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Sample records for solving multiple depot

  1. Multiple depots vehicle routing based on the ant colony with the genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChunYing Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the distribution routing plans of multi-depots vehicle scheduling problem will increase exponentially along with the adding of customers. So, it becomes an important studying trend to solve the vehicle scheduling problem with heuristic algorithm. On the basis of building the model of multi-depots vehicle scheduling problem, in order to improve the efficiency of the multiple depots vehicle routing, the paper puts forward a fusion algorithm on multiple depots vehicle routing based on the ant colony algorithm with genetic algorithm. Design/methodology/approach: to achieve this objective, the genetic algorithm optimizes the parameters of the ant colony algorithm. The fusion algorithm on multiple depots vehicle based on the ant colony algorithm with genetic algorithm is proposed. Findings: simulation experiment indicates that the result of the fusion algorithm is more excellent than the other algorithm, and the improved algorithm has better convergence effective and global ability. Research limitations/implications: in this research, there are some assumption that might affect the accuracy of the model such as the pheromone volatile factor, heuristic factor in each period, and the selected multiple depots. These assumptions can be relaxed in future work. Originality/value: In this research, a new method for the multiple depots vehicle routing is proposed. The fusion algorithm eliminate the influence of the selected parameter by optimizing the heuristic factor, evaporation factor, initial pheromone distribute, and have the strong global searching ability. The Ant Colony algorithm imports cross operator and mutation operator for operating the first best solution and the second best solution in every iteration, and reserves the best solution. The cross and mutation operator extend the solution space and improve the convergence effective and the global ability. This research shows that considering both the ant colony and genetic algorithm

  2. A tabu-search heuristic for solving the multi-depot vehicle scheduling problem

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    Gilmar D'Agostini Oliveira Casalinho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently the logistical problems are relying quite significantly on Operational Research in order to achieve greater efficiency in their operations. Among the problems related to the vehicles scheduling in a logistics system, the Multiple Depot Vehicle Scheduling Problem (MDVSP has been addressed in several studies. The MDVSP presupposes the existence of depots that affect the planning of sequences to which travel must be performed. Often, exact methods cannot solve large instances encountered in practice and in order to take them into account, several heuristic approaches are being developed. The aim of this study was thus to solve the MDVSP using a meta-heuristic based on tabu-search method. The main motivation for this work came from the indication that only recently the use of meta-heuristics is being applied to MDVSP context (Pepin et al. 2008 and, also, the limitations listed by Rohde (2008 in his study, which used the branch-and-bound in one of the steps of the heuristic presented to solve the problem, which has increased the time resolution. The research method for solving this problem was based on adaptations of traditional techniques of Operational Research, and provided resolutions presenting very competitive results for the MDVSP such as the cost of the objective function, number of vehicles used and computational time.

  3. Performance of clustering techniques for solving multi depot vehicle routing problem

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    Eliana M. Toro-Ocampo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle routing problem considering multiple depots is classified as NP-hard. MDVRP determines simultaneously the routes of a set of vehicles and aims to meet a set of clients with a known demand. The objective function of the problem is to minimize the total distance traveled by the routes given that all customers must be served considering capacity constraints in depots and vehicles. This paper presents a hybrid methodology that combines agglomerative clustering techniques to generate initial solutions with an iterated local search algorithm (ILS to solve the problem. Although previous studies clustering methods have been proposed like strategies to generate initial solutions, in this work the search is intensified on the information generated after applying the clustering technique. Besides an extensive analysis on the performance of techniques, and their effect in the final solution is performed. The operation of the proposed methodology is feasible and effective to solve the problem regarding the quality of the answers and computational times obtained on request evaluated literature

  4. Optimizing the Shunting Schedule of Electric Multiple Units Depot Using an Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

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    Jiaxi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The shunting schedule of electric multiple units depot (SSED is one of the essential plans for high-speed train maintenance activities. This paper presents a 0-1 programming model to address the problem of determining an optimal SSED through automatic computing. The objective of the model is to minimize the number of shunting movements and the constraints include track occupation conflicts, shunting routes conflicts, time durations of maintenance processes, and shunting running time. An enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, an empirical study from Shanghai South EMU Depot is carried out to illustrate the model and EPSO algorithm. The optimization results indicate that the proposed method is valid for the SSED problem and that the EPSO algorithm outperforms the traditional PSO algorithm on the aspect of optimality.

  5. Optimizing the Shunting Schedule of Electric Multiple Units Depot Using an Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Junchen

    2016-01-01

    The shunting schedule of electric multiple units depot (SSED) is one of the essential plans for high-speed train maintenance activities. This paper presents a 0-1 programming model to address the problem of determining an optimal SSED through automatic computing. The objective of the model is to minimize the number of shunting movements and the constraints include track occupation conflicts, shunting routes conflicts, time durations of maintenance processes, and shunting running time. An enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO) algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, an empirical study from Shanghai South EMU Depot is carried out to illustrate the model and EPSO algorithm. The optimization results indicate that the proposed method is valid for the SSED problem and that the EPSO algorithm outperforms the traditional PSO algorithm on the aspect of optimality. PMID:27436998

  6. On the multiple depots vehicle routing problem with heterogeneous fleet capacity and velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanum, F.; Hartono, A. P.; Bakhtiar, T.

    2018-03-01

    This current manuscript concerns with the optimization problem arising in a route determination of products distribution. The problem is formulated in the form of multiple depots and time windowed vehicle routing problem with heterogeneous capacity and velocity of fleet. Model includes a number of constraints such as route continuity, multiple depots availability and serving time in addition to generic constraints. In dealing with the unique feature of heterogeneous velocity, we generate a number of velocity profiles along the road segments, which then converted into traveling-time tables. An illustrative example of rice distribution among villages by bureau of logistics is provided. Exact approach is utilized to determine the optimal solution in term of vehicle routes and starting time of service.

  7. Modeling and Solving the Multi-depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Window by Considering the Flexible end Depot in Each Route

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    Mohammad Mirabi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the multi-depot vehicle routing problem with time window in which each vehicle starts from a depot and there is no need to return to its primary depot after serving customers. The mathematical model which is developed by new approach aims to minimizing the transportation cost including the travelled distance, the latest and the earliest arrival time penalties. Furthermore, in order to reduce the problem searching space, a novel GA clustering method is developed. Finally, Experiments are run on number problems of varying depots and time window, and customer sizes. The method is compared to two other clustering techniques, fuzzy C means (FCM and K-means algorithm. Experimental results show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Multiple Depots Vehicle Routing Problem in the Context of Total Urban Traffic Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dongxu; Yang, Zhongzhen

    2017-01-01

    A multidepot VRP is solved in the context of total urban traffic equilibrium. Under the total traffic equilibrium, the multidepot VRP is changed to GDAP (the problem of Grouping Customers + Estimating OD Traffic + Assigning traffic) and bilevel programming is used to model the problem, where the upper model determines the customers that each truck visits and adds the trucks’ trips to the initial OD (Origin/Destination) trips, and the lower model assigns the OD trips to road network. Feedback ...

  9. Multiple Depots Vehicle Routing Problem in the Context of Total Urban Traffic Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A multidepot VRP is solved in the context of total urban traffic equilibrium. Under the total traffic equilibrium, the multidepot VRP is changed to GDAP (the problem of Grouping Customers + Estimating OD Traffic + Assigning traffic and bilevel programming is used to model the problem, where the upper model determines the customers that each truck visits and adds the trucks’ trips to the initial OD (Origin/Destination trips, and the lower model assigns the OD trips to road network. Feedback between upper model and lower model is iterated through OD trips; thus total traffic equilibrium can be simulated.

  10. Heuristic for Solving the Multiple Alignment Sequence Problem

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    Roman Anselmo Mora Gutiérrez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we developed a new algorithm for solving the problem of multiple sequence alignment (AM S, which is a hybrid metaheuristic based on harmony search and simulated annealing. The hybrid was validated with the methodology of Julie Thompson. This is a basic algorithm and and results obtained during this stage are encouraging.

  11. Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, T.F.; Ng, M.; Wan, W.L.

    1996-12-31

    We consider using Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)} for 1 {le} i {le} s, where A{sup (i)} and b{sup (i)} are different in general. We start with the special case where A{sup (i)} = A and A is symmetric positive definite. The method generates a Krylov subspace from a set of direction vectors obtained by solving one of the systems, called the seed system, by the CG method and then projects the residuals of other systems orthogonally onto the generated Krylov subspace to get the approximate solutions. The whole process is repeated with another unsolved system as a seed until all the systems are solved. We observe in practice a super-convergence behaviour of the CG process of the seed system when compared with the usual CG process. We also observe that only a small number of restarts is required to solve all the systems if the right-hand sides are close to each other. These two features together make the method particularly effective. In this talk, we give theoretical proof to justify these observations. Furthermore, we combine the advantages of this method and the block CG method and propose a block extension of this single seed method. The above procedure can actually be modified for solving multiple linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)}, where A{sup (i)} are now different. We can also extend the previous analytical results to this more general case. Applications of this method to multiple related linear systems arising from image restoration and recursive least squares computations are considered as examples.

  12. Solving Multiple Timetabling Problems at Danish High Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Simon

    name; Elective Course Student Sectioning. The problem is solved using ALNS and solutions are proven to be close to optimum. The algorithm has been implemented and made available for the majority of the high schools in Denmark. The second Student Sectioning problem presented is the sectioning of each...... high schools. Two types of consultations are presented; the Parental Consultation Timetabling Problem (PCTP) and the Supervisor Consultation Timetabling Problem (SCTP). One mathematical model containing both consultation types has been created and solved using an ALNS approach. The received solutions...... problems as mathematical models and solve them using operational research techniques. Two of the models and the suggested solution methods have resulted in implementations in an actual decision support software, and are hence available for the majority of the high schools in Denmark. These implementations...

  13. Effect of treatment with depot somatostatin analogue octreotide on primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients.

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    Faggiano, Antongiulio; Tavares, Lidice Brandao; Tauchmanova, Libuse; Milone, Francesco; Mansueto, Gelsomina; Ramundo, Valeria; De Caro, Maria Laura Del Basso; Lombardi, Gaetano; De Rosa, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria

    2008-11-01

    In patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), expression of somatostatin receptor (SST) in parathyroid adenomas and effectiveness of therapy with somatostatin analogues on primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) have been scarcely investigated. To evaluate the effects of depot long acting octreotide (OCT-LAR) in patients with MEN1-related PHP. Eight patients with a genetically confirmed MEN1, presenting both PHP and duodeno-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NET), were enrolled. The initial treatment was OCT-LAR 30 mg every 4 weeks. This therapy was established to stabilize the duodeno-pancreatic NET before to perform parathyroidectomy for PHP. Before OCT-LAR therapy, a SST scintigraphy was performed in all patients. SST subtype 2A immunohistochemistry was performed on parathyroid tumour samples from three patients undergone parathyroidectomy after OCT-LAR therapy. Serum concentrations of PTH, calcium and phosphorus as well as the 24-h urine calcium : creatinine ratio and the renal threshold phosphate concentration were evaluated before and after OCT-LAR. After OCT-LAR therapy, hypercalcaemia and hypercalciuria normalized in 75% and 62.5% of patients, respectively, and serum phosphorus and renal threshold phosphate significantly increased. Serum PTH concentrations significantly decreased in all patients and normalized in two of them. SST subtype 2A immunostaining was found in all parathyroid adenomas investigated, while SST scintigraphy showed a positive parathyroid tumour uptake in three of eight patients (37.5%). Six months of OCT-LAR therapy controlled hypercalcaemia and hypercalciuria in two-thirds of patients with MEN1-related PHP. Direct OCT-LAR effects mediated by binding to SST expression on parathyroid tumour cells are likely the main mechanism to explain the activity of this compound on calcium and phosphorus abnormalities in MEN1 PHP.

  14. Solving Multiple Isolated, Interleaved, and Blended Tasks through Modular Neuroevolution.

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    Schrum, Jacob; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Many challenging sequential decision-making problems require agents to master multiple tasks. For instance, game agents may need to gather resources, attack opponents, and defend against attacks. Learning algorithms can thus benefit from having separate policies for these tasks, and from knowing when each one is appropriate. How well this approach works depends on how tightly coupled the tasks are. Three cases are identified: Isolated tasks have distinct semantics and do not interact, interleaved tasks have distinct semantics but do interact, and blended tasks have regions where semantics from multiple tasks overlap. Learning across multiple tasks is studied in this article with Modular Multiobjective NEAT, a neuroevolution framework applied to three variants of the challenging Ms. Pac-Man video game. In the standard blended version of the game, a surprising, highly effective machine-discovered task division surpasses human-specified divisions, achieving the best scores to date in this game. In isolated and interleaved versions of the game, human-specified task divisions are also successful, though the best scores are surprisingly still achieved by machine discovery. Modular neuroevolution is thus shown to be capable of finding useful, unexpected task divisions better than those apparent to a human designer.

  15. Solving modified systems with multiple right-hand sides

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    Simoncini, V.; Gallopoulos, E. [Univ. of Patras (Greece)

    1996-12-31

    In this talk we discuss the iterative solution of large linear systems of the form (A + USV{sup H})X = B, where A is an n x n non-Hermitian matrix, USV{sup H} is a rank-r modification of A and B is of rank s with s, r {much_lt} n. We analyze several approaches that exploit the structure of the coefficient matrix so as to solve the systems more efficiently than if one were to apply a non-hermitian solver to the original systems. In the development of procedures, we take into account the presence of both the low-rank modification and the several right-hand sides. Interesting issues connected to this problem originate from the quest for techniques that accelerate the underlying iterative solvers: preconditioning (e.g. inner-outer iteration strategies), domain decomposition, and continuation methods. Experiments are provided to analyze the behavior of the methods depending on the structure of the rectangular matrices. Preconditioning strategies are explored for an efficient implementation on the transformed systems.

  16. Visual Attention for Solving Multiple-Choice Science Problem: An Eye-Tracking Analysis

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    Tsai, Meng-Jung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Lai, Meng-Lung; Liu, Wan-Yi; Yang, Fang-Ying

    2012-01-01

    This study employed an eye-tracking technique to examine students' visual attention when solving a multiple-choice science problem. Six university students participated in a problem-solving task to predict occurrences of landslide hazards from four images representing four combinations of four factors. Participants' responses and visual attention…

  17. SOLVING CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS: A STUDY OF MULTIPLE COMMERCIAL SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurau Calin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme: Many reports stress the importance of solving customer complaints in order to maintain customer satisfaction, but also to learn from mistakes and further improve the customer service. However, relatively few empirical studies have been conducted regarding the effect of complains handling activities on customer satisfaction and on company-customer relationships. Objectives of research: This paper attempts to identify the main elements of the complaints handling strategy that are considered essential for customers, and their effect on customer satisfaction. Literature analysis/previous research: Previous studies define a complaint as a conflict between a consumer and a business organisation in which the fairness of the resolution procedures, the interpersonal communication and behaviour, and the outcome of the complaint resolution process are the principal evaluative criteria used by the customer. In our opinion, a complaint is not necessary a conflict, however, it can create a conflict between a customer and a business organisation, when the answer to the consumer’s complaint is not satisfactory. Therefore, the way in which business organisations deal with consumer complaints can significantly influence the consumers’ level of satisfaction and loyalty. Research methodology: The empirical analysis of primary data collected through face-to-face interviews with 150 French customers provides a detailed picture of the specific elements of complains handling which are perceived as important in four different settings defined in relation to the perceived importance of the product or service, and the emergency of the experienced problem. Results: The identified elements of the complaint-handling procedure have a variable importance from one element to the other, and in the context of various complaint situations. This finding highlights the fact that, depending on each situation, the factors that will determine customer

  18. Ligand Depot: a data warehouse for ligands bound to macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zukang; Chen, Li; Maddula, Himabindu; Akcan, Ozgur; Oughtred, Rose; Berman, Helen M; Westbrook, John

    2004-09-01

    Ligand Depot is an integrated data resource for finding information about small molecules bound to proteins and nucleic acids. The initial release (version 1.0, November, 2003) focuses on providing chemical and structural information for small molecules found as part of the structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank. Ligand Depot accepts keyword-based queries and also provides a graphical interface for performing chemical substructure searches. A wide variety of web resources that contain information on small molecules may also be accessed through Ligand Depot. Ligand Depot is available at http://ligand-depot.rutgers.edu/. Version 1.0 supports multiple operating systems including Windows, Unix, Linux and the Macintosh operating system. The current drawing tool works in Internet Explorer, Netscape and Mozilla on Windows, Unix and Linux.

  19. Step by Step: Biology Undergraduates’ Problem-Solving Procedures during Multiple-Choice Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Luanna B.; Lemons, Paula P.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the theoretical framework of domain-specific problem solving to explore the procedures students use to solve multiple-choice problems about biology concepts. We designed several multiple-choice problems and administered them on four exams. We trained students to produce written descriptions of how they solved the problem, and this allowed us to systematically investigate their problem-solving procedures. We identified a range of procedures and organized them as domain general, domain specific, or hybrid. We also identified domain-general and domain-specific errors made by students during problem solving. We found that students use domain-general and hybrid procedures more frequently when solving lower-order problems than higher-order problems, while they use domain-specific procedures more frequently when solving higher-order problems. Additionally, the more domain-specific procedures students used, the higher the likelihood that they would answer the problem correctly, up to five procedures. However, if students used just one domain-general procedure, they were as likely to answer the problem correctly as if they had used two to five domain-general procedures. Our findings provide a categorization scheme and framework for additional research on biology problem solving and suggest several important implications for researchers and instructors. PMID:27909021

  20. Makahiki+WattDepot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Philip M.; Xu, Yongwen; Brewer, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    to consumers. Since 2009, we have been designing, implementing, and evaluating an open source software "stack" to facilitate this research. This software stack consists of two custom systems called WattDepot and Makahiki, along with the open source components they rely upon (Java, Restlet, Postgres, Python...

  1. Solving Minimal Covering Location Problems with Single and Multiple Node Coverage

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    Darko DRAKULIĆ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Location science represents a very attractiveresearch field in combinatorial optimization and it is in expansion in last five decades. The main objective of location problems is determining the best position for facilities in a given set of nodes.Location science includes techniques for modelling problemsand methods for solving them. This paper presents results of solving two types of minimal covering location problems, with single and multiple node coverage, by using CPLEX optimizer and Particle Swarm Optimization method.

  2. Step by Step: Biology Undergraduates' Problem-Solving Procedures during Multiple-Choice Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Luanna B; Lemons, Paula P

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the theoretical framework of domain-specific problem solving to explore the procedures students use to solve multiple-choice problems about biology concepts. We designed several multiple-choice problems and administered them on four exams. We trained students to produce written descriptions of how they solved the problem, and this allowed us to systematically investigate their problem-solving procedures. We identified a range of procedures and organized them as domain general, domain specific, or hybrid. We also identified domain-general and domain-specific errors made by students during problem solving. We found that students use domain-general and hybrid procedures more frequently when solving lower-order problems than higher-order problems, while they use domain-specific procedures more frequently when solving higher-order problems. Additionally, the more domain-specific procedures students used, the higher the likelihood that they would answer the problem correctly, up to five procedures. However, if students used just one domain-general procedure, they were as likely to answer the problem correctly as if they had used two to five domain-general procedures. Our findings provide a categorization scheme and framework for additional research on biology problem solving and suggest several important implications for researchers and instructors. © 2016 L. B. Prevost and P. P. Lemons. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. Representation of Students in Solving Simultaneous Linear Equation Problems Based on Multiple Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanti, Y. R.; Amin, S. M.; Sulaiman, R.

    2018-01-01

    This study described representation of students who have musical, logical-mathematic and naturalist intelligence in solving a problem. Subjects were selected on the basis of multiple intelligence tests (TPM) consists of 108 statements, with 102 statements adopted from Chislet and Chapman and 6 statements equal to eksistensial intelligences. Data were analyzed based on problem-solving tests (TPM) and interviewing. See the validity of the data then problem-solving tests (TPM) and interviewing is given twice with an analyzed using the representation indikator and the problem solving step. The results showed that: the stage of presenting information known, stage of devising a plan, and stage of carrying out the plan those three subjects were using same form of representation. While he stage of presenting information asked and stage of looking back, subject of logical-mathematic was using different forms of representation with subjects of musical and naturalist intelligence. From this research is expected to provide input to the teacher in determining the learning strategy that will be used by considering the representation of students with the basis of multiple intelligences.

  4. Application of multiple tabu search algorithm to solve dynamic economic dispatch considering generator constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothiya, Saravuth; Ngamroo, Issarachai; Kongprawechnon, Waree

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new optimization technique based on a multiple tabu search algorithm (MTS) to solve the dynamic economic dispatch (ED) problem with generator constraints. In the constrained dynamic ED problem, the load demand and spinning reserve capacity as well as some practical operation constraints of generators, such as ramp rate limits and prohibited operating zone are taken into consideration. The MTS algorithm introduces additional mechanisms such as initialization, adaptive searches, multiple searches, crossover and restarting process. To show its efficiency, the MTS algorithm is applied to solve constrained dynamic ED problems of power systems with 6 and 15 units. The results obtained from the MTS algorithm are compared to those achieved from the conventional approaches, such as simulated annealing (SA), genetic algorithm (GA), tabu search (TS) algorithm and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The experimental results show that the proposed MTS algorithm approaches is able to obtain higher quality solutions efficiently and with less computational time than the conventional approaches

  5. Problem solving based learning model with multiple representations to improve student's mental modelling ability on physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haili, Hasnawati; Maknun, Johar; Siahaan, Parsaoran

    2017-08-01

    Physics is a lessons that related to students' daily experience. Therefore, before the students studying in class formally, actually they have already have a visualization and prior knowledge about natural phenomenon and could wide it themselves. The learning process in class should be aimed to detect, process, construct, and use students' mental model. So, students' mental model agree with and builds in the right concept. The previous study held in MAN 1 Muna informs that in learning process the teacher did not pay attention students' mental model. As a consequence, the learning process has not tried to build students' mental modelling ability (MMA). The purpose of this study is to describe the improvement of students' MMA as a effect of problem solving based learning model with multiple representations approach. This study is pre experimental design with one group pre post. It is conducted in XI IPA MAN 1 Muna 2016/2017. Data collection uses problem solving test concept the kinetic theory of gasses and interview to get students' MMA. The result of this study is clarification students' MMA which is categorized in 3 category; High Mental Modelling Ability (H-MMA) for 7Mental Modelling Ability (M-MMA) for 3Mental Modelling Ability (L-MMA) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 score. The result shows that problem solving based learning model with multiple representations approach can be an alternative to be applied in improving students' MMA.

  6. Solving the Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge, Multiple-Choice Transportation Problem by Dynamic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tue; Andersen, Kim Allan; Klose, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers a minimum-cost network flow problem in a bipartite graph with a single sink. The transportation costs exhibit a staircase cost structure because such types of transportation cost functions are often found in practice. We present a dynamic programming algorithm for solving...... this so-called single-sink, fixed-charge, multiple-choice transportation problem exactly. The method exploits heuristics and lower bounds to peg binary variables, improve bounds on flow variables, and reduce the state-space variable. In this way, the dynamic programming method is able to solve large...... instances with up to 10,000 nodes and 10 different transportation modes in a few seconds, much less time than required by a widely used mixed-integer programming solver and other methods proposed in the literature for this problem....

  7. A multiple-scale power series method for solving nonlinear ordinary differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chein-Shan Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The power series solution is a cheap and effective method to solve nonlinear problems, like the Duffing-van der Pol oscillator, the Volterra population model and the nonlinear boundary value problems. A novel power series method by considering the multiple scales $R_k$ in the power term $(t/R_k^k$ is developed, which are derived explicitly to reduce the ill-conditioned behavior in the data interpolation. In the method a huge value times a tiny value is avoided, such that we can decrease the numerical instability and which is the main reason to cause the failure of the conventional power series method. The multiple scales derived from an integral can be used in the power series expansion, which provide very accurate numerical solutions of the problems considered in this paper.

  8. Dual worth trade-off method and its application for solving multiple criteria decision making problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Junwen

    2006-01-01

    To overcome the limitations of the traditional surrogate worth trade-off (SWT) method and solve the multiple criteria decision making problem more efficiently and interactively, a new method labeled dual worth trade-off (DWT) method is proposed. The DWT method dynamically uses the duality theory related to the multiple criteria decision making problem and analytic hierarchy process technique to obtain the decision maker's solution preference information and finally find the satisfactory compromise solution of the decision maker. Through the interactive process between the analyst and the decision maker, trade-off information is solicited and treated properly, the representative subset of efficient solutions and the satisfactory solution to the problem are found. The implementation procedure for the DWT method is presented. The effectiveness and applicability of the DWT method are shown by a practical case study in the field of production scheduling.

  9. Solving the redundancy allocation problem with multiple strategy choices using a new simplified particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Xiangyong; Gao, Liqun; Ouyang, Haibin; Li, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In most research on redundancy allocation problem (RAP), the redundancy strategy for each subsystem is assumed to be predetermined and fixed. This paper focuses on a specific RAP with multiple strategy choices (RAP-MSC), in which both active redundancy and cold standby redundancy can be selected as an additional decision variable for individual subsystems. To do so, the component type, redundancy strategy and redundancy level for each subsystem should be chosen subject to the system constraints appropriately such that the system reliability is maximized. Meanwhile, imperfect switching for cold standby redundancy is considered and a k-Erlang distribution is introduced to model the time-to-failure component as well. Given the importance and complexity of RAP-MSC, we propose a new efficient simplified version of particle swarm optimization (SPSO) to solve such NP-hard problems. In this method, a new position updating scheme without velocity is presented with stochastic disturbance and a low probability. Moreover, it is compared with several well-known PSO variants and other state-of-the-art approaches in the literature to evaluate its performance. The experiment results demonstrate the superiority of SPSO as an alternative for solving the RAP-MSC. - Highlights: • A more realistic RAP form with multiple strategy choices is focused. • Redundancy strategies are to be selected rather than fixed in general RAP. • A new simplified particle swarm optimization is proposed. • Higher reliabilities are achieved than the state-of-the-art approaches.

  10. The Linehaul-Feeder Vehicle Routing Problem with Virtual Depots and Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Kuo Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the linehaul-feeder vehicle routing problem with virtual depots and time windows (LFVRPTW. Small and large vehicles deliver services to customers within time constraints; small vehicles en route may reload commodities from either the physical depot or from the larger vehicle at a virtual depot before continuing onward. A two-stage solution heuristic involving Tabu search is proposed to solve this problem. The test results show that the LFVRPTW performs better than the vehicle routing problem with time windows in terms of both objective value and the number of small vehicles dispatched.

  11. Modified multiple time scale method for solving strongly nonlinear damped forced vibration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, M. A.; Alam, M. Z.; Sharif, M. N.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, modified multiple time scale (MTS) method is employed to solve strongly nonlinear forced vibration systems. The first-order approximation is only considered in order to avoid complexicity. The formulations and the determination of the solution procedure are very easy and straightforward. The classical multiple time scale (MS) and multiple scales Lindstedt-Poincare method (MSLP) do not give desire result for the strongly damped forced vibration systems with strong damping effects. The main aim of this paper is to remove these limitations. Two examples are considered to illustrate the effectiveness and convenience of the present procedure. The approximate external frequencies and the corresponding approximate solutions are determined by the present method. The results give good coincidence with corresponding numerical solution (considered to be exact) and also provide better result than other existing results. For weak nonlinearities with weak damping effect, the absolute relative error measures (first-order approximate external frequency) in this paper is only 0.07% when amplitude A = 1.5 , while the relative error gives MSLP method is surprisingly 28.81%. Furthermore, for strong nonlinearities with strong damping effect, the absolute relative error found in this article is only 0.02%, whereas the relative error obtained by MSLP method is 24.18%. Therefore, the present method is not only valid for weakly nonlinear damped forced systems, but also gives better result for strongly nonlinear systems with both small and strong damping effect.

  12. The implementation of multiple intelligences based teaching model to improve mathematical problem solving ability for student of junior high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasni, Nurli; Fatimah, Siti; Yulanda, Syerli

    2017-05-01

    This research aims to achieve some purposes such as: to know whether mathematical problem solving ability of students who have learned mathematics using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model is higher than the student who have learned mathematics using cooperative learning; to know the improvement of the mathematical problem solving ability of the student who have learned mathematics using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model., to know the improvement of the mathematical problem solving ability of the student who have learned mathematics using cooperative learning; to know the attitude of the students to Multiple Intelligences based teaching model. The method employed here is quasi-experiment which is controlled by pre-test and post-test. The population of this research is all of VII grade in SMP Negeri 14 Bandung even-term 2013/2014, later on two classes of it were taken for the samples of this research. A class was taught using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model and the other one was taught using cooperative learning. The data of this research were gotten from the test in mathematical problem solving, scale questionnaire of the student attitudes, and observation. The results show the mathematical problem solving of the students who have learned mathematics using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model learning is higher than the student who have learned mathematics using cooperative learning, the mathematical problem solving ability of the student who have learned mathematics using cooperative learning and Multiple Intelligences based teaching model are in intermediate level, and the students showed the positive attitude in learning mathematics using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model. As for the recommendation for next author, Multiple Intelligences based teaching model can be tested on other subject and other ability.

  13. Applying Agrep to r-NSA to solve multiple sequences approximate matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing; Wong, Man-Hon; Lam, Chi-Fai David; Leung, Kwong-Sak

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the approximate matching problem in a database consisting of multiple DNA sequences, where the proposed approach applies Agrep to a new truncated suffix array, r-NSA. The construction time of the structure is linear to the database size, and the computations of indexing a substring in the structure are constant. The number of characters processed in applying Agrep is analysed theoretically, and the theoretical upper-bound can approximate closely the empirical number of characters, which is obtained through enumerating the characters in the actual structure built. Experiments are carried out using (synthetic) random DNA sequences, as well as (real) genome sequences including Hepatitis-B Virus and X-chromosome. Experimental results show that, compared to the straight-forward approach that applies Agrep to multiple sequences individually, the proposed approach solves the matching problem in much shorter time. The speed-up of our approach depends on the sequence patterns, and for highly similar homologous genome sequences, which are the common cases in real-life genomes, it can be up to several orders of magnitude.

  14. A two-stage approach to the depot shunting driver assignment problem with workload balance considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxi; Gronalt, Manfred; Sun, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Due to its environmentally sustainable and energy-saving characteristics, railway transportation nowadays plays a fundamental role in delivering passengers and goods. Emerged in the area of transportation planning, the crew (workforce) sizing problem and the crew scheduling problem have been attached great importance by the railway industry and the scientific community. In this paper, we aim to solve the two problems by proposing a novel two-stage optimization approach in the context of the electric multiple units (EMU) depot shunting driver assignment problem. Given a predefined depot shunting schedule, the first stage of the approach focuses on determining an optimal size of shunting drivers. While the second stage is formulated as a bi-objective optimization model, in which we comprehensively consider the objectives of minimizing the total walking distance and maximizing the workload balance. Then we combine the normalized normal constraint method with a modified Pareto filter algorithm to obtain Pareto solutions for the bi-objective optimization problem. Furthermore, we conduct a series of numerical experiments to demonstrate the proposed approach. Based on the computational results, the regression analysis yield a driver size predictor and the sensitivity analysis give some interesting insights that are useful for decision makers.

  15. A two-stage approach to the depot shunting driver assignment problem with workload balance considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxi Wang

    Full Text Available Due to its environmentally sustainable and energy-saving characteristics, railway transportation nowadays plays a fundamental role in delivering passengers and goods. Emerged in the area of transportation planning, the crew (workforce sizing problem and the crew scheduling problem have been attached great importance by the railway industry and the scientific community. In this paper, we aim to solve the two problems by proposing a novel two-stage optimization approach in the context of the electric multiple units (EMU depot shunting driver assignment problem. Given a predefined depot shunting schedule, the first stage of the approach focuses on determining an optimal size of shunting drivers. While the second stage is formulated as a bi-objective optimization model, in which we comprehensively consider the objectives of minimizing the total walking distance and maximizing the workload balance. Then we combine the normalized normal constraint method with a modified Pareto filter algorithm to obtain Pareto solutions for the bi-objective optimization problem. Furthermore, we conduct a series of numerical experiments to demonstrate the proposed approach. Based on the computational results, the regression analysis yield a driver size predictor and the sensitivity analysis give some interesting insights that are useful for decision makers.

  16. Solving the multiple-set split equality common fixed-point problem of firmly quasi-nonexpansive operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Zong, Haili

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose parallel and cyclic iterative algorithms for solving the multiple-set split equality common fixed-point problem of firmly quasi-nonexpansive operators. We also combine the process of cyclic and parallel iterative methods and propose two mixed iterative algorithms. Our several algorithms do not need any prior information about the operator norms. Under mild assumptions, we prove weak convergence of the proposed iterative sequences in Hilbert spaces. As applications, we obtain several iterative algorithms to solve the multiple-set split equality problem.

  17. Study on Multi-Depot Collaborative Transportation Problem of Milk-Run Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Zhenkai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyze the relevance between Milk Run mode and collaborative transportation problem, put forward collaborative transportation problem of multiple-depot on Milk Run mode under the supply and demand separate nodes, consider the value of transport and transport costs, introduce the concept of node - arc flow, by comparing the size of traffic flow determine nodes collection, and then constructed multi-transport model of the problem. Considering one-way pickup and delivery closed, construct two-stage algorithm model, use dynamic programming recursive solution to determine the best route to pick up, and then solving delivery routing problem with different start and return point based on geometric method of Cosine. Finally use a numerical example illustrates the effectiveness of the algorithm and reasonable model.

  18. Depot Maintenance: Executed Workload and Maintenance Operations at DOD Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-03

    in turn enable testing of helicopter rotor blades. The Army has also made investments in logistics software at all of its depots. According to the...maintenance and repair of structural helicopter airframes and blades; advanced composite technologies; flight controls and control surfaces; and...level maintenance on a wide range of vehicles and other military assets, including helicopters , combat vehicles, ships, aircraft, engines, and software

  19. The impact of two multiple-choice question formats on the problem-solving strategies used by novices and experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Sylvain P; Harasym, Peter; Mandin, Henry; Fick, Gordon

    2004-11-05

    Pencil-and-paper examination formats, and specifically the standard, five-option multiple-choice question, have often been questioned as a means for assessing higher-order clinical reasoning or problem solving. This study firstly investigated whether two paper formats with differing number of alternatives (standard five-option and extended-matching questions) can test problem-solving abilities. Secondly, the impact of the alternatives number on psychometrics and problem-solving strategies was examined. Think-aloud protocols were collected to determine the problem-solving strategy used by experts and non-experts in answering Gastroenterology questions, across the two pencil-and-paper formats. The two formats demonstrated equal ability in testing problem-solving abilities, while the number of alternatives did not significantly impact psychometrics or problem-solving strategies utilized. These results support the notion that well-constructed multiple-choice questions can in fact test higher order clinical reasoning. Furthermore, it can be concluded that in testing clinical reasoning, the question stem, or content, remains more important than the number of alternatives.

  20. A note on “An alternative multiple attribute decision making methodology for solving optimal facility layout design selection problems”

    OpenAIRE

    R. Venkata Rao

    2012-01-01

    A paper published by Maniya and Bhatt (2011) (An alternative multiple attribute decision making methodology for solving optimal facility layout design selection problems, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 61, 542-549) proposed an alternative multiple attribute decision making method named as “Preference Selection Index (PSI) method” for selection of an optimal facility layout design. The authors had claimed that the method was logical and more appropriate and the method gives directly the o...

  1. Multiple Problem-Solving Strategies Provide Insight into Students' Understanding of Open-Ended Linear Programming Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, Marla A.

    2016-01-01

    Open-ended questions that can be solved using different strategies help students learn and integrate content, and provide teachers with greater insights into students' unique capabilities and levels of understanding. This article provides a problem that was modified to allow for multiple approaches. Students tended to employ high-powered, complex,…

  2. The Use of Digital Technology in Finding Multiple Paths to Solve and Extend an Equilateral Triangle Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Reyes-Rodriguez, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical tasks are crucial elements for teachers to orient, foster and assess students' processes to comprehend and develop mathematical knowledge. During the process of working and solving a task, searching for or discussing multiple solution paths becomes a powerful strategy for students to engage in mathematical thinking. A simple task that…

  3. Multiple Linear Regression for Reconstruction of Gene Regulatory Networks in Solving Cascade Error Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faridah Hani Mohamed Salleh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory network (GRN reconstruction is the process of identifying regulatory gene interactions from experimental data through computational analysis. One of the main reasons for the reduced performance of previous GRN methods had been inaccurate prediction of cascade motifs. Cascade error is defined as the wrong prediction of cascade motifs, where an indirect interaction is misinterpreted as a direct interaction. Despite the active research on various GRN prediction methods, the discussion on specific methods to solve problems related to cascade errors is still lacking. In fact, the experiments conducted by the past studies were not specifically geared towards proving the ability of GRN prediction methods in avoiding the occurrences of cascade errors. Hence, this research aims to propose Multiple Linear Regression (MLR to infer GRN from gene expression data and to avoid wrongly inferring of an indirect interaction (A → B → C as a direct interaction (A → C. Since the number of observations of the real experiment datasets was far less than the number of predictors, some predictors were eliminated by extracting the random subnetworks from global interaction networks via an established extraction method. In addition, the experiment was extended to assess the effectiveness of MLR in dealing with cascade error by using a novel experimental procedure that had been proposed in this work. The experiment revealed that the number of cascade errors had been very minimal. Apart from that, the Belsley collinearity test proved that multicollinearity did affect the datasets used in this experiment greatly. All the tested subnetworks obtained satisfactory results, with AUROC values above 0.5.

  4. Multiple Linear Regression for Reconstruction of Gene Regulatory Networks in Solving Cascade Error Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Faridah Hani Mohamed; Zainudin, Suhaila; Arif, Shereena M

    2017-01-01

    Gene regulatory network (GRN) reconstruction is the process of identifying regulatory gene interactions from experimental data through computational analysis. One of the main reasons for the reduced performance of previous GRN methods had been inaccurate prediction of cascade motifs. Cascade error is defined as the wrong prediction of cascade motifs, where an indirect interaction is misinterpreted as a direct interaction. Despite the active research on various GRN prediction methods, the discussion on specific methods to solve problems related to cascade errors is still lacking. In fact, the experiments conducted by the past studies were not specifically geared towards proving the ability of GRN prediction methods in avoiding the occurrences of cascade errors. Hence, this research aims to propose Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) to infer GRN from gene expression data and to avoid wrongly inferring of an indirect interaction (A → B → C) as a direct interaction (A → C). Since the number of observations of the real experiment datasets was far less than the number of predictors, some predictors were eliminated by extracting the random subnetworks from global interaction networks via an established extraction method. In addition, the experiment was extended to assess the effectiveness of MLR in dealing with cascade error by using a novel experimental procedure that had been proposed in this work. The experiment revealed that the number of cascade errors had been very minimal. Apart from that, the Belsley collinearity test proved that multicollinearity did affect the datasets used in this experiment greatly. All the tested subnetworks obtained satisfactory results, with AUROC values above 0.5.

  5. A Newton method for solving continuous multiple material minimum compliance problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, M; Stegmann, Jan

    method, one or two linear saddle point systems are solved. These systems involve the Hessian of the objective function, which is both expensive to compute and completely dense. Therefore, the linear algebra is arranged such that the Hessian is not explicitly formed. The main concern is to solve...

  6. A Newton method for solving continuous multiple material minimum compliance problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Stegmann, Jan

    2007-01-01

    method, one or two linear saddle point systems are solved. These systems involve the Hessian of the objective function, which is both expensive to compute and completely dense. Therefore, the linear algebra is arranged such that the Hessian is not explicitly formed. The main concern is to solve...

  7. Working Memory Components and Problem-Solving Accuracy: Are There Multiple Pathways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee; Fung, Wenson

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the working memory (WM) components (executive, phonological short-term memory [STM], and visual-spatial sketchpad) that best predicted mathematical word problem-solving accuracy in elementary schoolchildren (N = 392). The battery of tests administered to assess mediators between WM and problem-solving included measures of…

  8. Artificial immune algorithm for multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongyi; Wang, Donggen; Xia, Linyuan; Chen, Xiaoling

    2008-10-01

    In the fast-developing logistics and supply chain management fields, one of the key problems in the decision support system is that how to arrange, for a lot of customers and suppliers, the supplier-to-customer assignment and produce a detailed supply schedule under a set of constraints. Solutions to the multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems (MDVRP) help in solving this problem in case of transportation applications. The objective of the MDVSP is to minimize the total distance covered by all vehicles, which can be considered as delivery costs or time consumption. The MDVSP is one of nondeterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) problem which cannot be solved to optimality within polynomial bounded computational time. Many different approaches have been developed to tackle MDVSP, such as exact algorithm (EA), one-stage approach (OSA), two-phase heuristic method (TPHM), tabu search algorithm (TSA), genetic algorithm (GA) and hierarchical multiplex structure (HIMS). Most of the methods mentioned above are time consuming and have high risk to result in local optimum. In this paper, a new search algorithm is proposed to solve MDVSP based on Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), which are inspirited by vertebrate immune systems. The proposed AIS algorithm is tested with 30 customers and 6 vehicles located in 3 depots. Experimental results show that the artificial immune system algorithm is an effective and efficient method for solving MDVSP problems.

  9. Network technology for depot modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, C.J.

    1990-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

  10. Stressors and Caregivers’ Depression: Multiple Mediators of Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Problem-solving Skill

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Fengyan; Jang, Heejung; Lingler, Jennifer; Tamres, Lisa K.; Erlen, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Caring for an older adult with memory loss is stressful. Caregiver stress could produce negative outcomes such as depression. Previous research is limited in examining multiple intermediate pathways from caregiver stress to depressive symptoms. This study addresses this limitation by examining the role of self-efficacy, social support, and problem-solving in mediating the relationships between caregiver stressors and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 91 family caregivers, we tested simul...

  11. Expansion methods for solving integral equations with multiple time lags using Bernstein polynomial of the second kind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Paripour

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the Bernstein polynomials are used to approximatethe solutions of linear integral equations with multiple time lags (IEMTL through expansion methods (collocation method, partition method, Galerkin method. The method is discussed in detail and illustrated by solving some numerical examples. Comparison between the exact and approximated results obtained from these methods is carried out

  12. The Effect of Dynamic and Interactive Mathematics Learning Environments (DIMLE), Supporting Multiple Representations, on Perceptions of Elementary Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers in Problem Solving Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, S.; Reis, Z. Ayvaz

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics is an important discipline, providing crucial tools, such as problem solving, to improve our cognitive abilities. In order to solve a problem, it is better to envision and represent through multiple means. Multiple representations can help a person to redefine a problem with his/her own words in that envisioning process. Dynamic and…

  13. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depot servicing platforms to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) systems such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support a new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid and Mars Missions. New vehicle design concepts are presented that can be launched on current 5 meter diameter ELV systems. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot, L1 Depot and missions beyond L1; a new reusable lunar lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface; and Mars orbital Depot are based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. Data provided includes the number of launches required for each mission utilizing current ELV systems (Delta IV Heavy or equivalent) and the approximate vehicle masses and propellant requirements. Also included is a discussion on affordability with ideas on technologies that could reduce the number of launches required and thoughts on how this infrastructure include competitive bidding for ELV flights and propellant services, developments of new reusable in-space vehicles and development of a multiuse infrastructure that can support many government and commercial missions simultaneously.

  14. Storage depot for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulinski, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson

  15. Radiological Final Status Survey of the Hammond Depot, Hammond, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkus, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    ORISE conducted extensive scoping, characterization, and final status surveys of land areas and structures at the DNSC's Hammond Depot located in Hammond, Indiana in multiple phases during 2005, 2006 and 2007. This report provides a detailed discussion of the radiological survey planning, survey implementation, remediation, and the results for these activities supporting the conclusion that radioactive contamination previously identified at the Hammond Depot (HD) has been reduced to levels such that the site may be released without radiological restrictions. The objective of the radiological final status survey (FSS) was to obtain the data necessary to demonstrate compliance with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-approved site-specific derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for both structural surfaces and outdoor areas (ORISE 2006a and NRC 2007). The DCGLs were modeled such that any residual licensed material would not exceed the NRC's basic dose limit for license termination of 25 millirem per year (mrem/y)

  16. A 1024 pad silicon detector to solve tracking ambiguities in high multiplicity events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, S.; Catanesi, M.G.; Di Bari, D.; Didonna, V.; Elia, D.; Ghidini, B.; Lenti, V.; Manzari, V.; Nappi, E.

    1996-01-01

    Silicon detectors with two-dimensional pad readout have been designed and constructed for the WA97 experiment at CERN, in order to solve ambiguities for track reconstruction in a silicon microstrip telescope. A high density fanouts has been developed on a glass support to allow the electrical contacts between the detector and the front end electronics. Silicon pad detectors have been successfully operated both during the proton-Pb and Pb-Pb runs of the WA97 experiment. (orig.)

  17. DEPOT database: Reference manual and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancey, P.; Logg, C.

    1991-03-01

    DEPOT has been developed to provide tracking for the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) control system equipment. For each piece of equipment entered into the database, complete location, service, maintenance, modification, certification, and radiation exposure histories can be maintained. To facilitate data entry accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, barcoding technology has been used extensively. DEPOT has been an important tool in improving the reliability of the microsystems controlling SLC. This document describes the components of the DEPOT database, the elements in the database records, and the use of the supporting programs for entering data, searching the database, and producing reports from the information

  18. Artificial intelligence technology assessment for the US Army Depot System Command

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennock, K A

    1991-07-01

    This assessment of artificial intelligence (AI) has been prepared for the US Army's Depot System Command (DESCOM) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The report describes several of the more promising AI technologies, focusing primarily on knowledge-based systems because they have been more successful in commercial applications than any other AI technique. The report also identifies potential Depot applications in the areas of procedural support, scheduling and planning, automated inspection, training, diagnostics, and robotic systems. One of the principal objectives of the report is to help decisionmakers within DESCOM to evaluate AI as a possible tool for solving individual depot problems. The report identifies a number of factors that should be considered in such evaluations. 22 refs.

  19. Pengaruh Kepuasan Dan Kepercayaan Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Ulang Pada Depot Air Minum Tris Water Reverse Osmosis System (Ro)

    OpenAIRE

    Fitria, Ika

    2011-01-01

    Kind of this survey is asociative survey which watch influence of customer satisfaction and trust to re-purchase decision on Depot Air Minum Tris Water Reverse Osmosis System (RO) and test of hypothesis use Multiple Linear Regression Analysist on α=5%. This survey used SPSS 16.00 version for windows. Research population is consumers of Depot Air Minum Tris Water Reverse Osmosis System (RO). Sample was used in this survey from customers of Depot Air Minum Tris Water Reverse Osmosis System (RO)...

  20. Stressors and Caregivers’ Depression: Multiple Mediators of Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Problem-solving Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Jang, Heejung; Lingler, Jennifer; Tamres, Lisa K.; Erlen, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Caring for an older adult with memory loss is stressful. Caregiver stress could produce negative outcomes such as depression. Previous research is limited in examining multiple intermediate pathways from caregiver stress to depressive symptoms. This study addresses this limitation by examining the role of self-efficacy, social support, and problem-solving in mediating the relationships between caregiver stressors and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 91 family caregivers, we tested simultaneously multiple mediators between caregiver stressors and depression. Results indicate that self-efficacy mediated the pathway from daily hassles to depression. Findings point to the importance of improving self-efficacy in psychosocial interventions for caregivers of older adults with memory loss. PMID:26317766

  1. Stressors and Caregivers' Depression: Multiple Mediators of Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Problem-Solving Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Jang, Heejung; Lingler, Jennifer; Tamres, Lisa K; Erlen, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Caring for an older adult with memory loss is stressful. Caregiver stress could produce negative outcomes such as depression. Previous research is limited in examining multiple intermediate pathways from caregiver stress to depressive symptoms. This study addresses this limitation by examining the role of self-efficacy, social support, and problem solving in mediating the relationships between caregiver stressors and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 91 family caregivers, we tested simultaneously multiple mediators between caregiver stressors and depression. Results indicate that self-efficacy mediated the pathway from daily hassles to depression. Findings point to the importance of improving self-efficacy in psychosocial interventions for caregivers of older adults with memory loss.

  2. Matrix-type multiple reciprocity boundary element method for solving three-dimensional two-group neutron diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Sahashi, Naoki.

    1997-01-01

    The multiple reciprocity boundary element method has been applied to three-dimensional two-group neutron diffusion problems. A matrix-type boundary integral equation has been derived to solve the first and the second group neutron diffusion equations simultaneously. The matrix-type fundamental solutions used here satisfy the equation which has a point source term and is adjoint to the neutron diffusion equations. A multiple reciprocity method has been employed to transform the matrix-type domain integral related to the fission source into an equivalent boundary one. The higher order fundamental solutions required for this formulation are composed of a series of two types of analytic functions. The eigenvalue itself is also calculated using only boundary integrals. Three-dimensional test calculations indicate that the present method provides stable and accurate solutions for criticality problems. (author)

  3. Problem-solving with multiple interdependent criteria: better solution to complex problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, C.; Fuller, R.

    1996-01-01

    We consider multiple objective programming (MOP) problems with additive interdependencies, this is when the states of some chosen objective are attained through supportive or inhibitory feed-backs from several other objectives. MOP problems with independent objectives (when the cause-effect relations between the decision variables and the objectives are completely known) will be treated as special cases of the MOP in which we have interdependent objectives. We illustrate our ideas by a simple three-objective real-life problem

  4. Higgsplosion: Solving the hierarchy problem via rapid decays of heavy states into multiple Higgs bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoze, Valentin V.; Spannowsky, Michael

    2018-01-01

    We introduce and discuss two inter-related mechanisms operative in the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at high energies. Higgsplosion, the first mechanism, occurs at some critical energy in the 25 to 103 TeV range, and leads to an exponentially growing decay rate of highly energetic particles into multiple Higgs bosons. We argue that this is a well-controlled non-perturbative phenomenon in the Higgs-sector which involves the final state Higgs multiplicities n in the regime nλ ≫ 1 where λ is the Higgs self-coupling. If this mechanism is realised in nature, the cross-sections for producing ultra-high multiplicities of Higgs bosons are likely to become observable and even dominant in this energy range. At the same time, however, the apparent exponential growth of these cross-sections at even higher energies will be tamed and automatically cut-off by a related Higgspersion mechanism. As a result, and in contrast to previous studies, multi-Higgs production does not violate perturbative unitarity. Building on this approach, we then argue that the effects of Higgsplosion alter quantum corrections from very heavy states to the Higgs boson mass. Above a certain energy, which is much smaller than their masses, these states would rapidly decay into multiple Higgs bosons. The heavy states become unrealised as they decay much faster than they are formed. The loop integrals contributing to the Higgs mass will be cut off not by the masses of the heavy states, but by the characteristic loop momenta where their decay widths become comparable to their masses. Hence, the cut-off scale would be many orders of magnitude lower than the heavy mass scales themselves, thus suppressing their quantum corrections to the Higgs boson mass.

  5. Interference and problem size effect in multiplication fact solving: Individual differences in brain activations and arithmetic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, Alice; Vogel, Stephan E; Reishofer, Gernot; Hassler, Eva; Koschutnig, Karl; De Smedt, Bert; Grabner, Roland H

    2018-05-15

    In the development of math ability, a large variability of performance in solving simple arithmetic problems is observed and has not found a compelling explanation yet. One robust effect in simple multiplication facts is the problem size effect, indicating better performance for small problems compared to large ones. Recently, behavioral studies brought to light another effect in multiplication facts, the interference effect. That is, high interfering problems (receiving more proactive interference from previously learned problems) are more difficult to retrieve than low interfering problems (in terms of physical feature overlap, namely the digits, De Visscher and Noël, 2014). At the behavioral level, the sensitivity to the interference effect is shown to explain individual differences in the performance of solving multiplications in children as well as in adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the individual differences in multiplication ability in relation to the neural interference effect and the neural problem size effect. To that end, we used a paradigm developed by De Visscher, Berens, et al. (2015) that contrasts the interference effect and the problem size effect in a multiplication verification task, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisition. Forty-two healthy adults, who showed high variability in an arithmetic fluency test, participated in our fMRI study. In order to control for the general reasoning level, the IQ was taken into account in the individual differences analyses. Our findings revealed a neural interference effect linked to individual differences in multiplication in the left inferior frontal gyrus, while controlling for the IQ. This interference effect in the left inferior frontal gyrus showed a negative relation with individual differences in arithmetic fluency, indicating a higher interference effect for low performers compared to high performers. This region is suggested in the literature to be

  6. Solving the Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge, Multiple-Choice Transportation Problem by Dynamic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauff Lind Christensen, Tue; Klose, Andreas; Andersen, Kim Allan

    important aspects of supplier selection, an important application of the SSFCTP, this does not reflect the real life situation. First, transportation costs faced by many companies are in fact piecewise linear. Secondly, when suppliers offer discounts, either incremental or all-unit discounts, such savings......The Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge, Multiple-Choice Transportation Problem (SSFCMCTP) is a problem with versatile applications. This problem is a generalization of the Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge Transportation Problem (SSFCTP), which has a fixed-charge, linear cost structure. However, in at least two...... are neglected in the SSFCTP. The SSFCMCTP overcome this problem by incorporating a staircase cost structure in the cost function instead of the usual one used in SSFCTP. We present a dynamic programming algorithm for the resulting problem. To enhance the performance of the generic algorithm a number...

  7. Solving problems by interrogating sets of knowledge systems: Toward a theory of multiple knowledge systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekorvin, Andre

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose is to develop a theory for multiple knowledge systems. A knowledge system could be a sensor or an expert system, but it must specialize in one feature. The problem is that we have an exhaustive list of possible answers to some query (such as what object is it). By collecting different feature values, in principle, it should be possible to give an answer to the query, or at least narrow down the list. Since a sensor, or for that matter an expert system, does not in most cases yield a precise value for the feature, uncertainty must be built into the model. Also, researchers must have a formal mechanism to be able to put the information together. Researchers chose to use the Dempster-Shafer approach to handle the problems mentioned above. Researchers introduce the concept of a state of recognition and point out that there is a relation between receiving updates and defining a set valued Markov Chain. Also, deciding what the value of the next set valued variable is can be phrased in terms of classical decision making theory such as minimizing the maximum regret. Other related problems are examined.

  8. Dual Task of Fine Motor Skill and Problem Solving in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverover, Y; Sandroff, B M; DeLuca, J

    2018-04-01

    To (1) examine and compare dual-task performance in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HCs) using mathematical problem-solving questions that included an everyday competence component while performing an upper extremity fine motor task; and (2) examine whether difficulties in dual-task performance are associated with problems in performing an everyday internet task. Pilot study, mixed-design with both a within and between subjects' factor. A nonprofit rehabilitation research institution and the community. Participants (N=38) included persons with MS (n=19) and HCs (n=19) who were recruited from a nonprofit rehabilitation research institution and from the community. Not applicable. Participant were presented with 2 testing conditions: (1) solving mathematical everyday problems or placing bolts into divots (single-task condition); and (2) solving problems while putting bolts into divots (dual-task condition). Additionally, participants were required to perform a test of everyday internet competence. As expected, dual-task performance was significantly worse than either of the single-task tasks (ie, number of bolts into divots or correct answers, and time to answer the questions). Cognitive but not motor dual-task cost was associated with worse performance in activities of everyday internet tasks. Cognitive dual-task cost is significantly associated with worse performance of everyday technology. This was not observed in the motor dual-task cost. The implications of dual-task costs on everyday activity are discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison between a single dose of goserelin (depot) and multiple daily doses of leuprolide acetate for pituitary suppression in IVF treatment: a clinical endocrinological study of the ovarian response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Sales, Liana; Sampaio, Marcos A C

    2002-07-01

    Compare the efficacy and safety of two different GnRHa, used for pituitary suppression in IVF cycles. A total of 292 patients using depot goserelin (Group 1) and 167 using daily leuprolide acetate (Group 2) were compared. Days required to achieve pituitary function suppression, duration of ovarian stimulation, total dose of HMG, number of aspirated follicles, number of oocytes retrieved, and presence of functional ovarian cyst were analyzed. The time taken to achieve downregulation was similar. The mean number of ampoules used for superovulation was higher in Group 1; however, this difference was observed only for patients >40 years old that started GnRHa in the follicular phase. There was no difference between the two groups in the duration of superovulation, in the number of follicles aspirated, and the number of oocytes retrieved. In the group of patients with >40 years the incidence of ovarian cysts was higher in Group 2. Both routes of GnRHa have similar effects for pituitary suppression and ovulation induction in assisted reproductive technology. Therefore the long-acting GnRHa is an excellent option, as only a single subcutaneous dose is necessary, decreasing the risk of the patient to forget its use and, most important, it does not interfere in the patient's quality of life.

  10. Analysis of liquid metal MHD flow in multiple adjacent ducts using an iterative method to solve the core flow equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K.A.; Abdou, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    A computationally fast and efficient method for analyzing MHD flow at high Hartmann number and interaction parameter is presented and used to analyze a multiple duct geometry. This type of geometry is of practical interest in fusion applications. Because the Hartmann number and interaction parameter are generally large in fusion applications, the inertial and viscous terms in the Navier-Stokes equation can often be neglected in the core flow region, making this equation linear. In addition, because the magnetic fields in a fusion reactor vary slowly and the magnetic Reynolds number is small, the induced magnetic field can be neglected. The resulting equations representing core flow have certain characteristics which make it possible to reduce them to two dimensional without losing the three dimensional characteristics. The method which has been developed is an 'iterative' method. A velocity profile is assumed, then Ohm's law and the current conservation equation are combined and used to solve for the potential distribution in a plane in the fluid, and in a surface in the duct wall. The potential variation along magnetic field lines is checked, and if necessary, the velocities are adjusted. This procedure is repeated until the potentials along field lines vary to within a specified error. The analysis of the multiple duct geometry shows the importance of global effects. The results of two basic cases are presented. In the first, the average velocity in each duct is the same, but the wall conductance ratios of the walls perpendicular to the magnetic field vary from duct to duct. The total pressure drop in the electrically connected ducts was greater than or equal to the total pressure drop in the same ducts electrically isolated. In addition, the velocity profile in the ducts can be significantly affected by the presence of neighboring ducts. (orig./AH)

  11. Integrating Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles on Solving Problems, Achievement in, and Attitudes towards Math in Six Graders with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mourad Ali; Mostafa, Amaal Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using differentiated instruction by integrating multiple intelligences and learning styles on solving problems, achievement in, and attitudes towards math in six graders with learning disabilities in cooperative groups. A total of 60 students identified with LD were invited to participate. The sample was…

  12. Measuring health-related problem solving among African Americans with multiple chronic conditions: application of Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2015-10-01

    Identification of patients with poor chronic disease self-management skills can facilitate treatment planning, determine effectiveness of interventions, and reduce disease complications. This paper describes the use of a Rasch model, the Rating Scale Model, to examine psychometric properties of the 50-item Health Problem-Solving Scale (HPSS) among 320 African American patients with high risk for cardiovascular disease. Items on the positive/effective HPSS subscales targeted patients at low, moderate, and high levels of positive/effective problem solving, whereas items on the negative/ineffective problem solving subscales mostly targeted those at moderate or high levels of ineffective problem solving. Validity was examined by correlating factor scores on the measure with clinical and behavioral measures. Items on the HPSS show promise in the ability to assess health-related problem solving among high risk patients. However, further revisions of the scale are needed to increase its usability and validity with large, diverse patient populations in the future.

  13. Using the Multiplicative Schwarz Alternating Algorithm (MSAA) for Solving the Large Linear System of Equations Related to Global Gravity Field Recovery up to Degree and Order 120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, A.; Sharifi, M. A.; Amjadiparvar, B.

    2010-05-01

    The GRACE mission has substantiated the low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (LL-SST) concept. The LL-SST configuration can be combined with the previously realized high-low SST concept in the CHAMP mission to provide a much higher accuracy. The line of sight (LOS) acceleration difference between the GRACE satellite pair is the mostly used observable for mapping the global gravity field of the Earth in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients. In this paper, mathematical formulae for LOS acceleration difference observations have been derived and the corresponding linear system of equations has been set up for spherical harmonic up to degree and order 120. The total number of unknowns is 14641. Such a linear equation system can be solved with iterative solvers or direct solvers. However, the runtime of direct methods or that of iterative solvers without a suitable preconditioner increases tremendously. This is the reason why we need a more sophisticated method to solve the linear system of problems with a large number of unknowns. Multiplicative variant of the Schwarz alternating algorithm is a domain decomposition method, which allows it to split the normal matrix of the system into several smaller overlaped submatrices. In each iteration step the multiplicative variant of the Schwarz alternating algorithm solves linear systems with the matrices obtained from the splitting successively. It reduces both runtime and memory requirements drastically. In this paper we propose the Multiplicative Schwarz Alternating Algorithm (MSAA) for solving the large linear system of gravity field recovery. The proposed algorithm has been tested on the International Association of Geodesy (IAG)-simulated data of the GRACE mission. The achieved results indicate the validity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm in solving the linear system of equations from accuracy and runtime points of view. Keywords: Gravity field recovery, Multiplicative Schwarz Alternating Algorithm, Low

  14. Analysis of the benefits of designing and implementing a virtual didactic model of multiple choice exam and problem-solving heuristic report, for first year engineering students

    OpenAIRE

    Bennun, Leonardo; Santibanez, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in performance and approval obtained by first year engineering students from University of Concepcion, Chile, were studied, once a virtual didactic model of multiple-choice exam, was implemented. This virtual learning resource was implemented in the Web ARCO platform and allows training, by facing test models comparable in both time and difficulty to those that they will have to solve during the course. It also provides a feedback mechanism for both: 1) The students, since they c...

  15. Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac·eptive Preparation. Basil Bloch. Abstract. Experience with depot medroxyprogesterone acetate as a contraceptive preparation in 7 335 patients for a total of 38 714 months over a 3-year period is described. The discontinuation rate was 18.3% and the ...

  16. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, M.V., E-mail: dodson@wsu.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Vierck, J.L. [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Hausman, G.J. [USDA-ARS, Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Station, Athens, GA 30604 (United States); Guan, L.L. [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2P5 Canada (Canada); Fernyhough, M.E. [The Hartz Mountain Corporation, Secaucus, NJ 07094 (United States); Poulos, S.P. [The Coca-Cola Company, Research and Technology, Atlanta, GA 30313 (United States); Mir, P.S. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, CA T1J 4B1 (United States); Jiang, Z. [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2010-04-02

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  17. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.V.; Vierck, J.L.; Hausman, G.J.; Guan, L.L.; Fernyhough, M.E.; Poulos, S.P.; Mir, P.S.; Jiang, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  18. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...... depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0....

  19. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0.......We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...

  20. What cognitive strategies do orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) use to solve a trial-unique puzzle-tube task incorporating multiple obstacles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecwyn, Emma C; Thorpe, Susannah K S; Chappell, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Apparently sophisticated behaviour during problem-solving is often the product of simple underlying mechanisms, such as associative learning or the use of procedural rules. These and other more parsimonious explanations need to be eliminated before higher-level cognitive processes such as causal reasoning or planning can be inferred. We presented three Bornean orangutans with 64 trial-unique configurations of a puzzle-tube to investigate whether they were able to consider multiple obstacles in two alternative paths, and subsequently choose the correct direction in which to move a reward in order to retrieve it. We were particularly interested in how subjects attempted to solve the task, namely which behavioural strategies they could have been using, as this is how we may begin to elucidate the cognitive mechanisms underpinning their choices. To explore this, we simulated performance outcomes across the 64 trials for various procedural rules and rule combinations that subjects may have been using based on the configuration of different obstacles. Two of the three subjects solved the task, suggesting that they were able to consider at least some of the obstacles in the puzzle-tube before executing action to retrieve the reward. This is impressive compared with the past performances of great apes on similar, arguably less complex tasks. Successful subjects may have been using a heuristic rule combination based on what they deemed to be the most relevant cue (the configuration of the puzzle-tube ends), which may be a cognitively economical strategy.

  1. Exploring problem solving strategies on multiple-choice science items: Comparing native Spanish-speaking English Language Learners and mainstream monolinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachchaf, Rachel Rae

    The purpose of this study was to compare how English language learners (ELLs) and monolingual English speakers solved multiple-choice items administered with and without a new form of testing accommodation---vignette illustration (VI). By incorporating theories from second language acquisition, bilingualism, and sociolinguistics, this study was able to gain more accurate and comprehensive input into the ways students interacted with items. This mixed methods study used verbal protocols to elicit the thinking processes of thirty-six native Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs), and 36 native-English speaking non-ELLs when solving multiple-choice science items. Results from both qualitative and quantitative analyses show that ELLs used a wider variety of actions oriented to making sense of the items than non-ELLs. In contrast, non-ELLs used more problem solving strategies than ELLs. There were no statistically significant differences in student performance based on the interaction of presence of illustration and linguistic status or the main effect of presence of illustration. However, there were significant differences based on the main effect of linguistic status. An interaction between the characteristics of the students, the items, and the illustrations indicates considerable heterogeneity in the ways in which students from both linguistic groups think about and respond to science test items. The results of this study speak to the need for more research involving ELLs in the process of test development to create test items that do not require ELLs to carry out significantly more actions to make sense of the item than monolingual students.

  2. Expandable Cryogenic Tankage for On Orbit Depot Storage, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed expandable depot storage tanks would make it possible to have an on-orbit tank larger in volume than any existing or planned launch vehicles. The size...

  3. Spatial Analysis of Depots for Advanced Biomass Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, Michael R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Webb, Erin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eaton, Laurence M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez Gonzalez, Maria I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this work was to perform a spatial analysis of the total feedstock cost at the conversion reactor for biomass supplied by a conventional system and an advanced system with depots to densify biomass into pellets. From these cost estimates, the conditions (feedstock cost and availability) for which advanced processing depots make it possible to achieve cost and volume targets can be identified.

  4. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. To achieve this result, we reduce k-LocVRP to the following generalization of k median, which might be of independent interest. Given a metric (V, d), bound k...... median forest, which leads to a (12+E)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant E > 0. The algorithm for k median forest is t-swap local search, and we prove that it has locality gap 3 + 2 t ; this generalizes the corresponding result for k median [3]. Finally we consider the k median......We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to k-LocVRP is a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k vehicles each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so...

  5. Double evolutsional artificial bee colony algorithm for multiple traveling salesman problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Ming Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The double evolutional artificial bee colony algorithm (DEABC is proposed for solving the single depot multiple traveling salesman problem (MTSP. The proposed DEABC algorithm, which takes advantage of the strength of the upgraded operators, is characterized by its guidance in exploitation search and diversity in exploration search. The double evolutional process for exploitation search is composed of two phases of half stochastic optimal search, and the diversity generating operator for exploration search is used for solutions which cannot be improved after limited times. The computational results demonstrated the superiority of our algorithm over previous state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Architecture Study for a Fuel Depot Supplied from Lunar Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Thomas M.; Casler, James G.

    2016-01-01

    This architecture study sought to determine the optimum architecture for a fuel depot supplied from lunar assets. Four factors - the location of propellant processing (on the Moon or on the depot), the depot location (on the Moon, L1, GEO, or LEO), the propellant transfer location (L1, GEO, or LEO), and the propellant transfer method (bulk fuel or canister exchange) were combined to identify 18 candidate architectures. Two design reference missions (DRMs) - a commercial satellite servicing mission and a Government cargo mission to Mars - created demand for propellants, while a propellant delivery DRM examined supply issues. The study concluded Earth-Moon L1 is the best location for an orbiting depot. For all architectures, propellant boiloff was less than anticipated, and was far overshadowed by delta-v requirements and resulting fuel consumption. Bulk transfer is the most flexible for both the supplier and customer. However, since canister exchange bypasses the transfer of bulk cryogens and necessary chilldown losses, canister exchange shows promise and merits further investigation. Overall, this work indicates propellant consumption and loss is an essential factor in assessing fuel depot architectures.

  7. Supply Inventory Management: Accountability and Control of Materiel at the Naval Air Depot, North Island

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... of the $6.8 billion was for operation of three Naval Air Depots. A significant portion of the $1.5 billion was for purchasing materiel used in repair and overhaul processes at the depot maintenance facilities...

  8. Supply Inventory Managment: Accountability and Control of Materiel at the Naval Air Depot, North Island

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    2002-01-01

    ... of the $6.8 billion was for operation of three Naval Air Depots. A significant portion of the $1.5 billion was for purchasing materiel used in repair and overhaul processes at the depot maintenance facilities...

  9. The multi-depot electric vehicle location routing problem with time windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Paz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the Multi-Depot Electric Vehicle Location Routing Problem with Time Windows (MDVLRP is addressed. This problem is an extension of the MDVLRP, where electric vehicles are used instead of internal combustion engine vehicles. The recent development of this model is explained by the advantages of this technology, such as the diminution of carbon dioxide emissions, and the support that they can provide to the design of the logistic and energy-support structure of electric vehicle fleets. There are many models that extend the classical VRP model to take electric vehicles into consideration, but the multi-depot case for location-routing models has not been worked out yet. Moreover, we consider the availability of two energy supply technologies: the “Plug-in” Conventional Charge technology, and Battery Swapping Stations; options in which the recharging time is a function of the amount of energy to charge and a fixed time, respectively. Three models are proposed: one for each of the technologies mentioned above, and another in which both options are taken in consideration. The models were solved for small scale instances using C++ and Cplex 12.5. The results show that the models can be used to design logistic and energy-support structures, and compare the performance of the different options of energy supply, as well as measure the impact of these decisions on the overall distance traveled or other optimization objectives that could be worked on in the future.

  10. A location-routing problem model with multiple periods and fuzzy demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nadizadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward a dynamic capacitated location-routing problem with fuzzy demands (DCLRP-FD. It is given on input a set of identical vehicles (each having a capacity, a fixed cost and availability level, a set of depots with restricted capacities and opening costs, a set of customers with fuzzy demands, and a planning horizon with multiple periods. The problem consists of determining the depots to be opened only in the first period of the planning horizon, the customers and the vehicles to be assigned to each opened depot, and performing the routes that may be changed in each time period due to fuzzy demands. A fuzzy chance-constrained programming (FCCP model has been designed using credibility theory and a hybrid heuristic algorithm with four phases is presented in order to solve the problem. To obtain the best value of the fuzzy parameters of the model and show the influence of the availability level of vehicles on final solution, some computational experiments are carried out. The validity of the model is then evaluated in contrast with CLRP-FD's models in the literature. The results indicate that the model and the proposed algorithm are robust and could be used in real world problems.

  11. Pengembangan Merek dan Pengkajian Strategi Pemasaran di Depot Rasa Suka Kediri

    OpenAIRE

    Raharjo, Rini; Surjani, Rosita Meitha; Rinawiyanti, Esti Dwi

    2013-01-01

    Depot Rasa Suka is a culinary business that provides a variety of Indonesian dishes. However people still do not know and yet loyal to Depot Rasa Suka due to the unavailability of parking space, quite a long serving time, hot room, less attractive promotion and room design. Therefore Depot Rasa Suka need to devise strategies to develop brands through brand equity analysis and improvement of brand elements as well as designing a marketing strategies. The goal of this research is to make Depot ...

  12. DEPOT: Database for electronics parts and other things

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logg, C.A.; Clancey, P.W.; Crane, G.

    1990-01-01

    DEPOT has been developed to provide tracking for the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) control system equipment. For each piece of equipment entered in the database, a complete service, maintenance, modification, certification, location history, and, optionally, a radiation exposure history, can be maintained. To facilitate data entry accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, barcoding technology has been used extensively. DEPOT has been an important tool in improving the reliability of the microsystems controlling SLC. It is now being adopted by other systems at SLAC. 6 refs., 6 figs

  13. NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot (NSLD) - The application of ATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Lorenz G.; Jenkins, Henry C.; Mauceri, A. Jack

    1990-01-01

    The concept of the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot (NSLD) developed for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Program is described. The function of the NSLD at Cape Canaveral is to perform the acceptance and diagnostic testing of the Shuttle's space-rated line-replaceable units and shop-replaceable units (SRUs). The NSLD includes a comprehensive electronic automatic test station, program development stations, and assorted manufacturing support equipment (including thermal and vibration test equipment, special test equipment, and a card SRU test system). The depot activities also include the establishment of the functions for manufacturing of mechanical parts, soldering, welding, painting, clean room operation, procurement, and subcontract management.

  14. Solving the Problem of Multiple-Criteria Building Design Decisions with respect to the Fire Safety of Occupants: An Approach Based on Probabilistic Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidijus Rytas Vaidogas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of buildings may include a comparison of alternative architectural and structural solutions. They can be developed at different levels of design process. The alternative design solutions are compared and ranked by applying methods of multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM. Each design is characterised by a number of criteria used in a MCDM problem. The paper discusses how to choose MCDM criteria expressing fire safety related to alternative designs. Probability of a successful evacuation of occupants from a building fire and difference between evacuation time and time to untenable conditions are suggested as the most important criteria related to fire safety. These two criteria are treated as uncertain quantities expressed by probability distributions. Monte Carlo simulation of fire and evacuation processes is natural means for an estimation of these distributions. The presence of uncertain criteria requires applying stochastic MCDM methods for ranking alternative designs. An application of the safety-related criteria is illustrated by an example which analyses three alternative architectural floor plans prepared for a reconstruction of a medical building. A MCDM method based on stochastic simulation is used to solve the example problem.

  15. Computer-aided acquisition and logistics support (CALS): Concept of Operations for Depot Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, N.C.; Greer, D.K.

    1993-04-01

    This CALS Concept of Operations for Depot Maintenance provides the foundation strategy and the near term tactical plan for CALS implementation in the depot maintenance environment. The user requirements enumerated and the overarching architecture outlined serve as the primary framework for implementation planning. The seamless integration of depot maintenance business processes and supporting information systems with the emerging global CALS environment will be critical to the efficient realization of depot user's information requirements, and as, such will be a fundamental theme in depot implementations.

  16. Orbiting Depot and Reusable Lander for Lunar Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A document describes a conceptual transportation system that would support exploratory visits by humans to locations dispersed across the surface of the Moon and provide transport of humans and cargo to sustain one or more permanent Lunar outpost. The system architecture reflects requirements to (1) minimize the amount of vehicle hardware that must be expended while maintaining high performance margins and (2) take advantage of emerging capabilities to produce propellants on the Moon while also enabling efficient operation using propellants transported from Earth. The system would include reusable single- stage lander spacecraft and a depot in a low orbit around the Moon. Each lander would have descent, landing, and ascent capabilities. A crew-taxi version of the lander would carry a pressurized crew module; a cargo version could carry a variety of cargo containers. The depot would serve as a facility for storage and for refueling with propellants delivered from Earth or propellants produced on the Moon. The depot could receive propellants and cargo sent from Earth on a variety of spacecraft. The depot could provide power and orbit maintenance for crew vehicles from Earth and could serve as a safe haven for lunar crews pending transport back to Earth.

  17. New Insights into Drug Absorption from Oil Depots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalicharan, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Sustained delivery formulations are used in order to prolong the pharmacological activity of a drug. A commonly used parenteral sustained delivery formulation is an oil depot which consists of a solution of lipophilic molecules in a vegetable oil. These are normally administered either

  18. Whole tree transportation system for timber processing depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Lancaster; Tom Gallagher; Tim  McDonald; Dana Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand for alternative energy has led those who are interested in producing sustainable energy from renewable timber to devise new concepts to satisfy those demands. The concept of timber processing depots, where whole stem trees will be delivered for future processing into wood products and high quality energy fuel, has led to the re-evaluation of our...

  19. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    60. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of Boer goats and the response to varying levels of maize meal. N.H. Casey" and W.A. van Niekerk. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture,. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. xTo whom correspondence should be ...

  20. Redistributing Stock in Library Systems with a Depot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Gerlach; Roodbergen, Kees Jan; van Foreest, Nicky

    Public library organizations often utilize depots for carrying out shipments to libraries in case of stock-outs and for storing low demand rental items at low cost. Similar systems may be employed by rental companies for other rental products such as tools, DVDs, and jewelry. Since shipments deplete

  1. Enhanced intelligent water drops algorithm for multi-depot vehicle routing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezugwu, Absalom E; Akutsah, Francis; Olusanya, Micheal O; Adewumi, Aderemi O

    2018-01-01

    The intelligent water drop algorithm is a swarm-based metaheuristic algorithm, inspired by the characteristics of water drops in the river and the environmental changes resulting from the action of the flowing river. Since its appearance as an alternative stochastic optimization method, the algorithm has found applications in solving a wide range of combinatorial and functional optimization problems. This paper presents an improved intelligent water drop algorithm for solving multi-depot vehicle routing problems. A simulated annealing algorithm was introduced into the proposed algorithm as a local search metaheuristic to prevent the intelligent water drop algorithm from getting trapped into local minima and also improve its solution quality. In addition, some of the potential problematic issues associated with using simulated annealing that include high computational runtime and exponential calculation of the probability of acceptance criteria, are investigated. The exponential calculation of the probability of acceptance criteria for the simulated annealing based techniques is computationally expensive. Therefore, in order to maximize the performance of the intelligent water drop algorithm using simulated annealing, a better way of calculating the probability of acceptance criteria is considered. The performance of the proposed hybrid algorithm is evaluated by using 33 standard test problems, with the results obtained compared with the solutions offered by four well-known techniques from the subject literature. Experimental results and statistical tests show that the new method possesses outstanding performance in terms of solution quality and runtime consumed. In addition, the proposed algorithm is suitable for solving large-scale problems.

  2. Master Environmental Plan: Fort Wingate Depot Activity, Gallup, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.A.; Yuen, C.R.; Biang, R.P.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    The master environmental plan is based on an environmental assessment of the areas requiring environmental evaluation (AREEs) at Fort Wingate Depot Activity near Gallup, New Mexico. The Fort Wingate Depot Activity is slated for closure under the Base Closure and Realignment Act, Public Law 100--526. The MEP assesses the current status, describes additional data requirements, recommends actions for the sites, and establishes a priority order for actions. The plan was developed so that actions comply with hazardous waste and water quality regulations of the State of New Mexico and applicable federal regulations. It contains a brief history of the site, relevant geological and hydrological information, and a description of the current status for each AREE along with a discussion of the available site-specific data that pertain to existing or potential contamination and the impact on the environment. 35 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  3. Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and fracture risk

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Christian; Brauchli, Yolanda B.; Jick, Susan S.; Kraenzlin, Marius E.; Meier, Christoph R.

    2010-01-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), which has a high rate of use among teenagers in Europe and the United States, has been associated with impaired bone mineral acquisition during adolescence and accelerated bone loss in later life. Studies on the association between DMPA use and fracture risk are limited.; We aimed at evaluating the relationship between use of hormonal contraceptives, specifically DMPA, and fracture risk.; We conducted a case-control analysis using the United Kingdom-b...

  4. Process and Energy Optimization Assessment, Tobyhanna Army Depot, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-17

    assembly of electronic-communication components, different welding processes are performed at TYAD. It uses shielded arc, metal inert gas (MIG...tungsten inert gas ( TIG ), and silver braz- ing oxygen/acetylene cutting plasma arc methods to complete mission re- quirements. Major welding jobs are...ER D C/ CE R L TR -0 6 -1 1 Process and Energy Optimization Assessment Tobyhanna Army Depot, PA Mike C.J. Lin, Alexander M. Zhivov

  5. Occupational Exposure of Petroleum Depot Workers to BTEX Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezazadeh Azari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX are the most important toxic volatile compounds in the air and could be easily absorbed through the respiratory tract. In recent years, the risk of exposure to BTEX compounds, especially benzene as a carcinogen, has been considered in petroleum depot stations. Objective: To assess the occupational exposure of petroleum depot workers in Iran to BTEX compounds. Methods: After completing a questionnaire and assessing occupational exposure to BTEX compounds, 78 (46 exposed and 32 non-exposed depot workers were randomly selected to participate in this study. Air sampling and analysis of BTEX was conducted according to the NIOSH method No. 1501. Analysis of urinary hippuric acid, as an indicator of toluene exposure, was carried out according to NIOSH method No. 8300. Personal monitoring of the high exposure group to BTEX compounds was repeated to verify the results obtained in the first phase of the monitoring. Results: Among the 9 operating groups studied, occupational exposure to benzene and toluene was higher in quality control and gasoline loading operators—the median exposure ranged from 0.16 to 1.63 ppm for benzene and 0.2 to 2.72 ppm for toluene. Median exposure of other group members to BTEX compounds was below the detection limit of analytical method (0.07, 0.06, 0.05, and 0.05 ppm, respectively. The level of toluene exposure measured showed correlation with neither post-shift urinary hippuric acid (Spearman's rho=0.128, p=0.982 nor with the difference between post- and pre-shift urinary hippuric acid (Spearman's rho=0.089, p=0.847 in depot operational workers. Conclusion: Gasoline loading operators are exposed to a relatively high level of benzene.

  6. [Treatment of Adult Schizophrenic Patients With Depot Antipsychotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; García Valencia, Jenny; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Ávila-Guerra, Mauricio; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    To determine the indications of long-acting antipsychotic injection and what its effectiveness and safety in adult patients with schizophrenia during the treatment maintenance phase. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. The literature review shows that the evidence has moderate to low quality. 8 articles were used. The risk of relapse was lower with depot risperidone and paliperidone palmitate when compared with placebo. For the risk of hospitalizations comparing depot antipsychotics (APD) versus oral AP, the result is inconclusive. Globally the second-generation APD had a lower risk of discontinuation when compared with placebo. The second generation AP had higher risk of extrapyramidal syndromes than placebo, as in the use of antiparkinsonian. The comparison of second-generation AP injections versus placebo showed an increased risk of early weight gain. The use of depot antipsychotics in the maintenance phase of adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia is recommended if there is no adherence to oral antipsychotics as the patient's preference. It is not recommended depot antipsychotics in the acute phase of schizophrenia in adults. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Depot Maintenance: Improvements to DODs Biennial Core Report Could Better Inform Oversight and Funding Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    military depots, and not workload performed by the private - sector . MDA officials told us that OSD guidance does not explain how to calculate the...military depots2—public- sector facilities that are government-owned and government-operated—and private - sector contractors. Depots have a key role...the public or private sectors . 3Pub. L. No. 98-525 § 307 (1984). This section was originally codified at 10 U.S.C. § 2304 (note). Letter

  8. Evaluation of Uniform Cost Accounting System to Fully Capture Depot Level Repair Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    RD-RI65 522 EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY i/I CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA D R...8217.LECTE B ,- THESIS EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 0TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS Jby __jDavid Richmond O’Brien lj,,, December...Include Security Classification) EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) O’Brien- David

  9. Enhancement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in estuarine invertebrates by surface runoff at a decommissioned military fuel depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A.K.; Roster, N.

    1999-01-01

    Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined in blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) and shore crabs (Hemigrapsus sp.) at a recently closed military fuel depot in central San Francisco Bay, California. In April 1996, during a period of above average precipitation, specimens were collected at the depot, near the depot, and at sites 10 and 20 km south of the depot. Four weeks after the rains ended, blue mussels were again collected at the depot, and at two additional sites in the central Bay region. In April, total PAHs in mussels from the depot were significantly higher only than that in mussels collected 20 km from the depot; however, seven specific, substituted PAHs were higher at the depot than at all other sites. In June, only two of the 38 PAHs common in mussels in April were detected at the depot; these concentrations were comparable to ambient concentrations in mussels at the Bay. It seemed that bioavailability of PAHs at the depot was enhanced by rainfall, probably due to the mobilization of PAHs via groundwater into the Bay. Concentrations in mussels from chronically contaminated sites were about five times higher than mussels collected from the depot. Low PAH concentrations were detected in shore crabs near the depot, and the highest levels were not associated with the depot. Observed PAH concentrations are discussed in relation to upper trophic organisms.

  10. Analysis of Tobyhanna Army Depot's Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Pilot Program: RFID as an Asset Management Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miertschin, Keith W; Forrest, Brian D

    2005-01-01

    ...) used for inventory and asset management at the Tobyhanna Army Maintenance Depot. Tobyhanna Army Depot recently partnered with WhereNet Corporation for a pilot program to incorporate a real-time locating system that uses RFID...

  11. The Development of Student’s Activity Sheets (SAS) Based on Multiple Intelligences and Problem-Solving Skills Using Simple Science Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardani, D. S.; Kirana, T.; Ibrahim, M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to produce SAS based on MI and problem-solving skills using simple science tools that are suitable to be used by elementary school students. The feasibility of SAS is evaluated based on its validity, practicality, and effectiveness. The completion Lesson Plan (LP) implementation and student’s activities are the indicators of SAS practicality. The effectiveness of SAS is measured by indicators of increased learning outcomes and problem-solving skills. The development of SAS follows the 4-D (define, design, develop, and disseminate) phase. However, this study was done until the third stage (develop). The written SAS was then validated through expert evaluation done by two experts of science, before its is tested to the target students. The try-out of SAS used one group with pre-test and post-test design. The result of this research shows that SAS is valid with “good” category. In addition, SAS is considered practical as seen from the increase of student activity at each meeting and LP implementation. Moreover, it was considered effective due to the significant difference between pre-test and post-test result of the learning outcomes and problem-solving skill test. Therefore, SAS is feasible to be used in learning.

  12. Improving Air Force Depot Programming by Linking Resources to Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    thank Rick Grisenthwaite at Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Jamie Jeter at Okla- homa City Air Logistics Center, and Glen Brown at Ogden Air...consistency, we use the term block cycle instead of SCU in our F-16 discussions. 4 8 Im p ro vin g A ir Fo rce D ep o t Pro g ram m in g b y Lin kin...Requirements RAND TR905-B.8 Figure B.9 Depot Purchased Equipment Maintenance Model Output: Projected Aircraft Availability RAND TR905-B.9 A ir cr af t av

  13. Depot Maintenance Air Force Faces Challenges in Managing to 50-50 Ceiling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, David

    2000-01-01

    ... that is being moved from the closing Sacramento, California, and San Antonio, Texas, depots to other military depots or private sector sources. As you requested, my testimony today focuses on the basis for the waiver and the likelihood that the Air Force will need additional waivers in the future.

  14. Adipose tissue in muscle: a novel depot similar in size to visceral adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, D.; Kuznia, P.; Heshka, S.; Albu, J.; Heymsfield, S.B.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Visser, M.; Harris, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The manner in which fat depot volumes and distributions, particularly the adipose tissue (AT) between the muscles, vary by race is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to quantify a previously unstudied and novel intermuscular AT (IMAT) depot and subcutaneous AT, visceral AT (VAT), and

  15. A hybrid metaheuristic algorithm for the multi-depot covering tour vehicle routing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allahyari, S.; Salari, M.; Vigo, D.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a generalization of themulti-depot capacitated vehicle routing problem where the assumption of visiting each customer does not hold. In this problem, called the Multi-Depot Covering Tour Vehicle Routing Problem (MDCTVRP), the demand of each customer could be satisfied in two different

  16. Measuring Customer Satisfaction of Depot Maintenance: An Analysis of Customer Satisfaction of F/A-18 Maintenance at Naval Aviation Depot North Island, CA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forsyth, Brian

    1997-01-01

    .... A key focus of commercial practices is delivering customer satisfaction. To this extent, it is imperative that DoD depots understand and properly measure their customer's concerns if they wish to improve their performance...

  17. Financial incentives for antipsychotic depot medication: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Dirk

    2007-04-01

    Giving money as a direct incentive for patients in exchange for depot medication has proved beneficial in some clinical cases in assertive outreach (AO). However, ethical concerns around this practice have been raised, and will be analysed in more detail here. Ethical concern voiced in a survey of all AO teams in England were analysed regarding their content. These were grouped into categories. 53 of 70 team managers mentioned concerns, many of them serious and expressing a negative attitude towards giving money for depot adherence. Four broad categories of ethical concern following Christensen's concept were distinguished: valid consent and refusal (n = 5), psychiatric paternalism (n = 31), resource allocation (n = 4), organisational relationships (n = 2), with a residual category others and unspecified (n = 11). The main concerns identified are discussed on the background of existing ethical theories in healthcare and the specific problems of community mental health and AO. Points for practice are derived from this discussion. A way forward is outlined that includes informed consent and an operational policy in the use of incentives, further randomised controlled trials and qualitative studies, and continuing discussions with all stakeholders, especially service users.

  18. Solving Immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodovotz, Yoram; Xia, Ashley; Read, Elizabeth L; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Hafler, David A; Sontag, Eduardo; Wang, Jin; Tsang, John S; Day, Judy D; Kleinstein, Steven H; Butte, Atul J; Altman, Matthew C; Hammond, Ross; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2017-02-01

    Emergent responses of the immune system result from the integration of molecular and cellular networks over time and across multiple organs. High-content and high-throughput analysis technologies, concomitantly with data-driven and mechanistic modeling, hold promise for the systematic interrogation of these complex pathways. However, connecting genetic variation and molecular mechanisms to individual phenotypes and health outcomes has proven elusive. Gaps remain in data, and disagreements persist about the value of mechanistic modeling for immunology. Here, we present the perspectives that emerged from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) workshop 'Complex Systems Science, Modeling and Immunity' and subsequent discussions regarding the potential synergy of high-throughput data acquisition, data-driven modeling, and mechanistic modeling to define new mechanisms of immunological disease and to accelerate the translation of these insights into therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Analysis of the Cost Accounting System for the Depot Maintenance Service, Air Force Industrial Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    AN A NALYSIS OF THE COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM FOR THE DEPOT 1/1 MRINTENANCE SERVI..(U) MIR FORCE INST OF TECH IIGHT-PTTERSON RFB OH SCHOOL OF SYST.. 0 L...I "VV h S~ ~~i FiLE COV, THSI CIO ~OF AN ANALYSIS OF THE COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM FOR THE DEPOT MAINTENANCE SERVICE, AIR FORCE INDUSTRIAL FUND...Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ~ p~UOW~~ ’ I ~ 1 12 02 0 AFIT/GLM/LSY/87S-83 AN ANALYSIS OF THE COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM FOR THE DEPOT MAINTENANCE SERVICE, AIR

  20. Policies for Positioning Empty Containers in an Inland Multi-depot System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Yun, Won-Young

    2011-01-01

    -container management are as follows: a coordinated (s, S) inventory policy for overseas positioning, (ri, Ri) policy at each depot for inland positioning; and a simple leasing policy with zero lead-time. For inland positioning policy, four different methods are proposed to reposition empty containers between depots....... Customer demands and returning containers in depots and lead-time for positioning from overseas are considered as uncertain factors. The objective is to obtain the optimal policy in order to minimize the expected total cost including inventory holding, overseas positioning, inland positioning and leasing...

  1. Unified heuristics to solve routing problem of reverse logistics in sustainable supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbuudayasankar, S. P.; Ganesh, K.; Lenny Koh, S. C.; Mohandas, K.

    2010-03-01

    A reverse logistics problem, motivated by many real-life applications, is examined where bottles/cans in which products are delivered from a processing depot to customers in one period are available for return to the depot in the following period. The picked-up bottles/cans need to be adjusted in the place of delivery load. This problem is termed as simultaneous delivery and pick-up problem with constrained capacity (SDPC). We develop three unified heuristics based on extended branch and bound heuristic, genetic algorithm and simulated annealing to solve SDPC. These heuristics are also designed to solve standard travelling salesman problem (TSP) and TSP with simultaneous delivery and pick-up (TSDP). We tested the heuristics on standard, derived and randomly generated datasets of TSP, TSDP and SDPC and obtained satisfying results with high convergence in reasonable time.

  2. Hotline Allegations Involving Contracts for Programmed Depot Maintenance of KC-135 Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    Introduction. We performed the audit in response to 15 allegations made to the Defense Hotline involving two contracts on the Programmed Depot Maintenance of the KC-135 Aircraft, which Oklahoma City Air logistics...

  3. Treatment patterns and clinical characteristics prior to initiating depot typical antipsychotics for nonadherent schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery William

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonadherence with antipsychotic medication is an important clinical and economic problem in the treatment of schizophrenia. This study identified treatment patterns and clinical characteristics that immediately precede the initiation of depot typical antipsychotics in the usual treatment of schizophrenia patients with a recent history of nonadherence with oral antipsychotic regimens. Methods Data were drawn from a large, multisite, 3-year prospective noninterventional observational study of persons treated for schizophrenia in the United States, which was conducted between 7/1997 and 9/2003. The analytical sample included patients who, in the 6 months prior to enrollment, were considered nonadherent with oral antipsychotics and were not treated with depot antipsychotics (N = 314. Patients who were subsequently initiated on typical depots during the 3-year follow-up were compared with patients who continued therapy with only oral antipsychotic agents. Group comparisons were made on patient baseline characteristics and precedent variables that were assessed 1 to 6 months prior to depot initiation. Patient assessments were made at predetermined intervals throughout the 3-year study using standard psychiatric measures, a patient-reported questionnaire, and medical record information. Results A small proportion of patients (12.4% who were recently nonadherent with oral antipsychotics were subsequently initiated on depot therapy during the 3-year study. Compared to patients treated with only oral antipsychotics, those subsequently initiated on a depot were significantly more likely to be hospitalized at depot initiation or the previous 30 days, to have recent involvement with the criminal justice system (arrests, recent illicit drug use, recent switching or augmentation of oral antipsychotics, and recent treatment with oral typical antipsychotics. Conclusion Despite prior nonadherence with oral antipsychotic medication, only a

  4. Scaling up depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA): a systematic literature review illustrating the AIDED model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Leslie; Taylor, Lauren; Pallas, Sarah Wood; Cherlin, Emily; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2013-08-02

    Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), often known by the brand name Depo-Provera, has increased globally, particularly in multiple low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). As a reproductive health technology that has scaled up in diverse contexts, DMPA is an exemplar product innovation with which to illustrate the utility of the AIDED model for scaling up family health innovations. We conducted a systematic review of the enabling factors and barriers to scaling up DMPA use in LMICs. We searched 11 electronic databases for academic literature published through January 2013 (n = 284 articles), and grey literature from major health organizations. We applied exclusion criteria to identify relevant articles from peer-reviewed (n = 10) and grey literature (n = 9), extracting data on scale up of DMPA in 13 countries. We then mapped the resulting factors to the five AIDED model components: ASSESS, INNOVATE, DEVELOP, ENGAGE, and DEVOLVE. The final sample of sources included studies representing variation in geographies and methodologies. We identified 15 enabling factors and 10 barriers to dissemination, diffusion, scale up, and/or sustainability of DMPA use. The greatest number of factors were mapped to the ASSESS, DEVELOP, and ENGAGE components. Findings offer early empirical support for the AIDED model, and provide insights into scale up of DMPA that may be relevant for other family planning product innovations.

  5. Development of self-forming doxorubicin-loaded polymeric depots as an injectable drug delivery system for liver cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittayacharn, Pinunta; Nasongkla, Norased

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop self-forming doxorubicin-loaded polymeric depots as an injectable drug delivery system for liver cancer chemotherapy and studied the release profiles of doxorubicin (Dox) from different depot formulations. Tri-block copolymers of poly(ε-caprolactone), poly(D,L-lactide) and poly(ethylene glycol) named PLECs were successfully used as a biodegradable material to encapsulate Dox as the injectable local drug delivery system. Depot formation and encapsulation efficiency of these depots were evaluated. Results show that depots could be formed and encapsulate Dox with high drug loading content. For the release study, drug loading content (10, 15 and 20% w/w) and polymer concentration (25, 30, and 35% w/v) were varied. It could be observed that the burst release occurred within 1-2 days and this burst release could be reduced by physical mixing of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) into the depot system. The degradation at the surface and cross-section of the depots were examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In addition, cytotoxicity of Dox-loaded depots and blank depots were tested against human liver cancer cell lines (HepG2). Dox released from depots significantly exhibited potent cytotoxic effect against HepG2 cell line compared to that of blank depots. Results from this study reveals an important insight in the development of injectable drug delivery system for liver cancer chemotherapy. Schematic diagram of self-forming doxorubicin-loaded polymeric depots as an injectable drug delivery system and in vitro characterizations. (a) Dox-loaded PLEC depots could be formed with more than 90% of sustained-release Dox at 25% polymer concentration and 20% Dox-loading content. The burst release occurred within 1-2 days and could be reduced by physical mixing of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) into the depot system. (b) Dox released from depots significantly exhibited potent cytotoxic effect against human

  6. Performance Gains of Propellant Management Devices for Liquid Hydrogen Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; McQuillen, John B.; Chato, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents background, experimental design, and preliminary experimental results for the liquid hydrogen bubble point tests conducted at the Cryogenic Components Cell 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the test series was to investigate the parameters that affect liquid acquisition device (LAD) performance in a liquid hydrogen (LH2) propellant tank, to mitigate risk in the final design of the LAD for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission, and to provide insight into optimal LAD operation for future LH2 depots. Preliminary test results show an increase in performance and screen retention over the low reference LH2 bubble point value for a 325 2300 screen in three separate ways, thus improving fundamental LH2 LAD performance. By using a finer mesh screen, operating at a colder liquid temperature, and pressurizing with a noncondensible pressurant gas, a significant increase in margin is achieved in bubble point pressure for LH2 screen channel LADs.

  7. ATTITUDES OF SHOP FLOOR EMPLOYEES TOWARD WOMEN MANAGERS IN FUEL DEPOTS: A CASE OF THE FUEL DEPOTS IN LUBUMBASHI, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen N. M. Nzuve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Labour Organization and all organizations of human rights advocate against any form of negative attitude in employment based on gender, its terms, promotion and relations. Shop floor employees play a very important role in the daily advancement and profitability of an organisation. The purpose of this study was to establish the attitude of shop floor employees toward women managers in fuel depots in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with the population consisting of one hundred and ninety three (193 shop floor employees. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data. In total one hundred and twenty one (121 shop floor employees responded yielding a response rate of sixty three percent (63%. The findings of this study indicate that a negative attitude toward woman managers is prevalent in the Fuel Depots of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. At the fuel depots, the number of women working was less than a third of the males. In spite of this, women managers are rated higher in management qualities and are considered to be more honest, diligent, compassionate, creative and intelligent when compared to their male counterparts. The study recommends a culture change among employees in fuel depots in Lubumbashi in order to enable them perceive women as equal partners at the work place.

  8. Measurement of ground and nearby building vibration and noise induced by trains in a metro depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chao; Wang, Yimin; Wang, Peng; Guo, Jixing

    2015-12-01

    Metro depots are where subway trains are parked and where maintenance is carried out. They usually occupy the largest ground areas in metro projects. Due to land utilization problems, Chinese cities have begun to develop over-track buildings above metro depots for people's life and work. The frequently moving trains, when going into and out of metro depots, can cause excessive vibration and noise to over-track buildings and adversely affect the living quality of the building occupants. Considering the current need of reliable experimental data for the construction of metro depots, field measurements of vibration and noise on the ground and inside a nearby 3-story building subjected to moving subway trains were conducted in a metro depot at Guangzhou, China. The amplitudes and frequency contents of velocity levels were quantified and compared. The composite A-weighted equivalent sound levels and maximum sound levels were captured. The predicted models for vibration and noise of metro depot were proposed based on existing models and verified. It was found that the vertical vibrations were significantly greater than the horizontal vibrations on the ground and inside the building near the testing line. While at the throat area, the horizontal vibrations near the curved track were remarkably greater than the vertical vibrations. The attenuation of the vibrations with frequencies above 50 Hz was larger than the ones below 50 Hz, and the frequencies of vibration transmitting to adjacent buildings were mainly within 10-50 Hz. The largest equivalent sound level generated in the throat area was smaller than the testing line one, but the instantaneous maximum sound level induced by wheels squeal, contact between wheels and rail joints as well as turnout was close to or even greater than the testing line one. The predicted models gave a first estimation for design and assessment of newly built metro depots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) use after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Clarissa; Murthy, Amitasrigowri S

    2016-01-01

    In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mass index between 25 kg/m 2 and 29.9 kg/m 2 ) or obese (body mass index >30 kg/m 2 ). In light of this, it is not surprising that the rates of bariatric surgery have also been increasing. When considering the metabolic changes associated with both bariatric surgery and contraceptive use, in combination with the unique medical considerations of obese women, it is indisputable that clear guidelines are needed when counseling obese patients of reproductive age after bariatric surgery. In this literature review, we focus on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and the implications of its use in obese women, preweight and postweight loss following bariatric surgery. Both DMPA use and bariatric surgery are known to cause bone loss, but it is still unclear whether there is an additive effect of the two factors on bone loss and whether either of these factors directly leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. The current consensus guidelines do not impose a restriction on the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. DMPA use is associated with weight gain, and it is unclear whether weight loss blunting occurs with the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. Prior studies had demonstrated an association with weight gain in adolescents, and therefore, those prescribing DMPA use after bariatric surgery in adolescents should proceed with caution. Adult women do not have a similar response to the use of DMPA. DMPA use has rarely been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The obesity-associated increase in VTE should be mitigated by surgically induced weight loss. The concurrent use of DMPA in the post bariatric surgical period should not further increase the risk of VTE.

  10. NeuronDepot: Keeping your colleagues in sync by combining modern cloud storage services, the local file system, and simple web applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp L Rautenberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscience today deals with a data deluge derived from the availability of high-throughput sensors of brain structure and brain activity, and increased computational resources for detailed simulations with complex output. We report here (1 a novel approach to data sharing between collaborating scientists that brings together file system tools and cloud technologies, (2 a service implementing this approach, called NeuronDepot, and (3 an example application of the service to a complex use case in the neurosciences. The main drivers for our approach are to facilitate collaborations with a transparent, automated data flow that shields scientists from having to learn new tools or data structuring paradigms. Using NeuronDepot is simple: one-time data assignment from the originator and cloud based syncing – thus making experimental and modeling data available across the collaboration with minimum overhead. Since data sharing is cloud based, our approach opens up the possibility of using new software developments and hardware scalabitliy which are associated with elastic cloud computing. We provide an implementation that relies on existing synchronization services and is usable from all devices via a reactive web interface. We are motivating our solution by solving the practical problems of the GinJang project, a collaboration of three universities across eight time zones with a complex workflow encompassing data from electrophysiological recordings, imaging, morphological reconstructions, and simulations.

  11. NeuronDepot: keeping your colleagues in sync by combining modern cloud storage services, the local file system, and simple web applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenberg, Philipp L; Kumaraswamy, Ajayrama; Tejero-Cantero, Alvaro; Doblander, Christoph; Norouzian, Mohammad R; Kai, Kazuki; Jacobsen, Hans-Arno; Ai, Hiroyuki; Wachtler, Thomas; Ikeno, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience today deals with a "data deluge" derived from the availability of high-throughput sensors of brain structure and brain activity, and increased computational resources for detailed simulations with complex output. We report here (1) a novel approach to data sharing between collaborating scientists that brings together file system tools and cloud technologies, (2) a service implementing this approach, called NeuronDepot, and (3) an example application of the service to a complex use case in the neurosciences. The main drivers for our approach are to facilitate collaborations with a transparent, automated data flow that shields scientists from having to learn new tools or data structuring paradigms. Using NeuronDepot is simple: one-time data assignment from the originator and cloud based syncing-thus making experimental and modeling data available across the collaboration with minimum overhead. Since data sharing is cloud based, our approach opens up the possibility of using new software developments and hardware scalabitliy which are associated with elastic cloud computing. We provide an implementation that relies on existing synchronization services and is usable from all devices via a reactive web interface. We are motivating our solution by solving the practical problems of the GinJang project, a collaboration of three universities across eight time zones with a complex workflow encompassing data from electrophysiological recordings, imaging, morphological reconstructions, and simulations.

  12. Effects of the SOLVE Strategy on the Mathematical Problem Solving Skills of Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman-Green, Shaqwana M.; O'Brien, Chris; Wood, Charles L.; Hitt, Sara Beth

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of explicit instruction in the SOLVE Strategy on the mathematical problem solving skills of six Grade 8 students with specific learning disabilities. The SOLVE Strategy is an explicit instruction, mnemonic-based learning strategy designed to help students in solving mathematical word problems. Using a multiple probe…

  13. Preparation and in vitro characterization of SN-38-loaded, self-forming polymeric depots as an injectable drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaspon, Chawan; Hongeng, Suradej; Boongird, Atthaporn; Nasongkla, Norased

    2012-10-01

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of anticancer-loaded injectable polymeric depots that consisted of D,L-lactide (LA), ε-caprolactone (CL), and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or [poly(ε-caprolactone)-random-poly(D,L-lactide)]-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-[poly(ε-caprolactone)-random-poly(D,L-lactide)] (PLEC) copolymers for malignant gliomas treatment. PLECs were polymerized with different percentages of LA to deliver 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), a highly potent anticancer drug. SN-38-loaded depots could form directly in phosphate buffer saline with more than 98% encapsulation efficiency. The release rate of SN-38 from depots was found to depend on the amount of LA in PLECs, loading content of SN-38 in the depots, and depot weight. Encapsulation of SN-38 inside depots could enhance the stability of SN-38 where all of SN-38 released after 60 days was in an active form. Depots without SN-38 were evaluated as noncytotoxic against U-87MG, whereas SN-38-loaded depots showed cytotoxic effect as a function of concentration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A variable neighborhood descent based heuristic to solve the capacitated location-routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Jabal-Ameli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Location-routing problem (LRP is established as a new research area in the context of location analysis. The primary concern of LRP is on locating facilities and routing of vehicles among established facilities and existing demand points. In this work, we address the capacitated LRP which arises in many practical applications within logistics and supply chain management. The objective is to minimize the overall system costs which include the fixed costs of opening depots and using vehicles at each depot site, and the variable costs associated with delivery activities. A novel heuristic is proposed which is based on variable neighborhood descent (VND algorithm to solve the resulted problem. The computational study indicates that the proposed VND based heuristic is highly competitive with the existing solution algorithms in terms of solution quality.

  15. Male bovine GH transgenic mice have decreased adiposity with an adipose depot-specific increase in immune cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benencia, Fabian; Harshman, Stephanie; Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Lubbers, Ellen R; List, Edward O; Householder, Lara; Al-Naeeli, Mawadda; Liang, Xiaoyu; Welch, Lonnie; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2015-05-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is composed of mature adipocytes and a stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which contains a variety of cells, including immune cells that vary among the different WAT depots. Growth hormone (GH) impacts immune function and adiposity in an adipose depot-specific manner. However, its effects on WAT immune cell populations remain unstudied. Bovine GH transgenic (bGH) mice are commonly used to study the in vivo effects of GH. These giant mice have an excess of GH action, impaired glucose metabolism, decreased adiposity, increased lean mass, and a shortened lifespan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the WAT depot-specific differences in immune cell populations in the presence of excess GH in vivo. Three WAT depots were assessed: inguinal (sc), epididymal (EPI), and mesenteric (MES). Subcutaneous and MES bGH WAT depots showed a significantly higher number of total SVF cells, yet only MES bGH WAT had higher leukocyte counts compared with control samples. By means of flow cytometry analysis of the SVF, we detected greater macrophage and regulatory T-cell infiltration in sc and MES bGH WAT depots compared with controls. However, no differences were observed in the EPI WAT depot. RNA-sequencing confirmed significant alterations in pathways related to T-cell infiltration and activation in the sc depot with fewer significant changes in the EPI bGH WAT depot. These findings collectively point to a previously unrecognized role for GH in influencing the distribution of WAT immune cell populations in a depot-specific manner.

  16. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clarissa Lam,1 Amitasrigowri S Murthy2,3 1New York University School of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York University School of Medicine, 3New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mass index between 25 kg/m2 and 29.9 kg/m2 or obese (body mass index >30 kg/m2. In light of this, it is not surprising that the rates of bariatric surgery have also been increasing. When considering the metabolic changes associated with both bariatric surgery and contraceptive use, in combination with the unique medical considerations of obese women, it is indisputable that clear guidelines are needed when counseling obese patients of reproductive age after bariatric surgery. In this literature review, we focus on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA and the implications of its use in obese women, preweight and postweight loss following bariatric surgery. Both DMPA use and bariatric surgery are known to cause bone loss, but it is still unclear whether there is an additive effect of the two factors on bone loss and whether either of these factors directly leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. The current consensus guidelines do not impose a restriction on the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. DMPA use is associated with weight gain, and it is unclear whether weight loss blunting occurs with the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. Prior studies had demonstrated an association with weight gain in adolescents, and therefore, those prescribing DMPA use after bariatric surgery in adolescents should proceed with caution. Adult women do not have a similar response to the use of DMPA. DMPA use has rarely been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE. The

  17. Clinical outcome of one-third-dose depot triptorelin is the same as half-dose depot triptorelin in the long protocol of controlled ovarian stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Appropriate dosage of the long-acting depot gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH agonist has not been determined in long protocol for IVF, and one-third-dose depot triptorelin was compared with half-dose in a luteal long protocol of in-vitro fertilization/ intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI treatment in this study. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, open clinical trial. 100 patients were randomized into two groups. Group I received one-third-dose (1.25 mg depot triptorelin. Group II received half-dose (1.87 mg. The clinical and experimental parameters were compared between the two groups. Results: There was no premature luteinizing hormone (LH surge in both groups. On Day 3-5 of menstrual cycle after down-regulation, fewer patients showed low-level LH (<1.0 IU/L and estradiol (<30 pg/mL in group I (P <0.05. There were fewer oocytes retrieved (P =0.086, fewer total embryos and available embryos for cryopreservation in Group I (P <0.05, while good-quality embryo rate was higher in group I (P <0.05. The length and dose of ovarian stimulation was lower in Group I, but not significantly. The clinical pregnancy (52% versus 40%, implantation (48% versus 37.5%, delivery (46% versus 32%, or live birth (42% versus 32% rates and the abortion (8% versus 20% rates showed no significant differences. Conclusion: Depot triptorelin 1.25 mg can be successfully used with reduced pituitary suppression and lower cost in a long protocol for in-vitro fertilization.

  18. Multicenter clinical trial of leuprolide acetate depot (Luphere depot 3.75 mg for efficacy and safety in girls with central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Jin Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeWe evaluated the efficacy, safety and psychological aspect of monthly administrations of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa, leuprolide acetate depot (Luphere depot 3.75 mg, in patients with precocious puberty.MethodsA total of 54 girls with central precocious puberty were administered with leuprolide acetate (Luphere depot 3.75 mg every four weeks over 24 weeks. We evaluated the percentage of children exhibiting a suppressed luteinizing hormone (LH response to GnRH (LH peak≤3 IU/L, peak LH/follicle stimulating hormone (FSH ratio of GnRH stimulation test less than 1, change in bone age/chronologic age ratio, change in the Tanner stage and change in eating habit and psychological aspect.Results(1 The percentage of children exhibiting a suppressed LH response to GnRH, defined as an LH peak≤3 IU/L at 24 weeks was 96.3 % (52/54. (2 The percentage of children exhibiting peak LH/FSH ratio<1 at 24 weeks of the study was 94.4 % (51/54. (3 The ratio of bone age and chronological age significantly declined from 1.27±0.07 to 1.24±0.01 after the 6 months of the study. (4 The mean Tanner stage manifested a significant change 2.3±0.48 at baseline, down to 1.70±0.61 at 24 weeks. (5 Based on the questionnaires, the score for eating habits showed a significant change from the baseline 34.0±6.8 to 31.3±6.8. (6 The psychological assessment did not exhibit a significant difference except with scores for sociability, problem behavior total score and other problems.ConclusionThe leuprolide 3.75 mg (Luphere depot is useful and safety for treating children with central precocious puberty.

  19. Inflammation and race and gender differences in computerized tomography-measured adipose depots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beasley, L.E.; Koster, A.; Newman, A.B.; Javaid, M.K.; Ferucci, L.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Kuller, L.H.; Pahor, M.; Visser, M.; Rubin, S.M.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Everhart, J.E.; Harris, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has consistently shown a correlation between obesity and chronic subclinical inflammation. It is unclear whether the size of specific adipose depots is more closely associated with concentrations of inflammatory markers than overall adiposity. This study investigated the

  20. Clay Nanoparticles Elicit Long-Term Immune Responses by Forming Biodegradable Depots for Sustained Antigen Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyu; Zuo, Huali; Li, Bei; Duan, Chengcheng; Rolfe, Barbara; Zhang, Bing; Mahony, Timothy J; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2018-05-01

    Nanomaterials have been widely tested as new generation vaccine adjuvants, but few evoke efficient immunoreactions. Clay nanoparticles, for example, layered double hydroxide (LDH) and hectorite (HEC) nanoparticles, have shown their potent adjuvanticity in generating effective and durable immune responses. However, the mechanism by which clay nanoadjuvants stimulate the immune system is not well understood. Here, it is demonstrated that LDH and HEC-antigen complexes form loose agglomerates in culture medium/serum. They also form nodules with loose structures in tissue after subcutaneous injection, where they act as a depot for up to 35 d. More importantly, clay nanoparticles actively and continuously recruit immune cells into the depot for up to one month, and stimulate stronger immune responses than FDA-approved adjuvants, Alum and QuilA. Sustained antigen release is also observed in clay nanoparticle depots, with 50-60% antigen released after 35 d. In contrast, Alum-antigen complexes show minimal antigen release from the depot. Importantly, LDH and HEC are more effective than QuilA and Alum in promoting memory T-cell proliferation. These findings suggest that both clay nanoadjuvants can serve as active vaccine platforms for sustained and potent immune responses. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Pharmacodynamic effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administered to lactating women on their male infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virutamasen, P; Leepipatpaiboon, S; Kriengsinyot, R; Vichaidith, P; Muia, PN; SekaddeKigondu, CB; Mati, JKG; Forest, MG; Dikkeschei, LD; Wolthers, BG; dArcangues, C

    Normal postpartum women, who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of one full-term male infant, free of congenital abnormalities and other diseases, were recruited for this study. Thirteen women received 150 mg depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), intramuscularly on days 42 + 1 and 126 + 1

  2. Verspreiding van zout bij het terugwinnen van zeezand uit een depot in het Haringvliet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1991-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft een beknopte analyse van de verdunning en verspreiding van zout vanuit een gepland depot voor ontzilt zeezand in het Haringvliet. Beschouwd zijn de initiële menging van het zout bij terugwinnen van het zand, de verspreiding door stroming en turbulentie bij geopende spuisluis, en de

  3. Safety Extension Study Of Leuprolide Acetate (Lupron Depot) In The Treatment Of Central Precocious Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-08

    Precocious; Leuprolide Acetate; Luteinizing Hormone (LH); Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone Agonist (GnRHa); Tanner Staging; Depot Formulation; Suppression of LH; Central Precocious Puberty (CPP); Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone (GnRH); Lupron; GnRH Analog; Pediatrics Central Precocious Puberty

  4. Sustained release of antibiotics from injectable and thermally responsive polypeptide depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Samuel B; Shamji, Mohammed F; Nettles, Dana L; Hwang, Priscilla; Setton, Lori A

    2009-07-01

    Biodegradable polymeric scaffolds are of interest for delivering antibiotics to local sites of infection in orthopaedic applications, such as bone and diarthrodial joints. The objective of this study was to develop a biodegradable scaffold with ease of drug loading in aqueous solution, while providing for drug depot delivery via syringe injection. Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) were used for this application, biopolymers of repeating pentapeptide sequences that were thermally triggered to undergo in situ depot formation at body temperature. ELPs were modified to enable loading with the antibiotics, cefazolin, and vancomycin, followed by induction of the phase transition in vitro. Cefazolin and vancomycin concentrations were monitored, as well as bioactivity of the released antibiotics, to test an ability of the ELP depot to provide for prolonged release of bioactive drugs. Further tests of formulation viscosity were conducted to test suitability as an injectable drug carrier. Results demonstrate sustained release of therapeutic concentrations of bioactive antibiotics by the ELP, with first-order time constants for drug release of approximately 25 h for cefazolin and approximately 500 h for vancomycin. These findings illustrate that an injectable, in situ forming ELP depot can provide for sustained release of antibiotics with an effect that varies across antibiotic formulation. ELPs have important advantages for drug delivery, as they are known to be biocompatible, biodegradable, and elicit no known immune response. These benefits suggest distinct advantages over currently used carriers for antibiotic drug delivery in orthopedic applications. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The contribution of the in-vivo fate of an oil depot to drug absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalicharan, R. W.; Oussoren, C; Schot, Peter; Rijk, de, E.; Vromans, H.

    2017-01-01

    Sustained release of lipophilic compounds can be achieved with oil depots. These parenteral formulations are generally injected in the vastus lateralis and deltoid muscle. It is known that the absorption rate differs between these two muscles. The reason for this is not fully understood. The aim of

  6. Field Demonstration/Validation of Electrolytic Barriers for Energetic Compounds at Pueblo Chemical Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    measuring the intensity of fluorescence at 517 nm using an Ocean Optics USB-2000TM spectrometer and an Ocean OpticsTM custom six-around-one fiber ...Umatilla Army Depot, OR Demilitarization (washout) Basalt Deep (>50 feet) NRC (2005) Installation Action Plan for UAAP March 2001 Hawthorne

  7. Implementation of Geographical Information System for Bacteriological Contamination Analysis on Refill Drinking Water Depot (Study in Tembalang District)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmitha, Amelia; Utami, Endang Sri; Sitohang, Marya Yenita

    2018-02-01

    People used refilled-drinking-water for household and food stall because its efficient and low cost. Based on Indonesian Health Ministry regulation, it should not have any coliform bacteria. This study aimed to describe the bacteriological contamination of refilled drinking water using geographical information system (GIS). In this research, it was used an analytic observational method. The samples were from all available (37) depots in Tembalang district, one form each depot took used a sterile bottle. Contamination of bacteria was identified by Most Probable Number (MPN) method lactose broth media, Mac Conkey media, and IMVIC media. The depot samples were then plotted on (GIS). This study showed 95% samples were not feasible to consume since they contamined coliform. All sub-district had one that contaminated by coliform, 75% sub-districts had depots that contaminated Escherichia coli, while 55% sub-districts had depots that contaminated with other bacteria. The internal risk factors of the contamination were the absence of hygiene-sanitation worthy certificate (95%), depots location near to pollution sources (5%), and the misused of UV light. The external risk factor was lack of quality control that was not as the sterilization from office health Semarang city. Policy reinforcement should be done to all of the depots.

  8. Cost-Utility Analysis of Depot Atypical Antipsychotics for Chronic Schizophrenia in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukic, Vlado; Jakovljevic, Miro; Filipcic, Igor; Herceg, Miroslav; Silic, Ante; Tomljanovic, Tatjana; Zilbershtein, Roman; Jensen, Rasmus C D; Hemels, Michiel E H; Einarson, Thomas R

    As a nation with a developing economy, Croatia is faced with making choices between pharmaceutical products, including depot injectable antipsychotics. We conducted a pharmacoeconomic analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of atypical depots in Croatia. A 1-year decision-analytic framework modeled drug use. We determined the average direct cost to the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance of using depot formulations of paliperidone palmitate long-acting injectable (PP-LAI), risperidone LAI (RIS-LAI), or olanzapine LAI (OLZ-LAI). An expert panel plus literature-derived clinical rates populated the core model, along with costs adjusted to 2012 by using the Croatian consumer price index. Clinical outcomes included quality-adjusted life-years, hospitalization rates, emergency room treatment rates, and relapse days. Robustness of results was examined with one-way sensitivity analyses on important inputs; overall, all inputs were varied over 10,000 simulations in a Monte Carlo analysis. Costs (quality-adjusted life-years) per patient were €5061 (0.817) for PP-LAI, €5168 (0.807) for RIS-LAI, and €6410 (0.812) for OLZ-LAI. PP-LAI had the fewest relapse days, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Results were sensitive against RIS-LAI with respect to drug costs and adherence rates, but were generally robust overall, dominating OLZ-LAI in 77.3% and RIS-LAI in 56.8% of the simulations. PP-LAI dominated the other drugs because it had the lowest cost and best clinical outcomes. Compared with depots of olanzapine and risperidone and oral olanzapine, PP-LAI was the cost-effective atypical LAI for treating chronic schizophrenia in Croatia. Using depot paliperidone in place of either olanzapine or risperidone would reduce the overall costs of caring for these patients. Copyright © 2013, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Hypoxia induced VEGF synthesis in visceral adipose depots of obese diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaru, Ana Marina; Pisoschi, Cătălina Gabriela; Bold, Adriana; Taisescu, C; Stănescu, R; Hîncu, Mihaela; Crăiţoiu, Stefania; Baniţă, Ileana Monica

    2012-01-01

    VEGF is one the pro-inflammatory adipokines synthesized by the "adipose secretoma" of obese subjects as a response to hypoxic conditions; but the main function of VEGF is angiogenesis, being recognized as the most important factor increasing blood capillaries in the adipose tissue by stimulating endothelial cell growth. In this paper, we propose a comparative study of the vascular response to VEGF synthesis in the subcutaneous and central-peritoneal adipose depots in lean, obese and obese diabetic patients. We used CD31 to label the endothelial cells in order to evaluate the response of the vascular network to VEGF synthesis. Our results showed an increase of VEGF protein synthesis in obese and obese-diabetic patients compared to lean subjects where the protein was absent. The positivity for VEGF in obese diabetic samples was observed in numerous structures from the adipose depots, both in the stromal vascular fraction--blood vessels and stromal cells--as well as in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Positivity in the vascular wall was observed more frequently in areas of perivascular and intralobular fibrosis. Obese and diabetic patients showed similar incidence of CD31 immunoreactivity with lean subjects in both subcutaneous and peritoneal depots. In conclusion, human adipose depots show a different incidence of VEGF positive cells in relation with their disposal and the metabolic status. VEGF synthesis in visceral adipose tissue is inefficient being not followed by angiogenesis to counterbalance tissue hypoxia. We suggest that may be a pathogenic link between the degrees of intralobular fibrosis in adipose depots and VEGF expression.

  10. RATIONAL RECOVERY MODEL OF DEPOT PROCESSING EQUIPMENT AT THE INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kapitsa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The problem of the maximum resources recovery of rolling stock repair depot of industrial enterprise with limited resources consumption, which are used in the system is today’s topical question.The main factors that affect the repair depot operation of industrial enterprise are reviewed. The most significant factors, affecting the quality of the repair depot, are emphasized for further study, specifically - the state of the major repair equipment of a sector. There is a need to minimize the impact of the unsatisfactory state of this factor. Methodology. The formed task of major equipment rational repairing in the mathematical sense is based on the solution of a vector optimization problem. In this case the target functions are the monetary funds spending and time expenditure for repairing. Findings. The mathematical model of optimal equipment maintainability of the repair department at the industrial enterprise was developed by the authors. On the example the choice model of optimal path for equipment repairing of enterprise repair department is described. Originality. As a result of the conducted research the repairing system of major equipment of industrial enterprise sectors was improved. As the mathematical model of rational system recovery of industrial enterprise repair depot we recommend apparatus of class problems of vector optimization. Practical value. Using the proposed model of major equipment repair system of the repair depot at the industrial enterprise will improve the quality of the department by increasing the efficiency of primary resources - time and monetary funds - which are spent by the sector in order to repair its techniques.

  11. Problemas multiplicativos envolvendo combinatória: estratégias de resolução empregadas por alunos do Ensino Fundamental público Multiplicative problems including combinatorics: solving strategies adopted by Public Elementary School students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny R. M. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentamos os dados de uma pesquisa que teve por objetivo verificar o desempenho de alunos do 6.° ao 9.° anos do Ensino Fundamental na resolução de oito problemas multiplicativos, envolvendo raciocínio combinatório. Os problemas diferiam em relação à quantidade de variáveis e à quantidade de algarismos utilizados nos fatores. Para tanto, por meio de uma entrevista clínica levantamos as principais estratégias e erros produzidos por 40 alunos de duas escolas públicas (A e B da cidade de Campo Grande-MS, as quais fizeram parte de uma pesquisa mais ampla realizada anteriormente. Os dados revelam que o desempenho foi melhor nos problemas com duas variáveis e com fatores de valores baixos, não havendo diferença de desempenho entre alunos do 6.° e do 9.° anos. De modo geral, as dificuldades que emergiram estavam relacionadas: 1 aos modelos intuitivos que os alunos têm a respeito da multiplicação (em especial o da soma repetida; 2 a estrutura semântica do problema; 3 as preferências numéricas quanto ao tamanho dos números, formas de representar o problema e interpretação do enunciado verbal. Por ser a multiplicação uma operação bastante complexa envolvendo, em sua resolução, processos cognitivos abstratos, acreditamos que o professor precisa conhecê-los para favorecer a aprendizagem dos alunos.This work presents data from a study which aimed at verifying the performance of Elementary School 6th and 9th graders when solving eight multiplicative problems involving combinatorial thinking. The problems were different concerning the amount of variables and the amount of numerical digits used in factors. Therefore, through a clinical interview, we listed the main strategies and mistakes produced by 40 graders from two public schools (A and B in the municipality of Campo Grande (Mato Grosso do Sul - MS - State which were part of a larger research developed before. The observations reveal that the performance

  12. Experiences gained in the conditioning of radioactive wastes from regional depots by example of Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, and recommendations for the establishment of regional depots in the new Federal States of unified Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, W.

    1992-01-01

    Details are given about radioactive waste management and radioactive waste management fundamentals as well as about the respective methods applied by the Baden-Wuerttemberg radioacive waste depot. The waste treatment, quality assurance and internal inspection methods applied by Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe (HDB), Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) are described, and recommendations are given for the establishment of regional depots in the new provinces of the Federal Republic of Germany. These recommendations which are based on Western German standards before unification suggest regional depots with combined administrative systems which watch over the depot use and charges, the foundation of a waste management association responsible for the disposal, transport, intermediate storage and conditioning of radioactive wastes in the new provinces, and the establishment of a facility to be run by the proposed waste management association for the intermediate storage of conditioned waste packages intended for final disposal. (orig.) [de

  13. Maternal obesity programs increased leptin gene expression in rat male offspring via epigenetic modifications in a depot-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lecoutre

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Consistent with the DOHaD hypothesis, persistent epigenetic remodeling occurs at regulatory regions especially within intergenic sequences, linked to higher leptin gene expression in adult HF offspring in a depot-specific manner.

  14. Financial Reporting Procedures for Defense Distribution Depots - Defense Logistics Agency Business Area of the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1994-01-01

    In our audit of the FY 1993 Financial Statements for the Distribution Depots--Defense Logistics Agency Business Mea of the Defense Business Operations Fund, we evaluated procedures and controls used...

  15. Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…

  16. Examining a Paradigm Shift in Organic Depot-Level Software Maintenance for Army Communications and Electronics Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-30

    scalable application of cutting edge technologies. 20 4. Responding to changing resources—With likely significant resource reductions the depot...deal with underutilized organic capability while continuing to increase outsourcing of depot workload. In addition the study states that a...the unique organic skills that TYAD could 40 bring to the software sustainment mission could be valuable based on the specific type of software

  17. Ant colony system (ACS with hybrid local search to solve vehicle routing problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphan Sodsoon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research applied an Ant Colony System algorithm with a Hybrid Local Search to solve Vehicle Routing Problems (VRP from a single depot when the customers’ requirements are known. VRP is an NP-hard optimization problem and has usually been successfully solved optimum by heuristics. A fleet of vehicles of a specific capacity are used to serve a number of customers at minimum cost, without violating the constraints of vehicle capacity. There are meta-heuristic approaches to solve these problems, such as Simulated Annealing, Genetic Algorithm, Tabu Search and the Ant Colony System algorithm. In this case a hybrid local search was used (Cross-Exchange, Or-Opt and 2-Opt algorithm with an Ant Colony System algorithm. The Experimental Design was tested on 7 various problems from the data set online in the OR-Library. There are five different problems in which customers are randomly distributed with the depot in an approximately central location. The customers were grouped into clusters. The results are evaluated in terms of optimal routes using optimal distances. The experimental results are compared with those obtained from meta-heuristics and they show that the proposed method outperforms six meta-heuristics in the literature.

  18. Depot-medication compliance for patients with psychotic disorders: the importance of illness insight and treatment motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordraven, Ernst L; Wierdsma, André I; Blanken, Peter; Bloemendaal, Anthony Ft; Mulder, Cornelis L

    2016-01-01

    Noncompliance is a major problem for patients with a psychotic disorder. Two important risk factors for noncompliance that have a severe negative impact on treatment outcomes are impaired illness insight and lack of motivation. Our cross-sectional study explored how they are related to each other and their compliance with depot medication. Interviews were conducted in 169 outpatients with a psychotic disorder taking depot medication. Four patient groups were defined based on low or high illness insight and on low or high motivation. The associations between depot-medication compliance, motivation, and insight were illustrated using generalized linear models. Generalized linear model showed a significant interaction effect between motivation and insight. Patients with poor insight and high motivation for treatment were more compliant (94%) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.821, 3.489) with their depot medication than patients with poor insight and low motivation (61%) (95% CI: 0.288, 0.615). Patients with both insight and high motivation for treatment were less compliant (73%) (95% CI: 0.719, 1.315) than those with poor insight and high motivation. Motivation for treatment was more strongly associated with depot-medication compliance than with illness insight. Being motivated to take medication, whether to get better or for other reasons, may be a more important factor than having illness insight in terms of improving depot-medication compliance. Possible implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  19. Intrinsic differences in adipocyte precursor cells from different white fat depots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macotela, Yazmín; Emanuelli, Brice; Mori, Marcelo A

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and body fat distribution are important risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence has accumulated that this risk is related to intrinsic differences in behavior of adipocytes in different fat depots. In the current study, we demonstrate...... that adipocyte precursor cells (APCs) isolated from visceral and subcutaneous white adipose depots of mice have distinct patterns of gene expression, differentiation potential, and response to environmental and genetic influences. APCs derived from subcutaneous fat differentiate well in the presence of classical...... induction cocktail, whereas those from visceral fat differentiate poorly but can be induced to differentiate by addition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 or BMP-4. This difference correlates with major differences in gene expression signature between subcutaneous and visceral APCs. The number of APCs...

  20. Understanding of empty container movement: A study on a bottleneck at an off-dock depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Rosmaizura Mohd; Rahman, Mohd Nizam Ab; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Saibani, Nizaroyani

    2014-09-01

    Port not only function as connections between marine and land transportation but also as core business areas. In a port terminal, available space is limited, but the influx of container is growing. The off-dock depot is one of the key supply chain players that hold empty containers in the inventory. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the main factors of bottlenecks or congestion that hinder the rapid movement of empty containers from the off-dock depot to the customers. Thirty interviews were conducted with individuals who are key players in the container supply chain. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software and the analytic hierarchy process to rank the priority factors of bottlenecks. Findings show that several pertinent factors act as barriers to the key players in the container movement in the day-to-day operations. In future studies, strategies to overcome fragmentation in the container supply chain and logistics must be determined.

  1. Formative Evaluation of a Sociotechnical System Intervention at an Army Maintenance Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    periodically reassess itself to determine if the balance between the technical and social systems remains adaptive and responsive to the requirements...developed a comprehensive set of recommendations for improving the balance between the social and technical systems of the depot. During 1983, most of...ity and quality of worklife . However, the nature and extent of the impact is highly elusive and resistant to quantification. 1-4 FORMATIVE

  2. DoD Depot-Level Reparable Supply Chain Management: Process Effectiveness and Opportunities for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Parts MIS Materiel Information Systems MRP material requirement planning NAVAIR Naval Air Systems Command viii DoD Depot-Level Reparable Supply...planning ( MRP ), which is run on the 15th of the month. The output of MRP is a time-phased buy and repair induction plan based on pro- jected demands...nine months in advance of the FY, planners begin work on the command schedule for the following year. From March through August, the monthly MRP

  3. DEPOT system for the creation of a translator from the COC language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehnig, Kh.; Lehttsch, Yu.; Nefed'eva, L.S.; Shtiller, G.

    1976-01-01

    Approaches to the creation of specialized languages and their translators are given. The DENOT system for developing translators from various specialized languages is described. Use of the system was made to translate the STS (spectra treatment system) language into the FORTRAN language.The language of STS was realized with help of DEPOT on the BESM-6 computer. The DEROT system installed at various computer provides for simple and rapid transition from one computer to the other

  4. Tooele Army Depot Revised Final Site-Wide Ecological Risk Assessment. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    which is immediately east of the depot. Properties to the north of TEAD are used primarily for pasture and cultivation , and to the west and south, for...for the TEAD facility, the types of contaminants present, and the ecotoxicological effects that could be expected due to contaminant exposure. This...questions: • Were the analytical detection limits low enough to be ecotoxicologically relevant (i.e., to be protective of ecological receptors with

  5. Obesity associated disease risk: the role of inherent differences and location of adipose depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jessica H; Solt, Claudia; Foster, Michelle T

    2018-03-16

    Obesity and associated metabolic co-morbidities are a worldwide public health problem. Negative health outcomes associated with obesity, however, do not arise from excessive adiposity alone. Rather, deleterious outcomes of adipose tissue accumulation are a result of how adipocytes are distributed to individual regions in the body. Due to our increased understanding of the dynamic relationship that exists between specific adipose depots and disease risk, an accurate characterization of total body adiposity as well as location is required to properly evaluate a population's disease risk. Specifically, distinctive tissue depots within the body include the lower body, upper body and abdominal (deep and superficial) subcutaneous regions, as well as visceral (mesenteric and omental) regions. Upper body and visceral adipose tissues are highly associated with metabolic dysfunction and chronic disease development, whereas lower body gluteofemoral subcutaneous adipose tissue imparts protection against diet-induced metabolic derangement. Each adipose depot functions distinctly as an endocrine organ hence it has a different level of impact on health outcomes. Effluent from adipose tissue can modulate the functions of other tissues, whilst receiving differential communication from the rest of the body via central nervous system innervation, metabolites and other signaling molecules. More so, adipose depots contain a diverse reservoir of tissue-resident immune cells that play an integral part in both maintaining tissue homeostasis, as well as propagating metabolically-induced inflammation. Overall, the conceptualization of obesity and associated risks needs updating to reflect the complexities of obesity. We review adipose tissue characteristics that are linked to deleterious or beneficial adipose tissue distributions.

  6. Implementation of Improved Management Control of Aviation Depot Level Repairable Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    for comparing and testing. Pf ter Drucker states that ". . . control is an ambiguous word. It means the abiliti to direct oneself and one’s work. It...Frequency 50 LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Drucker , Peter F., The Practice of Management , Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1954. 2. Terry, George R., Principles of...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOLMonterey, California 0- 6~~VI E1B9 87THESIS I IMPLEMENTATION OF IMPROVED MANAGEMENT CONTROL OF AVIATION DEPOT LEVEL

  7. Sustained Release of Antibiotics from Injectable and Thermally Responsive Polypeptide Depots

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Samuel B.; Shamji, Mohammed F.; Nettles, Dana L.; Hwang, Priscilla; Setton, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable polymeric scaffolds are of interest for delivering antibiotics to local sites of infection in orthopaedic applications, such as bone and diarthrodial joints. The objective of this study was to develop a biodegradable scaffold with ease of drug loading in aqueous solution, while providing for drug depot delivery via syringe injection. Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) were used for this application, biopolymers of repeating pentapeptide sequences that were thermally triggered to u...

  8. Control of Adipocyte Differentiation in Different Fat Depots; Implications for Pathophysiology or Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuquan eMa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipocyte differentiation and its impact on restriction or expansion of particular adipose tissue depots has physiological and pathophysiological significance in view of the different functions of these depots. Brown or beige fat [BAT] expansion can enhance thermogenesis, lipid oxidation, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance; conversely expanded visceral fat [VAT] is associated with insulin resistance, low grade inflammation, dyslipidaemia and cardiometabolic risk. The largest depot, subcutaneous white fat [WAT], has important beneficial characteristics including storage of lipid out of harms way and secretion of adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, with positive metabolic effects including lipid oxidation, energy utilisation, enhanced insulin action and an anti-inflammatory role. The absence of these functions in lipodystrophies leads to major metabolic disturbances. An ability to expand WAT adipocyte differentiation would seem an important defence mechanism against the detrimental effects of energy excess and limit harmful accumulation of lipid in ectopic sites, such as liver and muscle.Adipocyte differentiation involves a transcriptional cascade with PPARg being most important in WAT but less so in VAT, with increased angiogenesis also critical. The transcription factor, Islet1, is fairly specific to VAT and in vitro inhibits adipocyte differentiation. The physiological importance of Islet1 requires further study. Basic control of differentiation is similar in BAT but important differences include the effect of PGC-1a on mitochondrial biosynthesis and upregulation of UCP1; also PRDM16 plays a pivotal role in expression of the BAT phenotype.Modulation of the capacity or function of these different adipose tissue depots, by altering adipocyte differentiation or other means, holds promise for interventions that can be helpful in human disease, particularly cardiometabolic disorders associated with the world wide explosion of

  9. Evidence for Environmental Contamination in Residential Neighborhoods Surrounding the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Warrick

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary environmental assessment team from the Howard University Environmental Justice Partnership (HUEJP conducted a site visit and assessment of the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee in February of 2000. This depot was built in the late 1940’s for storage of numerous chemicals and munitions. As the years progressed, many Memphis citizens have grown to believe that the activities and chemical stockpile located at this site have negatively affected the health environment of their residents. There is anecdotal evidence and documentation of numerous cancers and other illnesses in those local territories, and specifically, at the Memphis Depot site. Currently, this depot is closed and in remediation by the local government. Particularly, citizens of the Rozelle community have started a campaign to investigate any signs of exposure pathways to noted health risks. The HUEJP was contacted and asked to investigate the community concerns. Obliging to the request, we aimed to sample at three drainage sites and a residential site, talk to local citizens, and gain any additional information that would be helpful in relieving anxiety in the Rozelle community. Soil, sediment, and water samples were collected and analyzed for total organic carbon, inorganic anions, and heavy metals. These data show that for the four sites sampled, the highest concentrations of organic compounds and heavy metals were located either within a residential area or in an area with a direct transport pathway to the community. Atomic absorption analysis revealed detectable amounts of cadmium, lead and chromium metals at all sites with direct transport pathways into the residential community, with chromium concentrations being far in excess of the EPA standard limits.

  10. Employing organizational modeling and simulation of the KC-135 depot's flight controls repair cell

    OpenAIRE

    Paskin, Matthew A.; Trevino, Alice W.; Ferrer, Geraldo; Dillard, John T.

    2008-01-01

    Today’s environment of increased operations tempo is stressing the KC- 135 Stratotanker fleet. With an 80-year life span expectancy, effectively maintaining these aircraft is challenging. This research modeled the KC- 135 programmed depot maintenance (PDM) flight controls repair cell to identify improvement opportunities within the repair process. Computational organizational modeling (COM) incorporates the human element along with organizational design theory. By employing ...

  11. HALF-DOSE DEPOT TRIPTORELIN COMPARABLE TO REDUCED DAILY BUSERELIN: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Safdarian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary suppression by depot GnRH agonist may be excessive for ovarian stimulation. This study compares the efficacy of a single half-dose depot triptorelin and reduced-dose daily buserelin in a long protocol ICSI/ET. METHODS: A total of 182 patients were randomized into two groups using sealed envelopes. Pituitary desensitization was obtained in group 1 (91 patients with half-dose (1.87 mg depot triptorelin in the mid-luteal phase of their menstrual cycle, and in group 2 (91 patients with standard daily dose (0.5 mg buserelin, which was then reduced to 0.25 mg at the start of human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG stimulation. RESULTS: No significant differences were found among those who received HCG in terms of clinical pregnancy rate (34.4% in both groups, implantation rate (14.8% in group 1 versus 11.1% in group 2, fertilization rate (93.3 versus 95.6%, poor response rate (11.1 versus 6.7%, and miscarriage rate (11.1 versus 7.8%. No significant differences were seen in number of HMG ampoules used, follicles at HCG administration, and oocytes retrieved. The number of days of stimulation was significantly reduced in group 2 (11.2 +/- 1.8 in group 1 versus 10.6 +/- 1.9, p = 0.030. CONCLUSION: A half-dose of depot triptorelin can be successfully used in ovarian stimulation instead of reduced-dose daily buserelin, with more patient comfort and reduced stress and cost of injections.

  12. The relationship between fat depot-specific preadipocyte differentiation and metabolic syndrome in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Mazurina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статьи The relationship between fat depot-specific preadipocyte differentiation and metabolic syndrome in obese women. Park HТ, Lee ES, Cheon EP, Lee DR, Yang K-S, Kim YT, Hur JY, Kim SH, Lee KW, Kim T. Clinical Endocrinology 2012; 76, 59-66.

  13. AUTOMATED DETECTION OF OIL DEPOTS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGES: A NEW PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ok

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an original approach to identify oil depots from single high resolution aerial/satellite images in an automated manner. The new approach considers the symmetric nature of circular oil depots, and it computes the radial symmetry in a unique way. An automated thresholding method to focus on circular regions and a new measure to verify circles are proposed. Experiments are performed on six GeoEye-1 test images. Besides, we perform tests on 16 Google Earth images of an industrial test site acquired in a time series manner (between the years 1995 and 2012. The results reveal that our approach is capable of detecting circle objects in very different/difficult images. We computed an overall performance of 95.8% for the GeoEye-1 dataset. The time series investigation reveals that our approach is robust enough to locate oil depots in industrial environments under varying illumination and environmental conditions. The overall performance is computed as 89.4% for the Google Earth dataset, and this result secures the success of our approach compared to a state-of-the-art approach.

  14. Problem Solving and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2009-07-01

    One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.

  15. Teaching Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kip W.; Martin, Loren

    1992-01-01

    Interpersonal and cognitive skills, adaptability, and critical thinking can be developed through problem solving and cooperative learning in technology education. These skills have been identified as significant needs of the workplace as well as for functioning in society. (SK)

  16. Employment-based reinforcement of adherence to depot naltrexone in unemployed opioid-dependent adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, Jeffrey J; DeFulio, Anthony; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Donlin, Wendy D; Aklin, Will M; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E; Silverman, Kenneth

    2011-07-01

    Naltrexone can be used to treat opioid dependence, but patients refuse to take it. Extended-release depot formulations may improve adherence, but long-term adherence rates to depot naltrexone are not known. This study determined long-term rates of adherence to depot naltrexone and whether employment-based reinforcement can improve adherence. Participants who were inducted onto oral naltrexone were assigned randomly to contingency (n = 18) or prescription (n = 17) groups. Participants were offered six depot naltrexone injections and invited to work at the therapeutic workplace on week days for 26 weeks, where they earned stipends for participating in job skills training. Contingency participants were required to accept naltrexone injections to maintain workplace access and to maintain maximum pay. Prescription participants could work independently of whether they accepted injections. The therapeutic workplace, a model employment-based intervention for drug addiction and unemployment. Opioid-dependent unemployed adults. Depot naltrexone injections accepted and opiate-negative urine samples. Contingency participants accepted significantly more naltrexone injections than prescription participants (81% versus 42%), and were more likely to accept all injections (66% versus 35%). At monthly assessments (with missing urine samples imputed as positive), the groups provided similar percentages of samples negative for opiates (74% versus 62%) and for cocaine (56% versus 54%). Opiate-positive samples were more likely when samples were also positive for cocaine. Employment-based reinforcement can maintain adherence to depot naltrexone. Future research should determine whether persistent cocaine use compromises naltrexone's effect on opiate use. Workplaces may be useful for promoting sustained adherence to depot naltrexone. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Distributed Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents a p......, what can educators at higher education learn from the ways creative groups solve problems? How can artists contribute to inspiring higher education?......This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents...... a perspective that is relevant to higher education. The focus here is on how artists solve problems in distributed paths, and on the elements of creative collaboration. Creative problem-solving will be looked at as an ongoing dialogue that artists engage with themselves, with others, with recipients...

  18. Solving Environmental Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    for Research and Technological Development (FP7), our results indicate that the problem-solving potential of a search strategy increases with the diversity of existing knowledge of the partners in a consortium and with the experience of the partners involved. Moreover, we identify a substantial negative effect...... dispersed. Hence, firms need to collaborate. We shed new light on collaborative search strategies led by firms in general and for solving environmental problems in particular. Both topics are largely absent in the extant open innovation literature. Using data from the European Seventh Framework Program...

  19. Multiple Criteria Decision Making Combined with VRP: A Categorized Bibliographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahia Zare Mehrjerdi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research author reviews references related to the topic of multi criterion (goal programming, multiple objective linear and nonlinear programming, bi-criterion programming, Multi Attribute Decision Making, Compromise Programming, Surrogate Worth Trade-off Method and various versions of vehicle routing problem (VRP, Multi depot VRP (MDVRP, VRP with time windows (VRPWTW, Stochastic VRP (SVRP, Capacitated VRP (CVRP, Fuzzy VRP (FVRP, Location VRP (LVRP, Backhauling VRP(BHVRP, Facility Location VRP (FLVRP, and Inventory control VRP (ICVRP. Although, VRP is a research area with rich research works and powerful researchers there found only 81 articles that relates various vehicle routing type problems with various multiple objectives techniques. This author found that there is no research done in some areas of VRP (i.e., FVRP, ICVRP, LRP and CVRP. It is interesting to see that this research area was completely an unattractive to master students (with zero research reported and a somewhat attractive area to doctoral students (with 6 researches reported. Among the many multi criterion programming techniques available only three of them (goal programming, bi-criterion programming, linear and nonlinear multi objective programming are being employed to solve the problem.

  20. Six-month gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH agonist depots provide efficacy, safety, convenience, and comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips JM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available E David Crawford, Jason M PhillipsUniversity of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Two different 6-month GnRH agonist depot formulations approved for palliative treatment of advanced and metastatic prostate cancer in the United States – leuprolide acetate 45 mg and triptorelinpalmoate 22.5 mg – provide patients with efficacy and safety comparable to those of existing 1-, 3-, and 4-month GnRH agonist depots. However, the 6-month formulations can increase patient convenience, comfort, and compliance by reducing the number of physician visits and injections required. At the conclusion of their pivotal trials, the 6-month formulations demonstrated efficacy rates in achieving chemical castration (serum testosterone #50 ng/dL that ranged between 93% and 99%. As with existing GnRH agonist depot formulations, hot flashes represented the most common adverse event reported in trials of 6-month leuprolide acetate or triptorelin. As such, these products may prove useful not only for their labeled indication, but also as adjuncts to other treatments such as radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. We recommend further research, including head-to-head trials between the 6-month GnRH depots, to refine our understanding of these products.Keywords: prostate cancer, leuprorelin, leuprolide, triptorelin, 6-month depot, testosterone

  1. Introspection in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäkel, Frank; Schreiber, Cornell

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving research has encountered an impasse. Since the seminal work of Newell und Simon (1972) researchers do not seem to have made much theoretical progress (Batchelder and Alexander, 2012; Ohlsson, 2012). In this paper we argue that one factor that is holding back the field is the widespread rejection of introspection among cognitive…

  2. Problem Solving in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kim; Heyck-Williams, Jeff; Timpson Gray, Elicia

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving spans all grade levels and content areas, as evidenced by this compilation of projects from schools across the United States. In one project, high school girls built a solar-powered tent to serve their city's homeless population. In another project, 4th graders explored historic Jamestown to learn about the voices lost to history.…

  3. Solving Linear Differential Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, K.A.; Put, M. van der

    2010-01-01

    The theme of this paper is to 'solve' an absolutely irreducible differential module explicitly in terms of modules of lower dimension and finite extensions of the differential field K. Representations of semi-simple Lie algebras and differential Galo is theory are the main tools. The results extend

  4. Solving a binary puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utomo, P.H.; Makarim, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    A Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set {0,1} {0,1}. Let n≥4 be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an n×n binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and no three consecutive zeros in each row and each

  5. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  6. Transport equation solving methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granjean, P.M.

    1984-06-01

    This work is mainly devoted to Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. CN method: starting from a lemma stated by Placzek, an equivalence is established between two problems: the first one is defined in a finite medium bounded by a surface S, the second one is defined in the whole space. In the first problem the angular flux on the surface S is shown to be the solution of an integral equation. This equation is solved by Galerkin's method. The Csub(N) method is applied here to one-velocity problems: in plane geometry, slab albedo and transmission with Rayleigh scattering, calculation of the extrapolation length; in cylindrical geometry, albedo and extrapolation length calculation with linear scattering. Fsub(N) method: the basic integral transport equation of the Csub(N) method is integrated on Case's elementary distributions; another integral transport equation is obtained: this equation is solved by a collocation method. The plane problems solved by the Csub(N) method are also solved by the Fsub(N) method. The Fsub(N) method is extended to any polynomial scattering law. Some simple spherical problems are also studied. Chandrasekhar's method, collision probability method, Case's method are presented for comparison with Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. This comparison shows the respective advantages of the two methods: a) fast convergence and possible extension to various geometries for Csub(N) method; b) easy calculations and easy extension to polynomial scattering for Fsub(N) method [fr

  7. On Solving Linear Recurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

  8. Toward Solving the Problem of Problem Solving: An Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Teaching is replete with problem solving. Problem solving as a skill, however, is seldom addressed directly within music teacher education curricula, and research in music education has not examined problem solving systematically. A framework detailing problem-solving component skills would provide a needed foundation. I observed problem solving…

  9. Eradicating hepatitis C virus ameliorates insulin resistance without change in adipose depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, K-L; Jenkins, A B; Trenell, M; Tid-Ang, J; Samocha-Bonet, D; Weltman, M; Xu, A; George, J; Chisholm, D J

    2014-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is associated with lipid-related changes and insulin resistance; the latter predicts response to antiviral therapy, liver disease progression and the risk of diabetes. We sought to determine whether insulin sensitivity improves following CHC viral eradication after antiviral therapy and whether this is accompanied by changes in fat depots or adipokine levels. We compared 8 normoglycaemic men with CHC (genotype 1 or 3) before and at least 6 months post viral eradication and 15 hepatitis C antibody negative controls using an intravenous glucose tolerance test and two-step hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp with [6,6-(2) H2 ] glucose to assess peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy quantified abdominal fat compartments, liver and intramyocellular lipid. Peripheral insulin sensitivity improved (glucose infusion rate during high-dose insulin increased from 10.1 ± 1.6 to 12 ± 2.1 mg/kg/min/, P = 0.025), with no change in hepatic insulin response following successful viral eradication, without any accompanying change in muscle, liver or abdominal fat depots. There was corresponding improvement in incremental glycaemic response to intravenous glucose (pretreatment: 62.1 ± 8.3 vs post-treatment: 56.1 ± 8.5 mm, P = 0.008). Insulin sensitivity after viral clearance was comparable to matched controls without CHC. Post therapy, liver enzyme levels decreased but, interestingly, levels of glucagon, fatty acid-binding protein and lipocalin-2 remained elevated. Eradication of the hepatitis C virus improves insulin sensitivity without alteration in fat depots, adipokine or glucagon levels, consistent with a direct link of the virus with insulin resistance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The nuclear retinoid-related orphan receptor RORα controls circadian thermogenic programming in white fat depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Chloé; Auclair, Martine; Le Cam, Gala; Garcia, Marie-Pauline; Antoine, Bénédicte

    2018-04-01

    The RORα-deficient staggerer (sg/sg) mouse is lean and resistant to diet-induced obesity. Its thermogenic activity was shown to be increased not only in brown adipose tissue (BAT), but also in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) where UCP1 content was enhanced, however, without Prdm16 coexpression. Our observation of partial multilocular lipid morphology of WAT in sg/sg mice both in the inguinal and perigonadal sites led us to focus on the phenotype of both fat depots. Because RORα is a nuclear factor acting in the clock machinery, we looked at the circadian expression profile of genes involved in thermogenesis and browning in WAT and BAT depots of sg/sg and WT mice, through real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting. This 24-h period approach revealed both a rhythmic expression of thermogenic genes in WAT and an increased browning of all the WAT depots tested in sg/sg mice that indeed involved the canonical browning process (through induction of Pgc-1α and Prdm16). This was associated with an enhanced isoproterenol-induced oxygen consumption rate of WAT explants from sg/sg mice, which was reproducible in WT explants by treatment with a RORα inverse agonist SR 3335, that induced a parallel increase in the UCP1 protein. Inhibitors of browning differentiation, such as TLE3 and RIP140, could be new targets of RORα that would be rather implicated in the whitening of adipocytes. Our study showed the pivotal role of RORα as an inhibitor of the thermogenic program in WAT, the role that could be counteracted in vivo with the RORα antagonists currently in development. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  11. Abdominal fat sub-depots and energy expenditure: Magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfaty, Dana; Rein, Michal; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Bril, Nitzan; Cohen, Noa; Shemesh, Elad; Sarusi, Benjamin; Kovsan, Julia; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Golan, Rachel; Witkow, Shula; Henkin, Yaakov; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess the association between the distinct abdominal sub-depots and resting energy expenditure (REE). We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify abdominal visceral-adipose-tissue (VAT), deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (deep-SAT), and superficial-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (superficial-SAT). We measured REE by indirect-calorimetry. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) [1-3 metabolic equivalents (METs)] and exercise thermogenesis (activities of 4+MET S ) were estimated based on 6-days of accelerometry to assess total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). We studied 282 participants: 249 men [mean age = 47.4 years, body-mass-index (BMI) = 31 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 34.5%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 24.3%] and 33 women (mean age = 51.2 years, BMI = 30.1 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 22.8%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 37.8%). As expected, women had lower REE [by 32.4% (1488 ± 234 kcal/day vs. 1971 ± 257 kcal/day; p abdominal VAT was the dominant proportional depot, had higher REE (1964 ± 297 kcal/day vs. 1654 ± 352 kcal/day; p Abdominal fat distribution patterns are associated with varying levels of resting energy expenditure, potentially reflecting different metabolic rates of adipose sub-depots and providing an anatomic/anthropometric link to physiological obese sub-phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct Evidence of Brown Adipocytes in Different Fat Depots in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstroh, Denise; Landgraf, Kathrin; Wagner, Isabel Viola; Gesing, Julia; Tauscher, Roy; Lakowa, Nicole; Kiess, Wieland; Bühligen, Ulf; Wojan, Magdalena; Till, Holger; Blüher, Matthias; Körner, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggested the persistence of brown adipocytes in adult humans, as opposed to being exclusively present in infancy. In this study, we investigated the presence of brown-like adipocytes in adipose tissue (AT) samples of children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years and evaluated the association with age, location, and obesity. For this, we analysed AT samples from 131 children and 23 adults by histological, immunohistochemical and expression analyses. We detected brown-like and UCP1 positive adipocytes in 10.3% of 87 lean children (aged 0.3 to 10.7 years) and in one overweight infant, whereas we did not find brown adipocytes in obese children or adults. In our samples, the brown-like adipocytes were interspersed within white AT of perirenal, visceral and also subcutaneous depots. Samples with brown-like adipocytes showed an increased expression of UCP1 (>200fold), PRDM16 (2.8fold), PGC1α and CIDEA while other brown/beige selective markers, such as PAT2, P2RX5, ZIC1, LHX8, TMEM26, HOXC9 and TBX1 were not significantly different between UCP1 positive and negative samples. We identified a positive correlation between UCP1 and PRDM16 within UCP1 positive samples, but not with any other brown/beige marker. In addition, we observed significantly increased PRDM16 and PAT2 expression in subcutaneous and visceral AT samples with high UCP1 expression in adults. Our data indicate that brown-like adipocytes are present well beyond infancy in subcutaneous depots of non-obese children. The presence was not restricted to typical perirenal locations, but they were also interspersed within WAT of visceral and subcutaneous depots. PMID:25706927

  13. Army Depot Maintenance: More Effective Use of Organic and Contractor Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-04

    terkerrny (PA) RRAD Red River (TX) IBAD Lexingtor).Bluegrass (KY) 3MPUAD Pueblo (CO) 2000 ANAD CCAD TEAD TOAD SAAO LEAD FMD LBAD PUAfl j] Aut)’onzed Onboard...until it is received by the contractor. That problem could be eliminated by redesigning the process. Specifically, the FTA document that notifies the...should revise CCSS to allow the FTM document to generate an image to LCA, the FTA to create a due-in to the contractor, and CCSS to determine the depot

  14. Combined use of Dexa-Scheroson and Primobolan-Depot in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, J [Shizuoka Rosai Hospital (Japan)

    1976-05-01

    Dexa-Scheroson and Primobolan-Depot were used together with radiation therapy (Linac therapy) required in 13 cases. The following results were obtained. The decrease in white cell counts, which often occurs in radiation therapy, was inhibited by the drugs. There was no case in which radiation therapy should necessarily withdraw because the number of leuckocytes was decreased to less than 3,000. The patients whose liver function was poor should be treated with both drugs at the beginning of radiation therapy. It was found that the combined use of the drugs is effective in the prevention and the treatment of cerebral edema in radiation therapy of intracranial lesion.

  15. KANDUNGAN Pb, Cd, Hg DALAM AIR MINUM DARI DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG DI JAKARTA, TANGERANG, DAN BEKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Athena

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A study on chemical quality of drinking water from reffil depots was done in Jakarta, Tangerang, and Bekasi in 2003 to determine the contents of heavy metals such as lead (Pb, cadmium, (Cd, and Mercury (Hg. A total of 38 refill depots was selected as samples. Data were collected by water sampling collection and water analysis, and interview with operators and association personal using questionairs. Water samples were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS to examine the contents of their heavy metals based on raw water and drinking water standards. The results showed that the treatment processed were filtration and disinfection. However, the contents of heavy metals in the two types of water samples still complied with the standards stated in Health Ministerial Decree no 906 in the year 2002.   Keywords: heavy metals, drinking water, drinking water refill depots

  16. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms of physiological variations between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots under different nutritional regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josue Moura Romao

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and metabolism. There is sparse understanding of the molecular regulation at the protein level of bovine adipose tissues, especially within different fat depots under different nutritional regimes. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences in protein expression between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in steers fed different diets and to identify the potential regulatory molecular mechanisms of protein expression. Subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were collected from 16 British-continental steers (15.5 month old fed a high-fat diet (7.1% fat, n=8 or a control diet (2.7% fat, n=8. Protein expression was profiled using label free quantification LC-MS/MS and expression of selected transcripts was evaluated using qRT-PCR. A total of 682 proteins were characterized and quantified with fat depot having more impact on protein expression, altering the level of 51.0% of the detected proteins, whereas diet affected only 5.3%. Functional analysis revealed that energy production and lipid metabolism were among the main functions associated with differentially expressed proteins between fat depots, with visceral fat being more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat as proteins associated with lipid and energy metabolism were upregulated. The expression of several proteins was significantly correlated to subcutaneous fat thickness and adipocyte size, indicating their potential as adiposity markers. A poor correlation (r=0.245 was observed between mRNA and protein levels for 9 genes, indicating that many proteins may be subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 8 miRNAs were predicted to regulate more than 20% of lipid metabolism proteins differentially expressed between fat depots, suggesting that miRNAs play a role in adipose tissue regulation. Our results show that proteomic changes support the distinct metabolic and physiological characteristics

  17. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms of physiological variations between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots under different nutritional regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romao, Josue Moura; Jin, Weiwu; He, Maolong; McAllister, Tim; Guan, Le Luo

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and metabolism. There is sparse understanding of the molecular regulation at the protein level of bovine adipose tissues, especially within different fat depots under different nutritional regimes. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences in protein expression between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in steers fed different diets and to identify the potential regulatory molecular mechanisms of protein expression. Subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were collected from 16 British-continental steers (15.5 month old) fed a high-fat diet (7.1% fat, n=8) or a control diet (2.7% fat, n=8). Protein expression was profiled using label free quantification LC-MS/MS and expression of selected transcripts was evaluated using qRT-PCR. A total of 682 proteins were characterized and quantified with fat depot having more impact on protein expression, altering the level of 51.0% of the detected proteins, whereas diet affected only 5.3%. Functional analysis revealed that energy production and lipid metabolism were among the main functions associated with differentially expressed proteins between fat depots, with visceral fat being more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat as proteins associated with lipid and energy metabolism were upregulated. The expression of several proteins was significantly correlated to subcutaneous fat thickness and adipocyte size, indicating their potential as adiposity markers. A poor correlation (r=0.245) was observed between mRNA and protein levels for 9 genes, indicating that many proteins may be subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 8 miRNAs were predicted to regulate more than 20% of lipid metabolism proteins differentially expressed between fat depots, suggesting that miRNAs play a role in adipose tissue regulation. Our results show that proteomic changes support the distinct metabolic and physiological characteristics observed between

  18. Android fat depot is more closely associated with metabolic syndrome than abdominal visceral fat in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seon Mee; Yoon, Ji Won; Ahn, Hwa Young; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Hayley; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2011-01-01

    Fat accumulation in android compartments may confer increased metabolic risk. The incremental utility of measuring regional fat deposition in association with metabolic syndrome (MS) has not been well described particularly in an elderly population. As part of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging, which is a community-based cohort study of people aged more than 65 years, subjects (287 male, 75.9±8.6 years and 278 female, 76.0±8.8 years) with regional body composition data using Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for android/gynoid area, computed tomography for visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT/SAT), and cardiometabolic markers including adiponectin and high-sensitivity CRP were enrolled. We investigated the relationship between regional body composition and MS in multivariate regression models. Mean VAT and SAT area was 131.4±65.5 cm(2) and 126.9±55.2 cm(2) in men (P = 0.045) and 120.0±46.7 cm(2) and 211.8±65.9 cm(2) in women (Pandroid and gynoid fat amount was 1.8±0.8 kg and 2.5±0.8 kg in men and 2.0±0.6 kg and 3.3±0.8 kg in women, respectively (both Pandroid fat amount was strongly correlated with most metabolic risk factors compared to SAT or gynoid fat. Furthermore, android fat amount was significantly associated with clustering of MS components after adjustment for multiple parameters including age, gender, adiponectin, hsCRP, a surrogate marker of insulin resistance, whole body fat mass and VAT area. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized role of android fat as a pathogenic fat depot in the MS. Measurement of android fat may provide a more complete understanding of metabolic risk associated with variations in fat distribution.

  19. Creativity and Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....

  20. Creativity and problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Victor Valqui Vidal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools.

  1. A constructive heuristic for time-dependent multi-depot vehicle routing problem with time-windows and heterogeneous fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the time-dependent multi-depot vehicle routing problem. The objective is to minimize the total heterogeneous fleet cost assuming that the travel time between locations depends on the departure time. Also, hard time window constraints for the customers and limitation on maximum number of the vehicles in depots must be satisfied. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming model. A constructive heuristic procedure is proposed for the problem. Also, the efficiency of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on 180 test problems. The obtained computational results indicate that the procedure is capable to obtain a satisfying solution.

  2. Design of Hybrid Gels Based on Gellan-Cholesterol Derivative and P90G Liposomes for Drug Depot Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Zoratto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gels are extensively studied in the drug delivery field because of their potential benefits in therapeutics. Depot gel systems fall in this area, and the interest in their development has been focused on long-lasting, biocompatible, and resorbable delivery devices. The present work describes a new class of hybrid gels that stem from the interaction between liposomes based on P90G phospholipid and the cholesterol derivative of the polysaccharide gellan. The mechanical properties of these gels and the delivery profiles of the anti-inflammatory model drug diclofenac embedded in such systems confirmed the suitability of these hybrid gels as a good candidate for drug depot applications.

  3. Insulin, IGF-1, and GH Receptors Are Altered in an Adipose Tissue Depot-Specific Manner in Male Mice With Modified GH Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Berryman, Darlene E; Comisford, Ross; Frank, Stuart J; List, Edward O; Bjerre, Mette; Frystyk, Jan; Kopchick, John J

    2017-05-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a determinant of glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue (AT) function. Using 7-month-old transgenic mice expressing the bovine growth hormone (bGH) gene and growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-/-) mice, we examined whether changes in GH action affect glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance and AT expression of proteins involved in the interrelated signaling pathways of GH, insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin. Furthermore, we searched for AT depot-specific differences in control mice. Glycated hemoglobin levels were reduced in bGH and GHR-/- mice, and bGH mice displayed impaired gluconeogenesis as judged by pyruvate tolerance testing. Serum IGF-1 was elevated by 90% in bGH mice, whereas IGF-1 and insulin were reduced by 97% and 61% in GHR-/- mice, respectively. Igf1 RNA was increased in subcutaneous, epididymal, retroperitoneal, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots in bGH mice (mean increase ± standard error of the mean in all five depots, 153% ± 27%) and decreased in all depots in GHR-/- mice (mean decrease, 62% ± 4%). IGF-1 receptor expression was decreased in all AT depots of bGH mice (mean decrease, 49% ± 6%) and increased in all AT depots of GHR-/- mice (mean increase, 94% ± 8%). Insulin receptor expression was reduced in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and BAT depots in bGH mice (mean decrease in all depots, 56% ± 4%) and augmented in subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and BAT depots in GHR-/- mice (mean increase: 51% ± 1%). Collectively, our findings indicate a role for GH in influencing hormone signaling in AT in a depot-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  4. Relationships between rodent white adipose fat pads and human white adipose fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella E. Chusyd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of white adipose tissue. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent white adipose tissue as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat.

  5. Feasibility study on reduction of gasoline emissions from oil depots and gasoline stations in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A field survey was conducted of oil shipment depots in Java and Bali islands owned by Indonesia's state-run oil company to study measures for reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Studies were made on the grasp of the amount of the hydrocarbon vapor emitted into the air, the amount of the gasoline recovered in case of adopting the vapor emission preventive technology, equipment cost/operational cost, etc. Concretely, the following three were studied: change of the gasoline storage tank to the inner floating roof type, and prevention of evaporation loss at the time of receiving and breathing loss caused by temperature changes; replacement with the vapor recovery type loading arm to recover gasoline vapor generated at the time of shipment/filling, and installation of the vapor recovery unit to recover vapor as gasoline; vapor balance system to recover in underground tank the gasoline vapor generated at the time of filling gasoline at gas station. As a result of the study, the recovered gasoline amount was 66,393 Kl/y and the CO2 reduction amount was 14,474 t/y at oil shipment depots and approximately 650 gasoline stations in Jakarta and Surabaya. (NEDO)

  6. [A preliminary study of low dosage zuclopenthixol depot in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, A; Rodríguez Navarrete, F J; Taboada, O; Docasar, L; Páramo, M; Noya, M

    1996-03-01

    Persistent psychomotor agitation and psychotic ideation in patients with Alzheimer's disease are normally treated orally with antipsychotic drugs and are occasionally treated with other drugs. Neuroleptics administered intramuscularly at very low doses are an alternative, especially when the patient rejects medicine as a results of his or her anosognosia or of paranoid manifestations. We present the results we obtained after observing the effects of depot zuclopenthixol in six patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (based upon NINCDS-ADRDA criteria). Psychic abnormalities were assessed as per the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Possible extrapyramidal side effects were evaluated by means of the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). Initially 60 mg (0.3 ml) were administered intramuscularly and successive doses could be modified by +/-20 mg (0.1 ml) according to results seen on the various scales. During the first six weeks of treatment progressive improvement was noted on all three psychic functions scales in all patients. Between the sixth and twelfth weeks improvement continued although without significant change. The AIMS did not show significant changes in the twelve weeks of follow-up. We consider depot zuclopenthixol at low doses as efficacious in treating persistent psychomotor agitation and/or psychotic manifestations of Alzheimer's disease. No undesired side effects were observed in our group after a twelve week follow-up.

  7. The disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: the Elstow Storage Depot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This document explains the role of NIREX (Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) in planning for the safe disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes and outlines the plans for the investigation and possible development of a new shallow repository at the CEGB's Elstow Storage Depot, Bedfordshire. The site is conveniently located and is situated on a suitable geologic formation, the Oxford Clay. The next step is for NIREX to undertake site investigations and assess in detail the site's suitability. On the basis of this assessment NIREX will either confirm its interest in the site or reject it as unsuitable. If the site proves to be adequate for the development of a shallow repository then NIREX will seek the necessary planning approvals and authorisations for such a development. The development would involve the construction of new buildings and a programme of trench excavation, waste positioning and trench closure. Existing tenants at the Depot will be accommodated as far as possible. The existing road and rail networks would be used for delivering the packaged wastes. In designing and operating any repository the safety of the public and workforce, both now and in the future, will be of paramount importance. (author)

  8. Relationship between Problem-Solving Ability and Career Maturity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between problem-solving ability and career maturity of secondary school students in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 230 final year secondary school students completed self-report measures of problem solving and career maturity. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the data ...

  9. Cognitive Load in Algebra: Element Interactivity in Solving Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, Bing Hiong; Chung, Siu Fung; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2015-01-01

    Central to equation solving is the maintenance of equivalence on both sides of the equation. However, when the process involves an interaction of multiple elements, solving an equation can impose a high cognitive load. The balance method requires operations on both sides of the equation, whereas the inverse method involves operations on one side…

  10. How do they solve it? An insight into the learner’s approach to the mechanism of physics problem solving

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubrahmanya Hegde; B. N. Meera

    2012-01-01

    A perceived difficulty is associated with physics problem solving from a learner’s viewpoint, arising out of a multitude of reasons. In this paper, we have examined the microstructure of students’ thought processes during physics problem solving by combining the analysis of responses to multiple-choice questions and semistructured student interviews. Design of appropriate scaffoldings serves as pointers to the identification of student problem solving difficulties. An analysis of the results ...

  11. Appreciative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David

    2012-01-01

    Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage...... employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?” The research project was carried out as a co-creation process with close cooperation between researcher...

  12. Simon on problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms.......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are 'The Architecture of Complexity' and 'The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems.' We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...

  13. Planning and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Artificial Intelig ~ence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and’ Edward A.. Feigenbaum)’, The chapter was written B’ Paul Cohen, with contributions... Artificial Intelligence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and EdWard A. Feigenbaum). The chapter was written by Paul R. Cohen, with contributions by Stephen...Wheevoats"EntermdI’ Planning and Problem ’Solving by Paul R. Cohen Chaptb-rXV-of Volumec III’of the Handbook of Artificial Intelligence edited by Paul R

  14. Methods of solving sequence and series problems

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorieva, Ellina

    2016-01-01

    This book aims to dispel the mystery and fear experienced by students surrounding sequences, series, convergence, and their applications. The author, an accomplished female mathematician, achieves this by taking a problem solving approach, starting with fascinating problems and solving them step by step with clear explanations and illuminating diagrams. The reader will find the problems interesting, unusual, and fun, yet solved with the rigor expected in a competition. Some problems are taken directly from mathematics competitions, with the name and year of the exam provided for reference. Proof techniques are emphasized, with a variety of methods presented. The text aims to expand the mind of the reader by often presenting multiple ways to attack the same problem, as well as drawing connections with different fields of mathematics. Intuitive and visual arguments are presented alongside technical proofs to provide a well-rounded methodology. With nearly 300 problems including hints, answers, and solutions,Met...

  15. How Do They Solve It? An Insight into the Learner's Approach to the Mechanism of Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Balasubrahmanya; Meera, B. N.

    2012-01-01

    A perceived difficulty is associated with physics problem solving from a learner's viewpoint, arising out of a multitude of reasons. In this paper, we have examined the microstructure of students' thought processes during physics problem solving by combining the analysis of responses to multiple-choice questions and semistructured student…

  16. Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP) written as ordinary differential equations (ODE), differential algebraic equations (DAE) of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE), the latter solved using the method of lines appr...

  17. Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K.E.R.; Petzoldt, T.; Setzer, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP) written as ordinary differential equations (ODE), differential algebraic equations (DAE) of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE), the latter solved using the method of lines approach. The

  18. A Multi-Depot Two-Echelon Vehicle Routing Problem with Delivery Options Arising in the Last Mile Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lin; Baldacci, Roberto; Vigo, Daniele; Wang, Xu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new city logistics problem arising in the last mile distribution of e-commerce. The problem involves two levels of routing problems. The first requires a design of the routes for a vehicle fleet located at the depots to transport the customer demands to a subset of the

  19. Double stimuli-responsive polymer systems: How to use crosstalk between pH- and thermosensitivity for drug depots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bogomolova, Anna; Kaberov, Leonid; Sedláček, Ondřej; Filippov, Sergey K.; Štěpánek, Petr; Král, V.; Wang, X. Y.; Liu, S. L.; Ye, X. D.; Hrubý, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, November (2016), s. 54-64 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14292; GA ČR(CZ) GC15-10527J Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : drug depot formulation * double responsive system * pH-responsive polymer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.531, year: 2016

  20. Deployment Strategy for Car-Sharing Depots by Clustering Urban Traffic Big Data Based on Affinity Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Car sharing is a type of car rental service, by which consumers rent cars for short periods of time, often charged by hours. The analysis of urban traffic big data is full of importance and significance to determine locations of depots for car-sharing system. Taxi OD (Origin-Destination is a typical dataset of urban traffic. The volume of the data is extremely large so that traditional data processing applications do not work well. In this paper, an optimization method to determine the depot locations by clustering taxi OD points with AP (Affinity Propagation clustering algorithm has been presented. By analyzing the characteristics of AP clustering algorithm, AP clustering has been optimized hierarchically based on administrative region segmentation. Considering sparse similarity matrix of taxi OD points, the input parameters of AP clustering have been adapted. In the case study, we choose the OD pairs information from Beijing’s taxi GPS trajectory data. The number and locations of depots are determined by clustering the OD points based on the optimization AP clustering. We describe experimental results of our approach and compare it with standard K-means method using quantitative and stationarity index. Experiments on the real datasets show that the proposed method for determining car-sharing depots has a superior performance.

  1. Perceptions on efficacy and side effects of conventional depot antipsychotics (CDA) and atypical depot antipsychotics (ADA): Psychiatrists versus patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Hector W H; Fong, Mandy W M; Fung, Kelvin M T; Chung, Raymond C K

    2010-03-01

    Abstract Objectives. We compared the satisfaction level of psychiatrists and psychiatric patients towards conventional (CDA) and atypical (ADA) depot antipsychotics on symptom management, role functioning, and side effects. Method. Patients from an out-patient clinic of a public hospital and psychiatrists from public hospitals participated in the survey in 2007-2008. A total of 153 patients were interviewed by a tailor-made questionnaire and 72 psychiatrists self-administered a similar questionnaire. Results. Both groups shared similar attitudes towards clinical effectiveness and treatment efficacy of ADA and CDA. More patients were ambivalent towards relapse prevention of CDA than psychiatrists (30.7 vs. 16.7%, PADA are associated with less side effects. More than half of the patients showed negative attitudes towards the effectiveness of CDA on improving quality of life (52.40%), work (57.50%), and recreation (55.50%). Psychiatrists were more aware of the limitation of CDA and severity of side effects of CDA. They did not, however, seem to incorporate patients' opinions and research findings into their clinical practice. Conclusion. Evidence-based practice and shared decision-making model between clinicians and mental patients should be advocated. More investigations should be devoted to examine the efficacy of ADA as the alternative to CDA.

  2. Sustained analgesic effect of clonidine co-polymer depot in a porcine incisional pain model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilsey JT

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Jared T Wilsey, Julie H Block Medtronic Spine Division, Memphis, TN, USA Background: Previous research suggests that the α2 adrenergic agonist clonidine, a centrally acting analgesic and antihypertensive, may also have direct effects on peripheral pain generators. However, aqueous injections are limited by rapid systemic absorption leading to off target effects and a brief analgesic duration of action. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a sustained-release clonidine depot, placed in the wound bed, in a pig incisional pain model. Methods: The depot was a 15 mm ×5 mm ×0.3 mm poly(lactide-co-caprolactone polymer film containing 3% (w/w clonidine HCl (MDT3. Fifty-two young adult mix Landrace pigs (9–11 kg were divided into seven groups. All subjects received a 6 cm, full-thickness, linear incision into the left lateral flank. Group 1 served as a Sham control group (Sham, n=8. Group 2 received three placebo strips (PBO, n=8, placed end-to-end in the subcutaneous wound bed before wound closure. Group 3 received one MDT3 and two PBO (n=8, Group 4 received two MDT3 and one PBO (n=8, and Group 5 received three MDT3 (n=8. Positive control groups received peri-incisional injections of bupivacaine solution (Group 6, 30 mg/day bupivacaine, n=8 or clonidine solution (Group 7, 225 µg/day, n=4. Results: The surgical procedure was associated with significant peri-incisional tactile allodynia. There was a dose-dependent effect of MDT3 in partially reversing the peri-incisional tactile allodynia, with maximum pain relief relative to Sham at 72 hours. Daily injections of bupivacaine (30 mg, but not clonidine (up to 225 µg, completely reversed allodynia within 48 hours. There was a statistically significant correlation between the dose of MDT3 and cumulative withdrawal threshold from 4 hours through the conclusion of the study on day 7. Conclusion: These data suggest that a sustained-release clonidine depot may be a

  3. Sustained analgesic effect of clonidine co-polymer depot in a porcine incisional pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, Jared T; Block, Julie H

    2018-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the α 2 adrenergic agonist clonidine, a centrally acting analgesic and antihypertensive, may also have direct effects on peripheral pain generators. However, aqueous injections are limited by rapid systemic absorption leading to off target effects and a brief analgesic duration of action. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a sustained-release clonidine depot, placed in the wound bed, in a pig incisional pain model. The depot was a 15 mm ×5 mm ×0.3 mm poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) polymer film containing 3% (w/w) clonidine HCl (MDT3). Fifty-two young adult mix Landrace pigs (9-11 kg) were divided into seven groups. All subjects received a 6 cm, full-thickness, linear incision into the left lateral flank. Group 1 served as a Sham control group (Sham, n=8). Group 2 received three placebo strips (PBO, n=8), placed end-to-end in the subcutaneous wound bed before wound closure. Group 3 received one MDT3 and two PBO (n=8), Group 4 received two MDT3 and one PBO (n=8), and Group 5 received three MDT3 (n=8). Positive control groups received peri-incisional injections of bupivacaine solution (Group 6, 30 mg/day bupivacaine, n=8) or clonidine solution (Group 7, 225 µg/day, n=4). The surgical procedure was associated with significant peri-incisional tactile allodynia. There was a dose-dependent effect of MDT3 in partially reversing the peri-incisional tactile allodynia, with maximum pain relief relative to Sham at 72 hours. Daily injections of bupivacaine (30 mg), but not clonidine (up to 225 µg), completely reversed allodynia within 48 hours. There was a statistically significant correlation between the dose of MDT3 and cumulative withdrawal threshold from 4 hours through the conclusion of the study on day 7. These data suggest that a sustained-release clonidine depot may be a viable nonopioid, nonamide anesthetic therapy for the treatment of acute postsurgical nociceptive sensitization.

  4. Global adiposity and thickness of intraperitoneal and mesenteric adipose tissue depots are increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borruel, Susana; Fernández-Durán, Elena; Alpañés, Macarena; Martí, David; Alvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2013-03-01

    Sexual dimorphism suggests a role for androgens in body fat distribution. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a mainly androgen excess disorder, often present with abdominal obesity and visceral adiposity. We hypothesized that women with PCOS have a masculinized body fat distribution favoring the deposition of fat in visceral and organ-specific adipose tissue depots. This was a case-control study. The study was conducted at an academic hospital. Women with PCOS (n = 55), women without androgen excess (n = 25), and men (n = 26) presenting with similar body mass index participated in the study. There were no interventions. Ultrasound measurements of adipose tissue depots including sc (minimum and maximum), preperitoneal, ip, mesenteric, epicardial, and perirenal fat thickness were obtained and total body fat mass was estimated using a body fat monitor. Men and patients with PCOS had increased amounts of total body fat compared with control women. Men had increased thickness of intraabdominal adipose tissue depots compared with the control women, with the women with PCOS showing intermediate values that were also higher than those of control women in the case of ip and mesenteric fat thickness and was close to reaching statistical significance in the case of epicardial fat thickness. Women with PCOS also showed increased minimum sc fat thickness compared with the control women. Obesity increased the thickness of all of the adipose tissue depots in the 3 groups of subjects. Women with PCOS have higher global adiposity and increased amounts of visceral adipose tissue compared with control women, especially in the ip and mesenteric depots.

  5. Solved problems in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar Bloise, Félix; Bayón Rojo, Ana; Gascón Latasa, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism through problems with a brief theoretical introduction at the beginning of each chapter. The present book has a strong  didactic character. It explains all the mathematical steps and the theoretical concepts connected with the development of the problem. It guides the reader to understand the employed procedures to learn to solve the exercises independently. The exercises are structured in a similar way: The chapters begin with easy problems increasing progressively in the level of difficulty. This book is written for students of physics and engineering in the framework of the new European Plans of Study for Bachelor and Master and also for tutors and lecturers. .

  6. Solved problems in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piron, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    This book presents calculated solutions to problems in fundamental and applied electrochemistry. It uses industrial data to illustrate scientific concepts and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. It is subdivided into three parts. The first uses modern basic concepts, the second studies the scientific basis for electrode and electrolyte thermodynamics (including E-pH diagrams and the minimum energy involved in transformations) and the kinetics of rate processes (including the energy lost in heat and in parasite reactions). The third part treats larger problems in electrolysis and power generation, as well as in corrosion and its prevention. Each chapter includes three sections: the presentation of useful principles; some twenty problems with their solutions; and, a set of unsolved problems

  7. Inoculation of weaned pigs with E. coli reduces depots of vitamin E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Ellen-Margrethe; Højsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on vitamin E depots and immune responses in weaned pigs after an E. coli inoculation. The design was a 2 × 2 factorial with vitamin E supplementation (150 mg/kg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate versus a control diet containing...... 60 mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) and E. coli 0 149 inoculation (inoculation of 1 × 108 CFU on day 2 and 3 after weaning versus inoculation of vehicle). The pigs were housed individually during the experiment which lasted for 10 days from weaning at 7 weeks of age. Blood was sampled on day 1 (day...... of weaning) and 9 of the experiment, and serum was analyzed for α-tocopherol concentration. On day 10 of the experiment, pigs were killed and samples of liver, heart, muscle, adipose tissue and intestinal epithelium were obtained, and immune cells (alveolar macrophages) were harvested, and analyzed for α...

  8. Electrolytic nickel deposits upon uranium; Depot electrolytique de nickel sur l'uraniun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudin, G; Chauvin, G; Coriou, H; Hure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The authors present a new possibility to protect uranium by very adherent nickel deposits got by aqueous medium electrolysis. Surface treatment of uranium is based upon the chemical etching method from Lietazke. After thermal treatments at 600, 700 and 800 deg. C, under vacuum, a good intermetallic U-Ni diffusion is observed for each case. (author) [French] Les auteurs mettent en evidence une possibilite nouvelle de protection de l'uranium par des depots tres adherents de nickel realises par electrolyse en milieu aqueux. La preparation de surface de l'uranium est basee sur la methode du decapage chimique de Lietazke. Apres des traitements thermiques a 600, 700 et 800 deg. C, sous vide, on constate dans tous les cas une bonne diffusion intermetallique U-Ni. (auteur)

  9. Leuprolide Acetate 1-Month Depot for Central Precocious Puberty: Hormonal Suppression and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neely EKirk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods. This prospective US multicenter trial of leuprolide acetate 1-month depot (7.5–15 mg for central precocious puberty utilized an open-label treatment period, long-term follow-up, and adult callback. Forty-nine females Results. Subjects were treated for years. Mean peak GnRH-stimulated LH and FSH were prepubertal after the first dose and remained suppressed throughout treatment. During treatment, mean estradiol decreased to the limit of detection and mean testosterone decreased but remained above prepubertal norms. During posttreatment follow-up ( years, all patients achieved a pubertal hormonal response within 1 year and menses were reported in all females ≥12 years old. No impairment of reproductive function was observed at adulthood (mean age: 24.8 years.

  10. Improving Inventory Management and Supply Chain of Diesel Fuel in Pertamina 5 Main Depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togar M Simatupang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning Operation subdivision at PT Pertamina has to generate supply decisions includingmain depot to supply, supply point and transportation mode. However, the variability inplanning a supply schedule renders the process of determining a supply decision asineffective. The last assessment on uncertainties was done at 2006 and has not beenconsidered during decision making process. On the other hand, the result of this researchindicates that the uncertainty level is too high to be ignored and the poor informationexchange between the regional offices and the head office decreases the Planning Operation’sability to create plans that covers the company condition. This paper proposes an appropriatesafety stock to withstand the uncertainties and a supply scheduling process that also considersuncertainties by using Monte-Carlo Simulation with random numbers to simulate the events inthe upcoming period.Key words: inventory management, distribution planning, managing uncertainties, montecarlosimulation

  11. Medical Cosmopolitanism in Global Dubai: A Twenty-first-century Transnational Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2017-03-01

    Dubai-one of the seven United Arab Emirates and the Middle East's only "global city"-is gaining a reputation as a transnational medical tourism hub. Characterized by its "medical cosmopolitanism," Dubai is now attracting medical travelers from around the world, some of whom are seeking assisted conception. Dubai is fast becoming known as a new transnational "reprohub" for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), the variant of in vitro fertilization designed to overcome male infertility. Based on ethnographic research conducted in one of the country's most cosmopolitan clinics, this article explores the ICSI treatment quests of infertile men coming to Dubai from scores of other nations. The case of an infertile British-Moroccan man is highlighted to demonstrate why ICSI is a particularly compelling "masculine hope technology" for infertile Muslim men. Thus, Muslim men who face barriers to ICSI access in their home countries may become "reprotravelers" to Dubai, an emergent ICSI depot. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  12. Design of PLGA-based depot delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals prepared by spray drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Feng; Yang, Mingshi

    2016-01-01

    Currently, most of the approved protein and peptide-based medicines are delivered via conventional parenteral injection (intramuscular, subcutaneous or intravenous). A frequent dosing regimen is often necessary because of their short plasma half-lives, causing poor patient compliance (e.g. pain......, abscess, etc.), side effects owing to typical peak-valley plasma concentration time profiles, and increased costs. Among many sustained-release formulations poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-based depot microparticle systems may represent one of the most promising approaches to provide protein...... and peptide drugs with a steady pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile maintained for a long period. However, the development of PLGA-based microparticle systems is still impeded by lack of easy, fast, effective manufacturing technologies. The aim of this paper is to review recent advances in spray drying...

  13. Location and multi-depot vehicle routing for emergency vehicles using tour coverage and random sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Goli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and optimum allocation of emergency resources are the most important tasks, which need to be accomplished during crisis. When a natural disaster such as earthquake, flood, etc. takes place, it is necessary to deliver rescue efforts as quickly as possible. Therefore, it is important to find optimum location and distribution of emergency relief resources. When a natural disaster occurs, it is not possible to reach some damaged areas. In this paper, location and multi-depot vehicle routing for emergency vehicles using tour coverage and random sampling is investigated. In this study, there is no need to visit all the places and some demand points receive their needs from the nearest possible location. The proposed study is implemented for some randomly generated numbers in different sizes. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed method was capable of reaching desirable solutions in reasonable amount of time.

  14. How do they solve it? An insight into the learner’s approach to the mechanism of physics problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubrahmanya Hegde

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A perceived difficulty is associated with physics problem solving from a learner’s viewpoint, arising out of a multitude of reasons. In this paper, we have examined the microstructure of students’ thought processes during physics problem solving by combining the analysis of responses to multiple-choice questions and semistructured student interviews. Design of appropriate scaffoldings serves as pointers to the identification of student problem solving difficulties. An analysis of the results suggests the necessity of identification of the skill sets required for developing better problem solving abilities.

  15. Adipose tissue depot volume relationships with spinal trabecular bone mineral density in African Americans with diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C Chan

    Full Text Available Changes in select adipose tissue volumes may differentially impact bone mineral density. This study was performed to assess cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between computed tomography-determined visceral (VAT, subcutaneous (SAT, inter-muscular (IMAT, and pericardial adipose tissue (PAT volumes with respective changes in thoracic vertebral and lumbar vertebral volumetric trabecular bone mineral density (vBMD in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Generalized linear models were fitted to test relationships between baseline and change in adipose volumes with change in vBMD in 300 African American-Diabetes Heart Study participants; adjustment was performed for age, sex, diabetes duration, study interval, smoking, hypertension, BMI, kidney function, and medications. Participants were 50% female with mean ± SD age 55.1±9.0 years, diabetes duration 10.2±7.2 years, and BMI 34.7±7.7 kg/m2. Over 5.3 ± 1.4 years, mean vBMD decreased in thoracic/lumbar spine, while mean adipose tissue volumes increased in SAT, IMAT, and PAT, but not VAT depots. In fully-adjusted models, changes in lumbar and thoracic vBMD were positively associated with change in SAT (β[SE] 0.045[0.011], p<0.0001; 0.40[0.013], p = 0.002, respectively. Change in thoracic vBMD was positively associated with change in IMAT (p = 0.029 and VAT (p = 0.016; and change in lumbar vBMD positively associated with baseline IMAT (p<0.0001. In contrast, vBMD was not associated with change in PAT. After adjusting for BMI, baseline and change in volumes of select adipose depots were associated with increases in thoracic and lumbar trabecular vBMD in African Americans. Effects of adiposity on trabecular bone appear to be site-specific and related to factors beyond mechanical load.

  16. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  17. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Miller, R.L.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Johnson, R.O.; Tolbert, V.R.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Rickert, L.W.; Rogers, G.O.; Staub, W.P.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this Phase I report is to examined the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) in light of more detailed and more recent data than those included in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EPEIS). Two principal issues are addressed: (1) whether or not the new data would result in identification of on-site disposal at ANAD as the environmentally preferred alternative (using the same selection method and data analysis tools as in the FPEIS), and (2) whether or not the new data indicate the presence of significant environmental resources that could be affected by on-site disposal at ANAD. In addition, a status report is presented on the maturity of the disposal technology (and now it could affect on-site disposal at ANAD). Inclusion of these more recent data into the FPEIS decision method resulted in confirmation of on-site disposal for ANAD. No unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD have been identified. A review of the technology status identified four principal technology developments that have occurred since publication of the FPEIS and should be of value in the implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD: the disposal of nonlethal agent at Pine Bluff Arsenal, located near Pine Bluff, Arkansas; construction and testing of facilities for disposal of stored lethal agent at Johnston Atoll, located about 1300 km (800 miles) southwest of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean; lethal agent disposal tests at the chemical agent pilot plant operations at Tooele Army Depot, located near Salt Lake City, Utah; and equipment advances. 18 references, 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. [Job stress in locomotive attendants in a locomotive depot and related influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, L; Jia, X C; Lu, F; Zhou, W H; Chen, R

    2017-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of job stress in locomotive attendants in a locomotive depot and related influencing factors. Methods: From 2012 to 2013, cluster sampling was used to select 1500 locomotive attendants in a locomotive depot in Zhengzhou Railway Bureau as respondents.The contents of the investigation included general data and occupational information.A job satisfaction questionnaire was used to investigate the degree of satisfaction, a depression scale was used to investigate the frequency of symptoms, and a daily stress scale was used to investigate the frequency of fatigue and stress. Results: There was a significant difference in depression score between locomotive attendants with different ages, working years, degrees of education, working situations of spouse, total monthly family incomes, numbers of times of attendanceat night, monthly numbers of times of attendance,ormonthly attendance times( P job satisfaction score between locomotive attendants with different ages,working years, degrees of education, working situations of spouse, total monthly family incomes, numbers of times of attendance at night, monthly attendance times,or ways to work( P job satisfaction( β =1.546)and monthly number of times of attendance,working years,attendance time at night,and degree of education were negatively correlated with job satisfaction( β =-0.185,-0.097,-0.020,and -1.106); monthly number of times of attendance andcommute time were positively correlated with depression( β =0.243 and 0.029); attendance time at night,working situation of spouse,commute time,monthly number of times of attendance,degree of education,and working years were positively correlated with daily stress( β =0.006,0.473,0.010,0.043,0.585, and 0.028). Conclusion: Number of times of attendance, attendance time,working years,and spouse are influencing factors for job stress in locomotive attendants. Improvement in work process and care for their personal life help to reduce

  19. Solving the Traveling Salesman Problem Based on The Genetic Reactive Bone Route Algorithm whit Ant Colony System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Yousefikhoshbakht

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The TSP is considered one of the most well-known combinatorial optimization tasks and researchers have paid so much attention to the TSP for many years. In this problem, a salesman starts to move from an arbitrary place called depot and after visits all of the nodes, finally comes back to the depot. The objective is to minimize the total distance traveled by the salesman.  Because this problem is a non-deterministic polynomial (NP-hard problem in nature, a hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm called REACSGA is used for solving the TSP. In REACSGA, a reactive bone route algorithm that uses the ant colony system (ACS for generating initial diversified solutions and the genetic algorithm (GA as an improved procedure are applied. Since the performance of the Metaheuristic algorithms is significantly influenced by their parameters, Taguchi Method is used to set the parameters of the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm is tested on several standard instances involving 24 to 318 nodes from the literature. The computational result shows that the results of the proposed algorithm are competitive with other metaheuristic algorithms for solving the TSP in terms of better quality of solution and computational time respectively. In addition, the proposed REACSGA is significantly efficient and finds closely the best known solutions for most of the instances in which thirteen best known solutions are also found.

  20. Audit Report on the Sacramento Army Depot Internal Review and Audit Compliance Office's "Audits of Warranties, Quality Deficiency Reports, and Reports of Discrepancies"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    The Sacramento Army Depot (SAAD) Internal Review and Audit Compliance Office (Internal Review) issued an audit report, "Audit of Warranties, Quality Deficiency Reports, and Reports of Discrepancies," on July 20, 1990...

  1. Siting Report for Theater Missile Defense Mid-Range Test Launch Complex at Ft. Wingate Depot Activity, NM: Based on Sit Survey, 14-18 February 1994

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    This study is provided to assess the capability of Ft. Wingate Depot Activity to act as a Ballistic Missile Defense Test Support Complex for the launch of target missiles toward White Sands Missile Range...

  2. Adesão ao tratamento e hospitalizações entre pacientes que realizam aplicações de Flufenazina Depot Adhesión al tratamiento y hospitalización entre pacientes que realizan aplicaciones de Flufenazina Depot Compliance with treatment and hospitalization among patients using Flufenazine Depot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Menna Oliveira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Os autores revisam a bibliografia sobre medicação depot e apresentam dados referentes à adesão ao tratamento e hospitalizações entre os pacientes que realizam aplicações de enantato de flufenazina em regime ambulatorial no Hospital Espírita de Pelotas. MÉTODO: Analisaram-se os prontuários de pacientes que foram incluídos no regime depot anteriormente a maio de 2001 e que realizaram pelo menos uma aplicação entre maio de 2001 e junho de 2002, quanto à adesão ao tratamento e eventuais hospitalizações. RESULTADOS: De um total de 100 pacientes, 66 permaneciam em regime depot ao término do período estudado. Destes, 40 (61% apresentavam boa adesão ao tratamento, enquanto 26 (39% apresentavam má adesão. Houve um total de 25 pacientes que sofreram hospitalizações, entre os quais a maioria não estava em tratamento no término do estudo ou apresentava má adesão. Entre os pacientes procedentes do mesmo bairro em que se situa o hospital, 10 (67% apresentavam boa adesão em comparação com 30 pacientes (59% procedentes de bairros distintos. DISCUSSÃO: O número de hospitalizações variou visivelmente, conforme a permanência ou não em tratamento e a adesão ao mesmo. Pacientes provenientes de bairros distantes do hospital tenderam a apresentar pior adesão ao tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: É possível que pacientes em regime de aplicação depot residentes próximos ao local de aplicação beneficiem-se mais do tratamento que aqueles residentes em locais distantes. São necessários mais estudos comparando administrações depot com VO em termos de adesão e investigando fatores preditores de boa adesão ao tratamento.OBJETIVOS: Los autores revisan la bibliografía sobre medicación depot y presentan datos referentes a la adhesión al tratamiento y hospitalizaciones entre los pacientes que realizan aplicaciones de enantato de flufenazina en régimen ambulatorio en el Hospital Espiritista de Pelotas. MÉTODO: Fueron

  3. An Analysis of the Factors Generating the Variance Between the Budgeted and Actual Operating Results of the Naval Aviation Depot at North Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    management structure employs free- market system principles and encourages business-like processes that are mission driven. Since no operating funds are...variable (Potvin, 2007). 2. Unit Cost Goal NWCFs use the unit cost goal ( UCG ) for planning purposes. The UCG is an estimate of what a unit of product...mission 6. Will not interfere with depot performance This section opens the depot to the private market . 53 Chapter 159 – Real Property

  4. A DSS based on GIS and Tabu search for solving the CVRP: The Tunisian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Faiz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP is a well known optimization problem applied in numerous applications. It consists of delivering items to some geographically dispersed customers using a set of vehicles operating from a single depot. As the CVRP is known to be NP-hard, approximate methods perform well when generating promising sub-optimal solutions in a reasonable computation time. In this paper, we develop a Decision Support System (DSS for solving the CVRP that integrates a Geographical Information System (GIS enriched by a Tabu search (TS module. In order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed DSS in terms of CPU runtime and minimized traveled distance, we apply it on a large-sized real case. The results are then highlighted in a cartographic format using Google Maps.

  5. Self-Monitoring Checklists for Inquiry Problem-Solving: Functional Problem-Solving Methods for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bridget; Taber-Doughty, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Three students with mild to moderate intellectual and multiple disability, enrolled in a self-contained functional curriculum class were taught to use a self-monitoring checklist and science notebook to increase independence in inquiry problem-solving skills. Using a single-subject multiple-probe design, all students acquired inquiry…

  6. Depot-Specific Response of Adipose Tissue to Diet-Induced Inflammation: The Retinoid-Related Orphan Receptor α (RORα) Involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiri, Sarah; Auclair, Martine; Capeau, Jacqueline; Antoine, Bénédicte

    2017-11-01

    Epididymal adipose tissue (EAT), a visceral fat depot, is more closely associated with metabolic dysfunction than inguinal adipose tissue (IAT), a subcutaneous depot. This study evaluated whether the nuclear receptor RORα, which controls inflammatory processes, could be implicated. EAT and IAT were compared in a RORα loss-of-function mouse (sg/sg) and in wild-type (WT) littermates, fed a standard diet (SD) or a Western diet (WD), to evaluate the impact of RORα expression on inflammatory status and on insulin sensitivity (IS) of each fat depot according to the diet. Sg/sg mice fed the SD exhibited a decreased inflammatory status and a higher IS in their fat depots than WT mice. WD-induced obesity had distinct effects on the two fat depots. In WT mice, EAT exhibited increased inflammation and insulin resistance while IAT showed reduced inflammation and improved IS, together with a depot-specific increase of RORα, and its target gene IκBα, in the stroma vascular fraction (SVF). Conversely, in sg/sg mice, WD increased inflammation and lowered IS of IAT but not of EAT. These findings suggest an anti-inflammatory role for RORα in response to WD, which occurs at the level of SVF of IAT, thus possibly contributing to the "healthy" expansion of IAT. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  7. The Washington Needle Depot: fitting healthcare to injection drug users rather than injection drug users to healthcare: moving from a syringe exchange to syringe distribution model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glickman Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Needle exchange programs chase political as well as epidemiological dragons, carrying within them both implicit moral and political goals. In the exchange model of syringe distribution, injection drug users (IDUs must provide used needles in order to receive new needles. Distribution and retrieval are co-existent in the exchange model. Likewise, limitations on how many needles can be received at a time compel addicts to have multiple points of contact with professionals where the virtues of treatment and detox are impressed upon them. The centre of gravity for syringe distribution programs needs to shift from needle exchange to needle distribution, which provides unlimited access to syringes. This paper provides a case study of the Washington Needle Depot, a program operating under the syringe distribution model, showing that the distribution and retrieval of syringes can be separated with effective results. Further, the experience of IDUs is utilized, through paid employment, to provide a vulnerable population of people with clean syringes to prevent HIV and HCV.

  8. In situ depot comprising phase-change materials that can sustainably release a gasotransmitter H2S to treat diabetic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Chih; Huang, Chieh-Cheng; Lin, Shu-Jyuan; Li, Meng-Ju; Chang, Yen; Lin, Yu-Jung; Wan, Wei-Lin; Shih, Po-Chien; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2017-11-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus are prone to develop refractory wounds. They exhibit reduced synthesis and levels of circulating hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), which is an ephemeral gaseous molecule. Physiologically, H 2 S is an endogenous gasotransmitter with multiple biological functions. An emulsion method is utilized to prepare a microparticle system that comprises phase-change materials with a nearly constant temperature of phase transitions to encapsulate sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a highly water-labile H 2 S donor. An emulsion technique that can minimize the loss of water-labile active compounds during emulsification must be developed. The as-prepared microparticles (NaHS@MPs) provide an in situ depot for the sustained release of exogenous H 2 S under physiological conditions. The sustained release of H 2 S promotes several cell behaviors, including epidermal/endothelial cell proliferation and migration, as well as angiogenesis, by extending the activation of cellular ERK1/2 and p38, accelerating the healing of full-thickness wounds in diabetic mice. These experimental results reveal the strong potential of NaHS@MPs for the sustained release of H 2 S for the treatment of diabetic wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Solving ptychography with a convex relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Chen, Richard Y.; Ou, Xiaoze; Ames, Brendan; Tropp, Joel A.; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-05-01

    Ptychography is a powerful computational imaging technique that transforms a collection of low-resolution images into a high-resolution sample reconstruction. Unfortunately, algorithms that currently solve this reconstruction problem lack stability, robustness, and theoretical guarantees. Recently, convex optimization algorithms have improved the accuracy and reliability of several related reconstruction efforts. This paper proposes a convex formulation of the ptychography problem. This formulation has no local minima, it can be solved using a wide range of algorithms, it can incorporate appropriate noise models, and it can include multiple a priori constraints. The paper considers a specific algorithm, based on low-rank factorization, whose runtime and memory usage are near-linear in the size of the output image. Experiments demonstrate that this approach offers a 25% lower background variance on average than alternating projections, the ptychographic reconstruction algorithm that is currently in widespread use.

  10. Association between individual fat depots and cardio-metabolic traits in normal- and overweight children, adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübers, M; Geisler, C; Plachta-Danielzik, S; Müller, M J

    2017-05-08

    To determine age-related associations between fat mass (FM), regional fat depots and cardiometabolic traits in normal- and overweight children, adolescents and adults. Detailed body composition (regional subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue; SAT, VAT) by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), FM and fat-free mass by air-displacement plethysmography, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), plasma glucose and plasma insulin were measured in 433 subjects (BMI: 23.6 (21.0-27.7); 151 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, 150 young adults, aged 18-30 years and 132 adults, aged 30-60 years). Data were derived from pooled data of the 'Reference Center for Body Composition' in Kiel, Germany. Insulin resistance was determined by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Partial correlations and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between body composition and cardiometabolic traits. A descriptive approach was used to demonstrate age-dependent differences in associations between body fat depots and insulin resistance, independent of BMI. FM, SAT, and VAT increased from childhood to adulthood with low VAT in children and adolescents. When compared to children, TG was higher in adults. HDL and DBP did not differ between age groups. Insulin resistance was highest in male adolescents and female young adults. Associations between body fat depots and cardiometabolic traits were seen after puberty with no associations in pre- and intrapubertal children. When compared to FM, SAT and VAT had the strongest association with insulin resistance in adults. This association was independent of BMI. Associations between individual body fat depots and most cardiometabolic traits became evident after puberty only. The strongest associations were observed between insulin resistance and abdominal fat in adults. The impact of VAT was independent

  11. Randomised controlled single-blind study of conventional versus depot mydriatic drug delivery prior to cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madge Simon

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prerequisite for safe cataract surgery is an adequately dilated pupil. The authors conducted a trial to assess the efficacy (in terms of pupil diameter of a depot method of pre-operative pupil dilatation, as compared with repeated instillations of drops (which is time-consuming for the nursing staff and uncomfortable for the patient. Methods A prospective randomised masked trial was conducted comprising 130 patients with no significant ocular history undergoing elective clear corneal phacoemulsification. 65 patients had mydriatic drops (Tropicamide 1%, Phenylephrine 2.5%, Diclofenac sodium 0.1% instilled prior to surgery, 65 had a wick soaked in the same drop mixture placed in the inferior fornix. Horizontal pupil diameters were recorded on a millimetre scale immediately prior to surgery. Results There was no significant difference in pupil size between the two groups (p = 0.255, Student's t-test. Conclusion There was no significant difference between the mydriasis obtained with the depot system compared with conventional drop application. Use of a depot mydriatic delivery system appears to be a safe and efficient method of drug delivery. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register ISRCTN78047760

  12. Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

  13. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…

  14. Problem Solving on a Monorail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This activity was created to address a lack of problem-solving activities for elementary children. A "monorail" activity from the Evening Science Program for K-3 Students and Parents program is presented to illustrate the problem-solving format. Designed for performance at stations by groups of two students. (LZ)

  15. Solving complex fisheries management problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist

    2011-01-01

    A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related...

  16. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the effect of exercise training on the expression of autophagy marker proteins in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) collected from eWAT. Male Wistar rats aged 4–5 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, sedentary control (n = 7) and exercise-trained (n = 7). Rats in the exercise-trained group were exercised on a treadmill set at a 5° incline 5 days/week for 9 weeks. We determined that the expression levels of an autophagosome-associating form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and of p62 were significantly higher in eWAT from exercise-trained than from control rats, while those of adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related protein (ATG7) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) showed no difference between groups. However, in iWAT, the expression levels of LC3-II and ATG7 were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. The expression of p62 was highly correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, in both WAT types (eWAT, r = 0.856, P < 0.05; iWAT, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), whereas LC3-II and PPARγ levels were highly correlated in eWAT (r = 0.765, P < 0.05) but not in iWAT (r = −0.306, ns). In SVF, the expression levels of LC3II, ATG7, and LAMP2a were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. These results suggest that exercise training suppresses basal autophagy activity in eWAT, but that this activity is enhanced in iWAT and SVF collected from eWAT. Thus, the adaptation of basal autophagic activity following exercise training exhibits fat depot-specific differences. - Highlights: • Autophagy has been associated with obesity and associated diseases. • We examined exercise-associated rat white adipose tissue (WAT) autophagy markers. • Exercise increased

  17. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya, E-mail: tizawa@mail.doshisha.ac.jp

    2015-10-23

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the effect of exercise training on the expression of autophagy marker proteins in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) collected from eWAT. Male Wistar rats aged 4–5 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, sedentary control (n = 7) and exercise-trained (n = 7). Rats in the exercise-trained group were exercised on a treadmill set at a 5° incline 5 days/week for 9 weeks. We determined that the expression levels of an autophagosome-associating form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and of p62 were significantly higher in eWAT from exercise-trained than from control rats, while those of adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related protein (ATG7) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) showed no difference between groups. However, in iWAT, the expression levels of LC3-II and ATG7 were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. The expression of p62 was highly correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, in both WAT types (eWAT, r = 0.856, P < 0.05; iWAT, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), whereas LC3-II and PPARγ levels were highly correlated in eWAT (r = 0.765, P < 0.05) but not in iWAT (r = −0.306, ns). In SVF, the expression levels of LC3II, ATG7, and LAMP2a were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. These results suggest that exercise training suppresses basal autophagy activity in eWAT, but that this activity is enhanced in iWAT and SVF collected from eWAT. Thus, the adaptation of basal autophagic activity following exercise training exhibits fat depot-specific differences. - Highlights: • Autophagy has been associated with obesity and associated diseases. • We examined exercise-associated rat white adipose tissue (WAT) autophagy markers. • Exercise increased

  18. Depot injectable atorvastatin biodegradable in situ gel: development, optimization, in vitro, and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed TA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tarek A Ahmed,1,2 Yasser A Alharby,1 Abdel-Rahim M El-Helw,1 Khaled M Hosny,1,3 Khalid M El-Say1,21Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, EgyptAbstract: This study aimed to develop an optimized depot injectable atorvastatin (ATR biodegradable in situ gel (ISG system with minimum initial burst using a central composite design. The factors selected were poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA concentration (X1, molecular weight of polyethylene glycol (PEG (X2, and PEG concentration (X3. The independent variables were the initial burst of ATR after 2 (Y1 and 24 hours (Y2. The optimized formulation was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and in vitro drug release in phosphate-buffered saline of pH 7.4 for 72 hours. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study of the optimized ATR-ISG and the corresponding PEG-free ATR-ISG were conducted by intramuscular injection of a single dose (2 mg/kg of ATR in male New Zealand White rabbits. A double-blind, randomized, parallel design was used in comparison with those of the marketed ATR tablet. Statistical analysis revealed that PLGA concentration and the molecular weight of PEG have pronounced effects on both Y1 and Y2. The optimized formulation was composed of 36.10% PLGA, PEG 6000, and 15.69% PEG, and exhibited characteristic in vitro release pattern with minimal initial burst. Incorporation of PEG in the formulation causes a slight decrease in the glass transition temperature value of PLGA, leading to a slight change in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum due to possible interaction. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy photomicrograph showed smooth

  19. Multistage Spectral Relaxation Method for Solving the Hyperchaotic Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Saberi Nik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a pseudospectral method application for solving the hyperchaotic complex systems. The proposed method, called the multistage spectral relaxation method (MSRM is based on a technique of extending Gauss-Seidel type relaxation ideas to systems of nonlinear differential equations and using the Chebyshev pseudospectral methods to solve the resulting system on a sequence of multiple intervals. In this new application, the MSRM is used to solve famous hyperchaotic complex systems such as hyperchaotic complex Lorenz system and the complex permanent magnet synchronous motor. We compare this approach to the Runge-Kutta based ode45 solver to show that the MSRM gives accurate results.

  20. Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis of the Nyírlugos obsidian core depot find

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Kasztovszky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Nyírlugos obsidian core depot find is one of the most important lithic assemblages in the collection of the Hungarian National Museum (HNM. The original set comprised 12 giant obsidian cores, of which 11 are currently on the permanent archaeological exhibition of the HNM. One of the cores is known to be inDebrecen. The first publication attributed the hoard, on the strength of giant (flint blades known from the Early and Middle Copper Age Tiszapolgár and Bodrogkeresztúr cultures, to the Copper Age. In the light of recent finds it is more likely to belong to the Middle Neolithic period. The source area was defined as Tokaj Mts., about100 kmto the NW from Nyírlugos. The size and beauty of the exceptional pieces exclude any invasive analysis. Using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA, we can measure major chemical components and some key trace elements of stone artefacts with adequate accuracy to successfully determine provenance of obsidian. Recent methodological development also facilitated the study of relatively large objects like the Nyírlugos cores. The cores were individually measured by PGAA. The results show that the cores originate from the Carpathian 1 sources, most probably the Viničky variety (C1b. The study of the hoard as a batch is an important contribution to the assessment of prehistoric trade and allows us to reconsider the so-called Carpathian, especially Carpathian 1 (Slovakian sources.

  1. Active motions of Brownian particles in a generalized energy-depot model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Koo Kim, Chul; Lee, Kong-Ju-Bock

    2008-01-01

    We present a generalized energy-depot model in which the rate of conversion of the internal energy into motion can be dependent on the position and velocity of a particle. When the conversion rate is a general function of the velocity, the active particle exhibits diverse patterns of motion, including a braking mechanism and a stepping motion. The phase trajectories of the motion are investigated in a systematic way. With a particular form of the conversion rate dependent on the position and velocity, the particle shows a spontaneous oscillation characterizing a negative stiffness. These types of active behaviors are compared with similar phenomena observed in biology, such as the stepping motion of molecular motors and amplification in the hearing mechanism. Hence, our model can provide a generic understanding of the active motion related to the energy conversion and also a new control mechanism for nano-robots. We also investigate the effect of noise, especially on the stepping motion, and observe random walk-like behavior as expected.

  2. ANALISIS HIGIENE SANITASI DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG (DAMIU DI SEKITAR UNIVERSITAS ISLAM RIAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Mairizki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The existence of Drinking Water Refill Depot (DAMIU continues to increase appropriate with the dynamics of community needs for drinking water that has good quality and safe for consumption. Although it had a low price, not all DAMIU product guaranteed safety. DAMIU  as  an alternative choice to fulfill the community needs for drinking water becomes a risk that harmful to health if consumers did  not pay attention in DAMIU hygiene and sanitation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze hygiene and sanitation of  DAMIU building, equipment and operator. The type of this research was descriptive research.The data obtained in this study was primary data in the form of observation using checklist sheet. The data was presented in tabular form and discussed descriptively. In general, hygiene and sanitation of DAMIU building and equipment were good but the sanitation facilities still minimals, the wash basin for operators and its tools were not available. There were  several of operators hygiene must be considered. All operators did not using special uniform for work, did not conducting periodic medical examinations and did not have sertificate of hygiene sanitation course.

  3. RISK MANAGEMENT AND RISK COMMUNICATION IN MOZAMBIQUE: THE CASE OF ARMS AND AMMUNITION DEPOTS OF MALHAZINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bussotti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk management and risk communication affect everybody’s daily life. Local authorities have the duty to manage public structures, to inform civilians of the risks coming from these structures, to implement prophylaxis procedures. Military storage sites are fully included in this category. This article presents – through a qualitative methodology based on risk analysis – how risk management and communication in weapons and ammunition warehouses is managed in a “partially free” country, using as a case-study, the Malhazine depot in Mozambique, which resulted in more than 100 deaths. In 2007, an extraordinary accident related to the management of obsolete conventional weapons occurred at the Malazhine warehouse. In this circumstance, the Mozambican Government adopted a policy of classifying the information “highly confidential”. This policy aimed at obscuring facts and responsibilities by hiding the causes of such a huge tragedy. This article concludes with the consideration that a high level of confidentiality in treating issues of public interest, such as the one kept in regard to Malhazine, does not help public authorities to effectively manage and prevent similar risks from occurring again, with resulting negative impacts on local populations.

  4. Light Control of Insulin Release and Blood Glucose Using an Injectable Photoactivated Depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarode, Bhagyesh R; Kover, Karen; Tong, Pei Y; Zhang, Chaoying; Friedman, Simon H

    2016-11-07

    In this work we demonstrate that blood glucose can be controlled remotely through light stimulated release of insulin from an injected cutaneous depot. Human insulin was tethered to an insoluble but injectable polymer via a linker, which was based on the light cleavable di-methoxy nitrophenyl ethyl (DMNPE) group. This material was injected into the skin of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. We observed insulin being released into the bloodstream after a 2 min trans-cutaneous irradiation of this site by a compact LED light source. Control animals treated with the same material, but in which light was blocked from the site, showed no release of insulin into the bloodstream. We also demonstrate that additional pulses of light from the light source result in additional pulses of insulin being absorbed into circulation. A significant reduction in blood glucose was then observed. Together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using light to allow for the continuously variable control of insulin release. This in turn has the potential to allow for the tight control of blood glucose without the invasiveness of insulin pumps and cannulas.

  5. Behavior of Particle Depots in Molten Silicon During Float-Zone Growth in Strong Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauss, T.; Croell, A.; SorgenFrei, T.; Azizi, M.; Reimann, C.; Friedrich, J.; Volz, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Solar cells made from directionally solidified silicon cover 57% of the photovoltaic industry's market [1]. One major issue during directional solidification of silicon is the precipitation of foreign phase particles. These particles, mainly SiC and Si3N4, are precipitated from the dissolved crucible coating, which is made of silicon nitride, and the dissolution of carbon monoxide from the furnace atmosphere. Due to their hardness and size of several hundred micrometers, those particles can lead to severe problems during the wire sawing process for wafering the ingots. Additionally, SiC particles can act as a shunt, short circuiting the solar cell. Even if the particles are too small to disturb the wafering process, they can lead to a grit structure of silicon micro grains and serve as sources for dislocations. All of this lowers the yield of solar cells and reduces the performance of cells and modules. We studied the behaviour of SiC particle depots during float-zone growth under an oxide skin, and strong static magnetic fields. For high field strengths of 3T and above and an oxide layer on the sample surface, convection is sufficiently suppressed to create a diffusive like regime, with strongly dampened convection [2, 3]. To investigate the difference between atomically rough phase boundaries and facetted growth, samples with [100] and [111] orientation were processed.

  6. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  7. How to solve mathematical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Wickelgren, Wayne A

    1995-01-01

    Seven problem-solving techniques include inference, classification of action sequences, subgoals, contradiction, working backward, relations between problems, and mathematical representation. Also, problems from mathematics, science, and engineering with complete solutions.

  8. Interactive Problem-Solving Interventions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frew Demeke Alemu

    concerted efforts of unofficial actors to establish unofficial communication ... Frew Demeke Alemu (LLB, LLM in International Human Rights Law from Lund ..... 24 Tamra Pearson d'Estrée (2009), “Problem-Solving Approaches”, (in The SAGE ...

  9. Working memory dysfunctions predict social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-12-15

    The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive Predictors of Everyday Problem Solving across the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Hertzog, Christopher; Park, Denise C

    2017-01-01

    An important aspect of successful aging is maintaining the ability to solve everyday problems encountered in daily life. The limited evidence today suggests that everyday problem solving ability increases from young adulthood to middle age, but decreases in older age. The present study examined age differences in the relative contributions of fluid and crystallized abilities to solving problems on the Everyday Problems Test (EPT). We hypothesized that due to diminishing fluid resources available with advanced age, crystallized knowledge would become increasingly important in predicting everyday problem solving with greater age. Two hundred and twenty-one healthy adults from the Dallas Lifespan Brain Study, aged 24-93 years, completed a cognitive battery that included measures of fluid ability (i.e., processing speed, working memory, inductive reasoning) and crystallized ability (i.e., multiple measures of vocabulary). These measures were used to predict performance on EPT. Everyday problem solving showed an increase in performance from young to early middle age, with performance beginning to decrease at about age of 50 years. As hypothesized, fluid ability was the primary predictor of performance on everyday problem solving for young adults, but with increasing age, crystallized ability became the dominant predictor. This study provides evidence that everyday problem solving ability differs with age, and, more importantly, that the processes underlying it differ with age as well. The findings indicate that older adults increasingly rely on knowledge to support everyday problem solving, whereas young adults rely almost exclusively on fluid intelligence. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Tangram solved? Prefrontal cortex activation analysis during geometric problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A; Izzetoğlu, Meltem; Çakır, Murat P; Onaral, Banu

    2012-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have implicated prefrontal and parietal cortices for mathematical problem solving. Mental arithmetic tasks have been used extensively to study neural correlates of mathematical reasoning. In the present study we used geometric problem sets (tangram tasks) that require executive planning and visuospatial reasoning without any linguistic representation interference. We used portable optical brain imaging (functional near infrared spectroscopy--fNIR) to monitor hemodynamic changes within anterior prefrontal cortex during tangram tasks. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to solve a series of computerized tangram puzzles and control tasks that required same geometric shape manipulation without problem solving. Total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration changes indicated a significant increase during tangram problem solving in the right hemisphere. Moreover, HbT changes during failed trials (when no solution found) were significantly higher compared to successful trials. These preliminary results suggest that fNIR can be used to assess cortical activation changes induced by geometric problem solving. Since fNIR is safe, wearable and can be used in ecologically valid environments such as classrooms, this neuroimaging tool may help to improve and optimize learning in educational settings.

  12. Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John

    2010-02-01

    This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the

  13. Adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression: depot differences and effects of diet and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Rongze

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of endocannabinoid system in adipose tissue play an important role in lipid regulation and metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gene expression levels of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1 and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH are different in subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue, and whether hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise influence subcutaneous adipose tissue CB1 and FAAH gene expression in obese women. Methods Thirty overweight or obese, middle-aged women (BMI = 34.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2, age = 59 ± 1 years underwent one of three 20-week weight loss interventions: caloric restriction only (CR, N = 9, caloric restriction plus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (CRM, 45-50% HRR, N = 13, or caloric restriction plus vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (CRV, 70-75% HRR, N = 8. Subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue samples were collected before and after the interventions to measure CB1 and FAAH gene expression. Results At baseline, FAAH gene expression was higher in abdominal, compared to gluteal adipose tissue (2.08 ± 0.11 vs. 1.78 ± 0.10, expressed as target gene/β-actin mRNA ratio × 10-3, P Conclusions There are depot differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression in obese individuals. Aerobic exercise training may preferentially modulate abdominal adipose tissue endocannabinoid-related gene expression during dietary weight loss. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00664729.

  14. A comparative study of Cyclofem and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) effects on endometrial vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Hashemi, Zeinab; Zham, Hananeh; Fraser, Ian S

    2007-10-01

    The most common reason for discontinuation of long-acting progestogen-only contraceptives is irregular bleeding following local endometrial vascular changes. To reduce unpredictable bleeding episodes among depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) users, the combined injectable contraceptive, Cyclofem, was offered as an alternative. However, there is a gap in our knowledge about the effects of Cyclofem on the endometrial vasculature and patterns of bleeding. This study aimed to compare the effects of Cyclofem and DMPA on endometrial vascular density, endometrial histology and pattern of bleeding. Sixty-eight healthy women with regular menstrual bleeding and seeking injectable long-acting contraceptives were recruited. Two endometrial samples (before and 3 to 6 months after initial exposure to DMPA or Cyclofem) were collected from each participant. The samples were stained using an immunohistochemical method and anti-CD34 to visualise the endometrial vasculature. Endometrial vascular density was assessed using standard techniques. Sixty-eight women were randomly assigned to Cyclofem (38 women) or DMPA (30 women). Endometrial vascular density was 149.3 +/- 6.7 (mean +/- SD)/mm(2) before injection. This significantly decreased to 132.4 +/- 12.2 after DMPA use, and from 151.9 +/- 5.8 to 131.8 +/- 12.8 vessels/mm(2) following Cyclofem use (paired t-test, p Spotting was the most common type of bleeding experienced, and atrophic endometrium was the most common histological pattern observed in both groups. This study demonstrated that both Cyclofem and DMPA use are associated with decreased endometrial vascular density and atrophic endometrium, in addition to irregular bleeding, mainly spotting. There was no significant difference in bleeding patterns or endometrial findings observed for these two injectable contraceptives in Iranian women.

  15. IGFBP4 Is Required for Adipogenesis and Influences the Distribution of Adipose Depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridas, David E; DeMambro, Victoria E; Le, Phuong T; Mohan, Subburaman; Rosen, Clifford J

    2017-10-01

    Insulinlike growth factor (IGF) I induces adipogenesis in vitro. IGF-binding protein 4 (IGFBP4) is highly expressed in adipocytes and osteoblasts and is inhibitory of IGFs in vitro. We previously reported that Igfbp4 null mice (Igfbp4-/-) had decreased fat proportions at 8 and 16 weeks of age. However, the mechanism leading to the reduced adiposity remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to elucidate how IGFBP4 mediates adipose tissue development in vivo. Our results showed that inguinal and gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) from Igfbp4-/- mice had decreased weights and Pparγ expression. Cultures of primary bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and ear mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs) from mutant mice showed reduced adipogenesis. Both BMSCs and eMSC had a strong induction of Igfbp4 expression during adipogenesis. Furthermore, the increase in phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), a downstream target of IGF-I signaling, in wild-type cells, was blunted in mutant eMSCs. On a high-fat diet (HFD) there were sexual differences in adipocyte expansion of Igfbp4-/- mice. Mutant males gained weight by expanding their white fat depots. However, Igfbp4-/- female mice were protected against diet-induced obesity. Ovariectomized Igfbp4-/- female mice gained weight in a manner similar to that seen in ovariectomized controls. Thus, Igfbp4 is required for inguinal fat expansion in female mice but not in male mice. However, gWAT expansion, which is prevented by estrogen during HFD, does not require Igfbp4. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  16. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Choi, Jung Mook; Chang, Eugene; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio) increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation.

  17. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Eun Park

    Full Text Available Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation.

  18. Multiple inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Theory of Inflation, namely, that at some point the entropy content of the universe was greatly increased, has much promise. It may solve the puzzles of homogeneity and the creation of structure. However, no particle physics model has yet been found that can successfully drive inflation. The difficulty in satisfying the constraint that the isotropy of the microwave background places on the effective potential of prospective models is immense. In this work we have codified the requirements of such models in a most general form. We have carefully calculated the amounts of inflation the various problems of the Standard Model need for their solution. We have derived a completely model independent upper bond on the inflationary Hubble parameter. We have developed a general notation with which to probe the possibilities of Multiple Inflation. We have shown that only in very unlikely circumstances will any evidence of an earlier inflation, survive the de Sitter period of its successor. In particular, it is demonstrated that it is most unlikely that two bouts of inflation will yield high amplitudes of density perturbations on small scales and low amplitudes on large. We conclude that, while multiple inflation will be of great theoretical interest, it is unlikely to have any observational impact

  19. CHAWS user`s guide: System description and standard operating procedures, Lexington-Blue Grass Army Depot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, S.A.; Shinn, J.H. [eds.

    1993-05-01

    The Chemical Hazard Warning System (CHAWS) is designed to collect meteorological data and to display, in real time, the dispersion of hazardous chemicals that may result from an accidental release. Meteorological sensors have been placed strategically around the Lexington-Blue Grass Army Depot and are used to calculate direction and hazard distance for the release. Based on these data, arrows depicting the release direction and distance traveled are graphically displayed on a computer screen showing a site map of the facility. The objectives of CHAWS are as follows: To determine the trajectory of the center of mass of released material from the measured wind field; to calculate the dispersion of the released material based on the measured lateral turbulence intensity (sigma theta); to determine the height of the mixing zone by measurement of the inversion height and wind profiles up to an altitude of about 1 km at sites that have SODAR units installed; to archive meteorological data for potential use in climatological descriptions for emergency planning; to archive air-quality data for preparation of compliance reports; and to provide access to the data for near real time hazard analysis purposes. CHAWS sites are located at the Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas, Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, Tooele Depot, Utah, Lexington-Blue Grass Depot, Kentucky, and Johnston Island in the Pacific. The systems vary between sites with different features and various types of hardware. The basic system, however, is the same. Nonetheless, we have tailored the manuals to the equipment found at each site.

  20. [French Society for Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology task force: Formal Consensus for the prescription of depot antipsychotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalin, L; Abbar, M; Courtet, P; Guillaume, S; Lancrenon, S; Llorca, P-M

    2013-12-01

    Compliance is often partial with oral antipsychotics and underestimated for patients with serious mental illness. Despite their demonstrated advantages in terms of relapse prevention, depot formulations are still poorly used in routine. As part of a process to improve the quality of care, French Association for Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology (AFPBN) Task Force elaborated a Formal Consensus for the prescription of depot antipsychotics in clinical practice. The Task Force recommends as first-line choice, the use of long-acting injectable (LAI) second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and delusional disorder. They can be considered as a second-line option as a monotherapy to prevent manic recurrence or in combination with mood stabilizer to prevent depressive recurrence in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. LAI second-generation antipsychotics can also be used after a first episode of schizophrenia. Depot neuroleptics are not recommended during the early course of schizophrenia and are not appropriate in bipolar disorder. They are considered as a second-line option for maintenance treatment in schizophrenia. LAI formulations should be systematically proposed to any patients for whom maintenance antipsychotic treatment is indicated. LAI antipsychotics can be used preferentially for non-compliant patients with frequent relapses or aggressive behaviors. A specific information concerning the advantages and inconveniences of the LAI formulations, in the framework of shared-decision making must be delivered to each patient. Recommendations for switching from one oral/LAI form to another LAI and for using LAI antipsychotics in specific populations (pregnant women, elderly patients, subjects in a precarious situation, and subjects having to be treated in a prison establishment) are also proposed. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment of central precocious puberty by subcutaneous injections of leuprorelin 3-month depot (11.25 mg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carel, Jean-Claude; Lahlou, Najiba; Jaramillo, Orlando; Montauban, Vincent; Teinturier, Cécile; Colle, Michel; Lucas, Christel; Chaussain, Jean Louis

    2002-09-01

    Depot GnRH agonists are widely used for the treatment of precocious puberty. Leuprorelin 3-month depot is currently used in adults but has not been evaluated in children. We evaluated the efficacy of this new formulation (11.25 mg every 3 months), for the suppression of gonadotropic activation and pubertal signs in children with central precocious puberty. We included 44 children (40 girls) with early-onset pubertal development in a 6-month open trial. The inclusion criteria were clinical pubertal development before the age of 8 (girls) or 10 (boys), advanced bone age, enlarged uterus (>36 mm), testosterone more than 1.7 nmol/liter (boys), and pubertal response of LH to GnRH (peak >5 IU/liter). The principal criterion for efficacy assessment, GnRH-stimulated LH peak less than 3 IU/liter, was met in 81 of 85 (95%) of the tests performed at months 3 and 6. The remaining four values were slightly above the threshold. The levels of sex steroids were also significantly reduced and clinical pubertal development was arrested. Plasma leuprorelin levels, measured every 30 d, were essentially stable after d 60. Local intolerance was noted after 10 of 86 injections (12%), and was mild in four cases, moderate in five cases, and severe in one. Among these 10 events, 4 consisted in local pain at injection's site. In conclusion, leuprorelin 3-month depot efficiently inhibits the gonadotropic axis in 95% of children with central precocious puberty studied for a 6-month period. This regimen allows the reduction of the number of yearly injections from 12 to 4.

  2. A comparative study of cross sectional anatomy and computer tomography of perirenal fat depots in New Zealand White rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonkova, P.; Dimitrov, R.; Toneva, J.; Zapryanova, D.

    2010-01-01

    CT is a contemporary non-invasive imaging technique that gains an increasing importance for in vivo investigations of subcutaneous and visceral fat. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the topography and anatomy imaging features of perirenal fat depots at the level of both kidneys in clinically healthy New Zealand White rabbits that attained slaughter weight. The CT consecutive transverse scans from the last thoracic to the fifth lumbar vertebrae showed that in rabbits, perirenal fat appeared as a homogeneous hypodense structure at the background of denser shadows of lumbar and abdominal muscles, kidneys and abdominal organs. Perirenal fat depot exhibited a soft tissue density with average attenuation of −120.97±4.73 HU. On CT scans, the largest dimensions of the perirenal fat depot were 1.3±0.01 cm at the level of the right kidneys cranial pole; 1.96 cm in the plane where the right renal hilus was visualized; 1.66±0.08 cm at the level of the right kidneys caudal pole; 1.10±0.18 cm in the plane where the left renal hilus was visualized and 1.06±0.15 cm at the level of the left kidneys caudal pole. No subcutaneous fat deposits in the abdominal area were seen. Results obtained in the present study could be used as basic information for various anatomy investigations of rabbits as well as experimental designs for study of obesity in animals and humans. (author)

  3. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Wind Turbine Generators at the Newport Indiana Chemical Depot Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Joseph Owen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Newport Indiana Chemical Depot site in Newport, Indiana, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the sitefor possible wind turbine electrical generator installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different wind energy options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a wind system at the site.

  4. Desaturation of skeletal muscle structural and depot lipids in obese individuals during a very-low-calorie diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Vaag, Allan; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2007-01-01

    would decrease saturated fatty acids (FAs) and increase long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LCPUFAs) in muscular structural lipids, as such changes have been associated with improved insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Skeletal muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained from 13 obese...... during the VLCD. DISCUSSION: Desaturation of both muscle cell membrane phospholipid and IMTG was significant but modest during a VLCD in obese subjects. Further research must delineate whether such changes in skeletal muscle structural and depot lipid composition themselves are enough to promote...

  5. Desaturation of skeletal muscle structural and depot lipids in obese individuals during a very-low-calorie diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Vaag, A.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2007-01-01

    would decrease saturated fatty acids (FAs) and increase long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LCPUFAs) in muscular structural lipids, as such changes have been associated with improved insulin sensitivity. Research Methods and Procedures: Skeletal muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained from 13 obese....... Discussion: Desaturation of both muscle cell membrane phospholipid and IMTG was significant but modest during a VLCD in obese subjects. Further research must delineate whether such changes in skeletal muscle structural and depot lipid composition themselves are enough to promote the observed improvements...

  6. Contribution to the study of the electrodeposition of iron-nickel alloys; Contribution a l'etude du depot electrolytique des alliages fer-nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valignat, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-12-01

    Using a coulometric technique based upon the anodic intentiostatic dissolution, we studied the potentiostatic, deposition of nickel, iron and nickel iron alloys. We have shown that the minimum of the curve I = f (t) (deposition current versus time) is probably due to the transitory blocking of the surface by hydrogen and that the syn-crystallisation of nickel and iron is responsible for the anomalous co-deposition of these two elements. (author) [French] En employant une methode coulometrique par dissolution anodique intensipstatique, nous avons etudie le depot potentiostatique du nickel, du fer et des alliages fer-nickel. Nous avons pu montrer que le minimum de la courbe I = f (t) enregistree au cours du depot est du probablement au blocage momentane de la surface par l'hydrogene et que la syncristallisation du fer et du nickel est responsable de l'anomalie du depot simultane de ces deux elements. (auteur)

  7. Understanding catastrophizing from a misdirected problem-solving perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flink, Ida K; Boersma, Katja; MacDonald, Shane; Linton, Steven J

    2012-05-01

    The aim is to explore pain catastrophizing from a problem-solving perspective. The links between catastrophizing, problem framing, and problem-solving behaviour are examined through two possible models of mediation as inferred by two contemporary and complementary theoretical models, the misdirected problem solving model (Eccleston & Crombez, 2007) and the fear-anxiety-avoidance model (Asmundson, Norton, & Vlaeyen, 2004). In this prospective study, a general population sample (n= 173) with perceived problems with spinal pain filled out questionnaires twice; catastrophizing and problem framing were assessed on the first occasion and health care seeking (as a proxy for medically oriented problem solving) was assessed 7 months later. Two different approaches were used to explore whether the data supported any of the proposed models of mediation. First, multiple regressions were used according to traditional recommendations for mediation analyses. Second, a bootstrapping method (n= 1000 bootstrap resamples) was used to explore the significance of the indirect effects in both possible models of mediation. The results verified the concepts included in the misdirected problem solving model. However, the direction of the relations was more in line with the fear-anxiety-avoidance model. More specifically, the mediation analyses provided support for viewing catastrophizing as a mediator of the relation between biomedical problem framing and medically oriented problem-solving behaviour. These findings provide support for viewing catastrophizing from a problem-solving perspective and imply a need to examine and address problem framing and catastrophizing in back pain patients. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Customer-centered problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Q B

    1999-11-01

    If there is no single best way to attract new customers and retain current customers, there is surely an easy way to lose them: fail to solve the problems that arise in nearly every buyer-supplier relationship, or solve them in an unsatisfactory manner. Yet, all too frequently, companies do just that. Either we deny that a problem exists, we exert all our efforts to pin the blame elsewhere, or we "Band-Aid" the problem instead of fixing it, almost guaranteeing that we will face it again and again.

  9. Simon on Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organizational issues, specifically new organizational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organizational forms and to point to some design problems that characterize these forms.Keywords: Herbert...... Simon, problem-solving, new organizational forms. JEL Code: D23, D83......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are "The Architecture of Complexity" and "The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems." We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...

  10. Interactive problem solving using LOGO

    CERN Document Server

    Boecker, Heinz-Dieter; Fischer, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    This book is unique in that its stress is not on the mastery of a programming language, but on the importance and value of interactive problem solving. The authors focus on several specific interest worlds: mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and games; however, their approach can serve as a model that may be applied easily to other fields as well. Those who are interested in symbolic computing will find that Interactive Problem Solving Using LOGO provides a gentle introduction from which one may move on to other, more advanced computational frameworks or more

  11. Inference rule and problem solving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, S

    1982-04-01

    Intelligent information processing signifies an opportunity of having man's intellectual activity executed on the computer, in which inference, in place of ordinary calculation, is used as the basic operational mechanism for such an information processing. Many inference rules are derived from syllogisms in formal logic. The problem of programming this inference function is referred to as a problem solving. Although logically inference and problem-solving are in close relation, the calculation ability of current computers is on a low level for inferring. For clarifying the relation between inference and computers, nonmonotonic logic has been considered. The paper deals with the above topics. 16 references.

  12. Harmonic Function of Poincare Cone Condition In Solving Dirichlet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harmonic Function of Poincare Cone Condition In Solving Dirichlet Problem. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... theorem, the dirichlet problem and maximum principle where we conclude that the application of sums , differences and scalar multiples of harmonic functions are again harmonic.

  13. Problem solving performance and learning strategies of undergraduate students who solved microbiology problems using IMMEX educational software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebomoyi, Josephine Itota

    The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX) software. All participants not only solved "Microquest," which focuses on cellular processes and mode of action of antibiotics, but also "Creeping Crud," which focuses on the cause, origin and transmission of diseases. Participants also responded to the "Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ). Hierarchical multiple regression was used for analysis with GPA (Gracie point average) as a control. There were 49 (78.6%) that successfully solved "Microquest" while 52 (82.5%) successfully solved "Creeping Crud". Metacognitive self regulation strategy was significantly (p low achievers. Common strategies and attributes included metacognitive skills, writing to keep track, using prior knowledge. Others included elements of frustration/confusion and self-esteem problems. The implications for educational and relevance to real life situations are discussed.

  14. Human Problem Solving in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a bibliography of 263 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Academic Premier data-base. Journal papers, book chapters, and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, and research in applied settings. It…

  15. Solved problems in classical electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2018-01-01

    This original Dover publication is the companion to a new edition of the author's Classical Electromagnetism: Second Edition. The latter volume will feature only basic answers; this book will contain some problems from the reissue as well as many other new ones. All feature complete, worked-out solutions and form a valuable source of problem-solving material for students.

  16. Error Patterns in Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Beatrice C.

    Although many common problem-solving errors within the realm of school mathematics have been previously identified, a compilation of such errors is not readily available within learning disabilities textbooks, mathematics education texts, or teacher's manuals for school mathematics texts. Using data on error frequencies drawn from both the Fourth…

  17. Quantitative Reasoning in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.

  18. Students' Problem Solving and Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…

  19. Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karline Soetaert

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP written as ordinary differential equations (ODE, differential algebraic equations (DAE of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE, the latter solved using the method of lines approach. The differential equations can be represented in R code or as compiled code. In the latter case, R is used as a tool to trigger the integration and post-process the results, which facilitates model development and application, whilst the compiled code significantly increases simulation speed. The methods implemented are efficient, robust, and well documented public-domain Fortran routines. They include four integrators from the ODEPACK package (LSODE, LSODES, LSODA, LSODAR, DVODE and DASPK2.0. In addition, a suite of Runge-Kutta integrators and special-purpose solvers to efficiently integrate 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional partial differential equations are available. The routines solve both stiff and non-stiff systems, and include many options, e.g., to deal in an efficient way with the sparsity of the Jacobian matrix, or finding the root of equations. In this article, our objectives are threefold: (1 to demonstrate the potential of using R for dynamic modeling, (2 to highlight typical uses of the different methods implemented and (3 to compare the performance of models specified in R code and in compiled code for a number of test cases. These comparisons demonstrate that, if the use of loops is avoided, R code can efficiently integrate problems comprising several thousands of state variables. Nevertheless, the same problem may be solved from 2 to more than 50 times faster by using compiled code compared to an implementation using only R code. Still, amongst the benefits of R are a more flexible and interactive implementation, better readability of the code, and access to R’s high-level procedures. deSolve is the successor of package odesolve which will be deprecated in

  20. Problem solving skills for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J; Li, Chunbo

    2007-04-18

    The severe and long-lasting symptoms of schizophrenia are often the cause of severe disability. Environmental stress such as life events and the practical problems people face in their daily can worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia. Deficits in problem solving skills in people with schizophrenia affect their independent and interpersonal functioning and impair their quality of life. As a result, therapies such as problem solving therapy have been developed to improve problem solving skills for people with schizophrenia. To review the effectiveness of problem solving therapy compared with other comparable therapies or routine care for those with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (September 2006), which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials. We included all clinical randomised trials comparing problem solving therapy with other comparable therapies or routine care. We extracted data independently. For homogenous dichotomous data we calculated random effects, relative risk (RR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and, where appropriate, numbers needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) using a random effects statistical model. We included only three small trials (n=52) that evaluated problem solving versus routine care, coping skills training or non-specific interaction. Inadequate reporting of data rendered many outcomes unusable. We were unable to undertake meta-analysis. Overall results were limited and inconclusive with no significant differences between treatment groups for hospital admission, mental state, behaviour, social skills or leaving the study early. No data were presented for global state, quality of life or satisfaction. We found insufficient evidence to confirm or refute the benefits of problem solving therapy as an additional

  1. Variable precision rough set for multiple decision attribute analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai; Kin; Keung

    2008-01-01

    A variable precision rough set (VPRS) model is used to solve the multi-attribute decision analysis (MADA) problem with multiple conflicting decision attributes and multiple condition attributes. By introducing confidence measures and a β-reduct, the VPRS model can rationally solve the conflicting decision analysis problem with multiple decision attributes and multiple condition attributes. For illustration, a medical diagnosis example is utilized to show the feasibility of the VPRS model in solving the MADA...

  2. Genetics problem solving and worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Esther

    The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  3. Vanadate impedes adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells derived from different depots within bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Alexander Jacobs

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis (GIO is associated with an increase in bone marrow adiposity which skews the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC progenitors away from osteoblastogenesis and towards adipogenesis. We have previously found that vanadate, a non-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, prevents GIO in rats, but it was unclear whether vanadate directly influenced adipogenesis in bone-derived MSCs. For the present study, we investigated the effect of vanadate on adipogenesis in primary rat MSCs derived from bone marrow (bmMSCs and from the proximal end of the femur (pfMSCs. By passage 3 after isolation, both cell populations expressed the MSC cell surface markers CD90 and CD106, but not the haematopoietic marker CD45. However, although variable, expression of the fibroblast marker CD26 was higher in pfMSCs than in bmMSCs. Differentiation studies using osteogenic and adipogenic induction media (OM and AM, respectively demonstrated that pfMSCs rapidly accumulated lipid droplets within 1 week of exposure to AM, while bmMSCs isolated from the same femur only formed lipid droplets after 3 weeks of AM treatment. Conversely, pfMSCs exposed to OM produced mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM after 3 weeks, compared to 1 week for OM-treated bmMSCs. Vanadate (10 µM added to AM resulted in a significant reduction in AM-induced intracellular lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic gene markers (PPARγ2, aP2, adipsin in both pfMSCs and bmMSCs. Pharmacological concentrations of glucocorticoids (1 µM alone did not induce lipid accumulation in either bmMSCs or pfMSCs, but resulted in significant cell death in pfMSCs. Our findings demonstrate the existence of at least two fundamentally different MSC depots within the femur, and highlights the presence of MSCs capable of rapid adipogenesis within the proximal femur, an area prone to osteoporotic fractures. In addition, our results suggest that the increased bone marrow

  4. Study on the thermal ignition of gasoline-air mixture in underground oil depots based on experiment and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yihong; Du, Yang; Jiang, Xingsheng; Wang, Dong; Liang, Jianjun

    2010-04-01

    The study on the special phenomenon, occurrence process and control mechanism of gasoline-air mixture thermal ignition in underground oil depots is of important academic and applied value for enriching scientific theories of explosion safety, developing protective technology against fire and decreasing the number of fire accidents. In this paper, the research on thermal ignition process of gasoline-air mixture in model underground oil depots tunnel has been carried out by using experiment and numerical simulation methods. The calculation result has been demonstrated by the experiment data. The five stages of thermal ignition course, which are slow oxidation stage, rapid oxidation stage, fire stage, flameout stage and quench stage, have been firstly defined and accurately descried. According to the magnitude order of concentration, the species have been divided into six categories, which lay the foundation for explosion-proof design based on the role of different species. The influence of space scale on thermal ignition in small-scale space has been found, and the mechanism for not easy to fire is that the wall reflection causes the reflux of fluids and changes the distribution of heat and mass, so that the progress of chemical reactions in the whole space are also changed. The novel mathematical model on the basis of unification chemical kinetics and thermodynamics established in this paper provides supplementary means for the analysis of process and mechanism of thermal ignition.

  5. Applying Particle Swarm Optimization for Solving Team Orienteering Problem with Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Jin Ai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Team Orienteering Problem With Time Windows (TOPTW is a transportation problem case that have a set of vertices with a score, service time, and the time windows, start and final at a depot location. A number of paths are constructed to maximize the total collected score by the vertices which is visited. Each vertice can be visited only once and the visit can only start during the  time window of vertices. This paper proposes a Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm for solving the TOPTW, by defining a specific particle for representing the solution of TOPTW within the PSO algorithm and two alternatives, called PSO_TOPTW1 and PSO_TOPTW2, for translating the particle position to form the routes of the path. The performance of the proposed PSO algorithm is evaluated through some benchmark data problem available in the literature. The computational results show that the proposed PSO is able to produce sufficiently good TOPTW solutions that are comparable with corresponding solutions from other existing methods for solving the TOPTW.

  6. Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Ganor-Stern

    Full Text Available Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults' ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner.

  7. SHA-1, SAT-solving, and CNF

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motara, YM

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available the intersection between the SHA-1 preimage problem, the encoding of that problem for SAT-solving, and SAT-solving. The results demonstrate that SAT-solving is not yet a viable approach to take to solve the preimage problem, and also indicate that some...

  8. Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…

  9. Methods of solving nonstandard problems

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorieva, Ellina

    2015-01-01

    This book, written by an accomplished female mathematician, is the second to explore nonstandard mathematical problems – those that are not directly solved by standard mathematical methods but instead rely on insight and the synthesis of a variety of mathematical ideas.   It promotes mental activity as well as greater mathematical skills, and is an ideal resource for successful preparation for the mathematics Olympiad. Numerous strategies and techniques are presented that can be used to solve intriguing and challenging problems of the type often found in competitions.  The author uses a friendly, non-intimidating approach to emphasize connections between different fields of mathematics and often proposes several different ways to attack the same problem.  Topics covered include functions and their properties, polynomials, trigonometric and transcendental equations and inequalities, optimization, differential equations, nonlinear systems, and word problems.   Over 360 problems are included with hints, ...

  10. Confluent-Functional solving systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Koval

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a statistical knowledge-acquision approach. The solving systems are considered, which are able to find unknown structural dependences between situational and transforming variables on the basis of statistically analyzed input information. Situational variables describe features, states and relations between environment objects. Transforming variables describe transforming influences, exerted by a goal-oriented system onto an environment. Unknown environment rules are simulated by a structural equations system, associating situational and transforming variables.

  11. Approximate analytical methods for solving ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Radhika, TSL; Rani, T Raja

    2015-01-01

    Approximate Analytical Methods for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) is the first book to present all of the available approximate methods for solving ODEs, eliminating the need to wade through multiple books and articles. It covers both well-established techniques and recently developed procedures, including the classical series solution method, diverse perturbation methods, pioneering asymptotic methods, and the latest homotopy methods.The book is suitable not only for mathematicians and engineers but also for biologists, physicists, and economists. It gives a complete descripti

  12. Exact Methods for Solving the Train Departure Matching Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Bull, Simon Henry

    In this paper we consider the train departure matching problem which is an important subproblem of the Rolling Stock Unit Management on Railway Sites problem introduced in the ROADEF/EURO Challenge 2014. The subproblem entails matching arriving train units to scheduled departing trains at a railway...... site while respecting multiple physical and operational constraints. In this paper we formally define that subproblem, prove its NP- hardness, and present two exact method approaches for solving the problem. First, we present a compact Mixed Integer Program formulation which we solve using a MIP solver...

  13. The fatty acid profile of fat depots from Santa Inês sheep fed spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Roberto G; Almeida, Michelly DA; Cruz, George Rodrigo B; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo M; Ribeiro, Neila L; Madruga, Marta S; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Re

    2017-10-01

    Fat is the tissue that varies most in animals from both a quantitative and distribution perspective. It plays a fundamental biological role as energy storage during food scarcity. Renal, pelvic and internal fat are deposited first. These fats are used to identify fatty acid profiles that may be considered beneficial or unhealthy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the fatty acid profile of fat depots in Santa Inês sheep finished in confinement with spineless cactus in their diets. The treatments included increasing levels of spineless cactus (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill.): T1 = 0%, T2 = 30%, T3 = 50%, and T4 = 70%. The diets significantly affected the adipose depots. The orthogonal contrast between the diet with no cactus (control) and the other diets indicates that the quantity of saturated fatty acids decreased and that the levels of mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids increased in animals fed spineless cactus. The use of spineless cactus in the diets of Santa Inês sheep affects the lipid profile of their fat depots, reducing the quantity of saturated fatty acids and increasing the quantity of mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid profile of the fat depots indicates that these fats can be used to formulate meat products and add economic and nutritional value to such products, which increases sheep farmers' incomes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Ethical acceptability of offering financial incentives for taking antipsychotic depot medication: Patients' and clinicians' perspectives after a 12-month randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Noordraven (Ernst); M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje); P. Blanken (Peter); C.L. Mulder (Niels); A.I. Wierdsma (André)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: A randomized controlled trial 'Money for Medication'(M4M) was conducted in which patients were offered financial incentives for taking antipsychotic depot medication. This study assessed the attitudes and ethical considerations of patients and clinicians who participated in

  15. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity affects the density of mast cells in abdominal fat depots and lymph nodes in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altintas Mehmet M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we explored the effects of leptin deficiency-induced obesity on the density of mast cells in metabolic (abdominal fat depots, skeletal muscle, and liver and lymphatic (abdominal lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus organs. Fourteen-week-old male leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their controls fed a standard chow were studied. Tissue sections were stained with toluidine blue to determine the density of mast cells. CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis was also carried out. Furthermore, mast cells containing immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance, were identified by immunostaining. Results ob/ob mice demonstrated adiposity and insulin resistance. In abdominal fat depots, mast cells were distributed differentially. While most prevalent in subcutaneous fat in controls, mast cells were most abundant in epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in the density of mast cells in epididymal fat, but a 13-fold decrease in subcutaneous fat. This finding was confirmed by CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis. Furthermore, we found that a subset of mast cells in epididymal and subcutaneous fat were immunoreactive for TNF-α. The proportion of mast cells immunoreactive for TNF-α was higher in epididymal than in subcutaneous fat in both ob/ob and control mice. Mast cells were also distributed differentially in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes. In both ob/ob mice and lean controls, mast cells were more prevalent in retroperitoneal than in mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by increased mast cell density in all lymph node stations examined. No significant difference in the density of mast cells in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, and thymus was

  16. Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and prevalent leiomyoma in young African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Q E; Baird, D D

    2015-06-01

    Is use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) a risk factor for or a protective factor against prevalent uterine leiomyoma? Ever use of DMPA was associated with a decreased risk (adjusted risk ratio (RR): 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6, 0.9) of prevalent leiomyoma in young African American women. Although progesterone is associated with growth of leiomyoma, previous epidemiological studies have shown a protective association for DMPA use. These previous studies may have been biased by studying clinically diagnosed leiomyoma (DMPA may mask symptoms thus delaying diagnoses). Cross sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study of 1696 African American women. Community-based recruitment (e.g. letters, flyers, radio and TV announcements) were used to enroll African American women between 23 and 34 years old without a previous diagnosis of leiomyoma in the Metropolitan Detroit area. Extensive questionnaire data were used to determine DMPA use and screening ultrasound detected the presence of leiomyoma ≥0.5 cm in diameter. Relative risks with adjustment for covariates were calculated for the presence of leiomyoma based on ever use of DMPA as well as duration and recency of use. Among the 1696 volunteers who enrolled, 43% had used DMPA. Leiomyoma were detected in 17% of those who had ever used DMPA compared with 26% of those who had never used DMPA. The reduction in prevalence remained after adjustment for potential confounders and was highest among women who had used DMPA for more than 4 years (adjusted RR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8). The reduction in risk was seen for women whose most recent use was up to 8 years prior to study enrollment. The use of cross-sectional data means that the timing of initial fibroid development is not known, so the temporality of the association is uncertain. However in this sample of young women, most fibroids were small, suggesting that DMPA exposure may have occurred before leiomyoma development. Our findings are in

  17. An integrative transcriptomic approach to identify depot differences in genes and microRNAs in adipose tissues from high fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayatunga, Nadeeja N; Pahlavani, Mandana; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Coarfa, Cristian; Ramalingam, Latha; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2018-02-06

    Obesity contributes to metabolic disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Characterization of differences between the main adipose tissue depots, white (WAT) [including subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and brown adipose tissue (BAT) helps to identify their roles in obesity. Thus, we studied depot-specific differences in whole transcriptome and miRNA profiles of SAT, VAT and BAT from high fat diet (HFD/45% of calories from fat) fed mice using RNA sequencing and small RNA-Seq. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we validated depot-specific differences in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related genes and miRNAs using mice fed a HFD vs. low fat diet (LFD/10% of calories from fat). According to the transcriptomic analysis, lipogenesis, adipogenesis, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) were higher in VAT compared to BAT, whereas energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation were higher in BAT than in VAT of the HFD fed mice. In contrast to BAT, ER stress marker genes were significantly upregulated in VAT of HFD fed mice than the LFD fed mice. For the first time, we report depot specific differences in ER stress related miRNAs including; downregulation of miR-125b-5p, upregulation miR-143-3p, and miR-222-3p in VAT following HFD and upregulation of miR-30c-2-3p only in BAT following a HFD in mice than the LFD mice. In conclusion, HFD differentially regulates miRNAs and genes in different adipose depots with significant induction of genes related to lipogenesis, adipogenesis, inflammation, ER stress, and UPR in WAT compared to BAT.

  18. A Framework for Distributed Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Joseph; Shin, Don G.

    1989-03-01

    This work explores a distributed problem solving (DPS) approach, namely the AM/AG model, to cooperative memory recall. The AM/AG model is a hierarchic social system metaphor for DPS based on the Mintzberg's model of organizations. At the core of the model are information flow mechanisms, named amplification and aggregation. Amplification is a process of expounding a given task, called an agenda, into a set of subtasks with magnified degree of specificity and distributing them to multiple processing units downward in the hierarchy. Aggregation is a process of combining the results reported from multiple processing units into a unified view, called a resolution, and promoting the conclusion upward in the hierarchy. The combination of amplification and aggregation can account for a memory recall process which primarily relies on the ability of making associations between vast amounts of related concepts, sorting out the combined results, and promoting the most plausible ones. The amplification process is discussed in detail. An implementation of the amplification process is presented. The process is illustrated by an example.

  19. Using Video Prompting to Teach Mathematical Problem Solving of Real-World Video-Simulation Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Alicia F.; Spooner, Fred; Ley Davis, Luann

    2018-01-01

    Mathematical problem solving is necessary in many facets of everyday life, yet little research exists on how to teach students with more severe disabilities higher order mathematics like problem solving. Using a multiple probe across participants design, three middle school students with moderate intellectual disability (ID) were taught to solve…

  20. Model Drawing Strategy for Fraction Word Problem Solving of Fourth-Grade Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Emily; Shih Dennis, Minyi

    2017-01-01

    This study used a multiple probe across participants design to examine the effects of a model drawing strategy (MDS) intervention package on fraction comparing and ordering word problem-solving performance of three Grade 4 students. MDS is a form of cognitive strategy instruction for teaching word problem solving that includes explicit instruction…

  1. Addressing Complex Challenges through Adaptive Leadership: A Promising Approach to Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Tenneisha; Squires, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    Organizations are faced with solving increasingly complex problems. Addressing these issues requires effective leadership that can facilitate a collaborative problem solving approach where multiple perspectives are leveraged. In this conceptual paper, we critique the effectiveness of earlier leadership models in tackling complex organizational…

  2. Problem solving through recreational mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Averbach, Bonnie

    1999-01-01

    Historically, many of the most important mathematical concepts arose from problems that were recreational in origin. This book takes advantage of that fact, using recreational mathematics - problems, puzzles and games - to teach students how to think critically. Encouraging active participation rather than just observation, the book focuses less on mathematical results than on how these results can be applied to thinking about problems and solving them. Each chapter contains a diverse array of problems in such areas as logic, number and graph theory, two-player games of strategy, solitaire ga

  3. Problem solving and inference mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, K; Nakajima, R; Yonezawa, A; Goto, S; Aoyama, A

    1982-01-01

    The heart of the fifth generation computer will be powerful mechanisms for problem solving and inference. A deduction-oriented language is to be designed, which will form the core of the whole computing system. The language is based on predicate logic with the extended features of structuring facilities, meta structures and relational data base interfaces. Parallel computation mechanisms and specialized hardware architectures are being investigated to make possible efficient realization of the language features. The project includes research into an intelligent programming system, a knowledge representation language and system, and a meta inference system to be built on the core. 30 references.

  4. Solving dynamic multi-objective problems with vector evaluated particle swarm optimisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Many optimisation problems are multi-objective and change dynamically. Many methods use a weighted average approach to the multiple objectives. This paper introduces the usage of the vector evaluated particle swarm optimiser (VEPSO) to solve dynamic...

  5. Interactive video tutorials for enhancing problem solving, reasoning, and meta-cognitive skills of introductory physics students

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the development of interactive video tutorial-based problems to help introductory physics students learn effective problem solving heuristics. The video tutorials present problem solving strategies using concrete examples in an interactive environment. They force students to follow a systematic approach to problem solving and students are required to solve sub-problems (research-guided multiple choice questions) to show their level of understanding at every stage of prob lem solvin...

  6. EFFICIENCY OF REPEATED AND UNSCHEDULED TRAINING AS THE MEASURES TO PREVENT ACCIDENTS AT SUPPLY DEPOTS AND WAREHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocharova Irina Nikolaevna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analysis of the state of occupational safety at supply depots and warehouses. It is revealed that most accidents involve the employees who have less than one year’s service. Experience has proven that the preventive activities to avoid occupational traumatism are efficient when a complex of workplace safety measures is implemented. The experts consider the repeated and unscheduled training to be very important events. This is supported by the fact that among the employees of the commercial establishments who underwent repeated and unscheduled training, the number of individuals who suffered an accident is small. The efficient functioning of the occupational safety training system is infeasible without ensuring the motivation for assimilating the knowledge and forming the complete foundation for safe labor. In order to reduce the number of accidents, one should proceed from the principle of responding to accidents to the system for professional risk management.

  7. Depot-specific differences in angiogenic capacity of adipose tissue in differential susceptibility to diet-induced obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun-Gyu Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adipose tissue (AT expansion requires AT remodeling, which depends on AT angiogenesis. Modulation of AT angiogenesis could have therapeutic promise for the treatment of obesity. However, it is unclear how the capacity of angiogenesis in each adipose depot is affected by over-nutrition. Therefore, we investigated the angiogenic capacity (AC of subcutaneous and visceral fats in lean and obese mice. Methods: We compared the AC of epididymal fat (EF and inguinal fat (IF using an angiogenesis assay in diet-induced obese (DIO mice and diet-resistant (DR mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Furthermore, we compared the expression levels of genes related to angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment, and inflammation using RT-qPCR in the EF and IF of lean mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD, DIO mice, and DR mice fed a HFD. Results: DIO mice showed a significant increase in the AC of EF only at 22 weeks of age compared to DR mice. The expression levels of genes related to angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment, and inflammation were significantly higher in the EF of DIO mice than in those of LFD mice and DR mice, while expression levels of genes related to macrophages and their recruitment were higher in the IF of DIO mice than in those of LFD and DR mice. Expression of genes related to angiogenesis (including Hif1a, Vegfa, Fgf1, Kdr, and Pecam1, macrophage recruitment, and inflammation (including Emr1, Ccr2, Itgax, Ccl2, Tnf, and Il1b correlated more strongly with body weight in the EF of HFD-fed obese mice compared to that of IF. Conclusions: These results suggest depot-specific differences in AT angiogenesis and a potential role in the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. Keywords: Angiogenesis, Inflammation, Adipose tissue, Diet-induced obese mice, Diet-resistant mice, High-fat diet

  8. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon. Final Phase 1 environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  9. Regional Differences of Proteins Expressing in Adipose Depots Isolated from Cows, Steers and Bulls as Identified by a Proteomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyoung Cho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue in the loin muscle area of beef cattle as a marbling factor is directly associated with beef quality. To elucidate whether properties of proteins involved in depot specific adipose tissue were sex-dependent, we analyzed protein expression of intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT and omental adipose tissue (OMAT from Hanwoo cows, steers, and bulls of Korean native beef cattle by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS–based proteomic analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR and western blot analysis. Two different adipose depots (i.e. intramuscular and omental were collected from cows (n = 7, steers (n = 7, or bulls (n = 7. LC-MS/MS revealed a total of 55 and 35 proteins in IMAT and OMAT, respectively. Of the 55 proteins identified, 44, 40, and 42 proteins were confirmed to be differentially expressed in IMAT of cows, steers, and bulls, respectively. In OMAT of cows, steers, and bulls, 33, 33, and 22 were confirmed to be differentially expressed, respectively. Tropomyosin (TPM 1, TPM 2, and TPM3 were subjected to verification by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis in IMAT and OMAT of Hanwoo cows, steers, and bulls as key factors closely associated with muscle development. Both mRNA levels and protein levels of TPM1, TPM2, and TPM3 in IMAT were lower in bulls compared to in cows or steers suggesting that they were positively correlated with marbling score and quality grade. Our results may aid the regulation of marbling development and improvement of meat quality grades in beef cattle.

  10. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program: Review and comment on the Phase 1 environmental report for the Pueblo Depot Activity, Pueblo, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshansky, S.J.; Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1994-03-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at the Pueblo Depot Activity (PUDA) in Pueblo, Colorado. The Phase I report addresses new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). These concerns are addressed by examining site-specific data for the PUDA. On the basis of our review of the Phase I report, we concluded that on-site meteorological data from December 1988 to June 1992 appear to be of insufficient quality to have been used instead of the off-site Pueblo airport data. No additional meteorological data have been collected since June 1992. The Phase I report briefly mentions problems with the air pollution control system. These problems will likely require the systems to be upgraded at the Johnston Atoll site and at each of the other depots in the continental United States. Without such improvements, the probability of accidents during start-up and shutdown would likely increase. The Army has a lessons-learned program to incorporate improvements into the design of future facilities. The Phase I report does not make any design change commitments. These issues need to be fully evaluated and resolved before any final conclusion concerning the adequacy of the decision in the FPEIS can be made with respect to the PUDA. With the exception of this issue, the inclusion of other more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at the PUDA). We recommend that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process

  11. High-multiplicity processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelkov, G.; Sisakyan, A.; Mandzhavidze, I.

    1999-01-01

    We wish to demonstrate that investigation of asymptotically high multiplicity (AHM) hadron reactions may solve, or at least clear up, a number of problems unsolvable by other ways. We would lean upon the idea: (i) the reactions final state entropy is proportional to multiplicity and, by this reason, just in the AHM domain one may expect the equilibrium final state and (ii) the AHM final state is cold because of the energy-momentum conservation laws. This means that the collective phenomena may become important in the AHM domain. The possibility of hard processes dominance is considered also

  12. Solving rational expectations models using Excel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strulik, Holger

    2004-01-01

    Problems of discrete time optimal control can be solved using backward iteration and Microsoft Excel. The author explains the method in general and shows how the basic models of neoclassical growth and real business cycles are solved......Problems of discrete time optimal control can be solved using backward iteration and Microsoft Excel. The author explains the method in general and shows how the basic models of neoclassical growth and real business cycles are solved...

  13. Problem-Solving After Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescence: Associations With Functional Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L; Cassedy, Amy E; Fulks, Lauren E; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Kirkwood, Michael W; Yeates, Keith O; Kurowski, Brad G

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association of problem-solving with functioning in youth with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cross-sectional evaluation of pretreatment data from a randomized controlled trial. Four children's hospitals and 1 general hospital, with level 1 trauma units. Youth, ages 11 to 18 years, who sustained moderate or severe TBI in the last 18 months (N=153). Problem-solving skills were assessed using the Social Problem-Solving Inventory (SPSI) and the Dodge Social Information Processing Short Stories. Everyday functioning was assessed based on a structured clinical interview using the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) and via adolescent ratings on the Youth Self Report (YSR). Correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine associations among measures. The TBI group endorsed lower levels of maladaptive problem-solving (negative problem orientation, careless/impulsive responding, and avoidant style) and lower levels of rational problem-solving, resulting in higher total problem-solving scores for the TBI group compared with a normative sample (Pproblem-solving composites were associated with overall functioning on the CAFAS, only maladaptive problem-solving (PProblem-solving after TBI differs from normative samples and is associated with functional impairments. The relation of problem-solving deficits after TBI with global functioning merits further investigation, with consideration of the potential effects of problem-solving interventions on functional outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris

    2011-01-01

    With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…

  15. Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…

  16. A heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing model for solving the LPG distribution problem: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onut, S; Kamber, M R; Altay, G

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an important management problem in the field of distribution and logistics. In VRPs, routes from a distribution point to geographically distributed points are designed with minimum cost and considering customer demands. All points should be visited only once and by one vehicle in one route. Total demand in one route should not exceed the capacity of the vehicle that assigned to that route. VRPs are varied due to real life constraints related to vehicle types, number of depots, transportation conditions and time periods, etc. Heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem is a kind of VRP that vehicles have different capacity and costs. There are two types of vehicles in our problem. In this study, it is used the real world data and obtained from a company that operates in LPG sector in Turkey. An optimization model is established for planning daily routes and assigned vehicles. The model is solved by GAMS and optimal solution is found in a reasonable time

  17. A heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing model for solving the LPG distribution problem: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onut, S.; Kamber, M. R.; Altay, G.

    2014-03-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an important management problem in the field of distribution and logistics. In VRPs, routes from a distribution point to geographically distributed points are designed with minimum cost and considering customer demands. All points should be visited only once and by one vehicle in one route. Total demand in one route should not exceed the capacity of the vehicle that assigned to that route. VRPs are varied due to real life constraints related to vehicle types, number of depots, transportation conditions and time periods, etc. Heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem is a kind of VRP that vehicles have different capacity and costs. There are two types of vehicles in our problem. In this study, it is used the real world data and obtained from a company that operates in LPG sector in Turkey. An optimization model is established for planning daily routes and assigned vehicles. The model is solved by GAMS and optimal solution is found in a reasonable time.

  18. A Hybrid Dynamic Programming for Solving Fixed Cost Transportation with Discounted Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ghassemi Tari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of allocating different types of vehicles for transporting a set of products from a manufacturer to its depots/cross docks, in an existing transportation network, to minimize the total transportation costs, is considered. The distribution network involves a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles, with a variable transportation cost and a fixed cost in which a discount mechanism is applied on the fixed part of the transportation costs. It is assumed that the number of available vehicles is limited for some types. A mathematical programming model in the form of the discrete nonlinear optimization model is proposed. A hybrid dynamic programming algorithm is developed for finding the optimal solution. To increase the computational efficiency of the solution algorithm, several concepts and routines, such as the imbedded state routine, surrogate constraint concept, and bounding schemes, are incorporated in the dynamic programming algorithm. A real world case problem is selected and solved by the proposed solution algorithm, and the optimal solution is obtained.

  19. Decision-Making and Problem-Solving Approaches in Pharmacy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lindsay C; Donohoe, Krista L; Holdford, David A

    2016-04-25

    Domain 3 of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) 2013 Educational Outcomes recommends that pharmacy school curricula prepare students to be better problem solvers, but are silent on the type of problems they should be prepared to solve. We identified five basic approaches to problem solving in the curriculum at a pharmacy school: clinical, ethical, managerial, economic, and legal. These approaches were compared to determine a generic process that could be applied to all pharmacy decisions. Although there were similarities in the approaches, generic problem solving processes may not work for all problems. Successful problem solving requires identification of the problems faced and application of the right approach to the situation. We also advocate that the CAPE Outcomes make explicit the importance of different approaches to problem solving. Future pharmacists will need multiple approaches to problem solving to adapt to the complexity of health care.

  20. Analytical derivation: An epistemic game for solving mathematically based physics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Thompson, John R.

    2016-06-01

    Problem solving, which often involves multiple steps, is an integral part of physics learning and teaching. Using the perspective of the epistemic game, we documented a specific game that is commonly pursued by students while solving mathematically based physics problems: the analytical derivation game. This game involves deriving an equation through symbolic manipulations and routine mathematical operations, usually without any physical interpretation of the processes. This game often creates cognitive obstacles in students, preventing them from using alternative resources or better approaches during problem solving. We conducted hour-long, semi-structured, individual interviews with fourteen introductory physics students. Students were asked to solve four "pseudophysics" problems containing algebraic and graphical representations. The problems required the application of the fundamental theorem of calculus (FTC), which is one of the most frequently used mathematical concepts in physics problem solving. We show that the analytical derivation game is necessary, but not sufficient, to solve mathematically based physics problems, specifically those involving graphical representations.

  1. Multiplication: From Thales to Lie1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Addition. To describe the geometric constructions of addition, as ..... general, we could apply the implicit function theorem of calculus to solve locally the defining ... and whose multiplication and inverse are analytic maps, is called a Lie group.

  2. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model and local biomass processing depots for sustainable biofuel production: Integrated life cycle assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eranki, Pragnya L.; Manowitz, David H.; Bals, Bryan D.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2013-07-23

    An array of feedstock is being evaluated as potential raw material for cellulosic biofuel production. Thorough assessments are required in regional landscape settings before these feedstocks can be cultivated and sustainable management practices can be implemented. On the processing side, a potential solution to the logistical challenges of large biorefi neries is provided by a network of distributed processing facilities called local biomass processing depots. A large-scale cellulosic ethanol industry is likely to emerge soon in the United States. We have the opportunity to influence the sustainability of this emerging industry. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model estimates land allocations for different cellulosic feedstocks at biorefinery scale without displacing current animal nutrition requirements. This model also incorporates a network of the aforementioned depots. An integrated life cycle assessment is then conducted over the unified system of optimized feedstock production, processing, and associated transport operations to evaluate net energy yields (NEYs) and environmental impacts.

  3. Community-powered problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections.

  4. Multiple Perspectives / Multiple Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Biggs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available People experience things from their own physical point of view. What they see is usually a function of where they are and what physical attitude they adopt relative to the subject. With augmented vision (periscopes, mirrors, remote cameras, etc we are able to see things from places where we are not present. With time-shifting technologies, such as the video recorder, we can also see things from the past; a time and a place we may never have visited.In recent artistic work I have been exploring the implications of digital technology, interactivity and internet connectivity that allow people to not so much space/time-shift their visual experience of things but rather see what happens when everybody is simultaneously able to see what everybody else can see. This is extrapolated through the remote networking of sites that are actual installation spaces; where the physical movements of viewers in the space generate multiple perspectives, linked to other similar sites at remote locations or to other viewers entering the shared data-space through a web based version of the work.This text explores the processes involved in such a practice and reflects on related questions regarding the non-singularity of being and the sense of self as linked to time and place.

  5. Monitoring and documentation of side effects from depot antipsychotic medication: an interdisciplinary audit of practice in a regional mental health service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this audit was to review current practice within a rural mental health service area on the monitoring and documentation of side effects of antipsychotic depot medication. Following a review of the literature on best practice internationally, an evidence based audit tool was adapted. A sample of 60 case files, care plans and prescriptions were audited between January and May 2010. This represented 31% of the total number of service users receiving depot injections in the mental health service region (n=181). The audit results revealed that most service users had an annual documented medical review and a documented prescription. However, only 5 (8%) case notes examined had documentation recorded describing the condition of the injection site and alternation of the injection site was recorded in only 28 (47%) case notes. No case notes examined had written consent to commence treatment recorded, and only 3 (5%) of case notes had documented that information on the depot injection and side effects was given. In 57 (95%) of case notes no documentation of recorded information on the depot and on side effects was given. Documentation of physical observations and tests revealed that 58% of cases had full blood count, liver function tests, thyroid function tests and fasting lipids recorded. All other tests (i.e. temperature, pulse, respirations, blood pressure, ECG) were recorded in less than 50% of cases. Prolactin levels were not recorded in any case. The lack of written consent was partly attributed to lack of recording of consent. The failure to monitor and record some\\r\

  6. Documentation and Analysis of the ’Miscellaneous’ Account Category within the DoD Instruction 7220.29-H Depot Level Maintenance Cost Accounting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    34MISCELLANEOUS" ACCOUNT CATEGORY WITHIN THE DOD INSTRUCTION 7220.29-H DEPOT LEVEL MAINTENANCE COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM by a. Steven Eugene Lehr CDecember 1984...PERFORMING ONG. REPORT NUMBER Maintenance Cost Accounting System 7. AUTHOR(&) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(@) Steven Eugene Lehr 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Availability Codes IS. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse *ids It necessary and Identify by block number) Dvi Special Uniform Cost Accounting System DoD

  7. Personality-dependent differences in problem-solving performance in a social context reflect foraging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandberg, Lies; Quinn, John L; Naguib, Marc; van Oers, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Individuals develop innovative behaviours to solve foraging challenges in the face of changing environmental conditions. Little is known about how individuals differ in their tendency to solve problems and in their subsequent use of this solving behaviour in social contexts. Here we investigated whether individual variation in problem-solving performance could be explained by differences in the likelihood of solving the task, or if they reflect differences in foraging strategy. We tested this by studying the use of a novel foraging skill in groups of great tits (Parus major), consisting of three naive individuals with different personality, and one knowledgeable tutor. We presented them with multiple, identical foraging devices over eight trials. Though birds of different personality type did not differ in solving latency; fast and slow explorers showed a steeper increase over time in their solving rate, compared to intermediate explorers. Despite equal solving potential, personality influenced the subsequent use of the skill, as well as the pay-off received from solving. Thus, variation in the tendency to solve the task reflected differences in foraging strategy among individuals linked to their personality. These results emphasize the importance of considering the social context to fully understand the implications of learning novel skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Students’ difficulties in probabilistic problem-solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arum, D. P.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.

    2018-03-01

    There are many errors can be identified when students solving mathematics problems, particularly in solving the probabilistic problem. This present study aims to investigate students’ difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It focuses on analyzing and describing students errors during solving the problem. This research used the qualitative method with case study strategy. The subjects in this research involve ten students of 9th grade that were selected by purposive sampling. Data in this research involve students’ probabilistic problem-solving result and recorded interview regarding students’ difficulties in solving the problem. Those data were analyzed descriptively using Miles and Huberman steps. The results show that students have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem and can be divided into three categories. First difficulties relate to students’ difficulties in understanding the probabilistic problem. Second, students’ difficulties in choosing and using appropriate strategies for solving the problem. Third, students’ difficulties with the computational process in solving the problem. Based on the result seems that students still have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It means that students have not able to use their knowledge and ability for responding probabilistic problem yet. Therefore, it is important for mathematics teachers to plan probabilistic learning which could optimize students probabilistic thinking ability.

  9. IDEAL Problem Solving dalam Pembelajaran Matematika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Susiana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most educators agree that problem solving is among the most meaningful and importantkinds of learning and thingking. That is, the central focus of learning and instructionshould be learning to solve problems. There are several warrants supporting that claims.They are authenticity, relevance, problem solving engages deeper learning angtherefore enhances meaning making, and constructed to represent problems (problemsolving is more meaningful. It is the reason why we must provide teaching and learningto make student’s problem solving skill in progress. There are many informationprocessingmodels of problem solving, such as simplified model of the problem-solvingprocess by Gicks, Polya’s problem solving process etc. One of them is IDEAL problemsolving. Each letter of IDEAL is stand for an aspect of thinking that is important forproblem solving. IDEAL is identify problem, Define Goal, Explore possible strategies,Anticipate outcme and Act, and Look back and learn. Using peer interaction andquestion prompt in small group in IDEAL problem solving teaching and Learning canimprove problem solving skill.Kata kunci: IDEAL Problem Solving, Interaksi Sebaya, Pertanyaan Penuntun, KelompokKecil.

  10. The effect of dietary copper supplementation on fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of adipose depots in Boer x Spanish goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, K A; Solaiman, S G; Bergen, W G

    2008-02-01

    A feeding trial was designed to examine the effects of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO(4).5H(2)O) on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability in muscle and adipose tissues of Boer x Spanish goat kids. Fifteen (n = 5 per treatment) goats were fed 0, 100, or 200 mg of supplemental Cu per day as copper sulfate for 98 d. The animals were slaughtered, and LM, s.c. adipose from the sternal region, and mesenteric adipose tissues were collected. Total lipids were extracted with chloroform:methanol (2:1), methylated and isolated via GLC from all tissues. The subsequent peaks were then positively identified by mass spectrometry. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were measured also. In s.c. adipose, dietary Cu significantly decreased C14:0 (P = 0.03) and C16:0 (P = 0.01). In muscle, C15:0 (P = 0.03) was linearly increased by Cu. Dietary Cu supplementation did not influence oxidative stability in goat muscle or s.c. adipose. Copper supplementation at 200 mg/d resulted in a significant increase in malondialdehyde in mesenteric adipose (P = 0.01) compared with the 0 or 100 mg/d groups. These results indicate that lipid composition may differ from depot to depot and that depending on the depot, dietary Cu seems to elicit a variable response on the fatty acid composition.

  11. Effect of Buprenorphine Weekly Depot (CAM2038) and Hydromorphone Blockade in Individuals With Opioid Use Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sharon L; Comer, Sandra D; Lofwall, Michelle R; Vince, Bradley; Levy-Cooperman, Naama; Kelsh, Debra; Coe, Marion A; Jones, Jermaine D; Nuzzo, Paul A; Tiberg, Fredrik; Sheldon, Behshad; Kim, Sonnie

    2017-09-01

    Buprenorphine is an efficacious, widely used treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). Daily oral transmucosal formulations can be associated with misuse, diversion, and nonadherence; these limitations may be obviated by a sustained release formulation. To evaluate the ability of a novel, weekly, subcutaneous buprenorphine depot formulation, CAM2038, to block euphorigenic opioid effects and suppress opioid withdrawal in non-treatment-seeking individuals with OUD. This multisite, double-blind, randomized within-patient study was conducted at 3 controlled inpatient research facilities. It involved 47 adults with DSM-V moderate-to-severe OUD. The study was conducted from October 12, 2015 (first patient enrolled), to April 21, 2016 (last patient visit). A total of five 3-day test sessions evaluated the response to hydromorphone (0, 6, and 18 mg intramuscular in random order; 1 dose/session/day). After the first 3-day session (ie, qualification phase), participants were randomized to either CAM2038 weekly at 24 mg (n = 22) or 32 mg (n = 25); the assigned CAM2038 dose was given twice, 1 week apart (day 0 and 7). Four sets of sessions were conducted after randomization (days 1-3, 4-6, 8-10, and 11-13). The primary end point was maximum rating on the visual analog scale for drug liking. Secondary end points included other visual analog scale (eg, high and desire to use), opioid withdrawal scales, and physiological and pharmacokinetic outcomes. A total of 46 of 47 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 35.5 [9] years; 76% male [n = 35]) completed the study. Both weekly CAM2038 doses produced immediate and sustained blockade of hydromorphone effects (liking maximum effect, CAM2038, 24 mg: effect size, 0.813; P withdrawal (Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale, CAM2038, 24 mg: effect size, 0.617; P opioid blockade and withdrawal suppression. The results support the use of this depot formulation for treatment initiation and stabilization of patients with OUD, with

  12. Problem-Solving Phase Transitions During Team Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Travis J; Butner, Jonathan E; Fiore, Stephen M

    2018-01-01

    Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving (CPS) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem-solving processes. We applied a sliding window entropy technique to each team's communications and specified criteria for (a) identifying data points that qualify as peaks and (b) determining which peaks were robust. We used multilevel modeling, and provide a qualitative example, to evaluate whether phases exhibit distinct distributions of communication processes. We also tested whether there was a relationship between entropy values at transition points and CPS performance. We found that a proportion of entropy peaks was robust and that the relative occurrence of communication codes varied significantly across phases. Peaks in entropy thus corresponded to qualitative shifts in teams' CPS communications, providing empirical evidence that teams exhibit phase transitions during CPS. Also, lower average levels of entropy at the phase transition points predicted better CPS performance. We specify future directions to improve understanding of phase transitions during CPS, and collaborative cognition, more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Docktor; Natalie E. Strand; José P. Mestre; Brian H. Ross

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in w...

  14. Solving global optimization problems on GPU cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkalov, Konstantin; Gergel, Victor; Lebedev, Ilya [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Avenue 23, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    The paper contains the results of investigation of a parallel global optimization algorithm combined with a dimension reduction scheme. This allows solving multidimensional problems by means of reducing to data-independent subproblems with smaller dimension solved in parallel. The new element implemented in the research consists in using several graphic accelerators at different computing nodes. The paper also includes results of solving problems of well-known multiextremal test class GKLS on Lobachevsky supercomputer using tens of thousands of GPU cores.

  15. Solving a bi-objective vehicle routing problem under uncertainty by a revised multi-choice goal programming approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Yousefi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW is an important problem with many real applications in a transportation problem. The optimum set of routes with the minimum distance and vehicles used is determined to deliver goods from a central depot, using a vehicle with capacity constraint. In the real cases, there are other objective functions that should be considered. This paper considers not only the minimum distance and the number of vehicles used as the objective function, the customer’s satisfaction with the priority of customers is also considered. Additionally, it presents a new model for a bi-objective VRPTW solved by a revised multi-choice goal programming approach, in which the decision maker determines optimistic aspiration levels for each objective function. Two meta-heuristic methods, namely simulated annealing (SA and genetic algorithm (GA, are proposed to solve large-sized problems. Moreover, the experimental design is used to tune the parameters of the proposed algorithms. The presented model is verified by a real-world case study and a number of test problems. The computational results verify the efficiency of the proposed SA and GA.

  16. Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Barczi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching how to solve problems – from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks – has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might be useful. The present article describes part of an experiment that was designed to determine the effects of cooperative teaching techniques on the development of problem-solving skills.

  17. Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used to determine the level of assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Statistical methods were used as mean, standard deviation, percentage, Student's T, ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Fisher Exact, Pearson Correlation and Chi-square tests and P problem-solving skills training. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the RAS and PSI scores. The RAS scores decreased while the problem-solving scores increased (r: -0451, P problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession.

  18. An Integrated Architecture for Engineering Problem Solving

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pisan, Yusuf

    1998-01-01

    .... This thesis describes the Integrated Problem Solving Architecture (IPSA) that combines qualitative, quantitative and diagrammatic reasoning skills to produce annotated solutions to engineering problems...

  19. Long-term effect of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate on vaginal microbiota, epithelial thickness and HIV target cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Caroline M; McLemore, Leslie; Westerberg, Katharine; Astronomo, Rena; Smythe, Kimberly; Gardella, Carolyn; Mack, Matthias; Magaret, Amalia; Patton, Dorothy; Agnew, Kathy; McElrath, M Juliana; Hladik, Florian; Eschenbach, David

    2014-08-15

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) has been linked to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition. Vaginal microbiota of women using DMPA for up to 2 years were cultured. Mucosal immune cell populations were measured by immunohistological staining. Over 12 months, the proportion with H2O2-positive lactobacilli decreased (n = 32; 53% vs 27%; P = .03). Median vaginal CD3(+) cells also decreased (n = 15; 355 vs 237 cells/mm(2); P = .03), as did CD3(+)CCR5(+) cells (195 vs 128 cells/mm(2); P = .04), HLA-DR(+) cells (130 vs 96 cells/mm(2); P = .27), and HLA-DR(+)CCR5(+) cells (18 vs 10 cells/mm(2); P = .33). DMPA contraception does not increase vaginal mucosal CCR5(+) HIV target cells but does decrease CD3(+) T lymphocytes and vaginal H2O2-producing lactobacilli. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Oil fuel delivery optimization for multi product and multi depot: the case of petrol station replenishment problem (PSRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjandari, Isti; Rachman, Amar; Dianawati, Fauzia; Wibowo, R. Pramono

    2011-10-01

    With the Oil and Gas Law No. 22 of 2001, national and foreign private enterprises can invest in all sectors of Oil and Gas in Indonesia. In anticipation of this free competition, Pertamina, as a state-owned enterprises, which previously had monopolized the oil and gas business activities in Indonesia, should be able to improve services as well as the efficiency in order to compete in the free market, especially in terms of cost efficiency of fuel distribution to gas station (SPBU). To optimize the distribution activity, it is necessary to design a scheduling system and its fuel delivery routes daily to every SPBU. The determination of routes and scheduling delivery of fuel to the SPBU can be modeled as a Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PSRP) with the multi-depot, multi-product, time windows and split deliveries, which in this study will be completed by the Tabu Search algorithm (TS). This study was conducted in the area of Bandung, the capital of West Java province, which is a big city and the neighboring city of Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. By using the fuel delivery data for one day, the results showed a decrease of 16.38% of the distance of the route compared to the current conditions, which impacted on the reduction of distribution costs and decrease the number of total trips by 5.22% and 3.83%.

  1. Multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indwelling catheter Osteoporosis or thinning of the bones Pressure sores Side effects of medicines used to treat the ... Daily bowel care program Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Swallowing problems Images Multiple sclerosis MRI of the ...

  2. Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Location, location, and location. The old real-estate adage about what's really important proved applicable to astrophysics as astronomers used the sharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to pinpoint the distance to a pulsar. Their accurate distance measurement then resolved a dispute over the pulsar's birthplace, allowed the astronomers to determine the size of its neutron star and possibly solve a mystery about cosmic rays. "Getting an accurate distance to this pulsar gave us a real bonanza," said Walter Brisken, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Monogem Ring The Monogem Ring, in X-Ray Image by ROSAT satellite CREDIT: Max-Planck Institute, American Astronomical Society (Click on Image for Larger Version) The pulsar, called PSR B0656+14, is in the constellation Gemini, and appears to be near the center of a circular supernova remnant that straddles Gemini and its neighboring constellation, Monoceros, and is thus called the Monogem Ring. Since pulsars are superdense, spinning neutron stars left over when a massive star explodes as a supernova, it was logical to assume that the Monogem Ring, the shell of debris from a supernova explosion, was the remnant of the blast that created the pulsar. However, astronomers using indirect methods of determining the distance to the pulsar had concluded that it was nearly 2500 light-years from Earth. On the other hand, the supernova remnant was determined to be only about 1000 light-years from Earth. It seemed unlikely that the two were related, but instead appeared nearby in the sky purely by a chance juxtaposition. Brisken and his colleagues used the VLBA to make precise measurements of the sky position of PSR B0656+14 from 2000 to 2002. They were able to detect the slight offset in the object's apparent position when viewed from opposite sides of Earth's orbit around the Sun. This effect, called parallax, provides a direct measurement of

  3. Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnabi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…

  4. Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…

  5. Parallel Algorithm Solves Coupled Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, A.

    1987-01-01

    Numerical methods adapted to concurrent processing. Algorithm solves set of coupled partial differential equations by numerical integration. Adapted to run on hypercube computer, algorithm separates problem into smaller problems solved concurrently. Increase in computing speed with concurrent processing over that achievable with conventional sequential processing appreciable, especially for large problems.

  6. Measuring Problem Solving Skills in "Portal 2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly accepted…

  7. Conceptual Problem Solving in High School Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…

  8. Concept mapping instrumental support for problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, S.; Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The main theoretical position of this paper is that it is the explicit problem-solving support in concept mapping software that produces a stronger effect in problem-solving performance than the implicit support afforded by the graphical functionality of concept mapping software. Explicit

  9. Problem Solving Methods in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods. The descri...

  10. The Process of Solving Complex Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…

  11. Strategy Keys as Tools for Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold-Blasius, Raja

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving is one of the main competences we seek to teach students at school for use in their future lives. However, when dealing with mathematical problems, teachers encounter a wide variety of difficulties. To foster students' problem-solving skills, the authors developed "strategy keys." Strategy keys can serve as material to…

  12. Problem Solving Strategies among Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Wun Thiam; Lian, Lim Hooi; Meng, Chew Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine problem solving strategies among primary school teachers. The researchers employed survey research design to examine their problem solving strategies. The participants of this study consisted of 120 primary school teachers from a public university in Peninsula Malaysia who enrolled in a 4-year Graduating…

  13. Teaching Effective Problem Solving Strategies for Interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Louis L.

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates what problem solving strategies interns learn from their clinical teachers during their internships. Twenty-four interns who completed their internship in the elementary grades shared what problem solving strategies had the greatest impact upon them in learning how to deal with problems during their internship.…

  14. Some Applications of Algebraic System Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roanes-Lozano, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Technology and, in particular, computer algebra systems, allows us to change both the way we teach mathematics and the mathematical curriculum. Curiously enough, unlike what happens with linear system solving, algebraic system solving is not widely known. The aim of this paper is to show that, although the theory lying behind the "exact…

  15. Mathematical problem solving in primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolovou, A.

    2011-01-01

    A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each

  16. A Multivariate Model of Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John

    2013-01-01

    A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,…

  17. Solving applied mathematical problems with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Dingyu

    2008-01-01

    Computer Mathematics Language-An Overview. Fundamentals of MATLAB Programming. Calculus Problems. MATLAB Computations of Linear Algebra Problems. Integral Transforms and Complex Variable Functions. Solutions to Nonlinear Equations and Optimization Problems. MATLAB Solutions to Differential Equation Problems. Solving Interpolations and Approximations Problems. Solving Probability and Mathematical Statistics Problems. Nontraditional Solution Methods for Mathematical Problems.

  18. Solving the wrong hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson

    2016-01-01

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. Lastly, we show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV

  19. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  20. A goal programming procedure for solving fuzzy multiobjective fractional linear programming problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunjo Perić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modification of Pal, Moitra and Maulik's goal programming procedure for fuzzy multiobjective linear fractional programming problem solving. The proposed modification of the method allows simpler solving of economic multiple objective fractional linear programming (MOFLP problems, enabling the obtained solutions to express the preferences of the decision maker defined by the objective function weights. The proposed method is tested on the production planning example.

  1. Synthesizing Huber's Problem Solving and Kolb's Learning Cycle: A Balanced Approach to Technical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.

    2009-01-01

    How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…

  2. Pre-Service Class Teacher' Ability in Solving Mathematical Problems and Skills in Solving Daily Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljaberi, Nahil M.; Gheith, Eman

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the ability of pre-service class teacher at University of Petrain solving mathematical problems using Polya's Techniques, their level of problem solving skills in daily-life issues. The study also investigates the correlation between their ability to solve mathematical problems and their level of problem solving…

  3. Solving complex and disordered surface structures with electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hove, M.A.

    1987-10-01

    The past of surface structure determination with low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) will be briefly reviewed, setting the stage for a discussion of recent and future developments. The aim of these developments is to solve complex and disordered surface structures. Some efficient solutions to the theoretical and experimental problems will be presented. Since the theoretical problems dominate, the emphasis will be on theoretical approaches to the calculation of the multiple scattering of electrons through complex and disordered surfaces. 49 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  4. A set of numerical meteorological models for solving basic and some special problems in the Boris Kidric Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grscic, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Models for solving transport and dispersion problems of radioactive pollutants through atmosphere are briefly shown. These models are the base for solving and some special problems such as: estimating effective and physical heights of radioactive sources, computation of radioactive concentration distribution from multiple sources etc (author)

  5. Differential patterns of serum concentration and adipose tissue expression of chemerin in obesity: adipose depot specificity and gender dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadda, Assim A; Sallam, Reem M; Chishti, Muhammad Azhar; Moustafa, Amr S; Fatma, Sumbul; Alomaim, Waleed S; Al-Naami, Mohammed Y; Bassas, Abdulelah F; Chrousos, George P; Jo, Hyunsun

    2012-06-01

    Chemerin, a recognized chemoattractant, is expressed in adipose tissue and plays a role in adipocytes differentiation and metabolism. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences in human chemerin expression have not been well characterized. Therefore, these differences were assessed in the present study. The body mass index (BMI) and the circulating levels of chemerin and other inflammatory, adiposity and insulin resistance markers were assessed in female and male adults of varying degree of obesity. Chemerin mRNA expression was also measured in paired subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples obtained from a subset of the study subjects. Serum chemerin concentrations correlated positively with BMI and serum leptin levels and negatively with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. No correlation was found between serum chemerin concentrations and fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, C-reactive protein or adiponectin. Similarly, no relation was observed with the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences were observed in chemerin mRNA expression levels, with expression significantly higher in women than men and in subcutaneous than visceral adipose tissue. Interestingly, we found a significant negative correlation between circulating chemerin levels and chemerin mRNA expression in subcutaneous fat. Among the subjects studied, circulating chemerin levels were associated with obesity markers but not with markers of insulin resistance. At the tissue level, fat depot-specific differential regulation of chemerin mRNA expression might contribute to the distinctive roles of subcutaneous vs. visceral adipose tissue in human obesity.

  6. Changes in Vaginal Microbiota and Immune Mediators in HIV-1-Seronegative Kenyan Women Initiating Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxby, Alison C; Fredricks, David N; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Ásbjörnsdóttir, Kristjana; Masese, Linnet; Fiedler, Tina L; De Rosa, Stephen; Jaoko, Walter; Kiarie, James N; Overbaugh, Julie; McClelland, R Scott

    2016-04-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is associated with HIV acquisition. We studied changes in vaginal microbiota and inflammatory milieu after DMPA initiation. In a cohort of HIV-negative Kenyan women, we collected monthly vaginal swabs over 1 year before and after DMPA. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we compared quantities of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus iners, Gardnerella vaginalis, and total bacterial load (16S ribosomal RNA gene levels). Six vaginal immune mediators were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Trends in the detection and quantity of bacteria were estimated by logistic and linear mixed-effects regression. From 2010 to 2012, 15 HIV-seronegative women initiated DMPA, contributing 85 visits (median, 6 visits/woman; range, 3-8 visits/woman). The median time of DMPA-exposed follow-up was 8.4 months (range, 1.5-11.6 months). Seven women (46%) had bacterial vaginosis within 70 days before DMPA start. L. iners was detected in 13 women (87%) before DMPA start, but other lactobacilli were rarely detected. Gardnerella vaginalis decreased by 0.21 log10 copies per swab per month after DMPA exposure (P = 0.01). Total bacterial load decreased by 0.08 log10 copies per swab per month of DMPA (P = 0.02). Sustained decreases in interleukin (IL)-6 (P = 0.03), IL-8 (P = 0.04), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (P vaginal bacterial concentrations and levels of inflammatory mediators. Further studies are warranted to outline components of the vaginal microbiota influenced by DMPA use and impact on HIV susceptibility.

  7. Retrospective investigation of testosterone undecanoate depot for the long-term treatment of male hypogonadism in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaglen, Helen M; Paul, Ryan G; Yarndley, Tania; Kamp, Jozef; Elston, Marianne S; Conaglen, John V

    2014-02-01

    Testosterone undecanoate depot (TUD) administered intramuscularly is an effective form of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for male hypogonadism. Because of the ease of administration, TUD therapy may be preferable to subcutaneously implanted extended release T pellet implants (TI). The primary objective was to retrospectively assess the efficacy and safety of long-term (≥ 2 years therapy) TUD therapy in the clinical setting. The secondary objective was to retrospectively compare TUD with TI therapy. Retrospective data were collected from the Waikato Hospital Endocrine Database for 179 hypogonadal men treated with TUD for ≥ 2 years from 1998-2011, with 124 of these men receiving previous TI therapy. The main outcome measure for efficacy was serum trough total testosterone (TT), and for safety an increase in hemoglobin (Hb) and/or hematocrit (Hct), rise in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and/or prostatic biopsy and alteration in body mass index and lipid profile. Additional outcome measures were changes in the dosing and/or interval regimens for TUD therapy. Overall, 72% of trough TT levels were in the normal range for TUD therapy compared with 53% of trough TT levels during TI therapy. TUD therapy was well tolerated with 162 men (90.5%) completing 2 years of treatment, and only seven men (3.9%) stopping TUD because of adverse effects. A rise in Hb and/or Hct occurred in 25 men (14%), and a significant rise in PSA in 20 men (13%) at some stage during TUD therapy. At 2 years, 91% of men received the standard 1,000 mg TUD dose with 66% at the standard dosing interval of 10-14 weekly. TUD is an efficacious, safe, and well tolerated form of TRT, and individual optimisation of the dose and/or interval is only required in the minority of men. Particularly given the ease of administration, TUD was the preferred TRT for both patients and clinicians. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Rats and rabbits as pharmacokinetic screening tools for long acting intramuscular depots: case study with paliperidone palmitate suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Harilal; Patel, Prakash; Modi, Nirav; Patel, Pinakin; Wagh, Yogesh; George, Alex; Desai, Nirmal; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2018-05-08

    Development of prodrug of 9-hydroxyrisperidone (paliperidone) long-acting intramuscular injection has enabled delivery over four-week time period with improved compliance. The key aim of this work was to establish a reliable preclinical model which may potentially serve as a screening tool for judging the pharmacokinetics of paliperidone formulation(s) prior to human clinical work. Sparse sampling composite study was used in rats, (Wistar/Sprague-Dawley (SD; n = 10)) and a serial blood sampling study design was used in rabbits (n = 4). Animals received intramuscular injection of paliperidone palmitate in the thigh muscle at dose of 16 (rats) and 4.5 mg/kg (rabbits). Samples were drawn in rats (retro-orbital sinus) and rabbits (central ear artery) and were analysed for paliperidone using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/ mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay. The plasma data was subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis. Following intramuscular injection of depot formulation in Wistar/SD rats and rabbits, absorption of paliperidone was slow and gradual with median value of time to reach maximum concentration (T max ) occurring on day 7. The exposures (i.e. area under the curve (AUC; 0-28) days) were 18,597, 21,865 and 18,120 ng.h/mL, in Wistar, SD and rabbits, respectively. The clearance was slow and supported long half-life (8-10 days). Either one of the two models can serve as a research tool for establishing pharmacokinetics of paliperidone formulation(s).

  9. Characterization of the fate and transport of nitroaromatic compounds at a former DoD ordnance depot site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klausmeier, M.E.; Yoon, J.

    1999-07-01

    The 975-acre Former Nansemond Ordnance Depot (FNOD) in Suffolk, Virginia was used by the Department of Defense (DoD) from 1917 until the mid-1950's for preparation, storage, transportation, inspection and demilitarization of many classes of ammunition and ordnance. Approximately 28 areas of Concern (AOC) have been identified by the EPA as areas that could pose potential risk to human health or the environment. The primary contaminants of concern are some trace metals and explosive compounds. During a summer 1987 field investigation, a slab of crystalline TNT was found which was estimated to weigh several tons. An enhanced MODFLOW model is being used to identify subsurface flow patterns. The calibrated model will be used to identify contaminant fate and transport behavior at the site. Enhancements to the MODFLOW model include an updated block-centered flow package (BCF4) and an updated recharge-seepage face boundary package (RSF4) to utilize for the FNOD site flow characterization. BCF4 package accurately delineates the water table without relying on an ad hoc rewetting procedure. This is accomplished by calculating the hydraulic head value required to transmit recharging water through the unsaturated zone without inactivating dry cells. The recharge-seepage face package eliminates the projection of heads above the ground surface by adjusting recharge to a cell when a user supplied ponding depth is reached. Using a regional model, a telescoping grid refinement technique was implemented to calculate the boundary conditions around the area of interest and to model quantity and quality interactions between surface and subsurface water regimes in a realistic manner.

  10. PSQP: Puzzle Solving by Quadratic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andalo, Fernanda A; Taubin, Gabriel; Goldenstein, Siome

    2017-02-01

    In this article we present the first effective method based on global optimization for the reconstruction of image puzzles comprising rectangle pieces-Puzzle Solving by Quadratic Programming (PSQP). The proposed novel mathematical formulation reduces the problem to the maximization of a constrained quadratic function, which is solved via a gradient ascent approach. The proposed method is deterministic and can deal with arbitrary identical rectangular pieces. We provide experimental results showing its effectiveness when compared to state-of-the-art approaches. Although the method was developed to solve image puzzles, we also show how to apply it to the reconstruction of simulated strip-shredded documents, broadening its applicability.

  11. Solving the Schroedinger equation using Smolyak interpolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Gustavo; Carrington, Tucker Jr.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new collocation method for solving the Schroedinger equation. Collocation has the advantage that it obviates integrals. All previous collocation methods have, however, the crucial disadvantage that they require solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. By combining Lagrange-like functions with a Smolyak interpolant, we device a collocation method that does not require solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. We exploit the structure of the grid to develop an efficient algorithm for evaluating the matrix-vector products required to compute energy levels and wavefunctions. Energies systematically converge as the number of points and basis functions are increased

  12. Aspek Internal dan Eksternal Kualitas Produksi Depot Air Minum Isi Ulang: Studi Kualitatif di Kota Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardini Saptaningsih Raksanagara

    2018-03-01

    Internal and External Aspects Related to Quality of Refill Water Station Production: Qualitative Study in Bandung City The quality of water production in drinking water refill station (DWRS has recently been decreasing. Maintaining the quality of DWRS is not only the responsibility of the owners because the government should also playe an active role as the external supervisor. However, few information is available on the obstacles in monitoring the quality of DWRS. This study aimed to explore the internal and external aspects related to quality of drinking water production in DWRS. It was a qualitative study using phenomenology approach with constructivism paradigm. Data were collected through observation, indepth interviews, and document study. Data were analyzed using theme analysis. The place of study was Bandung City Health Office, Trade Service Unit, Primary Health Centers, and some DWRSs with inadequate water quality during May-August 2017. The result showed that internal aspects that related to drinking water quality were human resources, proper processing, appropiate equipments, and hygienic environment.  Inadequate human resource can cause unstandardized process production. External aspects included government supervision, sanctions, and law enforcement as well as collaboration between owner and local government. In conducting DWRS supervisory activities, the government has obstacles such as lack of human resources, lack of funding allocation, and multiple workloads. In addition, the absence of strict sanctions and the lack of cross-sectoral cooperation also contribute to the quality of refill drinking water, making it inadequate. New innovation should be developed to increase the quality of DWRS, particularly development of integrated supervison system which iincludes not only the local government but also the commmunity and consumers. Key words: Drinking water refill station, external aspect, internal aspect

  13. Impact of ageing on problem size and proactive interference in arithmetic facts solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambeau, Kim; De Visscher, Alice; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Gevers, Wim

    2018-02-01

    Arithmetic facts (AFs) are required when solving problems such as "3 × 4" and refer to calculations for which the correct answer is retrieved from memory. Currently, two important effects that modulate the performance in AFs have been highlighted: the problem size effect and the proactive interference effect. The aim of this study is to investigate possible age-related changes of the problem size effect and the proactive interference effect in AF solving. To this end, the performance of young and older adults was compared in a multiplication production task. Furthermore, an independent measure of proactive interference was assessed to further define the architecture underlying this effect in multiplication solving. The results indicate that both young and older adults were sensitive to the effects of interference and of the problem size. That is, both interference and problem size affected performance negatively: the time needed to solve a multiplication problem increases as the level of interference and the size of the problem increase. Regarding the effect of ageing, the problem size effect remains constant with age, indicating a preserved AF network in older adults. Interestingly, sensitivity to proactive interference in multiplication solving was less pronounced in older than in younger adults suggesting that part of the proactive interference has been overcome with age.

  14. Transgenerational Inheritance of Increased Fat Depot Size, Stem Cell Reprogramming, and Hepatic Steatosis Elicited by Prenatal Exposure to the Obesogen Tributyltin in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-García, Raquel; Sahu, Margaret; Abbey, Rachelle J.; Laude, Jhyme; Pham, Nhieu

    2013-01-01

    Background: We have previously shown that exposure to tributyltin (TBT) modulates critical steps of adipogenesis through RXR/PPARγ and that prenatal TBT exposure predisposes multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to become adipocytes by epigenetic imprinting into the memory of the MSC compartment. Objective: We tested whether the effects of prenatal TBT exposure were heritable in F2 and F3 generations. Methods: We exposed C57BL/6J female mice (F0) to DMSO vehicle, the pharmaceutical obesogen rosiglitazone (ROSI), or TBT (5.42, 54.2, or 542 nM) throughout pregnancy via the drinking water. F1 offspring were bred to yield F2, and F2 mice were bred to produce F3. F1 animals were exposed in utero and F2 mice were potentially exposed as germ cells in the F1, but F3 animals were never exposed to the chemicals. We analyzed the effects of these exposures on fat depot weights, adipocyte number, adipocyte size, MSC programming, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic gene expression in all three generations. Discussion: Prenatal TBT exposure increased most white adipose tissue (WAT) depot weights, adipocyte size, and adipocyte number, and reprogrammed MSCs toward the adipocyte lineage at the expense of bone in all three generations. Prenatal TBT exposure led to hepatic lipid accumulation and up-regulated hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid storage/transport, lipogenesis, and lipolysis in all three subsequent generations. Conclusions: Prenatal TBT exposure produced transgenerational effects on fat depots and induced a phenotype resembling nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through at least the F3 generation. These results show that early-life obesogen exposure can have lasting effects. PMID:23322813

  15. Ethical acceptability of offering financial incentives for taking antipsychotic depot medication: patients' and clinicians' perspectives after a 12-month randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordraven, Ernst L; Schermer, Maartje H N; Blanken, Peter; Mulder, Cornelis L; Wierdsma, André I

    2017-08-29

    A randomized controlled trial 'Money for Medication'(M4M) was conducted in which patients were offered financial incentives for taking antipsychotic depot medication. This study assessed the attitudes and ethical considerations of patients and clinicians who participated in this trial. Three mental healthcare institutions in secondary psychiatric care in the Netherlands participated in this study. Patients (n = 169), 18-65 years, diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or another psychotic disorder who had been prescribed antipsychotic depot medication, were randomly assigned to receive 12 months of either treatment as usual plus a financial reward for each depot of medication received (intervention group) or treatment as usual alone (control group). Structured questionnaires were administered after the 12-month intervention period. Data were available for 133 patients (69 control and 64 intervention) and for 97 clinicians. Patients (88%) and clinicians (81%) indicated that financial incentives were a good approach to improve medication adherence. Ethical concerns were categorized according to the four-principles approach (autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice). Patients and clinicians alike mentioned various advantages of M4M in clinical practice, such as increased medication adherence and improved illness insight; but also disadvantages such as reduced intrinsic motivation, loss of autonomy and feelings of dependence. Overall, patients evaluated financial incentives as an effective method of improving medication adherence and were willing to accept this reward during clinical treatment. Clinicians were also positive about the use of this intervention in daily practice. Ethical concerns are discussed in terms of patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. We conclude that this intervention is ethically acceptable under certain conditions, and that further research is necessary to clarify issues of benefit

  16. An efficient method for generalized linear multiplicative programming problem with multiplicative constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingfeng; Liu, Sanyang

    2016-01-01

    We present a practical branch and bound algorithm for globally solving generalized linear multiplicative programming problem with multiplicative constraints. To solve the problem, a relaxation programming problem which is equivalent to a linear programming is proposed by utilizing a new two-phase relaxation technique. In the algorithm, lower and upper bounds are simultaneously obtained by solving some linear relaxation programming problems. Global convergence has been proved and results of some sample examples and a small random experiment show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and efficient.

  17. Environmental problem-solving: Psychosocial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan

    1982-11-01

    This is a study of individual differences in environmental problem-solving, the probable roots of these differences, and their implications for the education of resource professionals. A group of student Resource Managers were required to elaborate their conception of a complex resource issue (Spruce Budworm management) and to generate some ideas on management policy. Of particular interest was the way in which subjects dealt with the psychosocial aspects of the problem. A structural and content analysis of responses indicated a predominance of relatively compartmentalized styles, a technological orientation, and a tendency to ignore psychosocial issues. A relationship between problem-solving behavior and personal (psychosocial) style was established which, in the context of other evidence, suggests that problem-solving behavior is influenced by more deep seated personality factors. The educational implication drawn was that problem-solving cannot be viewed simply as an intellectual-technical activity but one that involves, and requires the education of, the whole person.

  18. Improving mathematical problem solving : A computerized approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, EG; Suhre, CJM

    Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction

  19. Indoor Air Quality Problem Solving Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use the IAQ Problem Solving Tool to learn about the connection between health complaints and common solutions in schools. This resource provides an easy, step-by-step process to start identifying and resolving IAQ problems found at your school.

  20. Problem solving using soft systems methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, L

    This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.

  1. Exact Algorithms for Solving Stochastic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucky, Michal; Lauritzen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Shapley's discounted stochastic games, Everett's recursive games and Gillette's undiscounted stochastic games are classical models of game theory describing two-player zero-sum games of potentially infinite duration. We describe algorithms for exactly solving these games....

  2. How to solve applied mathematics problems

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2011-01-01

    This workbook bridges the gap between lectures and practical applications, offering students of mathematics, engineering, and physics the chance to practice solving problems from a wide variety of fields. 2011 edition.

  3. Physics: Quantum problems solved through games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210

  4. Photoreactors for Solving Problems of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Sokolova, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Designs and physical aspects of photoreactors, their capabilities for a study of kinetics and mechanisms of processes proceeding under illumination with light, as well as application of photoreactors for solving various applied problem are discussed.

  5. Factors affecting the social problem-solving ability of baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The hospital environment is characterized by time pressure, uncertain information, conflicting goals, high stakes, stress, and dynamic conditions. These demands mean there is a need for nurses with social problem-solving skills. This study set out to (1) investigate the social problem-solving ability of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students in Macao and (2) identify the association between communication skill, clinical interaction, interpersonal dysfunction, and social problem-solving ability. All nursing students were recruited in one public institute through the census method. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The study used the Chinese version of the Social Problem Solving Inventory short form (C-SPSI-R), Communication Ability Scale (CAS), Clinical Interactive Scale (CIS), and Interpersonal Dysfunction Checklist (IDC). Macao nursing students were more likely to use the two constructive or adaptive dimensions rather than the three dysfunctional dimensions of the C-SPSI-R to solve their problems. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that communication ability (ß=.305, pproblem-solving after controlling for covariates. Macao has had no problem-solving training in its educational curriculum; an effective problem-solving training should be implemented as part of the curriculum. With so many changes in healthcare today, nurses must be good social problem-solvers in order to deliver holistic care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Shariat, K.; Kostopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [de

  7. The art and science of problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group problem...... solving facilitation both as science and art will be presented. A case study related to examination's planning will be discussed to illustrate the main concepts in practice. In addition, other cases studies will also be shortly presented....

  8. Local Strategy Improvement for Parity Game Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Friedmann, Oliver; Lange, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The problem of solving a parity game is at the core of many problems in model checking, satisfiability checking and program synthesis. Some of the best algorithms for solving parity game are strategy improvement algorithms. These are global in nature since they require the entire parity game to be present at the beginning. This is a distinct disadvantage because in many applications one only needs to know which winning region a particular node belongs to, and a witnessing winning strategy may...

  9. The Hereptofauna of Letterkenny Army Depot, South-Central Pennsylvania: A Starting Point to the Long-Term Monitoring and Management of Amphibians and Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Journal of Kansas Herpetology Number 34 (June 2010) 11 www.cnah.org/khs ARtIClES tHE HERpEtofAUNA of lEttERKENNY ARMY dEpot, SoUtH-CENtRAl...compare the herpetological commu- nity currently present at the site with that expected from prior literature (felbaum, 1995; Hulse et al., 2001; tetra...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Journal of Kansas Herpetology Number 34 (June 2010) 12 www.cnah.org/khs agricultural and other

  10. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-12-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.

  11. Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2013-05-01

    It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanics—the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machine—are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.

  12. Diagrams benefit symbolic problem-solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Junyi; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R

    2017-06-01

    The format of a mathematics problem often influences students' problem-solving performance. For example, providing diagrams in conjunction with story problems can benefit students' understanding, choice of strategy, and accuracy on story problems. However, it remains unclear whether providing diagrams in conjunction with symbolic equations can benefit problem-solving performance as well. We tested the impact of diagram presence on students' performance on algebra equation problems to determine whether diagrams increase problem-solving success. We also examined the influence of item- and student-level factors to test the robustness of the diagram effect. We worked with 61 seventh-grade students who had received 2 months of pre-algebra instruction. Students participated in an experimenter-led classroom session. Using a within-subjects design, students solved algebra problems in two matched formats (equation and equation-with-diagram). The presence of diagrams increased equation-solving accuracy and the use of informal strategies. This diagram benefit was independent of student ability and item complexity. The benefits of diagrams found previously for story problems generalized to symbolic problems. The findings are consistent with cognitive models of problem-solving and suggest that diagrams may be a useful additional representation of symbolic problems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Docktor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers’ implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.

  14. [Delivery in multiple pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, F; D'Addato, F; Grio, R

    2001-04-01

    A knowledge of clinical physiognomy in pathologies related to multiple births is indispensable for improving maternal and feto-neonatal prognosis. This study is a contribution to the solution of this problem. A meta-analysis of data for multiple births at Department B of the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic at the University of Turi during the decade 1989-1998 was carried out, focusing on the arrangement and presentation of fetuses, the various types of birth, the gestational age at which birth occurred, the weight of neonates, neonatal mortality and maternal morbidity. Out of 11,523 births, there were a total of 194 (1.68%) multiple births, including 190 sets of twins and 4 triplets. 154 (79.38%) premature births were reported; 20 occurred 1500 g). The perinatal mortality rate was 3.82%. Maternal complications mainly occurred during the placental state, in the immediate postpartum and in puerperio. The authors feel that a more careful medical and social assistance, preventive hospitalisation, early recognition of the risk, constant monitoring for the optimal timing of birth, and lastly, qualified medical assistance during labour (expert gynecologist, trained obstetric staff) with other medical personnel (anesthetist, neonatal specialist) represent winning strategies to solve the problems arising during multiple pregnancies.

  15. Development of a problem solving evaluation instrument; untangling of specific problem solving assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Wendy Kristine

    The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.

  16. Solving large mixed linear models using preconditioned conjugate gradient iteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandén, I; Lidauer, M

    1999-12-01

    Continuous evaluation of dairy cattle with a random regression test-day model requires a fast solving method and algorithm. A new computing technique feasible in Jacobi and conjugate gradient based iterative methods using iteration on data is presented. In the new computing technique, the calculations in multiplication of a vector by a matrix were recorded to three steps instead of the commonly used two steps. The three-step method was implemented in a general mixed linear model program that used preconditioned conjugate gradient iteration. Performance of this program in comparison to other general solving programs was assessed via estimation of breeding values using univariate, multivariate, and random regression test-day models. Central processing unit time per iteration with the new three-step technique was, at best, one-third that needed with the old technique. Performance was best with the test-day model, which was the largest and most complex model used. The new program did well in comparison to other general software. Programs keeping the mixed model equations in random access memory required at least 20 and 435% more time to solve the univariate and multivariate animal models, respectively. Computations of the second best iteration on data took approximately three and five times longer for the animal and test-day models, respectively, than did the new program. Good performance was due to fast computing time per iteration and quick convergence to the final solutions. Use of preconditioned conjugate gradient based methods in solving large breeding value problems is supported by our findings.

  17. Web-Based Problem-Solving Assignment and Grading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Giles; Rosenberg, Ronald

    2014-11-01

    In engineering courses with very specific learning objectives, such as fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, it is conventional to reinforce concepts and principles with problem-solving assignments and to measure success in problem solving as an indicator of student achievement. While the modern-day ease of copying and searching for online solutions can undermine the value of traditional assignments, web-based technologies also provide opportunities to generate individualized well-posed problems with an infinite number of different combinations of initial/final/boundary conditions, so that the probability of any two students being assigned identical problems in a course is vanishingly small. Such problems can be designed and programmed to be: single or multiple-step, self-grading, allow students single or multiple attempts; provide feedback when incorrect; selectable according to difficulty; incorporated within gaming packages; etc. In this talk, we discuss the use of a homework/exam generating program of this kind in a single-semester course, within a web-based client-server system that ensures secure operation.

  18. Multiple homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  19. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved

  20. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects your nerve cells. This damage slows down ...

  1. Multiple myeloma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Conor D

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management.

  2. Multiple mononeuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with multiple mononeuropathy are prone to new nerve injuries at pressure points such as the knees and elbows. They should avoid putting pressure on these areas, for example, by not leaning on the elbows, crossing the knees, ...

  3. Dissimilarity-based multiple instance learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Loog, Marco; Tax, David M. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to solve multiple instance learning problems using a dissimilarity representation of the objects. Once the dissimilarity space has been constructed, the problem is turned into a standard supervised learning problem that can be solved with a general purpose supervised cla...... between distributions of within- and between set point distances, thereby taking relations within and between sets into account. Experiments on five publicly available data sets show competitive performance in terms of classification accuracy compared to previously published results....

  4. Determination of lymph flow in murine oral mucosa using depot clearance of near-infrared-labeled albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakou, Panagiota; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Wiig, Helge; Berggreen, Ellen

    2015-10-01

    The lymphatic vessels are playing an important role in inflammation since they return extravasated fluid, proteins, and cells back into the circulation and regulate immune cell trafficking. The oral mucosa, including gingiva, is well supplied with lymphatic vessels and is frequently challenged with inflammatory insults. Lymphatic vessels in gingiva protect against periodontal disease development, but quantification of lymph flow in this area has so far never been performed, due to lack of reliable methods. Mice of FVB strain (n=17) were anesthetized with isoflurane and placed on a jaw retraction board allowing the mouth to be kept open and stable. Albumin conjugated with Alexa680-fluorochrome (with or without LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis) was injected superficially in oral mucosa mesio-buccal to the left first molar in each mouse. 60 min post-injection the mouse was transferred to an OptixMX3 optical imager where the total fluorescence was measured in the posterior facial area. The measurements continued further every 60 min for 7h for each mouse. The mice were awake and active between measurements. The in vivo washout of Alexa680-albumin was calculated using the natural logarithm of the relative values creating a negative slope for each mouse. Statistical analysis of variance was performed. The injection and distribution site for tracer was verified with India ink and shown to be in the interstitium below the oral mucosal epithelium, in an area well supplied with initial lymphatic vessels. Washout of the tracer Alexa680-albumin was log-linear, and the basal lymph flow calculated from depot clearance averaged -0.28 ± 0.08%/min (n=8). The clearance was significantly faster (-0.30 ± 0.08%/min, n=9) in acutely inflamed oral mucosa (p=0.0326). We developed a method that can successfully quantify the lymph flow in oral mucosa in steady state conditions and under acute perturbation. By use of this method, new information about the lymphatic function in oral mucosa

  5. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Diogo, E-mail: diogopestana@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); CINTESIS—Center for Research in Health Technologies and Information Systems, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Gil [General Surgery Department, S. João Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Sá, Carla [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Virgínia C. [Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Requimte—Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, P-4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Ana [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, P-4200-465 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2014-08-15

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R{sub S}=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R{sub S}=0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R{sub S}=0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R{sub S}=0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their

  6. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestana, Diogo; Faria, Gil; Sá, Carla; Fernandes, Virgínia C.; Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia; Faria, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R S =0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R S =0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R S =0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R S =0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their metabolic effects

  7. Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2012-01-01

    Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748

  8. Body frame size in school children is related to the amount of adipose tissue in different depots but not to adipose distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-de la Garza, Francisco J; González Ayala, Alejandra E; Gómez Nava, Marisol; Martínez Monsiváis, Leislie I; Salinas Martínez, Ana M; Ramírez López, Erik; Mathiew Quirós, Alvaro; Garcia Quintanilla, Francisco

    2017-09-10

    The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that body frame size is related to the amount of fat in different adipose tissue depots and to fat distribution in schoolchildren. Children aged between 5 and 10 years were included in this cross-sectional study (n = 565). Body frame size, adiposity markers (anthropometric, skinfolds thickness, and ultrasound measures), and fat distribution indices were analyzed. Correlation coefficients adjusted by reliability were estimated and analyzed by sex; the significance of the difference between two correlation coefficients was assessed using the Fisher z-transformation. The sample included primarily urban children; 58.6% were normal weight, 16.1% overweight, 19.6% obese, and the rest were underweight. Markers of subcutaneous adiposity, fat mass and fat-free mass, and preperitoneal adiposity showed higher and significant correlations with the sum of the biacromial + bitrochanteric diameter than with the elbow diameter, regardless of sex. The fat distribution conicity index presented significant but weak correlations; and visceral adipose tissue, hepatic steatosis, and the waist-for-hip ratio were not significantly correlated with body frame size measures. Body frame size in school children was related to the amount of adipose tissue in different depots, but not adipose distribution. More studies are needed to confirm this relationship and its importance to predict changes in visceral fat deposition during growth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The adipose tissue of origin influences the biological potential of human adipose stromal cells isolated from mediastinal and subcutaneous fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Siciliano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect evidence suggests that adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs possess different physiological and biological variations related to the anatomical localization of the adipose depots. Accordingly, to investigate the influence of the tissue origin on the intrinsic properties of ASCs and to assess their response to specific stimuli, we compared the biological, functional and ultrastructural properties of two ASC pools derived from mediastinal and subcutaneous depots (thoracic compartment by means of supplements such as platelet lysate (PL and FBS. Subcutaneous ASCs exhibited higher proliferative and clonogenic abilities than mediastinal counterpart, as well as increased secreted levels of IL-6 combined with lower amount of VEGF-C. In contrast, mediastinal ASCs displayed enhanced pro-angiogenic and adipogenic differentiation properties, increased cell diameter and early autophagic processes, highlighted by electron microscopy. Our results further support the hypothesis that the origin of adipose tissue significantly defines the biological properties of ASCs, and that a homogeneric function for all ASCs cannot be assumed.

  10. A multicenter, observational study of lanreotide depot/autogel (LAN) in patients with acromegaly in the United States: 2-year experience from the SODA registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatori, Roberto; Gordon, Murray B; Woodmansee, Whitney W; Ioachimescu, Adriana G; Carver, Don W; Mirakhur, Beloo; Cox, David; Molitch, Mark E

    2017-12-01

    This analysis evaluates the 2-year effectiveness and safety of lanreotide depot/autogel (LAN), as well as treatment convenience and acromegaly symptom relief, from the Somatuline ® Depot for Acromegaly (SODA) registry, a post-marketing, open-label, observational, multicenter, United States registry study. Patients with acromegaly treated with LAN were eligible for enrollment. Demographics, LAN dose, extended dosing interval (EDI) (interval of injections ≥42 days), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), growth hormone (GH), glycated hemoglobin, adverse events (AEs), injection convenience, and symptom data were collected. As of September 29, 2014, 241 patients were enrolled in SODA. IGF-1 levels below age- and gender-adjusted upper normal limit (ULN) were achieved in 71.2% at month (M) 12 and 74.4% at M24; GH ≤2.5 µg/L in 83.3% at M12 and 80.0% at M24; GH convenient. SODA indicates 2-year biochemical control with majority of patients achieving both IGF-1 < ULN and GH ≤2.5 µg/L. LAN was generally well tolerated with no new or unexpected safety signals reported during the observation period. clinicaltrials.gov Clinical Trial Identifier: NCT00686348.

  11. Functionalization of deproteinized bovine bone with a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2 renders the material efficiently osteoinductive and suppresses foreign-body reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Hunziker, Ernst B; Zheng, Yuanna; Wismeijer, Daniel; Liu, Yuelian

    2011-12-01

    The repair of critical-sized bony defects remains a challenge in the fields of implantology, maxillofacial surgery and orthopaedics. As an alternative bone-defect filler to autologous bone grafts, deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) is highly osteoconductive and clinically now widely used. However, this product suffers from the disadvantage of not being intrinsically osteoinductive. In the present study, this property was conferred by coating DBB with a layer of calcium phosphate into which bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was incorporated. Granules of DBB bearing a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2--together with the appropriate controls (DBB bearing a coating but no BMP-2; uncoated DBB bearing adsorbed BMP-2; uncoated DBB bearing no BMP-2)--were implanted subcutaneously in rats. Five weeks later, the implants were withdrawn for a histomorphometric analysis of the volume densities of (i) bone, (ii) bone marrow, (iii) foreign-body giant cells and (iv) fibrous capsular tissue. Parameters (i) and (ii) were highest, whilst parameters (iii) and (iv) were lowest in association with DBB bearing a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2. Hence, this mode of functionalization not only confers DBB with the property of osteoinductivity but also improves its biocompatibility--thus dually enhancing its clinical potential in the repair of bony defects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Permanent Access to the Records of Science - The International Role of the e-Depot at the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, National Library of the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard van Trier

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1994 the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (KB decided to include electronic publications in its deposit collection. This was considered as a logical extension of the deposit for printed publications already in place. In December 2002, after a few years of experimenting, the current e-Depot was delivered, with the IBM Digital Information and Archiving System (DIAS as its technical 'heart'. The e-Depot is now fully operational and imbedded in the KB organisation. The emergence of the electronic journal creates new challenges to the traditional deposit model. Because of the involvement of international publishers of Dutch origin, the e-Depot has had an international dimension right from the start. In 2002 the KB signed an historic electronic archiving agreement with Elsevier Science, which covered the entire set of Elsevier journals. This arrangement turned the KB into the first official digital archive in the world for journals published by international scientific publishers. A year later the KB concluded a similar agreement with Kluwer Academic Publishers. Other publishers followed, also from outside the Netherlands: Biomed Central, Blackwell, Oxford University Press, Taylor and Francis, Sage, Springer and Brill Academic Publishers. On the basis of these agreements the e-Depot will eventually hold 9 million articles. The annual increase in the number of articles from these publishers will be around 400,000. Publishers are required to deposit their publications free of charge. Access is restricted: only on-site, for any registered user of the KB. Remote access is only offered with permission of the publisher. On-site retrieval, access, printing, downloading is for private use only, systematic reproduction is not allowed. Documents are available for interlibrary document supply within the Netherlands. The archive serves as a guarantee to all licensees worldwide. In case of calamities or in case the publisher does not meet his obligations, the KB

  13. Developing cross entropy genetic algorithm for solving Two-Dimensional Loading Heterogeneous Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem (2L-HFVRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramestha, D. L.; Santosa, B.

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional Loading Heterogeneous Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem (2L-HFVRP) is a combination of Heterogeneous Fleet VRP and a packing problem well-known as Two-Dimensional Bin Packing Problem (BPP). 2L-HFVRP is a Heterogeneous Fleet VRP in which these costumer demands are formed by a set of two-dimensional rectangular weighted item. These demands must be served by a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles with a fix and variable cost from the depot. The objective function 2L-HFVRP is to minimize the total transportation cost. All formed routes must be consistent with the capacity and loading process of the vehicle. Sequential and unrestricted scenarios are considered in this paper. We propose a metaheuristic which is a combination of the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and the Cross Entropy (CE) named Cross Entropy Genetic Algorithm (CEGA) to solve the 2L-HFVRP. The mutation concept on GA is used to speed up the algorithm CE to find the optimal solution. The mutation mechanism was based on local improvement (2-opt, 1-1 Exchange, and 1-0 Exchange). The probability transition matrix mechanism on CE is used to avoid getting stuck in the local optimum. The effectiveness of CEGA was tested on benchmark instance based 2L-HFVRP. The result of experiments shows a competitive result compared with the other algorithm.

  14. On Teaching Problem Solving in School Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki Pehkonen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with a brief overview of the situation throughout the world regarding problem solving. The activities of the ProMath group are then described, as the purpose of this international research group is to improve mathematics teaching in school. One mathematics teaching method that seems to be functioning in school is the use of open problems (i.e., problem fields. Next we discuss the objectives of the Finnish curriculum that are connected with problem solving. Some examples and research results are taken from a Finnish–Chilean research project that monitors the development of problem-solving skills in third grade pupils. Finally, some ideas on “teacher change” are put forward. It is not possible to change teachers, but only to provide hints for possible change routes: the teachers themselves should work out the ideas and their implementation.

  15. Solving the SAT problem using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunava Bhattacharjee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose our genetic algorithm for solving the SAT problem. We introduce various crossover and mutation techniques and then make a comparative analysis between them in order to find out which techniques are the best suited for solving a SAT instance. Before the genetic algorithm is applied to an instance it is better to seek for unit and pure literals in the given formula and then try to eradicate them. This can considerably reduce the search space, and to demonstrate this we tested our algorithm on some random SAT instances. However, to analyse the various crossover and mutation techniques and also to evaluate the optimality of our algorithm we performed extensive experiments on benchmark instances of the SAT problem. We also estimated the ideal crossover length that would maximise the chances to solve a given SAT instance.

  16. AI tools in computer based problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.

  17. Local Strategy Improvement for Parity Game Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Friedmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of solving a parity game is at the core of many problems in model checking, satisfiability checking and program synthesis. Some of the best algorithms for solving parity game are strategy improvement algorithms. These are global in nature since they require the entire parity game to be present at the beginning. This is a distinct disadvantage because in many applications one only needs to know which winning region a particular node belongs to, and a witnessing winning strategy may cover only a fractional part of the entire game graph. We present a local strategy improvement algorithm which explores the game graph on-the-fly whilst performing the improvement steps. We also compare it empirically with existing global strategy improvement algorithms and the currently only other local algorithm for solving parity games. It turns out that local strategy improvement can outperform these others by several orders of magnitude.

  18. Contribution of problem-solving skills to fear of recurrence in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akechi, Tatuo; Momino, Kanae; Yamashita, Toshinari; Fujita, Takashi; Hayashi, Hironori; Tsunoda, Nobuyuki; Iwata, Hiroji

    2014-05-01

    Although fear of recurrence is a major concern among breast cancer survivors after surgery, no standard strategies exist that alleviate their distress. This study examined the association of patients' problem-solving skills and fear of recurrence and psychological distress among breast cancer survivors. Randomly selected, ambulatory, female patients with breast cancer participated in this study. They were asked to complete the Concerns about Recurrence Scale (CARS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine their associations. Data were obtained from 317 patients. Patients' problem-solving skills were significantly associated with all subscales of fear of recurrence and overall worries measured by the CARS. In addition, patients' problem-solving skills were significantly associated with both their anxiety and depression. Our findings warrant clinical trials to investigate effectiveness of psychosocial intervention program, including enhancing patients' problem-solving skills and reducing fear of recurrence among breast cancer survivors.

  19. Development and validation of a physics problem-solving assessment rubric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer Lynn

    Problem solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving throughout the educational system, there is no standard way to evaluate written problem solving that is valid, reliable, and easy to use. Most tests of problem solving performance given in the classroom focus on the correctness of the end result or partial results rather than the quality of the procedures and reasoning leading to the result, which gives an inadequate description of a student's skills. A more detailed and meaningful measure is necessary if different curricular materials or pedagogies are to be compared. This measurement tool could also allow instructors to diagnose student difficulties and focus their coaching. It is important that the instrument be applicable to any problem solving format used by a student and to a range of problem types and topics typically used by instructors. Typically complex processes such as problem solving are assessed by using a rubric, which divides a skill into multiple quasi-independent categories and defines criteria to attain a score in each. This dissertation describes the development of a problem solving rubric for the purpose of assessing written solutions to physics problems and presents evidence for the validity, reliability, and utility of score interpretations on the instrument.

  20. New method for solving multidimensional scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melezhik, V.S.

    1991-01-01

    A new method is developed for solving the quantum mechanical problem of scattering of a particle with internal structure. The multichannel scattering problem is formulated as a system of nonlinear functional equations for the wave function and reaction matrix. The method is successfully tested for the scattering from a nonspherical potential well and a long-range nonspherical scatterer. The method is also applicable to solving the multidimensional Schroedinger equation with a discrete spectrum. As an example the known problem of a hydrogen atom in a homogeneous magnetic field is analyzed

  1. Dreams and creative problem-solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Deirdre

    2017-10-01

    Dreams have produced art, music, novels, films, mathematical proofs, designs for architecture, telescopes, and computers. Dreaming is essentially our brain thinking in another neurophysiologic state-and therefore it is likely to solve some problems on which our waking minds have become stuck. This neurophysiologic state is characterized by high activity in brain areas associated with imagery, so problems requiring vivid visualization are also more likely to get help from dreaming. This article reviews great historical dreams and modern laboratory research to suggest how dreams can aid creativity and problem-solving. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Student Obstacles in Solving Algebraic Thinking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andini, W.; Suryadi, D.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this research is to analize the student obstacles on solving algebraic thinking problems in low grades elementary school. This research is a preliminary qualitative research, and involved 66 students of grade 3 elementary school. From the analysis student test results, most of student experience difficulty in solving algebraic thinking problems. The main obstacle is the student’s difficulty in understanding the problem of generalizing the pattern because the students are not accustomed to see the rules that exist in generalize the pattern.

  3. Vacuum engineering, calculations, formulas, and solved exercises

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Armand

    1992-01-01

    This book was written with two main objectives in mind-to summarize and organize the vast material of vacuum technology in sets of useful formulas, and to provide a collection of worked out exercises showing how to use these formulas for solving technological problems. It is an ideal reference source for those with little time to devote to a full mathematical treatment of the many problems issued in vacuum practice, but who have a working knowledge of the essentials of vacuum technology, elementary physics, and mathematics. This time saving book employs a problem-solving approach throughout, p

  4. Problem solving with genetic algorithms and Splicer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.

  5. A Novel Approach for Solving Semidefinite Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel linearizing alternating direction augmented Lagrangian approach is proposed for effectively solving semidefinite programs (SDP. For every iteration, by fixing the other variables, the proposed approach alternatively optimizes the dual variables and the dual slack variables; then the primal variables, that is, Lagrange multipliers, are updated. In addition, the proposed approach renews all the variables in closed forms without solving any system of linear equations. Global convergence of the proposed approach is proved under mild conditions, and two numerical problems are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented approach.

  6. Solving inversion problems with neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad; Gualtieri, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    A class of inverse problems in remote sensing can be characterized by Q = F(x), where F is a nonlinear and noninvertible (or hard to invert) operator, and the objective is to infer the unknowns, x, from the observed quantities, Q. Since the number of observations is usually greater than the number of unknowns, these problems are formulated as optimization problems, which can be solved by a variety of techniques. The feasibility of neural networks for solving such problems is presently investigated. As an example, the problem of finding the atmospheric ozone profile from measured ultraviolet radiances is studied.

  7. [Multiple meningiomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, L-M; François, P

    2016-06-01

    Multiple meningiomas (MMs) or meningiomatosis are defined by the presence of at least 2 lesions that appear simultaneously or not, at different intracranial locations, without the association of neurofibromatosis. They present 1-9 % of meningiomas with a female predominance. The occurrence of multiple meningiomas is not clear. There are 2 main hypotheses for their development, one that supports the independent evolution of these tumors and the other, completely opposite, that suggests the propagation of tumor cells of a unique clone transformation, through cerebrospinal fluid. NF2 gene mutation is an important intrinsic risk factor in the etiology of multiple meningiomas and some exogenous risk factors have been suspected but only ionizing radiation exposure has been proven. These tumors can grow anywhere in the skull but they are more frequently observed in supratentorial locations. Their histologic types are similar to unique meningiomas of psammomatous, fibroblastic, meningothelial or transitional type and in most cases are benign tumors. The prognosis of these tumors is eventually good and does not differ from the unique tumors except for the cases of radiation-induced multiple meningiomas, in the context of NF2 or when diagnosed in children where the outcome is less favorable. Each meningioma lesion should be dealt with individually and their multiple character should not justify their resection at all costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Attitude and practice of physical activity and social problem-solving ability among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Toshimasa; Kawachi, Yousuke; Abe, Chihiro; Otomo, Yuki; Sung, Yul-Wan; Ogawa, Seiji

    2017-04-04

    Effective social problem-solving abilities can contribute to decreased risk of poor mental health. In addition, physical activity has a favorable effect on mental health. These previous studies suggest that physical activity and social problem-solving ability can interact by helping to sustain mental health. The present study aimed to determine the association between attitude and practice of physical activity and social problem-solving ability among university students. Information on physical activity and social problem-solving was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. We analyzed data from 185 students who participated in the questionnaire surveys and psychological tests. Social problem-solving as measured by the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R) (median score 10.85) was the dependent variable. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for higher SPSI-R according to physical activity categories. The multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the ORs (95% CI) in reference to participants who said they never considered exercising were 2.08 (0.69-6.93), 1.62 (0.55-5.26), 2.78 (0.86-9.77), and 6.23 (1.81-23.97) for participants who did not exercise but intended to start, tried to exercise but did not, exercised but not regularly, and exercised regularly, respectively. This finding suggested that positive linear association between physical activity and social problem-solving ability (p value for linear trend social problem-solving ability.

  9. Investigation of Problem-Solving and Problem-Posing Abilities of Seventh-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Elif Esra; Ünal, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of multiple problem-solving skills on the problem-posing abilities of gifted and non-gifted students and to assess whether the possession of such skills can predict giftedness or affect problem-posing abilities. Participants' metaphorical images of problem posing were also explored. Participants were 20 gifted…

  10. Teaching Personal Finance Mathematical Problem Solving to Individuals with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Jenny; Saunders, Alicia; Spooner, Fred; Brosh, Chelsi

    2017-01-01

    The ability to solve mathematical problems related to purchasing and personal finance is important in promoting skill generalization and increasing independence for individuals with moderate intellectual disabilities (IDs). Using a multiple probe across participant design, this study investigated the effects of modified schema-based instruction…

  11. Students' Problem Solving as Mediated by Their Cognitive Tool Use: A Study of Tool Use Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Horton, L. R.; Corliss, S. B.; Svinicki, M. D.; Bogard, T.; Kim, J.; Chang, M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use multiple data sources, both objective and subjective, to capture students' thinking processes as they were engaged in problem solving, examine the cognitive tool use patterns, and understand what tools were used and why they were used. The findings of this study confirmed previous research and provided clear…

  12. Electrical Connections: Letters to Thomas Edison in Response to His Claim of Solving Incandescent Lighting, 1878.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazerman, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the way in which letters sent to Thomas Edison following the report that he had solved the problem of incandescent lighting reveal the many discursive worlds that Edison's work touched. Claims these letters indicate how a technological accomplishment is also a multiple, complex social, and communicative accomplishment, creating place and…

  13. Students' Errors in Solving the Permutation and Combination Problems Based on Problem Solving Steps of Polya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake in…

  14. The Effect of Learning Environments Based on Problem Solving on Students' Achievements of Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…

  15. Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…

  16. Teaching Problem Solving without Modeling through "Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Beverly C.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research relevant to the problem of unsatisfactory student problem-solving abilities and suggests a teaching strategy that addresses the issue. Author explains how she uses teaching aloud problem solving (TAPS) in college chemistry and presents evaluation data. Among the findings are that the TAPS class got fewer problems completely right,…

  17. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent......, need for structural changes in home and need for pension became greater with increasing physical handicap. No significant differences between gender were found. It is concluded that patients and relatives are under increased social strain, when multiple sclerosis progresses to a moderate handicap...

  18. Solving Problems with the Percentage Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, Dolly

    2013-01-01

    At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a…

  19. A Microgenetic Study of Insightful Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luwel, Koen; Siegler, Robert S.; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2008-01-01

    An eight-session microgenetic study of acquisition of an insightful problem-solving strategy was conducted. A total of 35 second graders who did not use this insightful strategy initially were assigned to two groups that differed in the frequency of problems likely to facilitate discovery and generalization of the strategy. Children in the…

  20. Perceptual Salience and Children's Multidimensional Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Richard D.; Corbin, David W.

    1973-01-01

    Uni- and multidimensional processing of 6- to 9-year olds was studied using recall tasks in which an array of stimuli was reconstructed to match a model array. Results indicated that both age groups were able to solve multidimensional problems, but that solution rate was retarded by the unidimensional processing of highly salient dimensions.…

  1. Problem Solving in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lindsay Lile

    2018-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as a critical component to becoming a self-determined individual. The development of this skill should be fostered in the early years through the use of age-appropriate direct and embedded activities. However, many early childhood teachers may not be providing adequate instruction in this area. This column provides a…

  2. Young Children's Drawings in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Way, Jennifer; Bobis, Janette

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores young children's drawings (6 years old) in early number and addition activities in Malaysia. Observation, informal interviews and analysis of drawings revealed two types of drawing, and gave insight into the transitional process required for children to utilise drawings in problem solving. We argue the importance of valuing and…

  3. Solving Mathematical Problems A Personal Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Terence

    2006-01-01

    Authored by a leading name in mathematics, this engaging and clearly presented text leads the reader through the tactics involved in solving mathematical problems at the Mathematical Olympiad level. With numerous exercises and assuming only basic mathematics, this text is ideal for students of 14 years and above in pure mathematics.

  4. Problem-Solving Strategies for Career Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBryde, Merry J.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    The need for new expertise in problem solving in the work setting has emerged as a woman's issue because work outside the home has become a primary means for personal goal attainment for about half the women in the United States and because traditional career patterns and norms are ineffective. Career planning is the process of individual career…

  5. Stuttering mostly speeds up solving parity games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cranen, S.; Keiren, J.J.A.; Willemse, T.A.C.; Bobaru, M.; Havelund, K.; Holzmann, G.J.; Joshi, R.

    2011-01-01

    We study the process theoretic notion of stuttering equivalence in the setting of parity games. We demonstrate that stuttering equivalent vertices have the same winner in the parity game. This means that solving a parity game can be accelerated by minimising the game graph with respect to stuttering

  6. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  7. Problem-Solving: Scaling the "Brick Wall"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Across the primary and secondary phases, pupils are encouraged to use and apply their knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics to solve problems in a variety of forms, ranging from single-stage word problems to the challenge of extended rich tasks. Amongst many others, Cockcroft (1982) emphasised the importance and relevance of…

  8. Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, José N.

    2014-01-01

    The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…

  9. Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil

    2011-01-01

    This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…

  10. Modeling visual problem solving as analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Andrew; Forbus, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We present a computational model of visual problem solving, designed to solve problems from the Raven's Progressive Matrices intelligence test. The model builds on the claim that analogical reasoning lies at the heart of visual problem solving, and intelligence more broadly. Images are compared via structure mapping, aligning the common relational structure in 2 images to identify commonalities and differences. These commonalities or differences can themselves be reified and used as the input for future comparisons. When images fail to align, the model dynamically rerepresents them to facilitate the comparison. In our analysis, we find that the model matches adult human performance on the Standard Progressive Matrices test, and that problems which are difficult for the model are also difficult for people. Furthermore, we show that model operations involving abstraction and rerepresentation are particularly difficult for people, suggesting that these operations may be critical for performing visual problem solving, and reasoning more generally, at the highest level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Foerder

    Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  12. Problem Solving Model for Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberida, H.; Lufri; Festiyed; Barlian, E.

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to develop problem solving model for science learning in junior high school. The learning model was developed using the ADDIE model. An analysis phase includes curriculum analysis, analysis of students of SMP Kota Padang, analysis of SMP science teachers, learning analysis, as well as the literature review. The design phase includes product planning a science-learning problem-solving model, which consists of syntax, reaction principle, social system, support system, instructional impact and support. Implementation of problem-solving model in science learning to improve students' science process skills. The development stage consists of three steps: a) designing a prototype, b) performing a formative evaluation and c) a prototype revision. Implementation stage is done through a limited trial. A limited trial was conducted on 24 and 26 August 2015 in Class VII 2 SMPN 12 Padang. The evaluation phase was conducted in the form of experiments at SMPN 1 Padang, SMPN 12 Padang and SMP National Padang. Based on the development research done, the syntax model problem solving for science learning at junior high school consists of the introduction, observation, initial problems, data collection, data organization, data analysis/generalization, and communicating.

  13. Supporting Organizational Problem Solving with a Workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    G. [., and Sussman, G. J. AMORD: Explicit Control or Reasoning. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Artificial Intellignece and Programming Languagues...0505 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AREA& WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545...extending ideas from the field of Artificial Intelligence (A), we describ office work as a problem solving activity. A knowledge embedding language called

  14. Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polland, Mark J.

    In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

  15. Problem solving environment for distributed interactive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rycerz, K.; Bubak, M.; Sloot, P.; Getov, V.; Gorlatch, S.; Bubak, M.; Priol, T.

    2008-01-01

    Interactive Problem Solving Environments (PSEs) offer an integrated approach for constructing and running complex systems, such as distributed simulation systems. To achieve efficient execution of High Level Architecture (HLA)-based distributed interactive simulations on the Grid, we introduce a PSE

  16. Solving jigsaw puzzles using image features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ture R.; Drewsen, Peter; Hansen, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe a method for automatic solving of the jigsaw puzzle problem based on using image features instead of the shape of the pieces. The image features are used for obtaining an accurate measure for edge similarity to be used in a new edge matching algorithm. The algorithm i...

  17. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  18. Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crul, Liselore

    2014-01-01

    This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…

  19. Quickfire Challenges to Inspire Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Suzanne R.; Cox, Dana C.

    2017-01-01

    In the authors' attempts to incorporate problem solving into their mathematics courses, they have found that student ambition and creativity are often hampered by feelings of risk, as many students are conditioned to value a produced solution over the actual process of building one. Eliminating risk is neither possible nor desired. The challenge,…

  20. Using Computer Simulations in Chemistry Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramiotis, Spyridon; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    This study is concerned with the effects of computer simulations of two novel chemistry problems on the problem solving ability of students. A control-experimental group, equalized by pair groups (n[subscript Exp] = n[subscript Ctrl] = 78), research design was used. The students had no previous experience of chemical practical work. Student…

  1. A method for solving neutron transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijevic, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The procedure for solving the transport equation by directly integrating for case one-dimensional uniform multigroup medium is shown. The solution is expressed in terms of linear combination of function H n (x,μ), and the coefficient is determined from given conditions. The solution is applied for homogeneous slab of critical thickness. (author)

  2. Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Bharath

    2004-01-01

    An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.

  3. [Problem-solving strategies and marital satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegelewicz, Olga

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between problem-solving strategies in the marital conflict and marital satisfaction. Four problem-solving strategies (Dialogue, Loyalty, Escalation of conflict and Withdrawal) were measured by the Problem-Solving Strategies Inventory, in two versions: self-report and report of partners' perceived behaviour. This measure refers to the concept of Rusbult, Johnson and Morrow, and meets high standards of reliability (alpha Cronbach from alpha = 0.78 to alpha = 0.94) and validity. Marital satisfaction was measured by Marriage Success Scale. The sample was composed of 147 marital couples. The study revealed that satisfied couples, in comparison with non-satisfied couples, tend to use constructive problem-solving strategies (Dialogue and Loyalty). They rarely use destructive strategies like Escalation of conflict or Withdrawal. Dialogue is the strategy connected with satisfaction in a most positive manner. These might be very important guidelines to couples' psychotherapy. Loyalty to oneself is a significant positive predictor of male satisfaction is also own Loyalty. The study shows that constructive attitudes are the most significant predictors of marriage satisfaction. It is therefore worth concentrating mostly on them in the psychotherapeutic process instead of eliminating destructive attitudes.

  4. Three-M in Word Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Sayonita Ghosh; Kofman, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    We describe three activities that help undergraduates (pre-service teachers) to develop scientific vocabulary on measurable attributes and units of measurement. Measurable attributes are important features in understanding a word problem and solving the problem. These activities help students comprehend word problems better by identifying…

  5. Neural Network to Solve Concave Games

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zixin; Wang, Nengfa

    2014-01-01

    The issue on neural network method to solve concave games is concerned. Combined with variational inequality, Ky Fan inequality, and projection equation, concave games are transformed into a neural network model. On the basis of the Lyapunov stable theory, some stability results are also given. Finally, two classic games’ simulation results are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  6. Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.

    2006-01-01

    Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…

  7. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  8. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E; Reiss, Diana

    2011-01-01

    The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  9. The Use of Transformations in Solving Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libeskind, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Many workshops and meetings with the US high school mathematics teachers revealed a lack of familiarity with the use of transformations in solving equations and problems related to the roots of polynomials. This note describes two transformational approaches to the derivation of the quadratic formula as well as transformational approaches to…

  10. Cooperative learning, problem solving and mediating artifacts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF.MIREKU

    10, 2012. 39. Cooperative learning, problem solving and mediating artifacts. F. Bahmaei6 & N. ... out cooperative learning in the end, post-test was done and by analyzing the tests it was concluded that ... Johnson et al, 1991 b, Reynolds et al. 1995, Vidakovic .... connection of mental constructs (Hiebert, Carpenter, 1992).

  11. Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…

  12. Behaviors of Problem-Solving Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bennis, Warren G

    1958-01-01

    The results of two studies are contained in this report in summary form. They represent the first parts of a program of research designed to study the effects of change and history on the on the behaviors of problem-solving Groups...

  13. A reflexive perspective in problem solving

    OpenAIRE

    Chio, José Angel; Álvarez, Aida; López, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to favour the methodological process of reflexive analysis in problem solving in the general teaching methods that concentrates in strengthening the dimensional analysis, to gain a greater preparation of the students for the solution of mathematical problems.

  14. Counterfactual Problem Solving and Situated Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glebkin V.V.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes and interprets data of a study on counterfactual problem solving in representatives of modern industrial culture. The study was inspired by similar experiments carried out by A.R. Luria during his expedition to Central Asia. The hypothesis of our study was that representatives of modern industrial culture would solve counterfactual puzzles at a slower rate and with higher numbers of mistakes than similar non-counterfactual tasks. The experiments we conducted supported this hypothesis as well as provided us with some insights as to how to further develop it. For instance, we found no significant differences in time lag in solving counterfactual and ‘realistic’ tasks between the subjects with mathematical and the ones with liberal arts education. As an interpretation of the obtained data, we suggest a two-stage model of counterfactual problem solving: on the first stage, where situated cognition dominates, the realistic situation is transferred into the system of symbols unrelated to this very situation; on the second stage, operations are carried out within the framework of this new system of symbols.

  15. Language and mathematical problem solving among bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Allan B I

    2002-05-01

    Does using a bilingual's 1st or 2nd language have an effect on problem solving in semantically rich domains like school mathematics? The author conducted a study to determine whether Filipino-English bilingual students' understanding and solving of word problems in arithmetic differed when the problems were in the students' 1st and 2nd languages. Two groups participated-students whose 1st language was Filipino and students whose 1st language was English-and easy and difficult arithmetic problems were used. The author used a recall paradigm to assess how students understood the word problems and coded the solution accuracy to assess problem solving. The results indicated a 1st-language advantage; that is, the students were better able to understand and solve problems in their 1st language, whether the 1st language was English or Filipino. Moreover, the advantage was more marked with the easy problems. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  16. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation Involving Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds - Design and Deployment Guidelines (Parris Island, SC, U.S. Marine Corp Recruit Depot, Site 45 Pilot Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) demonstration, involving subsurface injections of sodium permanganate (NaMnO4), was performed at the US Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), site 45 (Parris Island (PI), SC). The ground water was originally contaminated with perchloroe...

  17. Multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Ick; Ha, Choon Ho; Choi, Karp Shik

    1994-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell tumor that is thought to originate proliferation of a single clone of abnormal plasma cell resulting production of a whole monoclonal paraprotein. The authors experienced a case of multiple myeloma with severe mandibular osteolytic lesions in 46-year-old female. As a result of careful analysis of clinical, radiological, histopathological features, and laboratory findings, we diagnosed it as multiple myeloma, and the following results were obtained. 1. Main clinical symptoms were intermittent dull pain on the mandibular body area, abnormal sensation of lip and pain due to the fracture on the right clavicle. 2. Laboratory findings revealed M-spike, reversed serum albumin-globulin ratio, markedly elevated ESR and hypercalcemia. 3. Radiographically, multiple osteolytic punched-out radiolucencies were evident on the skull, zygoma, jaw bones, ribs, clavicle and upper extremities. Enlarged liver and increased uptakes on the lesional sites in RN scan were also observed. 4. Histopathologically, markedly hypercellular marrow with sheets of plasmoblasts and megakaryocytes were also observed.

  18. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two (12%) of a total of 366 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) had psychiatric admissions. Of these, 34 (81%) had their first psychiatric admission in conjunction with or after the onset of MS. Classification by psychiatric diagnosis showed that there was a significant positive correlation...

  19. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional investigation of 116 patients with multiple sclerosis, the social and sparetime activities of the patient were assessed by both patient and his/her family. The assessments were correlated to physical disability which showed that particularly those who were moderately disabled...

  20. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1990-01-01

    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...