Conceptual problem solving in high school physics
Jennifer L. Docktor; Natalie E. Strand; José P. Mestre; Brian H. Ross
2015-01-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in w...
Conceptual Problem Solving in High School Physics
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-01-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…
Physics: Quantum problems solved through games
Maniscalco, Sabrina
2016-04-01
Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210
Methods for solving mathematical physics problems
Agoshkov, VI; Shutyaev, VP
2006-01-01
The book examines the classic and generally accepted methods for solving mathematical physics problems (method of the potential theory, the eigenfunction method, integral transformation methods, discretisation characterisation methods, splitting methods). A separate chapter is devoted to methods for solving nonlinear equations. The book offers a large number of examples of how these methods are applied to the solution of specific mathematical physics problems, applied in the areas of science and social activities, such as energy, environmental protection, hydrodynamics, theory of elasticity, etc.
Conceptual problem solving in high school physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennifer L. Docktor
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers’ implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.
Conceptual problem solving in high school physics
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-12-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.
What is physics problem solving competency?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niss, Martin
2018-01-01
on the nature of physics problem- solving competency. The first, Sommerfeld’s, is a “theory first, phenomenon second” approach. Here the relevant problems originate in one of the theories of physics and the job goal of the problem- solver is to make a mathematical analysis of the suitable equation......A central goal of physics education is to teach problem-solving competency, but the nature of this competency is not well-described in the literature. The present paperarticle uses recent historical scholarship on Arnold Sommerfeld and Enrico Fermi to identify and characterize two positions......(s) and then give a qualitative analysis of the phenomenon that arise from these mathematical results. Fermi’s position is a “phenomenon first, theory second” approach, where the starting point is a physical phenomenon that is analyzed and then brought into the realm of a physics theory. The two positions...
Physics solving-problem mediated by technology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Alberto Souza
2008-08-01
Full Text Available We questioned the traditional practice of Physics teaching interrogating the normal procedures of solving-problem. We pointed the students passivity out, the lack of dialog interaction, the teaching-learning activity isolated from investigation, as responsible for the technological-communication non-mediation in classroom and, consequently, the lack of the problem-dialog in school process. Oriented by the investigation-action conceptions and by the problem-dialog education, we developed, established and evaluated an school object for solving-problem linked in to a teaching-learning virtual environment for the Internet, both with open sources, prioritizing empowered didactic strategies of procedures and abilities which we named as teachinginvestigation- learning in a problem perspective
Using Analogy to Solve a Three-Step Physics Problem
Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha
2010-10-01
In a companion paper, we discuss students' ability to take advantage of what they learn from a solved problem and transfer their learning to solve a quiz problem that has different surface features but the same underlying physics principles. Here, we discuss students' ability to perform analogical reasoning between another pair of problems. Both the problems can be solved using the same physics principles. However, the solved problem provided was a two-step problem (which can be solved by decomposing it into two sub-problems) while the quiz problem was a three-step problem. We find that it is challenging for students to extend what they learned from a two-step problem to solve a three-step problem.
University Physics As a Second Language: Mastering Problem Solving
Barrett, Tom
2005-09-01
Get a better grade in Physics Solving physics problems can be challenging at times. But with hard work and the right study tools, you can learn the language of physics and get the grade you want. With Tom Barrett's University Physics as a Second Language(TM): Mastering Problem Solving, you'll be able to better understand fundamental physics concepts, solve a variety of problems, and focus on what you need to know to succeed. Here's how you can get a better grade in physics: Understand the basic concepts University Physics as a Second Language(TM) focuses on selected topics in calculus-based physics to give you a solid foundation. Tom Barrett explains these topics in clear, easy-to-understand language. Break problems down into simple steps University Physics as a Second Language(TM) teaches you to approach problems more efficiently and effectively. You'll learn how to recognize common patterns in physics problems, break problems down into manageable steps, and apply appropriate techniques. The book takes you step-by-step through the solutions to numerous examples. Improve your problem-solving skills University Physics as a Second Language(TM) will help you develop the skills you need to solve a variety of problem types. You'll learn timesaving problem-solving strategies that will help you focus your efforts, as well as how to avoid potential pitfalls.
de Mul, F.F.M.; Martin Batlle, C.; Martin i Batlle, Cristina; de Bruijn, Imme; Rinzema, K.; Rinzema, Kees
2003-01-01
Teaching physics to first-year university students (in the USA: junior/senior level) is often hampered by their lack of skills in the underlying mathematics, and that in turn may block their understanding of the physics and their ability to solve problems. Examples are vector algebra, differential
Structured collaboration versus individual learning in solving physics problems
Harskamp, Egbert; Ding, Ning
2006-01-01
The research issue in this study is how to structure collaborative learning so that it improves solving physics problems more than individual learning. Structured collaborative learning has been compared with individual learning environments with Schoenfeld's problem-solving episodes. Students took
Computational physics problem solving with Python
Landau, Rubin H; Bordeianu, Cristian C
2015-01-01
The use of computation and simulation has become an essential part of the scientific process. Being able to transform a theory into an algorithm requires significant theoretical insight, detailed physical and mathematical understanding, and a working level of competency in programming. This upper-division text provides an unusually broad survey of the topics of modern computational physics from a multidisciplinary, computational science point of view. Its philosophy is rooted in learning by doing (assisted by many model programs), with new scientific materials as well as with the Python progr
Internet computer coaches for introductory physics problem solving
Xu Ryan, Qing
The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the educational system, national studies have shown that the majority of students emerge from such courses having made little progress toward developing good problem-solving skills. The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has been developing Internet computer coaches to help students become more expert-like problem solvers. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2013 semesters, the coaches were introduced into large sections (200+ students) of the calculus based introductory mechanics course at the University of Minnesota. This dissertation, will address the research background of the project, including the pedagogical design of the coaches and the assessment of problem solving. The methodological framework of conducting experiments will be explained. The data collected from the large-scale experimental studies will be discussed from the following aspects: the usage and usability of these coaches; the usefulness perceived by students; and the usefulness measured by final exam and problem solving rubric. It will also address the implications drawn from this study, including using this data to direct future coach design and difficulties in conducting authentic assessment of problem-solving.
Doing physics with scientific notebook a problem solving approach
Gallant, Joseph
2012-01-01
The goal of this book is to teach undergraduate students how to use Scientific Notebook (SNB) to solve physics problems. SNB software combines word processing and mathematics in standard notation with the power of symbolic computation. As its name implies, SNB can be used as a notebook in which students set up a math or science problem, write and solve equations, and analyze and discuss their results. Written by a physics teacher with over 20 years experience, this text includes topics that have educational value, fit within the typical physics curriculum, and show the benefits of using SNB.
Problem solving in the borderland between mathematics and physics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jens Højgaard; Niss, Martin; Jankvist, Uffe Thomas
2017-01-01
The article addresses the problématique of where mathematization is taught in the educational system, and who teaches it. Mathematization is usually not a part of mathematics programs at the upper secondary level, but we argue that physics teaching has something to offer in this respect......, if it focuses on solving so-called unformalized problems, where a major challenge is to formalize the problems in mathematics and physics terms. We analyse four concrete examples of unformalized problems for which the formalization involves different order of mathematization and applying physics to the problem......, but all require mathematization. The analysis leads to the formulation of a model by which we attempt to capture the important steps of the process of solving unformalized problems by means of mathematization and physicalization....
Reflection on problem solving in introductory and advanced physics
Mason, Andrew J.
Reflection is essential in order to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective students are and how we can improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We investigate how students naturally reflect in their physics courses about problem solving and evaluate strategies that may teach them reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. Problem categorization based upon similarity of solution is a strategy to help them reflect about the deep features of the problems related to the physics principles involved. We find that there is a large overlap between the introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize. Moreover, introductory students in the calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in the algebra-based courses even though the categorization task is conceptual. Other investigations involved exploring if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty in applying physical principles and difference between the self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded that a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study involving reflection on problem solving with peers suggests that those who reflected with peers drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study in quantum mechanics involved giving common problems in midterm and final exams and suggested that advanced students do not automatically reflect on their mistakes. Interviews revealed that even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than learning and building a robust knowledge structure. A survey was
Problem Solving in Physics: Undergraduates' Framing, Procedures, and Decision Making
Modir, Bahar
In this dissertation I will start with the broad research question of what does problem solving in upper division physics look like? My focus in this study is on students' problem solving in physics theory courses. Some mathematical formalisms are common across all physics core courses such as using the process of separation of variables, doing Taylor series, or using the orthogonality properties of mathematical functions to set terms equal to zero. However, there are slight differences in their use of these mathematical formalisms across different courses, possibly because of how students map different physical systems to these processes. Thus, my first main research question aims to answer how students perform these recurring processes across upper division physics courses. I break this broad question into three particular research questions: What knowledge pieces do students use to make connections between physics and procedural math? How do students use their knowledge pieces coherently to provide reasoning strategies in estimation problems? How do students look ahead into the problem to read the information out of the physical scenario to align their use of math in physics? Building on the previous body of the literature, I will use the theory family of Knowledge in Pieces and provide evidence to expand this theoretical foundation. I will compare my study with previous studies and provide suggestions on how to generalize these theory expansions for future use. My experimental data mostly come from video-based classroom data. Students in groups of 2-4 students solve in-class problems in quantum mechanics and electromagnetic fields 1 courses collaboratively. In addition, I will analyze clinical interviews to demonstrate how a single case study student plays an epistemic game to estimate the total energy in a hurricane. My second research question is more focused on a particular instructional context. How do students frame problem solving in quantum mechanics? I
MAUVE: A New Strategy for Solving and Grading Physics Problems
Hill, Nicole Breanne
2016-01-01
MAUVE (magnitude, answer, units, variables, and equations) is a framework and rubric to help students and teachers through the process of clearly solving and assessing solutions to introductory physics problems. Success in introductory physics often derives from an understanding of units, a command over dimensional analysis, and good bookkeeping.…
Including Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Physical Education
Pill, Shane; SueSee, Brendan
2017-01-01
Many physical education curriculum frameworks include statements about the inclusion of critical inquiry processes and the development of creativity and problem-solving skills. The learning environment created by physical education can encourage or limit the application and development of the learners' cognitive resources for critical and creative…
Redesigning problem solving component in General Physics course.
Shakov, Jerry; McGuire, Jim
2007-04-01
Problem-based learning has been widely used in teaching introductory/general physics courses for a long time. The role of problem-solving sessions in the learning process is absolutely critical: they give the students an opportunity to learn how to apply both newly and previously acquired knowledge to practical situations, how to put together different strategies and portions of material, and much more. Unfortunately, the traditional format used for the problem solving sessions is not very accommodative for the goal: large class sizes and limited time often force instructors to spend most of the time solving sample problems in front of the class, which leaves the students with the role of passive observers. In this work, we will discuss how one can involve the students in the process of active learning using collaborative strategies and principles of cognitive apprenticeship.
Problem Solving in the Borderland between Mathematics and Physics
Jensen, Jens Højgaard; Niss, Martin; Jankvist, Uffe Thomas
2017-01-01
The article addresses the problématique of where mathematization is taught in the educational system, and who teaches it. Mathematization is usually not a part of mathematics programs at the upper secondary level, but we argue that physics teaching has something to offer in this respect, if it focuses on solving so-called unformalized problems,…
Do New Caledonian crows solve physical problems through causal reasoning?
Taylor, A.H.; Hunt, G.R.; Medina, F.S.; Gray, R.D.
2008-01-01
The extent to which animals other than humans can reason about physical problems is contentious. The benchmark test for this ability has been the trap-tube task. We presented New Caledonian crows with a series of two-trap versions of this problem. Three out of six crows solved the initial trap-tube. These crows continued to avoid the trap when the arbitrary features that had previously been associated with successful performances were removed. However, they did not avoid the trap when a hole and a functional trap were in the tube. In contrast to a recent primate study, the three crows then solved a causally equivalent but visually distinct problem—the trap-table task. The performance of the three crows across the four transfers made explanations based on chance, associative learning, visual and tactile generalization, and previous dispositions unlikely. Our findings suggest that New Caledonian crows can solve complex physical problems by reasoning both causally and analogically about causal relations. Causal and analogical reasoning may form the basis of the New Caledonian crow's exceptional tool skills. PMID:18796393
Hegde, Balasubrahmanya; Meera, B. N.
2012-01-01
A perceived difficulty is associated with physics problem solving from a learner's viewpoint, arising out of a multitude of reasons. In this paper, we have examined the microstructure of students' thought processes during physics problem solving by combining the analysis of responses to multiple-choice questions and semistructured student…
Library of problem-oriented programs for solving problems of atomic and nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kharitonov, Yu.I.
1976-01-01
The Data Centre of the Leningrad Institute of Nuclear Physics (LIYaF) is working on the establishment of a library of problem-oriented computer programs for solving problems of atomic and nuclear physics. This paper lists and describes briefly the programs presently available to the Data Centre. The descriptions include the program code numbers, the program language, the translator for which the program is designed, and the program scope
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niss, Martin
2012-01-01
This paper develops a conceptual framework for identifying the challenges and obstacles university students encounter when solving real-world problems involving Physics. The framework is based on viewing problem solving as a modelling process. In order to solve a real-world problem, the problem...... solver has to go through the steps and do the tasks of such a process. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of what it takes to solve three real-world problems, demonstrating how the framework presented captures the essential aspects of solving them. Moreover, it is argued that three steps critical...... solving in Physics is placed within the framework....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Balasubrahmanya Hegde
2012-03-01
Full Text Available A perceived difficulty is associated with physics problem solving from a learner’s viewpoint, arising out of a multitude of reasons. In this paper, we have examined the microstructure of students’ thought processes during physics problem solving by combining the analysis of responses to multiple-choice questions and semistructured student interviews. Design of appropriate scaffoldings serves as pointers to the identification of student problem solving difficulties. An analysis of the results suggests the necessity of identification of the skill sets required for developing better problem solving abilities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennifer L. Docktor
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic classroom work. It is also useful if such tools can be employed by instructors to guide their pedagogy. We describe the design, development, and testing of a simple rubric to assess written solutions to problems given in undergraduate introductory physics courses. In particular, we present evidence for the validity, reliability, and utility of the instrument. The rubric identifies five general problem-solving processes and defines the criteria to attain a score in each: organizing problem information into a Useful Description, selecting appropriate principles (Physics Approach, applying those principles to the specific conditions in the problem (Specific Application of Physics, using Mathematical Procedures appropriately, and displaying evidence of an organized reasoning pattern (Logical Progression.
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Dornfeld, Jay; Frodermann, Evan; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Jackson, Koblar Alan; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, Qing X.; Yang, Jie
2016-06-01
Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic classroom work. It is also useful if such tools can be employed by instructors to guide their pedagogy. We describe the design, development, and testing of a simple rubric to assess written solutions to problems given in undergraduate introductory physics courses. In particular, we present evidence for the validity, reliability, and utility of the instrument. The rubric identifies five general problem-solving processes and defines the criteria to attain a score in each: organizing problem information into a Useful Description, selecting appropriate principles (Physics Approach), applying those principles to the specific conditions in the problem (Specific Application of Physics), using Mathematical Procedures appropriately, and displaying evidence of an organized reasoning pattern (Logical Progression).
Analytical derivation: An epistemic game for solving mathematically based physics problems
Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Thompson, John R.
2016-06-01
Problem solving, which often involves multiple steps, is an integral part of physics learning and teaching. Using the perspective of the epistemic game, we documented a specific game that is commonly pursued by students while solving mathematically based physics problems: the analytical derivation game. This game involves deriving an equation through symbolic manipulations and routine mathematical operations, usually without any physical interpretation of the processes. This game often creates cognitive obstacles in students, preventing them from using alternative resources or better approaches during problem solving. We conducted hour-long, semi-structured, individual interviews with fourteen introductory physics students. Students were asked to solve four "pseudophysics" problems containing algebraic and graphical representations. The problems required the application of the fundamental theorem of calculus (FTC), which is one of the most frequently used mathematical concepts in physics problem solving. We show that the analytical derivation game is necessary, but not sufficient, to solve mathematically based physics problems, specifically those involving graphical representations.
Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha
2018-01-01
Drawing appropriate diagrams is a useful problem solving heuristic that can transform a problem into a representation that is easier to exploit for solving it. One major focus while helping introductory physics students learn effective problem solving is to help them understand that drawing diagrams can facilitate problem solution. We conducted an…
Examining Problem Solving in Physics-Intensive Ph.D. Research
Leak, Anne E.; Rothwell, Susan L.; Olivera, Javier; Zwickl, Benjamin; Vosburg, Jarrett; Martin, Kelly Norris
2017-01-01
Problem-solving strategies learned by physics undergraduates should prepare them for real-world contexts as they transition from students to professionals. Yet, graduate students in physics-intensive research face problems that go beyond problem sets they experienced as undergraduates and are solved by different strategies than are typically…
Argaw, Aweke Shishigu; Haile, Beyene Bashu; Ayalew, Beyene Tesfaw; Kuma, Shiferaw Gadisa
2017-01-01
Through the learning of physics, students will acquire problem solving skills which are relevant to their daily life. Determining the best way in which students learn physics takes a priority in physics education. The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of problem based learning strategy on students' problem solving skills and…
A SiQuENC for solving physics problems
Liao, David
2018-04-01
Students often struggle in AP Physics 1 because they have not been previously trained to develop qualitative arguments. Extensive literature on multiple representations and qualitative reasoning provides strategies to address this challenge. Table I presents three examples, including SiQuENC, which I adapted from a strategy promoted by Etkina et al. To remind students that they can use qualitative reasoning (e.g., arguing from proportionalities), rather than relying only on algebra, I replaced "Solve" with "Analyze." I added a "Communicate" step to guide planning of written responses to AP Physics 1 and 2 questions. To perform this step, draw a circled number around each key point identified in figures, equations, and sentence fragments. Then, convert numbered points into sentences.
Mathematical mechanic using physical reasoning to solve problems
Levi, Mark
2009-01-01
Everybody knows that mathematics is indispensable to physics--imagine where we'd be today if Einstein and Newton didn't have the math to back up their ideas. But how many people realize that physics can be used to produce many astonishing and strikingly elegant solutions in mathematics? Mark Levi shows how in this delightful book, treating readers to a host of entertaining problems and mind-bending puzzlers that will amuse and inspire their inner physicist. Levi turns math and physics upside down, revealing how physics can simplify proofs and lead to quicker solutions and new theorems, and how physical solutions can illustrate why results are true in ways lengthy mathematical calculations never can
Research Projects in Physics: A Mechanism for Teaching Ill-Structured Problem Solving
Milbourne, Jeff; Bennett, Jonathan
2017-10-01
Physics education research has a tradition of studying problem solving, exploring themes such as physical intuition and differences between expert and novice problem solvers. However, most of this work has focused on traditional, or well-structured, problems, similar to what might appear in a textbook. Less work has been done with open-ended, or ill-structured, problems, similar to the types of problems students might face in their professional lives. Given the national discourse on educational system reform aligned with 21st century skills, including problem solving, it is critical to provide educational experiences that help students learn to solve all types of problems, including ill-structured problems.
Analytical Derivation: An Epistemic Game for Solving Mathematically Based Physics Problems
Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Thompson, John R.
2016-01-01
Problem solving, which often involves multiple steps, is an integral part of physics learning and teaching. Using the perspective of the epistemic game, we documented a specific game that is commonly pursued by students while solving mathematically based physics problems: the "analytical derivation" game. This game involves deriving an…
Learning problem-solving skills in a distance education physics course
Rampho, G. J.; Ramorola, M. Z.
2017-10-01
In this paper we present the results of a study on the effectiveness of combinations of delivery modes of distance education in learning problem-solving skills in a distance education introductory physics course. A problem-solving instruction with the explicit teaching of a problem-solving strategy and worked-out examples were implemented in the course. The study used the ex post facto research design with stratified sampling to investigate the effect of the learning of a problem-solving strategy on the problem-solving performance. The number of problems attempted and the mean frequency of using a strategy in solving problems in the three course presentation modes were compared. The finding of the study indicated that combining the different course presentation modes had no statistically significant effect in the learning of problem-solving skills in the distance education course.
Integrating video and animation with physics problem- solving exercises on the World Wide Web
Titus, Aaron Patrick
1998-10-01
Problem solving is of paramount importance in teaching and learning physics. An important step in solving a problem is visualization. To help students visualize a problem, we included video clips with homework questions delivered via the World Wide Web. Although including video with physics problems has a positive effect with some problems, we found that this may not be the best way to integrate multimedia with physics problems since improving visualization is probably not as helpful as changing students' approach. To challenge how students solve problems and to help them develop a more expert-like approach, we developed a type of physics exercise called a multimedia-focused problem where students take data from an animation in order to solve a problem. Because numbers suggestive of a solution are not given in the text of the question, students have to consider the problem conceptually before analyzing it mathematically. As a result, we found that students had difficulty solving such problems compared to traditional textbook-like problems. Students' survey responses showed that students indeed had difficulty determining what was needed to solve a problem when it was not explicitly given to them in the text of the question. Analyzing think-aloud interviews where students verbalized their thoughts while solving problems, we found that multimedia-focused problems indeed required solid conceptual understanding in order for them to be solved correctly. As a result, we believe that when integrated with instruction, multimedia-focused problems can be a valuable tool in helping students develop better conceptual understanding and more expert-like problem solving skills by challenging novice beliefs and problem solving approaches. Multimedia-focused problems may also be useful for diagnosing conceptual understanding and problem skills.
Use of model analysis to analyse Thai students’ attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving
Rakkapao, S.; Prasitpong, S.
2018-03-01
This study applies the model analysis technique to explore the distribution of Thai students’ attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving and how those attitudes and approaches change as a result of different experiences in physics learning. We administered the Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey to over 700 Thai university students from five different levels, namely students entering science, first-year science students, and second-, third- and fourth-year physics students. We found that their inferred mental states were generally mixed. The largest gap between physics experts and all levels of the students was about the role of equations and formulas in physics problem solving, and in views towards difficult problems. Most participants of all levels believed that being able to handle the mathematics is the most important part of physics problem solving. Most students’ views did not change even though they gained experiences in physics learning.
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Dornfeld, Jay; Frodermann, Evan; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Jackson, Koblar Alan; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, Qing X.; Yang, Jie
2016-01-01
Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic…
Intuitive physics knowledge, physics problem solving and the role of mathematical equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Buteler
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The present work explores the role that mathematical equations play in modifying students’ physical intuition (diSessa, 1993. The work is carried out assuming that students achieve a great deal of the refinement in their physical intuitions during problem solving (Sherin, 2006. The study is guided by the question of how the use of mathematical equations contributes to this refinement. The authors aim at expanding on Sherin´s (2006 hypothesis, suggesting a more bounding relation between physical intuitions and mathematics. In this scenario, intuitions play a more compelling role in “deciding” which equations are acceptable and which are not. Our hypothesis is constructed on the basis of three cases: the first published by Sherin (2006 and two more from registries of our own. The three cases are compared and analyzed in relation to the role of mathematical equations in refining – or not – the intuitive knowledge students bring to play during problem solving.
Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.
This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they
Pre-Service Physics Teachers’ Problem-solving Skills in Projectile Motion Concept
Sutarno, S.; Setiawan, A.; Kaniawati, I.; Suhandi, A.
2017-09-01
This study is a preliminary research aiming at exploring pre-service physics teachers’ skills in applying the stage of problem-solving strategies. A total of 76 students of physics education study program at a college in Bengkulu Indonesia participated in the study. The skills on solving physics problems are being explored through exercises that demand the use of problem-solving strategies with several stages such as useful description, physics approach, specific application of physics, physics equation, mathematical procedures, and logical progression. Based on the results of data analysis, it is found that the pre-service physics teachers’ skills are in the moderate category for physics approach and mathematical procedural, and low category for the others. It was concluded that the pre-service physics teachers’ problem-solving skills are categorized low. It is caused by the learning of physics that has done less to practice problem-solving skills. The problems provided are only routine and poorly trained in the implementation of problem-solving strategies.The results of the research can be used as a reference for the importance of the development of physics learning based on higher order thinking skills.
Examining problem solving in physics-intensive Ph.D. research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anne E. Leak
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Problem-solving strategies learned by physics undergraduates should prepare them for real-world contexts as they transition from students to professionals. Yet, graduate students in physics-intensive research face problems that go beyond problem sets they experienced as undergraduates and are solved by different strategies than are typically learned in undergraduate coursework. This paper expands the notion of problem solving by characterizing the breadth of problems and problem-solving processes carried out by graduate students in physics-intensive research. We conducted semi-structured interviews with ten graduate students to determine the routine, difficult, and important problems they engage in and problem-solving strategies they found useful in their research. A qualitative typological analysis resulted in the creation of a three-dimensional framework: context, activity, and feature (that made the problem challenging. Problem contexts extended beyond theory and mathematics to include interactions with lab equipment, data, software, and people. Important and difficult contexts blended social and technical skills. Routine problem activities were typically well defined (e.g., troubleshooting, while difficult and important ones were more open ended and had multiple solution paths (e.g., evaluating options. In addition to broadening our understanding of problems faced by graduate students, our findings explore problem-solving strategies (e.g., breaking down problems, evaluating options, using test cases or approximations and characteristics of successful problem solvers (e.g., initiative, persistence, and motivation. Our research provides evidence of the influence that problems students are exposed to have on the strategies they use and learn. Using this evidence, we have developed a preliminary framework for exploring problems from the solver’s perspective. This framework will be examined and refined in future work. Understanding problems
Examining problem solving in physics-intensive Ph.D. research
Leak, Anne E.; Rothwell, Susan L.; Olivera, Javier; Zwickl, Benjamin; Vosburg, Jarrett; Martin, Kelly Norris
2017-12-01
Problem-solving strategies learned by physics undergraduates should prepare them for real-world contexts as they transition from students to professionals. Yet, graduate students in physics-intensive research face problems that go beyond problem sets they experienced as undergraduates and are solved by different strategies than are typically learned in undergraduate coursework. This paper expands the notion of problem solving by characterizing the breadth of problems and problem-solving processes carried out by graduate students in physics-intensive research. We conducted semi-structured interviews with ten graduate students to determine the routine, difficult, and important problems they engage in and problem-solving strategies they found useful in their research. A qualitative typological analysis resulted in the creation of a three-dimensional framework: context, activity, and feature (that made the problem challenging). Problem contexts extended beyond theory and mathematics to include interactions with lab equipment, data, software, and people. Important and difficult contexts blended social and technical skills. Routine problem activities were typically well defined (e.g., troubleshooting), while difficult and important ones were more open ended and had multiple solution paths (e.g., evaluating options). In addition to broadening our understanding of problems faced by graduate students, our findings explore problem-solving strategies (e.g., breaking down problems, evaluating options, using test cases or approximations) and characteristics of successful problem solvers (e.g., initiative, persistence, and motivation). Our research provides evidence of the influence that problems students are exposed to have on the strategies they use and learn. Using this evidence, we have developed a preliminary framework for exploring problems from the solver's perspective. This framework will be examined and refined in future work. Understanding problems graduate students
Singh, Chandralekha
2009-07-01
One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.
Research Projects in Physics: A Mechanism for Teaching Ill-Structured Problem Solving
Milbourne, Jeff; Bennett, Jonathan
2017-01-01
Physics education research has a tradition of studying problem solving, exploring themes such as physical intuition and differences between expert and novice problem solvers. However, most of this work has focused on traditional, or well-structured, problems, similar to what might appear in a textbook. Less work has been done with open-ended, or…
Physics students' approaches to learning and cognitive processes in solving physics problems
Bouchard, Josee
This study examined traditional instruction and problem-based learning (PBL) approaches to teaching and the extent to which they foster the development of desirable cognitive processes, including metacognition, critical thinking, physical intuition, and problem solving among undergraduate physics students. The study also examined students' approaches to learning and their perceived role as physics students. The research took place in the context of advanced courses of electromagnetism at a Canadian research university. The cognitive science, expertise, physics and science education, instructional psychology, and discourse processes literature provided the framework and background to conceptualize and structure this study. A within-stage mixed-model design was used and a number of instruments, including a survey, observation grids, and problem sets were developed specifically for this study. A special one-week long problem-based learning (PBL) intervention was also designed. Interviews with the instructors participating in the study provided complementary data. Findings include evidence that students in general engage in metacognitive processes in the organization of their personal study time. However, this potential, including the development of other cognitive processes, might not be stimulated as much as it could in the traditional lecture instructional context. The PBL approach was deemed as more empowering for the students. An unexpected finding came from the realisation that a simple exposure to a structured exercise of problem-solving (pre-test) was sufficient to produce superior planning and solving strategies on a second exposure (post-test) even for the students who had not been exposed to any special treatment. Maturation was ruled out as a potential threat to the validity of this finding. Another promising finding appears to be that the problem-based learning (PBL) intervention tends to foster the development of cognitive competencies, particularly
Jennifer L. Docktor; Jay Dornfeld; Evan Frodermann; Kenneth Heller; Leonardo Hsu; Koblar Alan Jackson; Andrew Mason; Qing X. Ryan; Jie Yang
2016-01-01
Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic classroom work. It is also useful if such tools can be employed by instructors to guide their pedagogy. We describe the design, development, and testing of...
Koupilová, Zdeňka; Mandíková, Dana; Snětinová, Marie
2017-09-01
Ten years ago we started to develop a Collection of Fully Solved Problems aimed at introductory undergraduate and high school level students. The collection is specially designed to encourage students in an active approach to problem solving, e.g. to solve at least some parts of a problem on their own. Nowadays the Collection contains about 800 fully solved problems in physics in Czech and nearly 180 problems in English. It has several hundreds of unique visitors per school day. Based on user feedback, the collection is used by students mainly for their home study and by teachers as a supplementary material. The creation of the structured solution of the physics problems has proved to be a beneficial activity for prospective physics teachers (students of our department).
Rebello, Carina M.; Rebello, N. Sanjay
2012-02-01
Previous studies have focused on the resources that students activate and utilize while solving a given physics problem. However, few studies explore how students relate a given resource such as an equation, to various types of physics problems and contexts and how they ascertain the meaning and applicability of that resource. We explore how students view physics equations, derive meaning from those equations, and use those equations in physics problem solving. We adapt Dubinsky and McDonald's description of APOS (action-process-object-schema) theory of learning in mathematics, to construct a theoretical framework that describes how students interpret and use equations in physics in terms of actions, processes, objects, and schemas. This framework provides a lens for understanding how students construct their understanding of physics concepts and their relation to equations. We highlight how APOS theory can be operationalized to serve as a lens for studying the use of mathematics in physics problem solving.
The Role of Content Knowledge in Ill-Structured Problem Solving for High School Physics Students
Milbourne, Jeff; Wiebe, Eric
2018-01-01
While Physics Education Research has a rich tradition of problem-solving scholarship, most of the work has focused on more traditional, well-defined problems. Less work has been done with ill-structured problems, problems that are better aligned with the engineering and design-based scenarios promoted by the Next Generation Science Standards. This…
Analytical derivation: An epistemic game for solving mathematically based physics problems
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Rabindra R. Bajracharya
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Problem solving, which often involves multiple steps, is an integral part of physics learning and teaching. Using the perspective of the epistemic game, we documented a specific game that is commonly pursued by students while solving mathematically based physics problems: the analytical derivation game. This game involves deriving an equation through symbolic manipulations and routine mathematical operations, usually without any physical interpretation of the processes. This game often creates cognitive obstacles in students, preventing them from using alternative resources or better approaches during problem solving. We conducted hour-long, semi-structured, individual interviews with fourteen introductory physics students. Students were asked to solve four “pseudophysics” problems containing algebraic and graphical representations. The problems required the application of the fundamental theorem of calculus (FTC, which is one of the most frequently used mathematical concepts in physics problem solving. We show that the analytical derivation game is necessary, but not sufficient, to solve mathematically based physics problems, specifically those involving graphical representations.
Khan, Neelam; Hu, Dehui; Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay
2012-02-01
Integration is widely used in physics in electricity and magnetism (E&M), as well as in mechanics, to calculate physical quantities from other non-constant quantities. We designed a survey to assess students' ability to apply integration to physics problems in introductory physics. Each student was given a set of eight problems, and each set of problems had two different versions; one consisted of symbolic problems and the other graphical problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' strategies for solving physics problems that use integrals in first and second-semester calculus-based physics. Our results indicate that most students had difficulty even recognizing that an integral is needed to solve the problem.
Classroom Tests and Achievement in Problem Solving in Physical Geography
Monk, Janice J.; Stallings, William M.
1975-01-01
Two hundred students in an undergraduate physical geography course were assigned to a group which received either factually oriented quizzes or quizzes which stressed higher level behaviors such as application and analysis. Evaluation of the results indicated that the variation in testing procedures had no discernable effect on student scores in…
Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha
2018-01-01
An appropriate diagram is a required element of a solution building process in physics problem solving and it can transform a given problem into a representation that is easier to exploit for solving the problem. A major focus while helping introductory physics students learn problem solving is to help them appreciate that drawing diagrams facilitates problem solving. We conducted an investigation in which two different interventions were implemented during recitation quizzes throughout the semester in a large enrolment, algebra-based introductory physics course. Students were either (1) asked to solve problems in which the diagrams were drawn for them or (2) explicitly told to draw a diagram. A comparison group was not given any instruction regarding diagrams. We developed a rubric to score the problem solving performance of students in different intervention groups. We investigated two problems involving electric field and electric force and found that students who drew productive diagrams were more successful problem solvers and that a higher level of relevant detail in a student’s diagram corresponded to a better score. We also conducted think-aloud interviews with nine students who were at the time taking an equivalent introductory algebra-based physics course in order to gain insight into how drawing diagrams affects the problem solving process. These interviews supported some of the interpretations of the quantitative results. We end by discussing instructional implications of the findings.
Development and validation of a physics problem-solving assessment rubric
Docktor, Jennifer Lynn
Problem solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving throughout the educational system, there is no standard way to evaluate written problem solving that is valid, reliable, and easy to use. Most tests of problem solving performance given in the classroom focus on the correctness of the end result or partial results rather than the quality of the procedures and reasoning leading to the result, which gives an inadequate description of a student's skills. A more detailed and meaningful measure is necessary if different curricular materials or pedagogies are to be compared. This measurement tool could also allow instructors to diagnose student difficulties and focus their coaching. It is important that the instrument be applicable to any problem solving format used by a student and to a range of problem types and topics typically used by instructors. Typically complex processes such as problem solving are assessed by using a rubric, which divides a skill into multiple quasi-independent categories and defines criteria to attain a score in each. This dissertation describes the development of a problem solving rubric for the purpose of assessing written solutions to physics problems and presents evidence for the validity, reliability, and utility of score interpretations on the instrument.
Sone, Toshimasa; Kawachi, Yousuke; Abe, Chihiro; Otomo, Yuki; Sung, Yul-Wan; Ogawa, Seiji
2017-04-04
Effective social problem-solving abilities can contribute to decreased risk of poor mental health. In addition, physical activity has a favorable effect on mental health. These previous studies suggest that physical activity and social problem-solving ability can interact by helping to sustain mental health. The present study aimed to determine the association between attitude and practice of physical activity and social problem-solving ability among university students. Information on physical activity and social problem-solving was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. We analyzed data from 185 students who participated in the questionnaire surveys and psychological tests. Social problem-solving as measured by the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R) (median score 10.85) was the dependent variable. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for higher SPSI-R according to physical activity categories. The multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the ORs (95% CI) in reference to participants who said they never considered exercising were 2.08 (0.69-6.93), 1.62 (0.55-5.26), 2.78 (0.86-9.77), and 6.23 (1.81-23.97) for participants who did not exercise but intended to start, tried to exercise but did not, exercised but not regularly, and exercised regularly, respectively. This finding suggested that positive linear association between physical activity and social problem-solving ability (p value for linear trend social problem-solving ability.
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Nuri Balta
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Students’ attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving can impact how well they learn physics and how successful they are in solving physics problems. Prior research in the U.S. using a validated Attitude and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS survey suggests that there are major differences between students in introductory physics and astronomy courses and physics experts in terms of their attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving. Here we discuss the validation, administration, and analysis of data for the Turkish version of the AAPS survey for high school and university students in Turkey. After the validation and administration of the Turkish version of the survey, the analysis of the data was conducted by grouping the data by grade level, school type, and gender. While there are no statistically significant differences between the averages of various groups on the survey, overall, the university students in Turkey were more expertlike than vocational high school students. On an item by item basis, there are statistically differences between the averages of the groups on many items. For example, on average, the university students demonstrated less expertlike attitudes about the role of equations and formulas in problem solving, in solving difficult problems, and in knowing when the solution is not correct, whereas they displayed more expertlike attitudes and approaches on items related to metacognition in physics problem solving. A principal component analysis on the data yields item clusters into which the student responses on various survey items can be grouped. A comparison of the responses of the Turkish and American university students enrolled in algebra-based introductory physics courses shows that on more than half of the items, the responses of these two groups were statistically significantly different, with the U.S. students on average responding to the items in a more expertlike manner.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niss, Martin
2017-01-01
This paper studies the cognitive obstacles related to one aspect of mathematization in physics problem-solving, namely, what might be called structuring for mathematization, where the problem situation is structured in such a way that a translation to a mathematical universe can be done. We report...... the results of an analysis of four protocols from task-based interviews with university students working on physics problems in pairs who fail when solving the problems. The obstacles encountered by the students are shown to be related to how the students approach the structuring for mathematization...
Berge, Maria; Danielsson, Anna T.
2013-06-01
The purpose of this article is to explore how a group of four university physics students addressed mechanics problems, in terms of student direction of attention, problem solving strategies and their establishment of and ways of interacting. Adapted from positioning theory, the concepts `positioning' and `storyline' are used to describe and to analyse student interaction. Focused on how the students position the physics problems, themselves, and each other, the analyses produced five different storylines. The dominant storyline deals with how the students handled the problem solving, whilst two other storylines characterise alternative ways of handling the physics problems, whereas the two remaining storylines are concerned with how students positioned themselves and others—as either funny and/or knowledgeable physics students—and constitute different aspects of the physics community. Finally, the storylines are discussed in relation to the pedagogical situation, with recommendations made for teaching practice and future research.
Excel 2016 for physical sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems
Quirk, Thomas J; Horton, Howard F
2016-01-01
This book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical physical science problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel is an effective learning tool for quantitative analyses in environmental science courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2016 for Physical Sciences Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel 2016 to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. Each chapter explains statistical formulas and directs the reader to use Excel commands to solve specific, easy-to-understand physical science problems. Practice problems are provided at the end of each chapter with their s...
Lee, Young-Jin
2015-01-01
This study investigates whether information saved in the log files of a computer-based tutor can be used to predict the problem solving performance of students. The log files of a computer-based physics tutoring environment called Andes Physics Tutor was analyzed to build a logistic regression model that predicted success and failure of students'…
Aspects of the future Physics teachers imaginary related to problem solving and Nuclear
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Thirza Pavan Sorpreso
2008-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we try to put in evidence some aspects of the future Physics teachers imaginary when they are is related to work with problem solving and with Nuclear Physics inclusion in High School. We show that this imaginary is evidenced and suffers displacements from specific conditions of production.
Niss, Martin
2017-01-01
This paper studies the cognitive obstacles related to one aspect of mathematization in physics problem-solving, namely, what might be called "structuring for mathematization," where the problem situation is structured in such a way that a translation to a mathematical universe can be done. We report the results of an analysis of four…
Haack, Constance
This study was an exploration of students' use of scaffolded problems as part of their homework in an introductory calculus-based physics class. The study included consideration of the possible relationship of students' meaningful and rote learning approaches. The sample was comprised of 48 students who had completed all study instruments. Of this number, 23 did homework assignments that included scaffolded problems that had been divided into multiple steps that simplify, highlight, and organize the knowledge associated with the problem solving process. The other 25 students did non-scaffolded homework assignments. The Mechanics Baseline Test, given at the beginning of the study, measured students' prior knowledge of physics concepts. The Learning Approach Questionnaire, also given at the beginning of the study, measured students' meaningful and rote approaches to learning. Student responses to 6 qualitative physics problems and their selection of concepts associated with 4 quantitative physics problems was a gauge of their understanding of physics concepts. These 10 problems were distributed between 2 classroom examinations given during the study. At the end of the study 4 students who had done scaffolded homework problems and 4 students who had done non-scaffolded homework problems participated in think aloud protocols. They verbalized their thoughts as they attempted to solve 2 physics problems. Characterizations of individual problem solving approaches emerged from the think aloud protocols. An analysis of statistical data showed that students who did scaffolded problems attained significantly greater understanding of physics concepts than students who did non-scaffolded assignments. There were no significant differences by learning approaches, and no significant interactions. This indicates that scaffolded homework problems may benefit students regardless of learning orientation. Think aloud protocols revealed patterns of difference between students who had
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Alexandru Maries
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Drawing appropriate diagrams is a useful problem solving heuristic that can transform a problem into a representation that is easier to exploit for solving it. One major focus while helping introductory physics students learn effective problem solving is to help them understand that drawing diagrams can facilitate problem solution. We conducted an investigation in which two different interventions were implemented during recitation quizzes in a large enrollment algebra-based introductory physics course. Students were either (i asked to solve problems in which the diagrams were drawn for them or (ii explicitly told to draw a diagram. A comparison group was not given any instruction regarding diagrams. We developed rubrics to score the problem solving performance of students in different intervention groups and investigated ten problems. We found that students who were provided diagrams never performed better and actually performed worse than the other students on three problems, one involving standing sound waves in a tube (discussed elsewhere and two problems in electricity which we focus on here. These two problems were the only problems in electricity that involved considerations of initial and final conditions, which may partly account for why students provided with diagrams performed significantly worse than students who were not provided with diagrams. In order to explore potential reasons for this finding, we conducted interviews with students and found that some students provided with diagrams may have spent less time on the conceptual analysis and planning stage of the problem solving process. In particular, those provided with the diagram were more likely to jump into the implementation stage of problem solving early without fully analyzing and understanding the problem, which can increase the likelihood of mistakes in solutions.
Analyzing problem solving using math in physics: Epistemological framing via warrants
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Thomas J. Bing
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Developing expertise in physics entails learning to use mathematics effectively and efficiently as applied to the context of physical situations. Doing so involves coordinating a variety of concepts and skills including mathematical processing, computation, blending ancillary information with the math, and reading out physical implications from the math and vice versa. From videotaped observations of intermediate level students solving problems in groups, we note that students often “get stuck” using a limited group of skills or reasoning and fail to notice that a different set of tools (which they possess and know how to use effectively could quickly and easily solve their problem. We refer to a student’s perception or judgment of the kind of knowledge that is appropriate to bring to bear in a particular situation as epistemological framing. Although epistemological framing is often unstated (and even unconscious, in group problem-solving situations students sometimes get into disagreements about how to progress. During these disagreements, they bring forth reasons or warrants in support of their point of view. For the context of mathematics use in physics problem solving, we present a system for classifying physics students’ warrants and analyze a case study. This warrant analysis provides a general widely applicable technique for identifying students’ epistemological framings.
Analyzing problem solving using math in physics: Epistemological framing via warrants
Bing, Thomas J.; Redish, Edward F.
2009-12-01
Developing expertise in physics entails learning to use mathematics effectively and efficiently as applied to the context of physical situations. Doing so involves coordinating a variety of concepts and skills including mathematical processing, computation, blending ancillary information with the math, and reading out physical implications from the math and vice versa. From videotaped observations of intermediate level students solving problems in groups, we note that students often “get stuck” using a limited group of skills or reasoning and fail to notice that a different set of tools (which they possess and know how to use effectively) could quickly and easily solve their problem. We refer to a student’s perception or judgment of the kind of knowledge that is appropriate to bring to bear in a particular situation as epistemological framing. Although epistemological framing is often unstated (and even unconscious), in group problem-solving situations students sometimes get into disagreements about how to progress. During these disagreements, they bring forth reasons or warrants in support of their point of view. For the context of mathematics use in physics problem solving, we present a system for classifying physics students’ warrants and analyze a case study. This warrant analysis provides a general widely applicable technique for identifying students’ epistemological framings.
Solving Large-Scale Computational Problems Using Insights from Statistical Physics
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Selman, Bart [Cornell University
2012-02-29
Many challenging problems in computer science and related fields can be formulated as constraint satisfaction problems. Such problems consist of a set of discrete variables and a set of constraints between those variables, and represent a general class of so-called NP-complete problems. The goal is to find a value assignment to the variables that satisfies all constraints, generally requiring a search through and exponentially large space of variable-value assignments. Models for disordered systems, as studied in statistical physics, can provide important new insights into the nature of constraint satisfaction problems. Recently, work in this area has resulted in the discovery of a new method for solving such problems, called the survey propagation (SP) method. With SP, we can solve problems with millions of variables and constraints, an improvement of two orders of magnitude over previous methods.
Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere
2015-01-01
This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-assisted Students' Team Achievement Division (STAD) cooperative learning strategy on physics problem solving, students' achievement and retention. It also examined if the student performance would vary with gender. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two senior secondary schools…
Balta, Nuri; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza
2017-01-01
Advanced technology helps educational institutes to improve student learning performance and outcomes. In this study, our aim is to measure and assess student engagement and collaborative learning in engineering classes when using online technology in solving physics problems. The interactive response system used in this study is a collaborative…
Computer Problem-Solving Coaches
Hsu, Leon; Heller, Kenneth
2005-09-01
Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.
Excel 2013 for physical sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems
Quirk, Thomas J; Horton, Howard F
2016-01-01
This book shows the capabilities of Microsoft Excel in teaching physical sciences statistics effectively. Similar to the previously published Excel 2010 for Physical Sciences Statistics, this book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical science problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in science courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2013 for Physical Sciences Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in their ...
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Enrique Castillo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We first show that monomial ratio equations are not only very common in Physics and Engineering, but the natural type of equations in many practical problems. More precisely, in the case of models involving scale variables if the used formulas are not of this type they are not physically valid. The consequence is that when estimating the model parameters we are faced with systems of monomial ratio equations that are nonlinear and difficult to solve. In this paper, we provide an original algorithm to obtain the unique solutions of systems of equations made of linear combinations of monomial ratios whose coefficient matrix has a proper null space with low dimension that permits solving the problem in a simple way. Finally, we illustrate the proposed methods by their application to two practical problems from the hydraulic and structural fields.
Facilitating case reuse during problem solving in algebra-based physics
Mateycik, Frances Ann
This research project investigates students' development of problem solving schemata while using strategies that facilitate the process of using solved examples to assist with a new problem (case reuse). Focus group learning interviews were used to explore students' perceptions and understanding of several problem solving strategies. Individual clinical interviews were conducted and quantitative examination data were collected to assess students' conceptual understanding, knowledge organization, and problem solving performance on a variety of problem tasks. The study began with a short one-time treatment of two independent, research-based strategies chosen to facilitate case reuse. Exploration of students' perceptions and use of the strategies lead investigators to select one of the two strategies to be implemented over a full semester of focus group interviews. The strategy chosen was structure mapping. Structure maps are defined as visual representations of quantities and their associations. They were created by experts to model the appropriate mental organization of knowledge elements for a given physical concept. Students were asked to use these maps as they were comfortable while problem solving. Data obtained from this phase of our study (Phase I) offered no evidence of improved problem solving schema. The 11 contact hour study was barely sufficient time for students to become comfortable using the maps. A set of simpler strategies were selected for their more explicit facilitation of analogical reasoning, and were used together during two more semester long focus group treatments (Phase II and Phase III of this study). These strategies included the use of a step-by-step process aimed at reducing cognitive load associated with mathematical procedure, direct reflection of principles involved in a given set of problems, and the direct comparison of problem pairs designed to be void of surface similarities (similar objects or object orientations) and sharing
Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha
2016-01-01
Students must learn effective problem solving strategies in order to develop expertise in physics. Effective problem solving strategies include a conceptual analysis of the problem followed by planning of the solution, and then implementation, evaluation, and reflection upon the process. Research suggests that converting a problem from the initial…
The Role of Content Knowledge in Ill-Structured Problem Solving for High School Physics Students
Milbourne, Jeff; Wiebe, Eric
2018-02-01
While Physics Education Research has a rich tradition of problem-solving scholarship, most of the work has focused on more traditional, well-defined problems. Less work has been done with ill-structured problems, problems that are better aligned with the engineering and design-based scenarios promoted by the Next Generation Science Standards. This study explored the relationship between physics content knowledge and ill-structured problem solving for two groups of high school students with different levels of content knowledge. Both groups of students completed an ill-structured problem set, using a talk-aloud procedure to narrate their thought process as they worked. Analysis of the data focused on identifying students' solution pathways, as well as the obstacles that prevented them from reaching "reasonable" solutions. Students with more content knowledge were more successful reaching reasonable solutions for each of the problems, experiencing fewer obstacles. These students also employed a greater variety of solution pathways than those with less content knowledge. Results suggest that a student's solution pathway choice may depend on how she perceives the problem.
Balta, Nuri; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza
2016-01-01
Advanced technology helps educational institutes to improve student learning performance and outcomes. In this study, our aim is to measure and assess student engagement and collaborative learning in engineering classes when using online technology in solving physics problems. The interactive response system used in this study is a collaborative learning tool that allows teachers to monitor their students’ response and progress in real time. Our results indicated that students have highly pos...
How Partner Gender Influences Female Students' Problem Solving in Physics Education
Ding, N.; Harskamp, E.
2006-12-01
Research has shown that female students cannot profit as much as male students can from cooperative learning in physics, especially in mixed-gender dyads. This study has explored the influence of partner gender on female students' learning achievement, interaction and the problem-solving process during cooperative learning. In Shanghai, a total of 50 students (26 females and 24 males), drawn from two classes of a high school, took part in the study. Students were randomly paired, and there were three research groups: mixed-gender dyads (MG), female-female dyads (FF) and male-male dyads (MM). Analysis of students' pre- and post-test performances revealed that female students in the single-gender condition solved physics problems more effectively than did those in the mixed-gender condition, while the same was not the case for male students. We further explored the differences between female and male communication styles, and content among the three research groups. It showed that the females' interaction content and problem-solving processes were more sensitive to partner gender than were those for males. This might explain why mixed-gender cooperation in physics disadvantages females in high schools.
The scientific role of hypotheses and the reasoning of college students in physics problem solving
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Jenaro Guisasola
2003-08-01
Full Text Available This paper attempts to explore how freshmen college students in engineering state hypoteses to build their own problem solving structure when dealing with physics problems. From the constructivist perspective of the teaching and learning process hypotheses stating plays a fundamental role to check the coherence of students' ideas against the theoretical framework. The main instruments to accede to students' reasoning were their written solutions to four problematic situations in which they were asked to state hypotheses. The protocols were analysed according to a standard methodology. In this paper two of such problematic situations and the corresponding cathegorization schemes are presented in addition to reseach findings and conclusions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chemi, Tatiana
2016-01-01
a perspective that is relevant to higher education. The focus here is on how artists solve problems in distributed paths, and on the elements of creative collaboration. Creative problem-solving will be looked at as an ongoing dialogue that artists engage with themselves, with others, with recipients......, what can educators at higher education learn from the ways creative groups solve problems? How can artists contribute to inspiring higher education?...
Solved problems in electromagnetics
Salazar Bloise, Félix; Bayón Rojo, Ana; Gascón Latasa, Francisco
2017-01-01
This book presents the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism through problems with a brief theoretical introduction at the beginning of each chapter. The present book has a strong didactic character. It explains all the mathematical steps and the theoretical concepts connected with the development of the problem. It guides the reader to understand the employed procedures to learn to solve the exercises independently. The exercises are structured in a similar way: The chapters begin with easy problems increasing progressively in the level of difficulty. This book is written for students of physics and engineering in the framework of the new European Plans of Study for Bachelor and Master and also for tutors and lecturers. .
2017-03-01
1) problem solving architecture; (2) problem representation ; (3) heuristics and control knowledge ; and (4) algorithms. In the area of problem... language which humans use to describe problems/domains and SAS+ is a standard problem representation input language used by many planners. Given a...implemented a system, MSP, that given a specific problem, automatically generates, evaluates, and assembles different combinations of representations and
Role of beliefs and emotions in numerical problem solving in university physics education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Madelen Bodin
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Numerical problem solving in classical mechanics in university physics education offers a learning situation where students have many possibilities of control and creativity. In this study, expertlike beliefs about physics and learning physics together with prior knowledge were the most important predictors of the quality of performance of a task with many degrees of freedom. Feelings corresponding to control and concentration, i.e., emotions that are expected to trigger students’ intrinsic motivation, were also important in predicting performance. Unexpectedly, intrinsic motivation, as indicated by enjoyment and interest, together with students’ personal interest and utility value beliefs did not predict performance. This indicates that although a certain degree of enjoyment is probably necessary, motivated behavior is rather regulated by integration and identification of expertlike beliefs about learning and are more strongly associated with concentration and control during learning and, ultimately, with high performance. The results suggest that the development of students’ epistemological beliefs is important for students’ ability to learn from realistic problem-solving situations with many degrees of freedom in physics education.
Hoskinson, A-M; Caballero, M D; Knight, J K
2013-06-01
If students are to successfully grapple with authentic, complex biological problems as scientists and citizens, they need practice solving such problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem solving for the past three decades. Although physics and biology problems differ in structure and content, the instructional purposes align closely: explaining patterns and processes in the natural world and making predictions about physical and biological systems. In this paper, we discuss how research-supported approaches developed by physics education researchers can be adopted by biologists to enhance student problem-solving skills. First, we compare the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve with authentic, complex problems. We then describe the development of research-validated physics curricula emphasizing process skills in problem solving. We show that solving authentic, complex biology problems requires many of the same skills that practicing physicists and biologists use in representing problems, seeking relationships, making predictions, and verifying or checking solutions. We assert that acquiring these skills can help biology students become competent problem solvers. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can apply lessons from physics education in their classrooms and inspire new studies in biology education research.
Becerra-Labra, Carlos; Gras-Martí, Albert; Martínez Torregrosa, Joaquín
2012-05-01
A model of teaching/learning is proposed based on a 'problem-based structure' of the contents of the course, in combination with a training in paper and pencil problem solving that emphasizes discussion and quantitative analysis, rather than formulae plug-in. The aim is to reverse the high failure and attrition rate among engineering undergraduates taking physics. A number of tests and questionnaires were administered to a group of students following a traditional lecture-based instruction, as well as to another group that was following an instruction scheme based on the proposed approach and the teaching materials developed ad hoc. The results show that students following the new method can develop scientific reasoning habits in problem-solving skills, and show gains in conceptual learning, attitudes and interests, and that the effects of this approach on learning are noticeable several months after the course is over.
Haili, Hasnawati; Maknun, Johar; Siahaan, Parsaoran
2017-08-01
Physics is a lessons that related to students' daily experience. Therefore, before the students studying in class formally, actually they have already have a visualization and prior knowledge about natural phenomenon and could wide it themselves. The learning process in class should be aimed to detect, process, construct, and use students' mental model. So, students' mental model agree with and builds in the right concept. The previous study held in MAN 1 Muna informs that in learning process the teacher did not pay attention students' mental model. As a consequence, the learning process has not tried to build students' mental modelling ability (MMA). The purpose of this study is to describe the improvement of students' MMA as a effect of problem solving based learning model with multiple representations approach. This study is pre experimental design with one group pre post. It is conducted in XI IPA MAN 1 Muna 2016/2017. Data collection uses problem solving test concept the kinetic theory of gasses and interview to get students' MMA. The result of this study is clarification students' MMA which is categorized in 3 category; High Mental Modelling Ability (H-MMA) for 7MMA) for 3MMA) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 score. The result shows that problem solving based learning model with multiple representations approach can be an alternative to be applied in improving students' MMA.
Patterns of multiple representation use by experts and novices during physics problem solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick B. Kohl
2008-06-01
Full Text Available It is generally believed that students should use multiple representations in solving certain physics problems, and earlier work in PER has begun to outline how experts and novices differ in their use of multiple representations. In this study, we build on this foundation by interviewing expert and novice physicists as they solve two types of multiple representation problems: those in which multiple representations are provided for them and those in which the students must construct their own representations. We analyze in detail the types of representations subjects use and the order and manner in which they are used. Expert and novice representation use is surprisingly similar in some ways, especially in that both experts and novices make significant use of multiple representations. Some significant differences also emerge. Experts are more flexible in terms of starting point and move between the available representations more quickly, and novices tend to move between more representations in total. In addition, we find that an examination of how often and when multiple representations are used is inadequate to fully characterize a problem-solving episode; one must also consider the purpose behind the use of the available representations. This analysis of how experts and novices use representations sharpens the differences between the two groups, demonstrates analysis techniques that may be useful in future work, and suggests possible paths for instruction.
Solving the software protection problem with intrinsic personal physical unclonable functions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nithyanand, Rishab (Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY); Sion, Radu (Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY)
2011-09-01
Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) or Physical One Way Functions (P-OWFs) are physical systems whose responses to input stimuli (i.e., challenges) are easy to measure (within reasonable error bounds) but hard to clone. The unclonability property comes from the accepted hardness of replicating the multitude of characteristics introduced during the manufacturing process. This makes PUFs useful for solving problems such as device authentication, software protection, licensing, and certified execution. In this paper, we focus on the effectiveness of PUFs for software protection in offline settings. We first argue that traditional (black-box) PUFs are not useful for protecting software in settings where communication with a vendor's server or third party network device is infeasible or impossible. Instead, we argue that Intrinsic PUFs are needed to solve the above mentioned problems because they are intrinsically involved in processing the information that is to be protected. Finally, we describe how sources of randomness in any computing device can be used for creating intrinsic-personal-PUFs (IP-PUF) and present experimental results in using standard off-the-shelf computers as IP-PUFs.
Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.
2008-01-01
Many students experience difficulties in solving applied physics problems. Most programs that want students to improve problem-solving skills are concerned with the development of content knowledge. Physhint is an example of a student-controlled computer program that supports students in developing their strategic knowledge in combination with…
Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.
Many students experience difficulties in solving applied physics problems. Most programs that want students to improve problem-solving skills are concerned with the development of content knowledge. Physhint is an example of a student-controlled computer program that supports students in developing
Student representational competence and self-assessment when solving physics problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noah D. Finkelstein
2005-10-01
Full Text Available Student success in solving physics problems is related to the representational format of the problem. We study student representational competence in two large-lecture algebra-based introductory university physics courses with approximately 600 participants total. We examined student performance on homework problems given in four different representational formats (mathematical, pictorial, graphical, verbal, with problem statements as close to isomorphic as possible. In addition to the homeworks, we examine students’ assessment of representations by providing follow-up quizzes in which they chose between various problem formats. As a control, some parts of the classes were assigned a random-format follow-up quiz. We find that there are statistically significant performance differences between different representations of nearly isomorphic statements of quiz and homework problems. We also find that allowing students to choose which representational format they use improves student performance under some circumstances and degrades it in others. Notably, one of the two courses studied shows much greater performance differences between the groups that received a choice of format and those that did not, and we consider possible causes. Overall, we observe that student representational competence is tied to both micro- and macrolevel features of the task and environment.
Mashood, K. K.; Singh, Vijay A.
2013-09-01
Research suggests that problem-solving skills are transferable across domains. This claim, however, needs further empirical substantiation. We suggest correlation studies as a methodology for making preliminary inferences about transfer. The correlation of the physics performance of students with their performance in chemistry and mathematics in highly competitive problem-solving examinations was studied using a massive database. The sample sizes ranged from hundreds to a few hundred thousand. Encouraged by the presence of significant correlations, we interviewed 20 students to explore the pedagogic potential of physics in imparting transferable problem-solving skills. We report strategies and practices relevant to physics employed by these students which foster transfer.
Cocco, S.; Monasson, R.
2001-08-01
The computational complexity of solving random 3-Satisfiability (3-SAT) problems is investigated using statistical physics concepts and techniques related to phase transitions, growth processes and (real-space) renormalization flows. 3-SAT is a representative example of hard computational tasks; it consists in knowing whether a set of αN randomly drawn logical constraints involving N Boolean variables can be satisfied altogether or not. Widely used solving procedures, as the Davis-Putnam-Loveland-Logemann (DPLL) algorithm, perform a systematic search for a solution, through a sequence of trials and errors represented by a search tree. The size of the search tree accounts for the computational complexity, i.e. the amount of computational efforts, required to achieve resolution. In the present study, we identify, using theory and numerical experiments, easy (size of the search tree scaling polynomially with N) and hard (exponential scaling) regimes as a function of the ratio α of constraints per variable. The typical complexity is explicitly calculated in the different regimes, in very good agreement with numerical simulations. Our theoretical approach is based on the analysis of the growth of the branches in the search tree under the operation of DPLL. On each branch, the initial 3-SAT problem is dynamically turned into a more generic 2+p-SAT problem, where p and 1 - p are the fractions of constraints involving three and two variables respectively. The growth of each branch is monitored by the dynamical evolution of α and p and is represented by a trajectory in the static phase diagram of the random 2+p-SAT problem. Depending on whether or not the trajectories cross the boundary between satisfiable and unsatisfiable phases, single branches or full trees are generated by DPLL, resulting in easy or hard resolutions. Our picture for the origin of complexity can be applied to other computational problems solved by branch and bound algorithms.
Effect of Physics Problem Solving on Structures Schemes and Knowledge Associations
Setyowidodo, I.; Jatmiko, B.; Susantini, E.; Widodo, S.; Shofwan, A.
2017-09-01
This study aims to develop learners’ thinking structures through associations, case based, and schematic method so that different knowledge structures have a role in influencing the structure of creative thinking. The learners have low mastery of physics materials since they are not given sufficient opportunity to build their own knowledge. They should be directed to approach each new problem or task with their prior knowledge, assimilate new information, and construct their own understanding. The design of this research was a quasi-experiment using purposive sampling. Data were analyzed using variance analysis. The design of this research was a quasi-experiment using purposive sampling. Data were analyzed using variance analysis. The learning process of problemsolving consists of: 1) identifying problems, 2) planning projects, 3) creating projects, 4) presenting projects, and 5) evaluating projects. From the results of this research, it can be concluded that problem-solving method can provide strong supports in developing the learners’ creative thinking skills as they can share their knowledge and interact with their friends and the environment. This learning activity also constitutes an appropriate technique to help the learners to develop problem solving knowledge and skills.
Creativity and Problem Solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2004-01-01
This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...
Teaching Creative Problem Solving.
Christensen, Kip W.; Martin, Loren
1992-01-01
Interpersonal and cognitive skills, adaptability, and critical thinking can be developed through problem solving and cooperative learning in technology education. These skills have been identified as significant needs of the workplace as well as for functioning in society. (SK)
The Nature and Role of Thought Experiments in Solving Conceptual Physics Problems
Kösem, Şule Dönertaş; Özdemir, Ömer Faruk
2014-04-01
This study describes the possible variations of thought experiments in terms of their nature, purpose, and reasoning resources adopted during the solution of conceptual physics problems. A phenomenographic research approach was adopted for this study. Three groups of participants with varying levels of physics knowledge—low, medium, and high level—were selected in order to capture potential variations. Five participants were selected within each level group and the study was conducted with fifteen participants in total. Think aloud and retrospective questioning strategies were used throughout the individually conducted problem solving sessions to capture variations in the participants' thinking processes. The analysis of the data showed that thought experiments were actively used cognitive tools by participants from all there levels while working on the problems. Four different thought experiment structures were observed and categorized as limiting case, extreme case, simple case, and familiar case. It was also observed that participants conducted thought experiments for different purposes such as prediction, proof, and explanation. The reasoning resources behind the thought experiment processes were classified in terms of observed facts, intuitive principles, and scientific concepts. The results of the analysis suggested that thought experiments used as a creative reasoning tool for scientists can also be a productive tool for students. It was argued that instructional practices enriched with thought experiments and related practices not only reveal hidden elements of students' reasoning but also provide students opportunities to advance their inquiry skills through thought experimentation processes.
Meli, Kalliopi; Zacharos, Konstantinos; Koliopoulos, Dimitrios
2016-01-01
This article presents a case study that examines the level of integration of mathematical knowledge in physics problem solving among first grade students of upper secondary school. We explore the ways in which two specific students utilize their knowledge and we attempt to identify the epistemological framings they refer to while solving a physics…
Comparison of PASCAL and FORTRAN for solving problems in the physical sciences
Watson, V. R.
1981-01-01
The paper compares PASCAL and FORTRAN for problem solving in the physical sciences, due to requests NASA has received to make PASCAL available on the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulator (scheduled to be operational in 1986). PASCAL disadvantages include the lack of scientific utility procedures equivalent to the IBM scientific subroutine package or the IMSL package which are available in FORTRAN. Advantages include a well-organized, easy to read and maintain writing code, range checking to prevent errors, and a broad selection of data types. It is concluded that FORTRAN may be the better language, although ADA (patterned after PASCAL) may surpass FORTRAN due to its ability to add complex and vector math, and the specify the precision and range of variables.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul
2006-01-01
as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms.......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are 'The Architecture of Complexity' and 'The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems.' We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...
Solving Problems through Circles
Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.
2015-01-01
Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…
Solving Environmental Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph
2017-01-01
dispersed. Hence, firms need to collaborate. We shed new light on collaborative search strategies led by firms in general and for solving environmental problems in particular. Both topics are largely absent in the extant open innovation literature. Using data from the European Seventh Framework Program...... for Research and Technological Development (FP7), our results indicate that the problem-solving potential of a search strategy increases with the diversity of existing knowledge of the partners in a consortium and with the experience of the partners involved. Moreover, we identify a substantial negative effect......Recent innovation and strategy research emphasizes the importance of firm’s search for external knowledge to improve innovation performance. We focus on such search strategies within the domain of sustainable innovation in which problems are inherently complex and the relevant knowledge is widely...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, David
2012-01-01
Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage...... employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?” The research project was carried out as a co-creation process with close cooperation between researcher...... to work system innovation and discusses how Appreciative Inquiry, Problem Solving, and the combination ‘Appreciative Problem Solving’ can be used to optimize continuous work system innovation.These findings add to the theoretical foundation of the emerging field of Strength-based Lean....
Korstjens, Irene; Mesters, Ilse; May, Anne M.; van Weert, Ellen; van den Hout, Johanna H. C.; Ros, Wynand; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; van der Schans, Cees P.; van den Borne, Bart
2011-01-01
We tested the effects on problem-solving, anxiety and depression of 12-week group-based self-management cancer rehabilitation, combining comprehensive physical training (PT) and cognitive-behavioural problem-solving training (CBT), compared with PT. We expected that PT + CBT would outperform PT in
Solved problems in electrochemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piron, D.L.
2004-01-01
This book presents calculated solutions to problems in fundamental and applied electrochemistry. It uses industrial data to illustrate scientific concepts and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. It is subdivided into three parts. The first uses modern basic concepts, the second studies the scientific basis for electrode and electrolyte thermodynamics (including E-pH diagrams and the minimum energy involved in transformations) and the kinetics of rate processes (including the energy lost in heat and in parasite reactions). The third part treats larger problems in electrolysis and power generation, as well as in corrosion and its prevention. Each chapter includes three sections: the presentation of useful principles; some twenty problems with their solutions; and, a set of unsolved problems
Computer Problem-Solving Coaches for Introductory Physics: Design and Usability Studies
Ryan, Qing X.; Frodermann, Evan; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Mason, Andrew
2016-01-01
The combination of modern computing power, the interactivity of web applications, and the flexibility of object-oriented programming may finally be sufficient to create computer coaches that can help students develop metacognitive problem-solving skills, an important competence in our rapidly changing technological society. However, no matter how…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Corsin A Müller
Full Text Available Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject's level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance.
Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike
2016-01-01
Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris) of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject's level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance.
Problem Solving in the Professions.
Jackling, Noel; And Others
1990-01-01
It is proposed that algorithms and heuristics are useful in improving professional problem-solving abilities when contextualized within the academic discipline. A basic algorithm applied to problem solving in undergraduate engineering education and a similar algorithm applicable to legal problems are used as examples. Problem complexity and…
Manurung, Sondang; Demonta Pangabean, Deo
2017-05-01
The main purpose of this study is to produce needs analysis, literature review, and learning tools in the study of developmental of interactive multimedia based physic learning charged in problem solving to improve thinking ability of physic prospective student. The first-year result of the study is: result of the draft based on a needs analysis of the facts on the ground, the conditions of existing learning and literature studies. Following the design of devices and instruments performed as well the development of media. Result of the second study is physics learning device -based interactive multimedia charged problem solving in the form of textbooks and scientific publications. Previous learning models tested in a limited sample, then in the evaluation and repair. Besides, the product of research has an economic value on the grounds: (1) a virtual laboratory to offer this research provides a solution purchases physics laboratory equipment is expensive; (2) address the shortage of teachers of physics in remote areas as a learning tool can be accessed offline and online; (3). reducing material or consumables as tutorials can be done online; Targeted research is the first year: i.e story board learning physics that have been scanned in a web form CD (compact disk) and the interactive multimedia of gas Kinetic Theory concept. This draft is based on a needs analysis of the facts on the ground, the existing learning conditions, and literature studies. Previous learning models tested in a limited sample, then in the evaluation and repair.
How to solve mathematical problems
Wickelgren, Wayne A
1995-01-01
Seven problem-solving techniques include inference, classification of action sequences, subgoals, contradiction, working backward, relations between problems, and mathematical representation. Also, problems from mathematics, science, and engineering with complete solutions.
Solving inverse problems with the unfolding program TRUEE: Examples in astroparticle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milke, N.; Doert, M.; Klepser, S.; Mazin, D.; Blobel, V.; Rhode, W.
2013-01-01
The unfolding program TRUEE is a software package for the numerical solution of inverse problems. The algorithm was first applied in the FORTRAN 77 program RUN. RUN is an event-based unfolding algorithm which makes use of the Tikhonov regularization. It has been tested and compared to different unfolding applications and stood out with notably stable results and reliable error estimation. TRUEE is a conversion of RUN to C++, which works within the powerful ROOT framework. The program has been extended for more user-friendliness and delivers unfolding results which are identical to RUN. Beside the simplicity of the installation of the software and the generation of graphics, there are new functions, which facilitate the choice of unfolding parameters and observables for the user. In this paper, we introduce the new unfolding program and present its performance by applying it to two exemplary data sets from astroparticle physics, taken with the MAGIC telescopes and the IceCube neutrino detector, respectively.
Görücü, Alpaslan; Cantav, Erkan
2017-01-01
In this research, it is aimed to analyze the problem solving skills of university students in terms of different variables and to analyze the differences among the levels of perceived problem solving skill of the students of Physical Education and Sports College and other branch students. The sample consists of the university students from the…
Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.
Tolman, Richard R.
1982-01-01
Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)
Combinatorial reasoning to solve problems
Coenen, Tom Johannes Maria; Hof, Frits; Verhoef, Neeltje Cornelia
2016-01-01
This study reports combinatorial reasoning to solve problems. We observed the mathematical thinking of students aged 14-16. We study the variation of the students’ solution strategies in the context of emergent modelling. The results show that the students are tempted to begin the problem solving
Problem Solving and Reasoning.
1984-02-01
formed. The Understand program ( Rayes & Sisnon, 1974) is i computer simulation of the problem understanding process for puzzle-like problems like the...current in a wire connected to a battery and a metal rod, depending on the temperature differential of the bar , the internal resistance of the battery, and
How to solve applied mathematics problems
Moiseiwitsch, B L
2011-01-01
This workbook bridges the gap between lectures and practical applications, offering students of mathematics, engineering, and physics the chance to practice solving problems from a wide variety of fields. 2011 edition.
Solving complex fisheries management problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist
2011-01-01
A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related to ...... to both natural, other material and to cultural conditions. Hence, solving the discard problem requires not only technical and regulatory instruments, but also arenas and structures that allow and facilitate processes of cultural change....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ballesteros, Guillermo [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Ringwald, Andreas [DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Tamarit, Carlos, E-mail: guillermo.ballesteros@cea.fr, E-mail: jredondo@unizar.es, E-mail: andreas.ringwald@desy.de, E-mail: carlos.tamarit@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, South Road, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)
2017-08-01
We present a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM) providing a consistent picture of particle physics from the electroweak scale to the Planck scale and of cosmology from inflation until today. Three right-handed neutrinos N {sub i} , a new color triplet Q and a complex SM-singlet scalar σ, whose vacuum expectation value v {sub σ} ∼ 10{sup 11} GeV breaks lepton number and a Peccei-Quinn symmetry simultaneously, are added to the SM. At low energies, the model reduces to the SM, augmented by seesaw generated neutrino masses and mixing, plus the axion. The latter solves the strong CP problem and accounts for the cold dark matter in the Universe. The inflaton is comprised by a mixture of σ and the SM Higgs, and reheating of the Universe after inflation proceeds via the Higgs portal. Baryogenesis occurs via thermal leptogenesis. Thus, five fundamental problems of particle physics and cosmology are solved at one stroke in this unified Standard Model—axion—seesaw—Higgs portal inflation (SMASH) model. It can be probed decisively by upcoming cosmic microwave background and axion dark matter experiments.
Adams, Wendy Kristine
The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.
De Bono, Edward
A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles Henderson
2007-12-01
Full Text Available To identify and describe the basis upon which instructors make curricular and pedagogical decisions, we have developed an artifact-based interview and an analysis technique based on multilayered concept maps. The policy capturing technique used in the interview asks instructors to make judgments about concrete instructional artifacts similar to those they likely encounter in their teaching environment. The analysis procedure alternatively employs both an a priori systems view analysis and an emergent categorization to construct a multilayered concept map, which is a hierarchically arranged set of concept maps where child maps include more details than parent maps. Although our goal was to develop a model of physics faculty beliefs about the teaching and learning of problem solving in the context of an introductory calculus-based physics course, the techniques described here are applicable to a variety of situations in which instructors make decisions that influence teaching and learning.
Thorsland, Martin N.; Novak, Joseph D.
1974-01-01
Described is an approach to assessment of intuitive and analytic modes of thinking in physics. These modes of thinking are associated with Ausubel's theory of learning. High ability in either intuitive or analytic thinking was associated with success in college physics, with high learning efficiency following a pattern expected on the basis of…
Solving inverse problems of mathematical physics by means of the PHOENICS software package
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsevity, Y.; Lushpenko, S. [Institute for Problems in Machinery, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Pozharskogo, Kharkov (Ukraine)
1997-12-31
Several approaches on organizing solution of inverse problems by means of PHOENICS on the basis of the technique of automated fitting are proposing. A version of a `nondestructive` method of using PHOENICS in the inverse problem solution regime and the ways of altering the program in the case of introducing optimization facilities in it are under consideration. (author) 12 refs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul
as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organizational issues, specifically new organizational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organizational forms and to point to some design problems that characterize these forms.Keywords: Herbert...... Simon, problem-solving, new organizational forms. JEL Code: D23, D83......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are "The Architecture of Complexity" and "The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems." We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...
Ansari, Fazel; Seidenberg, Ulrich
2016-01-01
This paper discusses the complementarity of human and cyber physical production systems (CPPS). The discourse of complementarity is elaborated by defining five criteria for comparing the characteristics of human and CPPS. Finally, a management portfolio matrix is proposed for examining the feasibility of optimal collaboration between them. The…
Incorporating Sustainability and 21st-Century Problem Solving into Physics Courses
Rogers, Michael; Pfaff, Tom; Hamilton, Jason; Erkan, Ali
2013-01-01
As educators we are facing an unprecedented challenge to prepare our students not only for traditional careers but also for future careers that don't exist today. Many of these careers will require a firm grounding in disciplines such as physics, along with multidisciplinary, Global, and systems thinking skill sets. Our Multidisciplinary…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salimi Hadi
2017-09-01
Conclusion: Decision making and problem solving, family solidarity, expression of love and physical appearance could be used to predict the physical and mental health. By improving these factors the physical and mental health in family members could be increased.
Customer-centered problem solving.
Samelson, Q B
1999-11-01
If there is no single best way to attract new customers and retain current customers, there is surely an easy way to lose them: fail to solve the problems that arise in nearly every buyer-supplier relationship, or solve them in an unsatisfactory manner. Yet, all too frequently, companies do just that. Either we deny that a problem exists, we exert all our efforts to pin the blame elsewhere, or we "Band-Aid" the problem instead of fixing it, almost guaranteeing that we will face it again and again.
Solved problems in classical electromagnetism
Franklin, Jerrold
2018-01-01
This original Dover publication is the companion to a new edition of the author's Classical Electromagnetism: Second Edition. The latter volume will feature only basic answers; this book will contain some problems from the reissue as well as many other new ones. All feature complete, worked-out solutions and form a valuable source of problem-solving material for students.
Quantitative Reasoning in Problem Solving
Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin
2015-01-01
In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.
Community-powered problem solving.
Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas
2013-04-01
Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections.
Putra, A.; Masril, M.; Yurnetti, Y.
2018-04-01
One of the causes of low achievement of student’s competence in physics learning in high school is the process which they have not been able to develop student’s creativity in problem solving. This is shown that the teacher’s learning plan is not accordance with the National Eduction Standard. This study aims to produce a reconstruction model of physics learning that fullfil the competency standards, content standards, and assessment standards in accordance with applicable curriculum standards. The development process follows: Needs analysis, product design, product development, implementation, and product evaluation. The research process involves 2 peers judgment, 4 experts judgment and two study groups of high school students in Padang. The data obtained, in the form of qualitative and quantitative data that collected through documentation, observation, questionnaires, and tests. The result of this research up to the product development stage that obtained the physics learning plan model that meets the validity of the content and the validity of the construction in terms of the fulfillment of Basic Competence, Content Standards, Process Standards and Assessment Standards.
Aging and skilled problem solving.
Charness, N
1981-03-01
Information-processing models of problem solving too often are based on restrictive age ranges. On the other hand, gerontologists have investigated few problem-solving tasks and have rarely generated explicit models. As this article demonstrates, both fields can benefit by closer collaboration. One major issue in gerontology is whether aging is associated with irreversible decrement or developmental plasticity. If both processes occur, then an appropriate strategy for investigating aging is to equate age groups for molar problem-solving performance and search for differences in the underlying components. This strategy was adopted to examine the relation of age and skill to problem solving in chess. Chess players were selected to vary widely in age and skill such that these variables were uncorrelated. Problem-solving and memory tasks were administered. Skill level was the only significant predictor for accuracy in both a choose-a-move task and a speeded end-game evaluation task. Age (negatively) and skill (positively) jointly determined performance in an unexpected recall task. Efficient chunking in recall was positively related to skill, though negatively related to age. Recognition confidence, though not accuracy, was negatively related to age. Thus despite age-related declines in encoding and retrieval of information, older players match the problem-solving performance of equivalently skilled younger players. Apparently, they can search the problem space more efficiently, as evidenced by taking less time to select an equally good move. Models of chess skill that stress that role of encoding efficiency, as indexed by chunking in recall, need to be modified to account for performance over the life span.
Interactive problem solving using LOGO
Boecker, Heinz-Dieter; Fischer, Gerhard
2014-01-01
This book is unique in that its stress is not on the mastery of a programming language, but on the importance and value of interactive problem solving. The authors focus on several specific interest worlds: mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and games; however, their approach can serve as a model that may be applied easily to other fields as well. Those who are interested in symbolic computing will find that Interactive Problem Solving Using LOGO provides a gentle introduction from which one may move on to other, more advanced computational frameworks or more
Methods of solving nonstandard problems
Grigorieva, Ellina
2015-01-01
This book, written by an accomplished female mathematician, is the second to explore nonstandard mathematical problems – those that are not directly solved by standard mathematical methods but instead rely on insight and the synthesis of a variety of mathematical ideas. It promotes mental activity as well as greater mathematical skills, and is an ideal resource for successful preparation for the mathematics Olympiad. Numerous strategies and techniques are presented that can be used to solve intriguing and challenging problems of the type often found in competitions. The author uses a friendly, non-intimidating approach to emphasize connections between different fields of mathematics and often proposes several different ways to attack the same problem. Topics covered include functions and their properties, polynomials, trigonometric and transcendental equations and inequalities, optimization, differential equations, nonlinear systems, and word problems. Over 360 problems are included with hints, ...
Problem solving through recreational mathematics
Averbach, Bonnie
1999-01-01
Historically, many of the most important mathematical concepts arose from problems that were recreational in origin. This book takes advantage of that fact, using recreational mathematics - problems, puzzles and games - to teach students how to think critically. Encouraging active participation rather than just observation, the book focuses less on mathematical results than on how these results can be applied to thinking about problems and solving them. Each chapter contains a diverse array of problems in such areas as logic, number and graph theory, two-player games of strategy, solitaire ga
2005-01-01
Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications
Interactive Problem-Solving Interventions
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Frew Demeke Alemu
various interactive problem solving methods. Track III Diplomacy refers to “people to people” search for common ground undertaken by individuals or private groups. This type of activity may involve organizing meetings and conferences, generating media exposure, and political and legal advocacy. 15 Wehrenfennig, Id., p.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eli Trisnowati
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the description of the improvement of students’ critical thinking skills and the concept understanding by implementing the problem-solving approach. This study was in laboratory activities. This study was done in four times meeting. The try out subjects was 31 students of grades X of MAN Yogyakarta III. This research is using the quasi experimental method with the pretest-posttest design. The data were collected by using multiple choices tests with assessment rubric and observation sheets. The data are analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Based on the result, the gain standard value of students’ conceptual understanding and students’ critical thinking skills for grade X who learned through student’s worksheet with a problem-solving approach, called treatment class, are higher than students who learned without student’s worksheet with a problem-solving approach, called control class.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siti Maria Ulva
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The study aimed at generating PBL-based learning kit product by utilizing blog, at meeting the criteria of learning kit feasibility, at testing the effectiveness of learning kit that the researcher had developed and at identifying the learning participants’ scientific process and problem solving skills. In conducting the study, the researcher implemented the 4-D Model. The learning kit development started involved preliminary study, product design, expert and practitioner test, limited experiment and field experiment. The instruments that had been deployed in conducting the study consisted of validation sheet, learning management observation sheet, student response sheet, teacher interview sheet and learning results test. This study generated a product that consisted of lesson plan, teacher’s book, student’s book, student’s working sheet, blog and learning results assessment. The validation results showed that the learning kit that had been developed were feasible for implementation. Then, the experiment results showed that the learning kit that the researcher had developed met the criteria of effectiveness. Based on the pretest and the posttest results that was administered during the field experiment, students’ physics learning has increased approximately 17.10 point from the pretest average score, namely 58.20, and from the posttest average score, namely 75.30.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heydari, M.H., E-mail: heydari@stu.yazd.ac.ir [Faculty of Mathematics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Laboratory of Quantum Information Processing, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hooshmandasl, M.R., E-mail: hooshmandasl@yazd.ac.ir [Faculty of Mathematics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Laboratory of Quantum Information Processing, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Cattani, C., E-mail: ccattani@unisa.it [Department of Mathematics, University of Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Maalek Ghaini, F.M., E-mail: maalek@yazd.ac.ir [Faculty of Mathematics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Laboratory of Quantum Information Processing, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-02-15
Because of the nonlinearity, closed-form solutions of many important stochastic functional equations are virtually impossible to obtain. Thus, numerical solutions are a viable alternative. In this paper, a new computational method based on the generalized hat basis functions together with their stochastic operational matrix of Itô-integration is proposed for solving nonlinear stochastic Itô integral equations in large intervals. In the proposed method, a new technique for computing nonlinear terms in such problems is presented. The main advantage of the proposed method is that it transforms problems under consideration into nonlinear systems of algebraic equations which can be simply solved. Error analysis of the proposed method is investigated and also the efficiency of this method is shown on some concrete examples. The obtained results reveal that the proposed method is very accurate and efficient. As two useful applications, the proposed method is applied to obtain approximate solutions of the stochastic population growth models and stochastic pendulum problem.
Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeliha Burcu Yurtsal
2015-01-01
Conclusions: There were significant statistical differences between assertiveness levels and problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession.
Rahmawati; Rustaman, Nuryani Y.; Hamidah, Ida; Rusdiana, Dadi
2017-02-01
The aim of this study was to explore the use of assessment strategy which can measure problem solving skills of pre-service teachers based on their cognitive style in basic physics course. The sample consisted of 95 persons (male = 15, female = 75). This study used an exploratory research with observation techniques by interview, questionnaire, and test. The results indicated that the lecturer only used paper-pencil test assessment strategy to measure pre-service teachers’ achievement and also used conventional learning strategy. It means that the lecturer did not measure pre-services’ thinking process in learning, like problem solving skills. One of the factors which can influence student problem solving skills is cognitive style as an internal factor. Field Dependent (FD) and Field Independent (FI) are two cognitive styles which were measured with using Group Embedded Figure Test (GEFT) test. The result showed that 82% of pre-service teachers were FD cognitive style and only 18% of pre-service teachers had FI cognitive style. Furthermore, these findings became the fundamental design to develop a problem solving assessment model to measure pre-service teachers’ problem solving skills and process in basic physics course.
Gorucu, Alpaslan
2016-01-01
The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effects of physical education lessons planned in accordance with cooperative learning approach on secondary school students' problem solving skills. The research was conducted on 48 students studying at Konya/Selçuklu Sehit Mustafa Çuhadar Secondary School in fall semester of 2015-2016…
Singh, Devraj
2015-01-01
Numerical Problems in Physics, Volume 1 is intended to serve the need of the students pursuing graduate and post graduate courses in universities with Physics and Materials Science as subject including those appearing in engineering, medical, and civil services entrance examinations. KEY FEATURES: * 29 chapters on Optics, Wave & Oscillations, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Solid State Physics & Modern Physics * 540 solved numerical problems of various universities and ompetitive examinations * 523 multiple choice questions for quick and clear understanding of subject matter * 567 unsolved numerical problems for grasping concepts of the various topic in Physics * 49 Figures for understanding problems and concept
Dimensional Analysis and Qualitative Methods in Problem Solving
Pescetti, D.
2008-01-01
The primary application of dimensional analysis (DA) is in problem solving. Typically, the problem description indicates that a physical quantity Y(the unknown) is a function f of other physical quantities A[subscript 1], ..., A[subscript n] (the data). We propose a qualitative problem-solving procedure which consists of a parallel decomposition…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wittaya Worapun
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Three phases of this research were employed to study learning achievement, problem solving, and learning curiosity among 43 students in the 11th grade through self-directed learning in a Physics course. Research instruments included: a learning achievement test, a test of curiosity, observations using anecdotal evidence of curiosity, and a test of problem solving ability. The findings show that six components of self-directed learning were evident, i.e. principles and basic concepts, syntax, social system, principle of reaction, and support system. It was found that five main procedures of self-directed learning were applicable in a management model: diagnosis, strategies, growth in habit, taking action, and summarizing and assessing. Students gained in their learning achievement ; furthermore, their posttest scores in problem solving were greater than their pretest scores at .05 level of statistical significance.
Adaptive Problem Solving by Analogy
2013-07-01
gestalt psychologist developed a number of rules which prescribe when and how visual features are be bound together. There is however a...tracking, visualization of the working memory, and a script language for setting‐up and controlling simulations. Summary and dissemination are presented in...set of visual features belong to the same object). The binding problem is also relevant to problem solving as long as prior to finding a
Solving applied mathematical problems with Matlab
Xue, Dingyu
2008-01-01
Computer Mathematics Language-An Overview. Fundamentals of MATLAB Programming. Calculus Problems. MATLAB Computations of Linear Algebra Problems. Integral Transforms and Complex Variable Functions. Solutions to Nonlinear Equations and Optimization Problems. MATLAB Solutions to Differential Equation Problems. Solving Interpolations and Approximations Problems. Solving Probability and Mathematical Statistics Problems. Nontraditional Solution Methods for Mathematical Problems.
LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?
Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris
2011-01-01
With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…
Students' Epistemological Framing in Quantum Mechanics Problem Solving
Modir, Bahar; Thompson, John D.; Sayre, Eleanor C.
2017-01-01
Students' difficulties in quantum mechanics may be the result of unproductive framing and not a fundamental inability to solve the problems or misconceptions about physics content. We observed groups of students solving quantum mechanics problems in an upper-division physics course. Using the lens of epistemological framing, we investigated four…
An Integrated Architecture for Engineering Problem Solving
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Pisan, Yusuf
1998-01-01
.... This thesis describes the Integrated Problem Solving Architecture (IPSA) that combines qualitative, quantitative and diagrammatic reasoning skills to produce annotated solutions to engineering problems...
Effects of practicing creative problem solving
Bojanović, Radojica; Đurišić-Bojanović, Mirosava
2016-01-01
This paper tests the effect of practicing creative problem solving in the context of business. The research was conducted on a sample of final-year students (N=90). Participants were solving the initial and final test of creative problem solving in the context of business, as well as the creativity test. Practicing creative problem solving lasted around four monts (around 40 minutes a week). Practice method combined a nominal method of group decision making and Osborn creativity method. The b...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Babich Tatyana Vladimirovna
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the physical and economic accessibility to foodstuff in the region. The effects of economic sanctions are analyzed, the main types of risks of the domestic agricultural producers’ competitiveness are described, and the methods of their reduction are identified. The concept of food security in terms of physical and economic accessibility is considered. The analysis of the Volgograd region data on the development of agricultural production let conclude that there is the problem of ensuring the physical availability of foodstuff in the region. The state regulation of agricultural production is identified as an important factor of food security in the modern world. The authors identified the basic problems of agricultural production, including the problem of irrigation, economic accessibility of food products, depreciation of fixed assets, the use of obsolete and resource-intensive technologies of production, decline in qualification level of staff employed in the industry, underfunding of agricultural science, low competitiveness of agricultural and food policy. Moreover, in the current situation the further growth of food prices and reduced purchasing power of the population, as a result of inflation, would further reduce the economic affordability of food and decrease food security in the region and in the country, as a whole. As a result, аs part of the solution to the problem of providing physical and economic access to food, the authors offered and proved complex measures on improving state regulation of agro-industrial complex. These measures include conducting large-scale works on restoration of the complex reclamation of the region; implementation of technical and technological modernization of agriculture, food industry and agrobusiness production services; formation of the system of professional agricultural education; formation of modern social infrastructure in rural areas; development of the program of food
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasily A. Belyaev
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The new versions of the collocations and least residuals (CLR method of high-order accuracy are proposed and implemented for the numerical solution of the boundary value problems for PDE in the convex quadrangular domains. Their implementation and numerical experiments are performed by the examples of solving the biharmonic and Poisson equations. The solution of the biharmonic equation is used for simulation of the stress-strain state of an isotropic plate under the action of the transverse load. Differential problems are projected into the space of fourth-degree polynomials by the CLR method. The boundary conditions for the approximate solution are put down exactly on the boundary of the computational domain. The versions of the CLR method are implemented on the grids, which are constructed by two different ways. In the first version, a “quasiregular” grid is constructed in the domain, the extreme lines of this grid coincide with the boundaries of the domain. In the second version, the domain is initially covered by a regular grid with rectangular cells. Herewith, the collocation and matching points that are situated outside the domain are used for approximation of the differential equations in the boundary cells that had been crossed by the boundary. In addition the “small” irregular triangular cells that had been cut off by the domain boundary from rectangular cells of the initial regular grid are joined to adjacent quadrangular cells. This technique allowed to essentially reduce the conditionality of the system of linear algebraic equations of the approximate problem in comparison with the case when small irregular cells together with other cells were used as independent ones for constructing an approximate solution of the problem. It is shown that the approximate solution of problems converges with high order and matches with high accuracy with the analytical solution of the test problems in the case of the known solution in
Students’ difficulties in probabilistic problem-solving
Arum, D. P.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.
2018-03-01
There are many errors can be identified when students solving mathematics problems, particularly in solving the probabilistic problem. This present study aims to investigate students’ difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It focuses on analyzing and describing students errors during solving the problem. This research used the qualitative method with case study strategy. The subjects in this research involve ten students of 9th grade that were selected by purposive sampling. Data in this research involve students’ probabilistic problem-solving result and recorded interview regarding students’ difficulties in solving the problem. Those data were analyzed descriptively using Miles and Huberman steps. The results show that students have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem and can be divided into three categories. First difficulties relate to students’ difficulties in understanding the probabilistic problem. Second, students’ difficulties in choosing and using appropriate strategies for solving the problem. Third, students’ difficulties with the computational process in solving the problem. Based on the result seems that students still have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It means that students have not able to use their knowledge and ability for responding probabilistic problem yet. Therefore, it is important for mathematics teachers to plan probabilistic learning which could optimize students probabilistic thinking ability.
Milbourne, Jeffrey David
The purpose of this dissertation study was to explore the experiences of high school physics students who were solving complex, ill-structured problems, in an effort to better understand how self-regulatory behavior mediated the project experience. Consistent with Voss, Green, Post, and Penner's (1983) conception of an ill-structured problem in the natural sciences, the 'problems' consisted of scientific research projects that students completed under the supervision of a faculty mentor. Zimmerman and Campillo's (2003) self-regulatory framework of problem solving provided a holistic guide to data collection and analysis of this multi-case study, with five individual student cases. The study's results are explored in two manuscripts, each targeting a different audience. The first manuscript, intended for the Science Education Research community, presents a thick, rich description of the students' project experiences, consistent with a qualitative, case study analysis. Findings suggest that intrinsic interest was an important self-regulatory factor that helped motivate students throughout their project work, and that the self-regulatory cycle of forethought, performance monitoring, and self-reflection was an important component of the problem-solving process. Findings also support the application of Zimmerman and Campillo's framework to complex, ill-structured problems, particularly the cyclical nature of the framework. Finally, this study suggests that scientific research projects, with the appropriate support, can be a mechanism for improving students' selfregulatory behavior. The second manuscript, intended for Physics practitioners, combines the findings of the first manuscript with the perspectives of the primary, on-site research mentor, who has over a decade's worth of experience mentoring students doing physics research. His experience suggests that a successful research experience requires certain characteristics, including: a slow, 'on-ramp' to the research
Thinking Process of Naive Problem Solvers to Solve Mathematical Problems
Mairing, Jackson Pasini
2017-01-01
Solving problems is not only a goal of mathematical learning. Students acquire ways of thinking, habits of persistence and curiosity, and confidence in unfamiliar situations by learning to solve problems. In fact, there were students who had difficulty in solving problems. The students were naive problem solvers. This research aimed to describe…
Improving mathematical problem solving : A computerized approach
Harskamp, EG; Suhre, CJM
Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction
Leonard, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.; Mestre, Jose P.
1996-12-01
We report on the use of qualitative problem-solving strategies in teaching an introductory, calculus-based physics course as a means of highlighting the role played by conceptual knowledge in solving problems. We found that presenting strategies during lectures and in homework solutions provides an excellent opportunity to model for students the type of concept-based, qualitative reasoning that is valued in our profession, and that student-generated strategies serve a diagnostic function by providing instructors with insights on students' conceptual understanding and reasoning. Finally, we found strategies to be effective pedagogical tools for helping students both to identify principles that could be applied to solve specific problems, as well as to recall the major principles covered in the course months after it was over.
Mathematical problem solving in primary school
Kolovou, A.
2011-01-01
A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each
Mobile serious games for collaborative problem solving.
Sanchez, Jaime; Mendoza, Claudia; Salinas, Alvaro
2009-01-01
This paper presents the results obtained from the implementation of a series of learning activities based on mobile serious games (MSG) for the development of problem-solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students, who had to solve the problems posed by the game collaboratively. The data shows that the experimental group had a higher perception of their own skills of collaboration and of the plan execution dimension of problem solving than the control group, providing empirical evidence regarding the contribution of MSGs to the development of collaborative problem-solving skills.
An approach for solving linear fractional programming problems ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
An approach for solving linear fractional programming problems. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... The paper presents a new approach for solving a fractional linear programming problem in which the objective function is a linear fractional function, while the constraint functions are in the form ...
A Flipped Pedagogy for Expert Problem Solving
Pritchard, David
The internet provides free learning opportunities for declarative (Wikipedia, YouTube) and procedural (Kahn Academy, MOOCs) knowledge, challenging colleges to provide learning at a higher cognitive level. Our ``Modeling Applied to Problem Solving'' pedagogy for Newtonian Mechanics imparts strategic knowledge - how to systematically determine which concepts to apply and why. Declarative and procedural knowledge is learned online before class via an e-text, checkpoint questions, and homework on edX.org (see http://relate.mit.edu/physicscourse); it is organized into five Core Models. Instructors then coach students on simple ``touchstone problems'', novel exercises, and multi-concept problems - meanwhile exercising three of the four C's: communication, collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving. Students showed 1.2 standard deviations improvement on the MIT final exam after three weeks instruction, a significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the CLASS, and their grades improved by 0.5 standard deviation in their following physics course (Electricity and Magnetism).
Analyzing and Solving Productivity Problems.
Walsh, David S.; Johnson, Thomas J.
1980-01-01
The authors discuss ways to define a company's position on productivity, and explain productivity concepts. They describe a problem cause/solution set matrix with which to identify accurately the most probable cause of productivity problems. (SK)
Aljaberi, Nahil M.; Gheith, Eman
2016-01-01
This study aims to investigate the ability of pre-service class teacher at University of Petrain solving mathematical problems using Polya's Techniques, their level of problem solving skills in daily-life issues. The study also investigates the correlation between their ability to solve mathematical problems and their level of problem solving…
Problem Solving Methods in Engineering Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartvig, Susanne C
1999-01-01
This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods...
Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving
Golnabi, Laura
2016-01-01
This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…
Teaching Problem Solving: An Instructional Design Strategy.
Ross, John A.; Maynes, Florence J.
1983-01-01
Instructional design strategy for improving problem solving is presented. The strategy entails selecting an appropriate domain of problem-solving tasks, learning hierarchies, teaching methods and assembling of learning materials, and designing teacher training and evaluation. Obstacles to be overcome and directions for future research are…
Teaching Problem-Solving. Informal Series/43.
Ross, John A.; Maynes, Florence J.
This monograph is designed to provide practical classroom suggestions, including sample lesson plans, to show how teachers can improve the problem-solving competence of students at all educational and ability levels. The examples provided show that problem-solving instruction can be integrated with teaching the content of particular topics. While…
Measuring Problem Solving Skills in "Portal 2"
Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin
2013-01-01
This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly accepted…
Concept mapping instrumental support for problem solving
Stoyanov, S.; Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Petrus A.M.
2008-01-01
The main theoretical position of this paper is that it is the explicit problem-solving support in concept mapping software that produces a stronger effect in problem-solving performance than the implicit support afforded by the graphical functionality of concept mapping software. Explicit
Problem-solving competency of nursing graduates.
Uys, Leana R; Van Rhyn, Lily L; Gwele, Nomthandaso S; McInerney, Patricia; Tanga, Tobeka
2004-12-01
This paper reports a study describing and evaluating the outcomes of problem-based learning (PBL) programmes in nursing schools in South Africa in terms of the competence of graduates to solve problem in actual clinical settings, and comparing this competence with that of graduates from non-PBL programmes. The nursing literature tends to equate problem-solving with patient-centred problems or the nursing process. However, it is also a skill used in managing the work role, working in a team and managing a health care unit. Problem-solving refers to the process of selectively attending to information in a patient care setting. The investigation of problem-solving in nursing is complicated by the complex relationships between different cognitive processes. A qualitative evaluation study, descriptive and comparative in nature, was carried out. In-depth interviews were held with graduates and their supervisors, asking them to identify problem-solving incidents in which they had been involved. Template analysis style and Benner's interpretive approach were used to analyse the data. The majority of the incidents described by the graduates (84%) were graded at the advanced beginner level or above. The majority of incidents at the novice level came from the non-PBL group. 'Using people skills' and 'being assertive' were the two problem-solving strategies most often used. The PBL group fared better than the non-problem-based group in the level of their problem-solving ability. The findings of this study suggest that further research is warranted into the problem-solving abilities of PBL graduates, their personal development over time and at different stages of practice. In addition, it would be interesting to follow the development of their problem-solving abilities over time.
Problem Solving of Newton's Second Law through a System of Total Mass Motion
Abdullah, Helmi
2014-01-01
Nowadays, many researchers discovered various effective strategies in teaching physics, from traditional to modern strategy. However, research on physics problem solving is still inadequate. Physics problem is an integral part of physics learning and requires strategy to solve it. Besides that, problem solving is the best way to convey principle,…
Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives.
Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent
2015-01-01
Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used to determine the level of assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Statistical methods were used as mean, standard deviation, percentage, Student's T, ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Fisher Exact, Pearson Correlation and Chi-square tests and P < 0.05. The RAS mean scores and the PSI mean scores showed statistically significant differences in terms of a midwife's considering herself as a member of the health team, expressing herself within the health care team, being able to say "no" when necessary, cooperating with her colleagues, taking part in problem-solving skills training. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the RAS and PSI scores. The RAS scores decreased while the problem-solving scores increased (r: -0451, P < 0.01). There were significant statistical differences between assertiveness levels and problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession.
Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.
2009-01-01
How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…
Education for complex problem solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh
The Problem-Based Learning model as it is practiced at Aalborg University grew out of expectations for future graduates in the 1970s. Many changes and developments have taken place since then in the ways the principles and methodologies are practiced, due to changes in society and governmental...
Sour landfill gas problem solved
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R. [Wheelabrator Clean Air Systems, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)
1996-05-01
In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.
Lesion mapping of social problem solving
Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J.; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H.
2014-01-01
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511
The ideal science student and problem solving
Sullivan, Florence R.
2005-09-01
The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the relationship between students' social mental models of the ideal science student, science epistemological beliefs, problem solving strategies used, and problem solving ability in a robotics environment. Participants were twenty-six academically advanced eleven and twelve year old students attending the Center for Talented Youth summer camp. Survey data was collected from the students including demographic background, views of the ideal science student, and science epistemological beliefs. Students also solved a robotics challenge. This problem solving session was videotaped and students were asked to think aloud as they solved the problem. Two social mental models were identified, a traits-based social mental model and a robust social mental model. A significant association was found between social mental model group and strategy usage. The robust social mental model group is more likely to use domain specific strategies than the traits-based group. Additionally, the robust social mental model group achieved significantly higher scores on their final solution than the traits-based social mental model group. Science epistemological beliefs do not appear to be associated with students' social mental model of the ideal science student. While students with a puzzle-solver view of science were more likely to use domain specific strategies in the planning phase of the problem solving session, there was no significant difference in problem solving ability between this group and students who have a dynamic view of the nature of science knowledge. This difference in strategy usage and problem solving performance may be due to a difference in the students' views of learning and cognition. The robust social mental model group evidenced a situative view of learning and cognition. These students made excellent use of the tools available in the task environment. The traits-based social mental model group displayed an
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Izaak Hendrik Wenno
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the relation between interest at Physics and knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts with the ability to solve Physics problems. The populations are all students in the 7th grade at the junior high school in Ambon, Maluku, Indonesia. The used sample schools are Junior High Schools 8, 9, and 10 during 2013/2014 academic year with 44 students per school. Two independent variables and one dependent variable are studied. The independent variables are the interest at Physics (X1 and the knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts (X2, while the dependent variable is the ability to solve Physics problems (Y. Data collection technique for X1 is an interview with questionnaire instrument, while for the X2 and Y is using the test technique with test items instrument. The obtained data from the measurements were analyzed with descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. The results show that there is a positive relation between interest at Physics and knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts with students’ ability to solve Physics problems.
Solving complex problems a handbook
Schönwandt, Walter; Grunau, Jens; Utz, Jürgen; Voermanek, Katrin
2014-01-01
When you're planning something big, problems appear rather quickly. We hear of them on a daily basis. The bigger or more complex a task, the more we have to deal with complicated, multidisciplinary task formulations. In many cases it is architecture, including urban and spatial planning, but also politics and all types of organizational forms, irrespective of whether they are public authorities or private enterprises, which are expected to deliver functional solutions for such challenges. This is precisely where this book is helpful. It introduces a methodology for developing target-specific,
Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry
Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi
2011-01-01
This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…
Solving computationally expensive engineering problems
Leifsson, Leifur; Yang, Xin-She
2014-01-01
Computational complexity is a serious bottleneck for the design process in virtually any engineering area. While migration from prototyping and experimental-based design validation to verification using computer simulation models is inevitable and has a number of advantages, high computational costs of accurate, high-fidelity simulations can be a major issue that slows down the development of computer-aided design methodologies, particularly those exploiting automated design improvement procedures, e.g., numerical optimization. The continuous increase of available computational resources does not always translate into shortening of the design cycle because of the growing demand for higher accuracy and necessity to simulate larger and more complex systems. Accurate simulation of a single design of a given system may be as long as several hours, days or even weeks, which often makes design automation using conventional methods impractical or even prohibitive. Additional problems include numerical noise often pr...
Solving Problems with the Percentage Bar
van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, Dolly
2013-01-01
At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a…
Three-M in Word Problem Solving
Hajra, Sayonita Ghosh; Kofman, Victoria
2018-01-01
We describe three activities that help undergraduates (pre-service teachers) to develop scientific vocabulary on measurable attributes and units of measurement. Measurable attributes are important features in understanding a word problem and solving the problem. These activities help students comprehend word problems better by identifying…
Problem Solving. Workplace Strategies for Thoughtful Change.
Diller, Janelle; Moore, Rita
This learning module is designed to enable participants to look at problems from a variety of perspectives, to apply a basic problem-solving strategy, to implement a plan of action, and to identify problems that are of particular importance to their workplace. The module includes units for six class sessions. Each unit includes the following…
The art and science of problem solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2005-01-01
In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group problem...... solving facilitation both as science and art will be presented. A case study related to examination's planning will be discussed to illustrate the main concepts in practice. In addition, other cases studies will also be shortly presented....
Methods of solving sequence and series problems
Grigorieva, Ellina
2016-01-01
This book aims to dispel the mystery and fear experienced by students surrounding sequences, series, convergence, and their applications. The author, an accomplished female mathematician, achieves this by taking a problem solving approach, starting with fascinating problems and solving them step by step with clear explanations and illuminating diagrams. The reader will find the problems interesting, unusual, and fun, yet solved with the rigor expected in a competition. Some problems are taken directly from mathematics competitions, with the name and year of the exam provided for reference. Proof techniques are emphasized, with a variety of methods presented. The text aims to expand the mind of the reader by often presenting multiple ways to attack the same problem, as well as drawing connections with different fields of mathematics. Intuitive and visual arguments are presented alongside technical proofs to provide a well-rounded methodology. With nearly 300 problems including hints, answers, and solutions,Met...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilhan Karatas
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum. Students’ gaining of that skill in school mathematics is closely related with the learning environment to be formed and the roles given to the students. The aim of this study is to create a problem solving based learning environment to enhance the students’ problem solving skill. Within this scope, students’ practiced activities and problems that provide them to proceed in Polya (1945’s problem solving phases and throughout the study, students’ success in problem solving have been evaluated. While experimental group students received problem solving based learning environment performed, control group students have continued their present program in this quise-experimental study. Eleven problem solving activities were given to the students at the beginning, middle and end of the study and the students’ performances were analyzed based on problem solving phases. The findings illustrated that the experimental group students’ success in problem solving activities has increased while the control group students’ success has not changed significantly.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilhan KARATAS
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educatingstudents as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum. Students’ gaining of that skill in school mathematics is closely related with the learning environment to beformed and the roles given to the students. The aim of this study is to create a problem solving based learning environment to enhance the students’ problem solving skill. Within this scope, students’practiced activities and problems that provide them to proceed in Polya (1945’s problem solving phases and throughout the study, students’ success in problem solving have been evaluated. While experimental group students received problem solving based learning environment performed, control group students have continued their present program in this quise1experimental study. Eleven problem solving activities were given to the students at the beginning, middle and end of the study and the students’ performances wereanalyzed based on problem solving phases. The findings illustrated that the experimental group students’ success in problem solving activities has increased while the control group students’ success has not changed significantly.
Problem Solving Ability Of Students Mathematics In Problem Based Learning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nurdiana Siregar
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study were to determine the increasing of students’ problem solving ability and self confidence after the implementation of problem based learning and to see the interaction between gender and learning to increas problem solving ability and students’ self confidence. The method kuantitaif with the design of this research was quasi-experimental with factorial design is 22. There were 73 students as the sample of this study containing 36 students in grade VIII-5 and 37 students in grade VIII-6. The instruments of this students were test of problem solving and self confidence scale. The data were analyzed by applying two way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The result showed that (1 The increasing of students’ problem solving ability taught by using problem based learning was higher than that taught by using conventional learning (2 There was no interaction between gender and learning with increasing of students’ problem solving ability.
Yao, Bing; Yang, Hui
2016-12-01
This paper presents a novel physics-driven spatiotemporal regularization (STRE) method for high-dimensional predictive modeling in complex healthcare systems. This model not only captures the physics-based interrelationship between time-varying explanatory and response variables that are distributed in the space, but also addresses the spatial and temporal regularizations to improve the prediction performance. The STRE model is implemented to predict the time-varying distribution of electric potentials on the heart surface based on the electrocardiogram (ECG) data from the distributed sensor network placed on the body surface. The model performance is evaluated and validated in both a simulated two-sphere geometry and a realistic torso-heart geometry. Experimental results show that the STRE model significantly outperforms other regularization models that are widely used in current practice such as Tikhonov zero-order, Tikhonov first-order and L1 first-order regularization methods.
Students’ epistemological framing in quantum mechanics problem solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bahar Modir
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Students’ difficulties in quantum mechanics may be the result of unproductive framing and not a fundamental inability to solve the problems or misconceptions about physics content. We observed groups of students solving quantum mechanics problems in an upper-division physics course. Using the lens of epistemological framing, we investigated four frames in our observational data: algorithmic math, conceptual math, algorithmic physics, and conceptual physics. We discuss the characteristics of each frame as well as causes for transitions between different frames, arguing that productive problem solving may occur in any frame as long as students transition appropriately between frames. Our work extends epistemological framing theory on how students frame discussions in upper-division physics courses.
Students' epistemological framing in quantum mechanics problem solving
Modir, Bahar; Thompson, John D.; Sayre, Eleanor C.
2017-12-01
Students' difficulties in quantum mechanics may be the result of unproductive framing and not a fundamental inability to solve the problems or misconceptions about physics content. We observed groups of students solving quantum mechanics problems in an upper-division physics course. Using the lens of epistemological framing, we investigated four frames in our observational data: algorithmic math, conceptual math, algorithmic physics, and conceptual physics. We discuss the characteristics of each frame as well as causes for transitions between different frames, arguing that productive problem solving may occur in any frame as long as students transition appropriately between frames. Our work extends epistemological framing theory on how students frame discussions in upper-division physics courses.
On Teaching Problem Solving in School Mathematics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erkki Pehkonen
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The article begins with a brief overview of the situation throughout the world regarding problem solving. The activities of the ProMath group are then described, as the purpose of this international research group is to improve mathematics teaching in school. One mathematics teaching method that seems to be functioning in school is the use of open problems (i.e., problem fields. Next we discuss the objectives of the Finnish curriculum that are connected with problem solving. Some examples and research results are taken from a Finnish–Chilean research project that monitors the development of problem-solving skills in third grade pupils. Finally, some ideas on “teacher change” are put forward. It is not possible to change teachers, but only to provide hints for possible change routes: the teachers themselves should work out the ideas and their implementation.
Problem solving and problem strategies in the teaching and learning ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Perennial poor performance recorded annually in both internal and external examinations in Mathematics has been a great concern for the Mathematics Educators in Nigeria. This paper discusses problem-solving and influence of problem-solving strategies on students' performance in mathematics. The concept of ...
Solving work-related ethical problems.
Laukkanen, Laura; Suhonen, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena
2016-12-01
Nurse managers are responsible for solving work-related ethical problems to promote a positive ethical culture in healthcare organizations. The aim of this study was to describe the activities that nurse managers use to solve work-related ethical problems. The ultimate aim was to enhance the ethical awareness of all nurse managers. The data for this descriptive cross-sectional survey were analyzed through inductive content analysis and quantification. Participants and research context: The data were collected in 2011 using a questionnaire that included an open-ended question and background factors. Participants were nurse managers working in Finnish healthcare organizations (n = 122). Ethical considerations: Permission for the study was given by the Finnish Association of Academic Managers and Experts of Health Sciences. Nurse managers identified a variety of activities they use to solve work-related ethical problems: discussion (30%), cooperation (25%), work organization (17%), intervention (10%), personal values (9%), operational models (4%), statistics and feedback (4%), and personal examples (1%). However, these activities did not follow any common or systematic model. In the future, nurse managers need a more systematic approach to solve ethical problems. It is important to establish new kinds of ethics structures in organizations, such as a common, systematic ethical decision-making model and an ethics club for nurse manager problems, to support nurse managers in solving work-related ethical problems.
Student Obstacles in Solving Algebraic Thinking Problems
Andini, W.; Suryadi, D.
2017-09-01
The aim of this research is to analize the student obstacles on solving algebraic thinking problems in low grades elementary school. This research is a preliminary qualitative research, and involved 66 students of grade 3 elementary school. From the analysis student test results, most of student experience difficulty in solving algebraic thinking problems. The main obstacle is the student’s difficulty in understanding the problem of generalizing the pattern because the students are not accustomed to see the rules that exist in generalize the pattern.
Dreams and creative problem-solving.
Barrett, Deirdre
2017-10-01
Dreams have produced art, music, novels, films, mathematical proofs, designs for architecture, telescopes, and computers. Dreaming is essentially our brain thinking in another neurophysiologic state-and therefore it is likely to solve some problems on which our waking minds have become stuck. This neurophysiologic state is characterized by high activity in brain areas associated with imagery, so problems requiring vivid visualization are also more likely to get help from dreaming. This article reviews great historical dreams and modern laboratory research to suggest how dreams can aid creativity and problem-solving. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.
Solving Word Problems: As Easy As PIES!
Heater, Mary Jane; Howard, Lori A.; Linz, Ed
2012-01-01
Many students are challenged when tasked to complete a word problem. While they may know the procedural steps to solve an equation, translating a word problem into an appropriate equation and producing a solution may often cause students to become confused or unwilling to try. This article provides a potential solution for teachers by discussing…
A Microgenetic Study of Insightful Problem Solving
Luwel, Koen; Siegler, Robert S.; Verschaffel, Lieven
2008-01-01
An eight-session microgenetic study of acquisition of an insightful problem-solving strategy was conducted. A total of 35 second graders who did not use this insightful strategy initially were assigned to two groups that differed in the frequency of problems likely to facilitate discovery and generalization of the strategy. Children in the…
Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving
Blasetti, Sean M.
2010-01-01
This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing…
Language and mathematical problem solving among bilinguals.
Bernardo, Allan B I
2002-05-01
Does using a bilingual's 1st or 2nd language have an effect on problem solving in semantically rich domains like school mathematics? The author conducted a study to determine whether Filipino-English bilingual students' understanding and solving of word problems in arithmetic differed when the problems were in the students' 1st and 2nd languages. Two groups participated-students whose 1st language was Filipino and students whose 1st language was English-and easy and difficult arithmetic problems were used. The author used a recall paradigm to assess how students understood the word problems and coded the solution accuracy to assess problem solving. The results indicated a 1st-language advantage; that is, the students were better able to understand and solve problems in their 1st language, whether the 1st language was English or Filipino. Moreover, the advantage was more marked with the easy problems. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving
Sriraman, Bharath
2004-01-01
An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.
Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan
2013-01-01
Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…
Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel
2016-01-01
This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake in…
Can Architecture Design Solve Social Problem?
Ginting, S. W.; TSB Darjosanjoto, E.; Sulistyarso, H.
2017-03-01
Most of architects and urban designers believe physical design gives impact on our social life. For example, a sign or landmark in the middle of a city makes people find orientation easier. In vice verse, most of social scientists believe it is social dynamic that plays role in shaping our space. How people spend their time moving from real space into cyber space is a proof that life style and IT give impact to space usage. This paper argues that interaction between physical design and social change is a two ways process. Both design aspect and social dynamic influence each other. This paper aims to examine how designing of gated community plays important role in increasing or decreasing segregation, both spatially and socially. The paper explores some architectural design principles applied in a gated community called CitraLand in west Surabaya, Indonesia, and addresses segregation between CitraLanders and outside kampung. We find CitraLand is designed openly and fully accessible for outsiders. It provides public spaces and several accessible gates and streets without walls and fences making all places inside and outside CitraLand spatially integrated. What’s interesting is it still reinforces social segregation due to its policy on prohibiting using the public park. We believe CitraLand’s planning and designing has successfully solved segregation problem spatially not socially.
Processes involved in solving mathematical problems
Shahrill, Masitah; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Zulkardi, Prahmana, Rully Charitas Indra
2018-04-01
This study examines one of the instructional practices features utilized within the Year 8 mathematics lessons in Brunei Darussalam. The codes from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study were applied and strictly followed, and from the 183 mathematics problems recorded, there were 95 problems with a solution presented during the public segments of the video-recorded lesson sequences of the four sampled teachers. The analyses involved firstly, identifying the processes related to mathematical problem statements, and secondly, examining the different processes used in solving the mathematical problems for each problem publicly completed during the lessons. The findings revealed that for three of the teachers, their problem statements coded as `using procedures' ranged from 64% to 83%, while the remaining teacher had 40% of his problem statements coded as `making connections.' The processes used when solving the problems were mainly `using procedures', and none of the problems were coded as `giving results only'. Furthermore, all four teachers made use of making the relevant connections in solving the problems given to their respective students.
Rational approximatons for solving cauchy problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Veyis Turut
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In this letter, numerical solutions of Cauchy problems are considered by multivariate Padé approximations (MPA. Multivariate Padé approximations (MPA were applied to power series solutions of Cauchy problems that solved by using He’s variational iteration method (VIM. Then, numerical results obtained by using multivariate Padé approximations were compared with the exact solutions of Cauchy problems.
Naps improve new walkers' locomotor problem solving.
Berger, Sarah E; Scher, Anat
2017-10-01
In this first study of the impact of sleep on infants' problem solving of a locomotor task, 28 newly walking infants who were within a week of having given up crawling trained to navigate a shoulder-height tunnel to reach a caregiver waiting at the end. During the transitional window between crawling and walking, infants are reluctant to return to crawling, making this task uniquely challenging. Infants were randomly assigned to either nap or stay awake during a delay between training and a later test session. For the Nap group, efficiency of problem solving improved from training to test, but there was no change for the No Nap group. These findings suggest that for newly walking infants, sleep facilitates learning to solve a novel motor problem. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Error analysis in solving mathematical problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geovana Luiza Kliemann
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a survey carried out within the Centre for Education Programme, in order to assist in improving the quality of the teaching and learning of Mathematics in Primary Education. From the study of the evaluative systems that constitute the scope of the research project, it was found that their focus is solving problems, and from this point, it began the development of several actions with the purpose of assisting the students in the process of solving them. One of these actions objected to analyze the errors presented by students in the 5th year in the interpretation, understanding, and problem-solving. We describe three games developed in six schools, with questions drawn from the “Prova Brasil” performed in previous years, in objective to diagnose the main difficulties presented by the students in solving the problems, besides helping them to verify possibilities to overcome such gaps. To reach the proposed objectives, a qualitative study was carried out in which the researchers were constantly involved during the process. After each meeting, there was an analysis of the responses developed to classify the errors in different categories. It was found that most students attended succeeded in solving the proposed problems, and major errors presented are related to the difficulty of interpretation.
Brain dynamics of mathematical problem solving.
Lin, Chun-Ling; Jung, Melody; Wu, Ying Choon; Lin, Chin-Teng; She, Hsiao-Ching
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study is to examine brain activities of participants solving mental math problems. The research investigated how problem difficulty affected the subjects' responses and electroencephalogram (EEG) in different brain regions. In general, it was found that solution latencies (SL) to the math problems increased with difficulty. The EEG results showed that across subjects, the right-central beta, left-parietal theta, left-occipital theta and alpha, right-parietal alpha and beta, medial-frontal beta and medial central theta power decreased as task difficulty increased. This study further explored the effects of problem-solving performance on the EEG. Slow solvers exhibited greater frontal theta activities in the right hemisphere, whereas an inverse pattern of hemispheric asymmetry was found in fast solvers. Furthermore, analyses of spatio-temporal brain dynamics during problem solving show progressively stronger alpha- and beta-power suppression and theta-power augmentation as subjects were reaching a solution. These findings provide a better understanding of cortical activities mediating math-based problem solving and knowledge acquisition that can ultimately benefit math learning and education.
Sleep promotes analogical transfer in problem solving.
Monaghan, Padraic; Sio, Ut Na; Lau, Sum Wai; Woo, Hoi Kei; Linkenauger, Sally A; Ormerod, Thomas C
2015-10-01
Analogical problem solving requires using a known solution from one problem to apply to a related problem. Sleep is known to have profound effects on memory and information restructuring, and so we tested whether sleep promoted such analogical transfer, determining whether improvement was due to subjective memory for problems, subjective recognition of similarity across related problems, or by abstract generalisation of structure. In Experiment 1, participants were exposed to a set of source problems. Then, after a 12-h period involving sleep or wake, they attempted target problems structurally related to the source problems but with different surface features. Experiment 2 controlled for time of day effects by testing participants either in the morning or the evening. Sleep improved analogical transfer, but effects were not due to improvements in subjective memory or similarity recognition, but rather effects of structural generalisation across problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gender differences in advanced mathematical problem solving.
Gallagher, A M; De Lisi, R; Holst, P C; McGillicuddy-De Lisi, A V; Morely, M; Cahalan, C
2000-03-01
Strategy flexibility in mathematical problem solving was investigated. In Studies 1 and 2, high school juniors and seniors solved Scholastic Assessment Test-Mathematics (SAT-M) problems classified as conventional or unconventional. Algorithmic solution strategies were students' default choice for both types of problems across conditions that manipulated item format and solution time. Use of intuitive strategies on unconventional problems was evident only for high-ability students. Male students were more likely than female students to successfully match strategies to problem characteristics. In Study 3, a revised taxonomy of problems based on cognitive solution demands was predictive of gender differences on Graduate Record Examination-Quantitative (GRE-Q) items. Men outperformed women overall, but the difference was greater on items requiring spatial skills, shortcuts, or multiple solution paths than on problems requiring verbal skills or mastery of classroom-based content. Results suggest that strategy flexibility is a source of gender differences in mathematical ability assessed by SAT-M and GRE-Q problem solving. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Preston Foerder
Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.
Modeling visual problem solving as analogical reasoning.
Lovett, Andrew; Forbus, Kenneth
2017-01-01
We present a computational model of visual problem solving, designed to solve problems from the Raven's Progressive Matrices intelligence test. The model builds on the claim that analogical reasoning lies at the heart of visual problem solving, and intelligence more broadly. Images are compared via structure mapping, aligning the common relational structure in 2 images to identify commonalities and differences. These commonalities or differences can themselves be reified and used as the input for future comparisons. When images fail to align, the model dynamically rerepresents them to facilitate the comparison. In our analysis, we find that the model matches adult human performance on the Standard Progressive Matrices test, and that problems which are difficult for the model are also difficult for people. Furthermore, we show that model operations involving abstraction and rerepresentation are particularly difficult for people, suggesting that these operations may be critical for performing visual problem solving, and reasoning more generally, at the highest level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Problem Solving Model for Science Learning
Alberida, H.; Lufri; Festiyed; Barlian, E.
2018-04-01
This research aims to develop problem solving model for science learning in junior high school. The learning model was developed using the ADDIE model. An analysis phase includes curriculum analysis, analysis of students of SMP Kota Padang, analysis of SMP science teachers, learning analysis, as well as the literature review. The design phase includes product planning a science-learning problem-solving model, which consists of syntax, reaction principle, social system, support system, instructional impact and support. Implementation of problem-solving model in science learning to improve students' science process skills. The development stage consists of three steps: a) designing a prototype, b) performing a formative evaluation and c) a prototype revision. Implementation stage is done through a limited trial. A limited trial was conducted on 24 and 26 August 2015 in Class VII 2 SMPN 12 Padang. The evaluation phase was conducted in the form of experiments at SMPN 1 Padang, SMPN 12 Padang and SMP National Padang. Based on the development research done, the syntax model problem solving for science learning at junior high school consists of the introduction, observation, initial problems, data collection, data organization, data analysis/generalization, and communicating.
Cooperative learning, problem solving and mediating artifacts ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The present study deals with the influence of cooperative learning on the ability of students to solve the problems. The study also concerns the introduction of mathematical mediating artifacts as factors which effect the learning of mathematics by students. Experimental research method of pre-test and post-test types was ...
Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.
Polland, Mark J.
In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…
Problem solving environment for distributed interactive applications
Rycerz, K.; Bubak, M.; Sloot, P.; Getov, V.; Gorlatch, S.; Bubak, M.; Priol, T.
2008-01-01
Interactive Problem Solving Environments (PSEs) offer an integrated approach for constructing and running complex systems, such as distributed simulation systems. To achieve efficient execution of High Level Architecture (HLA)-based distributed interactive simulations on the Grid, we introduce a PSE
Developing Creative Problem Solving in Civil Engineering.
Barker, Dennis
1986-01-01
A British polytechnic's civil engineering course emphasizing creative problem solving, begun in the late 1960s, has shown that it is possible to increase students' creative ability in the course of a degree program. Research into the identification of students who will benefit from the approach is continuing. (MSE)
Young Children's Drawings in Problem Solving
Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Way, Jennifer; Bobis, Janette
2016-01-01
This paper explores young children's drawings (6 years old) in early number and addition activities in Malaysia. Observation, informal interviews and analysis of drawings revealed two types of drawing, and gave insight into the transitional process required for children to utilise drawings in problem solving. We argue the importance of valuing and…
On Teaching Problem Solving in School Mathematics
Pehkonen, Erkki; Näveri, Liisa; Laine, Anu
2013-01-01
The article begins with a brief overview of the situation throughout the world regarding problem solving. The activities of the ProMath group are then described, as the purpose of this international research group is to improve mathematics teaching in school. One mathematics teaching method that seems to be functioning in school is the use of open…
Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2010-01-01
This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…
Accounting Exams: Problem Solving or Multiple Choice.
Odaiyappa, Ramasamy
1989-01-01
The author studied whether students' preferences for a particular exam format were a function of past performances. He reviews the literature and reports on administration of a questionnaire to 90 accounting students. Results indicate that students prefer problem-solving exams to multiple choice, regardless of past performances. (CH)
A tuning machine for cooperative problem solving
Dunin-Keplicz, B; Verbrugge, R
2004-01-01
In this paper we aim to formally model individual, social and collective motivational attitudes in teams of agents involved in Cooperative Problem Solving. Particular attention is given to the strongest motivational attitude, collective commitment, which leads to team action. First, building on our
Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning
Crul, Liselore
2014-01-01
This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…
Solving Mathematical Problems A Personal Perspective
Tao, Terence
2006-01-01
Authored by a leading name in mathematics, this engaging and clearly presented text leads the reader through the tactics involved in solving mathematical problems at the Mathematical Olympiad level. With numerous exercises and assuming only basic mathematics, this text is ideal for students of 14 years and above in pure mathematics.
Raise the Bar on Problem Solving
Englard, Lisa
2010-01-01
In a 1981 diagnostic test, the Ministry of Education in Singapore found its country facing a challenge: Only 46 percent of students in grades 2-4 could solve word problems that were presented without such key words as "altogether" or "left." Yet today, according to results from the Trends in International Mathematics and…
Facilitating Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.
Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.
1983-01-01
Investigated superiority of instructional strategies (factor-label method, proportionality, use of analogies, use of diagrams) in teaching problem-solving related to mole concept, gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Also investigated effectiveness of strategies for students (N=609) with different verbal-visual preferences, proportional…
Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer
Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.
2006-01-01
Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…
USING SYSTEMIC PROBLEM SOLVING (SPS) TO ASSESS ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
unesco
Also, systemic problem solving (SPS) helps students to connect chemistry concepts, and facts and covers a wide range of ... So, by using SPS we assess the student achievement in three systemic levels of learning chemistry: the macro ..... Johnstone A.H. (2000). Teaching of Chemistry – logical or psychological? CERAPIE ...
Ukraine's Participation In Solving Climate Change Problems
Irina Dubovich; Mariana Bulgakova
2011-01-01
Attention is paid to some problems of climate change. The main international agreements on climate change are overviewed. Ukraine's participation in solving global problems of climate change is described. Ukraine's statement about plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is analyzed. Characteristic of environmental political and legal prerequisites for the need to create a general agreement on environmental security of the planet â€“ World Environmental Constitution is provided.
Characteristics of students in comparative problem solving
Irfan, M.; Sudirman; Rahardi, R.
2018-01-01
Often teachers provided examples and exercised to students with regard to comparative problems consisting of one quantity. In this study, the researchers gave the problem of comparison with the two quantities mixed. It was necessary to have a good understanding to solve this problem. This study aimed to determine whether students understand the comparison in depth and be able to solve the problem of non-routine comparison. This study used qualitative explorative methods, with researchers conducting in-depth interviews on subjects to explore the thinking process when solving comparative problems. The subject of this study was three students selected by purposive sampling of 120 students. From this research, researchers found there were three subjects with different characteristics, namely: subject 1, he did the first and second questions with methods of elimination and substitution (non-comparison); subject 2, he did the first question with the concept of comparison although the answer was wrong, and did the second question with the method of elimination and substitution (non-comparison); and subject 3, he did both questions with the concept of comparison. In the first question, he did wrong because he was unable to understand the problem, while on the second he did correctly. From the characteristics of the answers, the researchers divided into 3 groups based on thinking process, namely: blind-proportion, partial-proportion, and proportion thinking.
Exact Methods for Solving the Train Departure Matching Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Bull, Simon Henry
In this paper we consider the train departure matching problem which is an important subproblem of the Rolling Stock Unit Management on Railway Sites problem introduced in the ROADEF/EURO Challenge 2014. The subproblem entails matching arriving train units to scheduled departing trains at a railway...... site while respecting multiple physical and operational constraints. In this paper we formally define that subproblem, prove its NP- hardness, and present two exact method approaches for solving the problem. First, we present a compact Mixed Integer Program formulation which we solve using a MIP solver...
Students’ Covariational Reasoning in Solving Integrals’ Problems
Harini, N. V.; Fuad, Y.; Ekawati, R.
2018-01-01
Covariational reasoning plays an important role to indicate quantities vary in learning calculus. This study investigates students’ covariational reasoning during their studies concerning two covarying quantities in integral problem. Six undergraduate students were chosen to solve problems that involved interpreting and representing how quantities change in tandem. Interviews were conducted to reveal the students’ reasoning while solving covariational problems. The result emphasizes that undergraduate students were able to construct the relation of dependent variables that changes in tandem with the independent variable. However, students faced difficulty in forming images of continuously changing rates and could not accurately apply the concept of integrals. These findings suggest that learning calculus should be increased emphasis on coordinating images of two quantities changing in tandem about instantaneously rate of change and to promote conceptual knowledge in integral techniques.
Learning via problem solving in mathematics education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piet Human
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Three forms of mathematics education at school level are distinguished: direct expository teaching with an emphasis on procedures, with the expectation that learners will at some later stage make logical and functional sense of what they have learnt and practised (the prevalent form, mathematically rigorous teaching in terms of fundamental mathematical concepts, as in the so-called “modern mathematics” programmes of the sixties, teaching and learning in the context of engaging with meaningful problems and focused both on learning to become good problem solvers (teaching for problem solving andutilising problems as vehicles for the development of mathematical knowledge andproﬁciency by learners (problem-centred learning, in conjunction with substantialteacher-led social interaction and mathematical discourse in classrooms.Direct expository teaching of mathematical procedures dominated in school systems after World War II, and was augmented by the “modern mathematics” movement in the period 1960-1970. The latter was experienced as a major failure, and was soon abandoned. Persistent poor outcomes of direct expository procedural teaching of mathematics for the majority of learners, as are still being experienced in South Africa, triggered a world-wide movement promoting teaching mathematics for and via problem solving in the seventies and eighties of the previous century. This movement took the form of a variety of curriculum experiments in which problem solving was the dominant classroom activity, mainly in the USA, Netherlands, France and South Africa. While initially focusing on basic arithmetic (computation with whole numbers and elementary calculus, the problem-solving movement started to address other mathematical topics (for example, elementary statistics, algebra, differential equations around the turn of the century. The movement also spread rapidly to other countries, including Japan, Singapore and Australia. Parallel with the
Problem Solving Reasoning and Problem Based Instruction in Geometry Learning
Sulistyowati, F.; Budiyono, B.; Slamet, I.
2017-09-01
This research aims to analyze the comparison Problem Solving Reasoning (PSR) and Problem Based Instruction (PBI) on problem solving and mathematical communication abilities viewed from Self-Regulated Learning (SRL). Learning was given to grade 8th junior high school students. This research uses quasi experimental method, and then with descriptive analysis. Data were analyzed using two-ways multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with different cells. The result of data analysis were learning model gives different effect, level of SRL gives the same effect, and there is no interaction between the learning model with the SRL on the problem solving and mathematical communication abilities. The t-test statistic was used to find out more effective learning model. Based on the test, regardless of the level of SRL, PSR is more effective than PBI for problemsolving ability. The result of descriptive analysis was PSR had the advantage in creating learning that optimizing the ability of learners in reasoning to solve a mathematical problem. Consequently, the PSR is the right learning model to be applied in the classroom to improve problem solving ability of learners.
Counterfactual Problem Solving and Situated Cognition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Glebkin V.V.,
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The paper describes and interprets data of a study on counterfactual problem solving in representatives of modern industrial culture. The study was inspired by similar experiments carried out by A.R. Luria during his expedition to Central Asia. The hypothesis of our study was that representatives of modern industrial culture would solve counterfactual puzzles at a slower rate and with higher numbers of mistakes than similar non-counterfactual tasks. The experiments we conducted supported this hypothesis as well as provided us with some insights as to how to further develop it. For instance, we found no significant differences in time lag in solving counterfactual and ‘realistic’ tasks between the subjects with mathematical and the ones with liberal arts education. As an interpretation of the obtained data, we suggest a two-stage model of counterfactual problem solving: on the first stage, where situated cognition dominates, the realistic situation is transferred into the system of symbols unrelated to this very situation; on the second stage, operations are carried out within the framework of this new system of symbols.
Scaffolding for solving problem in static fluid: A case study
Koes-H, Supriyono; Muhardjito, Wijaya, Charisma P.
2018-01-01
Problem solving is one of the basic abilities that should be developed from learning physics. However, students still face difficulties in the process of non-routine problem-solving. Efforts are necessary to be taken in order to identify such difficulties and the solutions to solve them. An effort in the form of a diagnosis of students' performance in problem solving can be taken to identify their difficulties, and various instructional scaffolding supports can be utilized to eliminate the difficulties. This case study aimed to describe the students' difficulties in solving static fluid problems and the effort to overcome such difficulties through different scaffolding supports. The research subjects consisted of four 10-grade students of (Public Senior High School) SMAN 4 Malang selected by purposive sampling technique. The data of students' difficulties were collected via think-aloud protocol implemented on students' performance in solving non-routine static fluid problems. Subsequently, combined scaffolding supports were given to the students based on their particular difficulties. The research findings pointed out that there were several conceptual difficulties discovered from the students when solving static fluid problems, i.e. the use of buoyancy force formula, determination of all forces acting on a plane in a fluid, the resultant force on a plane in a fluid, and determination of a plane depth in a fluid. An effort that can be taken to overcome such conceptual difficulties is providing a combination of some appropriate scaffolding supports, namely question prompts with specific domains, simulation, and parallel modeling. The combination can solve students' lack of knowledge and improve their conceptual understanding, as well as help them to find solutions by linking the problems with their prior knowledge. According to the findings, teachers are suggested to diagnose the students' difficulties so that they can provide an appropriate combination of
Learning Matlab a problem solving approach
Gander, Walter
2015-01-01
This comprehensive and stimulating introduction to Matlab, a computer language now widely used for technical computing, is based on an introductory course held at Qian Weichang College, Shanghai University, in the fall of 2014. Teaching and learning a substantial programming language aren’t always straightforward tasks. Accordingly, this textbook is not meant to cover the whole range of this high-performance technical programming environment, but to motivate first- and second-year undergraduate students in mathematics and computer science to learn Matlab by studying representative problems, developing algorithms and programming them in Matlab. While several topics are taken from the field of scientific computing, the main emphasis is on programming. A wealth of examples are completely discussed and solved, allowing students to learn Matlab by doing: by solving problems, comparing approaches and assessing the proposed solutions.
Creative problem solving: an applied university course
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
René Victor Valqui Vidal
2010-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the principles of active learning and the contents of a creativity course entitled: Creativity and Problem Solving. The main purpose of this course is to create a space to discuss, reflect and experiment with creativity, creative processes and creative tools of relevance for students of any speciality (60% will end as operational researchers working with problem solving approaches. This course has run with big success since 1998 at the Technical University of Denmark. It started with very few students, now is a very popular course attracting many students from abroad. The selected themes, the methods and techniques, the structure of this course, the learning processes and the achieved results are presented. The results of student's and teacher's evaluations are also outlined. Finally some reflections, recommendations and conclusions are discussed.
Teaching effective problem solving skills to radiation protection students
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waller, Edward
2008-01-01
Full text: Problem solving skills are essential for all radiation protection personnel. Although some students have more natural problem solving skills than others, all students require practice to become comfortable using these skills. At the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), a unique one-semester course was developed as part of the core curriculum to teach students problem solving skills and elements of modelling and simulation. The underlying emphasis of the course was to allow students to develop their own problem solving strategies, both individually and in groups. Direction was provided on how to examine problems from different perspectives, and how to determine the proper root problem statement. A five-point problem solving strategy was presented as: 1) Problem definition; 2) Solution generation; 3) Decision; 4) Implementation; 5) Evaluation. Within the strategy, problem solving techniques were integrated from diverse areas such as: De Bono 's six thinking hats, Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, Covey's seven habits of highly effective people, Reason's swiss cheese theory of complex failure, and Howlett's common failure modes. As part of the evaluation step, students critically explore areas such as ethics and environmental responsibility. In addition to exploring problem solving methods, students learn the usefulness of simulation methods, and how to model and simulate complex phenomena of relevance to radiation protection. Computational aspects of problem solving are explored using the commercially available MATLAB computer code. A number of case studies are presented as both examples and problems to the students. Emphasis was placed on solutions to problems of interest to radiation protection, health physics and nuclear engineering. A group project, pertaining to an accident or event related to the nuclear industry is a course requirement. Students learn to utilize common time and project management tools such as flowcharting, Pareto
Students’ difficulties in solving linear equation problems
Wati, S.; Fitriana, L.; Mardiyana
2018-03-01
A linear equation is an algebra material that exists in junior high school to university. It is a very important material for students in order to learn more advanced mathematics topics. Therefore, linear equation material is essential to be mastered. However, the result of 2016 national examination in Indonesia showed that students’ achievement in solving linear equation problem was low. This fact became a background to investigate students’ difficulties in solving linear equation problems. This study used qualitative descriptive method. An individual written test on linear equation tasks was administered, followed by interviews. Twenty-one sample students of grade VIII of SMPIT Insan Kamil Karanganyar did the written test, and 6 of them were interviewed afterward. The result showed that students with high mathematics achievement donot have difficulties, students with medium mathematics achievement have factual difficulties, and students with low mathematics achievement have factual, conceptual, operational, and principle difficulties. Based on the result there is a need of meaningfulness teaching strategy to help students to overcome difficulties in solving linear equation problems.
SOLVING GLOBAL PROBLEMS USING COLLABORATIVE DESIGN PROCESSES
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lenau, Torben Anker; Mejborn, Christina Okai
2011-01-01
In this paper we argue that use of collaborative design processes is a powerful means of bringing together different stakeholders and generating ideas in complex design situations. The collaborative design process was used in a workshop with international participants where the goal was to propose...... new solutions that would help solve the global problem of sanitation. Lack of sanitation is a problem for 42% of the world’s population but it is also a taboo topic that only very few people will engage in. In the one-day workshop participants from very different areas came together and brought...
Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eric D. Johnson
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian reasoning relative to normalized formats (e.g. probabilities, percentages, both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on transparent Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e. transparent problem structures at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct versus incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual difference might influence this time point.
Mathematical Problem Solving: A Review of the Literature.
Funkhouser, Charles
The major perspectives on problem solving of the twentieth century are reviewed--associationism, Gestalt psychology, and cognitive science. The results of the review on teaching problem solving and the uses of computers to teach problem solving are included. Four major issues related to the teaching of problem solving are discussed: (1)…
Young Children's Analogical Problem Solving: Gaining Insights from Video Displays
Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S.
2013-01-01
This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. Two- to 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older but not younger toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video…
Problems and solutions in quantum physics
Ficek, Zbigniew
2016-01-01
This book contains tutorial problems with solutions for the textbook Quantum Physics for Beginners. The reader studying the abstract field of quantum physics needs to solve plenty of practical, especially quantitative, problems. This book places emphasis on basic problems of quantum physics together with some instructive, simulating, and useful applications. A considerable range of complexity is presented by these problems, and not too many of them can be solved using formulas alone.
Hayel Al-Srour, Nadia; Al-Ali, Safa M.; Al-Oweidi, Alia
2016-01-01
The present study aims to detect the impact of teacher training on creative writing and problem-solving using both Futuristic scenarios program to solve problems creatively, and creative problem solving. To achieve the objectives of the study, the sample was divided into two groups, the first consist of 20 teachers, and 23 teachers to second…
Data completion problems solved as Nash games
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habbal, A; Kallel, M
2012-01-01
The Cauchy problem for an elliptic operator is formulated as a two-player Nash game. Player (1) is given the known Dirichlet data, and uses as strategy variable the Neumann condition prescribed over the inaccessible part of the boundary. Player (2) is given the known Neumann data, and plays with the Dirichlet condition prescribed over the inaccessible boundary. The two players solve in parallel the associated Boundary Value Problems. Their respective objectives involve the gap between the non used Neumann/Dirichlet known data and the traces of the BVP's solutions over the accessible boundary, and are coupled through a difference term. We prove the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium, which turns out to be the reconstructed data when the Cauchy problem has a solution. We also prove that the completion algorithm is stable with respect to noise, and present two 3D experiments which illustrate the efficiency and stability of our algorithm.
Individual differences in solving arithmetic word problems
2013-01-01
Background With the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study at 3 T, we investigated the neural correlates of visualization and verbalization during arithmetic word problem solving. In the domain of arithmetic, visualization might mean to visualize numbers and (intermediate) results while calculating, and verbalization might mean that numbers and (intermediate) results are verbally repeated during calculation. If the brain areas involved in number processing are domain-specific as assumed, that is, that the left angular gyrus (AG) shows an affinity to the verbal domain, and that the left and right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) shows an affinity to the visual domain, the activation of these areas should show a dependency on an individual’s cognitive style. Methods 36 healthy young adults participated in the fMRI study. The participants habitual use of visualization and verbalization during solving arithmetic word problems was assessed with a short self-report assessment. During the fMRI measurement, arithmetic word problems that had to be solved by the participants were presented in an event-related design. Results We found that visualizers showed greater brain activation in brain areas involved in visual processing, and that verbalizers showed greater brain activation within the left angular gyrus. Conclusions Our results indicate that cognitive styles or preferences play an important role in understanding brain activation. Our results confirm, that strong visualizers use mental imagery more strongly than weak visualizers during calculation. Moreover, our results suggest that the left AG shows a specific affinity to the verbal domain and subserves number processing in a modality-specific way. PMID:23883107
SOLVING GLOBAL PROBLEMS USING COLLABORATIVE DESIGN PROCESSES
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lenau, Torben Anker; Mejborn, Christina Okai
2011-01-01
In this paper we argue that use of collaborative design processes is a powerful means of bringing together different stakeholders and generating ideas in complex design situations. The collaborative design process was used in a workshop with international participants where the goal was to propose...... forward proposed solutions for how to design, brand and make business models for how to solve aspects of the sanitation problem. The workshop showed that it was possible to work freely with such a taboo topic and that in particular the use of visualisation tools, i.e. drawing posters and building simple...
Programming languages for business problem solving
Wang, Shouhong
2007-01-01
It has become crucial for managers to be computer literate in today's business environment. It is also important that those entering the field acquire the fundamental theories of information systems, the essential practical skills in computer applications, and the desire for life-long learning in information technology. Programming Languages for Business Problem Solving presents a working knowledge of the major programming languages, including COBOL, C++, Java, HTML, JavaScript, VB.NET, VBA, ASP.NET, Perl, PHP, XML, and SQL, used in the current business computing environment. The book examin
Solving Optimization Problems with Dynamic Geometry Software: The Airport Problem
Contreras, José
2014-01-01
This paper describes how the author's students (in-service and pre-service secondary mathematics teachers) enrolled in college geometry courses use the Geometers' Sketchpad (GSP) to gain insight to formulate, confirm, test, and refine conjectures to solve the classical airport problem for triangles. The students are then provided with strategic…
"I'm Not Very Good at Solving Problems": An Exploration of Students' Problem Solving Behaviours
Muir, Tracey; Beswick, Kim; Williamson, John
2008-01-01
This paper reports one aspect of a larger study which looked at the strategies used by a selection of grade 6 students to solve six non-routine mathematical problems. The data revealed that the students exhibited many of the behaviours identified in the literature as being associated with novice and expert problem solvers. However, the categories…
Problem solving verbal strategies in children with mild intellectual disability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gligorović Milica
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Problem solving is a process conditioned by the development and application of efficient strategies. The aim of this research is to determine the level of verbal strategic approach to problem solving in children with mild intellectual disability (MID. The sample consists of 93 children with MID, aged between 10 and 14. Intellectual abilities of the examinees are within the defined range for mild intellectual disability (AM=60.45; SD=7.26. The examinees with evident physical, neurological, and emotional disorders were not included in the sample. The closed 20 Questions Test (20Q was used to assess the development and use of verbal strategy, where the examinee is presented with a poster containing 42 different pictures, and instructed to guess the picture selected by the examiner by asking no more than 20 closed questions. Test χ2, and Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used in statistical analysis. Research results indicate that most children with MID, aged between 10 and 14, use non-efficient strategy in solving the 20 Questions Test. Although strategic approach to problem solving is present in most children (72%, more than half of the examinees (53.5% use an inadequate strategy. Most children with MID have the ability to categorize concepts, however, they do not use it as a strategy in problem solving.
Solving a Deconvolution Problem in Photon Spectrometry
Aleksandrov, D; Hille, P T; Polichtchouk, B; Kharlov, Y; Sukhorukov, M; Wang, D; Shabratova, G; Demanov, V; Wang, Y; Tveter, T; Faltys, M; Mao, Y; Larsen, D T; Zaporozhets, S; Sibiryak, I; Lovhoiden, G; Potcheptsov, T; Kucheryaev, Y; Basmanov, V; Mares, J; Yanovsky, V; Qvigstad, H; Zenin, A; Nikolaev, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Yuan, X; Cai, X; Redlich, K; Pavlinov, A; Roehrich, D; Manko, V; Deloff, A; Ma, K; Maruyama, Y; Dobrowolski, T; Shigaki, K; Nikulin, S; Wan, R; Mizoguchi, K; Petrov, V; Mueller, H; Ippolitov, M; Liu, L; Sadovsky, S; Stolpovsky, P; Kurashvili, P; Nomokonov, P; Xu, C; Torii, H; Il'kaev, R; Zhang, X; Peresunko, D; Soloviev, A; Vodopyanov, A; Sugitate, T; Ullaland, K; Huang, M; Zhou, D; Nystrand, J; Punin, V; Yin, Z; Batyunya, B; Karadzhev, K; Nazarov, G; Fil'chagin, S; Nazarenko, S; Buskenes, J I; Horaguchi, T; Djuvsland, O; Chuman, F; Senko, V; Alme, J; Wilk, G; Fehlker, D; Vinogradov, Y; Budilov, V; Iwasaki, T; Ilkiv, I; Budnikov, D; Vinogradov, A; Kazantsev, A; Bogolyubsky, M; Lindal, S; Polak, K; Skaali, B; Mamonov, A; Kuryakin, A; Wikne, J; Skjerdal, K
2010-01-01
We solve numerically a deconvolution problem to extract the undisturbed spectrum from the measured distribution contaminated by the finite resolution of the measuring device. A problem of this kind emerges when one wants to infer the momentum distribution of the neutral pions by detecting the it decay photons using the photon spectrometer of the ALICE LHC experiment at CERN {[}1]. The underlying integral equation connecting the sought for pion spectrum and the measured gamma spectrum has been discretized and subsequently reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations. The latter system, however, is known to be ill-posed and must be regularized to obtain a stable solution. This task has been accomplished here by means of the Tikhonov regularization scheme combined with the L-curve method. The resulting pion spectrum is in an excellent quantitative agreement with the pion spectrum obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Solving fault diagnosis problems linear synthesis techniques
Varga, Andreas
2017-01-01
This book addresses fault detection and isolation topics from a computational perspective. Unlike most existing literature, it bridges the gap between the existing well-developed theoretical results and the realm of reliable computational synthesis procedures. The model-based approach to fault detection and diagnosis has been the subject of ongoing research for the past few decades. While the theoretical aspects of fault diagnosis on the basis of linear models are well understood, most of the computational methods proposed for the synthesis of fault detection and isolation filters are not satisfactory from a numerical standpoint. Several features make this book unique in the fault detection literature: Solution of standard synthesis problems in the most general setting, for both continuous- and discrete-time systems, regardless of whether they are proper or not; consequently, the proposed synthesis procedures can solve a specific problem whenever a solution exists Emphasis on the best numerical algorithms to ...
Solving the Examination Timetabling Problem in GPUs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasileios Kolonias
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The examination timetabling problem belongs to the class of combinatorial optimization problems and is of great importance for every University. In this paper, a hybrid evolutionary algorithm running on a GPU is employed to solve the examination timetabling problem. The hybrid evolutionary algorithm proposed has a genetic algorithm component and a greedy steepest descent component. The GPU computational capabilities allow the use of very large population sizes, leading to a more thorough exploration of the problem solution space. The GPU implementation, depending on the size of the problem, is up to twenty six times faster than the identical single-threaded CPU implementation of the algorithm. The algorithm is evaluated with the well known Toronto datasets and compares well with the best results found in the bibliography. Moreover, the selection of the encoding of the chromosomes and the tournament selection size as the population grows are examined and optimized. The compressed sparse row format is used for the conflict matrix and was proven essential to the process, since most of the datasets have a small conflict density, which translates into an extremely sparse matrix.
Neural correlates of mathematical problem solving.
Lin, Chun-Ling; Jung, Melody; Wu, Ying Choon; She, Hsiao-Ching; Jung, Tzyy-Ping
2015-03-01
This study explores electroencephalography (EEG) brain dynamics associated with mathematical problem solving. EEG and solution latencies (SLs) were recorded as 11 neurologically healthy volunteers worked on intellectually challenging math puzzles that involved combining four single-digit numbers through basic arithmetic operators (addition, subtraction, division, multiplication) to create an arithmetic expression equaling 24. Estimates of EEG spectral power were computed in three frequency bands - θ (4-7 Hz), α (8-13 Hz) and β (14-30 Hz) - over a widely distributed montage of scalp electrode sites. The magnitude of power estimates was found to change in a linear fashion with SLs - that is, relative to a base of power spectrum, theta power increased with longer SLs, while alpha and beta power tended to decrease. Further, the topographic distribution of spectral fluctuations was characterized by more pronounced asymmetries along the left-right and anterior-posterior axes for solutions that involved a longer search phase. These findings reveal for the first time the topography and dynamics of EEG spectral activities important for sustained solution search during arithmetical problem solving.
Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective.
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Dana Ganor-Stern
Full Text Available Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults' ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner.
Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective.
Ganor-Stern, Dana
2016-01-01
Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults' ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger) than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close) from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner.
Soros, P.; Ponkham, K.; Ekkapim, S.
2018-01-01
This research aimed to: 1) compare the critical think and problem solving skills before and after learning using STEM Education plan, 2) compare student achievement before and after learning about force and laws of motion using STEM Education plan, and 3) the satisfaction of learning by using STEM Education. The sample used were 37 students from grade 10 at Borabu School, Borabu District, Mahasarakham Province, semester 2, Academic year 2016. Tools used in this study consist of: 1) STEM Education plan about the force and laws of motion for grade 10 students of 1 schemes with total of 14 hours, 2) The test of critical think and problem solving skills with multiple-choice type of 5 options and 2 option of 30 items, 3) achievement test on force and laws of motion with multiple-choice of 4 options of 30 items, 4) satisfaction learning with 5 Rating Scale of 20 items. The statistics used in data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test (Dependent). The results showed that 1) The student with learning using STEM Education plan have score of critical think and problem solving skills on post-test higher than pre-test with statistically significant level .01. 2) The student with learning using STEM Education plan have achievement score on post-test higher than pre-test with statistically significant level of .01. 3) The student'level of satisfaction toward the learning by using STEM Education plan was at a high level (X ¯ = 4.51, S.D=0.56).
Translation among Symbolic Representations in Problem-Solving. Revised.
Shavelson, Richard J.; And Others
This study investigated the relationships among the symbolic representation of problems given to students to solve, the mental representations they use to solve the problems, and the accuracy of their solutions. Twenty eleventh-grade science students were asked to think aloud as they solved problems on the ideal gas laws. The problems were…
Modeling and Solving the Train Pathing Problem
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Chuen-Yih Chen
2009-04-01
Full Text Available In a railroad system, train pathing is concerned with the assignment of trains to links and tracks, and train timetabling allocates time slots to trains. In this paper, we present an optimization heuristic to solve the train pathing and timetabling problem. This heuristic allows the dwell time of trains in a station or link to be dependent on the assigned tracks. It also allows the minimum clearance time between the trains to depend on their relative status. The heuristic generates a number of alternative paths for each train service in the initialization phase. Then it uses a neighborhood search approach to find good feasible combinations of these paths. A linear program is developed to evaluate the quality of each combination that is encountered. Numerical examples are provided.
Graphical representation of the process of solving problems in statics
Lopez, Carlos
2011-03-01
It is presented a method of construction to a graphical representation technique of knowledge called Conceptual Chains. Especially, this tool has been focused to the representation of processes and applied to solving problems in physics, mathematics and engineering. The method is described in ten steps and is illustrated with its development in a particular topic of statics. Various possible didactic applications of this technique are showed.
Spontaneous gestures influence strategy choices in problem solving.
Alibali, Martha W; Spencer, Robert C; Knox, Lucy; Kita, Sotaro
2011-09-01
Do gestures merely reflect problem-solving processes, or do they play a functional role in problem solving? We hypothesized that gestures highlight and structure perceptual-motor information, and thereby make such information more likely to be used in problem solving. Participants in two experiments solved problems requiring the prediction of gear movement, either with gesture allowed or with gesture prohibited. Such problems can be correctly solved using either a perceptual-motor strategy (simulation of gear movements) or an abstract strategy (the parity strategy). Participants in the gesture-allowed condition were more likely to use perceptual-motor strategies than were participants in the gesture-prohibited condition. Gesture promoted use of perceptual-motor strategies both for participants who talked aloud while solving the problems (Experiment 1) and for participants who solved the problems silently (Experiment 2). Thus, spontaneous gestures influence strategy choices in problem solving.
Applying FOCUS-PDCA to solve clinical problems.
Redick, E L
1999-01-01
Many methods have been proposed for solving complex or multifaceted clinical problems in a logical, systematic, and accurate way. This article describes one method of step-by-step problem solving and how to apply it to a clinical situation.
The direct algorithm for solving of the graph isomorphism problem
Faizullin, Rashit T.; Prolubnikov, Alexander V.
2005-01-01
We propose an algorithm for solving of the graph isomorphism problem. Also, we introduce the new class of graphs for which the graph isomorphism problem can be solved polynomially using the algorithm.
LEMBAR KERJA PESERTA DIDIK (LKPD BERBASIS PROBLEM SOLVING POLYA
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Lilis Nurliawaty
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Lack of exact use of teaching materials and does not correspond to the needs of student leads to lack of analytical ability of students to the process of problem solving. Research development worksheets based on Polya problem solving on the heat material aims to develop valid LKPD, practical, and effective. Stages of development using the 4D model was modified into 3D, namely define (definition, Design (planning, and Development (development The results of the validity of the learning device in the category valid, obtained from the calculation of CVI are in the range 0-1 and said in category reliably with r11 value greater than rtabel (rcount > rtabel. The results of the analysis of questionnaire responses of students obtained an average percentage of 87.9% on the analysis. The analysis result of sheets assessment of learning physics used LKPD-based Polya problem solving obtained average percentage analysis results in the first meeting is 77.33% with good category, the average percentage of the results of the analysis at the second meeting is 81.11% with a very good category and average of results percentage analysis at the third meeting is 78.89% with good category. So it can say that LKPD-based Polya problem solving developed valid, practical and effective to use.
Forward problem of electrocardiography: is it solved?
Bear, Laura R; Cheng, Leo K; LeGrice, Ian J; Sands, Gregory B; Lever, Nigel A; Paterson, David J; Smaill, Bruce H
2015-06-01
The relationship between epicardial and body surface potentials defines the forward problem of electrocardiography. A robust formulation of the forward problem is instrumental to solving the inverse problem, in which epicardial potentials are computed from known body surface potentials. Here, the accuracy of different forward models has been evaluated experimentally. Body surface and epicardial potentials were recorded simultaneously in anesthetized closed-chest pigs (n=5) during sinus rhythm, and epicardial and endocardial ventricular pacing (65 records in total). Body surface potentials were simulated from epicardial recordings using experiment-specific volume conductor models constructed from magnetic resonance imaging. Results for homogeneous (isotropic electric properties) and inhomogeneous (incorporating lungs, anisotropic skeletal muscle, and subcutaneous fat) forward models were compared with measured body surface potentials. Correlation coefficients were 0.85±0.08 across all animals and activation sequences with no significant difference between homogeneous and inhomogeneous solutions (P=0.85). Despite this, there was considerable variance between simulated and measured body surface potential distributions. Differences between the body surface potential extrema predicted with homogeneous forward models were 55% to 78% greater than observed (P<0.05) and attenuation of potentials adjacent to extrema were 10% to 171% greater (P<0.03). The length and orientation of the vector between potential extrema were also significantly different. Inclusion of inhomogeneous electric properties in the forward model reduced, but did not eliminate these differences. These results demonstrate that homogeneous volume conductor models introduce substantial spatial inaccuracies in forward problem solutions. This probably affects the precision of inverse reconstructions of cardiac potentials, in which this assumption is made. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Teaching Young Children Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills
Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.
2010-01-01
Learning how to problem solve is one of the key developmental milestones in early childhood. Children's problem-solving skills represent a key feature in the development of social competence. Problem solving allows children to stay calm during difficult situations, repair social relations quickly, and get their needs met in ways that are safe and…
The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance
Bahar, Abdulkadir
2013-01-01
Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…
The Design Process for "PLATO[R] Math Problem Solving."
Mulcahy, Robert
2001-01-01
PLATO Learning, Inc., a developer of computer-based instruction, recently released "Math Problem Solving." This product was designed to teach strategies for solving math problems, and consists of 19 problem-solving activities, ranging from basic math to algebra. Each activity includes tools to help find a solution and rule-based coaching to…
Solving graph problems with dynamic computation structures
Babb, Jonathan W.; Frank, Matthew; Agarwal, Anant
1996-10-01
We introduce dynamic computation structures (DCS), a compilation technique to produce dynamic code for reconfigurable computing. DCS specializes directed graph instances into user-level hardware for reconfigurable architectures. Several problems such as shortest path and transitive closure exhibit the general properties of closed semirings, an algebraic structure for solving directed paths. Motivating our application domain choice of closed semiring problems is the fact that logic emulation software already maps a special case of directed graphs, namely logic netlists, onto arrays of field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). A certain type of logic emulation software called virtual wires further allows an FPGA array to be viewed as a machine-independent computing fabric. Thus, a virtual wires compiler, coupled with front-end commercial behavioral logic synthesis software, enables automatic behavioral compilation into a multi-FPGA computing fabric. We have implemented a DCS front-end compiler to parallelize the entire inner loop of the classic Bellman-Ford algorithm into synthesizable behavioral verilog. Leveraging virtual wire compilation and behavioral synthesis, we have automatically generated designs of 14 to 261 FPGAs from a single graph instance. We achieve speedups proportional to the number of graph edges - - from 10X to almost 400X versus a 125 SPECint SparcStation 10.
Projective geometry solved problems and theory review
Fortuna, Elisabetta; Pardini, Rita
2016-01-01
This book starts with a concise but rigorous overview of the basic notions of projective geometry, using straightforward and modern language. The goal is not only to establish the notation and terminology used, but also to offer the reader a quick survey of the subject matter. In the second part, the book presents more than 200 solved problems, for many of which several alternative solutions are provided. The level of difficulty of the exercises varies considerably: they range from computations to harder problems of a more theoretical nature, up to some actual complements of the theory. The structure of the text allows the reader to use the solutions of the exercises both to master the basic notions and techniques and to further their knowledge of the subject, thus learning some classical results not covered in the first part of the book. The book addresses the needs of undergraduate and graduate students in the theoretical and applied sciences, and will especially benefit those readers with a solid grasp of ...
Problem-solving in a Constructivist Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee Chien Sing
1999-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamic challenges of an increasingly borderless world buoyed by advances in telecommunications and information technology has resulted in educational reform and subsequently, a reconceptualisation of what constitutes a learner, learning and the influence of the learning environment on the process of learning. In keeping up with the changing trends and challenges of an increasingly networked, dynamic and challenging international community, means to provide an alternative environment that stimulates inquiry and equips learners with the skills needed to manage technological change and innovations must be considered. This paper discusses the importance of interaction, cognition and context, collaboration in a networked computer-mediated environment, the problem-solving approach as a catalyst in stimulating creative and critical thinking and in providing context for meaningful interaction and whether the interactive environment created through computer-mediated collaboration will motivate learners to be responsible for their own learning and be independent thinkers. The sample involved learners from three schools in three different countries. Findings conclude that a rich interactive environment must be personally relevant to the learner by simulating authentic problems without lowering the degree of cognitive complexity. Review in curriculum, assessment and teacher training around constructivist principles are also imperative as these interrelated factors form part of the learning process system.
Kercood, Suneeta; Grskovic, Janice A.; Lee, David L.; Emmert, Stacey
2007-01-01
This study evaluated the effectiveness of fine motor physical activity with tactile stimulation during two conditions of math problem solving, visual and auditory. Eight 4th and 5th grade students with attention problems participated. Using an alternating treatments design, students solved as many math story problems as they could, presented on…
New Approach to Analyzing Physics Problems: A Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems
Teodorescu, Raluca E.; Bennhold, Cornelius; Feldman, Gerald; Medsker, Larry
2013-01-01
This paper describes research on a classification of physics problems in the context of introductory physics courses. This classification, called the Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems (TIPP), relates physics problems to the cognitive processes required to solve them. TIPP was created in order to design educational objectives, to develop…
Rejection Sensitivity and Depression: Indirect Effects Through Problem Solving.
Kraines, Morganne A; Wells, Tony T
2017-01-01
Rejection sensitivity (RS) and deficits in social problem solving are risk factors for depression. Despite their relationship to depression and the potential connection between them, no studies have examined RS and social problem solving together in the context of depression. As such, we examined RS, five facets of social problem solving, and symptoms of depression in a young adult sample. A total of 180 participants completed measures of RS, social problem solving, and depressive symptoms. We used bootstrapping to examine the indirect effect of RS on depressive symptoms through problem solving. RS was positively associated with depressive symptoms. A negative problem orientation, impulsive/careless style, and avoidance style of social problem solving were positively associated with depressive symptoms, and a positive problem orientation was negatively associated with depressive symptoms. RS demonstrated an indirect effect on depressive symptoms through two social problem-solving facets: the tendency to view problems as threats to one's well-being and an avoidance problem-solving style characterized by procrastination, passivity, or overdependence on others. These results are consistent with prior research that found a positive association between RS and depression symptoms, but this is the first study to implicate specific problem-solving deficits in the relationship between RS and depression. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms in high RS individuals may result from viewing problems as threats and taking an avoidant, rather than proactive, approach to dealing with problems. These findings may have implications for problem-solving interventions for rejection sensitive individuals.
Exploring the role of conceptual scaffolding in solving synthesis problems
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Lin Ding1,*
2011-10-01
Full Text Available It is well documented that when solving problems experts first search for underlying concepts while students tend to look for equations and previously worked examples. The overwhelming majority of end-of-chapter (EOC problems in most introductory physics textbooks contain only material and examples discussed in a single chapter, rarely requiring a solver to conduct a general search for underlying concepts. Hypothesizing that complete reliance on EOC problems trains students to rely on a nonexpert approach, we designed and implemented “synthesis” problems, each combining two major concepts that are broadly separated in the teaching timeline. To provide students with guided conceptual scaffolding, we encapsulated each synthesis problem into a sequence with two preceding conceptually based multiple-choice questions. Each question contained one of the major concepts covered in the subsequent synthesis problem. Results from a small-scale interview study and two large-scale written tests showed that the scaffolding encouraged students to search for and apply appropriate fundamental principles in solving synthesis problems, and that repeated training using scaffolded synthesis problems also helped students to make cross-topic transfers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Buteler
2008-01-01
Full Text Available El trabajo presenta una revisión de los aspectos metodológicos involucrados en el estudio de las representaciones mentales puestas en juego por las personas para realizar ciertas tareas cognitivas. La revisión se acota al ámbito de la investigación en enseñanza de las ciencias y en particular, a un conjunto de investigaciones que abordan tareas estrechamente relacionadas con la resolución de problemas en Física. La revisión permite analizar y discutir los alcances y limitaciones de las decisiones metodológicas usuales para el estudio de la resolución de problemas en Física. Se ponen en consideración algunas directrices metodológicas plausibles de ser tenidas en cuenta para esta tarea.This work presents a review of the methodological issues involved in the studies of the representations used by people carrying out cognitive tasks. The review is based on literature dealing with cognitive tasks related to Physics problem solving. This review allows the analysis and discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the usual methodological decisions in Physics problem solving. Methodological directions for physics problem solving are considered.
Solved Problems in Quantum and Statistical Mechanics
Cini, Michele; Sbragaglia, Mauro
2012-01-01
This work arises from our teaching this subject during many years. The vast majority of these exercises are the exams we gave to our students in this period. We carefully selected the subjects of the exercises to cover all the material which is most needed and which is treated in the most well known texts on these subjects. Each exercise is carefully solved in full details, explaining the theory behind the solution with particular care for those issues that, from our experience, are found most difficult from the average student. Indeed, several exercises are designed to throw light on aspects of the theory that, for one reason or another, are usually neglected with the result to make the students feel uneasy about them. In fact most students get acquainted just with the more common manipulations, which are illustrated by many examples in textbooks. Our exercises never require extensive calculations but tend to be somewhat unusual and force the solver to think about the problem starting from the ...
Improving mathematical problem solving skills through visual media
Widodo, S. A.; Darhim; Ikhwanudin, T.
2018-01-01
The purpose of this article was to find out the enhancement of students’ mathematical problem solving by using visual learning media. The ability to solve mathematical problems is the ability possessed by students to solve problems encountered, one of the problem-solving model of Polya. This preliminary study was not to make a model, but it only took a conceptual approach by comparing the various literature of problem-solving skills by linking visual learning media. The results of the study indicated that the use of learning media had not been appropriated so that the ability to solve mathematical problems was not optimal. The inappropriateness of media use was due to the instructional media that was not adapted to the characteristics of the learners. Suggestions that can be given is the need to develop visual media to increase the ability to solve problems.
Flexibility in Mathematics Problem Solving Based on Adversity Quotient
Dina, N. A.; Amin, S. M.; Masriyah
2018-01-01
Flexibility is an ability which is needed in problem solving. One of the ways in problem solving is influenced by Adversity Quotient (AQ). AQ is the power of facing difficulties. There are three categories of AQ namely climber, camper, and quitter. This research is a descriptive research using qualitative approach. The aim of this research is to describe flexibility in mathematics problem solving based on Adversity Quotient. The subjects of this research are climber student, camper student, and quitter student. This research was started by giving Adversity Response Profile (ARP) questioner continued by giving problem solving task and interviews. The validity of data measurement was using time triangulation. The results of this research shows that climber student uses two strategies in solving problem and doesn’t have difficulty. The camper student uses two strategies in solving problem but has difficulty to finish the second strategies. The quitter student uses one strategy in solving problem and has difficulty to finish it.
Integrating Multimedia and Physics Problems
Titus, Aaron P.
1997-11-01
Although expert problem solvers typically use pictorial representations when solving problems, novices tend to proceed from the given problem statement to a mathematical solution without first developing a visual representation of the problem. For this reason, multimedia may be an effective tool to enhance students' success at solving problems. However, merely presenting a video of motion described in a problem is not necessarily the most effective method as was found in a recent study of students' responses on Web-based homework questions. Rather, multimedia-focused problems, where data relevant to solving the problem is embedded in a video or animation, may be the best use of multimedia in problem solving. Examples of multimedia-enhanced problems and multimedia-focused problems will be demonstrated, and their differences from "traditional" problems will be highlighted. Recommendations on the use of multimedia with problem solving and preliminary data on students' success at solving these problems will be discussed.
Social problem-solving in Chinese baccalaureate nursing students.
Fang, Jinbo; Luo, Ying; Li, Yanhua; Huang, Wenxia
2016-11-01
To describe social problem solving in Chinese baccalaureate nursing students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with a cluster sample of 681 Chinese baccalaureate nursing students. The Chinese version of the Social Problem-Solving scale was used. Descriptive analyses, independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance were applied to analyze the data. The final year nursing students presented the highest scores of positive social problem-solving skills. Students with experiences of self-directed and problem-based learning presented significantly higher scores in Positive Problem Orientation subscale. The group with Critical thinking training experience, however, displayed higher negative problem solving scores compared with nonexperience group. Social problem solving abilities varied based upon teaching-learning strategies. Self-directed and problem-based learning may be recommended as effective way to improve social problem-solving ability. © 2016 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Solving the minimum flow problem with interval bounds and flows
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
and Ciurea et al (2008b) solved the minimum flow problem for bipartite networks, and Ciurea. & Deaconu (2007) solved the ... In Ghiyasvand (2011), a new method to solve the minimum cost flow problem with interval .... multiplication of convex sets, when the fuzzification uses Definition 1 for max–min and order operations.
Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students
Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.
2012-01-01
Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…
Strategies, Not Solutions: Involving Students in Problem Solving.
Von Kuster, Lee N.
1984-01-01
Defines problem solving, discusses the use of problems developed by students that are relevant to their own lives, presents examples of practical mathematics problems that deal with local situations, discusses fringe benefits of this type of problem solving, and addresses teachers' concern that this method consumes too much time. (MBR)
Trout, Joseph; Bland, Jared
2013-03-01
In this pilot project, one hour of lecture time was replaced with one hour of in-class assignments, which groups of students collaborated on. These in-class assignments consisted of problems or projects selected for the calculus-based introductory physics students The first problem was at a level of difficulty that the majority of the students could complete with a small to moderate amount of difficulty. Each successive problem was increasingly more difficult, the last problem being having a level of difficulty that was beyond the capabilities of the majority of the students and required some instructor intervention. The students were free to choose their own groups. Students were encouraged to interact and help each other understand. The success of the in-class exercises were measured using pre-tests and post-tests. The pre-test and post-test were completed by each student independently. Statistics were also compiled on each student's attendance record and the amount of time spent reading and studying, as reported by the student. Statistics were also completed on the student responses when asked if they had sufficient time to complete the pre-test and post-test and if they would have completed the test with the correct answers if they had more time. The pre-tests and post-tests were not used in the computation of the grades of the students.
Affect and mathematical problem solving a new perspective
Adams, Verna
1989-01-01
Research on cognitive aspects of mathematical problem solving has made great progress in recent years, but the relationship of affective factors to problem-solving performance has been a neglected research area. The purpose of Affect and Mathematical Problem Solving: A New Perspective is to show how the theories and methods of cognitive science can be extended to include the role of affect in mathematical problem solving. The book presents Mandler's theory of emotion and explores its implications for the learning and teaching of mathematical problem solving. Also, leading researchers from mathematics, education, and psychology report how they have integrated affect into their own cognitive research. The studies focus on metacognitive processes, aesthetic influences on expert problem solvers, teacher decision-making, technology and teaching problem solving, and beliefs about mathematics. The results suggest how emotional factors like anxiety, frustration, joy, and satisfaction can help or hinder performance in...
Fede, Jessica L.
2010-01-01
This research investigation examined the effects of "GO Solve Word Problems" math intervention on problem-solving skills of struggling 5th grade students. In a randomized controlled study, 16 5th grade students were given a 12-week intervention of "GO Solve", a computer-based program designed to teach schema-based instruction…
Solving the brachistochrone and other variational problems with soap films
Criado, C.; Alamo, N.
2010-12-01
We solve the problem of the brachistochrone and other variational problems with the help of the soap films that are formed between two suitable surfaces. We also discuss the connection between some variational problems of dynamics, statics, optics, and elasticity.
The semantic system is involved in mathematical problem solving.
Zhou, Xinlin; Li, Mengyi; Li, Leinian; Zhang, Yiyun; Cui, Jiaxin; Liu, Jie; Chen, Chuansheng
2018-02-01
Numerous studies have shown that the brain regions around bilateral intraparietal cortex are critical for number processing and arithmetical computation. However, the neural circuits for more advanced mathematics such as mathematical problem solving (with little routine arithmetical computation) remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study (N = 24 undergraduate students) compared neural bases of mathematical problem solving (i.e., number series completion, mathematical word problem solving, and geometric problem solving) and arithmetical computation. Direct subject- and item-wise comparisons revealed that mathematical problem solving typically had greater activation than arithmetical computation in all 7 regions of the semantic system (which was based on a meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies on semantic processing). Arithmetical computation typically had greater activation in the supplementary motor area and left precentral gyrus. The results suggest that the semantic system in the brain supports mathematical problem solving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The effects of monitoring environment on problem-solving performance.
Laird, Brian K; Bailey, Charles D; Hester, Kim
2018-01-01
While effective and efficient solving of everyday problems is important in business domains, little is known about the effects of workplace monitoring on problem-solving performance. In a laboratory experiment, we explored the monitoring environment's effects on an individual's propensity to (1) establish pattern solutions to problems, (2) recognize when pattern solutions are no longer efficient, and (3) solve complex problems. Under three work monitoring regimes-no monitoring, human monitoring, and electronic monitoring-114 participants solved puzzles for monetary rewards. Based on research related to worker autonomy and theory of social facilitation, we hypothesized that monitored (versus non-monitored) participants would (1) have more difficulty finding a pattern solution, (2) more often fail to recognize when the pattern solution is no longer efficient, and (3) solve fewer complex problems. Our results support the first two hypotheses, but in complex problem solving, an interaction was found between self-assessed ability and the monitoring environment.
Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.
Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M
2013-01-01
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.
Solving the minimum flow problem with interval bounds and flows
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... with crisp data. In this paper, the idea of Ghiyasvand was extended for solving the minimum ﬂow problem with interval-valued lower, upper bounds and ﬂows. This problem can be solved using two minimum ﬂow problems with crisp data. Then, this result is extended to networks with fuzzy lower, upper bounds and ﬂows.
Basic school pupils' strategies in solving subtraction problems ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This article reports some of the strategies basic schools children apply in solving subtraction problems. The purpose of the study was to see whether the semantic structure of mathematical problems influences children's choice of strategy in solving a subtraction problem. Mathematics Connection Vol. 4 2004: 31-37 ...
Using problem-solving instruction to overcome high school ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Using problem-solving instruction to overcome high school chemistry students' difficulties with stoichiometric problems. ... African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences ... The study sought to find out the difficulties encountered by high school chemistry students when solving stoichiometric problems.
Problem Solving Treatment for Intellectually Disabled Sex Offenders
Nezu, Christine Maguth; Fiore, Alicia A.; Nezu, Arthur M.
2006-01-01
Over the past thirty years, Problem Solving Therapy (PST) has been shown to be an effective treatment for many different problems and patient populations (Nezu, 2004). Among its many clinical applications, PST interventions were developed for persons with intellectually disabilities (ID), where improving problem-solving skills led to adaptive…
A Decision Support System for Solving Multiple Criteria Optimization Problems
Filatovas, Ernestas; Kurasova, Olga
2011-01-01
In this paper, multiple criteria optimization has been investigated. A new decision support system (DSS) has been developed for interactive solving of multiple criteria optimization problems (MOPs). The weighted-sum (WS) approach is implemented to solve the MOPs. The MOPs are solved by selecting different weight coefficient values for the criteria…
Group Problem Solving as a Zone of Proximal Development activity
Brewe, Eric
2006-12-01
Vygotsky described learning as a process, intertwined with development, which is strongly influenced by social interactions with others that are at differing developmental stages.i These interactions create a Zone of Proximal Development for each member of the interaction. Vygotsky’s notion of social constructivism is not only a theory of learning, but also of development. While teaching introductory physics in an interactive format, I have found manifestations of Vygotsky’s theory in my classroom. The source of evidence is a paired problem solution. A standard mechanics problem was solved by students in two classes as a homework assignment. Students handed in the homework and then solved the same problem in small groups. The solutions to both the group and individual problem were assessed by multiple reviewers. In many cases the group score was the same as the highest individual score in the group, but in some cases, the group score was higher than any individual score. For this poster, I will analyze the individual and group scores and focus on three groups solutions and video that provide evidence of learning through membership in a Zone of Proximal Development. Endnotes i L. Vygotsky -Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (1978).
Sisco-Taylor, Dennis T.
2014-01-01
This study examined the extent to which initial performance, and growth on an experimental CBM word problem solving fluency measure (WPSF) were predictive of student performance on criterion measures of math problem solving. In addition, the extent to which WPSF could correctly classify students as a function of risk status was evaluated. Alternate forms of the WPSF measure were administered to 142 third grade students, along with multiple criterion measures of math problem solving. Results i...
The process model of problem solving difficulty
Pala, O.; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Vennix, J.A.M.
2002-01-01
Groups and organizations, or in general multi-actor decision-making groups, frequently come across complex problems in which neither the problem definition nor the interrelations of parts that make up the problem are well defined. In these kinds of situations, members of a decision-making group
Solving Complex Problems to Create Charter Extension Options
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tippmann, Esther; Nell, Phillip Christopher
This study examines subsidiary-driven problem solving processes and their potential to create advanced solutions for charter extension options. Problem solving theory suggests that biases in problem formulation and solution search can confine problem solving potential. We thus argue that balanced...... solution search, or activities to reconcile the need for some solution features to be locally-tailored while others can be internationally standardized, mediates the relationships between problem complexity/headquarters involvement and the capacity to create advanced solutions. An analysis of 67 projects...
Solving inverse problems of optical microlithography
Granik, Yuri
2005-05-01
The direct problem of microlithography is to simulate printing features on the wafer under given mask, imaging system, and process characteristics. The goal of inverse problems is to find the best mask and/or imaging system and/or process to print the given wafer features. In this study we will describe and compare solutions of inverse mask problems. Pixel-based inverse problem of mask optimization (or "layout inversion") is harder than inverse source problem, especially for partially-coherent systems. It can be stated as a non-linear constrained minimization problem over complex domain, with large number of variables. We compare method of Nashold projections, variations of Fienap phase-retrieval algorithms, coherent approximation with deconvolution, local variations, and descent searches. We propose electrical field caching technique to substantially speedup the searching algorithms. We demonstrate applications of phase-shifted masks, assist features, and maskless printing.
Computer architecture for solving consistent labeling problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ullmann, J.R.; Haralick, R.M.; Shapiro, L.G.
1982-01-01
Consistent labeling problems are a family of np-complete constraint satisfaction problems such as school timetabling, for which a conventional computer may be too slow. There are a variety of techniques for reducing the elapsed time to find one or all solutions to a consistent labeling problem. The paper discusses and illustrates solutions consisting of special hardware to accomplish the required constraint propagation and an asynchronous network of intercommunicating computers to accomplish the tree search in parallel. 5 references.
George Pólya & Problem Solving ... An Appreciation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
Studying the methods of solving problems, we perceive another face of ... [For] example, group theory has concentrated ideas which formerly were found ... great contributions was in bringing energy and attention to bear on the field of pedagogy. Agreatdiscovery solves a great problem but there is a grain of discovery in the.
The Effects of Iliad on Medical Student Problem Solving
Turner, Charles W.; Williamson, John; Lincoln, Michael J.; Haug, Peter J.; Buchanan, James; Anderson, Curtis; Grant, Morgan; Cundick, Robert; Warner, Homer R.
1990-01-01
The present study examined the effects of the Iliad expert system on diagnostic problem solving of third-year (n = 97) medical students. Students used Iliad to work-up simulated cases to supplement the education they received in their medicine clerkship. The results of the research provided evidence that the Iliad expert system did improve student diagnostic problem solving and decision making.
The Effect of Strategy on Problem Solving: An FMRI Study
Newman, Sharlene D.; Pruce, Benjamin; Rusia, Akash; Burns, Thomas, Jr.
2010-01-01
fMRI was used to examine the differential effect of two problem-solving strategies. Participants were trained to use both a pictorial/spatial and a symbolic/algebraic strategy to solve word problems. While these two strategies activated similar cortical regions, a number of differences were noted in the level of activation. These differences…
Problem Solving Frameworks for Mathematics and Software Development
McMaster, Kirby; Sambasivam, Samuel; Blake, Ashley
2012-01-01
In this research, we examine how problem solving frameworks differ between Mathematics and Software Development. Our methodology is based on the assumption that the words used frequently in a book indicate the mental framework of the author. We compared word frequencies in a sample of 139 books that discuss problem solving. The books were grouped…
Relationship between Problem-Solving Ability and Career Maturity ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study investigated the relationship between problem-solving ability and career maturity of secondary school students in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 230 final year secondary school students completed self-report measures of problem solving and career maturity. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the data ...
Assessment for Intervention: A Problem Solving Approach. Second Edition
Brown Chidsey, Rachel, Ed.; Andren, Kristina J., Ed.
2015-01-01
Problem-solving assessment is an essential component of multi-tiered systems of support such as response to intervention (RTI) and positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS). This authoritative work provides a complete guide to implementing a wide range of problem-solving assessment methods, including: (1) functional behavioral…
Instructional Design-Based Research on Problem Solving Strategies
Emre-Akdogan, Elçin; Argün, Ziya
2016-01-01
The main goal of this study is to find out the effect of the instructional design method on the enhancement of problem solving abilities of students. Teaching sessions were applied to ten students who are in 11th grade, to teach them problem solving strategies which are working backwards, finding pattern, adopting a different point of view,…
Using Everyday Materials To Promote Problem Solving in Toddlers.
Segatti, Laura; Brown-DuPaul, Judy; Keyes, Tracy L.
2003-01-01
Outlines benefits of and skills involved in problem solving. Details how an environment rich in materials that foster cause-and-effect or trial-and-error explorations promote cognitive development among toddlers. Offers examples of problem-solving experiences and lists materials for use in curriculum planning. Describes the teacher' role as one of…
Explanation and the Theory of Expert Problem Solving
1990-02-01
clasification strategy for diagrsls. Bennett [21 presents COAST, a shell for the design of configuration problem solving systems. All these approaches share the...category may exist in more than one 1) Not all classification problems are nece ssaiily solved classification hierarchy, e.g.. viral hepatitis is a con- as
Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression
Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin
2013-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…
The Effects of Service Learning on Student Problem Solving
Guo, Fangfang; Yao, Meilin; Wang, Cong; Yan, Wenfan; Zong, Xiaoli
2016-01-01
Previous research indicated that service learning (SL) is an effective pedagogy to improve students' problem-solving ability and increase their classroom engagement. However, studies on SL are rare in China. This study examined the effects of SL on the problem solving of Chinese undergraduate students as well as the mechanism through which it…
A Markov Model Analysis of Problem-Solving Progress.
Vendlinski, Terry
This study used a computerized simulation and problem-solving tool along with artificial neural networks (ANN) as pattern recognizers to identify the common types of strategies high school and college undergraduate chemistry students would use to solve qualitative chemistry problems. Participants were 134 high school chemistry students who used…
Identification of Strategies Used in Solving Transformational Geometry Problems.
Boulter, Douglas R.; Kirby, John R.
1994-01-01
Study investigated how to characterize students' transformational geometry problem-solving strategies, how strategies characterized particular subjects, and how strategy usage related to performance. Videotapes indicated problem-solving responses could be classified consistently, some students preferred holistic processing, some items readily…
The Stages of Student Mathematical Imagination in Solving Mathematical Problems
Wibowo, Teguh; Sutawidjaja, Akbar; As'ari, Abdur Rahman; Sulandra, I. Made
2017-01-01
This research is a qualitative study that aimed to describe the stages of students mathematical imagination in solving mathematical problems. There are three kinds of mathematical imagination in solving mathematical problems, namely sensory mathematical imagination, creative mathematical imagination and recreative mathematical imagination.…
Solving L-L Extraction Problems with Excel Spreadsheet
Teppaitoon, Wittaya
2016-01-01
This work aims to demonstrate the use of Excel spreadsheets for solving L-L extraction problems. The key to solving the problems successfully is to be able to determine a tie line on the ternary diagram where the calculation must be carried out. This enables the reader to analyze the extraction process starting with a simple operation, the…
Facilitating Flexible Problem Solving: A Cognitive Load Perspective
Kalyuga, Slava; Renkl, Alexander; Paas, Fred
2010-01-01
The development of flexible, transferable problem-solving skills is an important aim of contemporary educational systems. Since processing limitations of our mind represent a major factor influencing any meaningful learning, the acquisition of flexible problem-solving skills needs to be based on known characteristics of our cognitive architecture…
A problem solving model for regulatory policy making
Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Sileno, G.; Wyner, A.; Benn, N.
2011-01-01
In this paper we discuss how the interests and field theory promoted by public administration as a stakeholder in policy argumentation, directly arise from its problem solving activities, using the framework for public administration problem solving we proposed in [1,2]. We propose that calls for
Problem Solving and Collaboration Using Mobile Serious Games
Sanchez, Jaime; Olivares, Ruby
2011-01-01
This paper presents the results obtained with the implementation of a series of learning activities based on Mobile Serious Games (MSGs) for the development of problem solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students in order to solve problems collaboratively. A…
Using Systemic Problem Solving (SPS) to Assess Student ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
However, systemic problem solving (SPS) can challenge students and probe higher cognitive skills like analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Also, systemic problem solving (SPS) helps students to connect chemistry concepts, and facts and covers a wide range of intended learning outcomes (ILO,s). As an example, the type ...
Working memory dysfunctions predict social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.
Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K
2014-12-15
The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHING MATERIALS ALGEBRAIC EQUATION TO IMPROVE PROBLEM SOLVING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
sri adi widodo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Problem-solving skills are the basic capabilities of a person in solving a problem and that involve critical thinking, logical, and systematic. To solve a problem one-way necessary measures to solve the problem. Polya is one way to solve a mathematical problem. by developing teaching materials designed using the steps in solving problems Polya expected students could improve its ability to solve problems. In this first year, the goal of this study is to investigate the process of learning the hypothetical development of teaching materials. This study is a research & development. Procedure development research refers to research the development of Thiagarajan, Semmel & Semmel ie 4-D. Model development in the first year is define, design, and development. The collection of data for the assessment of teaching materials algebra equations conducted by the expert by filling the validation sheet. Having examined the materials of algebraic equations in the subject of numerical methods, reviewing the curriculum that is aligned with KKNI, and formulates learning outcomes that formed the conceptual teaching material on the material algebraic equations. From the results of expert assessment team found that the average ratings of teaching materials in general algebraic equation of 4.38 with a very good category. The limited test needs to be done to see effectiveness teaching materials on problem-solving skills in students who are taking courses numerical methods
Measuring Problem Solving Skills in Plants vs. Zombies 2
Shute, Valerie J.; Moore, Gregory R.; Wang, Lubin
2015-01-01
We are using stealth assessment, embedded in "Plants vs. Zombies 2," to measure middle-school students' problem solving skills. This project started by developing a problem solving competency model based on a thorough review of the literature. Next, we identified relevant in-game indicators that would provide evidence about students'…
Extricating Justification Scheme Theory in Middle School Mathematical Problem Solving
Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.
2012-01-01
Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…
English-language learners’ problem solving in Spanish versus English
Ambrose, Rebecca; Molina, Marta
2010-01-01
To explore the role of language in English Language Learners (ELLs)´ problem solving, we compare the performance of a group of Latino first graders when working in Spanish and in English on two equivalent sets of story problems. We contrast our results with others from previous studies with bilingual and monolinguals children by focusing on students´ performance in problems with the same semantic structure. This comparison leads us to discuss some factors influencing students´ problem solving...
Social problem solving and coping skills of medical students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emel Yigit
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate medical students' social problem solving and coping skills. Material and Methods: In this correlational descriptive study, data were gathered from 457 medical students. Social Problem Solving Inventory and Social Problem Coping Behaviours Inventory were used. Results: The most preferred activities when the students face a problem were talking with friends (87.1%, talking with special persons (85.4%, sleeping (82.6%, talking with family members (81.6%, and eating (79.8%. The ratio of the behaviors that can be deemed risky were exhibiting aggressive and violent behaviors (18.9%, drinking alcohol (18.7%, smoking (17.6%, playing games of chance (16.9%, and using substance (3.8%. There was a positive relationship between total scores of Social Problem Solving Inventory and Social Problem Coping Behaviours Inventory. It is found that immature social problem solving ability has increased the risk of unfavourable behaviours by 3.1 fold. Conclusion: Social problem solving ability is significantly correlated with coping behaviours and may predict it. Medical students who are the doctors and the role models of the future need to develop their social problem solving skills in addition to clinical problem solving skills. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 721-731
Palacio-Cayetano, Joycelin
"Problem-solving through reflective thinking should be both the method and valuable outcome of science instruction in America's schools" proclaimed John Dewey (Gabel, 1995). If the development of problem-solving is a primary goal of science education, more problem-solving opportunities must be an integral part of K-16 education. To examine the effective use of technology in developing and assessing problem-solving skills, a problem-solving authoring, learning, and assessment software, the UCLA IMMEX Program-Interactive Multimedia Exercises-was investigated. This study was a twenty-week quasi-experimental study that was implemented as a control-group time series design among 120 tenth grade students. Both the experimental group (n = 60) and the control group (n = 60) participated in a problem-based learning curriculum; however, the experimental group received regular intensive experiences with IMMEX problem-solving and the control group did not. Problem-solving pretest and posttest were administered to all students. The instruments used were a 35-item Processes of Biological Inquiry Test and an IMMEX problem-solving assessment test, True Roots. Students who participated in the IMMEX Program achieved significant (p problem-solving skills on both problem-solving assessment instruments. This study provided evidence that IMMEX software is highly efficient in evaluating salient elements of problem-solving. Outputs of students' problem-solving strategies revealed that unsuccessful problem solvers primarily used the following four strategies: (1) no data search strategy, students simply guessed; (2) limited data search strategy leading to insufficient data and premature closing; (3) irrelevant data search strategy, students focus in areas bearing no substantive data; and (4) extensive data search strategy with inadequate integration and analysis. On the contrary, successful problem solvers used the following strategies; (1) focused search strategy coupled with the ability
Problem Solving: Helping Students Move From Novices Toward Experts
Harper, Kathleen A.
2010-10-01
When introductory physics students engage in problem solving, they often exhibit behaviors that can frustrate their teachers. Some well-known examples of these habits include refusing to draw free-body diagrams, hunting through the book to find an example problem to use as a (perhaps inappropriate) template, and the classic ``plug-n-chug'' mentality. Studies in science education and cognitive science have yielded rational explanations for many of these novice behaviors and lay a groundwork for instructors to aid their students in beginning to develop more expert-like skills and behaviors. A few examples of these studies, as well as curricular tools that have developed as a result, will be shared. These tools not only encourage students to try more expert-like strategies, but also prime them for developing conceptual understanding.
Solving Direct and Inverse Heat Conduction Problems
Taler, Jan
2006-01-01
Presents a solution for direct and inverse heat conduction problems. This work discusses the theoretical basis for the heat transfer process in the first part. It presents selected theoretical and numerical problems in the form of exercises with their subsequent solutions in the second part
Solving the rectangular assignment problem and applications
Bijsterbosch, J.; Volgenant, A.
2010-01-01
The rectangular assignment problem is a generalization of the linear assignment problem (LAP): one wants to assign a number of persons to a smaller number of jobs, minimizing the total corresponding costs. Applications are, e.g., in the fields of object recognition and scheduling. Further, we show
Effectiveness of discovery learning model on mathematical problem solving
Herdiana, Yunita; Wahyudin, Sispiyati, Ririn
2017-08-01
This research is aimed to describe the effectiveness of discovery learning model on mathematical problem solving. This research investigate the students' problem solving competency before and after learned by using discovery learning model. The population used in this research was student in grade VII in one of junior high school in West Bandung Regency. From nine classes, class VII B were randomly selected as the sample of experiment class, and class VII C as control class, which consist of 35 students every class. The method in this research was quasi experiment. The instrument in this research is pre-test, worksheet and post-test about problem solving of mathematics. Based on the research, it can be conclude that the qualification of problem solving competency of students who gets discovery learning model on level 80%, including in medium category and it show that discovery learning model effective to improve mathematical problem solving.
Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students.
Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali
2013-11-01
The main objective of this study was predicting student's mental health using social problem solving- ability. In this correlational. descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson's correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P social problem solving ability and mental health.
Solved problems in dynamical systems and control
Tenreiro-Machado, J; Valério, Duarte; Galhano, Alexandra M
2016-01-01
This book presents a collection of exercises on dynamical systems, modelling and control. Each topic covered includes a summary of the theoretical background, problems with solutions, and further exercises.
Systematic Problem Solving in Production: The NAX Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Axelsdottir, Aslaug; Nygaard, Martin; Edwards, Kasper
2017-01-01
This paper outlines the NAX problem solving approach developed by a group of problem solving experts at a large Danish Producer of medical equipment. The company, “Medicmeter” is one of Denmark’s leading companies when it comes to lean and it has developed a strong problem solving culture. The main...... steps of the approach are to extensively gather direct detailed process knowledge at the actual process, assemble a team that systematically builds on each other ideas, apply team thinking in a structured way to get a rapid and very deep understanding of the problem, and conducting a structured...
Dimensional analysis and qualitative methods in problem solving: II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pescetti, D
2009-01-01
We show that the underlying mathematical structure of dimensional analysis (DA), in the qualitative methods in problem-solving context, is the algebra of the affine spaces. In particular, we show that the qualitative problem-solving procedure based on the parallel decomposition of a problem into simple special cases yields the new original mathematical concepts of special points and special representations of affine spaces. A qualitative problem-solving algorithm piloted by the mathematics of DA is illustrated by a set of examples.
Teaching model of problem solving Programming Fundamentals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iván Darwin Tutillo-Arcentales
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The formation process has been studied by several authors in those last years, although not always focusing in the technology careers which requires of a pedagogical and didactic point of view, which promotes behaviouring changes in the teachers with impact in the quality of graduates. The purposes of this paper is: to value the pedagogical fundamentals of the formation in the career Analysis of systems,in order to promote qualitative and quantitative improvements in the students learning. The questioner applied to students and teachers proved the difficulties in the contents related to the algorithmic procedures, which constitutes a necessary content in their formation and to them contributes other syllabus of the first level. So it is necessary to model a theoretical construction which express the new relationships established from the psychological and didactic point of view in order to solving those situations from the programing.
Problem-solving phase transitions during team collaboration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiltshire, Travis; Butner, Jonathan E.; Fiore, Stephen M.
2018-01-01
Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving (CPS) with dynami......Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving (CPS......) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem......-solving processes. We applied a sliding window entropy technique to each team's communications and specified criteria for (a) identifying data points that qualify as peaks and (b) determining which peaks were robust. We used multilevel modeling, and provide a qualitative example, to evaluate whether phases exhibit...
An Approach for Solving Linear Fractional Programming Problems
Andrew Oyakhobo Odior
2012-01-01
Linear fractional programming problems are useful tools in production planning, financial and corporate planning, health care and hospital planning and as such have attracted considerable research interest. The paper presents a new approach for solving a fractional linear programming problem in which the objective function is a linear fractional function, while the constraint functions are in the form of linear inequalities. The approach adopted is based mainly upon solving the problem algebr...
Cooperative learning, problem solving and mediating artifacts
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PROF.MIREKU
or having multilingual classrooms. The language of mathematics is another symbolic artifact that may impact mathematics learning. Concrete learning materials, textbooks, and computers are physical artifacts that mediate math teaching and learning (Jurdak,. 2009). Also, it is important to consider the fact that language is a ...
Solving a deconvolution problem in photon spectrometry
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Aleksandrov, D.; Alme, J.; Basmanov, V.; Mareš, Jiří A.; Polák, Karel
2010-01-01
Roč. 620, 2-3 (2010), s. 526-533 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : deconvolution * ALICE experiment * photon spectrometer * Tikhonov regularization Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2010
Light-Emitting Diodes: Solving Complex Problems
Planinšič, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia
2015-05-01
This is the fourth paper in our Light-Emitting Diodes series. The series aims to create a systematic library of LED-based materials and to provide readers with the description of experiments and the pedagogical treatment that would help their students construct, test, and apply physics concepts and mathematical relations. The first paper1 provided an overview of possible uses of LEDs in physics courses. The second paper2 discussed how one could help students learn the foundational aspects of LED physics through a scaf-folded inquiry approach, specifically the ISLE cycle. The third paper3 showed how the physics inherent in the functioning of LEDs could help students deepen their understanding of sources of electric power and the temperature dependence of resistivity, and explore the phenomenon of fluorescence also using the ISLE cycle.4 The goal of this fourth paper is to use LEDs as black boxes that allow students to study certain properties of a system of interest, specifically mechanical, electric, electromagnetic, and light properties. The term "black box" means that we use a device without knowing the mechanism behind its operation.
Professional Development: How Young Children Solve Problems
Shure, Myrna B.
2006-01-01
There are lots of ways to handle behavior problems in the classroom. Some teachers send difficult children to time out, others tell them what and what not to do, and many explain why. But these techniques have one thing in common: they all do the thinking for the child. In this article, the author discusses how to help children handle conflicts…
How to solve nuclear siting problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inhaber, H.
1992-01-01
In recent years, finding sites for nuclear facilities, both reactors and waste repositories, has become more of a problem. While all agree that the difficulties are more than technical, a technical solution is presently pursued. The reverse Dutch auction generates a solution to siting. It produces a volunteer community or state, at the same time retaining public safety and environmental standards. No coercion is required. Elements of the system already exist in a number of public policy areas. (orig.) [de
Solving Hub Network Problem Using Genetic Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mursyid Hasan Basri
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses a network problem that described as follows. There are n ports that interact, and p of those will be designated as hubs. All hubs are fully interconnected. Each spoke will be allocated to only one of available hubs. Direct connection between two spokes is allowed only if they are allocated to the same hub. The latter is a distinct characteristic that differs it from pure hub-and-spoke system. In case of pure hub-and-spoke system, direct connection between two spokes is not allowed. The problem is where to locate hub ports and to which hub a spoke should be allocated so that total transportation cost is minimum. In the first model, there are some additional aspects are taken into consideration in order to achieve a better representation of the problem. The first, weekly service should be accomplished. Secondly, various vessel types should be considered. The last, a concept of inter-hub discount factor is introduced. Regarding the last aspect, it represents cost reduction factor at hub ports due to economies of scale. In practice, it is common that the cost rate for inter-hub movement is less than the cost rate for movement between hub and origin/destination. In this first model, inter-hub discount factor is assumed independent with amount of flows on inter-hub links (denoted as flow-independent discount policy. The results indicated that the patterns of enlargement of container ship size, to some degree, are similar with those in Kurokawa study. However, with regard to hub locations, the results have not represented the real practice. In the proposed model, unsatisfactory result on hub locations is addressed. One aspect that could possibly be improved to find better hub locations is inter-hub discount factor. Then inter-hub discount factor is assumed to depend on amount of inter-hub flows (denoted as flow-dependent discount policy. There are two discount functions examined in this paper. Both functions are characterized by
From dissecting ignorance to solving algebraic problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ayyub, Bilal M
2004-09-01
Engineers and scientists are increasingly required to design, test, and validate new complex systems in simulation environments and/or with limited experimental results due to international and/or budgetary restrictions. Dealing with complex systems requires assessing knowledge and information by critically evaluating them in terms relevance, completeness, non-distortion, coherence, and other key measures. Using the concepts and definitions from evolutionary knowledge and epistemology, ignorance is examined and classified in the paper. Two ignorance states for a knowledge agent are identified: (1) non-reflective (or blind) state, i.e. the person does not know of self-ignorance, a case of ignorance of ignorance; and (2) reflective state, i.e. the person knows and recognizes self-ignorance. Ignorance can be viewed to have a hierarchal classification based on its sources and nature as provided in the paper. The paper also explores limits on knowledge construction, closed and open world assumptions, and fundamentals of evidential reasoning using belief revision and diagnostics within the framework of ignorance analysis for knowledge construction. The paper also examines an algebraic problem set as identified by Sandia National Laboratories to be a basic building block for uncertainty propagation in computational mechanics. Solution algorithms are provided for the problem set for various assumptions about the state of knowledge about its parameters.
From dissecting ignorance to solving algebraic problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayyub, Bilal M.
2004-01-01
Engineers and scientists are increasingly required to design, test, and validate new complex systems in simulation environments and/or with limited experimental results due to international and/or budgetary restrictions. Dealing with complex systems requires assessing knowledge and information by critically evaluating them in terms relevance, completeness, non-distortion, coherence, and other key measures. Using the concepts and definitions from evolutionary knowledge and epistemology, ignorance is examined and classified in the paper. Two ignorance states for a knowledge agent are identified: (1) non-reflective (or blind) state, i.e. the person does not know of self-ignorance, a case of ignorance of ignorance; and (2) reflective state, i.e. the person knows and recognizes self-ignorance. Ignorance can be viewed to have a hierarchal classification based on its sources and nature as provided in the paper. The paper also explores limits on knowledge construction, closed and open world assumptions, and fundamentals of evidential reasoning using belief revision and diagnostics within the framework of ignorance analysis for knowledge construction. The paper also examines an algebraic problem set as identified by Sandia National Laboratories to be a basic building block for uncertainty propagation in computational mechanics. Solution algorithms are provided for the problem set for various assumptions about the state of knowledge about its parameters
Solving the uncalibrated photometric stereo problem using total variation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quéau, Yvain; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Durou, Jean-Denis
2013-01-01
In this paper we propose a new method to solve the problem of uncalibrated photometric stereo, making very weak assumptions on the properties of the scene to be reconstructed. Our goal is to solve the generalized bas-relief ambiguity (GBR) by performing a total variation regularization of both...
Teaching problem-solving competency in Business Studies at ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
10218122
solving can broadly be conceptualised as a process that includes five steps. During the teaching of problem-solving, the teacher should focus on the following steps that have to be executed by the learners (Crebert et al., 2011:10-. 11; Tull, 2012:1-2), ...
Stringy Gravity: Solving the Dark Problems at `short' distance
Park, Jeong-Hyuck
2018-01-01
Dictated by Symmetry Principle, string theory predicts not General Relativity but its own gravity which assumes the entire closed string massless sector to be geometric and thus gravitational. In terms of R/(MG), i.e. the dimensionless radial variable normalized by mass, Stringy Gravity agrees with General Relativity toward infinity, but modifies it at short distance. At far short distance, gravitational force can be even repulsive. These may solve the dark matter and energy problems, as they arise essentially from small R/(MG) observations: long distance divided by much heavier mass. We address the pertinent differential geometry for Stringy Gravity, stringy Equivalence Principle, stringy geodesics and the minimal coupling to the Standard Model. We highlight the notion of `doubled-yet-gauged' coordinate system, in which a gauge orbit corresponds to a single physical point and proper distance is defined between two gauge orbits by a path integral.
Craig, Scotty D.; Chi, Michelene T. H.; VanLehn, Kurt
2009-01-01
Collaboratively observing tutoring is a promising method for observational learning (also referred to as vicarious learning). This method was tested in the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center's Physics LearnLab, where students were introduced to physics topics by observing videos while problem solving in Andes, a physics tutoring system.…
Information theory and coding solved problems
Ivaniš, Predrag
2017-01-01
This book is offers a comprehensive overview of information theory and error control coding, using a different approach then in existed literature. The chapters are organized according to the Shannon system model, where one block affects the others. A relatively brief theoretical introduction is provided at the beginning of every chapter, including a few additional examples and explanations, but without any proofs. And a short overview of some aspects of abstract algebra is given at the end of the corresponding chapters. The characteristic complex examples with a lot of illustrations and tables are chosen to provide detailed insights into the nature of the problem. Some limiting cases are presented to illustrate the connections with the theoretical bounds. The numerical values are carefully selected to provide in-depth explanations of the described algorithms. Although the examples in the different chapters can be considered separately, they are mutually connected and the conclusions for one considered proble...
Creative Problem Solving as a Learning Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Ninck
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The Business School at the Bern University of Applied Sciences is offering a new MScBA degree program in business development. The paper presents a practical report about the action learning approach in the course 'Business Analysis and Design'. Our problem-based approach is more than simply 'learning by doing'. In a world of increasing complexity, taking action alone will not result in a learning effect per se. What is imperative is to structure and facilitate the learning process on different levels: individual construction of mental models; understanding needs and developing adequate solutions; critical reflection of methods and processes. Reflective practice, where individuals are learning from their own professional experiences rather than from formal teaching or knowledge transfer, may be the most important source for lifelong learning.
Linking problem solving and learning contents
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bosch, Marianna; Winsløw, Carl
2016-01-01
A main difference between the mathematical activity of students and that of researchers is that researchers pursue their mathematical work in a seemingly self-sustaining dynamics of questions and answers, while students rely on teachers to sustain this dynamics. Unlike researchers, students...... generally do not construct the questions they work on, and do not search, rearrange and question the established contents they need to answer the questions. The basic problem approached in this paper is: could students also engage in a more self-sustaining and complete work with questions and answers? We...... first present an analysis of four main paradigms of teaching and learning mathematics, based on different approaches to learners’ work with questions and answers. We then discuss and exemplify certain principles for selfsustained mathematical activities using Chevallard’s Herbartian schema. The access...
Problem-Solving Communication in Foster Families and Birthfamilies.
Vuchinich, Sam; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Pratt, Clara C.; Kneedler, Blythe
2002-01-01
Assessed child behavior problems and parent-child communication behaviors during problem solving in three groups of families with adolescents: foster families, birthfamilies with a child at risk for behavior problems, and birthfamilies with a child not at risk. Found that levels of positive and negative communication behaviors in foster families…
Solution Tree Problem Solving Procedure for Engineering Analysis ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper presents a 10-step procedure, called the solution-tree problemsolving procedure, for solving engineering analysis problems. The core of the procedure is the development of a tree-like solution algorithm for the problem or class of problems, based on the divide-and-conquer and top-down design concepts.
Solving satisfiability problems by the ground-state quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mao Wenjin
2005-01-01
A quantum algorithm is proposed to solve the satisfiability (SAT) problems by the ground-state quantum computer. The scale of the energy gap of the ground-state quantum computer is analyzed for the 3-bit exact cover problem. The time cost of this algorithm on the general SAT problems is discussed
Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems
Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.
2014-01-01
Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…
Human Performance on Insight Problem Solving: A Review
Chu, Yun; MacGregor, James N.
2011-01-01
The article provides a review of recent research on insight problem-solving performance. We discuss what insight problems are, the different types of classic and newer insight problems, and how we can classify them. We also explain some of the other aspects that affect insight performance, such as hints, analogs, training, thinking aloud, and…
Solving a chemical batch scheduling problem by local search
Brucker, P.; Hurink, Johann L.
1999-01-01
A chemical batch scheduling problem is modelled in two different ways as a discrete optimization problem. Both models are used to solve the batch scheduling problem in a two-phase tabu search procedure. The method is tested on real-world data.
Arithmetic Word Problem Solving: A Situation Strategy First Framework
Brissiaud, Remi; Sander, Emmanuel
2010-01-01
Before instruction, children solve many arithmetic word problems with informal strategies based on the situation described in the problem. A Situation Strategy First framework is introduced that posits that initial representation of the problem activates a situation-based strategy even after instruction: only when it is not efficient for providing…
Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ryan, David M.
Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However, ...
Comparison of Problem Solving from Engineering Design to Software Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Babar, Muhammad Ali
2012-01-01
Observational studies of engineering design activities can inform the research community on the problem solving models that are employed by professional engineers. Design is defined as an ill-defined problem which includes both engineering design and software design, hence understanding problem s...
Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Ryan, David; Lusby, Richard Martin
2009-01-01
Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...
Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ryan, David M.
2010-01-01
Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...
Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
María F. Ayllón
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas, flexibility (range of ideas, novelty (unique idea and elaboration (idea development. These factors contribute, among others, to the fact that schoolchildren are competent in mathematics. The problem solving and posing are a very powerful evaluation tool that shows the mathematical reasoning and creative level of a person. Creativity is part of the mathematics education and is a necessary ingredient to perform mathematical assignments. This contribution presents some important research works about problem posing and solving related to the development of mathematical knowledge and creativity. To that end, it is based on various beliefs reflected in the literature with respect to notions of creativity, problem solving and posing.
Problem solving in foundation engineering using foundationPro
Yamin, Mohammad
2016-01-01
This book is at once a supplement to traditional foundation engineering textbooks and an independent problem-solving learning tool. The book is written primarily for university students majoring in civil or construction engineering taking foundation analysis and design courses to encourage them to solve design problems. Its main aim is to stimulate problem solving capability and foster self-directed learning. It also explains the use of the foundationPro software, available at no cost, and includes a set of foundation engineering applications. Taking a unique approach, Dr. Yamin summarizes the general step-by-step procedure to solve various foundation engineering problems, illustrates traditional applications of these steps with longhand solutions, and presents the foundationPro solutions. The special structure of the book allows it to be used in undergraduate and graduate foundation design and analysis courses in civil and construction engineering. The book stands as valuable resource for students, faculty, ...
Examining Multiscale Movement Coordination in Collaborative Problem Solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiltshire, Travis; Steffensen, Sune Vork
2017-01-01
During collaborative problem solving (CPS), coordination occurs at different spatial and temporal scales. This multiscale coordination should, at least on some scales, play a functional role in facilitating effective collaboration outcomes. To evaluate this, we conducted a study of computer...
Genetic Algorithm for Solving Simple Mathematical Equality Problem
Hermawanto, Denny
2013-01-01
This paper explains genetic algorithm for novice in this field. Basic philosophy of genetic algorithm and its flowchart are described. Step by step numerical computation of genetic algorithm for solving simple mathematical equality problem will be briefly explained
The Association ofDRD2with Insight Problem Solving.
Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Jinghuan
2016-01-01
Although the insight phenomenon has attracted great attention from psychologists, it is still largely unknown whether its variation in well-functioning human adults has a genetic basis. Several lines of evidence suggest that genes involved in dopamine (DA) transmission might be potential candidates. The present study explored for the first time the association of dopamine D2 receptor gene ( DRD2 ) with insight problem solving. Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering DRD2 were genotyped in 425 unrelated healthy Chinese undergraduates, and were further tested for association with insight problem solving. Both single SNP and haplotype analysis revealed several associations of DRD2 SNPs and haplotypes with insight problem solving. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence for the involvement of DRD2 in insight problem solving, future studies are necessary to validate these findings.
Retention of Problem-Solving Performance in School Contexts.
Ross, John A.; Maynes, Florence J.
1985-01-01
This article reports data on the retention of problem-solving performance after one month, four months, and six months, in three separate studies conducted in school settings involving a variety of grades and subjects. (Author/LMO)
Spreadsheet-Enhanced Problem Solving in Context as Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergei Abramovich
2003-07-01
development through situated mathematical problem solving. Modeling activities described in this paper support the epistemological position regarding the interplay that exists between the development of mathematical concepts and available methods of calculation. The spreadsheet used is Microsoft Excel 2001
The Intermediate Impossible: A Prewriting Activity for Creative Problem Solving.
Karloff, Kenneth
1985-01-01
Adapts Edward de Bono's "Intermediate Impossible" strategy--for considering ideas that normally would be discarded as stepping-stones to new ideas--for use as a prewriting activity to enhance creative problem solving. (HTH)
The Environmental Justice Collaborative Problem-Solving Cooperative Agreement Program
The Environmental Justice Collaborative Problem-Solving (CPS) Cooperative Agreement Program provides financial assistance to eligible organizations working on or planning to work on projects to address local environmental and/or public health issues
Stepping out of history : Mindfulness improves insight problem solving
Ostafin, B.D.; Kassman, K.T.
Insight problem solving is hindered by automated verbal-conceptual processes. Because mindfulness meditation training aims at "nonconceptual awareness" which involves a reduced influence of habitual verbal-conceptual processes on the interpretation of ongoing experience, mindfulness may facilitate
Book Review: Solving Language Problems: From General to ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Abstract. Book Title: Solving Language Problems: From General to Applied Linguistics. Book Author: R.R.K. Hartmann (Ed.) 1st edition 1996, vi + 298 pp. ISBN 0-85989-484-3. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.
Complex collaborative problem-solving processes in mission control.
Fiore, Stephen M; Wiltshire, Travis J; Oglesby, James M; O'Keefe, William S; Salas, Eduardo
2014-04-01
NASA's Mission Control Center (MCC) is responsible for control of the International Space Station (ISS), which includes responding to problems that obstruct the functioning of the ISS and that may pose a threat to the health and well-being of the flight crew. These problems are often complex, requiring individuals, teams, and multiteam systems, to work collaboratively. Research is warranted to examine individual and collaborative problem-solving processes in this context. Specifically, focus is placed on how Mission Control personnel-each with their own skills and responsibilities-exchange information to gain a shared understanding of the problem. The Macrocognition in Teams Model describes the processes that individuals and teams undertake in order to solve problems and may be applicable to Mission Control teams. Semistructured interviews centering on a recent complex problem were conducted with seven MCC professionals. In order to assess collaborative problem-solving processes in MCC with those predicted by the Macrocognition in Teams Model, a coding scheme was developed to analyze the interview transcriptions. Findings are supported with excerpts from participant transcriptions and suggest that team knowledge-building processes accounted for approximately 50% of all coded data and are essential for successful collaborative problem solving in mission control. Support for the internalized and externalized team knowledge was also found (19% and 20%, respectively). The Macrocognition in Teams Model was shown to be a useful depiction of collaborative problem solving in mission control and further research with this as a guiding framework is warranted.
Qin, Yulin; Xiang, Jie; Wang, Rifeng; Zhou, Haiyan; Li, Kuncheng; Zhong, Ning
2012-12-01
Newell and Simon postulated that the basic steps in human problem-solving involve iteratively applying operators to transform the state of the problem to eventually achieve a goal. To check the neural basis of this framework, the present study focused on the basic processes in human heuristic problem-solving that the participants identified the current problem state and then recalled and applied the corresponding heuristic rules to change the problem state. A new paradigm, solving simplified Sudoku puzzles, was developed for an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in problem solving. Regions of interest (ROIs), including the left prefrontal cortex, the bilateral posterior parietal cortex, the anterior cingulated cortex, the bilateral caudate nuclei, the bilateral fusiform, as well as the bilateral frontal eye fields, were found to be involved in the task. To obtain convergent evidence, in addition to traditional statistical analysis, we used the multivariate voxel classification method to check the accuracy of the predictions for the condition of the task from the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the ROIs, using a new classifier developed in this study for fMRI data. To reveal the roles that the ROIs play in problem solving, we developed an ACT-R computational model of the information-processing processes in human problem solving, and tried to predict the BOLD response of the ROIs from the task. Advances in human problem-solving research after Newell and Simon are then briefly discussed. © 2012 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Using Evolutionary Computation to Solve the Economic Load Dispatch Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samir SAYAH
2008-06-01
Full Text Available This paper reports on an evolutionary algorithm based method for solving the economic load dispatch (ELD problem. The objective is to minimize the nonlinear function, which is the total fuel cost of thermal generating units, subject to the usual constraints.The IEEE 30 bus test system was used for testing and validation purposes. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the economic load dispatch problem.
The art and science of participative problem solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group problem...... solving facilitation both as science and art will be presented. A case study related to examinations planning will be discussed to illustrate the main concepts in practice. In addition, other cases studies will also be shortly presented....
Using a genetic algorithm to solve fluid-flow problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pryor, R.J. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (USA))
1990-06-01
Genetic algorithms are based on the mechanics of the natural selection and natural genetics processes. These algorithms are finding increasing application to a wide variety of engineering optimization and machine learning problems. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the use of a genetic algorithm to solve fluid flow problems. Specifically, the authors use the algorithm to solve the one-dimensional flow equations for a pipe.
Social Problem Solving Ability Predicts Mental Health Among Undergraduate Students
Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali
2013-01-01
Background : The main objective of this study was predicting student′s mental health using social problem solving- ability . Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t tes...
Problem solving teaching practices: Observer and teacher's view
Felmer , Patricio; Perdomo-Díaz , Josefa; Giaconi , Valentina; Espinoza , Carmen ,
2015-01-01
International audience; In this article, we report on an exploratory study on teaching practices related to problem solving of a group of 29 novel secondary mathematics teachers. For this purpose, two independent instruments were designed, the first one is based on lesson observations, and the second one is a questionnaire answered by teachers about their teaching practices while working on non-routine problem solving with their students. For each instrument, we perform a statistical analysis...
Using a genetic algorithm to solve fluid-flow problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pryor, R.J.
1990-01-01
Genetic algorithms are based on the mechanics of the natural selection and natural genetics processes. These algorithms are finding increasing application to a wide variety of engineering optimization and machine learning problems. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the use of a genetic algorithm to solve fluid flow problems. Specifically, the authors use the algorithm to solve the one-dimensional flow equations for a pipe
Teaching problem-solving skills to nuclear engineering students
Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.
2012-08-01
Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and accurate analysis of the problems, design of solutions (focusing on public safety, environmental stewardship and ethics), solution execution and monitoring results. A three-month course in problem solving, modelling and simulation was designed and a collaborative approach was undertaken with instructors from both industry and academia. Training was optimised for the laptop-based pedagogy, which provided unique advantages for a course that includes modelling and simulation components. The concepts and tools learned as part of the training were observed to be utilised throughout the duration of student university studies and interviews with students who have entered the workforce indicate that the approaches learned and practised are retained long term.
Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J David Creswell
Full Text Available High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.
Using isomorphic problems to learn introductory physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shih-Yin Lin
2011-08-01
Full Text Available In this study, we examine introductory physics students’ ability to perform analogical reasoning between two isomorphic problems which employ the same underlying physics principles but have different surface features. Three hundred sixty-two students from a calculus-based and an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a quiz in the recitation in which they had to first learn from a solved problem provided and take advantage of what they learned from it to solve another problem (which we call the quiz problem which was isomorphic. Previous research suggests that the multiple-concept quiz problem is challenging for introductory students. Students in different recitation classes received different interventions in order to help them discern and exploit the underlying similarities of the isomorphic solved and quiz problems. We also conducted think-aloud interviews with four introductory students in order to understand in depth the difficulties they had and explore strategies to provide better scaffolding. We found that most students were able to learn from the solved problem to some extent with the scaffolding provided and invoke the relevant principles in the quiz problem. However, they were not necessarily able to apply the principles correctly. Research suggests that more scaffolding is needed to help students in applying these principles appropriately. We outline a few possible strategies for future investigation.
Using isomorphic problems to learn introductory physics
Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha
2011-12-01
In this study, we examine introductory physics students’ ability to perform analogical reasoning between two isomorphic problems which employ the same underlying physics principles but have different surface features. Three hundred sixty-two students from a calculus-based and an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a quiz in the recitation in which they had to first learn from a solved problem provided and take advantage of what they learned from it to solve another problem (which we call the quiz problem) which was isomorphic. Previous research suggests that the multiple-concept quiz problem is challenging for introductory students. Students in different recitation classes received different interventions in order to help them discern and exploit the underlying similarities of the isomorphic solved and quiz problems. We also conducted think-aloud interviews with four introductory students in order to understand in depth the difficulties they had and explore strategies to provide better scaffolding. We found that most students were able to learn from the solved problem to some extent with the scaffolding provided and invoke the relevant principles in the quiz problem. However, they were not necessarily able to apply the principles correctly. Research suggests that more scaffolding is needed to help students in applying these principles appropriately. We outline a few possible strategies for future investigation.
Leikin, Roza; Waisman, Ilana; Leikin, Mark
2016-01-01
We asked: "What are the similarities and differences in mathematical processing associated with solving learning-based and insight-based problems?" To answer this question, the ERP research procedure was employed with 69 male adolescent subjects who solved specially designed insight-based and learning-based tests. Solutions of…
Solving Large Clustering Problems with Meta-Heuristic Search
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turkensteen, Marcel; Andersen, Kim Allan; Bang-Jensen, Jørgen
problems, but applications to large clustering problems are rare. The simulated annealing heuristic has mainly been applied to relatively small instances. In this paper, we implement tabu search and simulated annealing approaches and compare them to the commonly used k-means approach. We find that the meta......In Clustering Problems, groups of similar subjects are to be retrieved from data sets. In this paper, Clustering Problems with the frequently used Minimum Sum-of-Squares Criterion are solved using meta-heuristic search. Tabu search has proved to be a successful methodology for solving optimization...
Solving traveling salesman problems with DNA molecules encoding numerical values.
Lee, Ji Youn; Shin, Soo-Yong; Park, Tai Hyun; Zhang, Byoung-Tak
2004-12-01
We introduce a DNA encoding method to represent numerical values and a biased molecular algorithm based on the thermodynamic properties of DNA. DNA strands are designed to encode real values by variation of their melting temperatures. The thermodynamic properties of DNA are used for effective local search of optimal solutions using biochemical techniques, such as denaturation temperature gradient polymerase chain reaction and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis. The proposed method was successfully applied to the traveling salesman problem, an instance of optimization problems on weighted graphs. This work extends the capability of DNA computing to solving numerical optimization problems, which is contrasted with other DNA computing methods focusing on logical problem solving.
Problem Solving and Critical Thinking Skills of Undergraduate Nursing Students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yalçın KANBAY
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Due to the fact that critical thinking and problem solving skills are essential components of educational and social lives of individuals, this present study which investigate critical thinking and problem solving skills of undergraduate students of nursing was planned. This is a descriptive study. The study population consisted of undergraduate nursing students of a university during the 2011-2012 academic year. Any specific sampling method was not determined and only the voluntary students was enrolled in the study . Several participants were excluded due to incomplete questionnaires, and eventually a total of 231 nursing students were included in the final sampling. Socio Demographic Features Data Form and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Scale and Problem Solving Inventory were used for data collection. The mean age of 231 subjects (148 girls, 83 boys was 21.34. The mean score of critical thinking was 255.71 for the first-grade, 255.57 for the second-grade, 264.73 for the third-grade, and 256.468 for the forth-grade students. The mean score of critical thinking was determined as 257.41 for the sample, which can be considered as an average value. Although there are mean score differences of critical thinking between the classes , they were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. With regard to the mean score of problem solving, the first-grade students had 92.86, the second-grade students had 94. 29, the third-grade students had 87.00, and the forth-grade students had 92.87. The mean score of problem solving was determined as 92.450 for the sample. Although there are differences between the classes in terms of mean scores of problem solving, it was not found statistically significant (p> 0.05. In this study, statistically significant correlation could not be identified between age and critical thinking skills of the subjects (p>0.05. However, a negative correlation was identified at low levels between critical thinking skills and
[Methods for teaching problem-solving in medical schools].
Shumway, J M; Vargas, M E; Heller, L E
1984-01-01
The need to include in the medical curriculum instructional activities to promote the development of problem-solving abilities has been asserted at the national and international levels. In research on the mental process involved in the solution of problems in medicine, problem-solving has been defined as a hypothetical-deductive activity engaged in by experienced physicians, in which the early generation of hypotheses influences the subsequent gathering of information. This article comments briefly on research on the mental process by which medical problems are solved. It describes the methods that research has shown to be most applicable in instruction to develop problem-solving abilities, and presents some educational principles that justify their application. The "trail-following" approach is the method that has been most commonly used to study the physician's problem-solving behavior. The salient conclusions from this research are that in the problem-solving process the diagnostic hypothesis is generated very early on and with limited data; the number of hypotheses is small; the problem-solving approach is specific to the type of medical problem and case in hand; and the accumulation of medical knowledge and experience forms the basis of clinical competence. Four methods for teaching the solution of problems are described: case presentation, the rain of ideas, the nominal groups technique and decision-making consensus, the census and analysis of forces in the field, and the analysis of clinical decisions. These methods are carried out in small groups. The advantages of the small groups are that the students are active participants in the learning process, they receive formative evaluation of their performance in a setting conductive to learning, and are able to interact with their instructor if he makes proper use of the right questioning techniques. While no single problem-solving method can be useful to all students or in all the problems they encounter
Ebomoyi, Josephine Itota
The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX) software. All participants not only solved "Microquest," which focuses on cellular processes and mode of action of antibiotics, but also "Creeping Crud," which focuses on the cause, origin and transmission of diseases. Participants also responded to the "Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ). Hierarchical multiple regression was used for analysis with GPA (Gracie point average) as a control. There were 49 (78.6%) that successfully solved "Microquest" while 52 (82.5%) successfully solved "Creeping Crud". Metacognitive self regulation strategy was significantly (p High achievers used fewer steps, and had more focused approach than low achievers. Common strategies and attributes included metacognitive skills, writing to keep track, using prior knowledge. Others included elements of frustration/confusion and self-esteem problems. The implications for educational and relevance to real life situations are discussed.
A Problem Solving Intervention for hospice caregivers: a pilot study.
Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Washington, Karla; Fruehling, Lynne Thomas; Haggarty-Robbins, Donna; Doorenbos, Ardith; Wechkin, Hope; Berry, Donna
2010-08-01
The Problem Solving Intervention (PSI) is a structured, cognitive-behavioral intervention that provides people with problem-solving coping skills to help them face major negative life events and daily challenges. PSI has been applied to numerous settings but remains largely unexplored in the hospice setting. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of PSI targeting informal caregivers of hospice patients. We enrolled hospice caregivers who were receiving outpatient services from two hospice agencies. The intervention included three visits by a research team member. The agenda for each visit was informed by the problem-solving theoretical framework and was customized based on the most pressing problems identified by the caregivers. We enrolled 29 caregivers. Patient's pain was the most frequently identified problem. On average, caregivers reported a higher quality of life and lower level of anxiety postintervention than at baseline. An examination of the caregiver reaction assessment showed an increase of positive esteem average and a decrease of the average value of lack of family support, impact on finances, impact on schedules, and on health. After completing the intervention, caregivers reported lower levels of anxiety, improved problem solving skills, and a reduced negative impact of caregiving. Furthermore, caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, perceiving it as a platform to articulate their challenges and develop a plan to address them. Findings demonstrate the value of problem solving as a psycho-educational intervention in the hospice setting and call for further research in this area.
An algebraic approach to solving evolution problems in some nonlinear quantum models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karassiov, Valery P.; Klimov, Andrei B.
1994-01-01
A new general Lie-algebraic approach is proposed to solve evolution problems in some nonlinear models of quantum physics with polynomially deformed Lie algebras su pd (2) as their dynamic symmetry algebras. The method makes use of an expansion of the evolution operators by power series in the su pd (2) shift operators and a (recursive) reduction of finding coefficient functions to solve auxiliary exactly solvable su(2) problems with quadratic Hamiltonians. ((orig.))
An algebraic approach for solving evolution problems in some nonlinear quantum models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karassiov, Valery P.; Klimov, Andrei B.
1994-01-01
A new general Lie-algebraic approach is proposed for solving evolution tasks in some nonlinear problems of quantum physics with polynomially deformed Lie algebras su pd (2) as their dynamic symmetry algebras. The method makes use of an expansion of the evolution operators by power series in the su pd (2) shift operators and a (recursive) reduction finding coefficient functions for solving auxiliary exactly solvable su(2) problems with quadratic Hamiltonians. ((orig.))
Review on solving the forward problem in EEG source analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vergult Anneleen
2007-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of electroencephalogram (EEG source localization is to find the brain areas responsible for EEG waves of interest. It consists of solving forward and inverse problems. The forward problem is solved by starting from a given electrical source and calculating the potentials at the electrodes. These evaluations are necessary to solve the inverse problem which is defined as finding brain sources which are responsible for the measured potentials at the EEG electrodes. Methods While other reviews give an extensive summary of the both forward and inverse problem, this review article focuses on different aspects of solving the forward problem and it is intended for newcomers in this research field. Results It starts with focusing on the generators of the EEG: the post-synaptic potentials in the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons. These cells generate an extracellular current which can be modeled by Poisson's differential equation, and Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The compartments in which these currents flow can be anisotropic (e.g. skull and white matter. In a three-shell spherical head model an analytical expression exists to solve the forward problem. During the last two decades researchers have tried to solve Poisson's equation in a realistically shaped head model obtained from 3D medical images, which requires numerical methods. The following methods are compared with each other: the boundary element method (BEM, the finite element method (FEM and the finite difference method (FDM. In the last two methods anisotropic conducting compartments can conveniently be introduced. Then the focus will be set on the use of reciprocity in EEG source localization. It is introduced to speed up the forward calculations which are here performed for each electrode position rather than for each dipole position. Solving Poisson's equation utilizing FEM and FDM corresponds to solving a large sparse linear system. Iterative
Applying Groebner bases to solve reduction problems for Feynman integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.
2006-01-01
We describe how Groebner bases can be used to solve the reduction problem for Feynman integrals, i.e. to construct an algorithm that provides the possibility to express a Feynman integral of a given family as a linear combination of some master integrals. Our approach is based on a generalized Buchberger algorithm for constructing Groebner-type bases associated with polynomials of shift operators. We illustrate it through various examples of reduction problems for families of one- and two-loop Feynman integrals. We also solve the reduction problem for a family of integrals contributing to the three-loop static quark potential
Schoenfeld's problem solving theory in a student controlled learning environment
Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C.
2007-01-01
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes
Objective Oriented Problem Solving a Case Study: Mugher Cement ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Abstract. Objective Oriented Problem Solving technique is presented in two stages, namely the analysis phase and the planning phase. The first deals with the analysis of participants, problems, objectives and alternatives. In the second phase an explanation on how to form a planning matrix is given by way of discussing ...
Using problem-solving instruction to overcome high school ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
kofi.mereku
African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol. 13, 2017. 33. Using problem-solving instruction to overcome high school chemistry students' difficulties with stoichiometric problems. S. 1Mandina & C. E. 2Ochonogor. Abstract. The study sought to find out the difficulties encountered by high school ...
Tracing the Development, Transfer, and Persistence of Problem Solving Skills.
Stevens, Ron; Vendlinski, Terry; Palacio-Cayetano, Joyceline; Underdahl, Jennifer; Paek, Pamela; Sprang, Marcia; Simpson, Elise
Interactive Multi-Media Exercises (IMMEX) is a technology-based learning and assessment tool designed to integrate curricular content and problem-solving skills into real world scenarios. IMMEX inherits much of its structure from case-based and problem-based learning models and provides teachers with quantifiable, visual feedback on student…
Conceptualizing Perseverance in Problem Solving as Collective Enterprise
Sengupta-Irving, Tesha; Agarwal, Priyanka
2017-01-01
Students are expected to learn mathematics such that when they encounter challenging problems they will persist. Creating opportunities for students to persist in problem solving is therefore argued as essential to effective teaching and to children developing positive dispositions in mathematical learning. This analysis takes a novel approach to…
Lateral Thinking and Andragogy: Improving Problem Solving in Adulthood.
Brown, Helen W.
1985-01-01
Considers strategies to improve problem solving, especially at stages where roadblocks are likely to occur and which may account for problems experienced with andragogy. Following a brief look at the implications of adult developmental theory for andragogy, this article examines "lateral thinking" as one way to increase the effectiveness…
Students' errors in solving linear equation word problems: Case ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study examined errors students make in solving linear equation word problems with a view to expose the nature of these errors and to make suggestions for classroom teaching. A diagnostic test comprising 10 linear equation word problems, was administered to a sample (n=130) of senior high school first year Home ...
Fostering Basic Problem-Solving Skills in Chemistry | Lugemwa ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... and number of particles, Avogadro's number, and mole were attempted using triangles. In addition, a special triangle was constructed to relate the variables and a constant of the ideal gas law equation, and was used to solve ideal gas law problems. This visual representation of the problem helped students to understand ...
Bowland Maths: Problem Solving in Key Stage 3
Lane, Peter; Lister, Adelaide; Onion, Alice; Wintle, Karen
2008-01-01
A project has been developed for KS3 maths, funded by the Bowland Trust (www.bowlandmaths.org.uk) with additional support from the DCSF. It consists of a teaching resource of about 20 case-study problems aimed at developing thinking, reasoning and problem-solving skills and has been distributed to all UK secondary schools. Each case study includes…
The Students Decision Making in Solving Discount Problem
Abdillah; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Susanto, Hery; Abadyo
2016-01-01
This research is reviewing students' process of decision making intuitively, analytically, and interactively. The research done by using discount problem which specially created to explore student's intuition, analytically, and interactively. In solving discount problems, researcher exploring student's decision in determining their attitude which…
Effects of cooperative and problem-solving learning strategies on ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Learning is internalised faster and better when students are given opportunity to interact with one another in small groups; when topics are structured to solve real life problems, studying becomes fun and learning is facilitated and internalised; students learn better when a problem is used as a starting point for new ...
W-algebra for solving problems with fuzzy parameters
Shevlyakov, A. O.; Matveev, M. G.
2018-03-01
A method of solving the problems with fuzzy parameters by means of a special algebraic structure is proposed. The structure defines its operations through operations on real numbers, which simplifies its use. It avoids deficiencies limiting applicability of the other known structures. Examples for solution of a quadratic equation, a system of linear equations and a network planning problem are given.
Teaching problem-solving competency in Business Studies at ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The high unemployment rate in South Africa compels potential entrepreneurs to start their own businesses in order to survive. Often this is with little or no formal training or education in entrepreneurship. Since problem recognition and problem-solving are amongst the most crucial competencies required for a successful ...
Support method for solving an optimal xenon shutdown problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dung, L.C.
1992-01-01
Since the discovering of the maximum principle by Pontriagin in 1956, methods for solving optimal control problems have been developed fast. There are the efforts to solve an optimal problem of transient process in a nuclear reactor using its ideas. However, the classical maximum principle does not show how to construct an optimal control or suboptimal control with a given exactness. We exploit mainly in the present work the ideas of the support method proposed by Gabasov and Kirillova for linear systems, in order to solve an optimal control problem for non-linear systems. The constructive maximum principle for non-linear dynamic systems with controllable structure received by us in this paper is new result. The ε - maximum principle is used for receiving an 7-phase ε - optimal control of optimal xenon shutdown problem. (author)
Domain decomposition methods for solving an image problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsui, W.K.; Tong, C.S. [Hong Kong Baptist College (Hong Kong)
1994-12-31
The domain decomposition method is a technique to break up a problem so that ensuing sub-problems can be solved on a parallel computer. In order to improve the convergence rate of the capacitance systems, pre-conditioned conjugate gradient methods are commonly used. In the last decade, most of the efficient preconditioners are based on elliptic partial differential equations which are particularly useful for solving elliptic partial differential equations. In this paper, the authors apply the so called covering preconditioner, which is based on the information of the operator under investigation. Therefore, it is good for various kinds of applications, specifically, they shall apply the preconditioned domain decomposition method for solving an image restoration problem. The image restoration problem is to extract an original image which has been degraded by a known convolution process and additive Gaussian noise.
Beyond Psychometrics: The Difference between Difficult Problem Solving and Complex Problem Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jens F. Beckmann
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we argue that a synthesis of findings across the various sub-areas of research in complex problem solving and consequently progress in theory building is hampered by an insufficient differentiation of complexity and difficulty. In the proposed framework of person, task, and situation (PTS, complexity is conceptualized as a quality that is determined by the cognitive demands that the characteristics of the task and the situation impose. Difficulty represents the quantifiable level of a person’s success in dealing with such demands. We use the well-documented “semantic effect” as an exemplar for testing some of the conceptual assumptions derived from the PTS framework. We demonstrate how a differentiation between complexity and difficulty can help take beyond a potentially too narrowly defined psychometric perspective and subsequently gain a better understanding of the cognitive mechanisms behind this effect. In an empirical study a total of 240 university students were randomly allocated to one of four conditions. The four conditions resulted from contrasting the semanticity level of the variable labels used in the CPS system (high vs. low and two instruction conditions for how to explore the CPS system’s causal structure (starting with the assumption that all relationships between variables existed vs. starting with the assumption that none of the relationships existed. The variation in the instruction aimed at inducing knowledge acquisition processes of either (1 systematic elimination of presumptions, or (2 systematic compilation of a mental representation of the causal structure underpinning the system. Results indicate that (a it is more complex to adopt a “blank slate” perspective under high semanticity as it requires processes of inhibiting prior assumptions, and (b it seems more difficult to employ a systematic heuristic when testing against presumptions. In combination, situational characteristics, such as the
Solving the Stokes problem on a massively parallel computer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Axelsson, Owe; Barker, Vincent A.; Neytcheva, Maya
2001-01-01
We describe a numerical procedure for solving the stationary two‐dimensional Stokes problem based on piecewise linear finite element approximations for both velocity and pressure, a regularization technique for stability, and a defect‐correction technique for improving accuracy. Eliminating...... boundary value problem for each velocity component, are solved by the conjugate gradient method with a preconditioning based on the algebraic multi‐level iteration (AMLI) technique. The velocity is found from the computed pressure. The method is optimal in the sense that the computational work...... the velocity unknowns from the algebraic system yields a symmetric positive semidefinite system for pressure which is solved by an inner‐outer iteration. The outer iterations consist of the unpreconditioned conjugate gradient method. The inner iterations, each of which corresponds to solving an elliptic...
A genetic algorithm used for solving one optimization problem
Shipacheva, E. N.; Petunin, A. A.; Berezin, I. M.
2017-12-01
A problem of minimizing the length of the blank run for a cutting tool during cutting of sheet materials into shaped blanks is discussed. This problem arises during the preparation of control programs for computerized numerical control (CNC) machines. A discrete model of the problem is analogous in setting to the generalized travelling salesman problem with limitations in the form of precursor conditions determined by the technological features of cutting. A certain variant of a genetic algorithm for solving this problem is described. The effect of the parameters of the developed algorithm on the solution result for the problem with limitations is investigated.
Unsupervised neural networks for solving Troesch's problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raja Muhammad Asif Zahoor
2014-01-01
In this study, stochastic computational intelligence techniques are presented for the solution of Troesch's boundary value problem. The proposed stochastic solvers use the competency of a feed-forward artificial neural network for mathematical modeling of the problem in an unsupervised manner, whereas the learning of unknown parameters is made with local and global optimization methods as well as their combinations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and pattern search (PS) techniques are used as the global search methods and the interior point method (IPM) is used for an efficient local search. The combination of techniques like GA hybridized with IPM (GA-IPM) and PS hybridized with IPM (PS-IPM) are also applied to solve different forms of the equation. A comparison of the proposed results obtained from GA, PS, IPM, PS-IPM and GA-IPM has been made with the standard solutions including well known analytic techniques of the Adomian decomposition method, the variational iterational method and the homotopy perturbation method. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed schemes, in term of accuracy and convergence, are evaluated from the results of statistical analysis based on sufficiently large independent runs. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
New high order FDTD method to solve EMC problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Deymier
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In electromagnetic compatibility (EMC context, we are interested in developing new ac- curate methods to solve efficiently and accurately Maxwell’s equations in the time domain. Indeed, usual methods such as FDTD or FVTD present im- portant dissipative and/or dispersive errors which prevent to obtain a good numerical approximation of the physical solution for a given industrial scene unless we use a mesh with a very small cell size. To avoid this problem, schemes like the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG method, based on higher order spa- tial approximations, have been introduced and stud- ied on unstructured meshes. However the cost of this kind of method can become prohibitive accord- ing to the mesh used. In this paper, we first present a higher order spatial approximation method on carte- sian meshes. It is based on a finite element ap- proach and recovers at the order 1 the well-known Yee’s schema. Next, to deal with EMC problem, a non-oriented thin wire formalism is proposed for this method. Finally, several examples are given to present the benefits of this new method by compar- ison with both Yee’s schema and DG approaches.
Peer instruction enhanced meaningful learning: ability to solve novel problems.
Cortright, Ronald N; Collins, Heidi L; DiCarlo, Stephen E
2005-06-01
Students must be able to interpret, relate, and incorporate new information with existing knowledge and apply the new information to solve novel problems. Peer instruction is a cooperative learning technique that promotes critical thinking, problem solving, and decision-making skills. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that peer instruction enhances meaningful learning or transfer, defined as the student's ability to solve novel problems or the ability to extend what has been learned in one context to new contexts. To test this hypothesis, our undergraduate exercise physiology class of 38 students was randomly divided into two groups: group A (n = 19) and group B (n = 19). A randomized crossover design in which students either answered questions individually or during peer instruction was used to control for time and order effects. The first factor that influences meaningful learning is the degree of mastery of the original material. Importantly, peer instruction significantly enhanced mastery of the original material. Furthermore, the student's ability to solve novel problems was significantly enhanced following peer instruction. Thus pausing two to three times during a 50-min class to allow peer instruction enhanced the mastery of the original material and enhanced meaningful learning, i.e., the student's ability to solve novel problems.
Collection of problems in physical chemistry
Bareš, Jirí; Fried, Vojtech
1961-01-01
Collection of Problems in Physical Chemistry provides illustrations and problems covering the field of physical chemistry. The material has been arranged into illustrations that are solved and supplemented by problems, thus enabling readers to determine the extent to which they have mastered each subject. Most of the illustrations and problems were taken from original papers, to which reference is made. The English edition of this book has been translated from the manuscript of the 2nd Czech edition. It has been changed slightly in some places and enlarged on in others on the basis of further
Creative and Participative Problem Solving - The Art and the Science
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
This book collects my experiences as a facilitator for many different communities and organizations and as a teacher at the Technical University of Denmark for the courses Creativity and Problem Solving and Systemic Operational Research. Several of the chapters has been used in my lecturing...... activities in Denmark and abroad. The target groups for this book are people and professionals from communities, organizations, and ad-hoc groups facing problematic situations that have to be solved in an innovative way....
Optimal calculational schemes for solving multigroup photon transport problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubinin, A.A.; Kurachenko, Yu.A.
1987-01-01
A scheme of complex algorithm for solving multigroup equation of radiation transport is suggested. The algorithm is based on using the method of successive collisions, the method of forward scattering and the spherical harmonics method, and is realized in the FORAP program (FORTRAN, BESM-6 computer). As an example the results of calculating reactor photon transport in water are presented. The considered algorithm being modified may be used for solving neutron transport problems
Freeman-Green, Shaqwana M.; O'Brien, Chris; Wood, Charles L.; Hitt, Sara Beth
2015-01-01
This study examined the effects of explicit instruction in the SOLVE Strategy on the mathematical problem solving skills of six Grade 8 students with specific learning disabilities. The SOLVE Strategy is an explicit instruction, mnemonic-based learning strategy designed to help students in solving mathematical word problems. Using a multiple probe…
Holonic-Based Environment for Solving Transportation Problems
Gołacki, Michał; Koźlak, Jarosław; Żabińska, Małgorzata
In this paper, a system based on the concept of holons for solving transportation problems is presented. Such a system focuses on the possibility of comparing the quality of solutions offered by the system with the results obtained from classical algorithms for commonly used sets of test problems. These problems were modified in order to take into consideration the fundamental features offered by the holonic approach.
Solving Bus Terminal Location Problem Using Genetic Algorithm
S. Babaie-Kafaki; R. Ghanbari; S.H. Nasseri; E. Ardil
2008-01-01
Bus networks design is an important problem in public transportation. The main step to this design, is determining the number of required terminals and their locations. This is an especial type of facility location problem, a large scale combinatorial optimization problem that requires a long time to be solved. The genetic algorithm (GA) is a search and optimization technique which works based on evolutionary principle of natural chromosomes. Specifically, the evolution o...
Developing A Combined Strategy For Solving Quadratic Assignment Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Faiz Ahyaningsih
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract The quadratic assigment problem QAP is one of the most interesting and most challenging combinatorial optimization problems in existence. In this paper we propose a random point strategy to get a starting point and then we use a combination methods to get optimal solution. As a computational experience weve solved QAP 30 x 30 adopted from Nugent and backboard wiring problem 42 amp61620 42 adopted from Skorin-Kapov.
A Modified Halpern's Iterative Scheme for Solving Split Feasibility Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jitsupa Deepho
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce and study a modified Halpern’s iterative scheme for solving the split feasibility problem (SFP in the setting of infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Under suitable conditions a strong convergence theorem is established. The main result presented in this paper improves and extends some recent results done by Xu (Iterative methods for the split feasibility problem in infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, Inverse Problem 26 (2010 105018 and some others.
Calculus Problem Solving Behavior of Mathematic Education Students
Rizal, M.; Mansyur, J.
2017-04-01
The purpose of this study is to obtain a description of the problem-solving behaviour of mathematics education students. The attainment of the purpose consisted of several stages: (1) to gain the subject from the mathematic education of first semester students, each of them who has a high, medium, and low competence of mathematic case. (2) To give two mathematical problems with different characteristics. The first problem (M1), the statement does not lead to a resolution. The second problem (M2), a statement leads to problem-solving. (3) To explore the behaviour of problem-solving based on the step of Polya (Rizal, 2011) by way of thinking aloud and in-depth interviews. The obtained data are analysed as suggested by Miles and Huberman (1994) but at first, time triangulation is done or data’s credibility by providing equivalent problem contexts and at different times. The results show that the behavioral problem solvers (mathematic education students) who are capable of high mathematic competency (ST). In understanding M1, ST is more likely to pay attention to an image first, read the texts piecemeal and repeatedly, then as a whole and more focus to the sentences that contain equations, numbers or symbols. As a result, not all information can be received well. When understanding the M2, ST can link the information from a problem that is stored in the working memory to the information on the long-term memory. ST makes planning to the solution of M1 and M2 by using a formula based on similar experiences which have been ever received before. Another case when implementing the troubleshooting plans, ST complete the M1 according to the plan, but not all can be resolved correctly. In contrast to the implementation of the solving plan of M2, ST can solve the problem according to plan quickly and correctly. According to the solving result of M1 and M2, ST conducts by reading the job based on an algorithm and reasonability. Furthermore, when SS and SR understand the
Ancel, Gulsum
2016-01-01
Problem Statement: Problem-Solving (PS) skills have been determined to be an internationally useful strategy for better nursing. That is why PS skills underlie all nursing practice, teamwork, and health care management, and are a main topic in undergraduate nursing education. Thus, there is a need to develop effective methods to teach…
The Future of Design: Unframed Problem Solving in Design Education
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Gelting, Anne Katrine Gøtzsche
2016-01-01
The present paper sets out to investigate the impact and significance of a 3rd semester course in design methods, complex problem solving, and cross-disciplinary collaboration to the students within six design disciplines as experienced by the students three years later. The course reflects a shift...... in focus from a design practice framed by outcome to open-ended problem solving. Data shows that some students draw a direct line between the course and later success, for instance in obtaining an internship, whereas others find it of little use and relevance to later practice. Existing design research...... and theory is applied to further understand how to motivate design students to engage in an expanded field of design practice. Findings indicate that students need help to disengage from identifying with a particular design discipline if they are to engage in complex problem solving with an open mindset...
EKSPERIMENTASI STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN SYSTEMATIC PROBLEM SOLVING TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR SISWA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sulaiman Sulaiman
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the difference in average math student learning outcomes obtained using systematic problem solving learning strategies with average math student learning outcomes obtained using expository teaching strategy. The population in this study is the first semester of class X SMK Islam Adiluwih 2015-2016 school year, amounting to 137 people and is divided into five classes. The results of the data analysis test two parties at significant level 5% results obtained thitung = 3.66 and ttable = 1.99, which means there are differences in the average math student learning outcomes obtained using systematic learning strategy problem expository solving strategies. Then the t-test data analysis of the parties with a significant level of 5% obtained thitung = 3.66 and ttable = 1.67, which means the average student learning outcomes obtained using systematic problem solving learning strategy is better than expository teaching strategy.
Third International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving
Deep, Kusum; Nagar, Atulya; Bansal, Jagdish
2014-01-01
The present book is based on the research papers presented in the 3rd International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2013), held as a part of the golden jubilee celebrations of the Saharanpur Campus of IIT Roorkee, at the Noida Campus of Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India. This book is divided into two volumes and covers a variety of topics including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and health care, data mining etc. Particular emphasis is laid on soft computing and its application to diverse fields. The prime objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems, which are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed ...
Second International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving
Nagar, Atulya; Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Ray, Kanad; Gupta, Umesh
2014-01-01
The present book is based on the research papers presented in the International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2012), held at JK Lakshmipat University, Jaipur, India. This book provides the latest developments in the area of soft computing and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modeling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, data mining, etc. The objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems that are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various fields of Science and Technology.
Information Seeking When Problem Solving: Perspectives of Public Health Professionals.
Newman, Kristine; Dobbins, Maureen; Yost, Jennifer; Ciliska, Donna
2017-04-01
Given the many different types of professionals working in public health and their diverse roles, it is likely that their information needs, information-seeking behaviors, and problem-solving abilities differ. Although public health professionals often work in interdisciplinary teams, few studies have explored their information needs and behaviors within the context of teamwork. This study explored the relationship between Canadian public health professionals' perceptions of their problem-solving abilities and their information-seeking behaviors with a specific focus on the use of evidence in practice settings. It also explored their perceptions of collaborative information seeking and the work contexts in which they sought information. Key Canadian contacts at public health organizations helped recruit study participants through their list-servs. An electronic survey was used to gather data about (a) individual information-seeking behaviors, (b) collaborative information-seeking behaviors, (c) use of evidence in practice environments, (d) perceived problem-solving abilities, and (e) demographic characteristics. Fifty-eight public health professionals were recruited, with different roles and representing most Canadian provinces and one territory. A significant relationship was found between perceived problem-solving abilities and collaborative information-seeking behavior (r = -.44, p information seeking. The results suggested that when public health professionals take a shared, active approach to problem solving, maintain personal control, and have confidence, they are more likely collaborate with others in seeking information to complete a work task. Administrators of public health organizations should promote collaboration by implementing effective communication and information-seeking strategies, and by providing information resources and retrieval tools. Public health professionals' perceived problem-solving abilities can influence how they collaborate in
Evidence of Problem-Solving Transfer in Web-Based Socratic Tutor
Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Palazzo, David J.; Pritchard, David E.
2006-02-01
We demonstrate learning and problem-solving transfer within the web-based homework tutor MasteringPhysics by considering time to completion, the number of hints requested, and the number of incorrect responses given. The group of students who were prepared by a prior related problem solves a related follow-up problem in ˜14% less time on average compared to an unprepared group on that problem. Furthermore, the prepared group requests ˜15% fewer hints and makes about ˜11% fewer errors on average than the unprepared group.
Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller
2015-01-01
We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...... introduce a novel mathematical model and a simulated annealing algorithm for the LSFRP with cargo flows that makes use of a carefully constructed graph; we evaluate these approaches using real-world data from our industrial collaborator. Additionally, we compare the performance of our approach against...... to solve the LSFRP....
A Predictor-Corrector Method for Solving Equilibrium Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zong-Ke Bao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We suggest and analyze a predictor-corrector method for solving nonsmooth convex equilibrium problems based on the auxiliary problem principle. In the main algorithm each stage of computation requires two proximal steps. One step serves to predict the next point; the other helps to correct the new prediction. At the same time, we present convergence analysis under perfect foresight and imperfect one. In particular, we introduce a stopping criterion which gives rise to Δ-stationary points. Moreover, we apply this algorithm for solving the particular case: variational inequalities.
Quantum speedup in solving the maximal-clique problem
Chang, Weng-Long; Yu, Qi; Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Jiahui; Peng, Xinhua; Feng, Mang
2018-03-01
The maximal-clique problem, to find the maximally sized clique in a given graph, is classically an NP-complete computational problem, which has potential applications ranging from electrical engineering, computational chemistry, and bioinformatics to social networks. Here we develop a quantum algorithm to solve the maximal-clique problem for any graph G with n vertices with quadratic speedup over its classical counterparts, where the time and spatial complexities are reduced to, respectively, O (√{2n}) and O (n2) . With respect to oracle-related quantum algorithms for the NP-complete problems, we identify our algorithm as optimal. To justify the feasibility of the proposed quantum algorithm, we successfully solve a typical clique problem for a graph G with two vertices and one edge by carrying out a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment involving four qubits.
Guidance for modeling causes and effects in environmental problem solving
Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.
1988-01-01
Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).
Students’ Algebraic Reasonsing In Solving Mathematical Problems With Adversity Quotient
Aryani, F.; Amin, S. M.; Sulaiman, R.
2018-01-01
Algebraic reasoning is a process in which students generalize mathematical ideas from a set of particular instances and express them in increasingly formal and age-appropriate ways. Using problem solving approach to develop algebraic reasoning of mathematics may enhace the long-term learning trajectory of the majority students. The purpose of this research was to describe the algebraic reasoning of quitter, camper, and climber junior high school students in solving mathematical problems. This research used qualitative descriptive method. Subjects were determined by purposive sampling. The technique of collecting data was done by task-based interviews.The results showed that the algebraic reasoning of three students in the process of pattern seeking by identifying the things that are known and asked in a similar way. But three students found the elements of pattern recognition in different ways or method. So, they are generalize the problem of pattern formation with different ways. The study of algebraic reasoning and problem solving can be a learning paradigm in the improve students’ knowledge and skills in algebra work. The goal is to help students’ improve academic competence, develop algebraic reasoning in problem solving.
Neural activity when people solve verbal problems with insight.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark Jung-Beeman
2004-04-01
Full Text Available People sometimes solve problems with a unique process called insight, accompanied by an "Aha!" experience. It has long been unclear whether different cognitive and neural processes lead to insight versus noninsight solutions, or if solutions differ only in subsequent subjective feeling. Recent behavioral studies indicate distinct patterns of performance and suggest differential hemispheric involvement for insight and noninsight solutions. Subjects solved verbal problems, and after each correct solution indicated whether they solved with or without insight. We observed two objective neural correlates of insight. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (Experiment 1 revealed increased activity in the right hemisphere anterior superior temporal gyrus for insight relative to noninsight solutions. The same region was active during initial solving efforts. Scalp electroencephalogram recordings (Experiment 2 revealed a sudden burst of high-frequency (gamma-band neural activity in the same area beginning 0.3 s prior to insight solutions. This right anterior temporal area is associated with making connections across distantly related information during comprehension. Although all problem solving relies on a largely shared cortical network, the sudden flash of insight occurs when solvers engage distinct neural and cognitive processes that allow them to see connections that previously eluded them.
Building problem solving environments with the arches framework
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Debardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sass, Ron [U NORTH CAROLINA; Stanzione, Jr., Daniel [ASU; Ligon, Ill, Walter [CLEMSON UNIV
2009-01-01
The computational problems that scientists face are rapidly escalating in size and scope. Moreover, the computer systems used to solve these problems are becoming significantly more complex than the familiar, well-understood sequential model on their desktops. While it is possible to re-train scientists to use emerging high-performance computing (HPC) models, it is much more effective to provide them with a higher-level programming environment that has been specialized to their particular domain. By fostering interaction between HPC specialists and the domain scientists, problem-solving environments (PSEs) provide a collaborative environment. A PSE environment allows scientists to focus on expressing their computational problem while the PSE and associated tools support mapping that domain-specific problem to a high-performance computing system. This article describes Arches, an object-oriented framework for building domain-specific PSEs. The framework was designed to support a wide range of problem domains and to be extensible to support very different high-performance computing targets. To demonstrate this flexibility, two PSEs have been developed from the Arches framework to solve problem in two different domains and target very different computing platforms. The Coven PSE supports parallel applications that require large-scale parallelism found in cost-effective Beowulf clusters. In contrast, RCADE targets FPGA-based reconfigurable computing and was originally designed to aid NASA Earth scientists studying satellite instrument data.
Solving Multiple Timetabling Problems at Danish High Schools
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansen, Simon
Planning problems at educational institutions are often time-consuming and complex tasks. Educational planning problems are studied using operational research techniques, which have been used with success and resulting in great improvements on the field. Educational planning problems are often...... in High School Timetabling has mainly been concentrated on local problems until recently. By the creation of an XML-format, XHSTT, and applicable wide ranging benchmark instances, it is been possible to solve the more generalized High School Timetabling problem. The first part of this thesis presents two...... show that by using a sequential method it is possible to gain much better results. The last part of the thesis is concerned the Meeting Planning Problem and presented with two papers. The Consultation Timetabling Problem is one of the minor, but still time-consuming, planning problems at the Danish...
Mushlihuddin, R.; Nurafifah; Irvan
2018-01-01
The student’s low ability in mathematics problem solving proved to the less effective of a learning process in the classroom. Effective learning was a learning that affects student’s math skills, one of which is problem-solving abilities. Problem-solving capability consisted of several stages: understanding the problem, planning the settlement, solving the problem as planned, re-examining the procedure and the outcome. The purpose of this research was to know: (1) was there any influence of PBL model in improving ability Problem solving of student math in a subject of vector analysis?; (2) was the PBL model effective in improving students’ mathematical problem-solving skills in vector analysis courses? This research was a quasi-experiment research. The data analysis techniques performed from the test stages of data description, a prerequisite test is the normality test, and hypothesis test using the ANCOVA test and Gain test. The results showed that: (1) there was an influence of PBL model in improving students’ math problem-solving abilities in vector analysis courses; (2) the PBL model was effective in improving students’ problem-solving skills in vector analysis courses with a medium category.
Modelling human problem solving with data from an online game.
Rach, Tim; Kirsch, Alexandra
2016-11-01
Since the beginning of cognitive science, researchers have tried to understand human strategies in order to develop efficient and adequate computational methods. In the domain of problem solving, the travelling salesperson problem has been used for the investigation and modelling of human solutions. We propose to extend this effort with an online game, in which instances of the travelling salesperson problem have to be solved in the context of a game experience. We report on our effort to design and run such a game, present the data contained in the resulting openly available data set and provide an outlook on the use of games in general for cognitive science research. In addition, we present three geometrical models mapping the starting point preferences in the problems presented in the game as the result of an evaluation of the data set.
Comparison of Problem Solving from Engineering Design to Software Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Babar, Muhammad Ali
2012-01-01
Observational studies of engineering design activities can inform the research community on the problem solving models that are employed by professional engineers. Design is defined as an ill-defined problem which includes both engineering design and software design, hence understanding problem...... solving models from other design domains is of interest to the engineering design community. For this paper an observational study of two software design sessions performed for the workshop on “Studying professional Software Design” is compared to analysis from engineering design. These findings provide...... useful insights of how software designers move from a problem domain to a solution domain and the commonalities between software designers’ and engineering designers’ design activities. The software designers were found to move quickly to a detailed design phase, employ co-.evolution and adopt...
Comparison of Problem Solving from Engineering Design to Software Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Babar, Muhammad Ali
2012-01-01
solving models from other design domains is of interest to the engineering design community. For this paper an observational study of two software design sessions performed for the workshop on “Studying professional Software Design” is compared to analysis from engineering design. These findings provide......Observational studies of engineering design activities can inform the research community on the problem solving models that are employed by professional engineers. Design is defined as an ill-defined problem which includes both engineering design and software design, hence understanding problem...... useful insights of how software designers move from a problem domain to a solution domain and the commonalities between software designers’ and engineering designers’ design activities. The software designers were found to move quickly to a detailed design phase, employ co-.evolution and adopt...
Ant colony optimization for solving university facility layout problem
Mohd Jani, Nurul Hafiza; Mohd Radzi, Nor Haizan; Ngadiman, Mohd Salihin
2013-04-01
Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAP) is classified as the NP hard problem. It has been used to model a lot of problem in several areas such as operational research, combinatorial data analysis and also parallel and distributed computing, optimization problem such as graph portioning and Travel Salesman Problem (TSP). In the literature, researcher use exact algorithm, heuristics algorithm and metaheuristic approaches to solve QAP problem. QAP is largely applied in facility layout problem (FLP). In this paper we used QAP to model university facility layout problem. There are 8 facilities that need to be assigned to 8 locations. Hence we have modeled a QAP problem with n ≤ 10 and developed an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to solve the university facility layout problem. The objective is to assign n facilities to n locations such that the minimum product of flows and distances is obtained. Flow is the movement from one to another facility, whereas distance is the distance between one locations of a facility to other facilities locations. The objective of the QAP is to obtain minimum total walking (flow) of lecturers from one destination to another (distance).
Mechanics problems in undergraduate physics
Strelkov, S P
2013-01-01
Problems in Undergraduate Physics, Volume I: Mechanics focuses on solutions to problems in physics. The book first discusses the fundamental problems in physics. Topics include laws of conservation of momentum and energy; dynamics of a point particle in circular motion; dynamics of a rotating rigid body; hydrostatics and aerostatics; and acoustics. The text also offers information on solutions to problems in physics. Answers to problems in kinematics, statics, gravity, elastic deformations, vibrations, and hydrostatics and aerostatics are discussed. Solutions to problems related to the laws of
Separable boundary-value problems in physics
Willatzen, Morten
2011-01-01
Innovative developments in science and technology require a thorough knowledge of applied mathematics, particularly in the field of differential equations and special functions. These are relevant in modeling and computing applications of electromagnetic theory and quantum theory, e.g. in photonics and nanotechnology. The problem of solving partial differential equations remains an important topic that is taught at both the undergraduate and graduate level. Separable Boundary-Value Problems in Physics is an accessible and comprehensive treatment of partial differential equations i
The Teacher as a Role Model in Problem Solving
Cherkas, Barry M.
1978-01-01
The author discusses the use of free-hand drawing, the modified Socratic teaching method, and the differentiation of mathematical language from colloquial usage as techniques which he has found helpful in creating a positive classroom environment for teaching problem solving. (MN)
Writing and mathematical problem solving in Grade 3
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Belinda Petersen
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This article looks at writing tasks as a methodology to support learners’ mathematical problemsolving strategies in the South African Foundation Phase context. It is a qualitative case study and explores the relation between the use of writing in mathematics and development of learners’ problem-solving strategies and conceptual understanding. The research was conducted in a suburban Foundation Phase school in Cape Town with a class of Grade 3 learners involved in a writing and mathematics intervention. Writing tasks were modelled to learners and implemented by them while they were engaged in mathematical problem solving. Data were gathered from a sample of eight learners of different abilities and included written work, interviews, field notes and audio recordings of ability group discussions. The results revealed an improvement in the strategies and explanations learners used when solving mathematical problems compared to before the writing tasks were implemented. Learners were able to reflect critically on their thinking through their written strategies and explanations. The writing tasks appeared to support learners in providing opportunities to construct and apply mathematical knowledge and skills in their development of problem-solving strategies.
Designing WebQuests to Support Creative Problem Solving
Rubin, Jim
2013-01-01
WebQuests have been a popular alternative for collaborative group work that utilizes internet resources, but studies have questioned how effective they are in challenging students to use higher order thinking processes that involve creative problem solving. This article explains how different levels of inquiry relate to categories of learning…
Solving Minimum Cost Multi-Commodity Network Flow Problem ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ADOWIE PERE
the linear function of the ith goal; bi - an aspiration level of the ith goal; X - the vector of decision variables; F - the feasible set of constraints. Lexicographic Goal Programming was used in this work being an approach that solves Goal. Programming problems with priorities on objectives in order achieve travel time ...
George Pólya & Problem Solving ... An Appreciation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
P¶olya's work in problem-solving dates to the time when he and fellow Hungarian G¶abor SzegÄo collaborated to ... in two volumes, subtitled `Induction and Analogy in. Mathematics' and `Patterns of Plausible Inference'; and .... Here, the sheer visual complexity is off-putting. What would be P¶olya's approach now? It seems ...
Young doctors' problem solving strategies on call may be improved
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Michelsen, Jens; Malchow-Møller, Axel; Charles, Peder
2013-01-01
The first year following graduation from medical school is challenging as learning from books changes to workplace-based learning. Analysis and reflection on experience may ease this transition. We used Significant Event Analysis (SEA) as a tool to explore what pre-registration house officers (PR...... (PRHOs) consider successful and problematic events, and to identify what problem-solving strategies they employ....
Students' Competence in some Problem Solving Skills throughout ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The main objective of the study was to test students' competence, throughout all their years (first, second and final years) of a B.Sc. course, in five important types of problem solving skills: information processing skills; skills concerning equations; graphical skills; three-dimensional visualization skills and inverse proportion ...
Diachrony in Human Cognition and Problem Solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gahrn-Andersen, Rasmus
2017-01-01
Problem solving should not be reduced to situated or localized activity since cognizers also draw on non-local resources that are not actually experienced but which nevertheless impart on their situated cognition. A Varelianinspired epistemology neglects this nonlocality, which is a vital trait...
Occupational Gender Stereotypes and Problem-Solving in Italian Adolescents
Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura
2017-01-01
The first purpose of the study was to establish how Italian adolescents perceive jobs in the newly emerging economy sectors as well as more traditional jobs from gender-stereotyped and gender-segregated perspectives. The second purpose was to verify the role of problem-solving and gender in gender-role stereotyping. A total of 217 Italian high…
On solving energy-dependent partitioned eigenvalue problem by ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
An energy-dependent partitioning scheme is explored for extracting a small number of eigenvalues of a real symmetric matrix with the help of genetic algorithm. The proposed method is tested with matrices of different sizes (30 × 30 to 1000 × 1000). Comparison is made with Löwdin's strategy for solving the problem.
Solving the Water Jugs Problem by an Integer Sequence Approach
Man, Yiu-Kwong
2012-01-01
In this article, we present an integer sequence approach to solve the classic water jugs problem. The solution steps can be obtained easily by additions and subtractions only, which is suitable for manual calculation or programming by computer. This approach can be introduced to secondary and undergraduate students, and also to teachers and…
Using problem-solving instruction to overcome high school ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
kofi.mereku
S. 1Mandina & C. E. 2Ochonogor. Abstract. The study sought to find out the difficulties encountered by high school chemistry students when solving stoichiometric problems. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design. 525participants drawn from 8 highs schools in a local education district in Zimbabwe participated in ...
The Effect of Alternative Solutions on Problem Solving Performance
Lee, Shin-Yi
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of instruction in alternative solutions on Taiwanese eighth-grade students' mathematical problem solving performance. This study was exploratory rather than experimental. Alternative-Solution Worksheet (ASW) was developed to encourage students' engagement with alternative solutions to…
Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving
Ayllón, María F.; Gómez, Isabel A.; Ballesta-Claver, Julio
2016-01-01
This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas), flexibility (range of ideas),…
Development of a Test of Experimental Problem-Solving Skills.
Ross, John A.; Maynes, Florence J.
1983-01-01
Multiple-choice tests were constructed for seven problem-solving skills using learning hierarchies based on expert-novice differences and refined in three phases of field testing. Includes test reliabilities (sufficient for making judgments of group performance but insufficient in single-administration for individual assessment), validity, and…
Experimental Problem Solving: An Instructional Improvement Field Experiment.
Ross, John A.; Maynes, Florence J.
1983-01-01
An instructional program based on expert-novice differences in experimental problem-solving performance was taught to grade six students (N=265). Performance was assessed with multiple-choice and open-ended measures of specific transfer. Between-group comparisons using pretest scores as covariate showed treatment condition students consistently…
Representational scripting to support students’ online problem-solving performance
Slof, Bert; Erkens, Gijsbert; Kirschner, Paul A.
2011-01-01
Slof, B., Erkens, G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, July). Representational scripting to support students’ online problem-solving performance. In K. Gomez, L. Lyons, & J. Radinsky (Eds.), Learning in the Disciplines: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS 2010)
SMILE Maker : a web-based tool for problem solving
Stoyanov, S.; Aroyo, L.M.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Ivanov, Ivan
1999-01-01
This paper focuses on the purposes, theoretical model, and functionality of the SMILE (Solution Mapping Intelligent Learning Environment) Maker--a World Wide Web-based problem-solving tool. From an instructional design point of view, an attempt to establish a balance between
Undergraduate Performance in Solving Ill-Defined Biochemistry Problems
Sensibaugh, Cheryl A.; Madrid, Nathaniel J.; Choi, Hye-Jeong; Anderson, William L.; Osgood, Marcy P.
2017-01-01
With growing interest in promoting skills related to the scientific process, we studied performance in solving ill-defined problems demonstrated by graduating biochemistry majors at a public, minority-serving university. As adoption of techniques for facilitating the attainment of higher-order learning objectives broadens, so too does the need to…
Effects of Problem-Solving, Guided-Discovery and Expository ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study investigated the relative effectiveness of problem-solving, guideddiscovery, and expository methods of instruction on students performance in redox reaction, considering their mathematics ability. It was a quasiexperimental research using non-randomized-pre-test post-test control group design with expository ...
Towards efficient measurement of metacognition in mathematical problem solving
Jacobse, Annemieke E.; Harskamp, Egbert G.
Metacognitive monitoring and regulation play an essential role in mathematical problem solving. Therefore, it is important for researchers and practitioners to assess students' metacognition. One proven valid, but time consuming, method to assess metacognition is by using think-aloud protocols.
Cultivating Peace through Design Thinking: Problem Solving with PAST Foundation
Deaner, Kat; McCreery-Kellert, Heather
2018-01-01
Design thinking is a methodology that emphasizes reasoning and decision-making as part of the problem-solving process. It is a structured framework for identifying challenges, gathering information, generating potential solutions, refining ideas, and testing solutions. Design thinking offers valuable skills that will serve students well as they…
Team Self-Assessment: Problem Solving for Small Workgroups.
LoBue, Robert
2002-01-01
Describes team self-assessment, a task force approach involving frontline workers/supervisors in solving problems or improving performance. Provides examples and discusses its theoretical bases: control self-assessment, Belbin's team roles research, and the team climate inventory. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)
Gender Differences in the Measurement of Creative Problem-Solving
Hardy, Jay H., III; Gibson, Carter
2017-01-01
Despite significant scholarly attention, the literature on the existence and direction of gender differences in creativity has produced inconsistent findings. In the present paper, we argue that this lack of consensus may be attributable, at least in part, to gender-specific inconsistencies in the measurement of creative problem-solving. To…
Validation of the Solving Problems Scale with Teachers
Ryan, Mary Elizabeth
2011-01-01
Rapid advancements in technology, global competitiveness, and an increasing demand for 21st-century skills, such as problem-solving, underscore the pivotal role teachers play to prepare our youth for an era of exponential change. Those at the forefront of education are challenged to equip students with skills and strategies necessary to think…
Assisting Students with Argumentation Plans when Solving Problems in CSCL
Monteserin, Ariel; Schiaffino, Silvia; Amandi, Analia
2010-01-01
In CSCL systems, students who are solving problems in group have to negotiate with each other by exchanging proposals and arguments in order to resolve the conflicts and generate a shared solution. In this context, argument construction assistance is necessary to facilitate reaching to a consensus. This assistance is usually provided with isolated…
IMMEX Problem-Solving Software: Integrating Curriculum into Technology.
Underdahl, Jennifer
2002-01-01
Explains the history of IMMEX (Interactive Multi-Media Exercises) and its evolution into a Web-delivered, interactive software program, which assesses student understanding of curriculum in K-16 classrooms by tracking its application in real-world, problem-solving scenarios. Discusses performance feedback for teachers and students, and offers…
Students' Perceptions of Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving
Wu, I-Chen; Pease, Randal; Maker, C. June
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore 42 elementary students' perceptions of their experiences while they were engaging in a class in which the Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS) model was used. A qualitative study was conducted to analyze their responses. Individual interviews and artifacts were collected and analyzed. Themes…
Problem Solving Teams in a Total Quality Management Environment.
Towler, Constance F.
1993-01-01
Outlines the problem-solving team training process used at Harvard University (Massachusetts), including the size and formation of teams, roles, and time commitment. Components of the process are explained, including introduction to Total Quality Management (TQM), customer satisfaction, meeting management, Parker Team Player Survey, interactive…
Solving Unconstrained Global Optimization Problems via Hybrid Swarm Intelligence Approaches
Wu, Jui-Yu
2013-01-01
Stochastic global optimization (SGO) algorithms such as the particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach have become popular for solving unconstrained global optimization (UGO) problems. The PSO approach, which belongs to the swarm intelligence domain, does not require gradient information, enabling it to overcome this limitation of traditional nonlinear programming methods. Unfortunately, PSO algorithm implementation and performance depend on several parameters, such as cognitive parameter, so...
SolveDB: Integrating Optimization Problem Solvers Into SQL Databases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Siksnys, Laurynas; Pedersen, Torben Bach
2016-01-01
for optimization problems, (2) an extensible infrastructure for integrating different solvers, and (3) query optimization techniques to achieve the best execution performance and/or result quality. Extensive experiments with the PostgreSQL-based implementation show that SolveDB is a versatile tool offering much...
Gender Difference and Problem Solving Skills in Mathematics ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper investigated gender difference and students problem solving skills in mathematics probability by senior secondary school students with a view to determining differences in operational steps and levels of achievers. A total of 300 male and female students were randomly selected from 10 schools in the three ...
Strategies for Promoting Problem Solving and Transfer: A Qualitative Study
Bagby, Janet; Sulak, Tracey
2009-01-01
Problem solving allows students to use what they know to achieve a goal when no solution is apparent. Traditional educational models evolved from an earlier system, based on rote memorization and designed to produce employees for industry. The workforce of tomorrow must move beyond rote learning by both applying current knowledge and using…
Solving unit commitment and economic load dispatch problems ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Solving unit commitment and economic load dispatch problems using modern optimization algorithms. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) and Unit Commitment (UC) are very important applications to predict the optimized cost of load in a power system.
Problem-Solving Practices and Complexity in School Psychology
Brady, John; Espinosa, William R.
2017-01-01
How do experienced school psychologists solve problems in their practice? What can trainers of school psychologists learn about how to structure training and mentoring of graduate students from what actually happens in schools, and how can this inform our teaching at the university? This qualitative multi-interview study explored the processes…
A Semantic Scene Description Language for Procedural Layout Solving Problems
Tutenel, T.; Smelik, R.M.; Bidarra, R.; Kraker, K.J. de
2010-01-01
Procedural content generation is becoming more and more relevant to solve the problem of content creation for the ever growing virtual worlds of games, simulations and other applications. However, these procedures are often unintuitive or use vague parameters, making it somewhat difficult for a
How Digital Scaffolds in Games Direct Problem-Solving Behaviors
Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Wang, Dai-Yi; Chan, Hui-Ling
2011-01-01
Digital systems offer computational power and instant feedback. Game designers are using these features to create scaffolding tools to reduce player frustration. However, researchers are finding some unexpected effects of scaffolding on strategy development and problem-solving behaviors. We used a digital Sudoku game named "Professor Sudoku" to…