling, fatty degeneration, portal and lobular infiltrate by chronic inflammatory cells and congestive dilated central veins. Conclusions The induced histological alterations might be an indication of injured hepatocytes due to GNPs toxicity that became unable to deal with the accumulated residues resulting from metabolic and structural disturbances caused by these NPs. These alterations were size-dependent with smaller ones induced the most effects and related with time exposure of GNPs. The appearance of hepatocytes cytoplasmic degeneration and nuclear destruction may suggest that GNPs interact with proteins and enzymes of the hepatic tissue interfering with the antioxidant defense mechanism and leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS generation which in turn may induce stress in the hepatocytes to

  4. Induced polyploidy dramatically increases the size and alters the shape of fruit in Actinidia chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Hu; Ferguson, A. Ross; Murray, Brian G.; Jia, Yilin; Datson, Paul M.; Zhang, Jingli

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Some otherwise promising selections of Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) have fruit that are too small for successful commercialization. We have therefore made the first detailed study in diploid kiwifruit of the effects of chromosome doubling induced by colchicine on fruit size, shape and crop loading. Methods Flow cytometric analysis of young leaves and chromosome analysis of flower buds and root tips was used to confirm the stability of induced autotetraploids. Fruit weight, size and crop load were measured in the third year after planting in the field and for three consecutive years. DNA fingerprinting was used to confirm the origin of the material. Key Results There was a very significant increase in fruit size in induced autotetraploids of different genotypes of A. chinensis. With the commercially important diploid cultivar ‘Hort16A’, most regenerants, Type A plants, had fruit which were much the same shape as fruit of the diploid but, at the same fruit load, were much larger and heavier. Some regenerants, Type B plants, produced fruit similar to ‘fasciated’ fruit. Fruit of the autotetraploids induced from three female red-fleshed A. chinensis selections were also 50–60 % larger than fruit of their diploid progenitors. The main increase in fruit dimensions was in their diameters. These improved fruit characteristics were stable over several seasons. Conclusions Chromosome doubling has been shown to increase significantly fruit size in autotetraploid A. chinensis, highlighting the considerable potential of this technique to produce new cultivars with fruit of adequate size. Other variants with differently shaped fruit were also produced but the genetic basis of this variation remains to be elucidated. Autoploids of other Actinidia species with commercial potential may also show improved fruit characteristics, opening up many new possibilities for commercial development. PMID:21980192

  5. The thrombospondin-1 N700S polymorphism is associated with early myocardial infarction without altering von Willebrand factor multimer size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Jeffrey I; Peyvandi, Flora; Palla, Roberta; Lombardi, Rossana; Canciani, Maria Teresa; Cairo, Andrea; Ardissino, Diego; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Bauer, Kenneth A; Lawler, Jack; Mannucci, Pier

    2006-08-15

    The N700S polymorphism of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) has been identified as a potential genetic risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). In a large case-control study of 1425 individuals who survived a myocardial infarction prior to age 45, the N700S polymorphism was a significant risk factor for myocardial infarction in both homozygous (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.3, P = .01) and heterozygous carriers of the S700 allele (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-3.3, P = .01). TSP-1 has been shown to reduce von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimer size, and the domain responsible for VWF-reducing activity has been localized to the calcium-binding C-terminal sequence. As the N700S polymorphism was previously shown to alter the function of this domain, we investigated whether the altered VWF-reducing activity of TSP-1 underlies the observed prothrombotic phenotype. The TSP1 N700S polymorphism did not influence VWF multimer size in patients homozygous for either allele nor was there a significant reduction of VWF multimer size following incubation with recombinant N700S fragments or platelet-derived TSP-1.

  6. A univocal definition of the neuronal soma morphology using Gaussian mixture models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eLuengo-Sanchez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the soma is fuzzy, as there is no clear line demarcating the soma of the labeled neurons and the origin of the dendrites and axon. Thus, the morphometric analysis of the neuronal soma is highly subjective. In this paper, we provide a mathematical definition and an automatic segmentation method to delimit the neuronal soma. We applied this method to the characterization of pyramidal cells, which are the most abundant neurons in the cerebral cortex. Since there are no benchmarks with which to compare the proposed procedure, we validated the goodness of this automatic segmentation method against manual segmentation by experts in neuroanatomy to set up a framework for comparison. We concluded that there were no significant differences between automatically and manually segmented somata, i.e., the proposed procedure segments the neurons more or less as an expert does. It also provides univocal, justifiable and objective cutoffs. Thus, this study is a means of characterizing pyramidal neurons in order to objectively compare the morphometry of the somata of these neurons in different cortical areas and species.

  7. A univocal definition of the neuronal soma morphology using Gaussian mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Sanchez, Sergio; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The definition of the soma is fuzzy, as there is no clear line demarcating the soma of the labeled neurons and the origin of the dendrites and axon. Thus, the morphometric analysis of the neuronal soma is highly subjective. In this paper, we provide a mathematical definition and an automatic segmentation method to delimit the neuronal soma. We applied this method to the characterization of pyramidal cells, which are the most abundant neurons in the cerebral cortex. Since there are no benchmarks with which to compare the proposed procedure, we validated the goodness of this automatic segmentation method against manual segmentation by neuroanatomists to set up a framework for comparison. We concluded that there were no significant differences between automatically and manually segmented somata, i.e., the proposed procedure segments the neurons similarly to how a neuroanatomist does. It also provides univocal, justifiable and objective cutoffs. Thus, this study is a means of characterizing pyramidal neurons in order to objectively compare the morphometry of the somata of these neurons in different cortical areas and species.

  8. Somaæstetisk blik på undervisningsiscenesættelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justiniano, Birgitte

    Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af skolers organisering og disses betydning for eleveres mulighed for udvikling af færdigheder, der modsvarer samfunds behov og forventninger. Afhandlingen anlægger et somaæstetisk didaktisk blik på undervisningsiscenesættelser, hvor ønsket er at indfange relatione...

  9. A univocal definition of the neuronal soma morphology using Gaussian mixture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Sanchez, Sergio; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The definition of the soma is fuzzy, as there is no clear line demarcating the soma of the labeled neurons and the origin of the dendrites and axon. Thus, the morphometric analysis of the neuronal soma is highly subjective. In this paper, we provide a mathematical definition and an automatic segmentation method to delimit the neuronal soma. We applied this method to the characterization of pyramidal cells, which are the most abundant neurons in the cerebral cortex. Since there are no benchmarks with which to compare the proposed procedure, we validated the goodness of this automatic segmentation method against manual segmentation by neuroanatomists to set up a framework for comparison. We concluded that there were no significant differences between automatically and manually segmented somata, i.e., the proposed procedure segments the neurons similarly to how a neuroanatomist does. It also provides univocal, justifiable and objective cutoffs. Thus, this study is a means of characterizing pyramidal neurons in order to objectively compare the morphometry of the somata of these neurons in different cortical areas and species. PMID:26578898

  10. Temperature-size responses alter food chain persistence across environmental gradients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sentis, Arnaud; Binzer, A.; Boukal S., David

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 7 (2017), s. 852-862 ISSN 1461-023X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29857S Grant - others:European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0049 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : body size * climate change * food web Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 9.449, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ele.12779/epdf

  11. Temporal and spatial alterations in mutant swarm size of St. Louis encephalitis virus in mosquito hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciota, Alexander T; Koch, Evan M; Willsey, Graham G; Davis, Lauren J; Jerzak, Greta V S; Ehrbar, Dylan J; Wilke, Claus O; Kramer, Laura D

    2011-03-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV; Flaviviridae; Flavivirus) is a member of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex and a close relative of West Nile virus (WNV). Although SLEV remains endemic to the US, both levels of activity and geographical dispersal are relatively constrained when compared to the widespread distribution of WNV. In recent years, WNV appears to have displaced SLEV in California, yet both viruses currently coexist in Texas and several other states. It has become clear that viral swarm characterization is required if we are to fully evaluate the relationship between viral genomes, viral evolution, and epidemiology. Mutant swarm size and composition may be particularly important for arboviruses, which require replication not only in diverse tissues but also divergent hosts. In order to evaluate temporal, spatial, and host-specific patterns in the SLEV mutant swarm, we determined the size, composition, and phylogeny of the intrahost swarm within primary mosquito isolates from both Texas and California. Results indicate a general trend of decreasing intrahost diversity over time in both locations, with recent isolates being highly genetically homogeneous. Additionally, phylogenic analyses provide detailed information on the relatedness of minority variants both within and among strains and demonstrate how both geographic isolation and seasonal maintenance have shaped the viral swarm. Overall, these data generally provide insight into how time, space, and unique transmission cycles influence the SLEV mutant swarm and how understanding these processes can ultimately lead to a better understanding of arbovirus evolution and epidemiology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Selection for growth rate and body size have altered the expression profiles of somatotropic axis genes in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Xu, Zhiqiang; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Qihua; Dou, Tengfei; Gu, Dahai; Rong, Hua; Wang, Kun; Li, Zhengtian; Talpur, Mir Zulqarnain; Huang, Ying; Wang, Shanrong; Yan, Shixiong; Tong, Huiquan; Zhao, Sumei; Zhao, Guiping; Su, Zhengchang; Ge, Changrong

    2018-01-01

    The growth hormone / insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) pathway of the somatotropic axis is the major controller for growth rate and body size in vertebrates, but the effect of selection on the expression of GH/IGF-1 somatotropic axis genes and their association with body size and growth performance in farm animals is not fully understood. We analyzed a time series of expression profiles of GH/IGF-1 somatotropic axis genes in two chicken breeds, the Daweishan mini chickens and Wuding chickens, and the commercial Avian broilers hybrid exhibiting markedly different body sizes and growth rates. We found that growth rate and feed conversion efficiency in Daweishan mini chickens were significantly lower than those in Wuding chickens and Avian broilers. The Wuding and Daweishan mini chickens showed higher levels of plasma GH, pituitary GH mRNA but lower levels of hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNA than in Avian broilers. Daweishan mini chickens showed significantly lower levels of plasma IGF-1, thigh muscle and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA than did Avian broilers and Wuding chickens. These results suggest that the GH part of the somatotropic axis is the main regulator of growth rate, while IGF-1 may regulate both growth rate and body weight. Selection for growth performance and body size have altered the expression profiles of somatotropic axis genes in a breed-, age-, and tissue-specific manner, and manner, and alteration of regulatory mechanisms of these genes might play an important role in the developmental characteristics of chickens. PMID:29630644

  13. Hypothyroidism in the rat results in decreased soleus motoneurone soma size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakels, R; Nijenhuis, Albertine; Mast, L; Kernell, D

    1998-01-01

    Adult female rats were thyroidectomized. After an average of 17 weeks, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected into the right side soleus muscle. Two days later, left side soleus muscle properties were recorded and muscles and spinal cord were removed for further histological measurements. Soleus

  14. Urbanization alters communities of flying arthropods in parks and gardens of a medium-sized city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagucki, Edward; Burdine, Justin D; McCluney, Kevin E

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization transforms undeveloped landscapes into built environments, causing changes in communities and ecological processes. Flying arthropods play important roles in these processes as pollinators, decomposers, and predators, and can be important in structuring food webs. The goal of this study was to identify associations between urbanization and the composition of communities of flying (and floating) arthropods within gardens and parks in a medium-sized mesic city. We predicted that flying arthropod abundance and diversity would respond strongly to percent impervious surface and distance to city center, measurements of urbanization. Flying arthropods were sampled from 30 gardens and parks along an urbanization gradient in Toledo, Ohio, during July and August 2016, using elevated pan traps. A variety of potential predictor variables were also recorded at each site. We collected a total of 2,369 individuals representing nine orders. We found that flying arthropod community composition was associated with percent impervious surface and canopy cover. Overall flying arthropod abundance was negatively associated with percent impervious surface and positively associated with distance to city center. Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants), Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies), and Araneae (spiders) were positively associated with distance to city center. Hemiptera (true bugs), Diptera (flies), and Araneae were negatively associated with percent impervious surface. Both distance to city center and percent impervious surface are metrics of urbanization, and this study shows how these factors influence flying arthropod communities in urban gardens and city parks, including significant reductions in taxa that contain pollinators and predators important to urban agriculture and forestry. A variety of environmental factors also showed significant associations with responses (e.g. canopy cover and soil moisture), suggesting these factors may underlie or modulate the urbanization

  15. The indissociable unity of psyche and soma: a view from the Paris Psychosomatic School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenstein, Marilia

    2006-06-01

    Depending on whether or not psyche/soma is seen as singular or dual, one may construct different systems explaining man and the world, life and death. In the author's view, the discoveries of psychoanalysis offer a perfectly cogent and unique solution to the famous mind/body problem. In transferring the duality psyche/soma on to the duality of drives, psychoanalysis places the origin of the thought process in the body. In Beyond the pleasure principle, Freud discusses the drastic effect of a painful somatic illness on the distribution and modalities of the libido. He provides a starting point for the Paris Psychosomatic School's psychoanalytical approach to patients afflicted with somatic illnesses. To illustrate the technical implications of this theory the author relates two clinical cases.

  16. Selfish genetic elements favor the evolution of a distinction between soma and germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Louise J

    2008-08-01

    Many multicellular organisms have evolved a dedicated germline. This can benefit the whole organism, but its advantages to genetic parasites have not been explored. Here I model the evolutionary success of a selfish element, such as a transposable element or endosymbiont, which is capable of creating or strengthening a germline-soma distinction in a primitively multicellular host, and find that it will always benefit the element to do so. Genes causing germline sequestration can therefore spread in a population even if germline sequestration is maladaptive for the host organism. Costly selfish elements are expected to survive only in sexual populations, so sexual species may experience an additional push toward germline-soma distinction, and hence toward cell differentiation and multicellularity.

  17. Cancer cachexia-induced muscle atrophy: evidence for alterations in microRNAs important for muscle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David E; Brown, Jacob L; Rosa-Caldwell, Megan E; Blackwell, Thomas A; Perry, Richard A; Brown, Lemuel A; Khatri, Bhuwan; Seo, Dongwon; Bottje, Walter G; Washington, Tyrone A; Wiggs, Michael P; Kong, Byung-Whi; Greene, Nicholas P

    2017-05-01

    Muscle atrophy is a hallmark of cancer cachexia resulting in impaired function and quality of life and cachexia is the immediate cause of death for 20-40% of cancer patients. Multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as being involved in muscle development and atrophy; however, less is known specifically on miRNAs in cancer cachexia. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the miRNA profile of skeletal muscle atrophy induced by cancer cachexia to uncover potential miRNAs involved with this catabolic condition. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLC) were injected into C57BL/6J mice at 8 wk of age. LLC animals were allowed to develop tumors for 4 wk to induce cachexia. Tibialis anterior muscles were extracted and processed to isolate small RNAs, which were used for miRNA sequencing. Sequencing results were assembled with mature miRNAs, and functions of miRNAs were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. LLC animals developed tumors that contributed to significantly smaller tibialis anterior muscles (18.5%) and muscle cross-sectional area (40%) compared with PBS. We found 371 miRNAs to be present in the muscle above background levels. Of these, nine miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed. Significantly altered groups of miRNAs were categorized into primary functionalities including cancer, cell-to-cell signaling, and cellular development among others. Gene network analysis predicted specific alterations of factors contributing to muscle size including Akt, FOXO3, and others. These results create a foundation for future research into the sufficiency of targeting these genes to attenuate muscle loss in cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. From psyche to soma? Changing accounts of antisocial personality disorders in the American Journal of Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickersgill, Martyn

    2010-09-01

    The history of psychiatry is often portrayed through the metaphor of a pendulum, the profession swinging back and forth between a concern with psyche and soma. Recent work critiquing the pendulum metaphor, however, suggests that it does not account for the complexity of psychiatry. This article explores the metaphor through an analysis of the changing aetiological accounts of personality disorders associated with antisocial behaviour advanced in the American Journal of Psychiatry from 1950 onwards. It is argued that the social, scientific and economic factors which help shape overarching professional trends in psychiatry only partly structure personality disorder discourse. If the pendulum swings, therefore, not all psychiatrists move with it.

  19. SOMA: A Proposed Framework for Trend Mining in Large UK Diabetic Retinopathy Temporal Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaraki, Vassiliki; Harding, Simon; Broadbent, Deborah; Coenen, Frans

    In this paper, we present SOMA, a new trend mining framework; and Aretaeus, the associated trend mining algorithm. The proposed framework is able to detect different kinds of trends within longitudinal datasets. The prototype trends are defined mathematically so that they can be mapped onto the temporal patterns. Trends are defined and generated in terms of the frequency of occurrence of pattern changes over time. To evaluate the proposed framework the process was applied to a large collection of medical records, forming part of the diabetic retinopathy screening programme at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital.

  20. Renal tissue alterations were size-dependent with smaller ones induced more effects and related with time exposure of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrar Bashir M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles (GNPs have important application for cell labeling and imaging, drug delivery, diagnostic and therapeutic purposes mainly in cancer. Nanoparticles (NPs are being increasingly exploited for medical applications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the particle-size and period effects of administration of GNPs on the renal tissue in an attempt to address their potential toxicity. Methods A total of 70 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to GNPs received 50 or 100 μl of GNPs infusion of size (10, 20 and 50 nm for 3 or 7 days to investigate particle-size effect of GNPs on the renal tissue. Animals were randomly divided into groups, 6 GNPs-treated rats groups and one control group. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received infusion of 50 μl GNPs of size 10 nm (3 or 7 days, size 20 nm (3 or 7 days and 50 nm (3 or 7 days, respectively; while groups 4, 5 and 6 received infusion of 100 μl GNPs of size 10 nm, size 20 nm and 50 nm, respectively. Stained sections of control and treated rats kidneys were examined for renal tissue alterations induced by GNPs. Results In comparison with respective control rats, exposure to GNPs doses has produced the following renal tubular alterations: cloudy swelling, vacuolar degeneration, hyaline droplets and casts, anisokaryosis, karopyknosis, karyorrhexis and karyolysis. The glomeruli showed moderate congestion with no hypercelluraity, mesangial proliferation or basement membrane thickening. The histological alterations were mainly seen in the cortex and the proximal renal convoluted tubules were more affected than the distal ones. Conclusions The induced histological alterations might be an indication of injured renal tubules due to GNPs toxicity that became unable to deal with the accumulated residues resulting from metabolic and structural disturbances caused by these NPs. The findings may suggest that GNPs interact with proteins and enzymes of the renal tissue

  1. Ion channel density regulates switches between regular and fast spiking in soma but not in axons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Zeberg

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The threshold firing frequency of a neuron is a characterizing feature of its dynamical behaviour, in turn determining its role in the oscillatory activity of the brain. Two main types of dynamics have been identified in brain neurons. Type 1 dynamics (regular spiking shows a continuous relationship between frequency and stimulation current (f-I(stim and, thus, an arbitrarily low frequency at threshold current; Type 2 (fast spiking shows a discontinuous f-I(stim relationship and a minimum threshold frequency. In a previous study of a hippocampal neuron model, we demonstrated that its dynamics could be of both Type 1 and Type 2, depending on ion channel density. In the present study we analyse the effect of varying channel density on threshold firing frequency on two well-studied axon membranes, namely the frog myelinated axon and the squid giant axon. Moreover, we analyse the hippocampal neuron model in more detail. The models are all based on voltage-clamp studies, thus comprising experimentally measurable parameters. The choice of analysing effects of channel density modifications is due to their physiological and pharmacological relevance. We show, using bifurcation analysis, that both axon models display exclusively Type 2 dynamics, independently of ion channel density. Nevertheless, both models have a region in the channel-density plane characterized by an N-shaped steady-state current-voltage relationship (a prerequisite for Type 1 dynamics and associated with this type of dynamics in the hippocampal model. In summary, our results suggest that the hippocampal soma and the two axon membranes represent two distinct kinds of membranes; membranes with a channel-density dependent switching between Type 1 and 2 dynamics, and membranes with a channel-density independent dynamics. The difference between the two membrane types suggests functional differences, compatible with a more flexible role of the soma membrane than that of the axon membrane.

  2. Insulin alters the target size of the peripheral cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase but not the integral cyclic GMP-stimulated cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase in liver plasma membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.V.; Martin, B.R.; Houslay, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation inactivation of the two high affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases (PDE) found in liver plasma membranes afforded an estimation of their molecular target sizes in situ. The activity of the peripheral plasma membrane PDE decayed as a single exponential with a target size corresponding to a monomer of circa 54 kDa. The integral, cyclic GMP-stimulated PDE decayed as a dimer of circa 125 kDa. Preincubation of plasma membranes with insulin (10nM), prior to irradiation, caused the target size of only the peripheral plasma membrane PDE to increase. We suggest that insulin addition causes the peripheral plasma membrane PDE to alter its coupling to an integral plasma membrane protein with a target size of circa 90 kDa

  3. Alteration of biomass composition in response to changing substrate particle size and the consequences for enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Corn bran is a by-product from corn starch processing. This work examined the effects of changing substrate particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of both raw and pretreated destarched corn bran. The biomass composition of the corn bran varied between particle size fractions: The largest particles...

  4. Size-selective predation and predator-induced life-history shifts alter the outcome of competition between planktonic grazers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hülsmann, S.; Rinke, K.; Mooij, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    1.We studied the effect of size-selective predation on the outcome of competition between two differently sized prey species in a homogenous environment. 2. Using a physiologically structured population model, we calculated equilibrium food concentrations for a range of predation scenarios defined

  5. Soma, food of the immortals according to the Bower Manuscript (Kashmir, 6th century A.D.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Casu, Laura

    2014-08-08

    Food is medicine and vice versa. In Hindu and Ayurvedic medicine, and among human cultures of the Indian subcontinent in general, the perception of the food-medicine continuum is especially well established. The preparation of the exhilarating, gold-coloured Soma, Amrita or Ambrosia, the elixir and food of the 'immortals'-the Hindu pantheon-by the ancient Indo-Aryans, is described in the Rigveda in poetic hymns. Different theories regarding the botanical identity of Soma circulate, but no pharmacologically and historically convincing theory exists to date. We intend to contribute to the botanical, chemical and pharmacological characterisation of Soma through an analysis of two historical Amrita recipes recorded in the Bower Manuscript. The recipes are referred therein as panaceas (clarified butter) and also as a medicine to treat nervous diseases (oil), while no exhilarating properties are mentioned. Notwithstanding this, we hypothesise, that these recipes are related to the ca. 1800 years older Rigvedic Soma. We suppose that the psychoactive Soma ingredient(s) are among the components, possibly in smaller proportions, of the Amrita recipes preserved in the Bower Manuscript. The Bower Manuscript is a medical treatise recorded in the 6th century A.D. in Sanskrit on birch bark leaves, probably by Buddhist monks, and unearthed towards the end of the 19th century in Chinese Turkestan. We analysed two Amrita recipes from the Bower Manuscript, which was translated by Rudolf Hoernle into English during the early 20th century. A database search with the updated Latin binomials of the herbal ingredients was used to gather quantitative phytochemical and pharmacological information. Together, both Amrita recipes contain around 100 herbal ingredients. Psychoactive alkaloid containing species still important in Ayurvedic, Chinese and Thai medicine and mentioned in the recipe for 'Amrita-Prâsa clarified butter' and 'Amrita Oil' are: Tinospora cordifolia (Amrita, Guduchi), three

  6. Conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities. Functional evaluation with LENT-SOMA scales and the Enneking score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfiq, N.; Lagarde, P.; Thomas, L.; Kantor, G.; Stockle, E.; Bui, B.N.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. - The aim of this prospective study is the feasibility of late effects assessment by LENT-SOMA scales after conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities and a comparison with the functional evaluation by the Enneking score. Patients and methods. - During the systematic follow-up consultations, a series of 32 consecutive patients was evaluated in terms of late effects by LENT SOMA scales and functional results by the Enneking score. The median time after treatment was 65 months. The treatment consisted of conservative surgery (all cases) followed by radiation therapy (29 cases), often combined with adjuvant therapy (12 concomitant radio-chemotherapy association cases out of 14). The assessment of the toxicity was retrospective for acute effects and prospective for the following late tissue damage: skin/subcutaneous tissues, muscles/soft tissues and peripheral nerves. Results. -According to the Enneking score, the global score for the overall series was high (24/30) despite four the scores zero for the psychological acceptance. According to LENT SOMA scales, a low rate of severe sequelae (grade 3-4) was observed. The occurrence of high-grade sequelae and their functional consequences were not correlated with quality of exeresis, dose of radiotherapy or use of concomitant chemotherapy. A complementarity was observed between certain factors of the Enneking score and some criteria of the LENTSOMA scales, especially of muscles/soft tissues. Conclusion. -The good quality of functional results was confirmed by the two mean scoring systems for late normal tissue damage. The routine use of LENT-SOMA seems to be more time consuming than the Enneking score (mean time of scoring: 1 3 versus five minutes). The LENT-SOMA scales are aimed at a detailed description of late toxicity and sequelae while the Enneking score provides a more global evaluation, including the psychological acceptance of treatment. The late effects assessment by the LENT-SOMA

  7. Does modifying the particle size distribution of a granular material (i.e., material scalping alters its shear strength?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azéma Emilien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of two dimensional contact dynamics simulations, we analyzed the effect of the particle size distribution (PSD on the shear strength of granular materials composed of un-breakable disks. We modelled PSDs with a normalized beta function, which allows for building S-shaped gradation curves, such as those that typically occur in soils. We systematically controlled and varied the size span and the shape of the PSD, and found that the shear strength is independent both characteristics. This implies that PSD modification procedures such as material scalping (i.e., removing the smallest and/or largest particles in the sample should not affect significantly the shear strength of the material composed of unbreakable discs. In order to explore the origins of the invariance of the shear strength with PSD, we analyzed the connectivity, force transmission, and friction mobilization in terms of anisotropies, finding that the constant shear strength is due to a subtle compensation of anisotropies.

  8. Abordagens Somáticas do Corpo na Dança

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilio Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Entende-se a Educação Somática como um campo interdisciplinar que se interessa pela consciência do corpo e seu movimento e que se propõe a uma descoberta pessoal de seus próprios movimentos, de suas próprias sensações. O presente artigo objetiva propor uma reflexão por meio de notas sobre o conceito de Educação Somática, Soma e Corpo, bem como destacar duas abordagens somáticas que são incorporadas nas práticas da temática em voga como caminhos possíveis para pensar o campo em estudo na dança. Parte de uma abordagem fenomenológica pautada nos estudos de Merleau-Ponty (1999, tomando como técnica de pesquisa a descrição merleaupontyana.

  9. Radiation dose reduction without compromise to image quality by alterations of filtration and focal spot size in cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Joon; Park, Min Keun; Jung, Da Eun; Kang, Jung Han; Kim, Byung Moon [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    Different angiographic protocols may influence the radiation dose and image quality. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of filtration and focal spot size on radiation dose and image quality for diagnostic cerebral angiography using an in-vitro model and in-vivo patient groups. Radiation dose and image quality were analyzed by varying the filtration and focal spot size on digital subtraction angiography exposure protocols (1, inherent filtration + large focus; 2, inherent + small; 3, copper + large; 4, copper + small). For the in-vitro analysis, a phantom was used for comparison of radiation dose. For the in-vivo analysis, bilateral paired injections, and patient cohort groups were compared for radiation dose and image quality. Image quality analysis was performed in terms of contrast, sharpness, noise, and overall quality. In the in-vitro analysis, the mean air kerma (AK) and dose area product (DAP)/frame were significantly lower with added copper filtration (protocols 3 and 4). In the in-vivo bilateral paired injections, AK and DAP/frame were significantly lower with filtration, without significant difference in image quality. The patient cohort groups with added filtration (protocols 3 and 4) showed significant reduction of total AK and DAP/patient without compromise to the image quality. Variations in focal spot size showed no significant differences in radiation dose and image quality. Addition of filtration for angiographic exposure studies can result in significant total radiation dose reduction without loss of image quality. Focal spot size does not influence radiation dose and image quality. The routine angiographic protocol should be judiciously investigated and implemented.

  10. Early prenatal androgen exposure reduces testes size and sperm concentration in sheep without altering neuroendocrine differentiation and masculine sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C M; Estill, C T; Amodei, R; McKune, A; Gribbin, K P; Meaker, M; Stormshak, F; Roselli, C E

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal androgens are largely responsible for growth and differentiation of the genital tract and testis and for organization of the control mechanisms regulating male reproductive physiology and behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of inappropriate exposure to excess testosterone (T) during the first trimester of fetal development on the reproductive function, sexual behavior, and fertility potential of rams. We found that biweekly maternal T propionate (100 mg) treatment administered from Day 30-58 of gestation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) postpubertal scrotal circumference and sperm concentration. Prenatal T exposure did not alter ejaculate volume, sperm motility and morphology or testis morphology. There was, however, a trend for more T-exposed rams than controls to be classified as unsatisfactory potential breeders during breeding soundness examinations. Postnatal serum T concentrations were not affected by prenatal T exposure, nor was the expression of key testicular genes essential for spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Basal serum LH did not differ between treatment groups, nor did pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. T-exposed rams, like control males, exhibited vigorous libido and were sexually attracted to estrous females. In summary, these results suggest that exposure to exogenous T during the first trimester of gestation can negatively impact spermatogenesis and compromise the reproductive fitness of rams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex-specific effects of altered competition on nestling growth and survival: an experimental manipulation of brood size and sex ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Michler, Stephanie P M; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Komdeur, Jan; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M

    2009-03-01

    1. An increase of competition among adults or nestlings usually negatively affects breeding output. Yet little is known about the differential effects that competition has on the offspring sexes. This could be important because it may influence parental reproductive decisions. 2. In sexual size dimorphic species, two main contradictory mechanisms are proposed regarding sex-specific effects of competition on nestling performance assuming that parents do not feed their chicks differentially: (i) the larger sex requires more resources to grow and is more sensitive to a deterioration of the rearing conditions ('costly sex hypothesis'); (ii) the larger sex has a competitive advantage in intra-brood competition and performs better under adverse conditions ('competitive advantage hypothesis'). 3. In the present study, we manipulated the level of sex-specific sibling competition in a great tit population (Parus major) by altering simultaneously the brood size and the brood sex ratio on two levels: the nest (competition for food among nestlings) and the woodlot where the parents breed (competition for food among adults). We investigated whether altered competition during the nestling phase affected nestling growth traits and survival in the nest and whether the effects differed between males, the larger sex, and females. 4. We found a strong negative and sex-specific effect of experimental brood size on all the nestling traits. In enlarged broods, sexual size dimorphism was smaller which may have resulted from biased mortality towards the less competitive individuals i.e. females of low condition. No effect of brood sex ratio on nestling growth traits was found. 5. Negative brood size effects on nestling traits were stronger in natural high-density areas but we could not confirm this experimentally. 6. Our results did not support the 'costly sex hypothesis' because males did not suffer from higher mortality under harsh conditions. The 'competitive advantage hypothesis' was

  12. The SOFIA Massive (SOMA) Star Formation Survey. I. Overview and First Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buizer, James M.; Shuping, Ralph [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Liu, Mengyao; Tan, Jonathan C.; Staff, Jan E.; Tanaka, Kei E. I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Zhang, Yichen [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Beltrán, Maria T. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Whitney, Barbara [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter St, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We present an overview and first results of the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy Massive (SOMA) Star Formation Survey, which is using the FORCAST instrument to image massive protostars from ∼10 to 40 μ m. These wavelengths trace thermal emission from warm dust, which in Core Accretion models mainly emerges from the inner regions of protostellar outflow cavities. Dust in dense core envelopes also imprints characteristic extinction patterns at these wavelengths, causing intensity peaks to shift along the outflow axis and profiles to become more symmetric at longer wavelengths. We present observational results for the first eight protostars in the survey, i.e., multiwavelength images, including some ancillary ground-based mid-infrared (MIR) observations and archival Spitzer and Herschel data. These images generally show extended MIR/FIR emission along directions consistent with those of known outflows and with shorter wavelength peak flux positions displaced from the protostar along the blueshifted, near-facing sides, thus confirming qualitative predictions of Core Accretion models. We then compile spectral energy distributions and use these to derive protostellar properties by fitting theoretical radiative transfer models. Zhang and Tan models, based on the Turbulent Core Model of McKee and Tan, imply the sources have protostellar masses m {sub *} ∼ 10–50 M {sub ⊙} accreting at ∼10{sup −4}–10{sup −3} M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} inside cores of initial masses M {sub c} ∼ 30–500 M {sub ⊙} embedded in clumps with mass surface densities Σ{sub cl} ∼ 0.1–3 g cm{sup −2}. Fitting the Robitaille et al. models typically leads to slightly higher protostellar masses, but with disk accretion rates ∼100× smaller. We discuss reasons for these differences and overall implications of these first survey results for massive star formation theories.

  13. Production of virus-derived ping-pong-dependent piRNA-like small RNAs in the mosquito soma.

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    Elaine M Morazzani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural maintenance cycles of many mosquito-borne pathogens require establishment of persistent non-lethal infections in the invertebrate host. The mechanism by which this occurs is not well understood, but we have previously shown that an antiviral response directed by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs is important in modulating the pathogenesis of alphavirus infections in the mosquito. However, we report here that infection of mosquitoes with an alphavirus also triggers the production of another class of virus-derived small RNAs that exhibit many similarities to ping-pong-dependent piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs. However, unlike ping-pong-dependent piRNAs that have been described previously from repetitive elements or piRNA clusters, our work suggests production in the soma. We also present evidence that suggests virus-derived piRNA-like small RNAs are capable of modulating the pathogenesis of alphavirus infections in dicer-2 null mutant mosquito cell lines defective in viral siRNA production. Overall, our results suggest that a non-canonical piRNA pathway is present in the soma of vector mosquitoes and may be acting redundantly to the siRNA pathway to target alphavirus replication.

  14. Evaluation of the Effects of Nationwide Conservation Voltage Reduction on Peak-Load Shaving Using SOMAS Data

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    Soon-Ryul Nam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new method to evaluate the effects of nationwide conservation voltage reduction (CVR on peak-load shaving, using substation operating results management system (SOMAS data. Its evaluation is based on a national CVR factor, which is defined as the weighted average of CVR factors associated with all transformer banks and weighting coefficients are determined by the reconstructed loads corresponding to each transformer bank. To make use of the data resulting from nationwide CVR without installing additional measuring devices, we adopt a linearized static-load model with a linearizing parameter. SOMAS data are used to evaluate the effects of nationwide CVR on peak-load shaving in the Korean power system. Evaluation results show that the national CVR factor of the Korean power system has small values in the summer season and large values in the winter season. This means that the effect of nationwide CVR on peak-load shaving in the Korean power system presents stronger benefits during winter months.

  15. Correlating lesion size and location to deficits after ischemic stroke: the influence of accounting for altered peri-necrotic tissue and incidental silent infarcts

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    Black Sandra E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigators frequently quantify and evaluate the location and size of stroke lesions to help uncover cerebral anatomical correlates of deficits observed after first-ever stroke. However, it is common to discover silent infarcts such as lacunes in patients identified clinically as 'first-ever' stroke, and it is unclear if including these incidental findings may impact lesion-based investigations of brain-behaviour relationships. There is also debate concerning how to best define the boundaries of necrotic stroke lesions that blend in an ill-defined way into surrounding tissue, as it is unclear whether including this altered peri-necrotic tissue region may influence studies of brain-behaviour relationships. Therefore, for patients with clinically overt stroke, we examined whether including altered peri-necrotic tissue and incidental silent strokes influenced either lesion volume correlations with a measure of sensorimotor impairment or the anatomical localization of this impairment established using subtraction lesion analysis. Methods Chronic stroke lesions of 41 patients were manually traced from digital T1-MRI to sequentially include the: necrotic lesion core, altered peri-necrotic tissue, silent lesions in the same hemisphere as the index lesion, and silent lesions in the opposite hemisphere. Lesion volumes for each region were examined for correlation with motor impairment scores, and subtraction analysis was used to highlight anatomical lesion loci associated with this deficit. Results For subtraction lesion analysis, including peri-necrotic tissue resulted in a larger region of more frequent damage being seen in the basal ganglia. For correlational analysis, only the volume of the lesion core was significantly associated with motor impairment scores (r = -0.35, p = 0.025. In a sub-analysis of patients with small subcortical index lesions, adding silent lesions in the opposite hemisphere to the volume of the index

  16. “One Should Have Two Homelands”: Discord and Hope in Soma Morgenstern’s Sparks in the Abyss

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    Kata Gellen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soma Morgenstern’s three-part novel Sparks in the Abyss, written between 1930 and 1943, exudes a spirit of serenity and optimism at the same time that its narrative is structured by repeated scenes of conflict and violence. This paper seeks to account for the place of discord in the trilogy. Morgenstern uses the interwar Galician homeland as a site to articulate the possibility of traditional Jewish life in modern Europe. By inhabiting two homes—East and West, Galicia and Vienna, secularism and piety—Jews will be able to negotiate the inevitable discord and occasional brutality that they face in the world. The lessons learned by a Western secular Jew in pluralist Galicia create hope for the negotiation of difference, if not for the complete overcoming of violence, on the eve of World War II.

  17. Long-term effect of altered nutrition induced by litter size manipulation and cross-fostering in suckling male rats on development of obesity risk and health complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozeš, Stefan; Sefčíková, Zuzana; Raček, L'ubomír

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the long-term effect of pre-weaning nutrition on positive and/or adverse regulation of obesity risk and health complications in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Two experimental models were used in the present work: (1) To induce postnatal over- or normal nutrition, the litter size was adjusted to 4 (small litters-SL) and to 10 pups (normal litters-NL) in the nest, (2) in suckling pups at day 10, we used cross-fostering to identify the effect of altered dietary environment on their future body fat regulation, food intake, blood pressure, and the duodenal and jejunal alkaline phosphatase activity. After weaning, these control (NL, SL) and cross-fostered (NL-SL, SL-NL) groups were exposed to standard laboratory diet. On day 50, the SL in comparison with NL rats became heavier and displayed enhanced adiposity accompanied by significantly increased systolic blood pressure (19%) and duodenal (16%) and jejunal (21%) alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. The impact of pre-weaning over-nutrition of NL-SL pups was associated with long-lasting positive effect on obesity. In contrast, SL-NL rats submitted until weaning to the opposite normalized feeding condition on day 50 showed significantly decreased fat deposition (21%), systolic blood pressure (20%), and AP activity in duodenum and jejunum (14%). These results contribute to a better understanding of how early-acquired dietary habits determine the attenuation or prevention of obesity development in later life and can provide some benefit for optimizing the future dietary strategies in young and adult obese individuals.

  18. Interaction between the soma and the axon terminal of horizontal cells in carp retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, M.; van Dijk, B. W.; Spekreijse, H.

    1990-01-01

    In teleost retina, the receptive fields of horizontal cell axon terminals have a larger space constant than the receptive fields of the horizontal cell somata. Generally this difference in receptive field size is attributed to the cell coupling which is assumed to be stronger in the horizontal axon

  19. Role of Estrogens in the Size of Neuronal Somata of Paravaginal Ganglia in Ovariectomized Rabbits

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    Laura G. Hernández-Aragón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the role of estrogens in modulating the size of neuronal somata of paravaginal ganglia. Rabbits were allocated into control (C, ovariectomized (OVX, and OVX treated with estradiol benzoate (OVX + EB groups to evaluate the neuronal soma area; total serum estradiol (E2 and testosterone (T levels; the percentage of immunoreactive (ir neurons anti-aromatase, anti-estrogen receptor (ERα, ERβ and anti-androgen receptor (AR; the intensity of the immunostaining anti-glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and the GDNF family receptor alpha type 1 (GFRα1; and the number of satellite glial cells (SGCs per neuron. There was a decrease in the neuronal soma size for the OVX group, which was associated with low T, high percentages of aromatase-ir and neuritic AR-ir neurons, and a strong immunostaining anti-GDNF and anti-GFRα1. The decrease in the neuronal soma size was prevented by the EB treatment that increased the E2 without affecting the T levels. Moreover, there was a high percentage of neuritic AR-ir neurons, a strong GDNF immunostaining in the SGC, and an increase in the SGCs per neuron. Present findings show that estrogens modulate the soma size of neurons of the paravaginal ganglia, likely involving the participation of the SGC.

  20. Protein malnutrition during gestation and early life decreases neuronal size in the medial prefrontal cortex of post-pubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelf J. Cruz-Rizzolo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective studies in human populations indicate that protein deprivation during pregnancy and early life (early protein malnutrition, EPM is associated with cognitive impairments, learning disabilities and may represent a risk factor for the late onset of some psychiatric disorders, fundamentally schizophrenia, a condition where the prefrontal cortex plays an important role. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether EPM affects structural aspects of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, such as cortical volume, neuronal density and neuronal soma size, which seem altered in patients with schizophrenia. For this, a rat model of EPM (5% casein from conception to postnatal day 60 was adopted and the rat mPFC volume, total number of neurons and average neuronal volume were evaluated on postnatal day 60 (post-pubertal animals by histo- and immunohistochemical techniques using unbiased stereological analysis. EPM did not alter the number of NeuN+ neurons in the rat mPFC. However, a very significant decrease in mPFC volume and average neuronal size was observed in malnourished rats. Although the present study does not establish causal relationships between malnutrition and schizophrenia, our results may indicate a similar structural phenomenon in these two situations.

  1. Assessment of morbidity in carcinoma of the cervix: a comparison of the LENT SOMA scales and the Franco-Italian glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Susan E.; Burns, Meriel P.; Routledge, Jacqueline A.; Swindell, Ric; Bentzen, Soeren M.; West, Catharine M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess the correlation between the LENT (late effects on normal tissue) SOMA (subjective objective management analytic) system and the Franco-Italian glossary scores of late morbidity in cervical cancer patients treated with radiation, and to compare the ability of the scoring systems to detect differences between radiation treatment groups. Materials and methods: The study was retrospective. Patients, invited to take part in the study, had radiotherapy for cervical cancer and had a minimum of 3 years follow-up with no evidence of recurrence. One hundred patients agreed to take part. LENT subjective data were obtained using a patient questionnaire approach in order to complete the scales as published. The LENT objective, management and Franco-Italian glossary scores were obtained by a physician. Correlations between scores and differences between treatment groups were examined using non-parametric tests. Results: The average LENT SOMA scores had a greater resolution than the maximum scores, and using the maximum score alone underestimated treatment morbidity. The Franco-Italian glossary scores correlated strongly with the LENT objective scores (ρ=0.61, P<0.0005), and less strongly with the LENT subjective scores (ρ=0.45, P<0.0005). Significant differences in morbidity between the radiation treatment groups were measured using both the LENT SOMA system and the Franco-Italian glossary. Conclusions: The maximum and average LENT scores should be reported for each subsite. The LENT objective scores correlated well with the scores obtained using the established Franco-Italian glossary, but the LENT system provided additional information on subjective treatment effects. Both systems were able to measure significant differences in morbidity between radiation treatment groups. In conclusion, the LENT SOMA system is a valid and comprehensive approach for scoring the late normal tissue effects of radiotherapy

  2. Late radiation effects to the rectum and bladder in gynecologic cancer patients: the comparison of LENT/SOMA and RTOG/EORTC late-effects scoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacak, Yavuz; Yalman, Deniz; Oezsaran, Zeynep; Haydaroglu, Ayfer

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To test the correlation of LENT/SOMA and RTOG/EORTC late-effect scales for rectum and bladder, 116 cases with gynecologic malignancies that were treated with radiotherapy were assessed with both scales. Methods and Materials: All cases had been treated at least 6 months before the date of assessment with external beam radiotherapy (50-54 Gy to midline) and 1-2 fractions of HDR brachytherapy (2x8.5 Gy to point-A for 32 inoperable cases; 1x9.25 Gy to 5-9 mm from the ovoid surface for 84 postoperative cases). The patients were questioned with both scales, and the correlation between the two scales was analyzed by Spearman's rho (rank correlation) test. Results: There were 64 cases with uterine cervix carcinoma and 52 cases with endometrium carcinoma, The overall (external + brachy) doses to ICRU points were 57.8±3.8 Gy for rectum and 59.3±4.9 Gy for bladder. The statistical analysis of LENT/SOMA and RTOG/EORTC scales revealed a very good correlation for rectum (r=0.81; p<0.01) and a good correlation for bladder (r=0.72; p<0.01). Conclusion: The LENT/SOMA system is a further step on the reporting of late radiation effects. Some modifications will improve its precision, and multicentric randomized studies are needed to test its validity

  3. Comparison of patient-reported late treatment toxicity (LENT-SOMA) with quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H and N35) assessment after head and neck radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Kean Fatt; Farnell, Damien J.J.; Routledge, Jacqueline A.; Burns, Meriel P.; Sykes, Andrew J.; Slevin, Nick J.; Davidson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The patient's role in toxicity reporting is increasingly acknowledged but requires the adaptation and validation of toxicity reporting instruments for patient use as most toxicity scales are designed for physician use. Recording of radiotherapy related late toxicity is important and needs to be improved. A patient-scored symptom questionnaire of late treatment effects using LENT-SOMA was compared with a recognised quality of life tool (EORTC QLQ-C30/H and N35). Materials/methods: LENT-SOMA and EORTC QLQ-C30 patient questionnaires were prospectively completed by 220 head and neck cancer patients over 3 years and 72 completed EORTC QLQ-H and N35 questionnaires at 2 years post-radiotherapy. Results: Endpoints common to both questionnaires (pain, swallowing, dental pain, dry mouth, opening mouth, analgesics) were matched. Spearman rank correlation coefficients with ρ > 0.6 (P < 0.001) were obtained for all 'matched' scales except for analgesics scale, ρ = 0.267 (P < 0.05). There was good agreement between LENT-SOMA and EORTC QLQ-H and N35 except for analgesic endpoints. Global quality of life scores correlated negatively with average LENT-SOMA scores (P < 0.001). Significant differences in average LENT-SOMA scores between treatment modalities were found. The LENT-SOMA questionnaire has demonstrated a high Cronbach's α value (0.786) indicating good reliability. Conclusions: LENT-SOMA patient questionnaire results agreed well with those from the EORTC QLQ-H and N35 questionnaire for toxicity items where they could be compared explicitly, particularly for subjective endpoints. Patient-reported late toxicity had a negative impact on quality of life. The LENT-SOMA patient questionnaire is both reliable and sensitive to differences between patients treated with different modalities. A patient-based questionnaire is an important contributor to capturing late radiotherapy effects.

  4. The impact of radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix on sexual function assessed using the LENT SOMA scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Susan E.; Burns, Meriel P.; Routledge, Jacqueline A.; Swindell, Ric

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: As there are few studies examining the impact of radiotherapy on sexuality, we assessed the effect of radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix on sexual health and the ability of the LENT system to assess sexual function. Materials and methods: Using the vagina and sexual dysfunction scales of the LENT SOMA scales, subjective scores were measured prospectively before initiation of radiotherapy for 89 women, and at the following times after the start of treatment: 21, 70, 200, 400, 600 and 800 days. Results: There was considerable variation in pre-radiotherapy scores that was not related to disease stage (P=0.054), but was related to patient age (P=0.037, for the average vagina scores and P=0.039 for the maximum vagina scores) The scores were influenced by prior surgery (P<0.0005 for maximum and average vagina scores, P=0.042 average and 0.017 maximum sexual dysfunction scores). For 48 patients for whom data were available at the first three time points, the vagina scores decreased significantly by 70 days compared to pre-radiotherapy scores, but not for sexual dysfunction. There was heterogeneity in the pattern of changes of scores over time: for some women there was no change in vagina subsection score, some increased, and some decreased. Conclusions: The work has shown variation both in pre-treatment sexual function and in the pattern of changes seen following radiotherapy. Our questionnaire proved useful to score subjective sexual and vaginal problems as given in the LENT subjective scales. Further study is needed to assess the effectiveness of the scales in assessing late effects

  5. Sex-specific effects of altered competition on nestling growth and survival : an experimental manipulation of brood size and sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Komdeur, Jan; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Wright, Jonathan

    An increase of competition among adults or nestlings usually negatively affects breeding output. Yet little is known about the differential effects that competition has on the offspring sexes. This could be important because it may influence parental reproductive decisions. In sexual size dimorphic

  6. Pasture size effects on the ability of off-stream water or restricted stream access to alter the spatial/temporal distribution of grazing beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisinger, J J; Russell, J R; Morrical, D G; Isenhart, T M

    2014-08-01

    For 2 grazing seasons, effects of pasture size, stream access, and off-stream water on cow distribution relative to a stream were evaluated in six 12.1-ha cool-season grass pastures. Two pasture sizes (small [4.0 ha] and large [12.1 ha]) with 3 management treatments (unrestricted stream access without off-stream water [U], unrestricted stream access with off-stream water [UW], and stream access restricted to a stabilized stream crossing [R]) were alternated between pasture sizes every 2 wk for 5 consecutive 4-wk intervals in each grazing season. Small and large pastures were stocked with 5 and 15 August-calving cows from mid May through mid October. At 10-min intervals, cow location was determined with Global Positioning System collars fitted on 2 to 3 cows in each pasture and identified when observed in the stream (0-10 m from the stream) or riparian (0-33 m from the stream) zones and ambient temperature was recorded with on-site weather stations. Over all intervals, cows were observed more (P ≤ 0.01) frequently in the stream and riparian zones of small than large pastures regardless of management treatment. Cows in R pastures had 24 and 8% less (P cows in or near pasture streams regardless of pasture size. In 2011, the probability of cow presence in the stream and riparian zones increased at greater (P cow presence in the stream and riparian zones increased at greater (P cow presence in the stream and riparian zone increased less (P cow presence in shade (within 10 m of tree drip lines) in the total pasture with increasing temperatures did not differ between treatments. However, probability of cow presence in riparian shade increased at greater (P cows in or near pasture streams with unrestricted access.

  7. Conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities. Functional evaluation with LENT-SOMA scales and the Enneking score; Traitement conservateur des sarcomes des tissus mous des membres. Evaluation du resultat fonctionnel selon l'echelle LENT-SOMA et le score de Enneking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfiq, N.; Lagarde, P.; Thomas, L.; Kantor, G. [Institut Bergonie, Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Service de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Stockle, E. [Institut Bergonie, Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Service de Chirurgie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Bui, B.N. [Institut Bergonie, Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Service d' Oncologie Medicale, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2000-12-01

    Objective. - The aim of this prospective study is the feasibility of late effects assessment by LENT-SOMA scales after conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities and a comparison with the functional evaluation by the Enneking score. Patients and methods. - During the systematic follow-up consultations, a series of 32 consecutive patients was evaluated in terms of late effects by LENT SOMA scales and functional results by the Enneking score. The median time after treatment was 65 months. The treatment consisted of conservative surgery (all cases) followed by radiation therapy (29 cases), often combined with adjuvant therapy (12 concomitant radio-chemotherapy association cases out of 14). The assessment of the toxicity was retrospective for acute effects and prospective for the following late tissue damage: skin/subcutaneous tissues, muscles/soft tissues and peripheral nerves. Results. -According to the Enneking score, the global score for the overall series was high (24/30) despite four the scores zero for the psychological acceptance. According to LENT SOMA scales, a low rate of severe sequelae (grade 3-4) was observed. The occurrence of high-grade sequelae and their functional consequences were not correlated with quality of exeresis, dose of radiotherapy or use of concomitant chemotherapy. A complementarity was observed between certain factors of the Enneking score and some criteria of the LENTSOMA scales, especially of muscles/soft tissues. Conclusion. -The good quality of functional results was confirmed by the two mean scoring systems for late normal tissue damage. The routine use of LENT-SOMA seems to be more time consuming than the Enneking score (mean time of scoring: 1 3 versus five minutes). The LENT-SOMA scales are aimed at a detailed description of late toxicity and sequelae while the Enneking score provides a more global evaluation, including the psychological acceptance of treatment. The late effects assessment by the LENT-SOMA

  8. Biophysics of active vesicle transport, an intermediate step that couples excitation and exocytosis of serotonin in the neuronal soma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco F De-Miguel

    Full Text Available Transmitter exocytosis from the neuronal soma is evoked by brief trains of high frequency electrical activity and continues for several minutes. Here we studied how active vesicle transport towards the plasma membrane contributes to this slow phenomenon in serotonergic leech Retzius neurons, by combining electron microscopy, the kinetics of exocytosis obtained from FM1-43 dye fluorescence as vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, and a diffusion equation incorporating the forces of local confinement and molecular motors. Electron micrographs of neurons at rest or after stimulation with 1 Hz trains showed cytoplasmic clusters of dense core vesicles at 1.5±0.2 and 3.7±0.3 µm distances from the plasma membrane, to which they were bound through microtubule bundles. By contrast, after 20 Hz stimulation vesicle clusters were apposed to the plasma membrane, suggesting that transport was induced by electrical stimulation. Consistently, 20 Hz stimulation of cultured neurons induced spotted FM1-43 fluorescence increases with one or two slow sigmoidal kinetics, suggesting exocytosis from an equal number of vesicle clusters. These fluorescence increases were prevented by colchicine, which suggested microtubule-dependent vesicle transport. Model fitting to the fluorescence kinetics predicted that 52-951 vesicles/cluster were transported along 0.60-6.18 µm distances at average 11-95 nms(-1 velocities. The ATP cost per vesicle fused (0.4-72.0, calculated from the ratio of the ΔG(process/ΔG(ATP, depended on the ratio of the traveling velocity and the number of vesicles in the cluster. Interestingly, the distance-dependence of the ATP cost per vesicle was bistable, with low energy values at 1.4 and 3.3 µm, similar to the average resting distances of the vesicle clusters, and a high energy barrier at 1.6-2.0 µm. Our study confirms that active vesicle transport is an intermediate step for somatic serotonin exocytosis by Retzius neurons and provides a

  9. Prenatal Exposure to Autism-Specific Maternal Autoantibodies Alters Proliferation of Cortical Neural Precursor Cells, Enlarges Brain, and Increases Neuronal Size in Adult Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica; Camacho, Jasmin; Fox, Elizabeth; Miller, Elaine; Ariza, Jeanelle; Kienzle, Devon; Plank, Kaela; Noctor, Stephen C; Van de Water, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) affect up to 1 in 68 children. Autism-specific autoantibodies directed against fetal brain proteins have been found exclusively in a subpopulation of mothers whose children were diagnosed with ASD or maternal autoantibody-related autism. We tested the impact of autoantibodies on brain development in mice by transferring human antigen-specific IgG directly into the cerebral ventricles of embryonic mice during cortical neurogenesis. We show that autoantibodies recognize radial glial cells during development. We also show that prenatal exposure to autism-specific maternal autoantibodies increased stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the embryonic neocortex, increased adult brain size and weight, and increased the size of adult cortical neurons. We propose that prenatal exposure to autism-specific maternal autoantibodies directly affects radial glial cell development and presents a viable pathologic mechanism for the maternal autoantibody-related prenatal ASD risk factor. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Exposure to predicted precipitation patterns decreases population size and alters community structure of cyanobacteria in biological soil crusts from the Chihuahuan Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Vanessa M C; Machado de Lima, Náthali Maria; Roush, Daniel; Rudgers, Jennifer; Collins, Scott L; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    Cyanobacteria typically colonize the surface of arid soils, building biological soil crust (biocrusts) that provide a variety of ecosystem benefits, ranging from fertilization to stabilization against erosion. We investigated how future scenarios in precipitation anticipated for the Northern Chihuahuan Desert affected abundance and composition of biocrust cyanobacteria in two grassland ecosystems. Scenarios included a decrease in precipitation and a delay of monsoon rainfall. After three years, both treatments negatively affected cyanobacteria, although the effects of monsoon delay were milder than those of decreased precipitation. Mature biocrusts in black grama grassland suffered severe losses in cyanobacterial biomass and diversity, but compositionally simpler biocrusts in blue grama-dominated grassland maintained biomass, only suffering diversity losses. This could be partially explained by the differential sensitivity of cyanobacterial taxa: nitrogen-fixing Scytonema spp. were the most sensitive, followed by phylotypes in the Microcoleus steenstrupii complex. Microcoleus vaginatus was the least affected in all cases, but is known to be very sensitive to warming. We predict that altered precipitation will tend to prevent biocrusts from reaching successional maturity, selecting for M. vaginatus over competing M. steenstrupii, among pioneer biocrust-formers. A shift towards heat-sensitive M. vaginatus could ultimately destabilize biocrusts when precipitation changes are combined with global warming. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Long-term radiation sequelae after breast-conserving therapy in women with early-stage breast cancer: an observational study using the LENT-SOMA scoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlauer, Fabian; Tribius, Silke; Hoeller, Ulrike; Rades, Dirk; Kuhlmey, Antje; Bajrovic, Amira; Alberti, Winfried

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term toxicity after breast-conserving therapy in women with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Late toxicity according to the late effects of normal tissue-subjective, objective, management, and analytic (LENT-SOMA) criteria and cosmetic outcome (graded by physicians) were evaluated in 590 of 2943 women with early-stage breast cancer who were irradiated between 1983 and 1995 using the following fractionation schedules: group A, 1983-1987, 2.5 Gy 4x/wk to 60 Gy; group B, 1988-1993, 2.5 Gy 4x/wk to 55 Gy, group C, 1994-1995, 2.0 Gy 5x/wk to 55 Gy. Results: LENT-SOMA Grade 3-4 toxicity was observed as follows: group A (median follow-up 171 months; range 154-222 months), fibrosis 16% (7 of 45), telangiectasia 18% (8 of 45), and atrophy 4% (2 of 45); group B (median follow-up 113 months; range 78-164 months), pain 2% (8 of 345), fibrosis 10% (34 of 345), telangiectasia 10% (33 of 345), arm edema 1% (2 of 345), and atrophy 8% (27 of 345); and group C (median follow-up 75 months, range 51-96 months, n = 200), occurrence of Grade 3-4 late morbidity ≤2%. The cosmetic outcome was very good to acceptable in 78% (35 of 45) of patients in group A, 83% (286 of 345) in group B, and 94% (187 of 200) in group C. Conclusion: In our population, the long-term side effects after breast-conserving therapy were not rare, but were mainly asymptomatic. The LENT-SOMA breast module is a practical tool to assess radiation-induced long-term toxicity

  12. Comparação dos métodos soma constante e análise conjunta de fatores para estimar a importância relativa

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    A proposta deste trabalho foi comparar os métodos Soma Constante (SC) e Análise Conjunta de Fatores (ANCF) para estimar a importância relativa ((IR%)) dos fatores em estudos da preferência do consumidor. O objetivo principal foi verificar se o método SC pode ser utilizado para avaliar as estimativas de IR (%) obtidas pela ANCF. Foi realizado um estudo para avaliar a intenção de compra de uma bebida láctea sabor café com base na embalagem. Utilizou-se uma amostra de 192 julgadores residentes n...

  13. Increased size of solid organs in patients with Chuvash polycythemia and in mice with altered expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Donghoon; Okhotin, David V.; Kim, Bumjun; Okhotina, Yulia; Okhotin, Daniel J.; Miasnikova, Galina Y.; Sergueeva, Adelina I.; Polyakova, Lydia A.; Maslow, Alexei; Lee, Yonggu; Semenza, Gregg L.; Prchal, Josef T.

    2010-01-01

    Chuvash polycythemia, the first hereditary disease associated with dysregulated oxygen-sensing to be recognized, is characterized by a homozygous germ-line loss-of-function mutation of the VHL gene (VHLR200W) resulting in elevated hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α levels, increased red cell mass and propensity to thrombosis. Organ volume is determined by the size and number of cells, and the underlying molecular control mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Work from several groups has demonstrated that the proliferation of cells is regulated in opposite directions by HIF-1α and HIF-2α. HIF-1α inhibits cell proliferation by displacing MYC from the promoter of the gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21Cip1, thereby inducing its expression. In contrast, HIF-2α promotes MYC activity and cell proliferation. Here we report that the volumes of liver, spleen, and kidneys relative to body mass were larger in 30 individuals with Chuvash polycythemia than in 30 matched Chuvash controls. In Hif1a+/− mice, which are heterozygous for a null (knockout) allele at the locus encoding HIF-1α, hepatic HIF-2α mRNA was increased (2-fold) and the mass of the liver was increased, compared with wild-type littermates, without significant difference in cell volume. Hepatic p21Cip1 mRNA levels were 9.5-fold lower in Hif1a+/− mice compared with wild-type littermates. These data suggest that, in addition to increased red cell mass, the sizes of liver, spleen, and kidneys are increased in Chuvash polycythemia. At least in the liver, this phenotype may result from increased HIF-2α and decreased p21Cip1 levels leading to increased hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:20140661

  14. Testosterone replacement alters the cell size in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat in hypogonadal aged male rats as a late-onset hypogonadism animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamed A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amr Abdelhamed,1,2 Shin-ichi Hisasue,1 Masato Shirai,3 Kazuhito Matsushita,1 Yoshiaki Wakumoto,1 Akira Tsujimura,1 Taiji Tsukamoto,4 Shigeo Horie1 1Department of Urology, Juntendo University, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Sohag University, Graduate School of Medicine, Sohag, Egypt; 3Department of Urology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Japan; 4Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan Background: Patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH benefit from testosterone replacement by improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, but fat cell morphology in these patients is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effect of testosterone replacement on the morphology of fat cells in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and on erectile function in hypogonadal aged male rats as a model of LOH. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20–22 months were randomly allocated to two groups, ie, aged male controls (control group, n=5 and aged males treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT group, n=5. Testosterone enanthate 25 mg was injected subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP ratio was assessed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were collected and analyzed using Image-J software. Results: Body weight at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after TRT was 800.0±35.4 g, 767.5±46.3 g, and 780±40.4 g, respectively (not statistically significant. The ICP/MAP ratio was 0.341±0.015 in the TRT group and 0.274±0.049 in the control group (not statistically significant. The median subcutaneous fat cell size was 4.85×103 (range 0.85–12.53×103 µm2 in the control group and 4.93×103 (range 6.42–19.7×103 µm2 in the TRT group (not statistically significant. In contrast, median visceral fat cell size was significantly

  15. Cholecystectomy in patients with normal gallbladder function did not alter characteristics in duodenal motility which was not correlated to size of bile acid pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P V; Mortensen, J; Oster-Jørgensen, E

    1999-01-01

    was obtained from 5 PM to 8 AM with a sampling frequency of 4 Hz. At 6 PM, the patients received a 1400-kJ standard meal. The size of the bile acid pool after cholecystectomy was measured according to the dilution principle using [C14]cholic acid as the marker. Preoperatively the migrating motor complex (MMC......) cycle was 0.48/hr (quartiles 0.42-0.68) compared to 0.68/hr (0.43-0.77) postoperatively. This difference was not significant. An increase in the MMC cycle frequency was observed postoperatively in three patients, and a decrease was seen in four patients. The migration velocity was 5.61 cm/min (4.......26-8.01) preoperatively and 7.16 cm/min (4.79-9.71) postoperatively, a difference that was not significant. The time period from meal ingestion to appearance of phase III was 297 min (218-431) at the preoperative examination and 443 min (192-494) at the postoperative examination. This difference was not significant...

  16. Glial alterations from early to late stages in a model of Alzheimer's disease: Evidence of autophagy involvement in Aβ internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomilio, Carlos; Pavia, Patricio; Gorojod, Roxana Mayra; Vinuesa, Angeles; Alaimo, Agustina; Galvan, Veronica; Kotler, Monica Lidia; Beauquis, Juan; Saravia, Flavia

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease without effective therapy. Brain amyloid deposits are classical histopathological hallmarks that generate an inflammatory reaction affecting neuronal and glial function. The identification of early cell responses and of brain areas involved could help to design new successful treatments. Hence, we studied early alterations of hippocampal glia and their progression during the neuropathology in PDAPP-J20 transgenic mice, AD model, at 3, 9, and 15 months (m) of age. At 3 m, before deposits formation, microglial Iba1+ cells from transgenic mice already exhibited signs of activation and larger soma size in the hilus, alterations appearing later on stratum radiatum. Iba1 immunohistochemistry revealed increased cell density and immunoreactive area in PDAPP mice from 9 m onward selectively in the hilus, in coincidence with prominent amyloid Congo red + deposition. At pre-plaque stages, GFAP+ astroglia showed density alterations while, at an advanced age, the presence of deposits was associated with important glial volume changes and apparently being intimately involved in amyloid degradation. Astrocytes around plaques were strongly labeled for LC3 until 15 m in Tg mice, suggestive of increased autophagic flux. Moreover, β-Amyloid fibrils internalization by astrocytes in in vitro conditions was dependent on autophagy. Co-localization of Iba1 with ubiquitin or p62 was exclusively found in microglia contacting deposits from 9 m onward, suggesting torpid autophagy. Our work characterizes glial changes at early stages of the disease in PDAPP-J20 mice, focusing on the hilus as an especially susceptible hippocampal subfield, and provides evidence that glial autophagy could play a role in amyloid processing at advanced stages. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Global alteration of the drug-binding pocket of human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) by substitution of fifteen conserved residues reveals a negative correlation between substrate size and transport efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Shahrooz; Chufan, Eduardo E; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2017-11-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-dependent efflux pump, is linked to the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. However, the drug-binding sites and translocation pathways of this transporter are not yet well-characterized. We recently demonstrated the important role of tyrosine residues in regulating P-gp ATP hydrolysis via hydrogen bond formations with high affinity modulators. Since tyrosine is both a hydrogen bond donor and acceptor, and non-covalent interactions are key in drug transport, in this study we investigated the global effect of enrichment of tyrosine residues in the drug-binding pocket on the drug binding and transport function of P-gp. By employing computational analysis, 15 conserved residues in the drug-binding pocket of human P-gp that interact with substrates were identified and then substituted with tyrosine, including 11 phenylalanine (F72, F303, F314, F336, F732, F759, F770, F938, F942, F983, F994), two leucine (L339, L975), one isoleucine (I306), and one methionine (M949). Characterization of the tyrosine-rich P-gp mutant in HeLa cells demonstrated that this major alteration in the drug-binding pocket by introducing fifteen additional tyrosine residues is well tolerated and has no measurable effect on total or cell surface expression of this mutant. Although the tyrosine-enriched mutant P-gp could transport small to moderate size (transport large (>1000 Daltons) substrates such as NBD-cyclosporine A, Bodipy-paclitaxel and Bodipy-vinblastine was significantly decreased. This was further supported by the physico-chemical characterization of seventeen tested substrates, which revealed a negative correlation between drug transport and molecular size for the tyrosine-enriched P-gp mutant. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Glial Alterations From Early to Late Stages in a Model of Alzheimer’s Disease: Evidence of Autophagy Involvement in Aβ Internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomilio, Carlos; Pavia, Patricio; Gorojod, Roxana Mayra; Vinuesa, Angeles; Alaimo, Agustina; Galvan, Veronica; Kotler, Monica Lidia; Beauquis, Juan; Saravia, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease without effective therapy. Brain amyloid deposits are classical histopathological hallmarks that generate an inflammatory reaction affecting neuronal and glial function. The identification of early cell responses and of brain areas involved could help to design new successful treatments. Hence, we studied early alterations of hippocampal glia and their progression during the neuropathology in PDAPP-J20 transgenic mice, AD model, at 3, 9, and 15 months (m) of age. At 3 m, before deposits formation, microglial Iba1 + cells from transgenic mice already exhibited signs of activation and larger soma size in the hilus, alterations appearing later on stratum radiatum. Iba1 immunohistochemistry revealed increased cell density and immunoreactive area in PDAPP mice from 9 m onward selectively in the hilus, in coincidence with prominent amyloid Congo red + deposition. At pre-plaque stages, GFAP+ astroglia showed density alterations while, at an advanced age, the presence of deposits was associated with important glial volume changes and apparently being intimately involved in amyloid degradation. Astrocytes around plaques were strongly labeled for LC3 until 15 m in Tg mice, suggestive of increased autophagic flux. Moreover, β-Amyloid fibrils internalization by astrocytes in in vitro conditions was dependent on autophagy. Co-localization of Iba1 with ubiquitin or p62 was exclusively found in microglia contacting deposits from 9 m onward, suggesting torpid autophagy. Our work characterizes glial changes at early stages of the disease in PDAPP-J20 mice, focusing on the hilus as an especially susceptible hippocampal subfield, and provides evidence that glial autophagy could play a role in amyloid processing at advanced stages. PMID:26235241

  19. Homogeneous distribution of large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels on soma and apical dendrite of rat neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhassine, Narimane; Berger, Thomas

    2005-02-01

    Voltage-gated conductances on dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons participate in synaptic integration and output generation. We investigated the properties and the distribution of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels) in this cell type using excised patches in acute slice preparations of rat somatosensory cortex. BK channels were characterized by their large conductance and sensitivity to the specific blockers paxilline and iberiotoxin. BK channels showed a pronounced calcium-dependence with a maximal opening probability of 0.69 at 10 microm and 0.42 at 3 microm free calcium. Their opening probability and transition time constants between open and closed states are voltage-dependent. At depolarized potentials, BK channel gating is described by two open and one closed states. Depolarization increases the opening probability due to a prolongation of the open time constant and a shortening of the closed time constant. Calcium-dependence and biophysical properties of somatic and dendritic BK channels were identical. The presence of BK channels on the apical dendrite of layer 5 pyramidal neurons was shown by immunofluorescence. Patch-clamp recordings revealed a homogeneous density of BK channels on the soma and along the apical dendrite up to 850 microm with a mean density of 1.9 channels per microm(2). BK channels are expressed either isolated or in clusters containing up to four channels. This study shows the presence of BK channels on dendrites. Their activation might modulate the shape of sodium and calcium action potentials, their propagation along the dendrite, and thereby the electrotonic distance between the somatic and dendritic action potential initiation zones.

  20. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  1. High fat diet induced atherosclerosis is accompanied with low colonic bacterial diversity and altered abundances that correlates with plaque size, plasma A-FABP and cholesterol: a pilot study of high fat diet and its intervention with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or telmisartan in ApoE-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yee Kwan; Brar, Manreetpal Singh; Kirjavainen, Pirkka V; Chen, Yan; Peng, Jiao; Li, Daxu; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching; El-Nezami, Hani

    2016-11-08

    Atherosclerosis appears to have multifactorial causes - microbial component like lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and other pathogen associated molecular patterns may be plausible factors. The gut microbiota is an ample source of such stimulants, and its dependent metabolites and altered gut metagenome has been an established link to atherosclerosis. In this exploratory pilot study, we aimed to elucidate whether microbial intervention with probiotics L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) or pharmaceuticals telmisartan (TLM) could improve atherosclerosis in a gut microbiota associated manner. Atherosclerotic phenotype was established by 12 weeks feeding of high fat (HF) diet as opposed to normal chow diet (ND) in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE -/- ) mice. LGG or TLM supplementation to HF diet was studied. Both LGG and TLM significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque size and improved various biomarkers including endotoxin to different extents. Colonial microbiota analysis revealed that TLM restored HF diet induced increase in Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and decrease in alpha diversity; and led to a more distinct microbial clustering closer to ND in PCoA plot. Eubacteria, Anaeroplasma, Roseburia, Oscillospira and Dehalobacteria appeared to be protective against atherosclerosis and showed significant negative correlation with atherosclerotic plaque size and plasma adipocyte - fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and cholesterol. LGG and TLM improved atherosclerosis with TLM having a more distinct alteration in the colonic gut microbiota. Altered bacteria genera and reduced alpha diversity had significant correlations to atherosclerotic plaque size, plasma A-FABP and cholesterol. Future studies on such bacterial functional influence in lipid metabolism will be warranted.

  2. Meta-analysis of expression of l(3)mbt tumor-associated germline genes supports the model that a soma-to-germline transition is a hallmark of human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Julia; Larcombe, Lee; McFarlane, Ramsay J

    2014-05-15

    Evidence is starting to emerge indicating that tumorigenesis in metazoans involves a soma-to-germline transition, which may contribute to the acquisition of neoplastic characteristics. Here, we have meta-analyzed gene expression profiles of the human orthologs of Drosophila melanogaster germline genes that are ectopically expressed in l(3)mbt brain tumors using gene expression datasets derived from a large cohort of human tumors. We find these germline genes, some of which drive oncogenesis in D. melanogaster, are similarly ectopically activated in a wide range of human cancers. Some of these genes normally have expression restricted to the germline, making them of particular clinical interest. Importantly, these analyses provide additional support to the emerging model that proposes a soma-to-germline transition is a general hallmark of a wide range of human tumors. This has implications for our understanding of human oncogenesis and the development of new therapeutic and biomarker targets with clinical potential. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

  3. An under-active or over-active internal world? An exploration of parallel dynamics within psyche and soma, and the difficulty of internal regulation, in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Christine

    2005-04-01

    This paper explores the dynamics brought into analytic work when there is a symmetric fusion between psyche and soma within the patient. It will consider how such a fusion may emerge from reverberations between physical constitution and a lack of maternal attunement, containment and reflective function. I will describe the work with a patient, Jane, who was diagnosed with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) during the course of her analysis. The dynamic of her physical symptoms within the analytic work, and the impact of her internal affects and internal 'objects' within the transference and countertransference, indicated a difficulty in finding an homeostatic balance resulting in overactivity and underactivity at both somatic and psychological levels. Using the clinical work with Jane this paper will also examine the interrelationship between mother-infant attachment, an inadequate internalized maternal reflective function, affect dysregulation, unconscious fusion, the lack of psyche-soma differentiation and the impact of the latter in relation to internal regulation systems, or lack of, in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME). I will draw on similar work carried out by Holland (1997), Simpson (1997) and Simpson et al. (1997). The paper will also employ the concept of the reflective function (Fonagy 2001; Knox 2003), and consider Matte-Blanco's (1999) concepts of generalization and unconscious symmetry in relation to the patient's internal world. I go on to consider how analysis provides a point outside the 'fusion' that can enable the 'deadlock' to be broken.

  4. Late toxicity results of the GORTEC 94-01 randomized trial comparing radiotherapy with concomitant radiochemotherapy for advanced-stage oropharynx carcinoma: comparison of LENT/SOMA, RTOG/EORTC, and NCI-CTC scoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, Fabrice; Garaud, Pascal; Bardet, Etienne; Alfonsi, Marc; Sire, Christian; Germain, Thierry; Bergerot, Philippe; Rhein, Beatrix; Tortochaux, Jacques; Oudinot, Patrick; Calais, Gilles

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess 5-year late toxicity in patients treated by concomitant radiochemotherapy for locally advanced oropharynx carcinoma using three different toxicity scales. Methods and Materials: A total of 226 patients were entered in a Phase III multicenter, randomized trial comparing radiotherapy alone (70 Gy in 35 fractions: Arm A) with concomitant radiochemotherapy (70 Gy in 35 fractions with three cycles of a 4-day regimen containing carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil: Arm B). Five living patients, free of local or distant recurrences, could not be evaluated for late toxicity. Forty-four patients were eligible for late toxicity with a median follow-up of 5 years. Late toxicity was evaluated by the radiation oncologist using a large questionnaire containing 120 mixed items of three scales (NCI-CTC, LENT/SOMA, and RTOG). The data were then transposed on separate scales using corresponding grades. Results: The 5-year overall survival rate was 22% in Arm B and 16% in Arm A (p=0.05). The 5-year locoregional control rate was 48% in Arm B and 25% in Arm A (p=0.002). The spinal cord was not affected by the concomitant adjunct of chemotherapy, and no deaths were caused by late toxicity. Using the three late toxicity scales, 100% of the patients treated with the combined modality (Arm B) developed one or more late complications vs. 94% in the radiotherapy-alone arm (Arm A). The difference was not statistically significant. The most commonly damaged organs (all Grade 1-4) were the salivary glands (100% in Arm B vs. 82% in Arm A, p<0.05), skin (78% vs. 47%, p<0.05), teeth (67% vs. 18%, p<0.05), mucosa (59% vs. 63% p = not significant), and mandible (44% vs. 12%, p<0.05). One or more Grade 3-4 complications occurred in 82% of the patients in Arm B vs. 47% in Arm A (p=0.02) but concerned only the teeth. The correlation between the RTOG and LENT/SOMA scale and between the NCI-CTC and LENT/SOMA scale were low for Grade 1-4 toxicity (near 30%). The transposability

  5. Portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cards One 3-ounce (84 grams) serving of fish is a checkbook One-half cup (40 grams) ... for the smallest size. By eating a small hamburger instead of a large, you will save about 150 calories. ...

  6. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  7. Size matter!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Jespersen, Andreas Maaløe; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    2015-01-01

    trash bags according to size of plates and weighed in bulk. Results Those eating from smaller plates (n=145) left significantly less food to waste (aver. 14,8g) than participants eating from standard plates (n=75) (aver. 20g) amounting to a reduction of 25,8%. Conclusions Our field experiment tests...... the hypothesis that a decrease in the size of food plates may lead to significant reductions in food waste from buffets. It supports and extends the set of circumstances in which a recent experiment found that reduced dinner plates in a hotel chain lead to reduced quantities of leftovers....

  8. Exploring Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among…

  9. SOMA TÉRMICA PARA O SUBPERÍODO SEMEADURA-MATURAÇÃO DE FEIJÃO CV. CARIOCA EM COLORADO DO OESTE, RONDÔNIA ACCUMULATED HEAT UNIT FOR THE BEAN CV. ‘CARIOCA’ SOWING-MATURATION SUB-PERIOD IN COLORADO DO OESTE, RONDÔNIA STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Notti Miranda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    size: small;">Determinou-se a soma térmica, expressa em graus-dia, para o subperíodo semeadura-maturação do feijoeiro comum, cultivar Carioca. O estudo foi desenvolvido com base em dados fenológicos de experimentos de campo, realizados no período de entressafra, com o uso de irrigação, no ano de 2006, e no período de safra normal, com e sem o uso de irrigação, no ano de 2007. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no Instituto Federal de Rondônia (IFRO, no município de Colorado do Oeste, Estado de Rondônia. A soma dos graus-dia (GD foi determinada utilizando-se dois métodos: o primeiro considerando-se três diferentes temperaturas-base inferiores (Tb, 10°C, 12°C e 15°C, e o segundo tomando-se as temperaturas-base inferiores 10°C, 12°C e 15°C e a temperatura-base superior (TB de 35°C. Os valores diários da temperatura do ar foram obtidos na estação meteorológica do IFRO, instalada próxima aos locais dos experimentos. Os métodos não apresentaram diferença significativa entre si, fornecendo valores médios que variaram de 686 a 1.261,9 graus-dia, com Tb de 15°C, para o período de safra normal com irrigação, e de 10°C, para o período de entressafra, respectivamente. Pelos resultados obtidos, evidencia-se que as condições de soma térmica, para o cultivo do feijão, são favoráveis, principalmente no período de safra normal com irrigação.

    Size matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The shakeout in the solar cell and module industry is in full swing. While the number of companies and production locations shutting down in the Western world is increasing, the capacity expansion in the Far East seems to be unbroken. Size in combination with a good sales network has become the key to success for surviving in the current storm. The trade war with China already looming on the horizon is adding to the uncertainties. (orig.)

  10. Rhizosphere size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Razavi, Bahar

    2017-04-01

    Estimation of the soil volume affected by roots - the rhizosphere - is crucial to assess the effects of plants on properties and processes in soils and dynamics of nutrients, water, microorganisms and soil organic matter. The challenges to assess the rhizosphere size are: 1) the continuum of properties between the root surface and root-free soil, 2) differences in the distributions of various properties (carbon, microorganisms and their activities, various nutrients, enzymes, etc.) along and across the roots, 3) temporal changes of properties and processes. Thus, to describe the rhizosphere size and root effects, a holistic approach is necessary. We collected literature and own data on the rhizosphere gradients of a broad range of physico-chemical and biological properties: pH, CO2, oxygen, redox potential, water uptake, various nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Fe), organic compounds (glucose, carboxylic acids, amino acids), activities of enzymes of C, N, P and S cycles. The collected data were obtained based on the destructive approaches (thin layer slicing), rhizotron studies and in situ visualization techniques: optodes, zymography, sensitive gels, 14C and neutron imaging. The root effects were pronounced from less than 0.5 mm (nutrients with slow diffusion) up to more than 50 mm (for gases). However, the most common effects were between 1 - 10 mm. Sharp gradients (e.g. for P, carboxylic acids, enzyme activities) allowed to calculate clear rhizosphere boundaries and so, the soil volume affected by roots. The first analyses were done to assess the effects of soil texture and moisture as well as root system and age on these gradients. The most properties can be described by two curve types: exponential saturation and S curve, each with increasing and decreasing concentration profiles from the root surface. The gradient based distribution functions were calculated and used to extrapolate on the whole soil depending on the root density and rooting intensity. We

  11. Distribution of radioactive "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"4Cs in river water and bottom sand for major rivers at Minami-Soma City in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Naganuma, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    A nuclear power plant accident, which occurred on March 11, 2011, caused severe radioactive contamination in Fukushima. We initiated an environmental radioactive survey in Minami-Soma City the following October. The city is located approximately 10-40 km north of the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The study reported here involves an environmental radioactive survey conducted along three rivers and their tributary streams.Water and bottom sands were collected from four to six sampling locations along each river. Water samples (1 L) were dried on thin Teflon sheets, and gamma-ray measurements were performed with a well-type Ge detector. Sand samples were homogenized after drying, and approximately 50 g were measured for gamma-rays with a low-background coaxial-type Ge detector. The Cs concentrations ("1"3"7Cs+"1"3"4Cs) were determined to be 10,000-20,000 Bq/kg in the bottom sand collected from the upper reaches of the rivers, whereas the concentrations measured from samples collected near coastal down reaches were measured at about 200 Bq/kg. The Cs concentrations measured in river water were about 0.8 Bq/L in the upper reaches of the rivers and 0.3 Bq/L in the lower reaches, indicating that the Cs concentration in water is quite low. It is necessary to study the behavior of the contaminants in the upper reaches of the river system, and determine if they will move to the down stream area hereafter. (author)

  12. Distribution of radioactive "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"4Cs in river water and bottom sand for major rivers at Minami-Soma City in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Naganuma, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    A nuclear power plant accident, which occurred on March 11, 2011, caused severe radioactive contamination in Fukushima. We initiated an environmental radioactive survey in Minami-Soma City the following October. The city is located approximately 10-40 km north of the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The study reported here involves an environmental radioactive survey conducted along three rivers and their tributary streams. Water and bottom sands were collected from four to six sampling locations along each river. Water samples (1 L) were dried on thin Teflon sheets, and gamma-ray measurements were performed with a well-type Ge detector. Sand samples were homogenized after drying, and approximately 50 g were measured for gamma-rays with a low-background coaxial-type Ge detector. The Cs concentrations ("1"3"7Cs+"1"3"4Cs) were determined to be 10,000-20,000 Bq/kg in the bottom sand collected from the upper reaches of the rivers, whereas the concentrations measured from samples collected near coastal down reaches were measured at about 200 Bq/kg. The Cs concentrations measured in river water were about 0.8 Bq/L in the upper reaches of the rivers and 0.3 Bq/L in the lower reaches, indicating that the Cs concentration in water is quite low. It is necessary to study the behavior of the contaminants in the upper reaches of the river system, and determine if they will move to the down stream area hereafter. (author)

  13. Radiation protection philosophy alters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two significant events that have taken place this year in the field of radiation protection are reported. New SI units have been proposed (and effectively adopted), and the ICRP has revised its recommendations. Changes of emphasis in the latest recommendations (ICRP Publication 26) imply an altered radiation protection philosophy, in particular the relation of dose limits to estimates of average risk, an altered view of the critical organ approach and a new attitude to genetic dose to the population. (author)

  14. Ablation and chemical alteration of cosmic dust particles during entry into the earth`s atmosphere

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Dey, S.; Plane, J.M.C.; Feng, W.; Carrillo-Sanchez, J.D.; Fernandes, D.

    Most dust-sized cosmic particles undergo ablation and chemical alteration during atmospheric entry, which alters their original properties. A comprehensive understanding of this process is essential in order to decipher their pre...

  15. Reduced neuronal size and mTOR pathway activity in the Mecp2 A140V Rett syndrome mouse model [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Rangasamy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutation in the X-linked MECP2 gene, encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. We have created a mouse model (Mecp2 A140V “knock-in” mutant expressing the recurrent human MECP2 A140V mutation linked to an X-linked mental retardation/Rett syndrome phenotype. Morphological analyses focused on quantifying soma and nucleus size were performed on primary hippocampus and cerebellum granule neuron (CGN cultures from mutant (Mecp2A140V/y and wild type (Mecp2+/y male mice. Cultured hippocampus and cerebellar granule neurons from mutant animals were significantly smaller than neurons from wild type animals. We also examined soma size in hippocampus neurons from individual female transgenic mice that express both a mutant  (maternal allele and a wild type Mecp2 gene linked to an eGFP transgene (paternal allele. In cultures from such doubly heterozygous female mice, the size of neurons expressing the mutant (A140V allele also showed a significant reduction compared to neurons expressing wild type MeCP2, supporting a cell-autonomous role for MeCP2 in neuronal development. IGF-1 (insulin growth factor-1 treatment of neuronal cells from Mecp2 mutant mice rescued the soma size phenotype. We also found that Mecp2  mutation leads to down-regulation of the mTOR signaling pathway, known to be involved in neuronal size regulation. Our results suggest that i reduced neuronal size is an important in vitro cellular phenotype of Mecp2 mutation in mice, and ii MeCP2 might play a critical role in the maintenance of neuronal structure by modulation of the mTOR pathway. The definition of a quantifiable cellular phenotype supports using neuronal size as a biomarker in the development of a high-throughput, in vitro assay to screen for compounds that rescue small neuronal phenotype (“phenotypic assay”.

  16. Beyond the dualism of psyche and soma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenstein, Marilia

    2008-01-01

    After a historical survey in which the history of the term "psychosomatic" and its invention during the 19th century are retold, as is also the history of modern psychosomatics, the author offers a more personal view, the result of her experience as a classical psychoanalyst and as a practitioner for 27 years at the Paris Institute of Psychosomatics. She develops her current understanding of the theories of the Paris School of Psychosomatics, and selects and elaborates a certain number of concepts essential for clinical work with patients suffering from somatic illnesses. Detailed case studies of two very different patients who are both ill with cancer offer an attempt to show the relevance and application of this specific approach, but which still remains based on psychoanalysis and the most rigorous Freudian metapsychology.

  17. soma vivax in Tselemti woreda , Tigray, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    field. Material and Methods. Study Area. The study was carried out at Mekelle Regional Laboratory from November 2002 to April 2003. T. vivax isolate was collected from ... the order of 5-10 trypanosomes per high power microscope field (40X). ..... their studies of the infectivity for mice of Nigerian isolates of T. vivax, that.

  18. Music and Alterity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Martí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  19. Immunization alters body odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A; Opiekun, Maryanne; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-04-10

    Infections have been shown to alter body odor. Because immune activation accompanies both infection and immunization, we tested the hypothesis that classical immunization might similarly result in the alteration of body odors detectable by trained biosensor mice. Using a Y-maze, we trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from rabies-vaccinated (RV) and unvaccinated control mice. RV-trained mice generalized this training to mice immunized with the equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine compared with urine of corresponding controls. These results suggest that there are similarities between body odors of mice immunized with these two vaccines. This conclusion was reinforced when mice could not be trained to directly discriminate between urine odors of RV- versus WNV-treated mice. Next, we trained biosensor mice to discriminate the urine odors of mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a general elicitor of innate immunological responses) from the urine of control mice. These LPS-trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and RV-treated mouse urine. Finally, biosensor mice trained to distinguish between the odors of RV-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine did not generalize this training to discriminate between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine. From these experiments, we conclude that: (1) immunization alters urine odor in similar ways for RV and WNV immunizations; and (2) immune activation with LPS also alters urine odor but in ways different from those of RV and WNV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Altered metabolism in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locasale Jason W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer cells have different metabolic requirements from their normal counterparts. Understanding the consequences of this differential metabolism requires a detailed understanding of glucose metabolism and its relation to energy production in cancer cells. A recent study in BMC Systems Biology by Vasquez et al. developed a mathematical model to assess some features of this altered metabolism. Here, we take a broader look at the regulation of energy metabolism in cancer cells, considering their anabolic as well as catabolic needs. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1752-0509/4/58/

  2. Poverty and household size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, P.; Ravallion, M.

    1995-01-01

    The widely held view that larger families tend to be poorer in developing countries has influenced research and policy. The scope for size economies in consumption cautions against this view. The authors find that the correlation between poverty and size vanishes in Pakistan when the size elasticity

  3. Mid-size urbanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de B.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To speak of the project for the mid-size city is to speculate about the possibility of mid-size urbanity as a design category. An urbanism not necessarily defined by the scale of the intervention or the size of the city undergoing transformation, but by the framing of the issues at hand and the

  4. High fat diet induced atherosclerosis is accompanied with low colonic bacterial diversity and altered abundances that correlates with plaque size, plasma A-FABP and cholesterol: a pilot study of high fat diet and its intervention with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or telmisartan in ApoE?/? mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Yee Kwan; Brar, Manreetpal Singh; Kirjavainen, Pirkka V.; Chen, Yan; Peng, Jiao; Li, Daxu; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching; El-Nezami, Hani

    2016-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis appears to have multifactorial causes ? microbial component like lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and other pathogen associated molecular patterns may be plausible factors. The gut microbiota is an ample source of such stimulants, and its dependent metabolites and altered gut metagenome has been an established link to atherosclerosis. In this exploratory pilot study, we aimed to elucidate whether microbial intervention with probiotics L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) or pharmaceutica...

  5. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  6. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bralten, Linda B. C.; French, Pim J.

    2011-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes

  7. Altered Perspectives: Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.

  8. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  9. [Alterations in arterial compliance of dyslipidemic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Fernando Mario; Corral, Pablo; Blanco, Gustavo Hector; Scandurra, Adriana Graciela; Meschino, Gustavo Javier

    2015-01-01

    We studied the alteration on the distensibility of the arterial walls caused by dyslipidemia LDLc dependent, along the decades of life, by means of a study of the radial artery pulse wave. We made an analysis of the radial artery pulse wave records acquired by means a movement displacement sensor, placed on radial palpation area. We recruited 100 dyslipidemic men without other cardiovascular risk factors, between the 3rd and the 6th decade. We identified the reflected wave in the records and we computed the augmentation index in order to quantify its amplitude and position. This index is useful to assess the endothelial dysfunction. Besides, we defined a velocity coefficient as the ratio between the size of the individuals and the delay time between the peak of the systolic wave and the arrival of the reflected wave. Results were compared against those obtained in a group of 161 healthy volunteers. We found that dyslipidemic patients presented augmentation index values similar to controls until the fourth decade, increasing thereafter with significant differences only in the 6th decade. No significant differences were found in the velocity index in any of the ages studied. We conclude that alterations produced by dyslipidemia take decades to manifest, and they begin affecting the mechanism of vasodilation of distal arteries with highest proportion of smooth muscle, without altering the proximal conduit arteries with more elastin content. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Specimen size effects in Charpy impact testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.; Klueh, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Full-size , half-size, and third-size specimens from several different steels have been tested as part of an ongoing alloy development program. The smaller specimens permit more specimens to be made from small trail heats and are much more efficient for irradiation experiments. The results of several comparisons between the different specimen sizes have shown that the smaller specimens show qualitatively similar behavior to large specimens, although the upper-shelf energy level and ductile-to-ductile transition temperature are reduced. The upper-shelf energy levels from different specimen sizes can be compared by using a simple volume normalization method. The effect of specimen size and geometry on the ductile-to-ductile transition temperature is more difficult to predict, although the available data suggest a simple shift in the transition temperature due to specimen size changes.The relatively shallower notch used in smaller specimens alters the deformation pattern, and permits yielding to spread back to the notched surface as well as through to the back. This reduces the constraint and the peak stresses, and thus the initiation of cleavage is more difficult. A better understanding of the stress and strain distributions is needed. 19 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Sample size methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Desu, M M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important problems in designing an experiment or a survey is sample size determination and this book presents the currently available methodology. It includes both random sampling from standard probability distributions and from finite populations. Also discussed is sample size determination for estimating parameters in a Bayesian setting by considering the posterior distribution of the parameter and specifying the necessary requirements. The determination of the sample size is considered for ranking and selection problems as well as for the design of clinical trials. Appropria

  12. Sizing up countability

    OpenAIRE

    De Belder, Marijke

    2008-01-01

    SIZING UP COUNTABILITY: TOWARDS A MORE FINE-GRAINED MASS-COUNT DISTINCTION MARIJKE DE BELDER CRISSP/CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF BRUSSELS/FACULTÉS UNIVERSITAIRES SAINT-LOUIS 1. Summary Borer (2005) argues that the presence of the functional projection DivP, which divides stuff into units, yields count readings in the NP and that its absence yields mass readings. I claim, however, that countability requires not only DivP (which creates units) but also SizeP (which assigns size). The head ...

  13. Compressors selection and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Royce N

    2005-01-01

    This practical reference provides in-depth information required to understand and properly estimate compressor capabilities and to select the proper designs. Engineers and students will gain a thorough understanding of compression principles, equipment, applications, selection, sizing, installation, and maintenance. The many examples clearly illustrate key aspects to help readers understand the ""real world"" of compressor technology.Compressors: Selection and Sizing, third edition is completely updated with new API standards. Additions requested by readers include a new section on di

  14. Firm size and taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Chongvilaivan, Aekapol; Jinjarak, Yothin

    2010-01-01

    The scale dependence in firm growth (smaller firms grow faster) is systematically reflected in the size distribution. This paper studies whether taxes affect the equilibrium firm size distribution in a cross-country context. The main finding is that the empirical association between firm growth and corporate tax (VAT) is positive (negative), with notable differences in the response of manufacturing firms and that of the others. We draw implications for recent debate on the impact of taxes and...

  15. Gesundheit und Pflege im Alter

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaff, Martin

    1989-01-01

    Gesundheit und Pflege im Alter : d. Gesundheitsreformgesetz (GRG) ; Möglichkeiten, Grenzen u. weitere Vorschläge / Martin Pfaff ; Klaus Deimer. - In: Expertengespräch "Pflege in der Familie". - Augsburg, 1989. - Getr. Zählung

  16. Hippocampal neurons respond uniquely to topographies of various sizes and shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fozdar, David Y; Chen Shaochen; Lee, Jae Young; Schmidt, Christine E

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated the behavior of neurons on microfabricated topography for the purpose of developing interfaces for use in neural engineering applications. However, there have been few studies simultaneously exploring the effects of topographies having various feature sizes and shapes on axon growth and polarization in the first 24 h. Accordingly, here we investigated the effects of arrays of lines (ridge grooves) and holes of microscale (∼2 μm) and nanoscale (∼300 nm) dimensions, patterned in quartz (SiO 2 ), on the (1) adhesion, (2) axon establishment (polarization), (3) axon length, (4) axon alignment and (5) cell morphology of rat embryonic hippocampal neurons, to study the response of the neurons to feature dimension and geometry. Neurons were analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The topographies were found to have a negligible effect on cell attachment but to cause a marked increase in axon polarization, occurring more frequently on sub-microscale features than on microscale features. Neurons were observed to form longer axons on lines than on holes and smooth surfaces; axons were either aligned parallel or perpendicular to the line features. An analysis of cell morphology indicated that the surface features impacted the morphologies of the soma, axon and growth cone. The results suggest that incorporating microscale and sub-microscale topographies on biomaterial surfaces may enhance the biomaterials' ability to modulate nerve development and regeneration.

  17. Soma térmica de algumas fases do ciclo de desenvolvimento da escala de COUNCE para cultivares Sul-Brasileiras de arroz irrigado Thermal time of some developmental phases of the COUNCE scale for irrigated rice cultivars grown in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereu Augusto Streck

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A escala de COUNCE é uma escala de desenvolvimento de arroz recente que vem sendo gradativamente adotada no Brasil. No entanto, a duração das fases em ºC dia dessa escala ainda não está disponível para as cultivares brasileiras de arroz irrigado. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a soma térmica de algumas fases do ciclo de desenvolvimento da escala de COUNCE para cultivares Sul-Brasileiras de arroz irrigado, utilizando-se diversos métodos de cálculo e diferentes temperaturas cardinais ao longo do ciclo de desenvolvimento. Um experimento a campo foi desenvolvido em Santa Maria, RS, durante dois anos agrícolas (2003/2004 e 2004/2005 e com cinco épocas de semeadura em cada um deles. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. Cada repetição consistia de um vaso de 12 litros com 10 plantas. As datas dos estágios de desenvolvimento R2 (aparecimento do colar da folha bandeira e R9 (todos os grãos com casca marrom da escala de COUNCE foram registradas no colmo principal de cinco plantas por vaso. As cultivares utilizadas foram IRGA 421, IRGA 416, IRGA 417, IRGA 420, BR-IRGA 409, BRS 7 TAIM e EPAGRI 109. Considerando-se as temperaturas cardinais de 11 °C, 28 °C e 40 °C, a soma térmica para completar a fase emergência-R2 foi de 700-800 °C dia na cultivar muito precoce, 1000-1400 °C dia nas cultivares precoces e 1300-1700 °C dia nas cultivares médias e tardia, e a soma térmica para completar a fase R2-R9 foi de 400-700 °C dia e sem relação com o ciclo da cultivar.The COUNCE scale is a developmental scale recently proposed for rice and that is being used in Brazil. However, the duration of developmental phases of this scale in degree-days is not available for Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the thermal time of some developmental phases of the COUNCE scale in irrigated rice cultivars grown in Southern Brazil using

  18. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder : findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaal, L.; Veltman, D. J.; van Erp, T. G. M.; Saemann, P. G.; Frodl, T.; Jahanshad, N.; Loehrer, E.; Tiemeier, H.; Hofman, A.; Niessen, W. J.; Vernooij, M. W.; Ikram, M. A.; Wittfeld, K.; Grabe, H. J.; Block, A.; Hegenscheid, K.; Voelzke, H.; Hoehn, D.; Czisch, M.; Lagopoulos, J.; Hatton, S. N.; Hickie, I. B.; Goya-Maldonado, R.; Kraemer, B.; Gruber, O.; Couvy-Duchesne, B.; Renteria, M. E.; Strike, L. T.; Mills, N. T.; de Zubicaray, G. I.; McMahon, K. L.; Medland, S. E.; Martin, N. G.; Gillespie, N. A.; Wright, M. J.; Hall, G.B.; MacQueen, G. M.; Frey, E. M.; Carballedo, A.; van Velzen, L. S.; van Tol, M. J.; van der Wee, N. J.; Veer, I. M.; Walter, H.; Schnell, K.; Schramm, E.; Normann, C.; Schoepf, D.; Konrad, C.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.

    The pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical

  19. Fluctuations in email size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Yoshitsugu; Musashi, Yasuo

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain fluctuations in email size. We have previously investigated the long-term correlations between email send requests and data flow in the system log of the primary staff email server at a university campus, finding that email size frequency follows a power-law distribution with two inflection points, and that the power-law property weakens the correlation of the data flow. However, the mechanism underlying this fluctuation is not completely understood. We collected new log data from both staff and students over six academic years and analyzed the frequency distribution thereof, focusing on the type of content contained in the emails. Furthermore, we obtained permission to collect "Content-Type" log data from the email headers. We therefore collected the staff log data from May 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015, creating two subdistributions. In this paper, we propose a model to explain these subdistributions, which follow log-normal-like distributions. In the log-normal-like model, email senders -consciously or unconsciously- regulate the size of new email sentences according to a normal distribution. The fitting of the model is acceptable for these subdistributions, and the model demonstrates power-law properties for large email sizes. An analysis of the length of new email sentences would be required for further discussion of our model; however, to protect user privacy at the participating organization, we left this analysis for future work. This study provides new knowledge on the properties of email sizes, and our model is expected to contribute to the decision on whether to establish upper size limits in the design of email services.

  20. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study 3 participants were exposed to images of large or small portions of a snack food before selecting a portion size of snack food to consume. Across the three studies, visual exposure to larger as opposed to smaller portion sizes resulted in participants considering a normal portion of food to be larger than a reference intermediate sized portion. In studies 1 and 2 visual exposure to larger portion sizes also increased the size of self-reported ideal meal size. In study 3 visual exposure to larger portion sizes of a snack food did not affect how much of that food participants subsequently served themselves and ate. Visual exposure to larger portion sizes may adjust visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' sized portion. However, we did not find evidence that visual exposure to larger portions altered snack food intake. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal Diet and Insulin-Like Signaling Control Intergenerational Plasticity of Progeny Size and Starvation Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Hibshman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal effects of environmental conditions produce intergenerational phenotypic plasticity. Adaptive value of these effects depends on appropriate anticipation of environmental conditions in the next generation, and mismatch between conditions may contribute to disease. However, regulation of intergenerational plasticity is poorly understood. Dietary restriction (DR delays aging but maternal effects have not been investigated. We demonstrate maternal effects of DR in the roundworm C. elegans. Worms cultured in DR produce fewer but larger progeny. Nutrient availability is assessed in late larvae and young adults, rather than affecting a set point in young larvae, and maternal age independently affects progeny size. Reduced signaling through the insulin-like receptor daf-2/InsR in the maternal soma causes constitutively large progeny, and its effector daf-16/FoxO is required for this effect. nhr-49/Hnf4, pha-4/FoxA, and skn-1/Nrf also regulate progeny-size plasticity. Genetic analysis suggests that insulin-like signaling controls progeny size in part through regulation of nhr-49/Hnf4, and that pha-4/FoxA and skn-1/Nrf function in parallel to insulin-like signaling and nhr-49/Hnf4. Furthermore, progeny of DR worms are buffered from adverse consequences of early-larval starvation, growing faster and producing more offspring than progeny of worms fed ad libitum. These results suggest a fitness advantage when mothers and their progeny experience nutrient stress, compared to an environmental mismatch where only progeny are stressed. This work reveals maternal provisioning as an organismal response to DR, demonstrates potentially adaptive intergenerational phenotypic plasticity, and identifies conserved pathways mediating these effects.

  2. On the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, M.A.; Kinoshenko, Yu.T.

    1982-01-01

    The notions ''normal'' and ''pathologically altered pulmonary pattern'' are specified. A grouping of lung pattern alterations based on morphopathogenetic features is provided: blood and lymphatic vascular alterations, changes in the bronchi, lung stroma, and combined alterations. Radiologic appearance of the altered pulmonary pattern is classified in keeping with the basic principles of an X-ray shade examination. The terms, such as ''enriching'', ''strengthening'', ''deformation'', etc., used for describing the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern are defined

  3. Particle size determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A specification is given for an apparatus to provide a completely automatic testing cycle to determine the proportion of particles of less than a predetermined size in one of a number of fluid suspensions. Monitoring of the particle concentration during part of the process can be carried out by an x-ray source and detector. (U.K.)

  4. Size-dependent thermoelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali R. Hadjesfandiari

    Full Text Available In this paper a consistent theory is developed for size-dependent thermoelasticity in heterogeneous anisotropic solids. This theory shows that the temperature change can create not only thermal strains, but also thermal mean curvatures in the solids. This formulation is based on the consistent size-dependent continuum mechanics in which the couple-stress tensor is skew-symmetric. Here by including scale-dependent measures in the energy and entropy equations, the general expressions for force- and couple-stresses, as well as entropy density, are obtained. Next, for the linear material the constitutive relations and governing coupled size-dependent thermoelasticity equations are developed. For linear material, one can see that the thermal properties are characterized by the classical symmetric thermal expansion tensor and the new size-dependent skew-symmetric thermal flexion tensor. Thus, for the most general anisotropic case, there are nine independent thermoelastic constants. Interestingly, for isotropic and cubic materials the thermal flexion tensor vanishes, which shows there is no thermal mean curvature

  5. Calculating Optimal Inventory Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Perez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the project is to find the optimal value for the Economic Order Quantity Model and then use a lean manufacturing Kanban equation to find a numeric value that will minimize the total cost and the inventory size.

  6. Size makes a difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate status and trends in portion size of foods rich in fat and/or added sugars during the past decades, and to bring portion size into perspective in its role in obesity and dietary guidelines in Denmark. Data sources: Information about portion sizes of low-fat and full-fat food...... nation-wide dietary surveys and official sales statistics (Study 3). Results: Study 1: Subjects ate and drank significantly more when they chose low-fat food and meal items (milk used as a drink, sauce and sliced cold meat), compared with their counterparts who chose food and meal items with a higher fat...... content. As a result, almost the same amounts of energy and fat were consumed both ways, with the exception of sliced cold meat (energy and fat) and milk (fat). Study 2: Portion sizes of commercial energy-dense foods and beverages, and fast food meals rich in fat and/or added sugars, seem to have...

  7. Size and Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Ringsmose, Jens

    2015-01-01

    American public gratitude than the UK. While London has been accused of losing Basra and Musa Qaleh, Copenhagen has been showered with praise and top-posts in NATO. This article explains why demonstrating how the differences in size and reputation gave rise to different expectations of the special...

  8. Green Lot-Sizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Retel Helmrich (Mathijn Jan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe lot-sizing problem concerns a manufacturer that needs to solve a production planning problem. The producer must decide at which points in time to set up a production process, and when he/she does, how much to produce. There is a trade-off between inventory costs and costs associated

  9. Epidermal growth factor receptor structural alterations in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, Cátia; Mateus, Ana R; Milanezi, Fernanda; Carneiro, Fátima; Seruca, Raquel; Suriano, Gianpaolo

    2008-01-01

    EGFR overexpression has been described in many human tumours including gastric cancer. In NSCLC patients somatic EGFR mutations, within the kinase domain of the protein, as well as gene amplification were associated with a good clinical response to EGFR inhibitors. In gastric tumours data concerning structural alterations of EGFR remains controversial. Given its possible therapeutic relevance, we aimed to determine the frequency and type of structural alterations of the EGFR gene in a series of primary gastric carcinomas. Direct sequencing of the kinase domain of the EGFR gene was performed in a series of 77 primary gastric carcinomas. FISH analysis was performed in 30 cases. Association studies between EGFR alterations and the clinical pathological features of the tumours were performed. Within the 77 primary gastric carcinomas we found two EGFR somatic mutations and several EGFR polymorphisms in exon 20. Six different intronic sequence variants of EGFR were also found. Four gastric carcinomas showed balanced polysomy or EGFR gene amplification. We verified that gastric carcinoma with alterations of EGFR (somatic mutations or copy number variation) showed a significant increase of tumour size (p = 0.0094) in comparison to wild-type EGFR carcinomas. We demonstrate that EGFR structural alterations are rare in gastric carcinoma, but whenever present, it leads to tumour growth. We considered that searching for EGFR alterations in gastric cancer is likely to be clinically important in order to identify patients susceptible to respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors

  10. Optimal Multi-Level Lot Sizing for Requirements Planning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Earle Steinberg; H. Albert Napier

    1980-01-01

    The wide spread use of advanced information systems such as Material Requirements Planning (MRP) has significantly altered the practice of dependent demand inventory management. Recent research has focused on development of multi-level lot sizing heuristics for such systems. In this paper, we develop an optimal procedure for the multi-period, multi-product, multi-level lot sizing problem by modeling the system as a constrained generalized network with fixed charge arcs and side constraints. T...

  11. Space power subsystem sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geis, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a Space Power Subsystem Sizing program which has been developed by the Aerospace Power Division of Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The Space Power Subsystem program (SPSS) contains the necessary equations and algorithms to calculate photovoltaic array power performance, including end-of-life (EOL) and beginning-of-life (BOL) specific power (W/kg) and areal power density (W/m 2 ). Additional equations and algorithms are included in the spreadsheet for determining maximum eclipse time as a function of orbital altitude, and inclination. The Space Power Subsystem Sizing program (SPSS) has been used to determine the performance of several candidate power subsystems for both Air Force and SDIO potential applications. Trade-offs have been made between subsystem weight and areal power density (W/m 2 ) as influenced by orbital high energy particle flux and time in orbit

  12. Epigenetic Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eGräff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the major cause of dementia in Western societies. It progresses asymptomatically during decades before being belatedly diagnosed when therapeutic strategies have become unviable. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, the vast majority of AD cases do not show strong genetic underpinnings and are thus considered a consequence of non-genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms allow for the integration of long-lasting non-genetic inputs on specific genetic backgrounds, and recently, a growing number of epigenetic alterations in AD have been described. For instance, an accumulation of dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms in aging, the predominant risk factor of AD, might facilitate the onset of the disease. Likewise, mutations in several enzymes of the epigenetic machinery have been associated with neurodegenerative processes that are altered in AD such as impaired learning and memory formation. Genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic alterations have also been reported, and several epigenetically dysregulated genes validated by independent groups. From these studies, a picture emerges of AD as being associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting a general repressed chromatin state and epigenetically reduced plasticity in AD. Here we review these recent findings and discuss several technical and methodological considerations that are imperative for their correct interpretation. We also pay particular focus on potential implementations and theoretical frameworks that we expect will help to better direct future studies aimed to unravel the epigenetic participation in AD.

  13. Epigenetic Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose V; Gräff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia in Western societies. It progresses asymptomatically during decades before being belatedly diagnosed when therapeutic strategies have become unviable. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, the vast majority of AD cases do not show strong genetic underpinnings and are thus considered a consequence of non-genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms allow for the integration of long-lasting non-genetic inputs on specific genetic backgrounds, and recently, a growing number of epigenetic alterations in AD have been described. For instance, an accumulation of dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms in aging, the predominant risk factor of AD, might facilitate the onset of the disease. Likewise, mutations in several enzymes of the epigenetic machinery have been associated with neurodegenerative processes that are altered in AD such as impaired learning and memory formation. Genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic alterations have also been reported, and several epigenetically dysregulated genes validated by independent groups. From these studies, a picture emerges of AD as being associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting a general repressed chromatin state and epigenetically reduced plasticity in AD. Here we review these recent findings and discuss several technical and methodological considerations that are imperative for their correct interpretation. We also pay particular focus on potential implementations and theoretical frameworks that we expect will help to better direct future studies aimed to unravel the epigenetic participation in AD.

  14. Systemic dystrophic alterations of skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    A roentgenologic picture of dystrophic alterations of bones following hard, acute and chronic infections diseases, distinct disorders of vitanium balance, diseases of endocrine system, disorder of metabolism and diet, long-term exogenous intoxications including medicinal is given. Distinct dystrophic disorders are characterized both by quantitative and qualitative deviations in physiological change of bones

  15. Digital media and altered states

    OpenAIRE

    Ressel, James

    2014-01-01

    This article is a reflection on whether technology has altered our perception of the spaces surrounding us and those we make, how we express ourselves and how we interact with our experiences. The reflection is based on a brief examination of the history of Northampton Chronicle & Echo as a print newspaper, its digital manifestation and human creative expression in the digital world.

  16. Small size ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyranski, R.; Kiliszek, Cz.R.; Marks, J.; Sobolewski, A.; Magielko, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes some designs of the two versions ion pumps and their range operation for various magnetic fields. The first version is made with different cell size in the anode element and titanium cathode operating in magnetic field from 600 to 650 Gs and the second version with the same anode element but differential Ti/Ta cathode working in magnetic field above 1200 Gs

  17. Size effects in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrii, Oleg A; Tsirlina, Galina A

    2001-01-01

    General characteristics of size-dependent phenomena in electrochemical systems are given. Primary attention is paid to methodical achievements of nanoelectrochemistry, which is a line of research created over the last 15 years. The development of the main concepts of electrochemistry initiated by the stream of nanoscopic information is considered. The prospects for local studies of processes on charged interfaces, elementary steps of these processes and application of nanoelectrodes and related systems in interdisciplinary fields are discussed. The bibliography includes 198 references.

  18. Modelling glass alteration in an altered argillaceous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bildstein, O.; Trotignon, L.; Pozo, C.; Jullien, M.

    2007-01-01

    The long term behaviour of materials such as glass, steel and clay has been investigated in the context of deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The interactions between vitrified wastes, canister corrosion products (CPs) and clay are studied using a modified version of the reaction-transport code Crunch, especially looking at pH changes and possible cementation at the interface with the clayey materials. These perturbations may indeed affect the lifetime of glass matrix in deep repositories, e.g., high pH enhances the rate of glass alteration. This work focuses on the argillite of Bure. The calculations were performed at 323 K with a glass alteration rate switching from a high initial rate to a residual rate according to the sorption capacity of CPs. The time at which this sorption capacity is saturated is crucial to the system in terms of wastes package lifetime. The results show that the glass alteration imposes a high pH value at the interface with CPs and clay: up to a value of 9.2, compared to 7.3 which is the initial pH value in the argillite. Experimental data show that the rate of glass alteration is much higher in such pH conditions. For a R7T7-type glass, the rate is about five times higher at pH 9 than at pH 7. This pH perturbation migrates through the clayey domain as a result of the migration of mobile elements such as boron and sodium, and despite the existence of strong pH buffers in the argillite. The cementation of porosity at the interface between glass and clay is predicted by the model due to the massive precipitation of iron corrosion products and glass alteration products. At this point of the evolution of the system, the pH starts to decrease and the alteration rate of the glass could be significantly reduced. This porosity clogging effect is difficult to confirm by experiments especially since existing data on short term experiments tend to show a pervasive precipitation of silica in the domain instead of a localized precipitation

  19. Sizing a PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis L.; Glicksman, Robert A.

    1994-05-01

    A Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) must be able to support the image rate of the medical treatment facility. In addition the PACS must have adequate working storage and archive storage capacity required. The calculation of the number of images per minute and the capacity of working storage and of archiving storage is discussed. The calculation takes into account the distribution of images over the different size of radiological images, the distribution between inpatient and outpatient, and the distribution over plain film CR images and other modality images. The support of the indirect clinical image load is difficult to estimate and is considered in some detail. The result of the exercise for a particular hospital is an estimate of the average size of the images and exams on the system, of the number of gigabytes of working storage, of the number of images moved per minute, of the size of the archive in gigabytes, and of the number of images that are to be moved by the archive per minute. The types of storage required to support the image rates and the capacity required are discussed.

  20. Suppression of coffee ring: (Particle) size matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Lalit; Seth, Pranjal; Murugappan, Bhubesh; Basu, Saptarshi

    2018-05-01

    Coffee ring patterns in drying sessile droplets are undesirable in various practical applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that on hydrophobic substrates, the coffee ring can be suppressed just by increasing the particle diameter. Particles with larger size flocculate within the evaporation timescale, leading to a significant gravimetric settling (for Pe > 1) triggering a uniform deposit. Interestingly, the transition to a uniform deposit is found to be independent of the internal flow field and substrate properties. Flocculation of particles also alters the particle packing at the nanoscale resulting in order to disorder transitions. In this letter, we exhibit a physical exposition on how particle size affects morphodynamics of the droplet drying at macro-nano length scales.

  1. Nano sized clay detected on chalk particle surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Lone; Hassenkam, Tue; Makovicky, Emil

    2012-01-01

    that in calcite saturated water, both the polar and the nonpolar functional groups adhere to the nano sized clay particles but not to calcite. This is fundamentally important information for the development of conceptual and chemical models to explain wettability alterations in chalk reservoirs...

  2. Altered functional brain connectivity in patients with visually induced dizziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique Van Ombergen

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: We found alterations in the visual and vestibular cortical network in VID patients that could underlie the typical VID symptoms such as a worsening of their vestibular symptoms when being exposed to challenging visual stimuli. These preliminary findings provide the first insights into the underlying functional brain connectivity in VID patients. Future studies should extend these findings by employing larger sample sizes, by investigating specific task-based paradigms in these patients and by exploring the implications for treatment.

  3. Large litter sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Rutherford, K.M.D.; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some key results and conclusions from a review (Rutherford et al. 2011) undertaken regarding the ethical and welfare implications of breeding for large litter size in the domestic pig and about different ways of dealing with these implications. Focus is primarily on the direct...... possible to achieve a drop in relative piglet mortality and the related welfare problems. However, there will be a growing problem with the need to use foster or nurse sows which may have negative effects on both sows and piglets. This gives rise to new challenges for management....

  4. Histochemical alterations in colorectal carcinoma and adenoma in Egyptian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber A Sakr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the histochemical alterations in DNA and total carbohydrates, in colorectal cancer cells. Methods: This study was carried out on 48 colorectal carcinoma and 10 adenoma specimens. Hematoxylin and Eosin staining was carried out for histopathological examination to confirm the diagnosis and to evaluate the histopathological characteristics of tumor. Histologic grade and pathologic stage was assessed according to TNM staging system. Staging was also assessed according to original Dukes’ staging system. DNA was demonstrated by Feulgen method and carbohydrates were demonstrated by periodic acid Schiff’s reaction. Results: Adenoma cases showed that the cells lining the glands of the polyp have more crowded, irregular and darker nuclei (hyperchromatic, anisonucleosis, abnormal mitotic figures with prominent nucleoli and variability in the size and shape of nuclei. Colorectal carcinoma cases showed a condensation and reduction in the size of a cell nucleus associated with hyperchromatosis, pyknotic nuclei, abnormal mitotic figures, anisonucleosis, irregular nuclear membrane and inequality in the size of the nuclei (Pleomorphosis. There was a statistical significant differences between adenoma and carcinoma regarding number of mitotic cells (P = 0.03 that was in favour of malignant group. Adenoma and colorectal carcinoma cases showed periodic acid Schiff’s reactivity with different degree. Conclusions: These histochemical alterations can be so characteristic of a given tumor type and stage that they are used in cancer diagnosis and might also be related to the altered functional properties of cancer cells.

  5. Chemosensory alterations and cancer therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoshuk, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems

  6. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  7. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Tarzia, Olinda

    2010-01-15

    Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a) increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b) impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c) absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d) bad taste; e) oral candidiasis f) increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g) increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h) coated tongue; i) halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a) tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b) periodontal disease; c) white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d) caries; e) delayed healing of wounds; f) greater tendency to infections; g) lichen planus; h) mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  8. Genesis of hydrothermal alterations using stable isotope geochemistry in Takestan area (Tarom zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Taghipou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal alteration processes are extensively took place on volcanic and pyroclstics of Takestan area. Existence of abundant, deep fracturing and subvolcanic intrusions are enhanced extend hydrothermal alteration zones. The following alteration zones are determined: propylitic, argillic, advanced argillic and sillicic. There are outcropped and widespread in different size and limit. Formation of siliceous sinter, silicified tuffs with preserved primary sedimentary layering including pure mineralized alunite patches are most outstanding. Quartz, sussoritic plagioclase, chlorite, sericite and alunite are main mineral constituents in the volcanics. On the basis of geochemical data volcanic rocks are rhyolite, dacite, andesite, andesitic-basalt and basalt in composition. Acid-sulfate zone is the type of alteration in Tarom area and alunite is an index mineral of this zone. Results of 18O, D and 34S stable isotope geochemistry on altered minerals (muscovite, kaolinite and alunite, revealed that alteration fluids are magmatic in origin.

  9. Finite size scaling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenberg, V.

    1983-01-01

    Fischer's finite-size scaling describes the cross over from the singular behaviour of thermodynamic quantities at the critical point to the analytic behaviour of the finite system. Recent extensions of the method--transfer matrix technique, and the Hamiltonian formalism--are discussed in this paper. The method is presented, with equations deriving scaling function, critical temperature, and exponent v. As an application of the method, a 3-states Hamiltonian with Z 3 global symmetry is studied. Diagonalization of the Hamiltonian for finite chains allows one to estimate the critical exponents, and also to discover new phase transitions at lower temperatures. The critical points lambda, and indices v estimated for finite-scaling are given

  10. Genetic alterations and epigenetic changes in hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Stella Hoyos Giraldo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    size: 10pt; font-family: QuorumITCbyBT-Book">Hepatocarcinogenesis as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is associated with background of chronic liver disease usually in association with cirrhosis, marked hepatic fibrosis, hepatitis B virus (HBV and/or hepatitis virus (HCV infection, chronic inflammation, Aflatoxin B1(AFB1 exposure, chronic alcoholism, metabolic disorder of the liver and necroinflamatory liver disease. Hepatocarcinogenesis involve two mechanisms, genetic alterations (with changes in the cell's DNA sequence and epigenetic changes (without changes in the cell's DNA sequence, but changes in the pattern of gene expression that can persist through one or more generations (somatic sense. Hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oncogenes and decreased expression of tumor suppressor genes (TSG; include those involved in cell cycle control, apoptosis, DNA repair, immortalization and angiogenesis. AFB1 is metabolized in the liver into a potent carcinogen, aflatoxin 8, 9-epoxide, which is detoxified by epoxide hydrolase (EPHX and glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1.

    size: 10pt; font-family: QuorumITCbyBT-Book">A failure of detoxification processes can allow to mutagenic metabolite to bind to DNA and inducing P53 mutation. Genetic polymorphism of EPHX and GSTM1 can make individuals more susceptible to AFB1. Epigenetic inactivation of GSTP1 by promoter hypermethylation plays a role in the development of HCC because, it leads that electrophilic metabolite increase DNA damage and mutations. HBV DNA integration into the host chromosomal DNA of hepatocytes has been detected in HBV-related HCC.

    size: 10pt; font-family: QuorumITCbyBT-Book">DNA tumor viruses cause cancer mainly by interfering with cell cycle controls, and activating the cell's replication machinery by blocking the action of key TSG. HBx protein is a

  11. Altered cerebellar development in nuclear receptor TAK1/ TR4 null mice is associated with deficits in GLAST(+) glia, alterations in social behavior, motor learning, startle reactivity, and microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Sik; Harry, G Jean; Kang, Hong Soon; Goulding, David; Wine, Rob N; Kissling, Grace E; Liao, Grace; Jetten, Anton M

    2010-09-01

    Previously, deficiency in the expression of the nuclear orphan receptor TAK1 was found to be associated with delayed cerebellar granule cell migration and Purkinje cell maturation with a permanent deficit in foliation of lobules VI–VII, suggesting a role for TAK1 in cerebellum development. In this study, we confirm that TAK1-deficient (TAK1(−/−)) mice have a smaller cerebellum and exhibit a disruption of lobules VI–VII. We extended these studies and show that at postnatal day 7, TAK1(−/−) mice exhibit a delay in monolayer maturation of dysmorphic calbindin 28K-positive Purkinje cells. The astrocyte-specific glutamate transporter (GLAST) was expressed within Bergmann fibers and internal granule cell layer at significantly lower levels in the cerebellum of TAK1(−/−) mice. At PND21, Golgi-positive Purkinje cells in TAK1(−/−) mice displayed a smaller soma (18%) and shorter distance to first branch point (35%). Neuronal death was not observed in TAK1(−/−) mice at PND21; however, activated microglia were present in the cerebellum, suggestive of earlier cell death. These structural deficits in the cerebellum were not sufficient to alter motor strength, coordination, or activity levels; however, deficits in acoustic startle response, prepulse startle inhibition, and social interactions were observed. Reactions to a novel environment were inhibited in a light/dark chamber, open-field, and home-cage running wheel. TAK1(−/−) mice displayed a plateau in performance on the running wheel, suggesting a deficit in learning to coordinate performance on a motor task. These data indicate that TAK1 is an important transcriptional modulator of cerebellar development and neurodevelopmentally regulated behavior.

  12. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  13. Size reduction machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-01-01

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users

  14. Reestablishment of radiographic kidney size in Miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jungmin; Yun, Sookyung; Lee, Jeosoon; Chang, Dongwoo; Choi, Mincheol; Yoon, Junghee

    2017-01-10

    Kidney size may be altered in renal diseases, and the detection of kidney size alteration has diagnostic and prognostic values. We hypothesized that radiographic kidney size, the kidney length to the second lumbar vertebra (L2) length ratio, in normal Miniature Schnauzer dogs may be overestimated due to their shorter vertebral length. This study was conducted to evaluate radiographic and ultrasonographic kidney size and L2 length in clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers and other dog breeds to evaluate the effect of vertebral length on radiographic kidney size and to reestablish radiographic kidney size in normal Miniature Schnauzers. Abdominal radiographs and ultrasonograms from 49 Miniature Schnauzers and 54 other breeds without clinical evidence of renal disease and lumbar vertebral abnormality were retrospectively evaluated. Radiographic kidney size, in the Miniature Schnauzer (3.31 ± 0.26) was significantly larger than that in other breeds (2.94 ± 0.27). Relative L2 length, the L2 length to width ratio, in the Miniature Schnauzer (1.11 ± 0.06) was significantly shorter than that in other breeds (1.21 ± 0.09). However, ultrasonographic kidney sizes, kidney length to aorta diameter ratios, were within or very close to normal range both in the Miniature Schnauzer (6.75 ± 0.67) and other breeds (7.16 ± 1.01). Thus, Miniature Schnauzer dogs have breed-specific short vertebrae and consequently a larger radiographic kidney size, which was greater than standard reference in normal adult dogs. Care should be taken when evaluating radiographic kidney size in Miniature Schnauzers to prevent falsely diagnosed renomegaly.

  15. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Flow Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the flow alteration module, when to list flow alteration as a candidate cause, ways to measure flow alteration, simple and detailed conceptual model diagrams for flow alteration, flow alteration module references and literature reviews.

  16. A kernel version of multivariate alteration detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2013-01-01

    Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations.......Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations....

  17. Altered Insula Connectivity under MDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpola, Ishan C; Nest, Timothy; Roseman, Leor; Erritzoe, David; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2017-10-01

    Recent work with noninvasive human brain imaging has started to investigate the effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on large-scale patterns of brain activity. MDMA, a potent monoamine-releaser with particularly pronounced serotonin- releasing properties, has unique subjective effects that include: marked positive mood, pleasant/unusual bodily sensations and pro-social, empathic feelings. However, the neurobiological basis for these effects is not properly understood, and the present analysis sought to address this knowledge gap. To do this, we administered MDMA-HCl (100 mg p.o.) and, separately, placebo (ascorbic acid) in a randomized, double-blind, repeated-measures design with twenty-five healthy volunteers undergoing fMRI scanning. We then employed a measure of global resting-state functional brain connectivity and follow-up seed-to-voxel analysis to the fMRI data we acquired. Results revealed decreased right insula/salience network functional connectivity under MDMA. Furthermore, these decreases in right insula/salience network connectivity correlated with baseline trait anxiety and acute experiences of altered bodily sensations under MDMA. The present findings highlight insular disintegration (ie, compromised salience network membership) as a neurobiological signature of the MDMA experience, and relate this brain effect to trait anxiety and acutely altered bodily sensations-both of which are known to be associated with insular functioning.

  18. Circadian disorganization alters intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M Voigt

    Full Text Available Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases.

  19. Effects on body size and composition of chronic exposure to altered gravity. [centrifuging stress in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of chronic centrifugation on body composition and growth of rats, mice, monkeys, and man are studied. The benefits of exercise and restraint during acceleration are investigated. Physiological regulation and energy balance are also discussed.

  20. Slow-cycle effects of foliar herbivory alter the nitrogen acquisition and population size of Collembola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Bradford; Tara Gancos; Christopher J. Frost

    2008-01-01

    In terrestrial systems there is a close relationship between litter quality and the activity and abundance of decomposers. Therefore, the potential exists for aboveground, herbivore-induced changes in foliar chemistry to affect soil decomposer fauna. These herbivore-induced changes in chemistry may persist across growing seasons. While the impacts of such slow-cycle...

  1. Self-alteration in HRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamazaki, Ryuji; Nørskov, Marco

    human communications. As an example of the results, in group work activities in an elementary school, we found that Telenoid's limited capability led children to change their attitudes so that they could work together. Also, in a care facility, the elderly with dementia developed prosocial behaviors......Humanlike androids are being developed with the ambition to be immersed into our daily life and meet us on an equal level in social interaction. The possibilities and limitations of these types of robots can potentially change societies and Human-Robot Interaction might affect the very way in which...... the ways in which our subjectivity can be innerly transformed, decentred, in other words, self-altered. In our trials so far, we have been investigating the potential of teleoperated androids, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances. By conducting pilot studies in Japan...

  2. Hematological alterations in protein malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ed W; Oliveira, Dalila C; Silva, Graziela B; Tsujita, Maristela; Beltran, Jackeline O; Hastreiter, Araceli; Fock, Ricardo A; Borelli, Primavera

    2017-11-01

    Protein malnutrition is one of the most serious nutritional problems worldwide, affecting 794 million people and costing up to $3.5 trillion annually in the global economy. Protein malnutrition primarily affects children, the elderly, and hospitalized patients. Different degrees of protein deficiency lead to a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms of protein malnutrition, especially in organs in which the hematopoietic system is characterized by a high rate of protein turnover and, consequently, a high rate of protein renewal and cellular proliferation. Here, the current scientific information about protein malnutrition and its effects on the hematopoietic process is reviewed. The production of hematopoietic cells is described, with special attention given to the hematopoietic microenvironment and the development of stem cells. Advances in the study of hematopoiesis in protein malnutrition are also summarized. Studies of protein malnutrition in vitro, in animal models, and in humans demonstrate several alterations that impair hematopoiesis, such as structural changes in the extracellular matrix, the hematopoietic stem cell niche, the spleen, the thymus, and bone marrow stromal cells; changes in mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells; increased autophagy; G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest of progenitor hematopoietic cells; and functional alterations in leukocytes. Structural and cellular changes of the hematopoietic microenvironment in protein malnutrition contribute to bone marrow atrophy and nonestablishment of hematopoietic stem cells, resulting in impaired homeostasis and an impaired immune response. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Toward integrating psyche and soma: psychoanalysis and neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, J; Taylor, G

    1981-02-01

    The brain is the "key organ" for understanding mind/body/illness relationships. During the past two decades neurobiological research has generated a plethora of new data and concepts which have increased tremendously our knowledge of the functioning brain. As a result the psychoanalytic view of the relationship between mind and brain may seem at risk of becoming outmoded. Yet while psychoanalytic theory may no longer be wholly tenable, psychoanalysis continues to offer interesting and heuristically valuable isomorphic models of cortical function. On the other hand neurobiology provides a corrective influence on psychoanalytic concept-building, causing theory to be refined as it is tested against the results of research. One possible result of interdisciplinary cross-fertilization is that a revised theory of the function of dreams and fantasy may throw light on the vicissitudes of somatic experience, and the pathogenesis of psychophysiological disorder.

  4. Commentary on "Trauma to the Psyche and Soma"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A.; Hopwood, Sally

    2006-01-01

    This case report addresses assessment and treatment considerations for a patient suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the context of mild traumatic brain injury and ongoing pain. Management of this case is based on the application of evidence-based therapy, and of cognitive behaviour therapy, for PTSD reduction. Assessment and…

  5. Meditation, Mindfulness, Psyche and Soma: Eastern, Western Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Jordanov, Daniel; Autrup, Mads

    This presentation focuses on the genesis of meditation and mindfulness in the East for comprehension of these phenomena, which are increasingly applied and adapted in the current Western context. Their very origin from the East, particularly Buddhism and Yoga practices, directs our attention...... to the three major assumptions about human nature; the monoism between mind and body, the centrality of consciousness and meditation as a part of daily conduct. The mainstream Western understandings promoting the body-mind dualism are challenged by invoking the bodily experiences and consciousness emphasising...... is perceived as a way of resisting dualisms and binaries regarding psychological, physical, social and spiritual realities. We conclude that without a holistic, integrated understanding of the basic principles and assumptions in which meditation and mindfulness are embedded, there is a risk for these phenomena...

  6. Self Organized Multi Agent Swarms (SOMAS) for Network Security Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    A. Van Veldhuizen . Evolutionary Algorithms for Solving Multi-Objective Problems, chapter MOEA Parallelization. Springer, 2007. 37. Das, Subrata...Mike P. and Willem-Jan van den Heuvel. Service Oriented Architectures: Approaches, Technologies, and Research Issues. Technical report, Tilburg...Tanenbaum, Andrew S. and Maarten Van Steen. Distributed Systems: Principles and Paradigms. Prentice Hall, 2006. 128. Thomas, Tavaris J. Fire Ant: An

  7. Imaging the Visceral Soma: A Corporeal Feminist Interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    interdependence of our inner biology or viscerality with the socio-cultural inscriptions of embodiment. In this .... nature/culture or sex/gender model of conceptualising sexual ..... (brain), knee or torso, and these various body-parts are enclosed ...

  8. Insulin resistance alters islet morphology in nondiabetic humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezza, Teresa; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Sorice, Gian Pio

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by poor glucose uptake in metabolic tissues and manifests when insulin secretion fails to cope with worsening insulin resistance. In addition to its effects on skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue metabolism, it is evident that insulin resistance also affects...... pancreatic β-cells. To directly examine the alterations that occur in islet morphology as part of an adaptive mechanism to insulin resistance, we evaluated pancreas samples obtained during pancreatoduodenectomy from nondiabetic subjects who were insulin-resistant or insulin-sensitive. We also compared...... insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and incretin levels between the two groups. We report an increased islet size and an elevated number of β- and α-cells that resulted in an altered β-cell-to-α-cell area in the insulin- resistant group. Our data in this series of studies suggest that neogenesis from...

  9. Asymptotic size determines species abundance in the marine size spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Beyer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The majority of higher organisms in the marine environment display indeterminate growth; that is, they continue to grow throughout their life, limited by an asymptotic size. We derive the abundance of species as a function of their asymptotic size. The derivation is based on size-spectrum theory......, where population structure is derived from physiology and simple arguments regarding the predator-prey interaction. Using a hypothesis of constant satiation, which states that the average degree of satiation is independent of the size of an organism, the number of individuals with a given size is found...... to be proportional to the weight raised to the power -2.05, independent of the predator/prey size ratio. This is the first time the spectrum exponent has been derived solely on the basis of processes at the individual level. The theory furthermore predicts that the parameters in the von Bertalanffy growth function...

  10. Alteration and mineralization in the eastern part of the Soldier Mountains, Camas County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Reed S.

    2001-01-01

    The eastern part of the Soldier Mountains in Camas County, south-central Idaho, is underlain principally by plutonic rocks of Cretaceous and Eocene age that locally have undergone propylitic, potassic, and muscovite-quartz alteration. Muscovite- quartz alteration is Cretaceous in age and is localized along joints and fractures, some of which are filled with quartz. Associated veins have yielded minor amounts of gold. Potassic alteration is probably both Cretaceous and Eocene in age but is weakly developed and limited in extent. Propylitic alteration is Eocene in age and is pronounced around biotite granite plutons. Despite a clear association between plutons of biotite granite and widespread propylitic alteration, mineralization associated with these rocks was minimal. Mineralized areas within more mafic Eocene plutons are characterized by veins and (or) stockworks(?) enriched in copper, molybdenum, and silver, but these areas are restricted in size and have not been productive.

  11. Sauropod dinosaurs evolved moderately sized genomes unrelated to body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Chris L; Brusatte, Stephen L; Stein, Koen

    2009-12-22

    Sauropodomorph dinosaurs include the largest land animals to have ever lived, some reaching up to 10 times the mass of an African elephant. Despite their status defining the upper range for body size in land animals, it remains unknown whether sauropodomorphs evolved larger-sized genomes than non-avian theropods, their sister taxon, or whether a relationship exists between genome size and body size in dinosaurs, two questions critical for understanding broad patterns of genome evolution in dinosaurs. Here we report inferences of genome size for 10 sauropodomorph taxa. The estimates are derived from a Bayesian phylogenetic generalized least squares approach that generates posterior distributions of regression models relating genome size to osteocyte lacunae volume in extant tetrapods. We estimate that the average genome size of sauropodomorphs was 2.02 pg (range of species means: 1.77-2.21 pg), a value in the upper range of extant birds (mean = 1.42 pg, range: 0.97-2.16 pg) and near the average for extant non-avian reptiles (mean = 2.24 pg, range: 1.05-5.44 pg). The results suggest that the variation in size and architecture of genomes in extinct dinosaurs was lower than the variation found in mammals. A substantial difference in genome size separates the two major clades within dinosaurs, Ornithischia (large genomes) and Saurischia (moderate to small genomes). We find no relationship between body size and estimated genome size in extinct dinosaurs, which suggests that neutral forces did not dominate the evolution of genome size in this group.

  12. Diversifying the composition and structure of managed late-successional forests with harvest gaps: What is the optimal gap size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel C. Kern; Anthony W. D’Amato; Terry F. Strong

    2013-01-01

    Managing forests for resilience is crucial in the face of uncertain future environmental conditions. Because harvest gap size alters the species diversity and vertical and horizontal structural heterogeneity, there may be an optimum range of gap sizes for conferring resilience to environmental uncertainty. We examined the impacts of different harvest gap sizes on...

  13. Size Matters: Individual Variation in Ectotherm Growth and Asymptotic Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B King

    Full Text Available Body size, and, by extension, growth has impacts on physiology, survival, attainment of sexual maturity, fecundity, generation time, and population dynamics, especially in ectotherm animals that often exhibit extensive growth following attainment of sexual maturity. Frequently, growth is analyzed at the population level, providing useful population mean growth parameters but ignoring individual variation that is also of ecological and evolutionary significance. Our long-term study of Lake Erie Watersnakes, Nerodia sipedon insularum, provides data sufficient for a detailed analysis of population and individual growth. We describe population mean growth separately for males and females based on size of known age individuals (847 captures of 769 males, 748 captures of 684 females and annual growth increments of individuals of unknown age (1,152 males, 730 females. We characterize individual variation in asymptotic size based on repeated measurements of 69 males and 71 females that were each captured in five to nine different years. The most striking result of our analyses is that asymptotic size varies dramatically among individuals, ranging from 631-820 mm snout-vent length in males and from 835-1125 mm in females. Because female fecundity increases with increasing body size, we explore the impact of individual variation in asymptotic size on lifetime reproductive success using a range of realistic estimates of annual survival. When all females commence reproduction at the same age, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with greater asymptotic size regardless of annual survival. But when reproduction is delayed in females with greater asymptotic size, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with lower asymptotic size when annual survival is low. Possible causes of individual variation in asymptotic size, including individual- and cohort-specific variation in size at birth and early growth, warrant further

  14. Size Matters: Individual Variation in Ectotherm Growth and Asymptotic Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Body size, and, by extension, growth has impacts on physiology, survival, attainment of sexual maturity, fecundity, generation time, and population dynamics, especially in ectotherm animals that often exhibit extensive growth following attainment of sexual maturity. Frequently, growth is analyzed at the population level, providing useful population mean growth parameters but ignoring individual variation that is also of ecological and evolutionary significance. Our long-term study of Lake Erie Watersnakes, Nerodia sipedon insularum, provides data sufficient for a detailed analysis of population and individual growth. We describe population mean growth separately for males and females based on size of known age individuals (847 captures of 769 males, 748 captures of 684 females) and annual growth increments of individuals of unknown age (1,152 males, 730 females). We characterize individual variation in asymptotic size based on repeated measurements of 69 males and 71 females that were each captured in five to nine different years. The most striking result of our analyses is that asymptotic size varies dramatically among individuals, ranging from 631–820 mm snout-vent length in males and from 835–1125 mm in females. Because female fecundity increases with increasing body size, we explore the impact of individual variation in asymptotic size on lifetime reproductive success using a range of realistic estimates of annual survival. When all females commence reproduction at the same age, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with greater asymptotic size regardless of annual survival. But when reproduction is delayed in females with greater asymptotic size, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with lower asymptotic size when annual survival is low. Possible causes of individual variation in asymptotic size, including individual- and cohort-specific variation in size at birth and early growth, warrant further investigation. PMID

  15. Inverse size scaling of the nucleolus by a concentration-dependent phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stephanie C; Brangwynne, Clifford P

    2015-03-02

    Just as organ size typically increases with body size, the size of intracellular structures changes as cells grow and divide. Indeed, many organelles, such as the nucleus [1, 2], mitochondria [3], mitotic spindle [4, 5], and centrosome [6], exhibit size scaling, a phenomenon in which organelle size depends linearly on cell size. However, the mechanisms of organelle size scaling remain unclear. Here, we show that the size of the nucleolus, a membraneless organelle important for cell-size homeostasis [7], is coupled to cell size by an intracellular phase transition. We find that nucleolar size directly scales with cell size in early C. elegans embryos. Surprisingly, however, when embryo size is altered, we observe inverse scaling: nucleolar size increases in small cells and decreases in large cells. We demonstrate that this seemingly contradictory result arises from maternal loading of a fixed number rather than a fixed concentration of nucleolar components, which condense into nucleoli only above a threshold concentration. Our results suggest that the physics of phase transitions can dictate whether an organelle assembles, and, if so, its size, providing a mechanistic link between organelle assembly and cell size. Since the nucleolus is known to play a key role in cell growth, this biophysical readout of cell size could provide a novel feedback mechanism for growth control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Size effects in shear interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    GARNIER, J

    2001-01-01

    In physical modelling (centrifuge tests, calibration chambers, laboratory tests), the size of the soil particles may not be negligible when compared to the dimensions of the models. Size effects may so disturb the response of the models and the experimental data obtained on these cannot be extended to true scale conditions. Different tests have been performed to study and quantify the size effects that may happen in shear interfaces between soils and structures : modified shear box tests, pul...

  17. On the Relationship between Pollen Size and Genome Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Knight

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we test whether genome size is a predictor of pollen size. If it were, inferences of ancient genome size would be possible using the abundant paleo-palynolgical record. We performed regression analyses across 464 species of pollen width and genome size. We found a significant positive trend. However, regression analysis using phylogentically independent contrasts did not support the correlated evolution of these traits. Instead, a large split between angiosperms and gymnosperms for both pollen width and genome size was revealed. Sister taxa were not more likely to show a positive contrast when compared to deeper nodes. However, significantly more congeneric species had a positive trend than expected by chance. These results may reflect the strong selection pressure for pollen to be small. Also, because pollen grains are not metabolically active when measured, their biology is different than other cells which have been shown to be strongly related to genome size, such as guard cells. Our findings contrast with previously published research. It was our hope that pollen size could be used as a proxy for inferring the genome size of ancient species. However, our results suggest pollen is not a good candidate for such endeavors.

  18. Alteration of helical vortex core without change in flow topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    2011-01-01

    topology. The helical symmetry as such is preserved, although the characteristic parameters of helical symmetry of the vortex core transfer from a smooth linear variation to a different trend under the influence of a non-uniform pressure gradient, causing an increase in helical pitch without changing its......The abrupt expansion of the slender vortex core with changes in flow topology is commonly known as vortex breakdown. We present new experimental observations of an alteration of the helical vortex core in wall bounded turbulent flow with abrupt growth in core size, but without change in flow...

  19. The varieties of surface alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.

    1984-01-01

    Four aspects of ion-beam modification are reviewed: structural changes, in which crystalline phases are converted to amorphous, amorphous phases are converted to crystalline, or ordered crystalline forms evolve to random crystalline forms; topographical changes, which include the development of facets on flat surfaces, the development of cliffs at grain boundaries, the development of ripples on obliquely bombarded surfaces, and the evolution of blunt asperities, foreign particles, or vertical surfaces into cones or pyramids; bombardment-induced electronic changes, which include the consequences of chemical changes due to the composition of the incident beam, carrier injection due to energy deposition, chemical changes due to recoil implantation, and chemical changes due to preferential sputtering; and compositional changes, which in binary alloys consist mainly of a preferential loss of the component with the lower surface binding energy or larger size. 122 refs.; 32 figs.; 9 tabs

  20. Size did not matter: An evolutionary account of the variation in penis size and size anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Apostolou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The human penis exhibits considerable variation in size, while a substantial proportion of the adult male population experiences size anxiety. This paper employs an evolutionary framework in order to understand this variation, as well as the concern men exhibit about the adequacy of the size of their penis. It is argued that female choice has been one important sexual selection force, responsible for shaping the size of the penis. However, this force has been relatively weak, because women do not consider the size of their partners’ penis to be the most important determinant of their sexual satisfaction. Also, in ancestral human societies, sexual satisfaction was a secondary concern, while women had limited space to exercise mate choice. The mismatch between ancestral and modern conditions, with female choice being stronger in the present than in the past, causes anxiety in men about their ability to satisfy their partners, which is also manifested in their concerns about size.

  1. The large sample size fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Björn

    2013-06-01

    Significance in the statistical sense has little to do with significance in the common practical sense. Statistical significance is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for practical significance. Hence, results that are extremely statistically significant may be highly nonsignificant in practice. The degree of practical significance is generally determined by the size of the observed effect, not the p-value. The results of studies based on large samples are often characterized by extreme statistical significance despite small or even trivial effect sizes. Interpreting such results as significant in practice without further analysis is referred to as the large sample size fallacy in this article. The aim of this article is to explore the relevance of the large sample size fallacy in contemporary nursing research. Relatively few nursing articles display explicit measures of observed effect sizes or include a qualitative discussion of observed effect sizes. Statistical significance is often treated as an end in itself. Effect sizes should generally be calculated and presented along with p-values for statistically significant results, and observed effect sizes should be discussed qualitatively through direct and explicit comparisons with the effects in related literature. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  2. On Family Size and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armor, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques research by Rodgers, et al. (June 2000) on the impact of family size on intelligence, explaining that it applied very simple analytic techniques to a very complex question, leading to unwarranted conclusions about family size and intelligence. Loss of cases, omission of an important ability test, and failure to apply multivariate…

  3. Missing portion sizes in FFQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Halldorson, Thorhallur I.

    2015-01-01

    -nearest neighbours (KNN) were compared with a reference based on self-reported portion sizes (quantified by a photographic food atlas embedded in the FFQ). Setting: The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007–2008. Subjects: The study included 3728 adults with complete portion size data. Results: Compared...

  4. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  5. Cell Size Regulation in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ariel

    2014-05-01

    Various bacteria such as the canonical gram negative Escherichia coli or the well-studied gram positive Bacillus subtilis divide symmetrically after they approximately double their volume. Their size at division is not constant, but is typically distributed over a narrow range. Here, we propose an analytically tractable model for cell size control, and calculate the cell size and interdivision time distributions, as well as the correlations between these variables. We suggest ways of extracting the model parameters from experimental data, and show that existing data for E. coli supports partial size control, and a particular explanation: a cell attempts to add a constant volume from the time of initiation of DNA replication to the next initiation event. This hypothesis accounts for the experimentally observed correlations between mother and daughter cells as well as the exponential dependence of size on growth rate.

  6. Information processing correlates of a size-contrast illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Gold

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Perception is often influenced by context. A well-known class of perceptual context effects is perceptual contrast illusions, in which proximate stimulus regions interact to alter the perception of various stimulus attributes, such as perceived brightness, color and size. Although the phenomenal reality of contrast effects is well documented, in many cases the connection between these illusions and how information is processed by perceptual systems is not well understood. Here, we use noise as a tool to explore the information processing correlates of one such contrast effect: the Ebbinghaus-Titchener size-contrast illusion. In this illusion, the perceived size of a central dot is significantly altered by the sizes of a set of surrounding dots, such that the presence of larger surrounding dots tends to reduce the perceived size of the central dot (and vise-versa. In our experiments, we first replicated previous results that have demonstrated the subjective reality of the Ebbinghaus-Titchener illusion. We then used visual noise in a detection task to probe the manner in which observers processed information when experiencing the illusion. By correlating the noise with observers’ classification decisions, we found that the sizes of the surrounding contextual elements had a direct influence on the relative weight observers assigned to regions within and surrounding the central element. Specifically, observers assigned relatively more weight to the surrounding region and less weight to the central region in the presence of smaller surrounding contextual elements. These results offer new insights into the connection between the subjective experience of size-contrast illusions and their associated information processing correlates.

  7. Hit size effectiveness in relation to the microdosimetric site size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, M.N.; Wuu, C.S.; Zaider, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of site size (that is, the diameter of the microdosimetric volume) on the hit size effectiveness function (HSEF), q(y), for several endpoints relevant in radiation protection. A Bayesian and maximum entropy approach is used to solve the integral equations that determine, given microdosimetric spectra and measured initial slopes, the function q(y). All microdosimetric spectra have been calculated de novo. The somewhat surprising conclusion of this analysis is that site size plays only a minor role in selecting the hit size effectiveness function q(y). It thus appears that practical means (e.g. conventional proportional counters) are already at hand to actually implement the HSEF as a radiation protection tool. (Author)

  8. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Corneille, Olivier; Klein, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    While larger containers have been found to increase food intake, it is unclear whether this effect is driven by container size, portion size, or their combination, as these variables are usually confounded. The study was advertised as examining the effects of snack food consumption on information processing and participants were served M&M's for free consumption in individual cubicles while watching a TV show. Participants were served (1) a medium portion of M&M's in a small (n=30) or (2) in a large container (n=29), or (3) a large portion in a large container (n=29). The larger container increased intake by 129% (199 kcal) despite holding portion size constant, while controlling for different confounding variables. This research suggests that larger containers stimulate food intake over and above their impact on portion size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Epigenetic alterations in acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Meneses, María Del Pilar; Pérez-Vera, Patricia

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. It is well-known that genetic alterations constitute the basis for the etiology of ALL. However, genetic abnormalities are not enough for the complete development of the disease, and additional alterations such as epigenetic modifications are required. Such alterations, like DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA regulation have been identified in ALL. DNA hypermethylation in promoter regions is one of the most frequent epigenetic modifications observed in ALL. This modification frequently leads to gene silencing in tumor suppressor genes, and in consequence, contributes to leukemogenesis. Alterations in histone remodeling proteins have also been detected in ALL, such as the overexpression of histone deacetylases enzymes, and alteration of acetyltransferases and methyltransferases. ALL also shows alteration in the expression of miRNAs, and in consequence, the modification in the expression of their target genes. All of these epigenetic modifications are key events in the malignant transformation since they lead to the deregulation of oncogenes as BLK, WNT5B and WISP1, and tumor suppressors such as FHIT, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, and TP53, which alter fundamental cellular processes and potentially lead to the development of ALL. Both genetic and epigenetic alterations contribute to the development and evolution of ALL. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Summability of alterations of convergent series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Keagy

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of splitting, rearrangement, and grouping series alterations on the summability of a convergent series by ℓ−ℓ and cs−cs matrix methods is studied. Conditions are determined that guarantee the existence of alterations that are transformed into divergent series and into series with preassigned sums.

  11. Do invasive plant species alter soil health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species may alter soil characteristics or interact with the soil microbial community to yield a competitive advantage. Our objectives were to determine: if invasive plant species alter soil properties important to soil health; and the long-term effects of invasive plant species on soil pro...

  12. Roentgenological findings in muscular alterations of extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palvoelgyi, R.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of roentgenological findings in muscular alterations of extremities based on the author's experiences and on the literature is presented. Following a description of the normal roentgen anatomy, the alterations in different diseases of interstitial lipomatosis are demonstrated. By roentgenological examinations differt muscular lesions of the extremities can be differentiated and the clinical follow-up verified. (orig.) [de

  13. An Analysis of the Alteration Specialist Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerkel, Elaine; Rehling, Joseph H.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the textile service occupation. The industry needs properly trained alteration specialists, bushelmen and dressmakers, in the repairing, remodeling, altering or renovating of garments. Their personal…

  14. Iron deficiency alters megakaryopoiesis and platelet phenotype independent of thrombopoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstatiev, Rayko; Bukaty, Adam; Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie; Surman, Lidia; Schmid, Werner; Eferl, Robert; Lippert, Kathrin; Scheiber-Mojdehkar, Barbara; Kvasnicka, Hans Michael; Khare, Vineeta; Gasche, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Iron deficiency is a common cause of reactive thrombocytosis, however, the exact pathways have not been revealed. Here we aimed to study the mechanisms behind iron deficiency-induced thrombocytosis. Within few weeks, iron-depleted diet caused iron deficiency in young Sprague-Dawley rats, as reflected by a drop in hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, hepatic iron content and hepcidin mRNA in the liver. Thrombocytosis established in parallel. Moreover, platelets produced in iron deficient animals displayed a higher mean platelet volume and increased aggregation. Bone marrow studies revealed subtle alterations that are suggestive of expansion of megakaryocyte progenitors, an increase in megakaryocyte ploidy and accelerated megakaryocyte differentiation. Iron deficiency did not alter the production of hematopoietic growth factors such as thrombopoietin, interleukin 6 or interleukin 11. Megakaryocytic cell lines grown in iron-depleted conditions exhibited reduced proliferation but increased ploidy and cell size. Our data suggest that iron deficiency increases megakaryopoietic differentiation and alters platelet phenotype without changes in megakaryocyte growth factors, specifically TPO. Iron deficiency-induced thrombocytosis may have evolved to maintain or increase the coagulation capacity in conditions with chronic bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Materialised Ideals Sizes and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Laitala

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s clothing industry is based on a system where clothes are made in ready-to-wear sizes and meant to fit most people. Studies have pointed out that consumers are discontent with the use of these systems: size designations are not accurate enough to find clothing that fits, and different sizes are poorly available. This article discusses in depth who these consumers are, and which consumer groups are the most dissatisfied with today’s sizing systems. Results are based on a web survey where 2834 Nordic consumers responded, complemented with eight in-depth interviews, market analysis on clothing sizes and in-store trouser size measurements. Results indicate that higher shares of the consumers who have a body out of touch with the existing beauty ideals express discontentment with the sizing systems and the poor selection available. In particular, large women, very large men, and thin, short men are those who experience less priority in clothing stores and have more difficulties in finding clothes that fit. Consumers tend to blame themselves when the clothes do not fit their bodies, while our study points out that the industry is to blame as they do not produce clothing for all customers.

  16. Cell size checkpoint control by the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Su-Chiung; de los Reyes, Chris; Umen, James G

    2006-10-13

    Size control is essential for all proliferating cells, and is thought to be regulated by checkpoints that couple cell size to cell cycle progression. The aberrant cell-size phenotypes caused by mutations in the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway are consistent with a role in size checkpoint control, but indirect effects on size caused by altered cell cycle kinetics are difficult to rule out. The multiple fission cell cycle of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii uncouples growth from division, allowing direct assessment of the relationship between size phenotypes and checkpoint function. Mutations in the C. reinhardtii RB homolog encoded by MAT3 cause supernumerous cell divisions and small cells, suggesting a role for MAT3 in size control. We identified suppressors of an mat3 null allele that had recessive mutations in DP1 or dominant mutations in E2F1, loci encoding homologs of a heterodimeric transcription factor that is targeted by RB-related proteins. Significantly, we determined that the dp1 and e2f1 phenotypes were caused by defects in size checkpoint control and were not due to a lengthened cell cycle. Despite their cell division defects, mat3, dp1, and e2f1 mutants showed almost no changes in periodic transcription of genes induced during S phase and mitosis, many of which are conserved targets of the RB pathway. Conversely, we found that regulation of cell size was unaffected when S phase and mitotic transcription were inhibited. Our data provide direct evidence that the RB pathway mediates cell size checkpoint control and suggest that such control is not directly coupled to the magnitude of periodic cell cycle transcription.

  17. Jurisdiction Size and Local Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Serritslew, Søren

    2011-01-01

    and problems of endogeneity. We focus on internal political efficacy, a psychological condition that many see as necessary for high-quality participatory democracy. We identify a quasiexperiment, a large-scale municipal reform in Denmark, which allows us to estimate a causal effect of jurisdiction size......Optimal jurisdiction size is a cornerstone of government design. A strong tradition in political thought argues that democracy thrives in smaller jurisdictions, but existing studies of the effects of jurisdiction size, mostly cross-sectional in nature, yield ambiguous results due to sorting effects...

  18. Effect of low dose electron beam irradiation on the alteration layer formed during nuclear glass leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mougnaud, S., E-mail: sarah.mougnaud@gmail.com [CEA Marcoule, DEN, DTCD, SECM, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Tribet, M. [CEA Marcoule, DEN, DTCD, SECM, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Renault, J.-P. [NIMBE, CNRS, CEA, Université Paris Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Jollivet, P. [CEA Marcoule, DEN, DTCD, SECM, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Panczer, G. [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR 5306, Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Charpentier, T. [NIMBE, CNRS, CEA, Université Paris Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Jégou, C. [CEA Marcoule, DEN, DTCD, SECM, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France)

    2016-12-15

    This investigation concerns borosilicate glass leaching mechanisms and the evolution of alteration layer under electron beam irradiation. A simple glass doped with rare earth elements was selected in order to access mechanistic and structural information and better evaluate the effects of irradiation. It was fully leached in initially pure water at 90 °C and at high glass surface area to solution volume ratio (S/V = 20 000 m{sup −1}) in static conditions. Under these conditions, the system quickly reaches the residual alteration rate regime. A small particle size fraction (2–5 μm) was sampled in order to obtain a fairly homogeneous altered material enabling the use of bulk characterization methods. External irradiations with 10 MeV electrons up to a dose of 10 MGy were performed either before or after leaching, to investigate respectively the effect of initial glass irradiation on its alteration behavior and the irradiation stability of the alteration layer. Glass dissolution rate was analyzed by regular leachate samplings and the alteration layer structure was characterized by Raman, luminescence (continuous or time-resolved), and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR and EPR spectroscopy. It was shown that the small initial glass evolutions under irradiation did not induce any modification of the leaching kinetic nor of the structure of the alteration layer. The alteration process seemed to “smooth over” the created defects. Otherwise, the alteration layer and initial glass appeared to have different behaviors under irradiation. No Eu{sup 3+} reduction was detected in the alteration layer after irradiation and the defect creation efficiency was much lower than for initial glass. This can possibly be explained by the protective role of pore water contained in the altered material (∼20%). Moreover, a slight depolymerization of the silicon network of the altered glass under irradiation with electrons was evidenced, whereas in the initial glass it typically

  19. Cell size, genome size and the dominance of Angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, K. A.; Roddy, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Angiosperms are capable of maintaining the highest rates of photosynthetic gas exchange of all land plants. High rates of photosynthesis depends mechanistically both on efficiently transporting water to the sites of evaporation in the leaf and on regulating the loss of that water to the atmosphere as CO2 diffuses into the leaf. Angiosperm leaves are unique in their ability to sustain high fluxes of liquid and vapor phase water transport due to high vein densities and numerous, small stomata. Despite the ubiquity of studies characterizing the anatomical and physiological adaptations that enable angiosperms to maintain high rates of photosynthesis, the underlying mechanism explaining why they have been able to develop such high leaf vein densities, and such small and abundant stomata, is still incomplete. Here we ask whether the scaling of genome size and cell size places a fundamental constraint on the photosynthetic metabolism of land plants, and whether genome downsizing among the angiosperms directly contributed to their greater potential and realized primary productivity relative to the other major groups of terrestrial plants. Using previously published data we show that a single relationship can predict guard cell size from genome size across the major groups of terrestrial land plants (e.g. angiosperms, conifers, cycads and ferns). Similarly, a strong positive correlation exists between genome size and both stomatal density and vein density that together ultimately constrains maximum potential (gs, max) and operational stomatal conductance (gs, op). Further the difference in the slopes describing the covariation between genome size and both gs, max and gs, op suggests that genome downsizing brings gs, op closer to gs, max. Taken together the data presented here suggests that the smaller genomes of angiosperms allow their final cell sizes to vary more widely and respond more directly to environmental conditions and in doing so bring operational photosynthetic

  20. Aerosol Size Distributions In Auckland.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coulson, G.; Olivares, G.; Talbot, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2016), s. 23-28 E-ISSN 1836-5876 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : aerosol size distribution * particle number concentration * roadside Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  1. Analysis of glass fibre sizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro; Brøndsted, Povl

    2014-01-01

    Glass fibre reinforced polymer composites are widely used for industrial and engineering applications which include construction, aerospace, automotive and wind energy industry. During the manufacturing glass fibres, they are surface-treated with an aqueous solution. This process and the treated...... surfaces are called sizing. The sizing influences the properties of the interface between fibres and a matrix, and subsequently affects mechanical properties of composites. In this work the sizing of commercially available glass fibres was analysed so as to study the composition and chemical structures....... Soxhlet extraction was used to extract components of the sizing from the glass fibres. The glass fibres, their extracts and coated glass plates were analysed by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis combined with a mass spectrometer (TGA-MS), and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR...

  2. Method for sizing hollow microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

    1975-10-29

    Hollow Microspheres may be effectively sized by placing them beneath a screen stack completely immersed in an ultrasonic bath containing a liquid having a density at which the microspheres float and ultrasonically agitating the bath.

  3. Size scaling of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, O M; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-02-22

    Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as f(m)+Δf/A(γ) for increasing contact area A, with γ>0. Our main finding is that the value of f(m), controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory.

  4. Sibship Size and Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2009-01-01

    have a negative effect on educational attainment most studies cannot distinguish empirically between the CM and the RDH. In this paper I use the different theoretical predictions in the CM and RDH on the role of cognitive ability as a partial or complete mediator of the effect of sibship size......Studies on family background often explain the negative effect of sibship size on educational attainment by one of two theories: the Confluence Model (CM) or the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH). However, as both theories - for substantively different reasons - predict that sibship size should...... to distinguish the two theories and to identify a unique RDH effect on educational attainment. Using sibling data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and a random effect Instrumental Variable model I find that, in addition to a negative effect on cognitive ability, sibship size also has a strong negative...

  5. Sample size determination and power

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Thomas P, Jr

    2013-01-01

    THOMAS P. RYAN, PhD, teaches online advanced statistics courses for Northwestern University and The Institute for Statistics Education in sample size determination, design of experiments, engineering statistics, and regression analysis.

  6. Small-for-Size Liver Transplantation Increases Pulmonary Injury in Rats: Prevention by NIM811

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinlong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary complications after liver transplantation (LT often cause mortality. This study investigated whether small-for-size LT increases acute pulmonary injury and whether NIM811 which improves small-for-size liver graft survival attenuates LT-associated lung injury. Rat livers were reduced to 50% of original size, stored in UW-solution with and without NIM811 (5 μM for 6 h, and implanted into recipients of the same or about twice the donor weight, resulting in half-size (HSG and quarter-size grafts (QSG, respectively. Liver injury increased and regeneration was suppressed after QSG transplantation as expected. NIM811 blunted these alterations >75%. Pulmonary histological alterations were minimal at 5–18 h after LT. At 38 h, neutrophils and monocytes/macrophage infiltration, alveolar space exudation, alveolar septal thickening, oxidative/nitrosative protein adduct formation, and alveolar epithelial cell/capillary endothelial apoptosis became overt in the lungs of QSG recipients, but these alterations were mild in full-size and HSG recipients. Liver pretreatment with NIM811 markedly decreased pulmonary injury in QSG recipients. Hepatic TNFα and IL-1β mRNAs and pulmonary ICAM-1 expression were markedly higher after QSG transplantation, which were all decreased by NIM811. Together, dysfunctional small-for-size grafts produce toxic cytokines, leading to lung inflammation and injury. NIM811 decreased toxic cytokine formation, thus attenuating pulmonary injury after small-for-size LT.

  7. Ultrasonic sizing of fatigue cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.J.

    1983-12-01

    Surface and buried fatigue cracks in steel plates have been sized using immersion probes as transmitters-receivers, angled to produce shear waves in the steel. Sizes have been estimated by identifying the ultrasonic waves diffracted from the crack tip and by measuring the time taken for a signal to travel to and from the crack tip. The effects of compression normal to a fatigue crack and of crack front curvature are discussed. Another diffraction technique, developed by UKAEA, Harwell, is reviewed

  8. Experimental investigation on depression mechanism of fly ash on progression of leaching alteration front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takeshi; Hironaga, Michihiko

    2008-01-01

    An objective of this experimental study is to clarify the depression mechanism of fly ash on leaching alteration in hardened cementitious material. There are two major effects that derived from fly ash, firstly, compacting capillary pore among hydration phase with progression of pozzolanic reaction, secondly, lessen the crystal size and dispersing the location of CH crystal. Progression rate of CH alteration front depends on chain dissolution of CH crystal, so the depression on progressing rate of CH alteration front would be derived from the effects of fly ash as mentioned above. The influences of difference in amount of mixing water and sand on progression rate of CH alteration front in mortar would also be depressed by mixing fly ash. (author)

  9. Experimental determination of size distributions: analyzing proper sample sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffo, A; Alopaeus, V

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of various particle size distributions is a crucial aspect for many applications in the process industry. Size distribution is often related to the final product quality, as in crystallization or polymerization. In other cases it is related to the correct evaluation of heat and mass transfer, as well as reaction rates, depending on the interfacial area between the different phases or to the assessment of yield stresses of polycrystalline metals/alloys samples. The experimental determination of such distributions often involves laborious sampling procedures and the statistical significance of the outcome is rarely investigated. In this work, we propose a novel rigorous tool, based on inferential statistics, to determine the number of samples needed to obtain reliable measurements of size distribution, according to specific requirements defined a priori. Such methodology can be adopted regardless of the measurement technique used. (paper)

  10. Effects of exposure to bodies of different sizes on perception of and satisfaction with own body size: two randomized studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, Helen; Carnegie, Rebecca; Allward, Heather; Bacon, Emily; Lambe, Emily; Sapseid, Megan; Button, Katherine S; Lewis, Glyn; Skinner, Andy; Broome, Matthew R; Park, Rebecca; Harmer, Catherine J; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2018-05-01

    Body dissatisfaction is prevalent among women and associated with subsequent obesity and eating disorders. Exposure to images of bodies of different sizes has been suggested to change the perception of 'normal' body size in others. We tested whether exposure to different-sized (otherwise identical) bodies changes perception of own and others' body size, satisfaction with body size and amount of chocolate consumed. In Study 1, 90 18-25-year-old women with normal BMI were randomized into one of three groups to complete a 15 min two-back task using photographs of women either of 'normal weight' (Body Mass Index (BMI) 22-23 kg m -2 ), or altered to appear either under- or over-weight. Study 2 was identical except the 96 participants had high baseline body dissatisfaction and were followed up after 24 h. We also conducted a mega-analysis combining both studies. Participants rated size of others' bodies, own size, and satisfaction with size pre- and post-task. Post-task ratings were compared between groups, adjusting for pre-task ratings. Participants exposed to over- or normal-weight images subsequently perceived others' bodies as smaller, in comparison to those shown underweight bodies ( p  < 0.001). They also perceived their own bodies as smaller (Study 1, p  = 0.073; Study 2, p  = 0.018; mega-analysis, p  = 0.001), and felt more satisfied with their size (Study 1, p  = 0.046; Study 2, p  = 0.004; mega-analysis, p  = 0.006). There were no differences in chocolate consumption. This study suggests that a move towards using images of women with a BMI in the healthy range in the media may help to reduce body dissatisfaction, and the associated risk of eating disorders.

  11. rights reserved Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered Structures That Favour .... aircraft. Total line kilometers of 36,500 were covered in the survey. Magnetic ... tie lines occur at about 2000 metres interval in the ... visual inspection of the map.

  12. Altered States: Globalization, Sovereignty, and Governance | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For all the opportunities that globalization promises, it raises urgent ... Has the achievement of democratic government come too late for most of the ... The message of Altered States is one of both hope and warning: globalization opens great ...

  13. The ducky2J mutation in Cacna2d2 results in reduced spontaneous Purkinje cell activity and altered gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Roberta; Page, Karen M.; Koch, Dietlind; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Foucault, Isabelle; Davies, Anthony; Wilkinson, Tonia; Rees, Michele; Edwards, Frances A.; Dolphin, Annette C.

    2006-01-01

    The mouse mutant ducky and its allele ducky2J represent a model for absence epilepsy characterized by spike-wave seizures, and cerebellar ataxia. These mice have mutations in Cacna2d2, which encodes the α2δ-2 calcium channel subunit. Of relevance to the ataxic phenotype, α2δ-2 mRNA is strongly expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs). The Cacna2d2du2J mutation results in a two base-pair deletion in the coding region and a complete loss of α2δ-2 protein. Here we show that du2J/du2J mice have a 30% reduction in somatic calcium current, and a marked fall in the spontaneous PC firing rate at 22°C, accompanied by a decrease in firing regularity, which is not affected by blocking synaptic input to PCs. At 34°C du2J/du2J PCs show no spontaneous intrinsic activity. Du2J/du2J mice also have alterations in the cerebellar expression of several genes related to PC function. At P21 there is an elevation of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and a reduction in tenascin-C gene expression. Although du2J/+ mice have a marked reduction in α2δ-2 protein, they show no fall in PC somatic calcium currents or increase in cerebellar tryrosine hydroxylase gene expression. However, du2J/+ PCs do exhibit a significant reduction in firing rate, correlating with the reduction in α2δ-2. A hypothesis for future study is that effects on gene expression occur as a result of a reduction in somatic calcium currents, whereas effects on PC firing occur as a long-term result of loss of α2δ-2 and/or a reduction in calcium currents and calcium-dependent processes in regions other than the soma. PMID:17135419

  14. The ducky(2J) mutation in Cacna2d2 results in reduced spontaneous Purkinje cell activity and altered gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Roberta; Page, Karen M; Koch, Dietlind; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Foucault, Isabelle; Davies, Anthony; Wilkinson, Tonia; Rees, Michele; Edwards, Frances A; Dolphin, Annette C

    2006-11-29

    The mouse mutant ducky and its allele ducky(2J) represent a model for absence epilepsy characterized by spike-wave seizures and cerebellar ataxia. These mice have mutations in Cacna2d2, which encodes the alpha2delta-2 calcium channel subunit. Of relevance to the ataxic phenotype, alpha2delta-2 mRNA is strongly expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs). The Cacna2d2(du2J) mutation results in a 2 bp deletion in the coding region and a complete loss of alpha2delta-2 protein. Here we show that du(2J)/du(2J) mice have a 30% reduction in somatic calcium current and a marked fall in the spontaneous PC firing rate at 22 degrees C, accompanied by a decrease in firing regularity, which is not affected by blocking synaptic input to PCs. At 34 degrees C, du(2J)/du(2J) PCs show no spontaneous intrinsic activity. Du(2J)/du(2J) mice also have alterations in the cerebellar expression of several genes related to PC function. At postnatal day 21, there is an elevation of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and a reduction in tenascin-C gene expression. Although du(2J)/+ mice have a marked reduction in alpha2delta-2 protein, they show no fall in PC somatic calcium currents or increase in cerebellar tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression. However, du(2J)/+ PCs do exhibit a significant reduction in firing rate, correlating with the reduction in alpha2delta-2. A hypothesis for future study is that effects on gene expression occur as a result of a reduction in somatic calcium currents, whereas effects on PC firing occur as a long-term result of loss of alpha2delta-2 and/or a reduction in calcium currents and calcium-dependent processes in regions other than the soma.

  15. Sleep Deprivation Alters Choice Strategy Without Altering Uncertainty or Loss Aversion Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  16. Sleep deprivation alters choice strategy without altering uncertainty or loss aversion preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A; Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Liu, Jean C J

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  17. Concepts in sample size determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umadevi K Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigators involved in clinical, epidemiological or translational research, have the drive to publish their results so that they can extrapolate their findings to the population. This begins with the preliminary step of deciding the topic to be studied, the subjects and the type of study design. In this context, the researcher must determine how many subjects would be required for the proposed study. Thus, the number of individuals to be included in the study, i.e., the sample size is an important consideration in the design of many clinical studies. The sample size determination should be based on the difference in the outcome between the two groups studied as in an analytical study, as well as on the accepted p value for statistical significance and the required statistical power to test a hypothesis. The accepted risk of type I error or alpha value, which by convention is set at the 0.05 level in biomedical research defines the cutoff point at which the p value obtained in the study is judged as significant or not. The power in clinical research is the likelihood of finding a statistically significant result when it exists and is typically set to >80%. This is necessary since the most rigorously executed studies may fail to answer the research question if the sample size is too small. Alternatively, a study with too large a sample size will be difficult and will result in waste of time and resources. Thus, the goal of sample size planning is to estimate an appropriate number of subjects for a given study design. This article describes the concepts in estimating the sample size.

  18. Determination of size distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshome, A.; Spartakove, A.

    1987-05-01

    The theory of a method is outlined which gives the size distribution function (SDF) of a polydispersed system of non-interacting colloidal and microscopic spherical particles, having sizes in the range 0-10 -5 cm., from a gedanken experimental scheme. It is assumed that the SDF is differentiable and the result is obtained for rotational frequency in the order of 10 3 (sec) -1 . The method may be used independently, but is particularly useful in conjunction with an alternate method described in a preceding paper. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  19. Modeling and Sizing of Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETREUS, D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with numerous challenges raised by the requirements of the modern industries for higher power and higher energy, supercapacitors study started playing an important role in offering viable solutions for some of these requirements. This paper presents the surface redox reactions based modeling in order to study the origin of high capacity of EDLC (electrical double-layer capacitor for better understanding the working principles of supercapacitors. Some application-dependent sizing methods are also presented since proper sizing can increase the efficiency and the life cycle of the supercapacitor based systems.

  20. Testicular Volume: Size Does Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Lobo, Alexander; Segovia Fuentes, Javier; Cerpa Reyes, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Testicular volume is critical for semen production and, consequently, for fertility. Hence the importance of knowing the normal size ranges and the different methods for calculating size, in order to classify patients at risk and refer them for appropriate management. Ultrasound is the first-line diagnostic method for the evaluation of testicular pathology, and it is also the best tool for estimating the volume of both testicles, bearing in mind that a testicular volume below 15 cc results in fertility problems. Although there are many causes of infertility, varicocele is undoubtedly the most important of all, because of its frequency and because it is amenable to curative surgical treatment.

  1. Size of quorum sensing communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Sams, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Ensembles of bacteria are able to coordinate their phenotypic behavior in accordance with the size, density, and growth state of the ensemble. This is achieved through production and exchange of diffusible signal molecules in a cell–cell regulatory system termed quorum sensing. In the generic....... For a disk-shaped biofilm the geometric factor is the horizontal dimension multiplied by the height, and the square of the height of the biofilm if there is significant flow above the biofilm. A remarkably simple factorized expression for the size is obtained, which separates the all-or-none ignition caused...

  2. Size matters: bigger is faster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, Sara C; O'Donnell, Patrick J; Sereno, Margaret E

    2009-06-01

    A largely unexplored aspect of lexical access in visual word recognition is "semantic size"--namely, the real-world size of an object to which a word refers. A total of 42 participants performed a lexical decision task on concrete nouns denoting either big or small objects (e.g., bookcase or teaspoon). Items were matched pairwise on relevant lexical dimensions. Participants' reaction times were reliably faster to semantically "big" versus "small" words. The results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms, including more active representations for "big" words, due to the ecological importance attributed to large objects in the environment and the relative speed of neural responses to large objects.

  3. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... bias from omitted variables, the preferred IV results indicate considerable negative effects due to larger class sizes and larger numbers of overage-for-grade peers. The latter, driven by the highly prevalent practices of grade repetition and academic redshirting, should be considered an important...

  4. Sexual Functioning and Behavior of Men with Body Dysmorphic Disorder Concerning Penis Size Compared with Men Anxious about Penis Size and with Controls: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the sexual functioning and behavior of men anxious about the size of their penis and the means that they might use to try to alter the size of their penis. Aim: To compare sexual functioning and behavior in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerning penis size and in men with small penis anxiety (SPA without BDD) and in a control group of men who do not have any concerns. Methods: An opportunistic sample of 90 men from the community were recru...

  5. Size, productivity, and international banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buch, Claudia M.; Koch, Catherine T.; Koetter, Michael

    Heterogeneity in size and productivity is central to models that explain which manufacturing firms expert. This study presents descriptive evidence on similar heterogeneity among international banks as financial services providers. A novel and detailed bank-level data set reveals the volume and mode

  6. Automated measurement of diatom size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Sarah A.; Jewson, David H.; Bixby, Rebecca J.; Nelson, Harry; McKnight, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    Size analysis of diatom populations has not been widely considered, but it is a potentially powerful tool for understanding diatom life histories, population dynamics, and phylogenetic relationships. However, measuring cell dimensions on a light microscope is a time-consuming process. An alternative technique has been developed using digital flow cytometry on a FlowCAM® (Fluid Imaging Technologies) to capture hundreds, or even thousands, of images of a chosen taxon from a single sample in a matter of minutes. Up to 30 morphological measures may be quantified through post-processing of the high resolution images. We evaluated FlowCAM size measurements, comparing them against measurements from a light microscope. We found good agreement between measurement of apical cell length in species with elongated, straight valves, including small Achnanthidium minutissimum (11-21 µm) and largeDidymosphenia geminata (87–137 µm) forms. However, a taxon with curved cells, Hannaea baicalensis (37–96 µm), showed differences of ~ 4 µm between the two methods. Discrepancies appear to be influenced by the choice of feret or geodesic measurement for asymmetric cells. We describe the operating conditions necessary for analysis of size distributions and present suggestions for optimal instrument conditions for size analysis of diatom samples using the FlowCAM. The increased speed of data acquisition through use of imaging flow cytometers like the FlowCAM is an essential step for advancing studies of diatom populations.

  7. Particle sizes from sectional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlas, Zbynek; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new statistical method for obtaining information about particle size distributions from sectional data without specific assumptions about particle shape. The method utilizes recent advances in local stereology. We show how to estimate separately from sectional data the variance due t...

  8. Variability in human body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  9. On the optimal sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1994-01-01

    The paper studies the problem of determining the number and dimensions of sizes of apparel so as to maximize profits. It develops a simple one-variable bisection search algorithm that gives the optimal solution. An example is solved interactively using a Macintosh LC and Math CAD, a mathematical...

  10. Measuring fire size in tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qihui

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of fire size Q′ has been introduced in longitudinally ventilated tunnel as the ratio of flame height to the height of tunnel. The analysis in this article has shown that Q′ controls both the critical velocity and the maximum ceiling temperature in the tunnel. Before the fire flame reaches tunnel ceiling (Q′ 1.0), Fr approaches a constant value. This is also a well-known phenomenon in large tunnel fires. Tunnel ceiling temperature shows the opposite trend. Before the fire flame reaches the ceiling, it increases very slowly with the fire size. Once the flame has hit the ceiling of tunnel, temperature rises rapidly with Q′. The good agreement between the current prediction and three different sets of experimental data has demonstrated that the theory has correctly modelled the relation among the heat release rate of fire, ventilation flow and the height of tunnel. From design point of view, the theoretical maximum of critical velocity for a given tunnel can help to prevent oversized ventilation system. -- Highlights: • Fire sizing is an important safety measure in tunnel design. • New measure of fire size a function of HRR of fire, tunnel height and ventilation. • The measure can identify large and small fires. • The characteristics of different fire are consistent with observation in real fires

  11. Attention modulates visual size adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Sylvia; Fink, Gereon R; Weidner, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined in healthy subjects (n = 16) whether size adaptation occurs at early, i.e., preattentive, levels of processing or whether higher cognitive processes such as attention can modulate the illusion. To investigate this issue, bottom-up stimulation was kept constant across conditions by using a single adaptation display containing both small and large adapter stimuli. Subjects' attention was directed to either the large or small adapter stimulus by means of a luminance detection task. When attention was directed toward the small as compared to the large adapter, the perceived size of the subsequent target was significantly increased. Data suggest that different size adaptation effects can be induced by one and the same stimulus depending on the current allocation of attention. This indicates that size adaptation is subject to attentional modulation. These findings are in line with previous research showing that transient as well as sustained attention modulates visual features, such as contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency, and influences adaptation in other contexts, such as motion adaptation (Alais & Blake, 1999; Lankheet & Verstraten, 1995). Based on a recently suggested model (Pooresmaeili, Arrighi, Biagi, & Morrone, 2013), according to which perceptual adaptation is based on local excitation and inhibition in V1, we conclude that guiding attention can boost these local processes in one or the other direction by increasing the weight of the attended adapter. In sum, perceptual adaptation, although reflected in changes of neural activity at early levels (as shown in the aforementioned study), is nevertheless subject to higher-order modulation.

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid space alterations in melancholic depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Via

    Full Text Available Melancholic depression is a biologically homogeneous clinical entity in which structural brain alterations have been described. Interestingly, reports of structural alterations in melancholia include volume increases in Cerebro-Spinal Fluid (CSF spaces. However, there are no previous reports of CSF volume alterations using automated whole-brain voxel-wise approaches, as tissue classification algorithms have been traditionally regarded as less reliable for CSF segmentation. Here we aimed to assess CSF volumetric alterations in melancholic depression and their clinical correlates by means of a novel segmentation algorithm ('new segment', as implemented in the software Statistical Parametric Mapping-SPM8, incorporating specific features that may improve CSF segmentation. A three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI was obtained from seventy patients with melancholic depression and forty healthy control subjects. Although imaging data were pre-processed with the 'new segment' algorithm, in order to obtain a comparison with previous segmentation approaches, tissue segmentation was also performed with the 'unified segmentation' approach. Melancholic patients showed a CSF volume increase in the region of the left Sylvian fissure, and a CSF volume decrease in the subarachnoid spaces surrounding medial and lateral parietal cortices. Furthermore, CSF increases in the left Sylvian fissure were negatively correlated with the reduction percentage of depressive symptoms at discharge. None of these results were replicated with the 'unified segmentation' approach. By contrast, between-group differences in the left Sylvian fissure were replicated with a non-automated quantification of the CSF content of this region. Left Sylvian fissure alterations reported here are in agreement with previous findings from non-automated CSF assessments, and also with other reports of gray and white matter insular alterations in depressive samples using automated approaches

  13. ''FUR'' - one size suits all

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, M.; Que, L.; Hassan, I.M.

    2000-01-01

    This work used amalgamated data from previous projects in order to test the concept that when organ function is expressed in terms of tracer kinetics, the results are independent of patient size or gender. Dynamic gamma camera studies were analysed by measuring the rate of movement of tracers from the blood into various organs. These rates were expressed as a ''fractional uptake rate'' (FUR), which is the fraction of tracer in the blood taken up by the organ per unit time. As these values were small, it was convenient to express the FUR per million seconds. The FUR was calculated using the expression FUR = SLOPE (of Rutland-Patlak plot), multiplied by B(0) (the blood curve value back-extrapolated to time zero), and divided by the TOTAL amount of tracer injected. Data were used from adult patients between the ages of 20 and 49 years who had normal organ function. Organ/tracer groups studied were the skeletal uptake of 99m Tc-MDP, the renal uptake of 99m Tc-MAG3, the renal uptake of 99m Tc-MDP, the renal uptake of 99m Tc-DTPA, the hepatic uptake of 99m Tc-colloid, the splenic uptake of 99m Tc-colloid, and the hepatic uptake of 99m Tc-DISIDA. Each organ/tracer group was divided into three subgroups according to patient size (smallest, middle and largest), and also into subgroups according to gender. Comparison of these subgroups did not show any significant size- or gender-related differences in FUR values. It is concluded that for patients with normally functioning organs the FUR is independent of patient size or gender. Thus, the FUR is a valuable way of expressing organ function, particularly in patients with unusual or rapidly changing body size, such as children. (orig.)

  14. Sexual Functioning and Behavior of Men with Body Dysmorphic Disorder Concerning Penis Size Compared with Men Anxious about Penis Size and with Controls: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the sexual functioning and behavior of men anxious about the size of their penis and the means that they might use to try to alter the size of their penis. Aim To compare sexual functioning and behavior in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerning penis size and in men with small penis anxiety (SPA without BDD) and in a control group of men who do not have any concerns. Methods An opportunistic sample of 90 men from the community were recruited and divided into three groups: BDD (n = 26); SPA (n = 31) and controls (n = 33). Main Outcome Measures The Index of Erectile Function (IEF), sexual identity and history; and interventions to alter the size of their penis. Results Men with BDD compared with controls had reduced erectile dysfunction, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction and overall satisfaction on the IEF. Men with SPA compared with controls had reduced intercourse satisfaction. There were no differences in sexual desire, the frequency of intercourse or masturbation across any of the three groups. Men with BDD and SPA were more likely than the controls to attempt to alter the shape or size of their penis (for example jelqing, vacuum pumps or stretching devices) with poor reported success. Conclusion Men with BDD are more likely to have erectile dysfunction and less satisfaction with intercourse than controls but maintain their libido. Further research is required to develop and evaluate a psychological intervention for such men with adequate outcome measures. PMID:26468378

  15. Sexual Functioning and Behavior of Men with Body Dysmorphic Disorder Concerning Penis Size Compared with Men Anxious about Penis Size and with Controls: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the sexual functioning and behavior of men anxious about the size of their penis and the means that they might use to try to alter the size of their penis. To compare sexual functioning and behavior in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerning penis size and in men with small penis anxiety (SPA without BDD) and in a control group of men who do not have any concerns. An opportunistic sample of 90 men from the community were recruited and divided into three groups: BDD (n = 26); SPA (n = 31) and controls (n = 33). The Index of Erectile Function (IEF), sexual identity and history; and interventions to alter the size of their penis. Men with BDD compared with controls had reduced erectile dysfunction, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction and overall satisfaction on the IEF. Men with SPA compared with controls had reduced intercourse satisfaction. There were no differences in sexual desire, the frequency of intercourse or masturbation across any of the three groups. Men with BDD and SPA were more likely than the controls to attempt to alter the shape or size of their penis (for example jelqing, vacuum pumps or stretching devices) with poor reported success. Men with BDD are more likely to have erectile dysfunction and less satisfaction with intercourse than controls but maintain their libido. Further research is required to develop and evaluate a psychological intervention for such men with adequate outcome measures.

  16. Nuclear size is sensitive to NTF2 protein levels in a manner dependent on Ran binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Lidija D.; Jevtić, Predrag; Zhang, Zhaojie; Stohr, Bradley A.; Levy, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Altered nuclear size is associated with many cancers, and determining whether cancer-associated changes in nuclear size contribute to carcinogenesis necessitates an understanding of mechanisms of nuclear size regulation. Although nuclear import rates generally positively correlate with nuclear size, NTF2 levels negatively affect nuclear size, despite the role of NTF2 (also known as NUTF2) in nuclear recycling of the import factor Ran. We show that binding of Ran to NTF2 is required for NTF2 to inhibit nuclear expansion and import of large cargo molecules in Xenopus laevis egg and embryo extracts, consistent with our observation that NTF2 reduces the diameter of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) in a Ran-binding-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ectopic NTF2 expression in Xenopus embryos and mammalian tissue culture cells alters nuclear size. Finally, we show that increases in nuclear size during melanoma progression correlate with reduced NTF2 expression, and increasing NTF2 levels in melanoma cells is sufficient to reduce nuclear size. These results show a conserved capacity for NTF2 to impact on nuclear size, and we propose that NTF2 might be a new cancer biomarker. PMID:26823604

  17. Interviewer Effects on a Network-Size Filter Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josten Michael

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that survey interviewers may be tempted to manipulate answers to filter questions in a way that minimizes the number of follow-up questions. This becomes relevant when ego-centered network data are collected. The reported network size has a huge impact on interview duration if multiple questions on each alter are triggered. We analyze interviewer effects on a network-size question in the mixed-mode survey “Panel Study ‘Labour Market and Social Security’” (PASS, where interviewers could skip up to 15 follow-up questions by generating small networks. Applying multilevel models, we find almost no interviewer effects in CATI mode, where interviewers are paid by the hour and frequently supervised. In CAPI, however, where interviewers are paid by case and no close supervision is possible, we find strong interviewer effects on network size. As the area-specific network size is known from telephone mode, where allocation to interviewers is random, interviewer and area effects can be separated. Furthermore, a difference-in-difference analysis reveals the negative effect of introducing the follow-up questions in Wave 3 on CAPI network size. Attempting to explain interviewer effects we neither find significant main effects of experience within a wave, nor significantly different slopes between interviewers.

  18. Effect of ingredient particle sizes and dietary viscosity on digestion and faecal waste of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tu; Hien, T.T.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The ingredients' particle size and dietary viscosity may alter digestion, performance and faecal waste management of fish. This study aimed to assess the effect of grinding screen sizes of feed ingredients and dietary viscosity on digestibility, faecal waste and performance of striped catfish

  19. Effect of ingredient particle sizes and dietary viscosity on digestion and faecal waste of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tu; Hien, T.T.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2018-01-01

    The ingredients' particle size and dietary viscosity may alter digestion, performance and faecal waste management of fish. This study aimed to assess the effect of grinding screen sizes of feed ingredients and dietary viscosity on digestibility, faecal waste and performance of striped catfish

  20. The alterations in high density polyethylene properties with gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, M. F.; Elshaer, Y. H.; Taha, Doaa. H.

    2017-10-01

    In the present investigation, high density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer has been used to study the alterations in its properties under gamma-irradiation. Physico-chemical properties have been investigated with different spectroscopy techniques, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), biocompatibility properties, as well as, mechanical properties change. The FT-IR analysis shows the formation of new band at 1716 cm-1 that is attributed to the oxidation of irradiated polymer chains, which is due to the formation of carbonyl groups (C˭O). XRD patterns show that a decrease in the crystallite size and increase in the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). This means that the crystallinity of irradiated samples is decreased with increase in gamma dose. The contact angle measurements show an increase in the surface free energy as the gamma irradiation increases. The measurements of mechanical properties of irradiated HDPE samples were discussed.

  1. Alterations in offspring behavior induced by chronic prenatal cocaine dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R F; Mattran, K M; Kurkjian, M F; Kurtz, S L

    1989-01-01

    Sperm-positive female Long-Evans hooded rats were dosed subcutaneously with 10 mg/kg/day cocaine or an equal volume of vehicle (0.9% sterile saline) from gestation day 4 (GD4) through GD18. Offspring were assessed for development of negative geotaxis, righting reflex, spontaneous alternation, and open field activity, and for adult behaviors including DRL-20 acquisition, water maze, visual discrimination, barbiturate sleep time, shuttlebox avoidance, footshock sensitivity, and tail flick latency. Cocaine dosing produced no significant effects on dam weight gain, any measure of litter size and weight, or early postnatal behavioral tests, but there were significant drug effects on development of spontaneous alternation, development of open field activity, DRL-20 acquisition, water maze performance, tail flick, and footshock sensitivity. These data suggest that chronic administration of a modest dose of cocaine during gestation in the rat alters a number of behaviors in the offspring.

  2. Altered brain network measures in patients with primary writing tremor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenka, Abhishek; Jhunjhunwala, Ketan Ramakant [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Department of Neurology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Panda, Rajanikant; Saini, Jitender; Bharath, Rose Dawn [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Pramod Kumar [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Department of Neurology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2017-10-15

    Primary writing tremor (PWT) is a rare task-specific tremor, which occurs only while writing or while adopting the hand in the writing position. The basic pathophysiology of PWT has not been fully understood. The objective of this study is to explore the alterations in the resting state functional brain connectivity, if any, in patients with PWT using graph theory-based analysis. This prospective case-control study included 10 patients with PWT and 10 age and gender matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent MRI in a 3-Tesla scanner. Several parameters of small-world functional connectivity were compared between patients and healthy controls by using graph theory-based analysis. There were no significant differences in age, handedness (all right handed), gender distribution (all were males), and MMSE scores between the patients and controls. The mean age at presentation of tremor in the patient group was 51.7 ± 8.6 years, and the mean duration of tremor was 3.5 ± 1.9 years. Graph theory-based analysis revealed that patients with PWT had significantly lower clustering coefficient and higher path length compared to healthy controls suggesting alterations in small-world architecture of the brain. The clustering coefficients were lower in PWT patients in left and right medial cerebellum, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and left posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Patients with PWT have significantly altered small-world brain connectivity in bilateral medial cerebellum, right DLPFC, and left PPC. Further studies with larger sample size are required to confirm our results. (orig.)

  3. Altered brain network measures in patients with primary writing tremor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenka, Abhishek; Jhunjhunwala, Ketan Ramakant; Panda, Rajanikant; Saini, Jitender; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Primary writing tremor (PWT) is a rare task-specific tremor, which occurs only while writing or while adopting the hand in the writing position. The basic pathophysiology of PWT has not been fully understood. The objective of this study is to explore the alterations in the resting state functional brain connectivity, if any, in patients with PWT using graph theory-based analysis. This prospective case-control study included 10 patients with PWT and 10 age and gender matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent MRI in a 3-Tesla scanner. Several parameters of small-world functional connectivity were compared between patients and healthy controls by using graph theory-based analysis. There were no significant differences in age, handedness (all right handed), gender distribution (all were males), and MMSE scores between the patients and controls. The mean age at presentation of tremor in the patient group was 51.7 ± 8.6 years, and the mean duration of tremor was 3.5 ± 1.9 years. Graph theory-based analysis revealed that patients with PWT had significantly lower clustering coefficient and higher path length compared to healthy controls suggesting alterations in small-world architecture of the brain. The clustering coefficients were lower in PWT patients in left and right medial cerebellum, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and left posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Patients with PWT have significantly altered small-world brain connectivity in bilateral medial cerebellum, right DLPFC, and left PPC. Further studies with larger sample size are required to confirm our results. (orig.)

  4. Altered brain network measures in patients with primary writing tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenka, Abhishek; Jhunjhunwala, Ketan Ramakant; Panda, Rajanikant; Saini, Jitender; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Primary writing tremor (PWT) is a rare task-specific tremor, which occurs only while writing or while adopting the hand in the writing position. The basic pathophysiology of PWT has not been fully understood. The objective of this study is to explore the alterations in the resting state functional brain connectivity, if any, in patients with PWT using graph theory-based analysis. This prospective case-control study included 10 patients with PWT and 10 age and gender matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent MRI in a 3-Tesla scanner. Several parameters of small-world functional connectivity were compared between patients and healthy controls by using graph theory-based analysis. There were no significant differences in age, handedness (all right handed), gender distribution (all were males), and MMSE scores between the patients and controls. The mean age at presentation of tremor in the patient group was 51.7 ± 8.6 years, and the mean duration of tremor was 3.5 ± 1.9 years. Graph theory-based analysis revealed that patients with PWT had significantly lower clustering coefficient and higher path length compared to healthy controls suggesting alterations in small-world architecture of the brain. The clustering coefficients were lower in PWT patients in left and right medial cerebellum, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and left posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Patients with PWT have significantly altered small-world brain connectivity in bilateral medial cerebellum, right DLPFC, and left PPC. Further studies with larger sample size are required to confirm our results.

  5. Engineered CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases with altered PAM specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P; Prew, Michelle S; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Topkar, Ved V; Nguyen, Nhu T; Zheng, Zongli; Gonzales, Andrew P W; Li, Zhuyun; Peterson, Randall T; Yeh, Jing-Ruey Joanna; Aryee, Martin J; Joung, J Keith

    2015-07-23

    Although CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are widely used for genome editing, the range of sequences that Cas9 can recognize is constrained by the need for a specific protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). As a result, it can often be difficult to target double-stranded breaks (DSBs) with the precision that is necessary for various genome-editing applications. The ability to engineer Cas9 derivatives with purposefully altered PAM specificities would address this limitation. Here we show that the commonly used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) can be modified to recognize alternative PAM sequences using structural information, bacterial selection-based directed evolution, and combinatorial design. These altered PAM specificity variants enable robust editing of endogenous gene sites in zebrafish and human cells not currently targetable by wild-type SpCas9, and their genome-wide specificities are comparable to wild-type SpCas9 as judged by GUIDE-seq analysis. In addition, we identify and characterize another SpCas9 variant that exhibits improved specificity in human cells, possessing better discrimination against off-target sites with non-canonical NAG and NGA PAMs and/or mismatched spacers. We also find that two smaller-size Cas9 orthologues, Streptococcus thermophilus Cas9 (St1Cas9) and Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9), function efficiently in the bacterial selection systems and in human cells, suggesting that our engineering strategies could be extended to Cas9s from other species. Our findings provide broadly useful SpCas9 variants and, more importantly, establish the feasibility of engineering a wide range of Cas9s with altered and improved PAM specificities.

  6. Filocrono em batateira afetado pelo tamanho do tubérculo-semente e pela época de cultivo Phyllocrono in potato affected by tuber-seed size and growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereu Augusto Streck

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o filocrono de plantas de batata da cultivar Asterix oriundas de diferentes tamanhos de tubérculos-semente, em duas épocas de cultivo em campo utilizando o conceito de graus-dia para o cálculo do filocrono. O experimento foi desenvolvido em Santa Maria (RS, na primavera de 2003 e no outono de 2004. Foram usados quatro tamanhos de tubérculos-semente da cultivar de batata Asterix: entre 2 e 4 cm, 4 e 6 cm, 6 e 8 cm e 8 e 10 cm. O filocrono (ºC dia folha-1 foi estimado pelo inverso do coeficiente angular da relação entre número de folhas na haste principal e a soma térmica calculada por três métodos: método 1 - considera apenas a temperatura base; método 2 - considera a temperatura base e a temperatura ótima, e método 3 - considera a temperatura base, a temperatura ótima e a temperatura máxima. O tamanho do tubérculo-semente não afetou o filocrono, mas o método de cálculo da soma térmica e a época de cultivo afetaram o filocrono da batateira cultivar Asterix. No método de cálculo da soma térmica a ser usado no filocrono da batateira cultivar Asterix, recomenda-se usar a temperatura base e a temperatura ótima, pois com este método, o filocrono foi similar entre as épocas de cultivo.The objective of this study was to estimate the phyllochron of the potato cultivar Asterix in plants derived from different tuber seed sizes in two field growing seasons using the concept of degrees-days for calculating the phyllochron. The experiment was conducted in Santa Maria, RS, during Spring 2003 and Fall 2004. Four classes of tuber-seed diameter of the potato cultivar Asterix were used: 2-4 cm, 4-6 cm, 6-8 cm and 8-10 cm. The phyllochron was estimated as the inverse of the slope of the linear regression of main stem leaves number against the thermal time calculated with three methods: method 1 - considering only the base temperature, method 2 - considering the base temperature and the optimum

  7. Magnetic comparison of abiogenic and biogenic alteration products of lepidocrocite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, J. L.; Guyodo, Y.; Lagroix, F.; Ona-Nguema, G.; Brest, J.

    2014-06-01

    Lepidocrocite is a potentially important Fe-bearing precursor phase for the production of nanoscale Fe-oxide particles in the environment. We present a detailed magnetic characterization of various alteration products of lepidocrocite resulting from thermal dehydroxylation reactions and bacterially induced bioreduction and remineralization, accompanied by characterization with x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy. Dehydroxylation during annealing at moderate temperatures produces a topotactic transformation from lepidocrocite to maghemite when heated in an oxidizing atmosphere, or to magnetite when heated in a reducing atmosphere. The abiotic Fe-oxide products form an oriented framework of strongly interacting superparamagnetic crystallites and are characterized by a distinctive porous nanostructure observed by electron microscopy. Lepidocrocite bioreduction by the iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens ATCC 8071 produces nanoscale particles of a strongly magnetic phase. This Fe(II)-bearing mineral produced by bioreduction is highly crystalline and euhedral in shape, with a broad grain size distribution and is indicated by magnetic and XRD measurements to be a cation-excess magnetite. We highlight the distinguishing microscopic characteristics of magnetite from both abiotic and bacterially induced mineralization that should allow them to be identified in natural settings. Moreover, both mechanisms of alteration represent potential pathways for the direct formation of strongly magnetic fine-grained Fe-oxide particles in sedimentary environments.

  8. Treeline proximity alters an alpine plant-herbivore interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illerbrun, Kurt; Roland, Jens

    2011-05-01

    Rising treeline threatens the size and contiguity of alpine meadows worldwide. As trees encroach into previously open habitat, the movement and population dynamics of above-treeline alpine species may be disrupted. This process is well documented in studies of the Rocky Mountain apollo butterfly (Parnassius smintheus). However, subtler consequences of treeline rise remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine whether treeline proximity affects feeding behaviour of P. smintheus larvae, due to altered habitat affecting the distribution and availability of their host plant, lance-leaved stonecrop (Sedum lanceolatum). Understanding differential larval exploitation of food resources in relation to the treeline is an important step in predicting the consequences of continued treeline rise. Parnassius smintheus larvae feed more intensively on S. lanceolatum away from the treeline despite the relative paucity of hosts in these areas, and despite higher fitness penalties associated with the plant's herbivory-induced chemical defenses. Sedum lanceolatum growing near the treeline is less attractive, and therefore represents a less significant resource for P. smintheus larvae than its abundance might imply. If treeline rise continues, we suggest that this pattern of altered resource exploitation may represent a mechanism by which larvae are adversely affected even while adult movement among and within meadows appears sufficient for maintaining population health, and total host availability seems ample.

  9. Radiation-induced motility alterations in medulloblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieken, Stefan; Rieber, Juliane; Brons, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Photon irradiation has been repeatedly suspected of increasing tumor cell motility and promoting locoregional recurrence of disease. This study was set up to analyse possible mechanisms underlying the potentially radiation-altered motility in medulloblastoma cells. Medulloblastoma cell lines D425 and Med8A were analyzed in migration and adhesion experiments with and without photon and carbon ion irradiation. Expression of integrins was determined by quantitative FACS analysis. Matrix metalloproteinase concentrations within cell culture supernatants were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test. Both photon and carbon ion irradiation significantly reduced chemotactic medulloblastoma cell transmigration through 8-μm pore size membranes, while simultaneously increasing adherence to fibronectin- and collagen I- and IV-coated surfaces. Correspondingly, both photon and carbon ion irradiation downregulate soluble MMP9 concentrations, while upregulating cell surface expression of proadhesive extracellular matrix protein-binding integrin α 5 . The observed phenotype of radiation-altered motility is more pronounced following carbon ion than photon irradiation. Both photon and (even more so) carbon ion irradiation are effective in inhibiting medulloblastoma cell migration through downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and upregulation of proadhesive cell surface integrin α 5 , which lead to increased cell adherence to extracellular matrix proteins. (author)

  10. Copy Number Alterations and Methylation in Ewing's Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Mona S.; Jones, Kevin B.; Schiffman, Joshua D.

    2011-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone malignancy affecting children and young adults. The prognosis is especially poor in metastatic or relapsed disease. The cell of origin remains elusive, but the EWS-FLI1 fusion oncoprotein is present in the majority of cases. The understanding of the molecular basis of Ewing's sarcoma continues to progress slowly. EWS-FLI1 affects gene expression, but other factors must also be at work such as mutations, gene copy number alterations, and promoter methylation. This paper explores in depth two molecular aspects of Ewing's sarcoma: copy number alterations (CNAs) and methylation. While CNAs consistently have been reported in Ewing's sarcoma, their clinical significance has been variable, most likely due to small sample size and tumor heterogeneity. Methylation is thought to be important in oncogenesis and balanced karyotype cancers such as Ewing's, yet it has received only minimal attention in prior studies. Future CNA and methylation studies will help to understand the molecular basis of this disease. PMID:21437220

  11. Copy Number Alterations and Methylation in Ewing's Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona S. Jahromi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone malignancy affecting children and young adults. The prognosis is especially poor in metastatic or relapsed disease. The cell of origin remains elusive, but the EWS-FLI1 fusion oncoprotein is present in the majority of cases. The understanding of the molecular basis of Ewing's sarcoma continues to progress slowly. EWS-FLI1 affects gene expression, but other factors must also be at work such as mutations, gene copy number alterations, and promoter methylation. This paper explores in depth two molecular aspects of Ewing's sarcoma: copy number alterations (CNAs and methylation. While CNAs consistently have been reported in Ewing's sarcoma, their clinical significance has been variable, most likely due to small sample size and tumor heterogeneity. Methylation is thought to be important in oncogenesis and balanced karyotype cancers such as Ewing's, yet it has received only minimal attention in prior studies. Future CNA and methylation studies will help to understand the molecular basis of this disease.

  12. Size effects in crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of plasticity size effects have been carried out for different problems using a developed strain gradient crystal plasticiy theory. The theory employs higher order stresses as work conjugates to slip gradients and uses higher order boundary conditions. Problems on localization...... of plastic flow in a single crystal, grain boundary effects in a bicrystal, and grain size effects in a polycrystal are studied. Single crystals containing micro-scale voids have also been analyzed at different loading conditions with focus on the stress and deformation fields around the voids, on void...... growth and interaction between neighboring voids, and on a comparison between the developed strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and a discrete dislocation plasticity theory. Furthermore, voids and rigid inclusions in isotropic materials have been studied using a strain gradient plasticity theory...

  13. Fenton reaction induced cancer in wild type rats recapitulates genomic alterations observed in human cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Akatsuka

    Full Text Available Iron overload has been associated with carcinogenesis in humans. Intraperitoneal administration of ferric nitrilotriacetate initiates a Fenton reaction in renal proximal tubules of rodents that ultimately leads to a high incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC after repeated treatments. We performed high-resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridization to identify characteristics in the genomic profiles of this oxidative stress-induced rat RCCs. The results revealed extensive large-scale genomic alterations with a preference for deletions. Deletions and amplifications were numerous and sometimes fragmented, demonstrating that a Fenton reaction is a cause of such genomic alterations in vivo. Frequency plotting indicated that two of the most commonly altered loci corresponded to a Cdkn2a/2b deletion and a Met amplification. Tumor sizes were proportionally associated with Met expression and/or amplification, and clustering analysis confirmed our results. Furthermore, we developed a procedure to compare whole genomic patterns of the copy number alterations among different species based on chromosomal syntenic relationship. Patterns of the rat RCCs showed the strongest similarity to the human RCCs among five types of human cancers, followed by human malignant mesothelioma, an iron overload-associated cancer. Therefore, an iron-dependent Fenton chemical reaction causes large-scale genomic alterations during carcinogenesis, which may result in distinct genomic profiles. Based on the characteristics of extensive genome alterations in human cancer, our results suggest that this chemical reaction may play a major role during human carcinogenesis.

  14. Geological investigation of hydrothermal alteration haloes in Toyoha geothermal field, Hakkaido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, T; Furukawa, Y; Sugawara, K; Nishimura, S; Okabe, K

    1978-01-01

    In Toyoha geothermal field, the altered haloes are located along a tectonic line extending on a NW-SE direction along the Yunosawa River, east of the Toyoha Mine, a well known Neogene epithermal ore deposit. The investigation was carried out to clarify the stage of alteration, based on the altered haloes geologic structure, composition, and size. The Quaternary distribution at the eastern foot of Mt. Yotei was also studied. The field is covered by various kinds of Miocene sediments but the altered haloes are found only in an area covered by the Takinosawa formation and its older formations. Among the Yunosawa, Koyanagizawa and Takinosawa alteration haloes, the Yunosawa is the most important. It is composed of blocky silicified rock extending along a river and surrounding argillaceous rock. The silicified rock is composed primarily of quartz and subordinate alunite and opal, while the argillaceous rock consists chiefly of kaloin and is characterized by the occasional presence of sericite and montmorillinite. Fission-track and /sup 14/C methods were employed to determine the stage of alteration, but the results were unsatisfactory. The sublimation sulfur ore deposits in the Yunosawa and Koyanagizawa areas were comparatively small, but their original depositional features remain intact, indicating that geothermal activity continued until recently. Yunosawa is the most promising area as it is closely related to the tectonic line and also it has extraordinarily high ground temperature determined by a recent heat flow survey. Twenty-three references are provided.

  15. Nanoscale imaging of alteration layers of corroded international simple glass particles using ToF-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiandong; Neeway, James J.; Zhang, Yanyan; Ryan, Joseph V.; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Tieshan; Zhu, Zihua

    2017-08-01

    Glass particles with dimensions typically ranging from tens to hundreds of microns are often used in glass corrosion research in order to accelerate testing. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional nanoscale imaging techniques are badly needed to characterize the alteration layers at the surfaces of these corroded glass particles. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) can provide a lateral resolution as low as ~100 nm, and, compared to other imaging techniques, is sensitive to elements lighter than carbon. In this work, we used ToF-SIMS to characterize the alteration layers of corroded international simple glass (ISG) particles. At most particle surfaces, inhomogeneous or no alteration layers were observed, indicating that the thickness of the alterations layers may be too thin to be observable by ToF-SIMS imaging. Relatively thick (e.g., 1-10 microns) alteration layers were inhomogeneously distributed at a small portion of surfaces. More interestingly, some large-size (tens of microns) glass particles were fully altered. Above observations suggest that weak attachment and the defects on ISG particle surfaces play an important role in ISG glass corrosion.

  16. Pediatric Obesity: Pharmacokinetic Alterations and Effects on Antimicrobial Dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Stephanie; Bradley, John; Nguyen, William Huy; Tran, Tri; Ny, Pamela; La, Kirsten; Vivian, Eva; Le, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Limited data exist for appropriate drug dosing in obese children. This comprehensive review summarizes pharmacokinetic (PK) alterations that occur with age and obesity, and these effects on antimicrobial dosing. A thorough comparison of different measures of body weight and specific antimicrobial agents including cefazolin, cefepime, ceftazidime, daptomycin, doripenem, gentamicin, linezolid, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, tobramycin, vancomycin, and voriconazole is presented. PubMed (1966-July 2015) and Cochrane Library searches were performed using these key terms: children, pharmacokinetic, obesity, overweight, body mass index, ideal body weight, lean body weight, body composition, and specific antimicrobial drugs. PK studies in obese children and, if necessary, data from adult studies were summarized. Knowledge of PK alterations stemming from physiologic changes that occur with age from the neonate to adolescent, as well as those that result from increased body fat, become an essential first step toward optimizing drug dosing in obese children. Excessive amounts of adipose tissue contribute significantly to body size, total body water content, and organ size and function that may modify drug distribution and clearance. PK studies that evaluated antimicrobial dosing primarily used total (or actual) body weight (TBW) for loading doses and TBW or adjusted body weight for maintenance doses, depending on the drugs' properties and dosing units. PK studies in obese children are imperative to elucidate drug distribution, clearance, and, consequently, the dose required for effective therapy in these children. Future studies should evaluate the effects of both age and obesity on drug dosing because the incidence of obesity is increasing in pediatric patients. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  17. Mortar alteration: experimental study and ancient analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassineux, Francois

    1987-01-01

    As the durability of cemented matrices is a matter of great importance in numerous domains, notably for the long term reliability of surface storages of radioactive wastes, the objective of this research thesis is to define mechanisms of evolution of cemented matrices when in contact with diluted aqueous solutions. The author notably studied the influence of the lixiviation mode on the evolution of two mortars having different compositions (pH, CO 2 pressure, system containment, and cement mineralogical nature appear to be the main governing parameters), the alteration (dissolution is the prevailing process in the interaction between cemented matrices and a diluted solution such as rain water), and ancient binders (archaeological binders containing mineral phases such as hydrated calcium silicates or hydro-grossulars). The obtained results lead to the definition of alteration mechanisms in modern cements, and highlight factors governing the durability of these materials when submitted to meteoric alteration [fr

  18. Alter(n – ein vielschichtiger Begriff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Maly-Lukas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Diese Veröffentlichung, die aus einer Vortragsreihe an der katholischen Fachhochschule Freiburg entstanden ist, führt die Leserinnen und Leser in die verschiedenen Sichtweisen des Alter(ns in der modernen Gesellschaft ein. Es handelt sich um eine gelungene Zusammenstellung von Beiträgen aus unterschiedlichen Disziplinen, die sich alle aus ihrer Sicht dem Thema Alter(n widmen. Die einzelnen Artikel sind zwischen 8 und 38 Seiten lang und recht schnell und einfach zu lesen. Je nach Hintergrund und Interessen werden die einzelnen Leserinnen und Leser dabei sicher unterschiedliche Beiträge favorisieren. Schade ist nur, dass durch die ungleichen Längen der Beiträge bestimmte thematische Schwerpunkte – ob gewollt oder nicht – gesetzt werden. Dies sollte die Leserinnen und Leser, die offen für unterschiedlichste Sichtweisen des Alter(ns sind, jedoch nicht davon abhalten, dieses Buch zu lesen.

  19. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic development and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, R J

    1991-01-01

    The demographic transition in Latin America has resulted in increased family size rather than the Western European model of reduced family size. In 1905, both fertility and mortality were high in Latin America, but mortality declined more rapidly in Latin America than in Europe. In 1905, the crude birth rate for 15 selected countries averaged 44/1000 population. Western fertility at a comparable transition point was much lower at 30/1000. Between 1905 and 1960, fertility declines were evident in Uruguay, Argentina, Cuba, and Chile. Between 1960 and 1985, fertility declines appeared in Costa Rica, Panama, Brazil, and Colombia. Fertility declines were smaller in the other Latin American countries. Crude birth rates declined markedly by 1985 but may overestimate fertility decline, which is more accurately measured by standardized birth rates. Fertility decline was evident in Argentina, Chile, and Costa Rica for standardized birth rates, survivorship ratio, and births surviving past the age of 15 years. Theoretically, families are expected to reduce family size when survivorship is assured; when mortality is 25%, only four children need be planned instead of six when mortality is 50%. A result of falling mortality is a cheaper cost of producing children, which may stimulate parents to raise bigger families. Western fertility decline has been attributed to mortality decline, urbanization, increased female labor force participation, rising wages, and more efficient contraception. Comparable economic development in Latin America has not resulted in large enough changes to encourage family size limitation. A table of fertility and economic indicators for selected countries in Latin America and Europe reflects the inverse relationship between income growth, urban growth, and growth in female educational status and fertility. The regression equation explains 60% of the variation in fertility rates among Latin American countries. Explanatory power increases to 75% when female

  1. On size effects in fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the dependence of fracture stress on size. This conclusion is based on classical energy arguments. For an in-plane scaled specimen pair, the larger the specimen the smaller the fracture stress. In contrast the same theory gives a different dependence for out-of-plane specimen and the dependence involves plane stress, strain, fracture stresses and Poisson's ratio. The objective of this paper is to examine how well these predictions are actually complied with

  2. Finite Size Scaling of Perceptron

    OpenAIRE

    Korutcheva, Elka; Tonchev, N.

    2000-01-01

    We study the first-order transition in the model of a simple perceptron with continuous weights and large, bit finite value of the inputs. Making the analogy with the usual finite-size physical systems, we calculate the shift and the rounding exponents near the transition point. In the case of a general perceptron with larger variety of inputs, the analysis only gives bounds for the exponents.

  3. Environmental sizing of smartphone batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Flipsen, S.F.J.; Geraedts, J.M.P.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Bakker, C.A.; Dafnomilis, I.; Gudadhe, A.

    2012-01-01

    Smartphone use has increased at a phenomenal pace worldwide. In 2011 more smartphones have been sold than desktop pc’s, notebooks, netbooks and tablets together. The total worldwide smartphone sales reached 472 million units in 2011, and 149 million of them were sold in the fourth quarter of 2011. The smartphone is, like almost every other mobile device, powered by batteries, limited in size and therefore capacity, which makes energy management paramount. While global demand and use of mobile...

  4. Teen Sized Humanoid Robot: Archie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Jacky; Byagowi, Ahmad; Anderson, John; Kopacek, Peter

    This paper describes our first teen sized humanoid robot Archie. This robot has been developed in conjunction with Prof. Kopacek’s lab from the Technical University of Vienna. Archie uses brushless motors and harmonic gears with a novel approach to position encoding. Based on our previous experience with small humanoid robots, we developed software to create, store, and play back motions as well as control methods which automatically balance the robot using feedback from an internal measurement unit (IMU).

  5. Tick size and stock returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Töyli, Juuso; Kaski, Kimmo

    2009-02-01

    Tick size is an important aspect of the micro-structural level organization of financial markets. It is the smallest institutionally allowed price increment, has a direct bearing on the bid-ask spread, influences the strategy of trading order placement in electronic markets, affects the price formation mechanism, and appears to be related to the long-term memory of volatility clustering. In this paper we investigate the impact of tick size on stock returns. We start with a simple simulation to demonstrate how continuous returns become distorted after confining the price to a discrete grid governed by the tick size. We then move on to a novel experimental set-up that combines decimalization pilot programs and cross-listed stocks in New York and Toronto. This allows us to observe a set of stocks traded simultaneously under two different ticks while holding all security-specific characteristics fixed. We then study the normality of the return distributions and carry out fits to the chosen distribution models. Our empirical findings are somewhat mixed and in some cases appear to challenge the simulation results.

  6. SIZE OF LIVESTOCK AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazbanela Stere

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to map the performance of Romanian farms from the perspective of livestock agricultural operations using principal component analysis technique (PCA and similarities between Romania and other countries from UE. The empirical results reveal that animal breedings farms are grouped into two categories :small and middle sized farms ; and the fact that Romania , one of Europe’s major forces in the field of livestock husbandry, has come to be one of the biggest importers of food products, although, by tradition, it is one of the continent’s countries with ideal conditions for breeding all species of animals. When clustering the countries we observ that in countries such as Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, cow farms, for example, do not exceed 10-16 heads and in Holland, England, Denmark, Belgium and France, the average farm size reaches 30-70 heads of milk cows. The cluster analysis revealed that in livestock operations, animal stock is the one that generates production, while the animal number indicates the size of the livestock unit.

  7. Streamflow alteration at selected sites in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Eng, Ken

    2017-06-26

    An understanding of streamflow alteration in response to various disturbances is necessary for the effective management of stream habitat for a variety of species in Kansas. Streamflow alteration can have negative ecological effects. Using a modeling approach, streamflow alteration was assessed for 129 selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the State for which requisite streamflow and basin-characteristic information was available. The assessment involved a comparison of the observed condition from 1980 to 2015 with the predicted expected (least-disturbed) condition for 29 streamflow metrics. The metrics represent various characteristics of streamflow including average flow (annual, monthly) and low and high flow (frequency, duration, magnitude).Streamflow alteration in Kansas was indicated locally, regionally, and statewide. Given the absence of a pronounced trend in annual precipitation in Kansas, a precipitation-related explanation for streamflow alteration was not supported. Thus, the likely explanation for streamflow alteration was human activity. Locally, a flashier flow regime (typified by shorter lag times and more frequent and higher peak discharges) was indicated for three streamgages with urbanized basins that had higher percentages of impervious surfaces than other basins in the State. The combination of localized reservoir effects and regional groundwater pumping from the High Plains aquifer likely was responsible, in part, for diminished conditions indicated for multiple streamflow metrics in western and central Kansas. Statewide, the implementation of agricultural land-management practices to reduce runoff may have been responsible, in part, for a diminished duration and magnitude of high flows. In central and eastern Kansas, implemented agricultural land-management practices may have been partly responsible for an inflated magnitude of low flows at several sites.

  8. Bone alterations by stress in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doege, H.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes our experiences with the bone imaging in athletes. We studied 10 athletes and 10 other patients with spondylolisthesis of the lumbar spine and 16 athletes with suspicion of alterations of extremities. An increased uptake of this radiopharmaceutical was detected in six of 10 athletes with spondylolisthesis caused probably by stress fracture. Bone scans were negative in seven of 16 athletes with suspicion of lesion of extremities. In the remaining 9 patients scans were abnormal and showed periosteal injuries, epiphyseal alteration, joint abnormalities, tibial stress fractures and couvert fracture. It was also abnormal in bone injuries not evident in radiography. (orig.) [de

  9. White matter alterations in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, P. B.; Salmon, C. E.; Velasco, T. R.; Sakamoto, A. C.; Leite, J. P.; Santos, A. C.

    2011-03-01

    In This study, we used Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (D), parallel diffusivity (D//) and perpendicular diffusivity (D), to localize the regions where occur axonal lesion and demyelization. TBSS was applied to analyze the FA data. After, the regions with alteration were studied with D, D// and D maps. Patients exhibited widespread degradation of FA. With D, D// and D maps analysis we found alterations in corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, fornix, internal capsule, corona radiate, Sagittal stratum, cingulum, fronto-occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exist demyelization and axonal damage in patients with TLE.

  10. Asteroid collisional history - Effects on sizes and spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.R.; Weidenschilling, S.J.; Farinella, P.; Paolicchi, P.; Binzel, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of asteroid collisional history on sizes and spins of present-day objects are discussed. Collisional evolution studies indicate that collisions have altered the spin-rates of small bodies, but that the largest asteroids may have retained their primordial rotation rates. Most asteroids larger than 100 km diam have probably been shattered, but have gravitationally recaptured their fragments to form a rubble-pile structure. Large angular momentum asteroids appear to have Maclaurian spheroidal or Jacobi-ellipsoid-like shapes; some of them may have fissioned into binaries. An integrated size and spin collisional evolution model is presented, with two critical parameters: one which determines the spin rates for small fragments resulting from a shattering collision, and the other determines the fraction of impact angular momentum that is retained by the target. 36 refs

  11. Morphology, Growth, and Size Limit of Bacterial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongyuan; Sun, Sean X.

    2010-07-01

    Bacterial cells utilize a living peptidoglycan network (PG) to separate the cell interior from the surroundings. The shape of the cell is controlled by PG synthesis and cytoskeletal proteins that form bundles and filaments underneath the cell wall. The PG layer also resists turgor pressure and protects the cell from osmotic shock. We argue that mechanical influences alter the chemical equilibrium of the reversible PG assembly and determine the cell shape and cell size. Using a mechanochemical approach, we show that the cell shape can be regarded as a steady state of a growing network under the influence of turgor pressure and mechanical stress. Using simple elastic models, we predict the size of common spherical and rodlike bacteria. The influence of cytoskeletal bundles such as crescentin and MreB are discussed within the context of our model.

  12. The economics of urban size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, W

    1971-01-01

    An aggregative economic approach to the theory of city size is presented along with some empirical findings which suggest that even the largest cities have not yet reached excessive sizes from the point of view of growth and productivity. Urban magnitude is no simple 1 dimensional phenomenon. Modern urban centers are surrounded by very large, diffuse zonal boundaries, within which there are marked variations in the proportion of firms and people associated with that center, and in the intensity of the association. In sum, population does not constitute a conventional, countable set. In general, population will be considered as the basic magnitude and as a conventionally definable number. Most approaches to city size have emphasized the presumed diseconomy of urban scale and have sought to establish that population at which costs per capita are least, regarding this as optimal. It is argued here that both the logic and the factual basis of this approach are faulty. The argument of minimum costs is insufficient in its own terms. Such an objective is reasonable only if output per capita is constant, but it appears that output per capita is an increasing function of urban size. In that case, a more sensible objective of public policy would deal with the relation of outputs and inputs, rather than only with inputs. In every country for which evidence was found, local product per capita (or some index for it, such as income or wages) rises with urban size, and where comparable figures on cost are available, these rise far more slowly if at all. Although all of the data desirable are not available for any single country, the overall pattern is clear. Possibly the most surprising element in the data is the marked decline with increasing density in Social Overhead Captial Stocks (SOCS) per capita. This runs counter to common belief that the bigger the city the more infrastructure per capita is needed and may be the result of such effects as the greater linear quantities of

  13. Traffic-induced changes and processes in forest road aggregate particle-size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakjun Rhee; James Fridley; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2018-01-01

    Traffic can alter forest road aggregate material in various ways, such as by crushing, mixing it with subgrade material, and sweeping large-size, loose particles (gravel) toward the outside of the road. Understanding the changes and physical processes of the aggregate is essential to mitigate sediment production from forest roads and reduce road maintenance efforts. We...

  14. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchiori, David|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/376283718; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an

  15. Altered membrane permeability in multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted with the objective of examining the outer membrane proteins and their involvement during the transport of β - lactams in multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from extra-intestinal infections. Also, the response of gram negative bacterial biomembrane alteration was studied using extended ...

  16. Connective tissue alteration in abdominal wall hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, N A; Yadete, D H; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2011-01-01

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of abdominal wall hernia formation is complex. Optimal treatment of hernias depends on a full understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in their formation. The aim of this study was to review the literature on specific collagen alterations in abdom...

  17. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.; Foster, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated...

  18. Epigenetic Alterations in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose V.; Gräff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia in Western societies. It progresses asymptomatically during decades before being belatedly diagnosed when therapeutic strategies have become unviable. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, the vast majority of AD cases do not show strong genetic underpinnings and are thus considered a consequence of non-genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms allow for the integration of long-lasting non-genetic inputs on specific genetic backgrounds, and recently, a growing number of epigenetic alterations in AD have been described. For instance, an accumulation of dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms in aging, the predominant risk factor of AD, might facilitate the onset of the disease. Likewise, mutations in several enzymes of the epigenetic machinery have been associated with neurodegenerative processes that are altered in AD such as impaired learning and memory formation. Genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic alterations have also been reported, and several epigenetically dysregulated genes validated by independent groups. From these studies, a picture emerges of AD as being associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting a general repressed chromatin state and epigenetically reduced plasticity in AD. Here we review these recent findings and discuss several technical and methodological considerations that are imperative for their correct interpretation. We also pay particular focus on potential implementations and theoretical frameworks that we expect will help to better direct future studies aimed to unravel the epigenetic participation in AD. PMID:26734709

  19. rights reserved Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    the pole to the magnetic data aided in mapping of various hydrothermally altered structures that may favour gold mineralisation. The interpretation of the aero data set has enhanced a lot of ... water serves as a concentrating, transporting and depositing agent through faults (structures) to the earth's surface. Hydrothermal ...

  20. SEDAH. Data Server for hydrologic alteration evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Romero, R.; Magdaleno Mas, F.; Ortiz Rodriguez, J.; Fernandez Yuste, J. A.; Martinez Santa-Maria, C.

    2011-01-01

    Several tasks and studies have been developed from 2008 till 2010 all around the country in order to evaluate the hydrologic alteration of water bodies. In most cases this alteraction has been evaluated through IAHRIS (Martinez and Fernandez, 2006). The necessity of creating a new toll that allowed a better performance of the National Flow-Stage Stations Network data was showed up by developing these works. The output data series should match IAHRIS and IHA. SEDAH (Data Server for Evaluating Hydrologic Alteration) Helps to solve some of these problems by supplying an easy way to select flow stations, dates, flow series typology, etc. Moreover, other useful utilities are: a preliminary appraisement of quality data, calssification of altered or reference flow series and exportation of data in different file formats. The web application works with different data bases, daily, monthly and annual series belonging to, wither actual series from flow station data or completed series by statistical procedures. Through SEDAH the user has easy access to all this huge information ready for being applied in hydrologic alteration assessment, environmental fows regime, river restoration projects, etc. Furthermore, this first phase of the application constitute the basis for future powerful functionalities related to the natural flow series obtaining. (Author) 5 refs.

  1. Sulphur depletion altered somatic embryogenesis in Theobroma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic embryogenesis is a useful tool for Theobroma cacao improvement and propagation. Depending on culture medium composition, different morphogenetic structures (including somatic embryo) occur in response to alteration of genes expression patterns and biochemical changes. The effect of SO42- ion deficiency ...

  2. NEW, GOOD DOCTORS FOR AN ALTERED SOCIETY*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NEW, GOOD DOCTORS FOR AN ALTERED SOCIETY*. ANrHONY BARKER ... the concept of trying to become one is just a psychological throwback? ... called all these things and many things besides, yet this ... sex (women ought to be better at it than men, but often are not) .... foundations to lay for a specialized career.

  3. Global alteration of climate - hopes and fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorov, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Problems concerning gaseous emission affecting the global climate alteration connected with hotbed effect are considered. Economical and social-political ways of solution of the problem of minimization of gaseous wastes are described. Role of nuclear power plants and alternative power plants in the hotbed effect are analyzed. International cooperation in environmental protection policy is discussed

  4. Rare endocrine cancers have novel genetic alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A molecular characterization of adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare cancer of the adrenal cortex, analyzed 91 cases for alterations in the tumor genomes and identified several novel genetic mutations as likely mechanisms driving the disease as well as whole genome doubling as a probable driver of the disease.

  5. 28 CFR 36.402 - Alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other types of disabilities (e.g., those who use crutches, those who have impaired vision or hearing, or... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC.... (1) Any alteration to a place of public accommodation or a commercial facility, after January 26...

  6. Altered Cellular Metabolism Drives Trained Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Yahya; Godfrey, Rinesh; Findeisen, Hannes M

    2018-04-04

    Exposing innate immune cells to an initial insult induces a long-term proinflammatory response due to metabolic and epigenetic alterations which encompass an emerging new concept called trained immunity. Recent studies provide novel insights into mechanisms centered on metabolic reprogramming which induce innate immune memory in hematopoietic stem cells and monocytes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. BIRTH ORDER, FAMILY SIZE, NEUROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD JALILI

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to investigate the relationship of birth rank and family size with the incidence of neurosis in an Iranian culture, case notes of 1029 schizophrenic patients as (497 males and 532 females referred to psychiatric clinic for insured workers were studied. The incidence of neurasis appeared to be significantly more frequent among the first-half position of birth  rders in The families of 5 children and over; this bei-ng more marked-in males than in females; and the first second births comprising the lighest incidence of the illness.

  8. BIRTH ORDER, FAMILY SIZE, NEUROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    AHMAD JALILI

    1984-01-01

    In an attempt to investigate the relationship of birth rank and family size with the incidence of neurosis in an Iranian culture, case notes of 1029 schizophrenic patients as (497 males and 532 females) referred to psychiatric clinic for insured workers were studied. The incidence of neurasis appeared to be significantly more frequent among the first-half position of birth  rders in The families of 5 children and over; this bei-ng more marked-in males than in females; and the first s...

  9. Size effects on cavitation instabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2006-01-01

    growth is here analyzed for such cases. A finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity theory is applied for a power-law hardening material, and the numerical analyses are carried out for an axisymmetric unit cell containing a spherical void. In the range of high stress...... triaxiality, where cavitation instabilities are predicted by conventional plasticity theory, such instabilities are also found for the nonlocal theory, but the effects of gradient hardening delay the onset of the instability. Furthermore, in some cases the cavitation stress reaches a maximum and then decays...... as the void grows to a size well above the characteristic material length....

  10. Size Estimates in Inverse Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Di Cristo, Michele

    2014-01-06

    Detection of inclusions or obstacles inside a body by boundary measurements is an inverse problems very useful in practical applications. When only finite numbers of measurements are available, we try to detect some information on the embedded object such as its size. In this talk we review some recent results on several inverse problems. The idea is to provide constructive upper and lower estimates of the area/volume of the unknown defect in terms of a quantity related to the work that can be expressed with the available boundary data.

  11. Ocean acidification but not warming alters sex determination in the Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Laura M; O'Connor, Wayne A; Byrne, Maria; Dove, Michael; Coleman, Ross A; Pörtner, Hans-O; Scanes, Elliot; Virtue, Patti; Gibbs, Mitchell; Ross, Pauline M

    2018-02-14

    Whether sex determination of marine organisms can be altered by ocean acidification and warming during this century remains a significant, unanswered question. Here, we show that exposure of the protandric hermaphrodite oyster, Saccostrea glomerata to ocean acidification, but not warming, alters sex determination resulting in changes in sex ratios. After just one reproductive cycle there were 16% more females than males. The rate of gametogenesis, gonad area, fecundity, shell length, extracellular pH and survival decreased in response to ocean acidification. Warming as a sole stressor slightly increased the rate of gametogenesis, gonad area and fecundity, but this increase was masked by the impact of ocean acidification at a level predicted for this century. Alterations to sex determination, sex ratios and reproductive capacity will have flow on effects to reduce larval supply and population size of oysters and potentially other marine organisms. © 2018 The Author(s).

  12. Human vocal attractiveness as signaled by body size projection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xu

    Full Text Available Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language.

  13. Fish extinctions alter nutrient recycling in tropical freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Peter B; Jones, Laura E; Flecker, Alexander S; Vanni, Michael J

    2007-03-13

    There is increasing evidence that species extinctions jeopardize the functioning of ecosystems. Overfishing and other human influences are reducing the diversity and abundance of fish worldwide, but the ecosystem-level consequences of these changes have not been assessed quantitatively. Recycling of nutrients is one important ecosystem process that is directly influenced by fish. Fish species vary widely in the rates at which they excrete nitrogen and phosphorus; thus, altering fish communities could affect nutrient recycling. Here, we use extensive field data on nutrient recycling rates and population sizes of fish species in a Neotropical river and Lake Tanganyika, Africa, to evaluate the effects of simulated extinctions on nutrient recycling. In both of these species-rich ecosystems, recycling was dominated by relatively few species, but contributions of individual species differed between nitrogen and phosphorus. Alternative extinction scenarios produced widely divergent patterns. Loss of the species targeted by fishermen led to faster declines in nutrient recycling than extinctions in order of rarity, body size, or trophic position. However, when surviving species were allowed to increase after extinctions, these compensatory responses had strong moderating effects even after losing many species. Our results underscore the complexity of predicting the consequences of extinctions from species-rich animal communities. Nevertheless, the importance of exploited species in nutrient recycling suggests that overfishing could have particularly detrimental effects on ecosystem functioning.

  14. 28 CFR 36.403 - Alterations: Path of travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alterations: Path of travel. 36.403... Alterations: Path of travel. (a) General. An alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or... the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered area and the restrooms, telephones, and...

  15. Epigenetic alteration of sedimentary rocks at hydrogenic uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Wanlie; Shen Kefeng

    2001-01-01

    The author introduces the concept, the recognition criteria, the genesis and classification of the epigenetic alteration of sedimentary rocks in brief, and expounds the mineral-geochemical indications and characteristics of oxidation and reduction alterations in different geochemical zones in detail, and proposes the two models of ore-controlling zonation of epigenetic alteration. The authors finally introduce research methods of epigenetic alteration

  16. An experimental study of tumour size and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.A.; Denekamp, J.

    1989-01-01

    When designing experimental studies of tumours, it is considered important to control all variables that might alter the radiosensitivity and hence influence the variability of the data. One such variable is tumour size. We have studied the regrowth delay of a mammary carcinoma treated at 2-10 mm mean diameter (a 125-fold change of volume) with X-rays alone or X-rays plus misonidazole (MISO). The data were analysed to give dose-response curves, using four endpoints. Regrowth to a fixed size (4.5 mm larger than treatment size), or by a fixed increment (4 times the original volume) was expressed either as absolute delay, or as specific growth delay to allow for the changes in volume doubling time as the tumour grows. The method of analysis made no difference to the measured sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) for MISO. The SER was dose-dependent, being higher doses, but was not different in tumours of 2 or 10 mm diameter. However, when comparing response to X-rays alone, the method of analysis made a very big difference to the conclusions. Regrowth to R + 4.5 mm showed no change in radiosensitivity with tumour size, but regrowth to 4 times the original volume (the most logical endpoint) indicated that large tumours were more sensitive than small. We conclude that regrowth delay may be an inappropriate method for comparing absolute sensitivities of tumours of different sizes. However, for studying the effectiveness of a radiomodifier the constraints of tumour size at irradiation seem to be less severe than previously believed. (author). 8 refs.; 8 figs

  17. Micromégas: Altered Body-Environment Scaling in Literary Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Architectonic embodiment postulates a bidirectional link between bodily awareness and the architectural environment. The standard size and features of the human body, for instance, are thought to influence the structure of interiors and buildings, as well as their perception and appreciation. Whereas architectural practice and theory, the visual arts and more recently the cognitive sciences have explored this relationship of humans with their crafted environments, many fictional literary works have long experimented with alterations of body-environment scaling. This so-called Gulliver theme - popular in the science-fiction genre but also in children's literature and philosophical satire - reveals, as a recurrent thought-experiment, our preoccupation with proportions and our fascination for the infinitely small and large. Here I provide an overview of the altered scaling theme in literature, including classics such as Voltaire's Micromégas, Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Caroll's Alice, and Matheson's The Shrinking man, closely examining issues relevant to architectonic embodiment such as: bodily, perceptual, cognitive, affective, and social changes related to alterations in body size relative to people, objects and architectural environments. I next provide a taxonomy of the Gulliver theme and highlight its main psychological features, and then proceed to review relevant work from cognitive science. Although fictional alterations of body-environment scaling far outreach current possibilities in experimental research, I argue that the peripetiae and morals outlined in the literary realm, as products of the human imagination, provide a unique window into the folk-psychology of body and space.

  18. A Primer on Basic Effect Size Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Patricia B.; Rotou, Ourania

    The increased interest in reporting effect sizes means that it is necessary to consider what should be included in a primer on effect sizes. A review of papers on effect sizes and commonly repeated statistical analyses suggests that it is important to discuss effect sizes relative to bivariate correlation, t-tests, analysis of variance/covariance,…

  19. 7 CFR 51.1903 - Size classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.1903 Section 51.1903... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1903 Size classification. The following terms may be used for describing the size of the tomatoes in any lot...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1402 - Size classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.1402 Section 51.1402... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Size Classification § 51.1402 Size classification. Size of pecans may be specified in connection with the grade in accordance with one of the...

  1. Hypergravity-induced altered behavior in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Wan, Judy; Marcu, Oana; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2012-07-01

    Microgravity and mechanical stress are important factors of the spaceflight environment, and affect astronaut health and behavior. Structural, functional, and behavioral mechanisms of all cells and organisms are adapted to Earth's gravitational force, 1G, while altered gravity can pose challenges to their adaptability to this new environment. On ground, hypergravity paradigms have been used to predict and complement studies on microgravity. Even small changes that take place at a molecular and genetic level during altered gravity may result in changes in phenotypic behavior. Drosophila provides a robust and simple, yet very reliable model system to understand the complexity of hypergravity-induced altered behavior, due to availability of a plethora of genetic tools. Locomotor behavior is a sensitive parameter that reflects the array of molecular adaptive mechanisms recruited during exposure to altered gravity. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of this behavior in a hypergravity environment could potentially extend our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in microgravity. In our laboratory we are trying to dissect out the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hypergravity-induced oxidative stress, and its potential consequences on behavioral alterations by using Drosophila as a model system. In the present study, we employed pan-neuronal and mushroom body specific knock-down adult flies by using Gal4/UAS system to express inverted repeat transgenes (RNAi) to monitor and quantify the hypergravity-induced behavior in Drosophila. We established that acute hypergravity (3G for 60 min) causes a significant and robust decrease in the locomotor behavior in adult Drosophila, and that this change is dependent on genes related to Parkinson's disease, such as DJ-1α , DJ-1β , and parkin. In addition, we also showed that anatomically the control of this behavior is significantly processed in the mushroom body region of the fly brain. This work links a molecular

  2. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.; Shepherd, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  3. The "child size medicines" concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nsabagasani, Xavier; Okeng, Jasper Ogwal; Mbonye, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the ‘make medicines child size’ (MMCS) campaign by urging countries to prioritize procurement of medicines with appropriate strengths for children’s age and weight and, in child-friendly formulations of rectal and flexible oral solid...... of policy provisions for the MMCS recommendations. Results For most medicines for the selected diseases, appropriate strength for children’s age and weight was addressed especially in the EMHSLU 2012. However, policy documents neither referred to ‘child size medicines’ concept nor provided for flexible oral...... health policy documents reflected limited adherence to the MMCS recommendations. This and failure to use evidence based medicines may result into treatment failure and or death. A revision of the current policies and guidelines to better reflect ‘child size’, child appropriate and evidence based...

  4. Education, Birth Order, and Family Size

    OpenAIRE

    Bagger, Jesper; Birchenall, Javier A.; Mansour, Hani; Urzua, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a general framework to analyze the trade-off between education and family size. Our framework incorporates parental preferences for birth order and delivers theoretically consistent birth order and family size effects on children's educational attainment. We develop an empirical strategy to identify these effects. We show that the coefficient on family size in a regression of educational attainment on birth order and family size does not identify the family size effect as defined...

  5. Telerobotics for dry size reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, A.J. Jr; La Valle, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Remote handling in nuclear Environmental Management (EM) programs is likely to emphasize small batch sizes in unstructured environments. Most existing robotic solutions are impractical due to cost, complexity, or reliability issues. New processes that are environmentally safe are too demanding for human operators, and require precise motion control making traditional electromechanical, hydraulic, and master/slave manipulators unacceptable. The critical missing element is a method to bridge the gap between manual operation and full automation. Rapid advances in computer technology, coupled with national laboratory research activities, has challenged PaR Systems to develop a new line of telerobotics, exploiting this technology, to enhance EM processes. Telerobotics systems permit the human operator to direct and supervise the operation of a remote robotic mechanism. The typical robotic device responds to human inputs and transfers human motion into robot motion. However, unlike teleoperation, the robotic system not only incorporates local decision making authority but can enhance input devices by; producing motion in multiple coordinate frames (e.g., base, tool, joint), automating repetitive motions, responding to real-time sensory input, and facilitating a virtual collaborative environment. The basic premise is to augment, not replace, the human operator and blend the individual abilities of each system. Humans have superior cognitive and pattern recognitive skills, while the robot is a tireless precise positioning device. To provide insight into why telerobotics is crucial to EM, this paper highlights a proposed telerobotic system for the Dry Size Reduction of contaminated components. Different design concepts, robotic control features, and networking for remote operation needed are discussed. (author)

  6. Medium-size nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelweith, L.; Lavergne, J.C.; Martinot, G.; Weiss, A.

    1977-01-01

    CEA (TECHNICATOME) has developed a range of pressurized water reactors of the type ''CAS compact'' which are adapted to civil ship propulsion, or to electric power production, combined possibly with heat production, up to outputs equivalent to 125 MWe. Nuclear plants equipped with these reactors are suitable to medium-size electric networks. Among the possible realizations, two types of plants are mentioned as examples: 1) Floating electron-nuclear plants; and 2) Combined electric power and desalting plants. The report describes the design characteristics of the different parts of a 125 MWe unit floating electro-nuclear plant: nuclear steam system CAS 3 G, power generating plant, floating platform for the whole plant. The report gives attention to the different possibilities according to site conditions (the plant can be kept floating, in a natural or artificial basin, it can be put aground, ...) and to safety and environment factors. Such unit can be used in places where there is a growing demand in electric power and fresh water. The report describes how the reactor, the power generating plant and multiflash distillation units of an electric power-desalting plant can be combined: choice of the ratio water output/electric power output, thermal cycle combination, choice of the gain ratio, according to economic considerations, and to desired goal of water output. The report analyses also some technical options, such as: choice of the extraction point of steam used as heat supply of the desalting station (bleeding a condensation turbine, or recovering steam at the exhaust of a backpressure turbine), design making the system safe. Lastly, economic considerations are dealt with: combining the production of fresh water and electric power provides usually a much better energy balance and a lower cost for both products. Examples are given of some types of installations which combine medium-size reactors with fresh water stations yielding from 10000 to 120000 m 3 per day

  7. Alterations of proteins in murine splenic cells after low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shali; Meng Qingyong; Liu Shuzheng

    1997-01-01

    Alterations of proteins in the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of splenocytes were investigated in mice 4 hours after whole body irradiation with 75 mGy X-rays by 2D-electrophoresis. It was found that alterations of 6 proteins ranging in size from 12 to 43 kD with their pI distribution from 5.6 to 6.6 were displayed in the nuclear fraction of splenocytes in irradiated mice, of which there were 4 novel proteins and 2 up-regulated proteins and at the same time alterations of 10 proteins ranging in size from 10 to 69 kD with their pI distribution from 5.3 to 8.2 were displayed in the cytoplasmic fraction of splenocytes in irradiated mice, of which there were 6 novel proteins, 1 up-regulated proteins and 3 down-regulated proteins, and 3 proteins ranging in size from 24 to 32 kD with their pI distribution from 5.2 to 6.5 disappeared after radiation. It was shown that a 32000/5.2 (MW/pI) protein molecule in the sham-irradiated cytosol of splenocytes appeared in the nuclei after radiation and a 43000/6.3 protein molecule in the sham-irradiated cytosol decreased and appeared in the nuclei after radiation. The results suggest that exchanges of protein molecules occurred between nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments after radiation

  8. Alteration of consciousness in focal epilepsy: the global workspace alteration theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Naccache, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of consciousness (AOC) is an important clinical manifestation of partial seizures that greatly impacts the quality of life of patients with epilepsy. Several theories have been proposed in the last fifty years. An emerging concept in neurology is the global workspace (GW) theory that postulates that access to consciousness (from several sensorial modalities) requires transient coordinated activity from associative cortices, in particular the prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal associative cortex. Several lines of evidence support the view that partial seizures alter consciousness through disturbance of the GW. In particular, a nonlinear relation has been shown between excess of synchronization in the GW regions and the degree of AOC. Changes in thalamocortical synchrony occurring during the spreading of the ictal activity seem particularly involved in the mechanism of altered consciousness. This link between abnormal synchrony and AOC offers new perspectives in the treatment of the AOC since means of decreasing consciousness alteration in seizures could improve patients' quality of life. © 2013.

  9. Molecular alterations and biomarkers in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, William M.; Pritchard, Colin C.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of precision medicine is now a clinical reality. Advances in our understanding of the molecular genetics of colorectal cancer genetics is leading to the development of a variety of biomarkers that are being used as early detection markers, prognostic markers, and markers for predicting treatment responses. This is no more evident than in the recent advances in testing colorectal cancers for specific molecular alterations in order to guide treatment with the monoclonal antibody therapies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this review, we update a prior review published in 2010 and describe our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and how these alterations relate to emerging biomarkers for early detection and risk stratification (diagnostic markers), prognosis (prognostic markers), and the prediction of treatment responses (predictive markers). PMID:24178577

  10. Lung scan alterations in congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, R; Sanchez, J; Munoz, A; Lanaro, A E; Pico, A M

    1975-04-01

    This report analyzes the patterns in 54 lung scannings of 34 patients with altered pulmonary blood flow due to congenital heart disease. The technique and the results are presented. According to the images obtained, the patients are classified in three groups: Group I--normal distribution with more concentration of particles over the right lung and the bases. Group II--normal scannings found in left to right shunts unless there is pulmonary venous hypertension in which case the apex-base relationship was inverted. Group III--patients with right to left shunts of different types presenting various patterns according to severity, associated anomalies and palliative surgery. The hemodynamics created by cardiac defects and surgical procedures explain these alterations. This method is recommended in view of its advantages and accurate results.

  11. Smoking cessation alters subgingival microbial recolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, S C; Preshaw, P M; Heasman, P A; Kumar, P S

    2009-06-01

    Smoking cessation improves the clinical manifestations of periodontitis; however, its effect on the subgingival biofilm, the primary etiological agent of periodontitis, is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate, longitudinally, if smoking cessation altered the composition of the subgingival microbial community, by means of a quantitative, cultivation-independent assay for bacterial profiling. Subgingival plaque was collected at baseline, and 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment from smokers who received root planing and smoking cessation counseling. The plaque was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). Microbial profiles differed significantly between smokers and quitters at 6 and 12 months following smoking cessation. The microbial community in smokers was similar to baseline, while quitters demonstrated significantly divergent profiles. Changes in bacterial levels contributed to this shift. These findings reveal a critical role for smoking cessation in altering the subgingival biofilm and suggest a mechanism for improved periodontal health associated with smoking cessation.

  12. Alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华明; 胡岳华; 杨武国; 敖伟琴; 邱冠周

    2004-01-01

    Diaspore (α-AlOOH) was heated at various temperatures from 300 to 1000 ℃ for 2 h. The alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment was investigated by differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The mechanism of thermal decomposition of diaspore was discussed according to the Coats-Redfern equation. It is found that after thermal treatment at 500 ℃, diaspore is transformed entirely to corundum (α-Al2O3). Combined with the mass loss ratio obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis data, the activation energies for the thermal treatment of diaspore are calculated as Ea=10.4 kJ/mol below 400 ℃ and Eb=47.5 kJ/mol above 400 ℃, respectively, which is directly related to the structural alteration of diaspore during the thermal treatment. The results indicate that the thermal decomposition of diaspore is conducted primarily by means of an interfacial reaction.

  13. Viral haemorrhagic fever and vascular alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrowicz, P; Wolf, K; Falzarano, D; Feldmann, H; Seebach, J; Schnittler, H

    2008-02-01

    Pathogenesis of viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) is closely associated with alterations of the vascular system. Among the virus families causing VHF, filoviruses (Marburg and Ebola) are the most fatal, and will be focused on here. After entering the body, Ebola primarily targets monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Infected dendritic cells are largely impaired in their activation potency, likely contributing to the immune suppression that occurs during filovirus infection. Monocytes/macrophages, however, immediately activate after viral contact and release reasonable amounts of cytokines that target the vascular system, particularly the endothelial cells. Some underlying molecular mechanisms such as alteration of the vascular endothelial cadherin/catenin complex, tyrosine phosphorylation, expression of cell adhesion molecules, tissue factor and the effect of soluble viral proteins released from infected cells to the blood stream will be discussed.

  14. Epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarova, G.V.; Kondrat'eva, I.A.; Zelenova, O.I.

    1980-01-01

    Notions are explained, and technique for studying epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at uranium deposits is described. Main types of epigenetic transformations and their mineralogic-geochemical characteristics are considered. Rock alterations, accompanying uranium mineralization, can be related to 2 types: oxidation and reduction. The main mineralogic-geochemical property of oxidation transformations is epigenetic limonitization. Stratal limonitization in primary grey-coloured terrigenic rocks and in epigenetically reduced (pyritized) rocks, as well as in rock, subjected to epigenetic gleying, are characterized. Reduction type of epigenetic transformations is subdivided into sulphidic and non-sulphidic (gley) subtypes. Sulphidic transformations in grey-coloured terrigenic rocks with organic substance of carbonic row, in rocks, containing organic substance of oil row, sulphide transformations of sedimentary rocks, as well as gley transformations, are considered

  15. Altered Sensory Feedbacks in Pianist's Dystonia: the altered auditory feedback paradigm and the glove effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Pei-Hsin Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigates the effect of altered auditory feedback (AAF in musician's dystonia (MD and discusses whether altered auditory feedback can be considered as a sensory trick in MD. Furthermore, the effect of AAF is compared with altered tactile feedback, which can serve as a sensory trick in several other forms of focal dystonia. Methods: The method is based on scale analysis (Jabusch et al. 2004. Experiment 1 employs synchronization paradigm: 12 MD patients and 25 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in synchrony with a metronome on a MIDI-piano with 3 auditory feedback conditions: 1. normal feedback; 2. no feedback; 3. constant delayed feedback. Experiment 2 employs synchronization-continuation paradigm: 12 MD patients and 12 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in two phases: first in synchrony with a metronome, secondly continue the established tempo without the metronome. There are 4 experimental conditions, among them 3 are the same altered auditory feedback as in Experiment 1 and 1 is related to altered tactile sensory input. The coefficient of variation of inter-onset intervals of the key depressions was calculated to evaluate fine motor control. Results: In both experiments, the healthy controls and the patients behaved very similarly. There is no difference in the regularity of playing between the two groups under any condition, and neither did AAF nor did altered tactile feedback have a beneficial effect on patients’ fine motor control. Conclusions: The results of the two experiments suggest that in the context of our experimental designs, AAF and altered tactile feedback play a minor role in motor coordination in patients with musicians' dystonia. We propose that altered auditory and tactile feedback do not serve as effective sensory tricks and may not temporarily reduce the symptoms of patients suffering from MD in this experimental context.

  16. [Colorectal cancer (CCR): genetic and molecular alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, Clara Ibet; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a genetic and molecular overview of colorectal carcinogenesis (sporadic and hereditary origin) as a multistage process, where there are a number of molecular mechanisms associated with the development of colorectal cancer and genomic instability that allows the accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, chromosomal instability, and methylation and microsatellite instability, and the involvement of altered expression of microRNAs' prognosis factors.

  17. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J.; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations.\\ud \\ud The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence® Boost and Mirawhite® Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 ...

  18. Silychristin: Skeletal Alterations and Biological Activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biedermann, David; Buchta, M.; Holečková, Veronika; Sedlák, David; Valentová, Kateřina; Cvačka, Josef; Bednárová, Lucie; Křenková, Alena; Kuzma, Marek; Škuta, Ctibor; Peikerová, Žaneta; Bartůněk, Petr; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 12 (2016), s. 3086-3092 ISSN 0163-3864 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03037S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-27317A; GA MŠk LO1220; GA MŠk LM2015063; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15081 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Silychristin * skeletal alterations * biological activities Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.281, year: 2016

  19. Sulphur depletion altered somatic embryogenesis in Theobroma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... embryo) occur in response to alteration of genes expression patterns ... the proteins synthesis and the rate with which all amino ... thiamine-HCl, 1 mgml-1 nicotinic acid and 2 mgml-1 glycine), 20 gL-1 ... Amino acids and soluble sugar extraction .... 0.1% (v/v) Triton X-100, 0.1 % (w/v) dithiothreitol, and 0.2%.

  20. Control of beam size and polarization time in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, J.M.; Rees, J.R.; Wiedemann, H.

    1975-07-01

    In this report we describe a method of controlling beam size in which the focusing functions are not altered with beam energy but the curvature function is drastically altered in a few locations which comprise only a very small fraction of the circumference. As will be described in the following paper we are proposing to control the quantum excitation and radiation damping of the particles by means of special excitation magnets or /open quotes/wigglers/close quotes/. Since the mean square energy deviation and radial beam emittance are proportional approximately to E/sup 2//l angle/G/sup 3//r angle//l angle/G/sup 2//r angle//sup /minus/1 while the damping times are proportional to (E/sup 3//l angle/G/sup 2//r angle/)/sup /minus/1/, it is possible to achieve constant beam size in a constant focusing configuration while the damping times vary roughly as E/sup /minus/2/. In addition, it is possible to reduce the beam polarization time with these devices. A scheme for beam-size and damping control based on the same principle was described by M. Bassetti about a year ago, in which all of the storage-ring bending magnets were involved as wigglers, and a substantial increase in magnet cost resulted. The consequences for polarization times were not explored. The design formulae are derived and two specific applications to the PEP design in which the wigglers are installed in three of the six 5-m straight sections are described with attention given to practical magnet design, synchrotron radiation handling and other matters. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Marijuana exposure and pulmonary alterations in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fligiel, S E; Beals, T F; Tashkin, D P; Paule, M G; Scallet, A C; Ali, S F; Bailey, J R; Slikker, W

    1991-11-01

    As part of a large multidisciplinary study, we examined lungs from 24 periadolescent male rhesus monkeys that were sacrificed seven months after daily marijuana smoke inhalation of 12 months duration. Animals were divided into four exposure groups: A) high-dose (one marijuana cigarette 7 days/week), B) low-dose (one marijuana cigarette 2 days/week and sham smoke 5 days/week), C) placebo (one extracted marijuana cigarette 7 days/week), and D) sham (sham smoke 7 days/week). Lungs, removed intact, were formalin inflated, sectioned and examined. Several pathological alterations, including alveolitis, alveolar cell hyperplasia and granulomatous inflammation, were found with higher frequency in all cigarette-smoking groups. Other alterations, such as bronchiolitis, bronchiolar squamous metaplasia and interstitial fibrosis, were found most frequently in the marijuana-smoking groups. Alveolar cell hyperplasia with focal atypia was seen only in the marijuana-smoking animals. These changes represent mostly early alterations of small airways. Additional follow-up studies are needed to determine their long-term prognostic significance.

  2. Genetic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhao-Shan; Niu, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Wen-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although recent advances in therapeutic approaches for treating HCC have improved the prognoses of patients with HCC, this cancer is still associated with a poor survival rate mainly due to late diagnosis. Therefore, a diagnosis must be made sufficiently early to perform curative and effective treatments. There is a need for a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of HCC because these mechanisms are critical for making early diagnoses and developing novel therapeutic strategies. Over the past decade, much progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatocarcinogenesis. In particular, recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have revealed numerous genetic alterations, including recurrently mutated genes and dysregulated signaling pathways in HCC. A better understanding of the genetic alterations in HCC could contribute to identifying potential driver mutations and discovering novel therapeutic targets in the future. In this article, we summarize the current advances in research on the genetic alterations, including genomic instability, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, somatic mutations and deregulated signaling pathways, implicated in the initiation and progression of HCC. We also attempt to elucidate some of the genetic mechanisms that contribute to making early diagnoses of and developing molecularly targeted therapies for HCC. PMID:27895396

  3. Genomic and Epigenomic Alterations in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Balabhadrapatruni V S K; Nepal, Saroj; Varambally, Sooryanarayana

    2016-07-01

    Multiple genetic and epigenetic events characterize tumor progression and define the identity of the tumors. Advances in high-throughput technologies, like gene expression profiling, next-generation sequencing, proteomics, and metabolomics, have enabled detailed molecular characterization of various tumors. The integration and analyses of these high-throughput data have unraveled many novel molecular aberrations and network alterations in tumors. These molecular alterations include multiple cancer-driving mutations, gene fusions, amplification, deletion, and post-translational modifications, among others. Many of these genomic events are being used in cancer diagnosis, whereas others are therapeutically targeted with small-molecule inhibitors. Multiple genes/enzymes that play a role in DNA and histone modifications are also altered in various cancers, changing the epigenomic landscape during cancer initiation and progression. Apart from protein-coding genes, studies are uncovering the critical regulatory roles played by noncoding RNAs and noncoding regions of the genome during cancer progression. Many of these genomic and epigenetic events function in tandem to drive tumor development and metastasis. Concurrent advances in genome-modulating technologies, like gene silencing and genome editing, are providing ability to understand in detail the process of cancer initiation, progression, and signaling as well as opening up avenues for therapeutic targeting. In this review, we discuss some of the recent advances in cancer genomic and epigenomic research. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Obesogenic diets alter metabolism in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan R Showalter

    Full Text Available Obesity and accompanying metabolic disease is negatively correlated with lung health yet the exact mechanisms by which obesity affects the lung are not well characterized. Since obesity is associated with lung diseases as chronic bronchitis and asthma, we designed a series of experiments to measure changes in lung metabolism in mice fed obesogenic diets. Mice were fed either control or high fat/sugar diet (45%kcal fat/17%kcal sucrose, or very high fat diet (60%kcal fat/7% sucrose for 150 days. We performed untargeted metabolomics by GC-TOFMS and HILIC-QTOFMS and lipidomics by RPLC-QTOFMS to reveal global changes in lung metabolism resulting from obesity and diet composition. From a total of 447 detected metabolites, we found 91 metabolite and lipid species significantly altered in mouse lung tissues upon dietary treatments. Significantly altered metabolites included complex lipids, free fatty acids, energy metabolites, amino acids and adenosine and NAD pathway members. While some metabolites were altered in both obese groups compared to control, others were different between obesogenic diet groups. Furthermore, a comparison of changes between lung, kidney and liver tissues indicated few metabolic changes were shared across organs, suggesting the lung is an independent metabolic organ. These results indicate obesity and diet composition have direct mechanistic effects on composition of the lung metabolome, which may contribute to disease progression by lung-specific pathways.

  5. Altered Global Signal Topography in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Genevieve J; Murray, John D; Glasser, Matthew; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Krystal, John H; Schleifer, Charlie; Repovs, Grega; Anticevic, Alan

    2017-11-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a disabling neuropsychiatric disease associated with disruptions across distributed neural systems. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has identified extensive abnormalities in the blood-oxygen level-dependent signal in SCZ patients, including alterations in the average signal over the brain-i.e. the "global" signal (GS). It remains unknown, however, if these "global" alterations occur pervasively or follow a spatially preferential pattern. This study presents the first network-by-network quantification of GS topography in healthy subjects and SCZ patients. We observed a nonuniform GS contribution in healthy comparison subjects, whereby sensory areas exhibited the largest GS component. In SCZ patients, we identified preferential GS representation increases across association regions, while sensory regions showed preferential reductions. GS representation in sensory versus association cortices was strongly anti-correlated in healthy subjects. This anti-correlated relationship was markedly reduced in SCZ. Such shifts in GS topography may underlie profound alterations in neural information flow in SCZ, informing development of pharmacotherapies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Jing, Y; Collie, N D; Dean, B; Bilkey, D K; Zhang, H

    2016-08-16

    Previous research implicates altered metabolism of l-arginine, a versatile amino acid with a number of bioactive metabolites, in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The present study, for we believe the first time, systematically compared the metabolic profile of l-arginine in the frontal cortex (Brodmann's area 8) obtained post-mortem from schizophrenic individuals and age- and gender-matched non-psychiatric controls (n=20 per group). The enzyme assays revealed no change in total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, but significantly increased arginase activity in the schizophrenia group. Western blot showed reduced endothelial NOS protein expression and increased arginase II protein level in the disease group. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric assays confirmed significantly reduced levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but increased agmatine concentration and glutamate/GABA ratio in the schizophrenia cases. Regression analysis indicated positive correlations between arginase activity and the age of disease onset and between l-ornithine level and the duration of illness. Moreover, cluster analyses revealed that l-arginine and its main metabolites l-citrulline, l-ornithine and agmatine formed distinct groups, which were altered in the schizophrenia group. The present study provides further evidence of altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia, which enhances our understanding of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and may lead to the future development of novel preventions and/or therapeutics for the disease.

  7. Obesogenic diets alter metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Megan R; Nonnecke, Eric B; Linderholm, A L; Cajka, Tomas; Sa, Michael R; Lönnerdal, Bo; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Fiehn, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Obesity and accompanying metabolic disease is negatively correlated with lung health yet the exact mechanisms by which obesity affects the lung are not well characterized. Since obesity is associated with lung diseases as chronic bronchitis and asthma, we designed a series of experiments to measure changes in lung metabolism in mice fed obesogenic diets. Mice were fed either control or high fat/sugar diet (45%kcal fat/17%kcal sucrose), or very high fat diet (60%kcal fat/7% sucrose) for 150 days. We performed untargeted metabolomics by GC-TOFMS and HILIC-QTOFMS and lipidomics by RPLC-QTOFMS to reveal global changes in lung metabolism resulting from obesity and diet composition. From a total of 447 detected metabolites, we found 91 metabolite and lipid species significantly altered in mouse lung tissues upon dietary treatments. Significantly altered metabolites included complex lipids, free fatty acids, energy metabolites, amino acids and adenosine and NAD pathway members. While some metabolites were altered in both obese groups compared to control, others were different between obesogenic diet groups. Furthermore, a comparison of changes between lung, kidney and liver tissues indicated few metabolic changes were shared across organs, suggesting the lung is an independent metabolic organ. These results indicate obesity and diet composition have direct mechanistic effects on composition of the lung metabolome, which may contribute to disease progression by lung-specific pathways.

  8. Chromite alteration processes within Vourinos ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Giovanni; Merlini, Anna

    2012-09-01

    The renewed interest in chromite ore deposits is directly related to the increase in Cr price ruled by international market trends. Chromite, an accessory mineral in peridotites, is considered to be a petrogenetic indicator because its composition reflects the degree of partial melting that the mantle experienced while producing the chromium spinel-bearing rock (Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993). However, the understanding of chromite alteration and metamorphic modification is still controversial (e.g. Evans and Frost in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:959-972, 1975; Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993; Oze et al. in Am J Sci 304:67-101, 2004). Metamorphic alteration leads to major changes in chromite chemistry and to the growth of secondary phases such as ferritchromite and chlorite. In this study, we investigate the Vourinos complex chromitites (from the mines of Rizo, Aetoraches, Xerolivado and Potamia) with respect to textural and chemical analyses in order to highlight the most important trend of alteration related to chromite transformation. The present study has been partially funded by the Aliakmon project in collaboration between the Public Power Corporation of Greece and Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration of Kozani.

  9. Assessment of diagenetic alteration of dinosaur eggshells through petrography and geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, M. V.; Eagle, R.; Eiler, J. M.; Tripati, A. K.; Ramirez, P. C.; Loyd, S. J.; Chiappe, L.; Montanari, S.; Norell, M.; Tuetken, T.

    2012-12-01

    Carbonate clumped isotope analysis of fossil eggshells has the potential to constrain both the physiology of extinct animals and, potentially, paleoenvironmental conditions, especially when coupled with isotopic measurements of co-occurring soil carbonates. Eggshell samples from both modern vertebrates and Cretaceous Hadrosaurid, Oviraptorid, Titanosaur, Hypselosaurus, Faveoolithus, dinosaur fossils have been collected from Auca Mahuevo, Argentina and Rousett, France, amongst other locations, for geochemical analysis to determine if isotopic signatures could be used to indicate warm- or cold-bloodedness. In some locations soil carbonates were also analyzed to constrain environmental temperatures. In order to test the validity of the geochemical results, an extensive study was undertaken to establish degree of diagenetic alteration. Petrographic and cathodoluminescence characterization of the eggshells were used to assess diagenetic alteration. An empirical 1-5 point scale was used to assign each sample an alteration level, and the observations were then compared with the geochemical results. Specimens displayed a wide range of alteration states. Some of which were well preserved and others highly altered. Another group seemed to be structural intact and only under cathodoluminescence was alteration clearly observed. In the majority of samples, alteration level was found to be predictably related to geochemical results. From specimens with little evidence for diagenesis, carbonate clumped isotope signatures support high (37-40°C) body temperature for Titanosaurid dinosaurs, but potentially lower body temperatures for other taxa. If these data do, in fact, represent original eggshell growth temperatures, these results support variability in body temperature amongst Cretaceous dinosaurs and potentially are consistent with variations between adult body temperature and size — a characteristic of 'gigantothermy'.

  10. Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noergaard Petersen, H.; Almdal, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nanotech, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kusano, Y.; Broendsted, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-09-01

    Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had amounts of bonded and physisorbed sizing similar to what has been presented in literature. An estimated sizing thickness was found to be approximately 100 nm. It is indicated that an epoxy-resin containing film former and a polyethylene oxide lubricant are present, yet no silanes or other sizing components were identified in the extractant. (Author)

  11. Chemistry, mineralogy and alteration intensity of hydrothermal altered Mt Unzen conduit rocks (Shimabara/Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kai-Uwe; Yilmaz, Tim; Gilg, H. Albert; Janots, Emilie; Mayer, Klaus; Nakada, Setsuya; Dingwell, Donald

    2017-04-01

    Investigations were carried out on hydrothermally altered coherent dacitic dykes samples from (USDP-4) drill core at Mt Unzen stratovolcano (Shimabara/Japan). XRF, XRD, EMPA, C-O-isotope, hot-cathode CL and SEM analysis led to insights concerning chemistry, mineralogy, and intensity and type of alteration as well as the origin of carbonate-precipitating fluids. Additionally a textural characterization of the occurring replacement features in the volcanic conduit rocks was performed. The occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, pyrite, carbonates, and R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite and kaolinite group minerals indicate a weak to moderate propylitic to phyllic hydrothermal alteration. The dacitic samples of the dykes show different hydrothermal alteration features: (i) carbonate and chlorite pseudomorphs after hornblende as well as core and zonal textures due to replacement of plagioclase by R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals, (ii) colloform banded fracture fillings and fillings in dissolution vugs, and (iii) chlorite, R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals in the groundmass. Late chlorite veins crosscut precipitates of R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals. Carbonates in fractures and in pseudomorphs after hornblende comprise iron-rich dolomite solid solutions ("ankerite") and calcite. Isotopic values indicate a hydrothermal-magmatic origin for the carbonate formation. The chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCPI) and the Ishikawa alteration index (AI), applied to the investigated samples show significant differences (CCPI=52.7-57.8; AI=36.1-40.6) indicating their different degree of alteration. According to Nakada et al., 2005, the C13 to C16 dykes represent the feeder dyke from the latest eruption (1991-1995) whereas C8 represents an earlier dyke feeder dyke from an older eruption. Weakest alteration, which was obtained in samples C16-1-5 and C13-2-5, correlates with the alteration

  12. TCDD alters medial epithelial cell differentiation during palatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a widely distributed, persistent environmental contaminant that is teratogenic in mice, where it induces hydronephrosis and cleft palate. The incidence of clefting has been shown to be dose dependent after exposure on either gestation Day (GD) 10 or 12, although the embryo is more susceptible on GD 12. TCDD-exposed palatal shelves meet but do not fuse, and programmed cell death of the medial epithelial cells is inhibited. The mechanism of action through which TCDD alters the program of medial cell development has not been examined in earlier studies, and it is not known whether the mechanism is the same regardless of the dose or developmental stage of exposure. In this study, C57BL/6N mice, a strain sensitive to TCDD, were dosed orally on GD 10 or 12 with 0, 6, 12, 24, or 30 micrograms/kg body wt, in 10 ml corn oil/kg. Embryonic palatal shelves were examined on GD 14, 15, or 16. The degree of palatal closure, epithelial surface morphology, and cellular ultrastructure, the incorporation of [3H]TdR, the expression of EGF receptors, and the binding of 125I-EGF were assessed. After exposure on GD 10 or 12, TCDD altered the differentiation pathway of the medial epithelial cells. The palatal shelves were of normal size and overall morphology, but fusion of the medial epithelia of the opposing shelves did not occur. TCDD prevented programmed cell death of the medial peridermal cells. The expression of EGF receptors by medial cells continued through Day 16 and the receptors were able to bind ligand. The medial cells differentiated into a stratified, squamous, keratinizing epithelium. The shift in phenotype to an oral-like epithelium occurred after exposure on either GD 10 or 12. At the lower dose (6 micrograms/kg), fewer cleft palates were produced, but those shelves which did respond had a fully expressed shift in differentiation

  13. Altered brain network modules induce helplessness in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Daihui; Shi, Feng; Shen, Ting; Peng, Ziwen; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Xiaohua; Qiu, Meihui; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Kaida; Fang, Yiru; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-10-01

    The abnormal brain functional connectivity (FC) has been assumed to be a pathophysiological aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is poorly understood, regarding the underlying patterns of global FC network and their relationships with the clinical characteristics of MDD. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 16 first episode, medication-naïve MDD patients and 16 healthy control subjects. The global FC network was constructed using 90 brain regions. The global topological patterns, e.g., small-worldness and modularity, and their relationships with depressive characteristics were investigated. Furthermore, the participant coefficient and module degree of MDD patients were measured to reflect the regional roles in module network, and the impairment of FC was examined by network based statistic. Small-world property was not altered in MDD. However, MDD patients exhibited 5 atypically reorganized modules compared to the controls. A positive relationship was also found among MDD patients between the intra-module I and helplessness factor evaluated via the Hamilton Depression Scale. Specifically, eight regions exhibited the abnormal participant coefficient or module degree, e.g., left superior orbital frontal cortex and right amygdala. The decreased FC was identified among the sub-network of 24 brain regions, e.g., frontal cortex, supplementary motor area, amygdala, thalamus, and hippocampus. The limited size of MDD samples precluded meaningful study of distinct clinical characteristics in relation to aberrant FC. The results revealed altered patterns of brain module network at the global level in MDD patients, which might contribute to the feelings of helplessness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain grey matter volume alterations in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingying; Liu, Jia; Chen, Ziqi; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Jing; Kuang, Weihong; Yang, Yanchun; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Dong; Bi, Feng; Kendrick, Keith M; Gong, Qiyong

    2014-11-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have demonstrated that grey matter abnormalities are involved in the pathophysiology of late-life depression (LLD), but the findings are inconsistent and have not been quantitatively reviewed. The aim of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis that integrated the reported VBM studies, to determine consistent grey matter alterations in individuals with LLD. A systematic search was conducted to identify VBM studies that compared patients with LLD and healthy controls. We performed a meta-analysis using the effect size signed differential mapping method to quantitatively estimate regional grey matter abnormalities in patients with LLD. We included 9 studies with 11 data sets comprising 292 patients with LLD and 278 healthy controls in our meta-analysis. The pooled and subgroup meta-analyses showed robust grey matter reductions in the right lentiform nucleus extending into the parahippocampus, the hippocampus and the amygdala, the bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the right subcallosal gyrus as well as a grey matter increase in the right lingual gyrus. Meta-regression analyses showed that mean age and the percentage of female patients with LLD were not significantly related to grey matter changes. The analysis techniques, patient characteristics and clinical variables of the studies included were heterogeneous, and most participants were medicated. The present meta-analysis is, to our knowledge, the first to overcome previous inconsistencies in the VBM studies of LLD and provide robust evidence for grey matter alterations within fronto-striatal-limbic networks, thereby implicating them in the pathophysiology of LLD. The mean age and the percentage of female patients with LLD did not appear to have a measurable impact on grey matter changes, although we cannot rule out the contributory effects of medication.

  15. ABLATION AND CHEMICAL ALTERATION OF COSMIC DUST PARTICLES DURING ENTRY INTO THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Prasad, M. Shyam; Dey, S.; Fernandes, D. [National Institute of Oceanography (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D., E-mail: rudra@nio.org [School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    Most dust-sized cosmic particles undergo ablation and chemical alteration during atmospheric entry, which alters their original properties. A comprehensive understanding of this process is essential in order to decipher their pre-entry characteristics. The purpose of the study is to illustrate the process of vaporization of different elements for various entry parameters. The numerical results for particles of various sizes and various zenith angles are treated in order to understand the changes in chemical composition that the particles undergo as they enter the atmosphere. Particles with large sizes (> few hundred μ m) and high entry velocities (>16 km s{sup −1}) experience less time at peak temperatures compared to those that have lower velocities. Model calculations suggest that particles can survive with an entry velocity of 11 km s{sup −1} and zenith angles (ZA) of 30°–90°, which accounts for ∼66% of the region where particles retain their identities. Our results suggest that the changes in chemical composition of MgO, SiO{sub 2}, and FeO are not significant for an entry velocity of 11 km s{sup −1} and sizes <300 μ m, but the changes in these compositions become significant beyond this size, where FeO is lost to a major extent. However, at 16 km s{sup −1} the changes in MgO, SiO{sub 2}, and FeO are very intense, which is also reflected in Mg/Si, Fe/Si, Ca/Si, and Al/Si ratios, even for particles with a size of 100 μ m. Beyond 400 μ m particle sizes at 16 km s{sup −1}, most of the major elements are vaporized, leaving the refractory elements, Al and Ca, suspended in the troposphere.

  16. ABLATION AND CHEMICAL ALTERATION OF COSMIC DUST PARTICLES DURING ENTRY INTO THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Prasad, M. Shyam; Dey, S.; Fernandes, D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Most dust-sized cosmic particles undergo ablation and chemical alteration during atmospheric entry, which alters their original properties. A comprehensive understanding of this process is essential in order to decipher their pre-entry characteristics. The purpose of the study is to illustrate the process of vaporization of different elements for various entry parameters. The numerical results for particles of various sizes and various zenith angles are treated in order to understand the changes in chemical composition that the particles undergo as they enter the atmosphere. Particles with large sizes (> few hundred μ m) and high entry velocities (>16 km s −1 ) experience less time at peak temperatures compared to those that have lower velocities. Model calculations suggest that particles can survive with an entry velocity of 11 km s −1 and zenith angles (ZA) of 30°–90°, which accounts for ∼66% of the region where particles retain their identities. Our results suggest that the changes in chemical composition of MgO, SiO 2 , and FeO are not significant for an entry velocity of 11 km s −1 and sizes <300 μ m, but the changes in these compositions become significant beyond this size, where FeO is lost to a major extent. However, at 16 km s −1 the changes in MgO, SiO 2 , and FeO are very intense, which is also reflected in Mg/Si, Fe/Si, Ca/Si, and Al/Si ratios, even for particles with a size of 100 μ m. Beyond 400 μ m particle sizes at 16 km s −1 , most of the major elements are vaporized, leaving the refractory elements, Al and Ca, suspended in the troposphere.

  17. Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro; Brøndsted, Povl

    2013-01-01

    Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus...... the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had...

  18. Effect of freeze-thaw cycling on grain size of biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zuolin; Dugan, Brandon; Masiello, Caroline A; Wahab, Leila M; Gonnermann, Helge M; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A

    2018-01-01

    Biochar may improve soil hydrology by altering soil porosity, density, hydraulic conductivity, and water-holding capacity. These properties are associated with the grain size distributions of both soil and biochar, and therefore may change as biochar weathers. Here we report how freeze-thaw (F-T) cycling impacts the grain size of pine, mesquite, miscanthus, and sewage waste biochars under two drainage conditions: undrained (all biochars) and a gravity-drained experiment (mesquite biochar only). In the undrained experiment plant biochars showed a decrease in median grain size and a change in grain-size distribution consistent with the flaking off of thin layers from the biochar surface. Biochar grain size distribution changed from unimodal to bimodal, with lower peaks and wider distributions. For plant biochars the median grain size decreased by up to 45.8% and the grain aspect ratio increased by up to 22.4% after 20 F-T cycles. F-T cycling did not change the grain size or aspect ratio of sewage waste biochar. We also observed changes in the skeletal density of biochars (maximum increase of 1.3%), envelope density (maximum decrease of 12.2%), and intraporosity (porosity inside particles, maximum increase of 3.2%). In the drained experiment, mesquite biochar exhibited a decrease of median grain size (up to 4.2%) and no change of aspect ratio after 10 F-T cycles. We also document a positive relationship between grain size decrease and initial water content, suggesting that, biochar properties that increase water content, like high intraporosity and pore connectivity large intrapores, and hydrophilicity, combined with undrained conditions and frequent F-T cycles may increase biochar breakdown. The observed changes in biochar particle size and shape can be expected to alter hydrologic properties, and thus may impact both plant growth and the hydrologic cycle.

  19. Smaller food item sizes of snack foods influence reduced portions and caloric intake in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2011-05-01

    Studies considering the impact of food-size variations on consumption have predominantly focused on portion size, whereas very little research has investigated variations in food-item size, especially at snacking occasions, and results have been contradictory. This study evaluated the effect of altering the size of food items (ie, small vs large candies) of equal-size food portions on short-term energy intake while snacking. The study used a between-subjects design (n=33) in a randomized experiment conducted in spring 2008. In a psychology laboratory (separate cubicles), participants (undergraduate psychology students, 29 of 33 female, mean age 20.3±2 years, mean body mass index 21.7±3.7) were offered unlimited consumption of candies while participating in an unrelated computerized experiment. For half of the subjects, items were cut in two to make the small food-item size. Food intake (weight in grams, kilocalories, and number of food items) was examined using analysis of variance. Results showed that decreasing the item size of candies led participants to decrease by half their gram weight intake, resulting in an energy intake decrease of 60 kcal compared to the other group. Appetite ratings and subject and food characteristics had no moderating effect. A cognitive bias could explain why people tend to consider that one unit of food (eg, 10 candies) is the appropriate amount to consume, regardless of the size of the food items in the unit. This study suggests a simple dietary strategy, decreasing food-item size without having to alter the portion size offered, may reduce energy intake at snacking occasions. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ontogenetic functional diversity: size structure of a keystone predator drives functioning of a complex ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Volker H W; Rasmussen, Nick L

    2013-05-01

    A central challenge in community ecology is to understand the connection between biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems. While traditional approaches have largely focused on species-level diversity, increasing evidence indicates that there exists substantial ecological diversity among individuals within species. By far, the largest source of this intraspecific diversity stems from variation among individuals in ontogenetic stage and size. Although such ontogenetic shifts are ubiquitous in natural communities, whether and how they scale up to influence the structure and functioning of complex ecosystems is largely unknown. Here we take an experimental approach to examine the consequences of ontogenetic niche shifts for the structure of communities and ecosystem processes. In particular we experimentally manipulated the stage structure in a keystone predator, larvae of the dragonfly Anax junius, in complex experimental pond communities to test whether changes in the population stage or size structure of a keystone species scale up to alter community structure and ecosystem processes, and how functional differences scale with relative differences in size among stages. We found that the functional role of A. junius was stage-specific. Altering what stages were present in a pond led to concurrent changes in community structure, primary producer biomass (periphyton and phytoplankton), and ultimately altered ecosystem processes (respiration and net primary productivity), indicating a strong, but stage-specific, trophic cascade. Interestingly, the stage-specific effects did not simply scale with size or biomass of the predator, but instead indicated clear ontogenetic niche shifts in ecological interactions. Thus, functional differences among stages within a keystone species scaled up to alter the functioning of entire ecosystems. Therefore, our results indicate that the classical approach of assuming an average functional role of a species can be misleading because

  1. Signalling and the control of skeletal muscle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Anthony; Patel, Ketan

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is highly adaptive to environmental stimuli and can alter its mass accordingly. This tissue is almost unique in that it can increase its size through two distinct mechanisms. It can grow through a cellular process mediated by cell fusion, or it can increase its size simply by increasing its protein content. Understanding how these processes are regulated is crucial for the development of potential therapies against debilitating skeletal muscle wasting diseases. Two key signalling molecules, Insulin like Growth Factor (IGF) and GDF-8/myostatin, have emerged in recent years to be potent regulators of skeletal muscle size. In this review we bring together recent data highlighting the important and novel aspects of both molecules and their signalling pathways, culminating in a discussion of the cellular and tissue phenotypic outcomes of their stimulation or antagonism. We emphasise the complex regulatory mechanisms and discuss the temporal and spatial differences that control their action, understanding of which is crucial to further their use as potential therapeutic targets.

  2. Signalling and the control of skeletal muscle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Anthony [School of Biological Sciences, Hopkins Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights Campus, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6UB (United Kingdom); Patel, Ketan, E-mail: ketan.patel@reading.ac.uk [School of Biological Sciences, Hopkins Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights Campus, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6UB (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-01

    Skeletal muscle is highly adaptive to environmental stimuli and can alter its mass accordingly. This tissue is almost unique in that it can increase its size through two distinct mechanisms. It can grow through a cellular process mediated by cell fusion, or it can increase its size simply by increasing its protein content. Understanding how these processes are regulated is crucial for the development of potential therapies against debilitating skeletal muscle wasting diseases. Two key signalling molecules, Insulin like Growth Factor (IGF) and GDF-8/myostatin, have emerged in recent years to be potent regulators of skeletal muscle size. In this review we bring together recent data highlighting the important and novel aspects of both molecules and their signalling pathways, culminating in a discussion of the cellular and tissue phenotypic outcomes of their stimulation or antagonism. We emphasise the complex regulatory mechanisms and discuss the temporal and spatial differences that control their action, understanding of which is crucial to further their use as potential therapeutic targets.

  3. Sizing for ethnicity in multi-cultural societies: development of size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... years, and fell in the size 6/10 to size 14/38 size range. The findings of the study suggest that young South African women of African descent with a triangular body shape may experience loose fit in the upper body of garments sized according to the size specifications currently used in the South African apparel industry.

  4. Influência da soma térmica e da chuva durante o desenvolvimento de laranjas-'Valência' e 'Natal' na relação entre sólidos solúveis e acidez e no índice tecnológico do suco Influence of the accumulated heat unit and rainfall on the ratio and technological index of sweet oranges 'Valência' and 'Natal'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLOVIS ALBERTO VOLPE

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de conhecer a influência que algumas variáveis meteorológicas exercem na razão entre sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável ("ratio" e no índice tecnológico dos frutos da primeira florada das laranjeiras-'Natal' e 'Valência', na região de Bebedouro-SP, mediante a utilização de métodos estatísticos de regressão. Foram utilizados dados de amostragens de rotina para o processamento industrial durante 4 anos, os quais permitiram desenvolver equações de regressão linear e quadrática, com a soma térmica (graus-dia como variável independente, e de regressão múltipla, utilizando graus-dia e chuva como variáveis independentes. A equação de melhor ajuste para o índice tecnológico foi a quadrática, enquanto para o "ratio" a equação linear apresentou o melhor ajuste. A temperatura do ar, representada por graus-dia, foi a variável que exerceu maior influência nos indicadores de qualidade dos frutos.This study aimed to know the influence of some meteorological variables on the ratio and technological index for oranges provided from 'Natal' and 'Valencia' orchards, from field plots, located at Bebedouro - São Paulo - Brazil. The quality indicators, ratio and technological index, were obtained from routine processing plant tests. These parameters were related to the meteorological variables: degree-day and rainfall. In order to determine which independent variable had a stronger influence on the fruit quality indicators, single and multiple linear regressions analysis were applied. The results have shown that technological index is better described by a quadratic function, and ratio is better described by a linear regression, as function of independent variables. The statistical analysis have indicated that the air temperature, expressed by accumulated degree day, is the meteorological aspect that had greater influence in fruit quality indicators.

  5. 7 CFR 51.2559 - Size classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2559 Size classifications. (a) The size of pistachio kernels may be specified in connection with the grade in accordance with one of...

  6. Size determinations of colloidal fat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Klaus, Katrin; Steiniger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Size and size distributions of colloidal dispersions are of crucial importance for their performance and safety. In the present study, commercially available fat emulsions (Lipofundin N, Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem) were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction with adequate...... was checked with mixtures of monodisperse polystyrene nanospheres. In addition, the ultrastructure of Lipofundin N and Lipofundin MCT was investigated by cryo-electron microscopy. All different particle sizing methods gave different mean sizes and size distributions but overall, results were in reasonable...... agreement. By all methods, a larger mean droplet size (between 350 and 400 nm) as well as a broader distribution was measured for Lipofundin N compared to Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem (mean droplet size between about 280 and 320 nm). Size distributions of Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem were very similar...

  7. The NGDC Seafloor Sediment Grain Size Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGDC (now NCEI) Seafloor Sediment Grain Size Database contains particle size data for over 17,000 seafloor samples worldwide. The file was begun by NGDC in 1976...

  8. Estimating software development project size, using probabilistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating software development project size, using probabilistic techniques. ... of managing the size of software development projects by Purchasers (Clients) and Vendors (Development ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  9. The size of the labor wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milland, Maria; Christoffersen, Jens; Hedegaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    To assess possible associations between the size of labor units and the frequency of approved obstetric claims.......To assess possible associations between the size of labor units and the frequency of approved obstetric claims....

  10. Altered corneal stromal matrix organization is associated with mucopolysaccharidosis I, III and VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, J; Haskins, M; Birk, D E

    1999-05-01

    The presence of cloudy corneas is a prominent feature of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types I and VI, but not MPS IIIA or IIIB. The cause of corneal cloudiness in MPS I and VI is speculative. Transparency of the cornea is dependent on the uniform diameter and the regular spacing and arrangement of the collagen fibrils within the stroma. Alterations in the spacing of collagen fibrils in a variety of conditions including corneal edema, scars, and macular corneal dystrophy is clinically manifested as corneal opacity. The purpose of this study was to compare the structural organization of the stromal extracellular matrix of normal corneas with that of MPS corneas. The size and arrangement of collagen fibrils in cloudy corneas from patients with MPS I were examined. The alterations observed were an increased mean fibril diameter with a broader distribution in the MPS corneas. The MPS I corneas also had altered fibril spacing and more irregular packing compared with normal control corneas. The clear corneas of patients with MPS IIIA and IIIB also showed increases in mean fibril diameter and fibril spacing. However, there was less variation indicating more regularity than seen in MPS I. In addition, corneas from cat models of certain MPS were compared to the human corneas. Cats with MPS I and VI, as well as normal control cats, were examined. Structural alterations comparable to those seen in human MPS corneas were seen in MPS I and VI cats relative to normal clear corneas. The findings suggest that cloudy corneas in MPS I and VI are in part a consequence of structural alterations in the corneal stroma, including abnormal spacing, size, and arrangement of collagen fibrils. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  11. Reactive-brittle dynamics in peridotite alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, O.; Spiegelman, M. W.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between reactive fluids and brittle solids are critical in Earth dynamics. Implications of such processes are wide-ranging: from earthquake physics to geologic carbon sequestration and the cycling of fluids and volatiles through subduction zones. Peridotite alteration is a common feature in many of these processes, which - despite its obvious importance - is relatively poorly understood from a geodynamical perspective. In particular, alteration reactions are thought to be self-limiting in nature, contradicting observations of rocks that have undergone 100% hydration/carbonation. One potential explanation of this observation is the mechanism of "reaction-driven cracking": that volume changes associated with these reactions are large enough to fracture the surrounding rock, leading to a positive feedback where new reactive surfaces are exposed and fluid pathways are created. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relative roles of reaction, elastic stresses and surface tension in alteration reactions. In this regard we derive a system of equations describing reactive fluid flow in an elastically deformable porous media, and explore them via a combination of analytic and numerical solutions. Using this model we show that the final stress state of a dry peridotite that has undergone reaction depends strongly on the rates of reaction versus fluid transport: significant fluid flow driven by pressure and/or surface tension gradients implies higher fractions of serpentinization, leaving behind a highly stressed residuum of partially reacted material. Using a model set-up that mimics a cylindrical triaxial apparatus we predict that the resulting stresses would lead to tensile failure and the generation of radially oriented cracks.

  12. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola J; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations. The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence(®) Boost and Mirawhite(®) Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 subgroups remineralized with: Mirasensitive(®) hap+, Mirawhite(®) Gelleѐ, GC Tooth Mousse™ and Mirafluor(®) C. The samples were analysed by SEM/3D-SEM-micrographs, SEM/EDX-qualitative analysis and SEM/EDX-semiquantitative analysis. The microphotographs show that both types of bleaching cause alterations: emphasized perikymata, erosions, loss of interprizmatic substance; the laser treatment is more aggressive and loss of integrity of the enamel is determined by shearing off the enamel rods. In all samples undergoing remineralization deposits were observed, those of toothpastes based on calcium phosphate technologies seem to merge with each other and cover almost the entire surface of the enamel. Loss of integrity and minerals were detected only in the line-scans of the sample remineralized with GC Tooth Mousse™. The semiquantitative EDX analysis of individual elements in the surface layer of the enamel indicates that during tooth-bleaching with HP statistically significant loss of Na and Mg occurs, whereas the bleaching in combination with a laser leads to statistically significant loss of Ca and P. The results undoubtedly confirm that teeth whitening procedures lead to enamel alterations. In this context, it must be noted that laser bleaching is more aggressive for dental substances. However, these changes are reversible and can be repaired by application of remineralization toothpastes. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. Distinct genetic alterations in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ashktorab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colon cancer (CRC development often includes chromosomal instability (CIN leading to amplifications and deletions of large DNA segments. Epidemiological, clinical, and cytogenetic studies showed that there are considerable differences between CRC tumors from African Americans (AAs and Caucasian patients. In this study, we determined genomic copy number aberrations in sporadic CRC tumors from AAs, in order to investigate possible explanations for the observed disparities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied genome-wide array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH using a 105k chip to identify copy number aberrations in samples from 15 AAs. In addition, we did a population comparative analysis with aCGH data in Caucasians as well as with a widely publicized list of colon cancer genes (CAN genes. There was an average of 20 aberrations per patient with more amplifications than deletions. Analysis of DNA copy number of frequently altered chromosomes revealed that deletions occurred primarily in chromosomes 4, 8 and 18. Chromosomal duplications occurred in more than 50% of cases on chromosomes 7, 8, 13, 20 and X. The CIN profile showed some differences when compared to Caucasian alterations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chromosome X amplification in male patients and chromosomes 4, 8 and 18 deletions were prominent aberrations in AAs. Some CAN genes were altered at high frequencies in AAs with EXOC4, EPHB6, GNAS, MLL3 and TBX22 as the most frequently deleted genes and HAPLN1, ADAM29, SMAD2 and SMAD4 as the most frequently amplified genes. The observed CIN may play a distinctive role in CRC in AAs.

  14. A Critique of Size-Related Anomalies.

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, Jonathan B

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that the size-related regularities in asset prices should not be regarded as anomalies. Indeed, the opposite result is demonstrated. Namely, a truly anomalous regularity would be if an inverse relation between size and return was not observed. We show theoretically (1) that the size-related regularities should be observed in the economy and (2) why size will in general explain the part of the cross-section of expected returns left unexplained by an incorrectly specified as...

  15. Modelling of Size Effect with Regularised Continua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Askes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlocal damage continuum and a viscoplastic damage continuum are used to model size effects. Three-point bending specimens are analysed, whereby a distinction is made between unnotched specimens, specimens with a constant notch and specimens with a proportionally scaled notch. Numerical finite element simulations have been performed for specimen sizes in a range of 1:64. Size effects are established in terms of nominal strength and compared to existing size effect models from the literature. 

  16. SON68 glass alteration enhanced by magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godon, Nicole; Gin, Stephane; Rebiscoul, Diane; Frugier, Pierre [CEA, DEN-Marcoule, F30207, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports experimental and modeling results of SON68 glass / magnetite interactions while in contact with synthetic groundwater from a clay environment. It is shown that magnetite enhances glass alteration, first by the sorption of Si released from the glass onto magnetite surfaces, then by a second process that could be the precipitation of an iron silicate mineral or the transformation of magnetite into a more reactive phase like hematite or goethite. This study globally suggests a detrimental effect of magnetite on the long-term durability of nuclear glass in geological disposal conditions. (authors)

  17. Clerics urge ban on altering germline cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, C

    1983-06-24

    A resolution calling for a ban on genetic engineering of human reproductive cells has been signed by leaders of almost every major church group in the United States. Some of the religious leaders, while not certain that a total moratorium should be placed on altering germline cells, signed the statement in order to stimulate public debate on the issue. Legislation has recently been introduced in Congress to set up a committee to monitor genetic engineering and its human applications, but author Jeremy Rifkin, the impetus behind the church leaders' resolution, argues that such tampering threatens the gene pool and should be banned altogether.

  18. Metabolic alterations during ascosporogenesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Sandra; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    Sporulation of S. cerevisiae has been shown to alter the profiles of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. The enhancement in the levels of total cellular carbohydrates could be correlated with the enhancement in fructose 1,6-diphosphatase and trehalose-phosphate synthetase. The latter activity could account for the 15-fold increase in trehalose levels in sporulating cells. Glucose-6-phosphatase, pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase showed continuous decline during ascosporogenesis. The relative incorporation of radioactivity from possible precursors of gluconeogenesis indicated that acetate-2- 14 C alone could contribute to carbohydrate synthesis. (author)

  19. Phase alteration compensation in reflection digital holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, O; Amezquita, R; Monroy, F

    2011-01-01

    The phase maps obtained from digital holographic microscopy techniques carry information about the axial lengths of the object under study. Additionally, these phase maps have information of tilt and curvatures with origin in the off-axis geometry and the magnification lenses system, respectively. Only a complete compensation of these extra phases allows a correct interpretation of the phase information. In this article a numerical strategy to compensate for these alterations is designed, using a phase mask located in different planes. This strategy is applied in the measurement of a phase steps plate using a digital holography setup.

  20. Ethic's pedagogy: from responsibility to alterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo S. Vila Merino

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, since the so-called 'linguistic turn' and the rise of the notion of discursive formations, has tended to combine the teleological and the deontological. That means that, if ethics is to be useful in understanding relationships and other social issues, or in building the common good, it ought to take a procedural position. We believe that the teaching of ethics should be based on the notions of responsibility and alterity. These two concepts are helpful in promoting mutual understanding and other-directedness.

  1. Alterations of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yesilkanal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior to 2009, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC was thought to be the only biologically significant cytosine modification in mammalian DNA. With the discovery of the TET enzymes, which convert 5-methylcytosine (5-mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC, however, intense interest has emerged in determining the biological function of 5-hmC. Here, we review the techniques used to study 5-hmC and evidence that alterations to 5-hmC physiology play a functional role in the molecular pathogenesis of human cancers.

  2. Altered skeletal muscle fiber composition and size precede whole-body insulin resistance in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Madsbad, Sten

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Low birth weight (LBW), a surrogate marker of an adverse fetal milieu, is linked to muscle insulin resistance, impaired insulin-stimulated glycolysis, and future risk of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle mass, fiber composition, and capillary density are important determinants of muscle...

  3. Reduction of rainbow trout spleen size by splenectomy does not alter resistance against bacterial cold water disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In lower vertebrates, the contribution of the spleen to anti-bacterial immunity is poorly understood. Researchers have previously reported a phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and spleen so...

  4. Do Class Size Effects Differ across Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analysing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enrolled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class size cap that creates exogenous variation in…

  5. Size effects in foams : Experiments and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekoglu, C.; Gibson, L. J.; Pardoen, T.; Onck, P. R.

    Mechanical properties of cellular solids depend on the ratio of the sample size to the cell size at length scales where the two are of the same order of magnitude. Considering that the cell size of many cellular solids used in engineering applications is between 1 and 10 mm, it is not uncommon to

  6. Size Effects on the Strength of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xiaoxu

    2014-01-01

    The grain size effect and the specimen size effect on the strength of metals are briefly reviewed with respect to their history and current status of research. It is revealed that the fundamental strengthening mechanisms responsible for these two types of size effect are to increase the resistanc...

  7. Prevention of the Portion Size Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Versluis (Iris)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAn increase in the portion size leads to an increase in energy intake, a phenomenon which is also referred to as the portion size effect. The increase in portion sizes in recent years is regarded as an important contributor to the increase in the prevalence of obesity. Hence, the aim

  8. 7 CFR 51.2284 - Size classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.2284 Section 51.2284... Size classification. The following classifications are provided to describe the size of any lot... shall conform to the requirements of the specified classification as defined below: (a) Halves. Lot...

  9. Assessment and Mapping of Forest Parcel Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; Susan L. King

    2005-01-01

    A method for analyzing and mapping forest parcel sizes in the Northeastern United States is presented. A decision tree model was created that predicts forest parcel size from spatially explicit predictor variables: population density, State, percentage forest land cover, and road density. The model correctly predicted parcel size for 60 percent of the observations in a...

  10. Board Size Effects in Closely Held Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, H.C.; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    of board size by using a new instrument given bythe number of children of the founders of the firms. Our analysis shows thatboard size can be taken as exogenous in the performance equation. Furthermore,based on a flexible model specification we find that there is noempirical evidence of adverse board size...

  11. Small head size after atomic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.; Mulvihill, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    A study of children exposed to nuclear explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki showed small head size and mental retardation when exposure occurred less than 18 weeks of gestational age. Increased frequency of small head size occurred when maternal exposure was 10 to 19 rad. Tables and graphs are presented to show relationships between dose, gestational age, and frequency of small head size

  12. 36 CFR 13.905 - Group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Group size. 13.905 Section 13... § 13.905 Group size. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Group sizes exceeding 12 individuals on the east side of the park outside the Frontcountry Developed Area as defined by this subpart. (2) Group...

  13. 7 CFR 51.344 - Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Size § 51.344 Size. (a) The minimum and maximum sizes or range...

  14. Effect Sizes in Gifted Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Marcia; Peters, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent calls for reporting and interpreting effect sizes have been numerous, with the 5th edition of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" (2001) calling for the inclusion of effect sizes to interpret quantitative findings. Many top journals have required that effect sizes accompany claims of statistical significance.…

  15. Genetic size and growth in goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogink, N.W.M.

    1993-01-01

    Since the last century, many biologists have studied the effects of size differences between species on the rate of their metabolic processes. in 1980, Taylor published the genetic size-scaling theory which incorporated the existing knowledge on size effects, and introduced two formal

  16. Size-change termination and bound analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil

    2006-01-01

    . The extended size-change principle is realized through combining abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with the use of size-change graphs. In the cases when data types are well founded, the method handles every case that is handled by LJB size-change termination. The method has been...

  17. Cell proliferation alterations in Chlorella cells under stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rioboo, Carmen; O'Connor, Jose Enrique; Prado, Raquel; Herrero, Concepcion; Cid, Angeles

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about growth and proliferation in relation to the cell cycle regulation of algae. The lack of knowledge is even greater when referring to the potential toxic effects of pollutants on microalgal cell division. To assess the effect of terbutryn, a triazine herbicide, on the proliferation of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris three flow cytometric approaches were used: (1) in vivo cell division using 5-,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining was measured, (2) the growth kinetics were determined by cytometric cell counting and (3) cell viability was evaluated with the membrane-impermeable double-stranded nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI). The results obtained in the growth kinetics study using CFSE to identify the microalgal cell progeny were consistent with those determined by cytometric cell counting. In all C. vulgaris cultures, each mother cell had undergone only one round of division through the 96 h of assay and the cell division occurred during the dark period. Cell division of the cultures exposed to the herbicide was asynchronous. Terbutryn altered the normal number of daughter cells (4 autospores) obtained from each mother cell. The number was only two in the cultures treated with 250 nM. The duration of the lag phase after the exposure to terbutryn could be dependent on the existence of a critical cell size to activate cytoplasmic division. Cell size, complexity and fluorescence of chlorophyll a of the microalgal cells presented a marked light/dark (day/night) cycle, except in the non-dividing 500 nM cultures, where terbutryn arrested cell division at the beginning of the cycle. Viability results showed that terbutryn has an algastatic effect in C. vulgaris cells at this concentration. The rapid and precise determination of cell proliferation by CFSE staining has allowed us to develop a model for assessing both the cell cycle of C. vulgaris and the in vivo effects of pollutants on growth and

  18. Osmotic stress alters chromatin condensation and nucleocytoplasmic transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finan, John D.; Leddy, Holly A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Guilak, Farshid, E-mail: guilak@duke.edu [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} The rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport increases under hyper-osmotic stress. {yields} The mechanism is a change in nuclear geometry, not a change in permeability of the nuclear envelope. {yields} Intracytoplasmic but not intranuclear diffusion is sensitive to osmotic stress. {yields} Pores in the chromatin of the nucleus enlarge under hyper-osmotic stress. -- Abstract: Osmotic stress is a potent regulator of biological function in many cell types, but its mechanism of action is only partially understood. In this study, we examined whether changes in extracellular osmolality can alter chromatin condensation and the rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport, as potential mechanisms by which osmotic stress can act. Transport of 10 kDa dextran was measured both within and between the nucleus and the cytoplasm using two different photobleaching methods. A mathematical model was developed to describe fluorescence recovery via nucleocytoplasmic transport. As osmolality increased, the diffusion coefficient of dextran decreased in the cytoplasm, but not the nucleus. Hyper-osmotic stress decreased nuclear size and increased nuclear lacunarity, indicating that while the nucleus was getting smaller, the pores and channels interdigitating the chromatin had expanded. The rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport was increased under hyper-osmotic stress but was insensitive to hypo-osmotic stress, consistent with the nonlinear osmotic properties of the nucleus. The mechanism of this osmotic sensitivity appears to be a change in the size and geometry of the nucleus, resulting in a shorter effective diffusion distance for the nucleus. These results may explain physical mechanisms by which osmotic stress can influence intracellular signaling pathways that rely on nucleocytoplasmic transport.

  19. Cell proliferation alterations in Chlorella cells under stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioboo, Carmen [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain); O' Connor, Jose Enrique [Laboratorio de Citomica, Unidad Mixta de Investigacion CIPF-UVEG, Centro de Investigacion Principe Felipe, Avda. Autopista del Saler, 16, 46013 Valencia (Spain); Prado, Raquel; Herrero, Concepcion [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain); Cid, Angeles, E-mail: cid@udc.es [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain)

    2009-09-14

    Very little is known about growth and proliferation in relation to the cell cycle regulation of algae. The lack of knowledge is even greater when referring to the potential toxic effects of pollutants on microalgal cell division. To assess the effect of terbutryn, a triazine herbicide, on the proliferation of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris three flow cytometric approaches were used: (1) in vivo cell division using 5-,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining was measured, (2) the growth kinetics were determined by cytometric cell counting and (3) cell viability was evaluated with the membrane-impermeable double-stranded nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI). The results obtained in the growth kinetics study using CFSE to identify the microalgal cell progeny were consistent with those determined by cytometric cell counting. In all C. vulgaris cultures, each mother cell had undergone only one round of division through the 96 h of assay and the cell division occurred during the dark period. Cell division of the cultures exposed to the herbicide was asynchronous. Terbutryn altered the normal number of daughter cells (4 autospores) obtained from each mother cell. The number was only two in the cultures treated with 250 nM. The duration of the lag phase after the exposure to terbutryn could be dependent on the existence of a critical cell size to activate cytoplasmic division. Cell size, complexity and fluorescence of chlorophyll a of the microalgal cells presented a marked light/dark (day/night) cycle, except in the non-dividing 500 nM cultures, where terbutryn arrested cell division at the beginning of the cycle. Viability results showed that terbutryn has an algastatic effect in C. vulgaris cells at this concentration. The rapid and precise determination of cell proliferation by CFSE staining has allowed us to develop a model for assessing both the cell cycle of C. vulgaris and the in vivo effects of pollutants on growth and

  20. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Flow Alteration - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the flow alteration module, when to list flow alteration as a candidate cause, ways to measure flow alteration, simple and detailed conceptual model diagrams for flow alteration, flow alteration module references and literature reviews.

  1. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Flow Alteration - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the flow alteration module, when to list flow alteration as a candidate cause, ways to measure flow alteration, simple and detailed conceptual model diagrams for flow alteration, flow alteration module references and literature reviews.

  2. Altered pharyngeal muscles in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Liancai; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Chen, Jingming; Su, Hungxi; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H; Shill, Holly A; Caviness, John N; Samanta, Johan E; Beach, Thomas G

    2012-06-01

    Dysphagia (impaired swallowing) is common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and is related to aspiration pneumonia, the primary cause of death in PD. Therapies that ameliorate the limb motor symptoms of PD are ineffective for dysphagia. This suggests that the pathophysiology of PD dysphagia may differ from that affecting limb muscles, but little is known about potential neuromuscular abnormalities in the swallowing muscles in PD. This study examined the fiber histochemistry of pharyngeal constrictor and cricopharyngeal sphincter muscles in postmortem specimens from 8 subjects with PD and 4 age-matched control subjects. Pharyngeal muscles in subjects with PD exhibited many atrophic fibers, fiber type grouping, and fast-to-slow myosin heavy chain transformation. These alterations indicate that the pharyngeal muscles experienced neural degeneration and regeneration over the course of PD. Notably, subjects with PD with dysphagia had a higher percentage of atrophic myofibers versus with those without dysphagia and controls. The fast-to-slow fiber-type transition is consistent with abnormalities in swallowing, slow movement of food, and increased tone in the cricopharyngeal sphincter in subjects with PD. The alterations in the pharyngeal muscles may play a pathogenic role in the development of dysphagia in subjects with PD.

  3. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripp Gail

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD.

  4. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  5. Parental Virtue and Prenatal Genetic Alteration Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkens, Ryan

    2015-12-01

    Although the philosophical literature on the ethics of human prenatal genetic alteration (PGA) purports to inform us about how to act, it rarely explicitly recognizes the perspective of those who will be making the PGA decision in practice. Here I approach the ethics of PGA from a distinctly virtue-based perspective, taking seriously what it means to be a good parent making this decision for one's child. From this perspective, I generate a sound verdict on the moral standing of human PGA (research): given the current state of the art, good parents have compelling reason not to consent to PGA (research) for their child, especially as part of the first wave(s) of PGA research participants and especially for non-medically oriented purposes. This is because doing otherwise is inconsistent with a plausible and defensible understanding of virtuous parenting and parental virtues, founded on a genuine concern for promoting the overall flourishing of the eventual child. In essence, given the current and foreseeable state of the art, parents who allow prenatal genetic alteration of their children are less-than-virtuous parents to those children, even in cases where they have a right to do so and even if PGA turns out to be beneficial to the eventual child.

  6. Afforestation alters community structure of soil fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jennifer K; Gleeson, Deirdre B; Clipson, Nicholas; Murphy, Daniel V

    2010-07-01

    Relatively little is known about the effect of afforestation on soil fungal communities. This study demonstrated that afforestation altered fungal community structure and that changes were correlated to pools of soil C. Pasture at three locations on the same soil type was afforested with Eucalyptus globulus or Pinus pinaster. The structure of fungal communities under the three land uses was measured after 13y using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). Afforestation significantly altered the structure of fungal communities. The effect of location on the structure of fungal communities was limited to pasture soils; although these contained the same plant species, the relative composition of each species varied between locations. Differences in the structure of fungal communities between pasture, E. globulus and P. pinaster were significantly correlated with changes in the amount of total organic C and microbial biomass-C in soil. Afforestation of patches of agricultural land may contribute to conserving soil fungi in agricultural landscapes by supporting fungal communities with different composition to agricultural soils. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. When "altering brain function" becomes "mind control".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivuniemi, Andrew; Otto, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Functional neurosurgery has seen a resurgence of interest in surgical treatments for psychiatric illness. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) technology is the preferred tool in the current wave of clinical experiments because it allows clinicians to directly alter the functions of targeted brain regions, in a reversible manner, with the intent of correcting diseases of the mind, such as depression, addiction, anorexia nervosa, dementia, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These promising treatments raise a critical philosophical and humanitarian question. "Under what conditions does 'altering brain function' qualify as 'mind control'?" In order to answer this question one needs a definition of mind control. To this end, we reviewed the relevant philosophical, ethical, and neurosurgical literature in order to create a set of criteria for what constitutes mind control in the context of DBS. We also outline clinical implications of these criteria. Finally, we demonstrate the relevance of the proposed criteria by focusing especially on serendipitous treatments involving DBS, i.e., cases in which an unintended therapeutic benefit occurred. These cases highlight the importance of gaining the consent of the subject for the new therapy in order to avoid committing an act of mind control.

  8. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  9. Obesity Promotes Alterations in Iron Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Citelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepcidin is a key hormone that induces the degradation of ferroportin (FPN, a protein that exports iron from reticuloendothelial macrophages and enterocytes. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate if the obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD modifies the expression of FPN in macrophages and enterocytes, thus altering the iron bioavailability. In order to directly examine changes associated with iron metabolism in vivo, C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control or a HFD. Serum leptin levels were evaluated. The hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1, FPN and ferritin genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The amount of iron present in both the liver and spleen was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ferroportin localization within reticuloendothelial macrophages was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Obese animals were found to exhibit increased hepcidin gene expression, while iron accumulated in the spleen and liver. They also exhibited changes in the sublocation of splenic cellular FPN and a reduction in the FPN expression in the liver and the spleen, while no changes were observed in enterocytes. Possible explanations for the increased hepcidin expression observed in HFD animals may include: increased leptin levels, the liver iron accumulation or endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Together, the results indicated that obesity promotes changes in iron bioavailability, since it altered the iron recycling function.

  10. Nucleolar proteins change in altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, M. A.; Kordyum, E. L.; Gonzalez-Camacho, F.; Medina, F. J.

    Discovery of gravisensitivity of cells no specified to gravity perception focused continuous attention on an elucidation of mechanisms involved in altered gravity effects at the different levels of cellular organization A nucleolus is the nuclear domain in which the major portion of ribosome biogenesis takes place This is a basic process for cell vitality beginning with the transcription of rDNA followed by processing newly synthesized pre-rRNA molecules A wide range of nucleolar proteins plays a highly significant role in all stages of biosynthesis of ribosomes Different steps of ribosome biogenesis should respond to various external factors affecting generally the cell metabolism Nevertheless a nucleolus remains not enough studied under the influence of altered environmental conditions For this reason we studied root apices from 2-day old Lepidium sativum seedlings germinated and grown under slow horizontal clinorotation and stationary conditions in darkness The extraction of cell nuclei followed by sequential fractionation of nuclear proteins according to their solubility in buffers of increasing ionic strength was carried out This procedure gave rise to 5 distinct fractions We analyzed nuclear subproteomes of the most soluble fraction called S2 It is actually a functionally significant fraction consisting of ribonucleoproteins actively engaged in pre-rRNA synthesis and processing 2D-electrophoresis of S2 fraction proteins was carried out The gels were silver stained and stained gels were scanned and analyzed

  11. Adaptive optics without altering visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, D E; Hart, N W; Hofer, H J

    2014-04-01

    Adaptive optics combined with visual psychophysics creates the potential to study the relationship between visual function and the retina at the cellular scale. This potential is hampered, however, by visual interference from the wavefront-sensing beacon used during correction. For example, we have previously shown that even a dim, visible beacon can alter stimulus perception (Hofer et al., 2012). Here we describe a simple strategy employing a longer wavelength (980nm) beacon that, in conjunction with appropriate restriction on timing and placement, allowed us to perform psychophysics when dark adapted without altering visual perception. The method was verified by comparing detection and color appearance of foveally presented small spot stimuli with and without the wavefront beacon present in 5 subjects. As an important caution, we found that significant perceptual interference can occur even with a subliminal beacon when additional measures are not taken to limit exposure. Consequently, the lack of perceptual interference should be verified for a given system, and not assumed based on invisibility of the beacon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Natal Host Plants Can Alter Herbivore Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Preisser, Evan L; Su, Qi; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific competition between herbivores is widely recognized as an important determinant of community structure. Although researchers have identified a number of factors capable of altering competitive interactions, few studies have addressed the influence of neighboring plant species. If adaptation to/ epigenetic effects of an herbivore's natal host plant alter its performance on other host plants, then interspecific herbivore interactions may play out differently in heterogeneous and homogenous plant communities. We tested wether the natal host plant of a whitefly population affected interactions between the Middle-east Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci by rearing the offspring of a cabbage-derived MEAM1 population and a poinsettia-derived MED population together on three different host plants: cotton, poinsettia, and cabbage. We found that MED dominated on poinsettia and that MEAM1 dominated on cabbage, results consistent with previous research. MED also dominated when reared with MEAM1 on cotton, however, a result at odds with multiple otherwise-similar studies that reared both species on the same natal plant. Our work provides evidence that natal plants affect competitive interactions on another plant species, and highlights the potential importance of neighboring plant species on herbivore community composition in agricultral systems.

  13. Thermal remediation alters soil properties - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter L; DeSutter, Thomas M; Casey, Francis X M; Khan, Eakalak; Wick, Abbey F

    2018-01-15

    Contaminated soils pose a risk to human and ecological health, and thermal remediation is an efficient and reliable way to reduce soil contaminant concentration in a range of situations. A primary benefit of thermal treatment is the speed at which remediation can occur, allowing the return of treated soils to a desired land use as quickly as possible. However, this treatment also alters many soil properties that affect the capacity of the soil to function. While extensive research addresses contaminant reduction, the range and magnitude of effects to soil properties have not been explored. Understanding the effects of thermal remediation on soil properties is vital to successful reclamation, as drastic effects may preclude certain post-treatment land uses. This review highlights thermal remediation studies that have quantified alterations to soil properties, and it supplements that information with laboratory heating studies to further elucidate the effects of thermal treatment of soil. Notably, both heating temperature and heating time affect i) soil organic matter; ii) soil texture and mineralogy; iii) soil pH; iv) plant available nutrients and heavy metals; v) soil biological communities; and iv) the ability of the soil to sustain vegetation. Broadly, increasing either temperature or time results in greater contaminant reduction efficiency, but it also causes more severe impacts to soil characteristics. Thus, project managers must balance the need for contaminant reduction with the deterioration of soil function for each specific remediation project. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Hepatic alterations in patients with dengue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larreal, Yraima; Valero, Nereida; Estévez, Jesús; Reyes, Ivette; Maldonado, Mery; Espina, Luz Marina; Arias, Julia; Meleán, Eddy; Añez, German; Atencio, Ricardo

    2005-06-01

    Clinical features of Dengue are very variable due to multiple alterations induced by the virus in the organism. Increased levels of transaminases similar to those produced by the Hepatitis virus have been reported in patients with Dengue from hiperendemic zones in Asia. The objectives of this study were to determine alterations in the liver tests in patients with Dengue and to relate them to the disease, clinically and serologically. Clinical history, hemathological tests serum transaminases (ALT y AST) and bilirubin assays were performed in 62 patients with clinical and serological diagnosis of Dengue. According to clinical features 38.7% of the patients with classical (CD) and hemorrhagic (DHF) forms of Dengue reffered abdominal pain and 2 patients with DHF had ictericia and hepatomegaly. Laboratory test findings showed leucopenia in 72.5% in both forms of Dengue and of patients with DHF severe thrombocytopenia (< 50.000 platelets x mm3), long PT and PPT in 70.9%, 23.0% and 42.3%, respectively. Transaminase values five fold higher than the normal values (p < 0.005) were observed in 36.8% and 74.4% of patients with CD and DHF respectively; AST was predominant in both groups. Our results suggest liver damage during the course of Dengue. A differential diagnosis has to be done between the hepatic involvement of Dengue cases and others viral diseases with hepatic disfunctions.

  15. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect......This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...

  16. Size effects in manufacturing of metallic components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, F; Biermann, D; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    In manufacturing of metallic components, the size of the part plays an important role for the process behaviour. This is due to so called size effects, which lead to changes in the process behaviour even if the relationship between the main geometrical features is kept constant. The aim...... of this paper is to give a systematic review on Such effects and their potential use or remedy. First, the typology of size effects will be explained, followed by a description of size effects on strength and tribology. The last three sections describe size effects on formability, forming processes and cutting...... processes. (C) 2009 CIRP....

  17. Genital size: a common adolescent male concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter A; Reiter, Edward O

    2002-02-01

    Long before adolescence, males hear insinuations about adequacy of penis size. This concern may heighten during teen years and persist to varying degrees into adulthood. Men tend to underestimate their own penis size. This chapter provides objective information about anatomy and growth of the penis, including data about normal sizes. Published data indicate that, although full growth may be reached at different ages during adolescence, size is similar for most adult males. Hopefully, this information will provide the basis for teenaged males to develop a healthy perspective and to avoid intimidation by unfounded claims about sexual enhancement or size enlargement techniques.

  18. 46 CFR 115.700 - Permission for repairs and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... replacement in kind, of electrical wiring, fuel lines, tanks, boilers and other pressure vessels, and steering... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permission for repairs and alterations. 115.700 Section... AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 115.700 Permission for repairs and alterations. (a...

  19. 28 CFR 36.405 - Alterations: Historic preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alterations: Historic preservation. 36... Alterations: Historic preservation. (a) Alterations to buildings or facilities that are eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places under the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C...

  20. Visuomotor Dissociation in Cerebral Scaling of Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R E; de Jong, Bauke M

    2016-01-01

    Estimating size and distance is crucial in effective visuomotor control. The concept of an internal coordinate system implies that visual and motor size parameters are scaled onto a common template. To dissociate perceptual and motor components in such scaling, we performed an fMRI experiment in which 16 right-handed subjects copied geometric figures while the result of drawing remained out of sight. Either the size of the example figure varied while maintaining a constant size of drawing (visual incongruity) or the size of the examples remained constant while subjects were instructed to make changes in size (motor incongruity). These incongruent were compared to congruent conditions. Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8) revealed brain activations related to size incongruity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, pre-SMA / anterior cingulate and anterior insula, dominant in the right hemisphere. This pattern represented simultaneous use of a 'resized' virtual template and actual picture information requiring spatial working memory, early-stage attention shifting and inhibitory control. Activations were strongest in motor incongruity while right pre-dorsal premotor activation specifically occurred in this condition. Visual incongruity additionally relied on a ventral visual pathway. Left ventral premotor activation occurred in all variably sized drawing while constant visuomotor size, compared to congruent size variation, uniquely activated the lateral occipital cortex additional to superior parietal regions. These results highlight size as a fundamental parameter in both general hand movement and movement guided by objects perceived in the context of surrounding 3D space.

  1. Visuomotor Dissociation in Cerebral Scaling of Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan R E Potgieser

    Full Text Available Estimating size and distance is crucial in effective visuomotor control. The concept of an internal coordinate system implies that visual and motor size parameters are scaled onto a common template. To dissociate perceptual and motor components in such scaling, we performed an fMRI experiment in which 16 right-handed subjects copied geometric figures while the result of drawing remained out of sight. Either the size of the example figure varied while maintaining a constant size of drawing (visual incongruity or the size of the examples remained constant while subjects were instructed to make changes in size (motor incongruity. These incongruent were compared to congruent conditions. Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8 revealed brain activations related to size incongruity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, pre-SMA / anterior cingulate and anterior insula, dominant in the right hemisphere. This pattern represented simultaneous use of a 'resized' virtual template and actual picture information requiring spatial working memory, early-stage attention shifting and inhibitory control. Activations were strongest in motor incongruity while right pre-dorsal premotor activation specifically occurred in this condition. Visual incongruity additionally relied on a ventral visual pathway. Left ventral premotor activation occurred in all variably sized drawing while constant visuomotor size, compared to congruent size variation, uniquely activated the lateral occipital cortex additional to superior parietal regions. These results highlight size as a fundamental parameter in both general hand movement and movement guided by objects perceived in the context of surrounding 3D space.

  2. Genome size variation in the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Honghai; Martin, Sara L; Bekele, Wubishet A; Latta, Robert G; Diederichsen, Axel; Peng, Yuanying; Tinker, Nicholas A

    2016-03-01

    Genome size is an indicator of evolutionary distance and a metric for genome characterization. Here, we report accurate estimates of genome size in 99 accessions from 26 species of Avena. We demonstrate that the average genome size of C genome diploid species (2C = 10.26 pg) is 15% larger than that of A genome species (2C = 8.95 pg), and that this difference likely accounts for a progression of size among tetraploid species, where AB genome configuration had similar genome sizes (average 2C = 25.74 pg). Genome size was mostly consistent within species and in general agreement with current information about evolutionary distance among species. Results also suggest that most of the polyploid species in Avena have experienced genome downsizing in relation to their diploid progenitors. Genome size measurements could provide additional quality control for species identification in germplasm collections, especially in cases where diploid and polyploid species have similar morphology.

  3. Formation and alteration of airborne particles in the subway environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, T; Querol, X; Martins, V; Minguillón, M C; Reche, C; Ku, L H; Eun, H R; Ahn, K H; Capdevila, M; de Miguel, E

    2017-01-25

    Most particles in the rail subway environment are sub-micron sized ferruginous flakes and splinters generated mechanically by frictional wear of brake pads, wheels and rails. To better understand the mechanisms of formation and the alteration processes affecting inhalable particles in subways, PM samples (1-2.5 μm and 2.5-10 μm) were collected in the Barcelona Metro and then studied under a scanning electron microscope. Most particles in these samples are hematitic (up to 88%), with relatively minor amounts of mineral matter (up to 9%) and sulphates (up to 5%). Detailed microscopy (using back scattered and TEM-DRX imaging) reveals how many of the metallic particles comprise the metallic Fe nucleus surrounded by hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) and a coating of sulphate and chloride salts mixed with mineral matter (including Ca-carbonates, clay minerals and quartz). These observations record the emission of fine to ultrafine FePM by frictional wear at elevated temperatures that promote rapid partial (or complete) oxidation of the native metal. Water condensing on the PM surface during cooling leads to the adsorption of inorganic mineral particles that coat the iron oxide. The distinctively layered polymineralic structure that results from these processes is peculiar to particles generated in the subway environment and very different from PM typically inhaled outdoors.

  4. New insights into uremia-induced alterations in metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eugene P; Thadhani, Ravi

    2011-11-01

    This article summarizes recent studies on uremia-induced alterations in metabolism, with particular emphasis on the application of emerging metabolomics technologies. The plasma metabolome is estimated to include more than 4000 distinct metabolites. Because these metabolites can vary dramatically in size and polarity and are distributed across several orders of magnitude in relative abundance, no single analytical method is capable of comprehensive metabolomic profiling. Instead, a variety of analytical techniques, including targeted and nontargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, have been employed for metabolomic analysis of human plasma. Recent efforts to apply this technology to study uremia have reinforced the common view that end-stage renal disease is a state of generalized small molecule excess. However, the identification of precursor depletion and downstream metabolite excess - for example, with tryptophan and downstream kynurenine metabolites, with low molecular weight triglycerides and dicarboxylic acids, and with phosphatidylcholines, choline, and trimethylamine-N-oxide - suggest that uremia may directly modulate these metabolic pathways. Metabolomic studies have also begun to expand some of these findings to individuals with chronic kidney disease and in model systems. Uremia is associated with diverse, but incompletely understood metabolic disturbances. Metabolomic approaches permit higher resolution phenotyping of these disturbances, but significant efforts will be required to understand the functional significance of select findings.

  5. What makes a successful species? Traits facilitating survival in altered tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Mareike; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2017-06-28

    Ongoing conversion, disturbance and fragmentation of tropical forests stress this ecosystem and cause the decline or disappearance of many species. Particular traits have been identified which indicate an increasing extinction risk of a species, but traits facilitating survival in altered habitats have mostly been neglected. Here we search for traits that make a species tolerant to disturbances, thus independent of pristine forests. We identify the fauna that have an increasing effect on the ecosystem and its functioning in our human-dominated landscapes. We use a unique set of published data on the occurrences of 243 frog species in pristine and altered forests throughout the tropics. We established a forest dependency index with four levels, based on these occurrence data and applied Random Forest classification and binomial Generalized Linear Models to test whether species life history traits, ecological traits or range size influence the likelihood of a species to persist in disturbed habitats. Our results revealed that indirect developing species exhibiting a large range size and wide elevational distribution, being independent of streams, and inhabiting the leaf litter, cope best with modifications of their natural habitats. The traits identified in our study will likely persist in altered tropical forest systems and are comparable to those generally recognized for a low species extinction risk. Hence our findings will help to predict future frog communities in our human-dominated world.

  6. Alterations in adipokines in feline hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, M; Abood, S K; Segev, G; Schenck, P A

    2013-01-01

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (HL) is associated with alterations in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The adipokines, adiponectin, and leptin have lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitizing effects. Serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin are altered in feline HL. Client-owned cats: 55 healthy and 45 with liver disease. Cats with liver disease were categorized as having HL (n = 20), HL and concurrent disease (n = 19), or other liver disease (n = 6), based on clinical signs, laboratory findings, abdominal ultrasound examination as well as liver cytopathology, histopathology, or both. Serum samples were collected and body condition score determined. Mean serum concentrations of adiponectin were higher in overweight cats with HL (4.5 μg/mL), HL and concurrent disease (4.4 μg/mL), or other liver disease (6.1 μg/mL), as compared with healthy cats (1.5 μg/mL; P < .001, P < .001, and P = .04, respectively). Mean serum concentration of leptin was higher in cats with HL (9.8 ng/mL) or HL and concurrent disease (10.7 ng/mL) than healthy cats (4.9 ng/mL, P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). Cats with other liver disease had leptin concentration (4.9 ng/mL) similar to healthy cats. Concentrations of adiponectin were correlated with alanine aminotransferase activity (r = 0.40, P = .0069), and concentrations of leptin were correlated with alkaline phosphatase activity (r = 0.42, P = .0051) in cats with liver disease. Adipokine concentrations are altered in feline HL. Increased concentrations of adiponectin are related to liver disease, whereas increased concentrations of leptin are specifically related to HL. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Altered brain connectivity in sagittal craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Joel S; Brooks, Eric D; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vander Wyk, Brent; Jou, Roger J; Steinbacher, Derek M; Constable, R Todd; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Persing, John A

    2014-06-01

    Sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (sNSC) is the most common form of NSC. The condition is associated with a high prevalence (> 50%) of deficits in executive function. The authors employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI to evaluate whether hypothesized structural and functional connectivity differences underlie the observed neurocognitive morbidity of sNSC. Using a 3-T Siemens Trio MRI system, the authors collected DTI and resting-state functional connectivity MRI data in 8 adolescent patients (mean age 12.3 years) with sNSC that had been previously corrected via total vault cranioplasty and 8 control children (mean age 12.3 years) without craniosynostosis. Data were analyzed using the FMRIB Software Library and BioImageSuite. Analyses of the DTI data revealed white matter alterations approaching statistical significance in all supratentorial lobes. Statistically significant group differences (sNSC right supramarginal gyrus. Analysis of the resting-state seed in relation to whole-brain data revealed significant increases in negative connectivity (anticorrelations) of Brodmann area 8 to the prefrontal cortex (Montreal Neurological Institute [MNI] center of mass coordinates [x, y, z]: -6, 53, 6) and anterior cingulate cortex (MNI coordinates 6, 43, 14) in the sNSC group relative to controls. Furthermore, in the sNSC patients versus controls, the Brodmann area 7, 39, and 40 seed had decreased connectivity to left angular gyrus (MNI coordinates -31, -61, 34), posterior cingulate cortex (MNI coordinates 13, -52, 18), precuneus (MNI coordinates 10, -55, 54), left and right parahippocampus (MNI coordinates -13, -52, 2 and MNI coordinates 11, -50, 2, respectively), lingual (MNI coordinates -11, -86, -10), and fusiform gyri (MNI coordinates -30, -79, -18). Intrinsic connectivity analysis also revealed altered connectivity between central nodes in the default mode network in sNSC relative to controls; the left and right posterior cingulate cortices

  8. Diet alters performance and transcription patterns in Oedaleus asiaticus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xunbing; Whitman, Douglas W; Ma, Jingchuan; McNeill, Mark Richard; Zhang, Zehua

    2017-01-01

    We reared Oedaleus asiaticus grasshoppers under four different single-plant diets to examine the relationships among diet, performance, stress, and transcription patterns. Grasshoppers fed only Artemisia frigida (Asteraceae) were stressed, as indicated by their lower growth, size, development, and survival, in comparison to grasshoppers fed on any of three grasses, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Leymus chinensis, or Stipa krylovii (all Poaceae). We then used transcriptome analysis to examine how gene expression levels in O. asiaticus were altered by feeding on these diets. Nymphs fed A. frigida had the largest variation in gene expression profiles with a total of 299 genes significantly up- or down-regulated compared to those feeding on the three grasses: down-regulated genes included those involved in cuticle biosynthesis, DNA replication, biosynthesis and metabolism of nutrition. The up-regulated genes included stress-resistant and detoxifying enzymes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis also showed that feeding on A. frigida could down-regulate biosynthesis and metabolism related pathways, and up-regulate stress-resistant and detoxification terms and pathways. Our results show that diet significantly altered gene-expression, and that unfavorable, stressful diets induce more transcriptional changes than favorable diets. Altered gene-expression represents phenotypic plasticity, and many such changes appear to be evolved, adaptive responses. The ease and regularity by which individuals shift phenotypes via altered transcription suggests that populations consist not of similar, fixed phenotypes, but of a collection of ever-changing, divergent phenotypes.

  9. Alteration in neonatal nutrition causes perturbations in hypothalamic neural circuits controlling reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Emilie; Ciofi, Philippe; Prevot, Vincent; Bouret, Sebastien G

    2012-08-15

    It is increasingly accepted that alterations of the early life environment may have lasting impacts on physiological functions. In particular, epidemiological and animal studies have indicated that changes in growth and nutrition during childhood and adolescence can impair reproductive function. However, the precise biological mechanisms that underlie these programming effects of neonatal nutrition on reproduction are still poorly understood. Here, we used a mouse model of divergent litter size to investigate the effects of early postnatal overnutrition and undernutrition on the maturation of hypothalamic circuits involved in reproductive function. Neonatally undernourished females display attenuated postnatal growth associated with delayed puberty and defective development of axonal projections from the arcuate nucleus to the preoptic region. These alterations persist into adulthood and specifically affect the organization of neural projections containing kisspeptin, a key neuropeptide involved in pubertal activation and fertility. Neonatal overfeeding also perturbs the development of neural projections from the arcuate nucleus to the preoptic region, but it does not result in alterations in kisspeptin projections. These studies indicate that alterations in the early nutritional environment cause lasting and deleterious effects on the organization of neural circuits involved in the control of reproduction, and that these changes are associated with lifelong functional perturbations.

  10. Modelling size-dependent cannibalism in barramundi Lates calcarifer: cannibalistic polyphenism and its implication to aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio F Ribeiro

    Full Text Available This study quantified size-dependent cannibalism in barramundi Lates calcarifer through coupling a range of prey-predator pairs in a different range of fish sizes. Predictive models were developed using morphological traits with the alterative assumption of cannibalistic polyphenism. Predictive models were validated with the data from trials where cannibals were challenged with progressing increments of prey sizes. The experimental observations showed that cannibals of 25-131 mm total length could ingest the conspecific prey of 78-72% cannibal length. In the validation test, all predictive models underestimate the maximum ingestible prey size for cannibals of a similar size range. However, the model based on the maximal mouth width at opening closely matched the empirical observations, suggesting a certain degree of phenotypic plasticity of mouth size among cannibalistic individuals. Mouth size showed allometric growth comparing with body depth, resulting in a decreasing trend on the maximum size of ingestible prey as cannibals grow larger, which in parts explains why cannibalism in barramundi is frequently observed in the early developmental stage. Any barramundi has the potential to become a cannibal when the initial prey size was 58% of their size, suggesting that 50% of size difference can be the threshold to initiate intracohort cannibalism in a barramundi population. Cannibalistic polyphenism was likely to occur in barramundi that had a cannibalistic history. An experienced cannibal would have a greater ability to stretch its mouth size to capture a much larger prey than the models predict. The awareness of cannibalistic polyphenism has important application in fish farming management to reduce cannibalism.

  11. Rapid analysis of seed size in Arabidopsis for mutant and QTL discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin Samantha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arabidopsis thaliana is a useful model organism for deciphering the genetic determinants of seed size; however the small size of its seeds makes measurements difficult. Bulk seed weights are often used as an indicator of average seed size, but details of individual seed is obscured. Analysis of seed images is possible but issues arise from variations in seed pigmentation and shadowing making analysis laborious. We therefore investigated the use of a consumer level scanner to facilitate seed size measurements in conjunction with open source image-processing software. Results By using the transmitted light from the slide scanning function of a flatbed scanner and particle analysis of the resulting images, we have developed a method for the rapid and high throughput analysis of seed size and seed size distribution. The technical variation due to the approach was negligible enabling us to identify aspects of maternal plant growth that contribute to biological variation in seed size. By controlling for these factors, differences in seed size caused by altered parental genome dosage and mutation were easily detected. The method has high reproducibility and sensitivity, such that a mutant with a 10% reduction in seed size was identified in a screen of endosperm-expressed genes. Our study also generated average seed size data for 91 Arabidopsis accessions and identified a number of quantitative trait loci from two recombinant inbred line populations, generated from Cape Verde Islands and Burren accessions crossed with Columbia. Conclusions This study describes a sensitive, high-throughput approach for measuring seed size and seed size distribution. The method provides a low cost and robust solution that can be easily implemented into the workflow of studies relating to various aspects of seed development.

  12. Chefs' opinions of restaurant portion sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condrasky, Marge; Ledikwe, Jenny H; Flood, Julie E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-08-01

    The objectives were to determine who establishes restaurant portion sizes and factors that influence these decisions, and to examine chefs' opinions regarding portion size, nutrition information, and weight management. A survey was distributed to chefs to obtain information about who is responsible for determining restaurant portion sizes, factors influencing restaurant portion sizes, what food portion sizes are being served in restaurants, and chefs' opinions regarding nutrition information, health, and body weight. The final sample consisted of 300 chefs attending various culinary meetings. Executive chefs were identified as being primarily responsible for establishing portion sizes served in restaurants. Factors reported to have a strong influence on restaurant portion sizes included presentation of foods, food cost, and customer expectations. While 76% of chefs thought that they served "regular" portions, the actual portions of steak and pasta they reported serving were 2 to 4 times larger than serving sizes recommended by the U.S government. Chefs indicated that they believe that the amount of food served influences how much patrons consume and that large portions are a problem for weight control, but their opinions were mixed regarding whether it is the customer's responsibility to eat an appropriate amount when served a large portion of food. Portion size is a key determinant of energy intake, and the results from this study suggest that cultural norms and economic value strongly influence the determination of restaurant portion sizes. Strategies are needed to encourage chefs to provide and promote portions that are appropriate for customers' energy requirements.

  13. Are relative depletions altered inside diffuse clouds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The data of Jenkins, Savage, and Spitzer (1986) were used to analyze interstellar abundances and depletions of Fe, P, Mg, and Mn toward 37 stars, spanning nearly 1.0 (dex) in mean line-of-sight depletion. It was found that the depletions of these elements are linearly correlated and do not show evidence of differences in the rates of depletion or sputtering from one element to another. For a given level of overall depletion, the sightline-to-sightline rms variance in the depletion for each of these elements was less than 0.16 (dex), which is significantly smaller than is the element-to-element variance. The results suggest that, for most diffuse lines of sight, the relative abundances of these elements are set early in the lifetime of the grains and are not altered significantly thereafter. 53 references

  14. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Mucosal alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The initial effect of anticancer therapy, such as radiation and chemotherapy, is on the rapidly proliferating cells of the oral epithelium. As a consequence, the epithelium may show atrophy and ulceration. The sites of these alterations are related to the rate of epithelial proliferation. Regions of rapid proliferation, such as the oral lining mucosa, show a greater frequency of ulceration than masticatory mucosa or skin. Subsequent changes in the mucosa reflect damage to connective tissue, including fibroblasts and blood vessels. This results in hyalinization of collagen, hypovascularity, and ischemia. Indirect effects of anticancer therapy may include granulocytopenia and reduced salivary secretion, so that the protective mucin coating of the epithelium is compromised. These changes result in tissue with reduced barrier function and impaired ability to heal and to resist entry of pathogens, thus increasing the risk of systemic infections

  15. Anaerobic Digestion Alters Copper and Zinc Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Marcato-Romain, Claire-Emmanuelle; Guiresse, Maritxu; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-09-19

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used organic waste treatment process. However, little is known on how it could alter the speciation of contaminants in organic waste. This study was focused on determining the influence of anaerobic digestion on the speciation of copper and zinc, two metals that generally occur at high concentration in organic waste. Copper and zinc speciation was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in four different raw organic wastes (predigestion) and their digested counterparts (postdigestion, i.e., digestates). The results highlighted an increase in the digestates of the proportion of amorphous or nanostructured copper sulfides as well as amorphous or nanostructured zinc sulfides and zinc phosphate as compared to raw waste. We therefore suggest that the environmental fate of these elements would be different when spreading either digestates or raw waste on cropland.

  16. Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Rice, G. [George Rice and Associates, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow.

  17. Method and apparatus for altering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Regan W.; Greenly, John B.

    2002-02-05

    Methods and apparatus for thermally altering the near surface characteristics of a material are described. In particular, a repetitively pulsed ion beam system comprising a high energy pulsed power source and an ion beam generator are described which are capable of producing single species high voltage ion beams (0.25-2.5 MeV) at 1-1000 kW average power and over extended operating cycles (10.sup.8). Irradiating materials with such high energy, repetitively pulsed ion beams can yield surface treatments including localized high temperature anneals to melting, both followed by rapid thermal quenching to ambient temperatures to achieve both novel and heretofore commercially unachievable physical characteristics in a near surface layer of material.

  18. Exploiting Epigenetic Alterations in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Simon J; Haendler, Bernard

    2017-05-09

    Prostate cancer affects an increasing number of men worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Beside genetic mutations, many epigenetic alterations including DNA and histone modifications have been identified in clinical prostate tumor samples. They have been linked to aberrant activity of enzymes and reader proteins involved in these epigenetic processes, leading to the search for dedicated inhibitory compounds. In the wake of encouraging anti-tumor efficacy results in preclinical models, epigenetic modulators addressing different targets are now being tested in prostate cancer patients. In addition, the assessment of microRNAs as stratification biomarkers, and early clinical trials evaluating suppressor microRNAs as potential prostate cancer treatment are being discussed.

  19. Exploiting Epigenetic Alterations in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. Baumgart

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer affects an increasing number of men worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Beside genetic mutations, many epigenetic alterations including DNA and histone modifications have been identified in clinical prostate tumor samples. They have been linked to aberrant activity of enzymes and reader proteins involved in these epigenetic processes, leading to the search for dedicated inhibitory compounds. In the wake of encouraging anti-tumor efficacy results in preclinical models, epigenetic modulators addressing different targets are now being tested in prostate cancer patients. In addition, the assessment of microRNAs as stratification biomarkers, and early clinical trials evaluating suppressor microRNAs as potential prostate cancer treatment are being discussed.

  20. Alterations in subspecific characters of groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouli, C.; Patil, S.H.; Kale, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recombination of beneficial characters associated in the cultivars of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) belonging to the two subspecies hypogaea and fastigiata had little success in conventional breeding programme. The cultures of ssp. hypogaea have the desirable characters for the crop improvement viz; various growth habits, profuse branching, large pod, seed dormancy and stress tolerance. Sequential flowering, early maturity, compact fruiting habit and high kernel outturn are the other useful characters present in ssp. fastigiata cultures. Mutation research in a popular variety, Spanish Improved belonging to ssp. fastigiata led to the selection of various mutants. One among the mutants had large pod, a characteristic of hypogaea ssp. Hybridization among the mutants and improved cultivars as well as radiation treatment of selected cultures resulted in the isolation of cultures having not only combinations and alterations of characters in both subspecies, but also modifications. These cultures are classified into major groups and their significance in the groundnut improvement is discussed. (author)

  1. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of which the underlying cause and pathogenesis are unknown. Cumulatative data clearly indicates an active participation by the immune system in the disease. An increasingly recognized theory suggests a non-cell autonomous mechanism, meaning that multiple...... cells working together are necessary for the pathogenesis of the disease. Observed immune system alterations could indicate an active participation in this mechanism. Damaged motor neurons are able to activate microglia, astrocytes and the complement system, which further can influence each other...... and contribute to neurodegeneration. Infiltrating peripheral immune cells appears to correlate with disease progression, but their significance and composition is unclear. The deleterious effects of this collaborating system of cells appear to outweigh the protective aspects, and revealing this interplay might...

  2. Saccadic Alterations in Severe Developmental Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pensiero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not sure if persons with dyslexia have ocular motor deficits in addition to their deficits in rapid visual information processing. A 15-year-old boy afflicted by severe dyslexia was submitted to saccadic eye movement recording. Neurological and ophthalmic examinations were normal apart from the presence of an esophoria for near and slightly longer latencies of pattern visual evoked potentials. Subclinical saccadic alterations were present, which could be at the basis of the reading pathology: (1 low velocities (and larger durations of the adducting saccades of the left eye with undershooting and long-lasting postsaccadic onward drift, typical of the internuclear ophthalmoplegia; (2 saccades interrupted in mid-flight and fixation instability, which are present in cases of brainstem premotor disturbances.

  3. Aqueous alteration detection in Tikhonravov crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancarella, F.; Fonti, S.; Alemanno, G.; Orofino, V.; Blanco, A.

    2018-03-01

    The existence of a wet period lasting long enough to allow the development of elementary forms of life on Mars has always been a very interesting issue. Given this perspective, the research for geological markers of such occurrences has been continually pursued. Once a favorable site is detected, effort should be spent to get as much information as possible aimed at a precise assessment of the genesis and evolution of the areas showing the selected markers. In this work, we discuss the recent finding of possible deposits pointing to the past existence of liquid water in Tikhonravov crater located in Arabia Terra. Comparison of CRISM spectra and those of laboratory minerals formed by aqueous alteration has led us to the conclusion that the studied areas within the impact crater host phyllosilicates deposits. In addition, analysis of the CRISM spectra has resulted in the tentative identification of carbonates mixed with phyllosilicates.

  4. Alteration of serum adropin level in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihua; Gao, Bo; Wu, Zaigui; Wang, Hanzhi; Dong, Minyue

    2017-04-01

    To clarify the alterations in serum adropin and preptin concentrations in preeclampsia, we determined serum adropin and preptin levels in 29 women with normal pregnancy and 32 women with preeclampsia. We found that maternal age, body mass index and fetal gender were not significantly different between two groups; however, blood pressure, gestational age and neonatal birth weight were significantly different. Serum adropin levels were significantly increased in women with preeclampsia compared with those with normal pregnancy but there were no significant differences in preptin levels. An increase in maternal serum adropin level was found in preeclampsia, and this may be a compensation for pregnancy complicated with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A.; Rice, G.

    1995-07-01

    Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow

  6. Bortezomib alters sour taste sensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Ohishi

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced taste disorder is one of the critical issues in cancer therapy. Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, is a key agent in multiple myeloma therapy, but it induces a taste disorder. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of bortezomib-induced taste disorder and the underlying mechanism in mice. Among the five basic tastes, the sour taste sensitivity of mice was significantly increased by bortezomib administration. In bortezomib-administered mice, protein expression of PKD2L1 was increased. The increased sour taste sensitivity induced by bortezomib returned to the control level on cessation of its administration. These results suggest that an increase in protein expression of PKD2L1 enhances the sour taste sensitivity in bortezomib-administered mice, and this alteration is reversed on cessation of its administration. Keywords: Taste disorder, Bortezomib, Sour taste, Chemotherapy, Adverse effect

  7. Peripheral myelin protein 22 alters membrane architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorf, Kathleen F.; Marinko, Justin T.; Hampton, Cheri M.; Ke, Zunlong; Hadziselimovic, Arina; Schlebach, Jonathan P.; Law, Cheryl L.; Li, Jun; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Sanders, Charles R.; Ohi, Melanie D.

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is highly expressed in myelinating Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system. PMP22 genetic alterations cause the most common forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD), which is characterized by severe dysmyelination in the peripheral nerves. However, the functions of PMP22 in Schwann cell membranes remain unclear. We demonstrate that reconstitution of purified PMP22 into lipid vesicles results in the formation of compressed and cylindrically wrapped protein-lipid vesicles that share common organizational traits with compact myelin of peripheral nerves in vivo. The formation of these myelin-like assemblies depends on the lipid-to-PMP22 ratio, as well as on the PMP22 extracellular loops. Formation of the myelin-like assemblies is disrupted by a CMTD-causing mutation. This study provides both a biochemical assay for PMP22 function and evidence that PMP22 directly contributes to membrane organization in compact myelin. PMID:28695207

  8. Chlorite alteration in aqueous solutions and uranium removal by altered chlorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eungyeong; Ahn, Hyangsig [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Ho Young, E-mail: hyjo@korea.ac.kr [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji-Hun; Koh, Yong-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • Chlorite alteration and the U removal capacity of altered chlorite were investigated. • Initial pH affected more chlorite dissolution than ionic strength. • Chlorite dissolution at pH{sub o} = 3–8 was inversely proportional to the U removal capacity. • Chlorite dissolution at pH{sub o} = 10 was proportional to the U removal capacity. • The formation of Fe-containing secondary minerals affected the U removal capacity. - Abstract: Chlorite alteration and the U removal capacity of altered chlorite were investigated. Batch kinetic dissolution tests using clinochlore CCa-2 were conducted for 60 days in aqueous solutions of various pHs and ionic strengths. Batch sorption tests using these altered chlorite samples were conducted for 48 h with natural groundwater containing 3.06 × 10{sup −6} M U. Chlorite dissolution was influenced more by pH{sub o} than by the ionic strength of the solution. TEM analysis revealed Fe(oxy)hydroxide aggregates in the solid residue from the batch dissolution test with 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} solution at pH{sub o} = 10. The U removal capacity of the reacted chlorite samples at pH{sub o} = 6–10 was higher than that of the reacted chlorite samples at pH{sub o} = 3. The degree of dissolution of chlorite samples reacted at pH{sub o} = 3–8 was inversely proportional to the U removal capacity, but that of chlorite samples reacted at pH{sub o} = 10 was proportional to the U removal capacity. The positive correlation between the U removal capacity and degree of chlorite dissolution at pH{sub o} = 10 might be due to the formation of Fe-containing secondary minerals and changes in the reactive sites.

  9. Microbiome, inflammation, epigenetic alterations, and mental diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Reza; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Zhou, Jin-Rong

    2017-09-01

    Major mental diseases such as autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder are debilitating illnesses with complex etiologies. Recent findings show that the onset and development of these illnesses cannot be well described by the one-gene; one-disease approach. Instead, their clinical presentation is thought to result from the regulative interplay of a large number of genes. Even though the involvement of many genes are likely, up regulating and activation or down regulation and silencing of these genes by the environmental factors play a crucial role in contributing to their pathogenesis. Much of this interplay may be moderated by epigenetic changes. Similar to genetic mutations, epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA interference can influence gene expression and therefore may cause behavioral and neuronal changes observed in mental disorders. Environmental factors such as diet, gut microbiota, and infections have significant role in these epigenetic modifications. Studies show that bioactive nutrients and gut microbiota can alter either DNA methylation and histone signatures through a variety of mechanisms. Indeed, microbes within the human gut may play a significant role in the regulation of various elements of "gut-brain axis," via their influence on inflammatory cytokines and production of antimicrobial peptides that affect the epigenome through their involvement in generating short chain fatty acids, vitamin synthesis, and nutrient absorption. In addition, they may participate in-gut production of many common neurotransmitters. In this review we will consider the potential interactions of diet, gastrointestinal microbiome, inflammation, and epigenetic alterations in psychiatric disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Wound trauma alters ionizing radiation dose assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiang Juliann G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wounding following whole-body γ-irradiation (radiation combined injury, RCI increases mortality. Wounding-induced increases in radiation mortality are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. Among these factors, cytokines along with other biomarkers have been adopted for biodosimetric evaluation and assessment of radiation dose and injury. Therefore, wounding could complicate biodosimetric assessments. Results In this report, such confounding effects were addressed. Mice were given 60Co γ-photon radiation followed by skin wounding. Wound trauma exacerbated radiation-induced mortality, body-weight loss, and wound healing. Analyses of DNA damage in bone-marrow cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, changes in hematology and cytokine profiles, and fundamental clinical signs were evaluated. Early biomarkers (1 d after RCI vs. irradiation alone included significant decreases in survivin expression in bone marrow cells, enhanced increases in γ-H2AX formation in Lin+ bone marrow cells, enhanced increases in IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and G-CSF concentrations in blood, and concomitant decreases in γ-H2AX formation in PBMCs and decreases in numbers of splenocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. Intermediate biomarkers (7 – 10 d after RCI included continuously decreased γ-H2AX formation in PBMC and enhanced increases in IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and G-CSF concentrations in blood. The clinical signs evaluated after RCI were increased water consumption, decreased body weight, and decreased wound healing rate and survival rate. Late clinical signs (30 d after RCI included poor survival and wound healing. Conclusion Results suggest that confounding factors such as wounding alters ionizing radiation dose assessment and agents inhibiting these responses may prove therapeutic for radiation combined

  11. Chemical alteration of cement hydrates by dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Fujita, Tomonari; Nakanishi, Kiyoshi

    2000-01-01

    Cementitious material is a potential waste packaging and backfilling material for the radioactive waste disposal, and is expected to provide both physical and chemical containment. In particular, the sorption of radionuclides onto cementitious material and the ability to provide a high pH condition are very important parameters when considering the release of radionuclides from radioactive wastes. For the long term, in the geological disposal environment, cement hydrates will be altered by, for example, dissolution, chemical reaction with ions in the groundwater, and hydrothermal reaction. Once the composition or crystallinity of the constituent minerals of a cement hydrate is changed by these processes, the pH of the repository buffered by cementitious material and its sorption ability might be affected. However, the mechanism of cement alteration is not yet fully understood. In this study, leaching experiments of some candidate cements for radioactive waste disposal were carried out. Hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Blast Furnace Slag blended cement (OPC/BFS) and Highly containing Flyash and Silicafume Cement (HFSC) samples were contacted with distilled water at liquid:solid ratios of 10:1, 100:1 and 1000:1 at room temperature for 200 days. In the case of OPC, Ca(OH) 2 dissolved at high liquid:solid ratios. The specific surface area of all cement samples increased by leaching process. This might be caused by further hydration and change of composition of constituent minerals. A model is presented which predicts the leaching of cement hydrates and the mineral composition in the hydrated cement solid phase, including the incongruent dissolution of CSH gel phases and congruent dissolution of Ca(OH) 2 , Ettringite and Hydrotalcite. Experimental results of dissolution of Ca-O-H and Ca-Si-O-H phases were well predicted by this model. (author)

  12. Volcanic glasses, their origins and alteration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Long, W.

    1984-01-01

    Natural glass can be formed by volcanic processes, lightning (fulgarites) burning coal, and by meteorite impact. By far the most common process is volcanic - basically the glass is rapidly chilled molten rock. All natural glasses are thermodynamically unstable and tend to alter chemically or to crystallize. The rate of these processes is determined by the chemical composition of the magma. The hot and fluid basaltic melts have a structure that allows for rapid crystal growth, and seldom forms glass selvages greater than a few centimeters thick, even when the melt is rapidly cooled by extrusion in the deep sea. In contrast the cooler and very viscous rhyolitic magmas can yield bodies of glass that are tens of meters thick. These highly polymerized magmas have a high silica content - often 71-77% SiO2. Their high viscosity inhibits diffusive crystal growth. Basalt glass in sea water forms an alteration zone called palagonite whose thickness increases linearly with time. The rate of diffusion of water into rhyolitic glass, which follows the relationship - thickness = k (time) 1 2, has been determined as a function of the glass composition and temperature. Increased SiO2 increases the rate, whereas increased CaO, MgO and H2O decrease the rate. The activation energy of water diffusion varies from about 19 to 22 kcal/mol. for the glasses studied. The diffusion of alkali out of rhyolite glass occurs simultaneously with water diffusion into the glass. The rate of devitrification of rhyolitic glass is a function of the glass viscosity, which in turn is a function of water content and temperature. Although all of the aforementioned processes tend to destroy natural glasses, the slow rates of these processes, particularly for rhyolitic glass, has allowed samples of glass to persist for 60 million years. ?? 1984.

  13. Aqueous alteration of Japanese simulated waste glass P0798: Effects of alteration-phase formation on alteration rate and cesium retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Y.; Shinkai, A.; Idemistu, K.; Arima, T.; Yoshikawa, H.; Yui, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous alteration tests were performed with a Japanese simulated waste glass P0798 in alkaline solutions as a function of pH or species/concentration of alkaline metals in the solution in order to evaluate the alteration conditions determining whether smectite (2:1 clay mineral) or analcime (zeolite) forms as the major alteration-phase. XRD analysis of the alteration-phases showed that smectite forms at any pH between 9.5 and 12, and analcime forms at pH above 11, though the formation also depends on species and concentrations of alkaline metals in the solution. These results cannot agree with the thermodynamically predicted phase stability, e.g., smectite is more stable than the thermodynamic prediction shows. On the basis of the results of alteration conditions, the alteration tests were performed under smectite forming conditions, where only smectite forms or no crystalline phases form, in order to evaluate the alteration rate and the mechanism of cesium release/retention. The results showed that the glass alteration proceeds slowly in proportion to square root of time under smectite forming conditions, which indicates that the alteration rate can be controlled by a diffusion process. It was suggested that the alteration rate under smectite forming conditions is independent of the pH, alkaline metal species/concentration in the solution and whether smectite actually forms or not. The results also indicated that most of cesium dissolved from the glass can be retained in the alteration-phases by reversible sorption onto smectite or irreversible incorporation into analcime, pollucite or solid solutions of them

  14. Investigation of alteration zones in Garandake and Kurokawa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinbara, K [Geological Survey of Japan, Kawasaki; Sudo, S

    1977-01-01

    The eastern part of the Garan area contains both the Myoban and Tsukahara hot springs. The springs are associated with the Sanin Formation, and an alteration zone is present which strikes easterly. Throughout the altered area, a clear zonation of the alteration is present. The zonation runs: silicified - alunitized - kaolin/argillized - montmorillonite/zeolite. In the Kurokawa area, a total of 0.96 km/sup 2/ of altered zones were observed near Suzumejigoku and throughout Yoshikawa and Tawara. The most heavily altered areas were at Kurokawa hot springs and Yoshikawa, where alunite and kaolinite are abundant. The time of alteration is believed to be prior to the deposition of the Hisazumi pumice. Around the Kurokawa hot springs, where the water temperature is 98/sup 0/C, the alteration extends as far as the pumice.

  15. Annual cycle of size-resolved organic aerosol characterization in an urbanized desert environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Thomas M.

    2013-06-01

    Studies of size-resolved organic speciation of aerosols are still relatively rare and are generally only conducted over short durations. However, size-resolved organic data can both suggest possible sources of the aerosols and identify the human exposure to the chemicals since different aerosol sizes have different lung capture efficiencies. The objective of this study was to conduct size-resolved organic aerosol speciation for a calendar year in Phoenix, Arizona to determine the seasonal variations in both chemical concentrations and size profiles. The results showed large seasonal differences in combustion pollutants where the highest concentrations were observed in winter. Summertime aerosols have a greater proportion of biological compounds (e.g. sugars and fatty acids) and the biological compounds represent the largest fraction of the organic compounds detected. These results suggest that standard organic carbon (OC) measurements might be heavily influenced by primary biological compounds particularly if the samples are PM10 and TSP samples. Several large dust storms did not significantly alter the organic aerosol profile since Phoenix resides in a dusty desert environment, so the soil and plant tracer of trehalose was almost always present. The aerosol size profiles showed that PAHs were generally most abundant in the smallest aerosol size fractions, which are most likely to be captured by the lung, while the biological compounds were almost exclusively found in the coarse size fraction.

  16. Evidence of size-selective evolution in the fighting conch from prehistoric subsistence harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Aaron; Shaffer, Marian Lynne; Doughty, Douglas R; Wake, Thomas A; Rodriguez, Felix A

    2014-05-07

    Intensive size-selective harvesting can drive evolution of sexual maturity at smaller body size. Conversely, prehistoric, low-intensity subsistence harvesting is not considered an effective agent of size-selective evolution. Uniting archaeological, palaeontological and contemporary material, we show that size at sexual maturity in the edible conch Strombus pugilis declined significantly from pre-human (approx. 7 ka) to prehistoric times (approx. 1 ka) and again to the present day. Size at maturity also fell from early- to late-prehistoric periods, synchronous with an increase in harvesting intensity as other resources became depleted. A consequence of declining size at maturity is that early prehistoric harvesters would have received two-thirds more meat per conch than contemporary harvesters. After exploring the potential effects of selection biases, demographic shifts, environmental change and habitat alteration, these observations collectively implicate prehistoric subsistence harvesting as an agent of size-selective evolution with long-term detrimental consequences. We observe that contemporary populations that are protected from harvesting are slightly larger at maturity, suggesting that halting or even reversing thousands of years of size-selective evolution may be possible.

  17. Clutch frequency affects the offspring size-number trade-off in lizards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of lizards have shown that offspring size cannot be altered by manipulating clutch size in species with a high clutch frequency. This raises a question of whether clutch frequency has a key role in influencing the offspring size-number trade-off in lizards.To test the hypothesis that females reproducing more frequently are less likely to tradeoff offspring size against offspring number, we applied the follicle ablation technique to female Eremias argus (Lacertidae from Handan (HD and Gonghe (GH, the two populations that differ in clutch frequency. Follicle ablation resulted in enlargement of egg size in GH females, but not in HD females. GH females switched from producing a larger number of smaller eggs in the first clutch to a smaller number of larger eggs in the second clutch; HD females showed a similar pattern of seasonal shifts in egg size, but kept clutch size constant between the first two clutches. Thus, the egg size-number trade-off was evident in GH females, but not in HD females.As HD females (mean  = 3.1 clutches per year reproduce more frequently than do GH females (mean  = 1.6 clutches per year, our data therefore validate the hypothesis tested. Our data also provide an inference that maximization of maternal fitness could be achieved in females by diverting a large enough, rather than a higher-than-usual, fraction of the available energy to individual offspring in a given reproductive episode.

  18. Paying attention to attention: evidence for an attentional contribution to the size congruity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risko, Evan F; Maloney, Erin A; Fugelsang, Jonathan A

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the mechanisms supporting our comprehension of magnitude information represents a key goal in cognitive psychology. A major phenomenon employed in the pursuit of this goal has been the physical size congruity effect-namely, the observation that comparing the relative numerical sizes of two numbers is influenced by their relative physical sizes. The standard account of the physical size congruity effect attributes it to the automatic influence of the comparison of irrelevant physical magnitudes on numerical judgments. Here we develop an alternative account of this effect on the basis of the operation of attention in the typical size congruity display and the temporal dynamics of number comparison. We also provide a test of a number of predictions derived from this alternative account by combining a physical size congruity manipulation with a manipulation designed to alter the operation of attention within the typical size congruity display (i.e., a manipulation of the relative onsets of the digits). This test provides evidence consistent with an attentional contribution to the size congruity effect. Implications for our understanding of magnitude and the interactions between attention and magnitude are discussed.

  19. First Temperate Exoplanet Sized Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Combining observations from the CoRoT satellite and the ESO HARPS instrument, astronomers have discovered the first "normal" exoplanet that can be studied in great detail. Designated Corot-9b, the planet regularly passes in front of a star similar to the Sun located 1500 light-years away from Earth towards the constellation of Serpens (the Snake). "This is a normal, temperate exoplanet just like dozens we already know, but this is the first whose properties we can study in depth," says Claire Moutou, who is part of the international team of 60 astronomers that made the discovery. "It is bound to become a Rosetta stone in exoplanet research." "Corot-9b is the first exoplanet that really does resemble planets in our solar system," adds lead author Hans Deeg. "It has the size of Jupiter and an orbit similar to that of Mercury." "Like our own giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, the planet is mostly made of hydrogen and helium," says team member Tristan Guillot, "and it may contain up to 20 Earth masses of other elements, including water and rock at high temperatures and pressures." Corot-9b passes in front of its host star every 95 days, as seen from Earth [1]. This "transit" lasts for about 8 hours, and provides astronomers with much additional information on the planet. This is fortunate as the gas giant shares many features with the majority of exoplanets discovered so far [2]. "Our analysis has provided more information on Corot-9b than for other exoplanets of the same type," says co-author Didier Queloz. "It may open up a new field of research to understand the atmospheres of moderate- and low-temperature planets, and in particular a completely new window in our understanding of low-temperature chemistry." More than 400 exoplanets have been discovered so far, 70 of them through the transit method. Corot-9b is special in that its distance from its host star is about ten times larger than that of any planet previously discovered by this method. And unlike all such

  20. Impact of the tick-size on financial returns and correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münnix, Michael C.; Schäfer, Rudi; Guhr, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate that the lowest possible price change (tick-size) has a large impact on the structure of financial return distributions. It induces a microstructure as well as possibly altering the tail behavior. On small return intervals, the tick-size can distort the calculation of correlations. This especially occurs on small return intervals and thus contributes to the decay of the correlation coefficient towards smaller return intervals (Epps effect). We study this behavior within a model and identify the effect in market data. Furthermore, we present a method to compensate this purely statistical error.

  1. Non-invasive assessment of the effects of drugs on acute myocardial infarct size in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maclean, D [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (UK)

    1979-06-01

    The amount of necrotic myocardium following acute coronary artery occlusion influences both the early and long-term consequences of myocardial infarction. Experiments, however, indicate that several drugs given early after the occlusion can substantially alter final infarct size. Clinical assessment of the effects of these drugs poses difficulties and an awareness of the limitations of existing methods is essential for their successful application. This discussion is restricted largely to the advantages and disadvantages of the three main methods currently used for assessing acute myocardial infarct size:-praecordial electrocardiographic mapping, serial estimates of serum creatine kinase activity, and radionuclide scintigraphy.

  2. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  3. Coronal reconstruction of unenhanced abdominal CT for correct ureteral stone size classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkovitz, Nadav; Simanovsky, Natalia; Hiller, Nurith [Hadassah Mount Scopus - Hebrew University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Jerusalem (Israel); Katz, Ran [Hadassah Mount Scopus - Hebrew University Medical Center, Department of Urology, Jerusalem (Israel); Salama, Shaden [Hadassah Mount Scopus - Hebrew University Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2010-05-15

    To determine whether size measurement of a urinary calculus in coronal reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) differs from stone size measured in the axial plane, and whether the difference alters clinical decision making. We retrospectively reviewed unenhanced CT examinations of 150 patients admitted to the emergency room (ER) with acute renal colic. Maximal ureteral calculus size was measured on axial slices and coronal reconstructions. Clinical significance was defined as an upgrading or downgrading of stone size according to accepted thresholds of treatment: {<=}5 mm, 6-9 mm and {>=}10 mm. There were 151 stones in 150 patients (male:female 115:34, mean age 41 years). Transverse stone diameters ranged from 1 to 11 mm (mean 4 mm). On coronal images, 56 (37%) stones were upgraded in severity; 46 (30%) from below 5 mm to 6 mm or more, and ten (7%) from 6-9 mm to 10 mm or more. Transverse measurement on the axial slices enabled correct categorization of 95 stones (63%). Transverse calculus measurement on axial slices often underestimates stone size and provides incorrect clinical classification of the true maximal stone diameter. Coronal reconstruction provides additional information in patients with renal colic that may alter treatment strategy. (orig.)

  4. Coronal reconstruction of unenhanced abdominal CT for correct ureteral stone size classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovitz, Nadav; Simanovsky, Natalia; Hiller, Nurith; Katz, Ran; Salama, Shaden

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether size measurement of a urinary calculus in coronal reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) differs from stone size measured in the axial plane, and whether the difference alters clinical decision making. We retrospectively reviewed unenhanced CT examinations of 150 patients admitted to the emergency room (ER) with acute renal colic. Maximal ureteral calculus size was measured on axial slices and coronal reconstructions. Clinical significance was defined as an upgrading or downgrading of stone size according to accepted thresholds of treatment: ≤5 mm, 6-9 mm and ≥10 mm. There were 151 stones in 150 patients (male:female 115:34, mean age 41 years). Transverse stone diameters ranged from 1 to 11 mm (mean 4 mm). On coronal images, 56 (37%) stones were upgraded in severity; 46 (30%) from below 5 mm to 6 mm or more, and ten (7%) from 6-9 mm to 10 mm or more. Transverse measurement on the axial slices enabled correct categorization of 95 stones (63%). Transverse calculus measurement on axial slices often underestimates stone size and provides incorrect clinical classification of the true maximal stone diameter. Coronal reconstruction provides additional information in patients with renal colic that may alter treatment strategy. (orig.)

  5. Estimating Search Engine Index Size Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Bosch, Antal; Bogers, Toine; De Kunder, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    One of the determining factors of the quality of Web search engines is the size of their index. In addition to its influence on search result quality, the size of the indexed Web can also tell us something about which parts of the WWW are directly accessible to the everyday user. We propose a novel...... method of estimating the size of a Web search engine’s index by extrapolating from document frequencies of words observed in a large static corpus of Web pages. In addition, we provide a unique longitudinal perspective on the size of Google and Bing’s indices over a nine-year period, from March 2006...... until January 2015. We find that index size estimates of these two search engines tend to vary dramatically over time, with Google generally possessing a larger index than Bing. This result raises doubts about the reliability of previous one-off estimates of the size of the indexed Web. We find...

  6. Effect of display size on visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Ping; Liao, Chia-Ning; Yeh, Shih-Hao

    2011-06-01

    Attention plays an important role in the design of human-machine interfaces. However, current knowledge about attention is largely based on data obtained when using devices of moderate display size. With advancement in display technology comes the need for understanding attention behavior over a wider range of viewing sizes. The effect of display size on test participants' visual search performance was studied. The participants (N = 12) performed two types of visual search tasks, that is, parallel and serial search, under three display-size conditions (16 degrees, 32 degrees, and 60 degrees). Serial, but not parallel, search was affected by display size. In the serial task, mean reaction time for detecting a target increased with the display size.

  7. Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Úrsula Rocha Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin disk and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p < 0.05. All the paints underwent chromatic alteration. The oil paint presented the highest resistance to accelerated aging.

  8. Body Size Distribution of the Dinosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    O?Gorman, Eoin J.; Hone, David W. E.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutiona...

  9. Stochastic synchronization in finite size spiking networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Brent; Rinzel, John; Reyes, Alex

    2006-09-01

    We study a stochastic synchronization of spiking activity in feedforward networks of integrate-and-fire model neurons. A stochastic mean field analysis shows that synchronization occurs only when the network size is sufficiently small. This gives evidence that the dynamics, and hence processing, of finite size populations can be drastically different from that observed in the infinite size limit. Our results agree with experimentally observed synchrony in cortical networks, and further strengthen the link between synchrony and propagation in cortical systems.

  10. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Monique de Haan

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of sibship size and birth order on educational attainment, for the United States and the Netherlands. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of sibship size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation with years of education for different family sizes separately; this avoids the problem that estimated ef...

  11. Labour Costs and the Size of Government

    OpenAIRE

    Facchini, François; Melki, Mickael; Pickering, Andrew Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Given inelastic demand for labour-intensive public services, the size of government depends positively on labour costs. OECD data exhibit a strong statistical association between government size and the business-sector labour share of income. When the labour share is instrumented with measures of technological change, institutional variation and predetermined data it continues to positively impact government size. In contrast, transfer spending is unaffected by the labour share. The evidence ...

  12. Recovery of neurofilament following early monocular deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P O'Leary

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A brief period of monocular deprivation in early postnatal life can alter the structure of neurons within deprived-eye-receiving layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The modification of structure is accompanied by a marked reduction in labeling for neurofilament, a protein that composes the stable cytoskeleton and that supports neuron structure. This study examined the extent of neurofilament recovery in monocularly deprived cats that either had their deprived eye opened (binocular recovery, or had the deprivation reversed to the fellow eye (reverse occlusion. The degree to which recovery was dependent on visually-driven activity was examined by placing monocularly deprived animals in complete darkness (dark rearing. The loss of neurofilament and the reduction of soma size caused by monocular deprivation were both ameliorated equally following either binocular recovery or reverse occlusion for 8 days. Though monocularly deprived animals placed in complete darkness showed recovery of soma size, there was a generalized loss of neurofilament labeling that extended to originally non-deprived layers. Overall, these results indicate that recovery of soma size is achieved by removal of the competitive disadvantage of the deprived eye, and occurred even in the absence of visually-driven activity. Recovery of neurofilament occurred when the competitive disadvantage of the deprived eye was removed, but unlike the recovery of soma size, was dependent upon visually-driven activity. The role of neurofilament in providing stable neural structure raises the intriguing possibility that dark rearing, which reduced overall neurofilament levels, could be used to reset the deprived visual system so as to make it more ameliorable with treatment by experiential manipulations.

  13. Unit size limitations in smaller power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnach, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    The developing nations have generally found it an economic necessity to accept the minimum commercial size limit of 600 MWe. Smaller reactor sizes tendered as 'one off' specials carry high specific cost penalties which considerably weaken the competitiveness of nuclear versus conventional thermal plants. The revised IAEA market survey for nuclear power in developing countries (1974 edition) which takes account of the recent heavy escalation in oil prices, indicates a reasonable market for smaller size reactors in the range 150 MWe to 400 MWe, but until this market is approached seriously by manufacturers, the commercial availability and economic viability of smaller size reactors remains uncertain. (orig.) [de

  14. Polyelectrolyte Bundles: Finite size at thermodynamic equilibrium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Mehmet

    2005-03-01

    Experimental observation of finite size aggregates formed by polyelectrolytes such as DNA and F-actin, as well as synthetic polymers like poly(p-phenylene), has created a lot of attention in recent years. Here, bundle formation in rigid rod-like polyelectrolytes is studied via computer simulations. For the case of hydrophobically modified polyelectrolytes finite size bundles are observed even in the presence of only monovalent counterions. Furthermore, in the absence of a hydrophobic backbone, we have also observed formation of finite size aggregates via multivalent counterion condensation. The size distribution of such aggregates and the stability is analyzed in this study.

  15. Determination of Flaw Size from Thermographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, William P.; Howell, Patricia A.; Zalameda, Joseph N.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional methods for reducing the pulsed thermographic responses of delaminations tend to overestimate the size of the flaw. Since the heat diffuses in the plane parallel to the surface, the resulting temperature profile over the flaw is larger than the flaw. A variational method is presented for reducing the thermographic data to produce an estimated size for the flaw that is much closer to the true size of the flaw. The size is determined from the spatial thermal response of the exterior surface above the flaw and a constraint on the length of the contour surrounding the flaw. The technique is applied to experimental data acquired on a flat bottom hole composite specimen.

  16. Particle size distribution instrument. Topical report 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okhuysen, W.; Gassaway, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    The development of an instrument to measure the concentration of particles in gas is described in this report. An in situ instrument was designed and constructed which sizes individual particles and counts the number of occurrences for several size classes. Although this instrument was designed to detect the size distribution of slag and seed particles generated at an experimental coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic power facility, it can be used as a nonintrusive diagnostic tool for other hostile industrial processes involving the formation and growth of particulates. Two of the techniques developed are extensions of the widely used crossed beam velocimeter, providing simultaneous measurement of the size distribution and velocity of articles.

  17. Interfacial Studies of Sized Carbon Fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrul, S. N.; Hartini, M. N.; Hilmi, E. A.; Nizam, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of sizing treatment on carbon fiber in respect of interfacial adhesion in composite materials, Epolam registered 2025. Fortafil unsized carbon fiber was used to performed the experiment. The fiber was commercially surface treated and it was a polyacrylonitrile based carbon fiber with 3000 filament per strand. Epicure registered 3370 was used as basic sizing chemical and dissolved in two types of solvent, ethanol and acetone for the comparison purpose. The single pull out test has been used to determine the influence of sizing on carbon fiber. The morphology of carbon fiber was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The apparent interfacial strength IFSS values determined by pull out test for the Epicure registered 3370/ethanol sized carbon fiber pointed to a good interfacial behaviour compared to the Epicure registered 3370/acetone sized carbon fiber. The Epicure registered 3370/ethanol sizing agent was found to be effective in promoting adhesion because of the chemical reactions between the sizing and Epolam registered 2025 during the curing process. From this work, it showed that sized carbon fiber using Epicure registered 3370 with addition of ethanol give higher mechanical properties of carbon fiber in terms of shear strength and also provided a good adhesion between fiber and matrix compared to the sizing chemical that contain acetone as a solvent.

  18. Sample size in qualitative interview studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane

    2016-01-01

    Sample sizes must be ascertained in qualitative studies like in quantitative studies but not by the same means. The prevailing concept for sample size in qualitative studies is “saturation.” Saturation is closely tied to a specific methodology, and the term is inconsistently applied. We propose...... the concept “information power” to guide adequate sample size for qualitative studies. Information power indicates that the more information the sample holds, relevant for the actual study, the lower amount of participants is needed. We suggest that the size of a sample with sufficient information power...... and during data collection of a qualitative study is discussed....

  19. Vessel size measurements in angiograms: Manual measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Dmochowski, Jacek; Nazareth, Daryl P.; Miskolczi, Laszlo; Nemes, Balazs; Gopal, Anant; Wang Zhou; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Vessel size measurement is perhaps the most often performed quantitative analysis in diagnostic and interventional angiography. Although automated vessel sizing techniques are generally considered to have good accuracy and precision, we have observed that clinicians rarely use these techniques in standard clinical practice, choosing to indicate the edges of vessels and catheters to determine sizes and calibrate magnifications, i.e., manual measurements. Thus, we undertook an investigation of the accuracy and precision of vessel sizes calculated from manually indicated edges of vessels. Manual measurements were performed by three neuroradiologists and three physicists. Vessel sizes ranged from 0.1-3.0 mm in simulation studies and 0.3-6.4 mm in phantom studies. Simulation resolution functions had full-widths-at-half-maximum (FWHM) ranging from 0.0 to 0.5 mm. Phantom studies were performed with 4.5 in., 6 in., 9 in., and 12 in. image intensifier modes, magnification factor = 1, with and without zooming. The accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 mm, depending on vessel size, resolution, and pixel size, and zoom. These results indicate that manual measurements may have accuracies comparable to automated techniques for vessels with sizes greater than 1 mm, but that automated techniques which take into account the resolution function should be used for vessels with sizes smaller than 1 mm

  20. Network analysis of genomic alteration profiles reveals co-altered functional modules and driver genes for glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yunyan; Wang, Hongwei; Qin, Yao; Zhang, Yujing; Zhao, Wenyuan; Qi, Lishuang; Zhang, Yuannv; Wang, Chenguang; Guo, Zheng

    2013-03-01

    The heterogeneity of genetic alterations in human cancer genomes presents a major challenge to advancing our understanding of cancer mechanisms and identifying cancer driver genes. To tackle this heterogeneity problem, many approaches have been proposed to investigate genetic alterations and predict driver genes at the individual pathway level. However, most of these approaches ignore the correlation of alteration events between pathways and miss many genes with rare alterations collectively contributing to carcinogenesis. Here, we devise a network-based approach to capture the cooperative functional modules hidden in genome-wide somatic mutation and copy number alteration profiles of glioblastoma (GBM) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), where a module is a set of altered genes with dense interactions in the protein interaction network. We identify 7 pairs of significantly co-altered modules that involve the main pathways known to be altered in GBM (TP53, RB and RTK signaling pathways) and highlight the striking co-occurring alterations among these GBM pathways. By taking into account the non-random correlation of gene alterations, the property of co-alteration could distinguish oncogenic modules that contain driver genes involved in the progression of GBM. The collaboration among cancer pathways suggests that the redundant models and aggravating models could shed new light on the potential mechanisms during carcinogenesis and provide new indications for the design of cancer therapeutic strategies.

  1. Smectite alteration by anaerobic iron corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, D.; Kaufhold, S.; Hassel, A.W.; Dohrmann, R.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The interaction of smectites with corroding steel/iron represents a crucial topic in the estimation of the long term confinement properties of clay barriers for the encasement of steel/iron containers. Especially in case of engineered clay barriers a possible deterioration of favourable smectite properties as response to corrosion could reduce the barrier capacity. The extent of this reduction is unknown, yet. The essential properties of bentonite clays in this context are on the one hand the relatively high swelling pressure together with low hydraulic conductivity, which results from the well known expandability of smectite interlayers in aqueous environments. On the other hand smectites are cation exchangers being able to long term encase radioactive cations in a way that negative charges of silicate layers are compensated by easily exchangeable hydrated cations. Both properties are directly related to the crystal and chemical composition of smectites. The nature of the corrosion of steel canisters in clay barriers will - after a first short aerobic phase - predominantly be anaerobic resulting in the formation of Fe(II) and two equivalents of hydroxide ions. In a set of exposition experiments anaerobic corroding iron in bentonite gels was studied in order to determine alteration of the smectite fraction. During the exposition a green coloration of the bentonite neighbouring to corroding iron was observed. Upon contact to oxygen in a humid state the bentonite turned reddish indicating the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). This observation is in accordance with reported results indicating the formation of an iron rich smectite. Chemical analysis of the 'green bentonite' reveals an increase of iron fraction e.g. from 3.4% mass to 9.3% mass . The adsorbed iron is predominantly Fe(II) which was proven by chromato-metric titration. The estimated ratio between silicon to increased iron content is Si: Fe ≅ 2

  2. The sandstone's chromatic alteration of the florentine cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettori, S.; Pecchioni, E.; Cantisani, E.; Ricci, M.; Fratini, F.; Garzonio, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    Pietra Serena is one of the materials more used in Florentine architecture. It is a sandstone that outcrops in the hills north of the city in the municipality of Fiesole and it has been employed mainly for ornamental purposes. This litotype belongs to the the Macigno Formation (Oligocene Upper- Miocene Lower) which consists of beds of turbiditic sandstones separated by pelitic levels which are the finest components of each single turbidity layer. Petrographically, Pietra Serena can be defined as a medium-coarse-grained greywacke made of quartz, feldspars, micas, fragments of metamorphic and magmatic rocks. The clayey matrix is quite abundant, mainly composed by illite, kaolinite and chlorite-vermiculite (present only in some quarries). It is well known that the processes of decay of the sandstones are related to the type of matrix, the amount of cement, the kind of clay minerals and to the pore size distribution, which lead to water infiltrations, swelling of the clay minerals, separation of the clayey matrix, with resulting exfoliation and peeling of the stone artefacts. Pietra Serena has a bluish-grey colour in fresh cut, but many times it is easily oxidized acquiring an ochraceous-reddish brown colour on buildings. Such changes in colour, appear to be due in part to the oxidation of iron, proceeding very quickly from the surface to the inside, though the cohesion is not affected. It is possible to hypothesize that the chromatic changes not necessarily involve a progressive state of alteration of the artefact, but they may often to represents a natural patina acquired with the time. Nevertheless it is necessary to remember that the oxidized layer and its hardness could also be the result of treatments performed in the past. In Florence, several monuments and buildings are affected by such phenomenon, in particular it is possible to note an intense and diffuse reddish colouring on the Pietra Serena utilized for columns and for façade's decorations. In this work

  3. Aging alters the immunological response to ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzel, Rodney M; Lai, Yun-Ju; Crapser, Joshua D; Patel, Anita R; Schrecengost, Anna; Grenier, Jeremy M; Mancini, Nickolas S; Patrizz, Anthony; Jellison, Evan R; Morales-Scheihing, Diego; Venna, Venugopal R; Kofler, Julia K; Liu, Fudong; Verma, Rajkumar; McCullough, Louise D

    2018-05-11

    The peripheral immune system plays a critical role in aging and in the response to brain injury. Emerging data suggest inflammatory responses are exacerbated in older animals following ischemic stroke; however, our understanding of these age-related changes is poor. In this work, we demonstrate marked differences in the composition of circulating and infiltrating leukocytes recruited to the ischemic brain of old male mice after stroke compared to young male mice. Blood neutrophilia and neutrophil invasion into the brain were increased in aged animals. Relative to infiltrating monocyte populations, brain-invading neutrophils had reduced phagocytic potential, and produced higher levels of reactive oxygen species and extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes (i.e., MMP-9), which were further exacerbated with age. Hemorrhagic transformation was more pronounced in aged versus young mice relative to infarct size. High numbers of myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils were found in postmortem human brain samples of old (> 71 years) acute ischemic stroke subjects compared to non-ischemic controls. Many of these neutrophils were found in the brain parenchyma. A large proportion of these neutrophils expressed MMP-9 and positively correlated with hemorrhage and hyperemia. MMP-9 expression and hemorrhagic transformation after stroke increased with age. These changes in the myeloid response to stroke with age led us to hypothesize that the bone marrow response to stroke is altered with age, which could be important for the development of effective therapies targeting the immune response. We generated heterochronic bone marrow chimeras as a tool to determine the contribution of peripheral immune senescence to age- and stroke-induced inflammation. Old hosts that received young bone marrow (i.e., Young → Old) had attenuation of age-related reductions in bFGF and VEGF and showed improved locomotor activity and gait dynamics compared to isochronic (Old → Old) controls

  4. Altered neurocircuitry in the dopamine transporter knockout mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Zhang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The plasma membrane transporters for the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine modulate the dynamics of these monoamine neurotransmitters. Thus, activity of these transporters has significant consequences for monoamine activity throughout the brain and for a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gene knockout (KO mice that reduce or eliminate expression of each of these monoamine transporters have provided a wealth of new information about the function of these proteins at molecular, physiological and behavioral levels. In the present work we use the unique properties of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to probe the effects of altered dopaminergic dynamics on meso-scale neuronal circuitry and overall brain morphology, since changes at these levels of organization might help to account for some of the extensive pharmacological and behavioral differences observed in dopamine transporter (DAT KO mice. Despite the smaller size of these animals, voxel-wise statistical comparison of high resolution structural MR images indicated little morphological change as a consequence of DAT KO. Likewise, proton magnetic resonance spectra recorded in the striatum indicated no significant changes in detectable metabolite concentrations between DAT KO and wild-type (WT mice. In contrast, alterations in the circuitry from the prefrontal cortex to the mesocortical limbic system, an important brain component intimately tied to function of mesolimbic/mesocortical dopamine reward pathways, were revealed by manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI. Analysis of co-registered MEMRI images taken over the 26 hours after introduction of Mn(2+ into the prefrontal cortex indicated that DAT KO mice have a truncated Mn(2+ distribution within this circuitry with little accumulation beyond the thalamus or contralateral to the injection site. By contrast, WT littermates exhibit Mn(2+ transport into more posterior midbrain nuclei and contralateral

  5. Endosonographic and color doppler flow imaging alterations observed within irradiated rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Archie A.; Palazzo, Juan P.; Ahmad, Neelofur R.; Liu, J.-B.; Forsberg, Flemming; Marks, John

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate the endosonographic and color Doppler flow imaging alterations observed in irradiated rectal cancers with the pathologic features of radiation response, and to evaluate the potential impact of altered blood flow on the integrity of the surgical anastamosis. Methods and Materials: Endosonography with color and pulsed wave Doppler was performed on 20 rectal cancer masses before and after high dose preoperative radiation (XRT). Pre- and post-XRT observations included comparing alterations in tumor size, sonographic echotexture, color Doppler flow, and pulsatility indices. Comparisons were made with pathologic findings in the irradiated specimens and with the incidence of anastomotic failure. Results: Compared to pre-XRT observations, irradiated rectal cancers decreased in size and became either mixed in echogenicity with less apparent color Doppler flow (16 of 20) or unchanged in color Doppler flow and echotexture (4 of 20). Those with less flow (16 of 20) were imaged later (mean = 90.2 ± 12.1 days) than those without change in color Doppler flow (mean = 21.7 ± 2.7 days). Pathologically, the group of four without change in color Doppler signal had features of acute inflammation which were not observed in 16 of 20 imaged later. Based on pulsatility index measurements, both high and low resistance vessels were detected and confirmed by immunohistochemical staining, and features of postradiation obliterative vasculitis were observed. Only one primary anastomosis in 14 patients with decreased flow failed. Conclusions: The sonographic and color Doppler flow imaging alterations observed within irradiated rectal cancer correlated with changes of postradiation obliterative vasculitis. The apparent diminished local blood flow within high and low resistance vessels post-XRT did not result in an increased incidence of anastomotic failures

  6. Micromégas: Altered Body–Environment Scaling in Literary Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Architectonic embodiment postulates a bidirectional link between bodily awareness and the architectural environment. The standard size and features of the human body, for instance, are thought to influence the structure of interiors and buildings, as well as their perception and appreciation. Whereas architectural practice and theory, the visual arts and more recently the cognitive sciences have explored this relationship of humans with their crafted environments, many fictional literary works have long experimented with alterations of body–environment scaling. This so-called Gulliver theme – popular in the science-fiction genre but also in children’s literature and philosophical satire – reveals, as a recurrent thought-experiment, our preoccupation with proportions and our fascination for the infinitely small and large. Here I provide an overview of the altered scaling theme in literature, including classics such as Voltaire’s Micromégas, Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels, Caroll’s Alice, and Matheson’s The Shrinking man, closely examining issues relevant to architectonic embodiment such as: bodily, perceptual, cognitive, affective, and social changes related to alterations in body size relative to people, objects and architectural environments. I next provide a taxonomy of the Gulliver theme and highlight its main psychological features, and then proceed to review relevant work from cognitive science. Although fictional alterations of body-environment scaling far outreach current possibilities in experimental research, I argue that the peripetiae and morals outlined in the literary realm, as products of the human imagination, provide a unique window into the folk-psychology of body and space. PMID:27148156

  7. Pleiotropic Effects of DDT Resistance on Male Size and Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostant, Wayne G; Bowyer, Jemima; Coupland, Jack; Facey, James; Hosken, David J; Wedell, Nina

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the evolution and spread of insecticide resistance requires knowing the relative fitness of resistant organisms. In the absence of insecticides, resistance is predicted to be costly. The Drosophila melanogaster DDT resistance allele (DDT-R) is associated with a male mating cost. This could be because resistant males are generally smaller, but DDT-R may also alter courtship behaviours. Here we tested for body size and courtship effects of DDT-R on mating success in competitive and non-competitive mating trials respectively. We also assessed relative aggression in resistant and susceptible males because aggression can also influence mating success. While the effect of DDT-R on male size partly contributed to reduced mating success, resistant males also had lower rates of courtship and were less aggressive than susceptible males. These differences contribute to the observed DDT-R mating costs. Additionally, these pleiotropic effects of DDT-R are consistent with the history and spread of resistance alleles in nature.

  8. Long-term alteration of R7T7 glass packages: development of a multi-scale approach to estimate the cracking; Alteration a long terme des colis de verres de type R7T7: developpement d'une approche multi-echelle pour evaluer l'impact de la fracturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomat, L. [Paris-6 Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 (France)]|[CEA Valrho, Lab. d' Etudes du Comportement Long Terme des Materiaux de Conditionnement (LCLT), 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this work is to model the alteration and transport mechanisms implied in a cracks system and to deduce the evolution of the quantity of leached glass. This quantity will be then compared with those measured in leaching tests carried out on a package of industrial size. To estimate this quantity, several steps are required: 1)study of the local alteration inside a crack (according to the alteration parameters: flow, crack opening, pH..) or in a simple set of cracks (connexion); 2)description of a crack system at the package scale by tomography and SEM of bulk samples: opening, accessibility; 3)determination of the alteration parameters in the ALISE device (leaching device of industrial size in which is altered a package for 2001): temperatures gradients, convection, diffusion, pH..; 4)modelling: passage from the local alteration (crack) to the global alteration (package); 5)design and carrying out of a specific experiment to validate the model: control of the system of known cracks (opening, connectivity..) and of the alterations conditions (thermal gradient..); 6)confrontation of the model with the results obtained on ALISE and the specific experiment indicated in 5). The main experimental results are described. (O.M.)

  9. Nutrient enrichment differentially affects body sizes of primary consumers and predators in a detritus-based stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Davis; Amy D. Rosemond; Sue L. Eggert; Wyatt F. Cross; J. Bruce. Wallace

    2010-01-01

    We assessed how a 5-yr nutrient enrichment affected the responses of different size classes of primary consumers and predators in a detritus-based headwater stream. We hypothesized that alterations in detritus availability because of enrichment would decrease the abundance and biomass of large-bodied consumers. In contrast, we found that 2 yr of enrichment increased...

  10. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, E. L.

    1998-01-01

    lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF/AZ performance. The selection and

  11. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, E. L., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF

  12. Squamate hatchling size and the evolutionary causes of negative offspring size allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiri, S; Feldman, A; Kratochvíl, L

    2015-02-01

    Although fecundity selection is ubiquitous, in an overwhelming majority of animal lineages, small species produce smaller number of offspring per clutch. In this context, egg, hatchling and neonate sizes are absolutely larger, but smaller relative to adult body size in larger species. The evolutionary causes of this widespread phenomenon are not fully explored. The negative offspring size allometry can result from processes limiting maximal egg/offspring size forcing larger species to produce relatively smaller offspring ('upper limit'), or from a limit on minimal egg/offspring size forcing smaller species to produce relatively larger offspring ('lower limit'). Several reptile lineages have invariant clutch sizes, where females always lay either one or two eggs per clutch. These lineages offer an interesting perspective on the general evolutionary forces driving negative offspring size allometry, because an important selective factor, fecundity selection in a single clutch, is eliminated here. Under the upper limit hypotheses, large offspring should be selected against in lineages with invariant clutch sizes as well, and these lineages should therefore exhibit the same, or shallower, offspring size allometry as lineages with variable clutch size. On the other hand, the lower limit hypotheses would allow lineages with invariant clutch sizes to have steeper offspring size allometries. Using an extensive data set on the hatchling and female sizes of > 1800 species of squamates, we document that negative offspring size allometry is widespread in lizards and snakes with variable clutch sizes and that some lineages with invariant clutch sizes have unusually steep offspring size allometries. These findings suggest that the negative offspring size allometry is driven by a constraint on minimal offspring size, which scales with a negative allometry. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary

  13. Interaction between carbon fibers and polymer sizing: Influence of fiber surface chemistry and sizing reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosburger-Will, Judith; Bauer, Matthias; Laukmanis, Eva; Horny, Robert; Wetjen, Denise; Manske, Tamara; Schmidt-Stein, Felix; Töpker, Jochen; Horn, Siegfried

    2018-05-01

    Different aspects of the interaction of carbon fibers and epoxy-based polymer sizings are investigated, e.g. the wetting behavior, the strength of adhesion between fiber and sizing, and the thermal stability of the sizing layer. The influence of carbon fiber surface chemistry and sizing reactivity is investigated using fibers of different degree of anodic oxidation and sizings with different number of reactive epoxy groups per molecule. Wetting of the carbon fibers by the sizing dispersion is found to be specified by both, the degree of fiber activation and the sizing reactivity. In contrast, adhesion strength between fibers and sizing is dominated by the surface chemistry of the carbon fibers. Here, the number of surface oxygen groups seems to be the limiting factor. We also find that the sizing and the additional functionalities induced by anodic oxidation are removed by thermal treatment at 600 °C, leaving the carbon fiber in its original state after carbonization.

  14. Modelling the effect of size-asymmetric competition on size inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Camilla Ruø; Weiner, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The concept of size asymmetry in resource competition among plants, in which larger individuals obtain a disproportionate share of contested resources, appears to be very straightforward, but the effects of size asymmetry on growth and size variation among individuals have proved...... to be controversial. It has often been assumed that competition among individual plants in a population has to be size-asymmetric to result in higher size inequality than in the absence of competition, but here we question this inference. Using very simple, individual-based models, we investigate how size symmetry...... of competition affects the development in size inequality between two competing plants and show that increased size inequality due to competition is not always strong evidence for size-asymmetric competition. Even absolute symmetric competition, in which all plants receive the same amount of resources...

  15. TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT FOR SORTING APPLES BY SIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Ştefan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Need to increase the competitiveness of semi-subsistence farms, by valorisation of the fruits, led to research for designing of an equipment for sorting apples by size, in order to meet market requirement, pricing according to the size of the fruits.

  16. Sintered-to-size FBR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D.E.; Schaus, P.S.

    1984-04-01

    Fabrication of sintered-to-size PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel pellets was completed for testing of proposed FBR product specifications. Approximately 6000 pellets were fabricated to two nominal diameters and two densities by cold pressing and sintering to size. Process control and correlation between test and production batches are discussed

  17. Body size distribution of the dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin J O'Gorman

    Full Text Available The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutionary pressures and adaptations? Here, we address this question by comparing the distribution of maximum species body size for dinosaurs to an extensive set of extant and extinct vertebrate groups. We also examine the body size distribution of dinosaurs by various sub-groups, time periods and formations. We find that dinosaurs exhibit a strong skew towards larger species, in direct contrast to modern day vertebrates. This pattern is not solely an artefact of bias in the fossil record, as demonstrated by contrasting distributions in two major extinct groups and supports the hypothesis that dinosaurs exhibited a fundamentally different life history strategy to other terrestrial vertebrates. A disparity in the size distribution of the herbivorous Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha and the largely carnivorous Theropoda suggests that this pattern may have been a product of a divergence in evolutionary strategies: herbivorous dinosaurs rapidly evolved large size to escape predation by carnivores and maximise digestive efficiency; carnivores had sufficient resources among juvenile dinosaurs and non-dinosaurian prey to achieve optimal success at smaller body size.

  18. Particle sizes in slash fire smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David V. Sandberg; Robert E. Martin

    1975-01-01

    Particulate emissions are the most objectionable atmospheric contaminant from forest burning. Little is known of the particulate sizes, and this research was done under laboratory conditions to obtain particle size information. Comments are made concerning techniques for future work in this field.

  19. The average size of ordered binary subgraphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, J.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    To analyse the demands made on the garbage collector in a graph reduction system, the change in size of an average graph is studied when an arbitrary edge is removed. In ordered binary trees the average number of deleted nodes as a result of cutting a single edge is equal to the average size of a

  20. Size and support ratings of US banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Werger, Charlotte; de Haan, Jakob

    We examine whether Fitch support ratings of US banks depend on bank size. Using quarterly data for the period 2004:Q4 to 2012:Q4 and controlling for several factors that make large and small banks different, we find that bank size is positively related to support ratings. However, the effect is

  1. A sub-Mercury-sized exoplanet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barclay, T.; et al., [Unknown; Hekker, S.

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the first exoplanets1, 2, it has been known that other planetary systems can look quite unlike our own3. Until fairly recently, we have been able to probe only the upper range of the planet size distribution4, 5, and, since last year, to detect planets that are the size of

  2. EFFECTS OF EFFECTS OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The parameters examined were: moisture content, particle size distribution, total isture content, particle size distribution, total hydrocarbon content, soil pH, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, total heterotrophic bacteria and fungi count. The analysis of the soil characteristics throughout the remediation period showed ...

  3. Birth order, family size and educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth

  4. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  5. Genome Size Dynamics and Evolution in Monocots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia J. Leitch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Monocot genomic diversity includes striking variation at many levels. This paper compares various genomic characters (e.g., range of chromosome numbers and ploidy levels, occurrence of endopolyploidy, GC content, chromosome packaging and organization, genome size between monocots and the remaining angiosperms to discern just how distinctive monocot genomes are. One of the most notable features of monocots is their wide range and diversity of genome sizes, including the species with the largest genome so far reported in plants. This genomic character is analysed in greater detail, within a phylogenetic context. By surveying available genome size and chromosome data it is apparent that different monocot orders follow distinctive modes of genome size and chromosome evolution. Further insights into genome size-evolution and dynamics were obtained using statistical modelling approaches to reconstruct the ancestral genome size at key nodes across the monocot phylogenetic tree. Such approaches reveal that while the ancestral genome size of all monocots was small (1C=1.9 pg, there have been several major increases and decreases during monocot evolution. In addition, notable increases in the rates of genome size-evolution were found in Asparagales and Poales compared with other monocot lineages.

  6. Body size distribution of the dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eoin J; Hone, David W E

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutionary pressures and adaptations? Here, we address this question by comparing the distribution of maximum species body size for dinosaurs to an extensive set of extant and extinct vertebrate groups. We also examine the body size distribution of dinosaurs by various sub-groups, time periods and formations. We find that dinosaurs exhibit a strong skew towards larger species, in direct contrast to modern day vertebrates. This pattern is not solely an artefact of bias in the fossil record, as demonstrated by contrasting distributions in two major extinct groups and supports the hypothesis that dinosaurs exhibited a fundamentally different life history strategy to other terrestrial vertebrates. A disparity in the size distribution of the herbivorous Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha and the largely carnivorous Theropoda suggests that this pattern may have been a product of a divergence in evolutionary strategies: herbivorous dinosaurs rapidly evolved large size to escape predation by carnivores and maximise digestive efficiency; carnivores had sufficient resources among juvenile dinosaurs and non-dinosaurian prey to achieve optimal success at smaller body size.

  7. MICRON-SIZED POLYMER PARTICLES FROM TANZANIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micron sized polymeric particles were prepared from cashew nut shell liquid and subsequently functionalized to produce micron-sized carboxylated cation exchange resin (MCCER). By titrimetry and analytical procedures employing atomic absorption spectrometry, an assessment of the cation exchange capability of the ...

  8. Visuomotor Dissociation in Cerebral Scaling of Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R. E.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating size and distance is crucial in effective visuomotor control. The concept of an internal coordinate system implies that visual and motor size parameters are scaled onto a common template. To dissociate perceptual and motor components in such scaling, we performed an fMRI experiment in

  9. Humeral head size in shoulder arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaesel, M T; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1998-01-01

    Changes in kinematics after hemiarthroplasty of the glenohumeral joint were investigated in nine cadaveric specimens. During experiments the influence of the humeral head size on glenohumeral kinematics was evaluated. A modular prosthesis with five different head sizes and press-fit stems was use...

  10. Surfactant-aided size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horneman, D.A.; Wolbers, M.; Zomerdijk, M.; Ottens, M.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Wielen, van der L.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The flexibility and selectivity of size exclusion chromatog. (SEC) for protein purifn. can be modified by adding non-ionic micelle-forming surfactants to the mobile phase. The micelles exclude proteins from a liq. phase similar to the exclusion effect of the polymer fibers of the size exclusion

  11. Body Size Distribution of the Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Gorman, Eoin J.; Hone, David W. E.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutionary pressures and adaptations? Here, we address this question by comparing the distribution of maximum species body size for dinosaurs to an extensive set of extant and extinct vertebrate groups. We also examine the body size distribution of dinosaurs by various sub-groups, time periods and formations. We find that dinosaurs exhibit a strong skew towards larger species, in direct contrast to modern day vertebrates. This pattern is not solely an artefact of bias in the fossil record, as demonstrated by contrasting distributions in two major extinct groups and supports the hypothesis that dinosaurs exhibited a fundamentally different life history strategy to other terrestrial vertebrates. A disparity in the size distribution of the herbivorous Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha and the largely carnivorous Theropoda suggests that this pattern may have been a product of a divergence in evolutionary strategies: herbivorous dinosaurs rapidly evolved large size to escape predation by carnivores and maximise digestive efficiency; carnivores had sufficient resources among juvenile dinosaurs and non-dinosaurian prey to achieve optimal success at smaller body size. PMID:23284818

  12. Spacesuit Soft Upper Torso Sizing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, David; Splawn, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The passive sizing system consists of a series of low-profile pulleys attached to the front and back of the shoulder bearings on a spacesuit soft upper torso (SUT), textile cord or stainless steel cable, and a modified commercial ratchet mechanism. The cord/cable is routed through the pulleys and attached to the ratchet mechanism mounted on the front of the spacesuit within reach of the suited subject. Upon actuating the ratchet mechanism, the shoulder bearing breadth is changed, providing variable upper torso sizing. The active system consists of a series of pressurizable nastic cells embedded into the fabric layers of a spacesuit SUT. These cells are integrated to the front and back of the SUT and are connected to an air source with a variable regulator. When inflated, the nastic cells provide a change in the overall shoulder bearing breadth of the spacesuit and thus, torso sizing. The research focused on the development of a high-performance sizing and actuation system. This technology has application as a suit-sizing mechanism to allow easier suit entry and more accurate suit fit with fewer torso sizes than the existing EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) suit system. This advanced SUT will support NASA s Advanced EMU Evolutionary Concept of a two-sizes-fit-all upper torso for replacement of the current EMU hard upper torso (HUT). Both the passive and nastic sizing system approaches provide astronauts with real-time upper torso sizing, which translates into a more comfortable suit, providing enhanced fit resulting in improved crewmember performance during extravehicular activity. These systems will also benefit NASA by reducing flight logistics as well as overall suit system cost. The nastic sizing system approach provides additional structural redundancy over existing SUT designs by embedding additional coated fabric and uncoated fabric layers. Two sizing systems were selected to build into a prototype SUT: one active and one passive. From manned testing, it

  13. Recommendations for plutonium colloid size determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1984-02-01

    This report presents recommendations for plutonium colloid size determination and summarizes a literature review, discussions with other researchers, and comments from equipment manufacturers. Four techniques suitable for plutonium colloid size characterization are filtration and ultrafiltration, gel permeation chromatography, diffusion methods, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (conditionally). Our findings include the following: (1) Filtration and ultrafiltration should be the first methods used for plutonium colloid size determination because they can provide the most rapid results with the least complicated experimental arrangement. (2) After expertise has been obtained with filtering, gel permeation chromatography should be incorporated into the colloid size determination program. (3) Diffusion methods can be used next. (4) High-pressure liquid chromatography will be suitable after appropriate columns are available. A plutonium colloid size characterization program with filtration/ultrafiltration and gel permeation chromatography has been initiated

  14. Size Matters, if You Control Your Junk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Frazzini, Andrea; Israel, Ronen

    that do not rely on market prices, is weak internationally, and is subsumed by proxies for illiquidity. We find, however, that these challenges are dismantled when controlling for the quality, or the inverse "junk", of a firm. A significant size premium emerges, which is stable through time, robust...... to the specification, more consistent across seasons and markets, not concentrated in microcaps, robust to non-price based measures of size, and not captured by an illiquidity premium. Controlling for quality/junk also explains interactions between size and other return characteristics such as value and momentum.......The size premium has been challenged along many fronts: it has a weak historical record, varies significantly over time, in particular weakening after its discovery in the early 1980s, is concentrated among microcap stocks, predominantly resides in January, is not present for measures of size...

  15. Structural effect of size on interracial friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Siwei; Xie, Yu

    2013-04-30

    Social contexts exert structural effects on individuals' social relationships, including interracial friendships. In this study, we posit that, net of group composition, total context size has a distinct effect on interracial friendship. Under the assumptions of (i) maximization of preference in choosing a friend, (ii) multidimensionality of preference, and (iii) preference for same-race friends, we conducted analyses using microsimulation that yielded three main findings. First, increased context size decreases the likelihood of forming an interracial friendship. Second, the size effect increases with the number of preference dimensions. Third, the size effect is diluted by noise, i.e., the random component affecting friendship formation. Analysis of actual friendship data among 4,745 American high school students yielded results consistent with the main conclusion that increased context size promotes racial segregation and discourages interracial friendship.

  16. Disruption effects on the beam size measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondi, P.; Decker, F.J.; Chen, P.

    1995-01-01

    At the SLC Final Focus with higher currents and smaller beam sizes, the disruption parameter D y is close to one and so the pinch effect should produce a luminosity enhancement. Since a flat beam-beam function is fit to deflection scan data to measure the beam size, disruption can affect the measurement. Here the authors discuss the quantitative effects of disruption for typical SLC beam parameters. With 3.5 10 10 particles per pulse, bunch length of 0.8 mm and beam sizes of 2.1 μm horizontally and 0.55 μm vertically, the measured vertical size can be as much as 25% bigger than the real one. Furthermore during the collision the spot size actually decrease, producing an enhancement factor H D of about 1.25. This would yield to a true luminosity which is 1.6 times that which is estimated from the beam-beam deflection fit

  17. Diabetes induces metabolic alterations in dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Mariana Ferreira; Ganzerla, Emily; Marques, Márcia Martins; Nicolau, José

    2008-10-01

    Diabetes can interfere in tissue nutrition and can impair dental pulp metabolism. This disease causes oxidative stress in cells and tissues. However, little is known about the antioxidant system in the dental pulp of diabetics. Thus, it would be of importance to study this system in this tissue in order to verify possible alterations indicative of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate some parameters of antioxidant system of the dental pulp of healthy (n = 8) and diabetic rats (n = 8). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in rats. Six weeks after diabetes induction, a pool of the dental pulp of the 4 incisors of each rat (healthy and diabetic) was used for the determination of total protein and sialic acid concentrations and catalase and peroxidase activities. Data were compared by a Student t test (p pulps from both groups presented similar total protein concentrations and peroxidase activity. Dental pulps of diabetic rats exhibited significantly lower free, conjugated, and total sialic acid concentrations than those of control tissues. Catalase activity in diabetic dental pulps was significantly enhanced in comparison with that of control pulps. The result of the present study is indicative of oxidative stress in the dental pulp caused by diabetes. The increase of catalase activity and the reduction of sialic acid could be resultant of reactive oxygen species production.

  18. Altered intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Zeidman, Peter; Wu, Shihao; Razi, Adeel; Chen, Cheng; Yang, Liuqing; Zou, Jilin; Wang, Gaohua; Wang, Huiling; Friston, Karl J

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by functional dysconnectivity among distributed brain regions. However, it is unclear how causal influences among large-scale brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia. In this study, we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to assess the hypothesis that there is aberrant directed (effective) connectivity within and between three key large-scale brain networks (the dorsal attention network, the salience network and the default mode network) in schizophrenia during a working memory task. Functional MRI data during an n-back task from 40 patients with schizophrenia and 62 healthy controls were analyzed. Using hierarchical modeling of between-subject effects in DCM with Parametric Empirical Bayes, we found that intrinsic (within-region) and extrinsic (between-region) effective connectivity involving prefrontal regions were abnormal in schizophrenia. Specifically, in patients (i) inhibitory self-connections in prefrontal regions of the dorsal attention network were decreased across task conditions; (ii) extrinsic connectivity between regions of the default mode network was increased; specifically, from posterior cingulate cortex to the medial prefrontal cortex; (iii) between-network extrinsic connections involving the prefrontal cortex were altered; (iv) connections within networks and between networks were correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms and impaired cognition beyond working memory. In short, this study revealed the predominance of reduced synaptic efficacy of prefrontal efferents and afferents in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  19. Upper gastrointestinal alterations in kidney transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homse Netto, João Pedro; Pinheiro, João Pedro Sant'Anna; Ferrari, Mariana Lopes; Soares, Mirella Tizziani; Silveira, Rogério Augusto Gomes; Maioli, Mariana Espiga; Delfino, Vinicius Daher Alvares

    2018-05-14

    The incidence of gastrointestinal disorders among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high, despite the lack of a good correlation between endoscopic findings and symptoms. Many services thus perform upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy on kidney transplant candidates. This study aims to describe the alterations seen on the upper endoscopies of 96 kidney-transplant candidates seen from 2014 to 2015. Ninety-six CKD patients underwent upper endoscopic examination as part of the preparation to receive kidney grafts. The data collected from the patients' medical records were charted on Microsoft Office Excel 2016 and presented descriptively. Mean values, medians, interquartile ranges and 95% confidence intervals of the clinic and epidemiological variables were calculated. Possible associations between endoscopic findings and infection by H. pylori were studied. Males accounted for 54.17% of the 96 patients included in the study. Median age and time on dialysis were 50 years and 50 months, respectively. The most frequent upper endoscopy finding was enanthematous pangastritis (57.30%), followed by erosive esophagitis (30.20%). Gastric intestinal metaplasia and peptic ulcer were found in 8.33% and 7.30% of the patients, respectively. H. pylori tests were positive in 49 patients, and H. pylori infection was correlated only with non-erosive esophagitis (P = 0.046). Abnormal upper endoscopy findings were detected in all studied patients. This study suggested that upper endoscopy is a valid procedure for kidney transplant candidates. However, prospective studies are needed to shed more light on this matter.

  20. Paternal Age Alters Social Development in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Magdalena; Haworth, Claire M A; Ronald, Angelica; Krapohl, Eva; Happé, Francesca; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Cathy; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rijsdijk, Frühling

    2017-05-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been linked with autism and schizophrenia in offspring, neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social functioning. The current study explored the effects of paternal age on social development in the general population. We used multilevel growth modeling to investigate APA effects on socioemotional development from early childhood until adolescence, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) sample. We also investigated genetic and environmental underpinnings of the paternal age effects on development, using the Additive genetics, Common environment, unique Environment (ACE) and gene-environment (GxE) models. In the general population, both very young and advanced paternal ages were associated with altered trajectory of social development (intercept: p = .01; slope: p = .03). No other behavioral domain was affected by either young or advanced age at fatherhood, suggesting specificity of paternal age effects. Increased importance of genetic factors in social development was recorded in the offspring of older but not very young fathers, suggesting distinct underpinnings of the paternal age effects at these two extremes. Our findings highlight that the APA-related deficits that lead to autism and schizophrenia are likely continuously distributed in the population. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.