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Sample records for solution standard partial

  1. PARALLEL SOLUTION METHODS OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan KARABULUT

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial differential equations arise in almost all fields of science and engineering. Computer time spent in solving partial differential equations is much more than that of in any other problem class. For this reason, partial differential equations are suitable to be solved on parallel computers that offer great computation power. In this study, parallel solution to partial differential equations with Jacobi, Gauss-Siedel, SOR (Succesive OverRelaxation and SSOR (Symmetric SOR algorithms is studied.

  2. Hausdorff continuous solutions of nonlinear partial differentail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was shown in [15] that very large classes of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDE's) have solutions which can be assimilated with usual measurable functions on the Euclidean domains of definition of the respective equations. In this paper the regularity of these solutions is improved significantly by showing that they ...

  3. Generalized solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rosinger, EE

    1987-01-01

    During the last few years, several fairly systematic nonlinear theories of generalized solutions of rather arbitrary nonlinear partial differential equations have emerged. The aim of this volume is to offer the reader a sufficiently detailed introduction to two of these recent nonlinear theories which have so far contributed most to the study of generalized solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations, bringing the reader to the level of ongoing research.The essence of the two nonlinear theories presented in this volume is the observation that much of the mathematics concernin

  4. Determining partial differential cross sections for low-energy electron photodetachment involving conical intersections using the solution of a Lippmann-Schwinger equation constructed with standard electronic structure techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungsuk; Yarkony, David R

    2011-05-07

    A method for obtaining partial differential cross sections for low energy electron photodetachment in which the electronic states of the residual molecule are strongly coupled by conical intersections is reported. The method is based on the iterative solution to a Lippmann-Schwinger equation, using a zeroth order Hamiltonian consisting of the bound nonadiabatically coupled residual molecule and a free electron. The solution to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation involves only standard electronic structure techniques and a standard three-dimensional free particle Green's function quadrature for which fast techniques exist. The transition dipole moment for electron photodetachment, is a sum of matrix elements each involving one nonorthogonal orbital obtained from the solution to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. An expression for the electron photodetachment transition dipole matrix element in terms of Dyson orbitals, which does not make the usual orthogonality assumptions, is derived.

  5. Symmetric solutions of evolutionary partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruell, Gabriele; Ehrnström, Mats; Geyer, Anna; Pei, Long

    2017-10-01

    We show that for a large class of evolutionary nonlinear and nonlocal partial differential equations, symmetry of solutions implies very restrictive properties of the solutions and symmetry axes. These restrictions are formulated in terms of three principles, based on the structure of the equations. The first principle covers equations that allow for steady solutions and shows that any spatially symmetric solution is in fact steady with a speed determined by the motion of the axis of symmetry at the initial time. The second principle includes equations that admit breathers and steady waves, and therefore is less strong: it holds that the axes of symmetry are constant in time. The last principle is a mixed case, when the equation contains terms of the kind from both earlier principles, and there may be different outcomes; for a class of such equations one obtains that a spatially symmetric solution must be constant in both time and space. We list and give examples of more than 30 well-known equations and systems in one and several dimensions satisfying these principles; corresponding results for weak formulations of these equations may be attained using the same techniques. Our investigation is a generalisation of a local and one-dimensional version of the first principle from Ehrnström et al (2009 Int. Math. Res. Not. 2009 4578-96) to nonlocal equations, systems and higher dimensions, as well as a study of the standing and mixed cases.

  6. Exact solutions of some nonlinear partial differential equations using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Articles Volume 81 Issue 2 August 2013 pp 225-236 ... Abstract. The functional variable method is a powerful solution method for obtaining exact solutions of some nonlinear partial differential equations. In this paper ... By using this useful method, we found some exact solutions of the above-mentioned equations.

  7. Moving Mesh for the Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA, F. S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present moving meshes for the numeric resolution of partial differential equations. We describe some important concepts on this topic and point to existing body of work for the solution of partial differential equations using the methods of finite volumes and finite elements, both with moving meshes.

  8. Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iroulard, M.G

    2007-04-15

    The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and

  9. Analytical solutions for systems of partial differential-algebraic equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhammouda, Brahim; Vazquez-Leal, Hector

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the application of the power series method (PSM) to find solutions of partial differential-algebraic equations (PDAEs). Two systems of index-one and index-three are solved to show that PSM can provide analytical solutions of PDAEs in convergent series form. What is more, we present the post-treatment of the power series solutions with the Laplace-Padé (LP) resummation method as a useful strategy to find exact solutions. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is that the procedure is based on a few straightforward steps and it does not generate secular terms or depends of a perturbation parameter.

  10. Mild Solutions of Neutral Stochastic Partial Functional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Govindan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the existence and uniqueness of a mild solution for a neutral stochastic partial functional differential equation using a local Lipschitz condition. When the neutral term is zero and even in the deterministic special case, the result obtained here appears to be new. An example is included to illustrate the theory.

  11. Elastic interaction of partially debonded circular inclusions. I. Theoretical solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kushch, V.I.; Shmegera, S.V.; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2010-01-01

    A complete solution has been obtained of the elasticity problem for a plane containing a finite array of partially debonded circular inclusions, regarded as the open-crack model of fibrous composite with interface damage. A general displacement solution of the single-inclusion problem has been...... derived by combining the complex potentials technique with the newly derived series expansions. This solution is valid for any non-uniform far load and is finite and exact in the case of polynomial far field. Applying the superposition principle expands this theory to the multiple inclusion problem...

  12. Partial surface tension of components of a solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptay, George

    2015-06-02

    First, extending the boundaries of the thermodynamic framework of Gibbs, a definition of the partial surface tension of a component of a solution is provided. Second, a formal thermodynamic relationship is established between the partial surface tensions of different components of a solution and the surface tension of the same solution. Third, the partial surface tension of a component is derived as a function of bulk and surface concentrations of the given component, using general equations for the thermodynamics of solutions. The above equations are derived without an initial knowledge of the Gibbs adsorption equation and without imposing any restrictions on the thickness or structure of the surface region of the solution. Only surface tension and the composition of the surface region are used as independent thermodynamic parameters, similar to Gibbs, who used only the surface tension of the solution and the relative surface excesses of the components. The final result formally coincides with the historical Butler equation (1932), but without its theoretical restrictions. (Butler used too many unnecessary model restrictions during his work: he started from the Gibbs adsorption equation, and he assumed the existence of a surface monolayer.) Thus, the renovated Butler equation has gained general validity in this article. It was applied to derive both the Langmuir equation and the Gibbs adsorption equation, but the latter two equations do not follow from each other. Thus, it is shown that logically (not historically) the renovated Butler equation is a root equation for surface tension and the adsorption of solutions. It can be used to perform calculations for specific systems if the corresponding specific experimental data/models are loaded into it. In this case, both surface tension and surface composition can be calculated from the renovated Butler equation, which cannot be done using the Gibbs adsorption equation alone.

  13. The standard partial molar volumes of ions in N-methylpyrrolidone at 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, A. N.

    2009-03-01

    The standard partial molar volumes of electrolytes and ions in N-methylpyrrolidone (MP) at 298.15 K are presented. Separate components of ionic volumes in solutions in MP at infinite dilution, overline {V_i^0 } , are considered. The influence of various volume effects on ion-solvent interactions is analyzed.

  14. On the Partial Analytical Solution of the Kirchhoff Equation

    KAUST Repository

    Michels, Dominik L.

    2015-09-01

    We derive a combined analytical and numerical scheme to solve the (1+1)-dimensional differential Kirchhoff system. Here the object is to obtain an accurate as well as an efficient solution process. Purely numerical algorithms typically have the disadvantage that the quality of solutions decreases enormously with increasing temporal step sizes, which results from the numerical stiffness of the underlying partial differential equations. To prevent that, we apply a differential Thomas decomposition and a Lie symmetry analysis to derive explicit analytical solutions to specific parts of the Kirchhoff system. These solutions are general and depend on arbitrary functions, which we set up according to the numerical solution of the remaining parts. In contrast to a purely numerical handling, this reduces the numerical solution space and prevents the system from becoming unstable. The differential Kirchhoff equation describes the dynamic equilibrium of one-dimensional continua, i.e. slender structures like fibers. We evaluate the advantage of our method by simulating a cilia carpet.

  15. Analytic solutions of a class of nonlinear partial differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia N. Petropoulou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We study a class of nonlinear partial differential equations, which can be connected with wave-type equations and Laplace-type equations, by using a functional-analytic technique. We establish primarily the existence and uniqueness of bounded solutions in the two-dimensional Hardy-Lebesque space of analytic functions with independent variables lying in the open unit disc. However these results can be modified to expand the domain of definition. The proofs have a constructive character enabling the determination of concrete and easily verifiable conditions, and the determination of the coefficients appearing in the power series solution. Illustrative examples are given related to the sine-Gordon equation, the Klein-Gordon equation, and to equations with nonlinear terms of algebraic, exponential and logistic type.

  16. On the Solution of Elliptic Partial Differential Equations on Regions with Corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-09

    In this report we investigate the solution of boundary value problems on polygonal domains for elliptic partial differential equations . We observe...efficient numerical algorithms. The results are illustrated by a number of numerical examples. On the solution of elliptic partial differential equations on...Solutions On the Solution of Elliptic Partial Differential Equations on Regions with Corners Kirill Serkh and Vladimir Rokhlin July 9, 2015 Contents 1

  17. Grid generation for the solution of partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    A general survey of grid generators is presented with a concern for understanding why grids are necessary, how they are applied, and how they are generated. After an examination of the need for meshes, the overall applications setting is established with a categorization of the various connectivity patterns. This is split between structured grids and unstructured meshes. Altogether, the categorization establishes the foundation upon which grid generation techniques are developed. The two primary categories are algebraic techniques and partial differential equation techniques. These are each split into basic parts, and accordingly are individually examined in some detail. In the process, the interrelations between the various parts are accented. From the established background in the primary techniques, consideration is shifted to the topic of interactive grid generation and then to adaptive meshes. The setting for adaptivity is established with a suitable means to monitor severe solution behavior. Adaptive grids are considered first and are followed by adaptive triangular meshes. Then the consideration shifts to the temporal coupling between grid generators and PDE-solvers. To conclude, a reflection upon the discussion, herein, is given.

  18. Convergence of exterior solutions to radial Cauchy solutions for $\\partial_t^2U-c^2\\Delta U=0$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Kristian Jenssen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Consider the Cauchy problem for the 3-D linear wave equation $\\partial_t^2U-c^2\\Delta U=0$ with radial initial data $U(0,x=\\Phi(x=\\varphi(|x|$, $U_t(0,x=\\Psi(x=\\psi(|x|$. A standard result states that $U$ belongs to $C([0,T];H^s(\\mathbb{R}^3$ whenever $(\\Phi,\\Psi\\in H^s\\times H^{s-1}(\\mathbb{R}^3$. In this article we are interested in the question of how U can be realized as a limit of solutions to initial-boundary value problems on the exterior of vanishing balls $B_\\varepsilon$ about the origin. We note that, as the solutions we compare are defined on different domains, the answer is not an immediate consequence of $H^s$ well-posedness for the wave equation.

  19. Intuitive Understanding of Solutions of Partially Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article uses diagrams that help the observer see how solutions of the wave equation and heat conduction equation are obtained. The analytical approach cannot necessarily show the mechanisms of the key to the solution without transforming the differential equation into a more convenient form by separation of variables. The visual clues based…

  20. Engineering Solution for the Uniform Strength of Partially Cracked Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elin A.; Hansen, Will; Brincker, Rune

    2005-01-01

    Significant computational resources are required to predict the remaining strength from numerical fracture analysis of a jointed plain concrete pavement that contains a partial depth crack. It is, therefore, advantageous when the failure strength can be adequately predicted with an engineering...

  1. Large Time Asymptotics for Solutions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, PL

    2010-01-01

    A large number of physical phenomena are modeled by nonlinear partial differential equations, subject to appropriate initial/boundary conditions. This title presents the constructive mathematical techniques. It deals with the asymptotic methods which include self-similarity, balancing argument, and matched asymptotic expansions

  2. Similarity and generalized finite-difference solutions of parabolic partial differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausing, A. M.

    1971-01-01

    Techniques are presented for obtaining generalized finite-difference solutions to partial differential equations of the parabolic type. It is shown that the advantages of similarity in the solution of similar problems are generally not lost if the solution to the original partial differential equations is effected in the physical plane by finite-difference methods. The analysis results in a considerable saving in computational effort in the solution of both similar and nonsimilar problems. Several examples, including both the heat-conduction equation and the boundary-layer equations, are given. The analysis also provides a practical means of estimating the accuracy of finite-difference solutions to parabolic equations.

  3. A direct algebraic method applied to obtain complex solutions of some nonlinear partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Huiqun [College of Mathematical Science, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China)], E-mail: hellozhq@yahoo.com.cn

    2009-02-15

    By using some exact solutions of an auxiliary ordinary differential equation, a direct algebraic method is described to construct the exact complex solutions for nonlinear partial differential equations. The method is implemented for the NLS equation, a new Hamiltonian amplitude equation, the coupled Schrodinger-KdV equations and the Hirota-Maccari equations. New exact complex solutions are obtained.

  4. Solution of partial differential equations on vector and parallel computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, J. M.; Voigt, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    The present status of numerical methods for partial differential equations on vector and parallel computers was reviewed. The relevant aspects of these computers are discussed and a brief review of their development is included, with particular attention paid to those characteristics that influence algorithm selection. Both direct and iterative methods are given for elliptic equations as well as explicit and implicit methods for initial boundary value problems. The intent is to point out attractive methods as well as areas where this class of computer architecture cannot be fully utilized because of either hardware restrictions or the lack of adequate algorithms. Application areas utilizing these computers are briefly discussed.

  5. Analytical solutions for squeeze flow with partial wall slip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laun, HM; Rady, M; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    Squeeze flow between parallel plates of a purely viscous material is considered for small gaps both for a Newtonian and power law fluid with partial wall slip. The results for the squeeze force as a function of the squeezing speed reduce to the Stefan and Scott equations in the no slip limit...... if plotted versus 1/H. The slope of the straight line is equal to 6 upsilon(s) whereas the intersect with the ordinate yields the effective Newtonian rim shear rate to be converted into the true rim shear rate by means of the power law exponent. The advantage of the new technique is the separation of bulk...

  6. Standardization of a 204Tl radioactive solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Mauro S; Koskinas, Marina F

    2003-02-01

    The standardization of 204Tl is described. The efficiency tracing technique was applied using 134Cs as tracer. The 4(pi)beta-gamma coincidence system was used for the calibration. The (Laboratorio de Metrologia Nuclear) has participated in this comparison in collaboration with the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes, from Rio de Janeiro. Independent results using different techniques were developed by each of these laboratories and included in the comparison.

  7. Exact Solutions for Some Fractional Partial Differential Equations by the Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng

    2013-01-01

    derivative. Based on a certain variable transformation, these fractional partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations of integer order. With the aid of mathematical software, a variety of exact solutions for them are obtained.

  8. Exact Solutions to the Fractional Differential Equations with Mixed Partial Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jiang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the solvability of nonlinear fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs with mixed partial derivatives is considered. The invariant subspace method is generalized and is then used to derive exact solutions to the nonlinear FPDEs. Some examples are solved to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the method.

  9. Reduced Differential Transform Method for Exact Solution of Parabolic and Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Giriraj MEHTI

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the paper is to obtain solution of parabolic, elliptical and coupled partial differential equation using Reduced Differential Transform Method (RDTM). The results are compared with solution obtained by other methods. It is observed that RDTM is easy to implement, accurate and efficient. It reduces volume of computation and save time.

  10. Reduced Differential Transform Method for Exact Solution of Parabolic and Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giriraj MEHTI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the paper is to obtain solution of parabolic, elliptical and coupled partial differential equation using Reduced Differential Transform Method (RDTM. The results are compared with solution obtained by other methods. It is observed that RDTM is easy to implement, accurate and efficient. It reduces volume of computation and save time.

  11. Common Workflow Service: Standards Based Solution for Managing Operational Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinio, A. W.; Hollins, G. A.

    2017-06-01

    The Common Workflow Service is a collaborative and standards-based solution for managing mission operations processes using techniques from the Business Process Management (BPM) discipline. This presentation describes the CWS and its benefits.

  12. A comparison of five standard methods for evaluating image intensity uniformity in partially parallel imaging MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerner, Frank L; Duong, Timothy; Stafford, R Jason; Clarke, Geoffrey D

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the utility of five different standard measurement methods for determining image uniformity for partially parallel imaging (PPI) acquisitions in terms of consistency across a variety of pulse sequences and reconstruction strategies. Images were produced with a phantom using a 12-channel head matrix coil in a 3T MRI system (TIM TRIO, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany). Images produced using echo-planar, fast spin echo, gradient echo, and balanced steady state free precession pulse sequences were evaluated. Two different PPI reconstruction methods were investigated, generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition algorithm (GRAPPA) and modified sensitivity-encoding (mSENSE) with acceleration factors (R) of 2, 3, and 4. Additionally images were acquired with conventional, two-dimensional Fourier imaging methods (R=1). Five measurement methods of uniformity, recommended by the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) were considered. The methods investigated were (1) an ACR method and a (2) NEMA method for calculating the peak deviation nonuniformity, (3) a modification of a NEMA method used to produce a gray scale uniformity map, (4) determining the normalized absolute average deviation uniformity, and (5) a NEMA method that focused on 17 areas of the image to measure uniformity. Changes in uniformity as a function of reconstruction method at the same R-value were also investigated. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether R-value or reconstruction method had a greater influence on signal intensity uniformity measurements for partially parallel MRI. Two of the methods studied had consistently negative slopes when signal intensity uniformity was plotted against R-value. The results obtained comparing mSENSE against GRAPPA found no consistent difference between GRAPPA and mSENSE with regard to signal intensity uniformity. The results of the two

  13. Study of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for finding exact analytical solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamruzzaman; Akbar, M Ali; Koppelaar, H

    2015-07-01

    Exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs) are obtained via the enhanced (G'/G)-expansion method. The method is subsequently applied to find exact solutions of the Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson (DSW) equation and the (2+1)-dimensional Painlevé integrable Burgers (PIB) equation. The efficiency of this method for finding these exact solutions is demonstrated. The method is effective and applicable for many other NPDEs in mathematical physics.

  14. Fast solution of elliptic partial differential equations using linear combinations of plane waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jordá, José M

    2016-02-01

    Given an arbitrary elliptic partial differential equation (PDE), a procedure for obtaining its solution is proposed based on the method of Ritz: the solution is written as a linear combination of plane waves and the coefficients are obtained by variational minimization. The PDE to be solved is cast as a system of linear equations Ax=b, where the matrix A is not sparse, which prevents the straightforward application of standard iterative methods in order to solve it. This sparseness problem can be circumvented by means of a recursive bisection approach based on the fast Fourier transform, which makes it possible to implement fast versions of some stationary iterative methods (such as Gauss-Seidel) consuming O(NlogN) memory and executing an iteration in O(Nlog(2)N) time, N being the number of plane waves used. In a similar way, fast versions of Krylov subspace methods and multigrid methods can also be implemented. These procedures are tested on Poisson's equation expressed in adaptive coordinates. It is found that the best results are obtained with the GMRES method using a multigrid preconditioner with Gauss-Seidel relaxation steps.

  15. A Table Lookup Method for Exact Analytical Solutions of Nonlinear Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Juan-Juan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A table lookup method for solving nonlinear fractional partial differential equations (fPDEs is proposed in this paper. Looking up the corresponding tables, we can quickly obtain the exact analytical solutions of fPDEs by using this method. To illustrate the validity of the method, we apply it to construct the exact analytical solutions of four nonlinear fPDEs, namely, the time fractional simplified MCH equation, the space-time fractional combined KdV-mKdV equation, the (2+1-dimensional time fractional Zoomeron equation, and the space-time fractional ZKBBM equation. As a result, many new types of exact analytical solutions are obtained including triangular periodic solution, hyperbolic function solution, singular solution, multiple solitary wave solution, and Jacobi elliptic function solution.

  16. Numerical Solutions for the Time and Space Fractional Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A. Gepreel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We implement relatively analytical techniques, the homotopy perturbation method, and variational iteration method to find the approximate solutions for time and space fractional Benjamin-Bona Mahony equation. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. These methods are used in applied mathematics to obtain the analytic approximate solutions for the nonlinear Bejamin-Bona Mahoney (BBM partial fractional differential equation. We compare between the approximate solutions obtained by these methods. Also, we present the figures to compare between the approximate solutions. Also, we use the fractional complex transformation to convert nonlinear partial fractional differential equations to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. We use the improved -expansion function method to find exact solutions of nonlinear fractional BBM equation.

  17. Exact solutions and maximal dimension of invariant subspaces of time fractional coupled nonlinear partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahadevan, R.; Prakash, P.

    2017-01-01

    We show how invariant subspace method can be extended to time fractional coupled nonlinear partial differential equations and construct their exact solutions. Effectiveness of the method has been illustrated through time fractional Hunter-Saxton equation, time fractional coupled nonlinear diffusion system, time fractional coupled Boussinesq equation and time fractional Whitman-Broer-Kaup system. Also we explain how maximal dimension of the time fractional coupled nonlinear partial differential equations can be estimated.

  18. Exact Solutions for Some Fractional Partial Differential Equations by the Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Bin

    2013-01-01

    We apply the method to seek exact solutions for several fractional partial differential equations including the space-time fractional (2 + 1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equations, the (2 + 1)-dimensional space-time fractional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov system, and the time fractional fifth-order Sawada-Kotera equation. The fractional derivative is defined in the sense of modified Riemann-liouville derivative. Based on a certain variable transformation, these fractional partial diffe...

  19. Exact Travelling Wave Solutions of two Important Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Bae, Jae-Hyeong; Sakthivel, Rathinasamy

    2014-04-01

    Coupled nonlinear partial differential equations describing the spatio-temporal dynamics of predator-prey systems and nonlinear telegraph equations have been widely applied in many real world problems. So, finding exact solutions of such equations is very helpful in the theories and numerical studies. In this paper, the Kudryashov method is implemented to obtain exact travelling wave solutions of such physical models. Further, graphic illustrations in two and three dimensional plots of some of the obtained solutions are also given to predict their behaviour. The results reveal that the Kudryashov method is very simple, reliable, and effective, and can be used for finding exact solution of many other nonlinear evolution equations.

  20. Constructing and predicting solitary pattern solutions for nonlinear time-fractional dispersive partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arqub, Omar Abu; El-Ajou, Ahmad; Momani, Shaher

    2015-07-01

    Building fractional mathematical models for specific phenomena and developing numerical or analytical solutions for these fractional mathematical models are crucial issues in mathematics, physics, and engineering. In this work, a new analytical technique for constructing and predicting solitary pattern solutions of time-fractional dispersive partial differential equations is proposed based on the generalized Taylor series formula and residual error function. The new approach provides solutions in the form of a rapidly convergent series with easily computable components using symbolic computation software. For method evaluation and validation, the proposed technique was applied to three different models and compared with some of the well-known methods. The resultant simulations clearly demonstrate the superiority and potentiality of the proposed technique in terms of the quality performance and accuracy of substructure preservation in the construct, as well as the prediction of solitary pattern solutions for time-fractional dispersive partial differential equations.

  1. Web Standards Solutions The Markup and Style Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Cederholm, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Welcome to the expanded second edition of Dan Cederholm's best-selling Web Standards Solutions. Web Standards are the standard technology specifications enforced by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to make sure that web designers and browser manufacturers are using the same technology syntax. It is important that these implementations are the same throughout the Web, otherwise it becomes a messy proprietary place, and lacks consistency. These standards also allow content to be more compatible with multiple different viewing devices, such as screen readers for people with vision impairments,

  2. The use of solution adaptive grids in solving partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. A.; Rai, M. M.

    1982-01-01

    The grid point distribution used in solving a partial differential equation using a numerical method has a substantial influence on the quality of the solution. An adaptive grid which adjusts as the solution changes provides the best results when the number of grid points available for use during the calculation is fixed. Basic concepts used in generating and applying adaptive grids are reviewed in this paper, and examples illustrating applications of these concepts are presented.

  3. Brane-world solutions, standard cosmology, and dark radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mukohyama, Shinji

    1999-01-01

    New exact solutions of brane-world cosmology are given. These solutions include an arbitrary constant C, which is determined by the geometry outside the brane and which affects the cosmological evolution in the brane-world. If C is zero, then the standard cosmology governs the brane-world as a low-energy effective cosmological theory. However, if C is not zero, then even in low-energy the brane-world cosmology gives predictions different from the standard one. The difference can be understood...

  4. Existence and regularity of local solutions to partial neutral functional differential equations with infinite delay

    OpenAIRE

    Hassane Bouzahir

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we establish results concerning, existence, uniqueness, global continuation, and regularity of integral solutions to some partial neutral functional differential equations with infinite delay. These equations find their origin in the description of heat flow models, viscoelastic and thermoviscoelastic materials, and lossless transmission lines models; see for example [15] and [38].

  5. Existence and regularity of local solutions to partial neutral functional differential equations with infinite delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassane Bouzahir

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish results concerning, existence, uniqueness, global continuation, and regularity of integral solutions to some partial neutral functional differential equations with infinite delay. These equations find their origin in the description of heat flow models, viscoelastic and thermoviscoelastic materials, and lossless transmission lines models; see for example [15] and [38].

  6. Numerical solution of two-dimensional non-linear partial differential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    differential equations using a hybrid method. The solution technique involves discritizing the non-linear system of partial differential equations (PDEs) to obtain a corresponding nonlinear system of algebraic difference equations to be solved at each time level. To linearize the resulting system of difference equations, Newton ...

  7. Methods for partial differential equations qualitative properties of solutions, phase space analysis, semilinear models

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, Marcelo R

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an overview of different topics related to the theory of partial differential equations. Selected exercises are included at the end of each chapter to prepare readers for the “research project for beginners” proposed at the end of the book. It is a valuable resource for advanced graduates and undergraduate students who are interested in specializing in this area. The book is organized in five parts: In Part 1 the authors review the basics and the mathematical prerequisites, presenting two of the most fundamental results in the theory of partial differential equations: the Cauchy-Kovalevskaja theorem and Holmgren's uniqueness theorem in its classical and abstract form. It also introduces the method of characteristics in detail and applies this method to the study of Burger's equation. Part 2 focuses on qualitative properties of solutions to basic partial differential equations, explaining the usual properties of solutions to elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic equations for the archetypes...

  8. Solutions of a partial differential equation related to the oplus operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchak Satsanit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the equation $$ oplus^ku(x=sum^{m}_{r=0}c_{r}oplus^{r}delta $$ where $oplus^k$ is the operator iterated k times and defined by $$ oplus^k=Big(Big(sum^p_{i=1}frac{partial^2}{partial x^2_i}Big^{4}-Big(sum^{p+q}_{j=p+1}frac{partial^2}{partial x^2_j}Big^{4}Big^k, $$ where $p+q=n$, $x=(x_1,x_2,dots,x_n$ is in the n-dimensional Euclidian space $mathbb{R}^n$, $c_{r}$ is a constant, $delta$ is the Dirac-delta distribution, $oplus^{0}delta=delta$, and $k=0,1,2,3,dots$. It is shown that, depending on the relationship between k and m, the solution to this equation can be ordinary functions, tempered distributions, or singular distributions.

  9. Solutions to over-determined systems of partial differential equations related to Hamiltonian stationary Lagrangian surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-Yen Chen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the over-determined system of partial differential equations $$ Big(frac{k}{f}Big_x+Big(frac{f}{k}Big_y=0, quad frac{f_{y}}{k}=frac{k_x}{f},quad Big(frac{f_y}{k}Big_y+Big(frac{k_x}{f}Big_x=-varepsilon fk,. $$ It was shown in [6, Theorem 8.1] that this system with $varepsilon=0$ admits traveling wave solutions as well as non-traveling wave solutions. In this article we solve completely this system when $varepsilone 0$. Our main result states that this system admits only traveling wave solutions, whenever $varepsilon e 0$.

  10. Relationship between the standards of removable partial denture construction, clinical acceptability, and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, R P; Brudvik, J S; Leroux, B; Milgrom, P; Hawkins, N

    2000-05-01

    Little is known about the importance of published fabrication standards in determining the outcome of treatment with mandibular distal extension removable partial dentures in patients of community practices. This study describes mandibular partial dentures worn by patients from King County, Wash., and examines the validity of standards of design and fabrication by relating the standards to measures of clinical acceptability and patient satisfaction. Eighty-two people treated in private dental practices who responded to a mail survey about satisfaction with a partial denture were examined. Eight standards of fabrication, overall clinical acceptability of the prosthesis, and tissue health were evaluated clinically. Patient satisfaction was assessed by questionnaire. Associations between variables were assessed by contingency tables and odds ratios. Half the prostheses met 4 or fewer of the 8 standards, and these were responsible for nearly all the displacement of tissue by the framework. Forty-three percent of the dentures (35/82) were rated clinically acceptable. Of the remaining dentures, 38 could be made acceptable by modifications. The remaining 9 dentures needed replacement. Sixty-three percent of the patients examined were satisfied with the dentures. There was a relationship between tissue health and the fabrication standards related to rest form, base extension, stress distribution, and framework fit. This study found no relation between tissue health and other design or fabrication features. None of the standards were found to be related to patient satisfaction. This study found partial support for the validity of design/fabrication standards for removable partial dentures. The most important standards are rest form, base extension, and stress distribution. The standards appear to be unrelated to patient satisfaction.

  11. Spreadsheet Implementation of Numerical and Analytical Solutions to Some Classical Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Lau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of numerical and analytical solutions of some of the classical partial differential equations using Excel spreadsheets. In particular, the heat equation, wave equation, and Laplace’s equation are presented herein since these equations have well known analytical solutions. The numerical solutions can be easily obtained once the differential equations are discretized via finite differences and then using cell formulas to implement the resulting recursive algorithms and other iterative methods such as the successive over-relaxation (SOR method. The graphing capabilities of spreadsheets can be exploited to enhance the visualization of the solutions to these equations. Furthermore, using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA can greatly facilitate the implementation of the analytical solutions to these equations, and in the process, one obtains Fourier series approximations to functions governing initial and/or boundary conditions.

  12. Analytical solutions for coupling fractional partial differential equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Li; Nieto, Juan J.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we consider the analytical solutions of coupling fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs) with Dirichlet boundary conditions on a finite domain. Firstly, the method of successive approximations is used to obtain the analytical solutions of coupling multi-term time fractional ordinary differential equations. Then, the technique of spectral representation of the fractional Laplacian operator is used to convert the coupling FPDEs to the coupling multi-term time fractional ordinary differential equations. By applying the obtained analytical solutions to the resulting multi-term time fractional ordinary differential equations, the desired analytical solutions of the coupling FPDEs are given. Our results are applied to derive the analytical solutions of some special cases to demonstrate their applicability.

  13. On exact solutions of the regularized long-wave equation: A direct approach to partially integrable equations. II. Periodic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, A.

    1995-07-01

    In this second of two articles (designated I and II), the bilinear transformation method is used to obtain stationary periodic solutions of the partially integrable regularized long-wave (RLW) equation. These solutions are expressed in terms of Riemann theta functions, and this approach leads to a new and compact expression for the important dispersion relation. The periodic solution (or cnoidal wave) can be represented as an infinite sum of sech2 ``solitary waves'': this remarkable property may be interpreted in the context of a nonlinear superposition principle. The RLW cnoidal wave approximates to a sinusoidal wave and a solitary wave in the limits of small and large amplitudes, respectively. Analytic approximations and error estimates are given which shed light on the character of the cnoidal wave in the different parameter regimes. Similar results are presented in brief for the related RLW Boussinesq (RLWB) equation.

  14. Interoperable and standard e-Health solution over Bluetooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, I; Del Valle, P; Munoz, P; Trigo, J D; Escayola, J; Martínez-Espronceda, M; Muñoz, A; Serrano, L; Garcia, J

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of e-Health demands open sensors and middleware components that permit transparent integration and end-to-end interoperability of new personal health devices. The use of standards seems to be the internationally adopted way to solve these problems. This paper presents the implementation of an end-to-end standards-based e-Health solution. This includes ISO/IEEE11073 standard for the interoperability of the medical devices in the patient environment and EN13606 standard for the interoperable exchange of the Electronic Healthcare Record. The design strictly fulfills all the technical features of the most recent versions of both standards. The implemented prototype has been tested in a laboratory environment to demonstrate its feasibility for its further transfer to the healthcare system.

  15. A Method for Generating Approximate Similarity Solutions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard application of similarity method to find solutions of PDEs mostly results in reduction to ODEs which are not easily integrable in terms of elementary or tabulated functions. Such situations usually demand solving reduced ODEs numerically. However, there are no systematic procedures available to utilize these numerical solutions of reduced ODE to obtain the solution of original PDE. A practical and tractable approach is proposed to deal with such situations and is applied to obtain approximate similarity solutions to different cases of an initial-boundary value problem of unsteady gas flow through a semi-infinite porous medium.

  16. Boundary-fitted coordinate systems for numerical solution of partial differential equations - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. F.; Warsi, Z. U. A.; Mastin, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive review of methods of numerically generating curvilinear coordinate systems with coordinate lines coincident with all boundary segments is given. Some general mathematical framework and error analysis common to such coordinate systems is also included. The general categories of generating systems are those based on conformal mapping, orthogonal systems, nearly orthogonal systems, systems produced as the solution of elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations, and systems generated algebraically by interpolation among the boundaries. Also covered are the control of coordinate line spacing by functions embedded in the partial differential operators of the generating system and by subsequent stretching transformation. Dynamically adaptive coordinate systems, coupled with the physical solution, and time-dependent systems that follow moving boundaries are treated. References reporting experience using such coordinate systems are reviewed as well as those covering the system development.

  17. On mixed derivatives type high dimensional multi-term fractional partial differential equations approximate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Imran; Belgacem, Fethi Bin Muhammad; Asif, Naseer Ahmad; Khalil, Hammad

    2017-01-01

    In this research article, we derive and analyze an efficient spectral method based on the operational matrices of three dimensional orthogonal Jacobi polynomials to solve numerically the mixed partial derivatives type multi-terms high dimensions generalized class of fractional order partial differential equations. We transform the considered fractional order problem to an easily solvable algebraic equations with the aid of the operational matrices. Being easily solvable, the associated algebraic system leads to finding the solution of the problem. Some test problems are considered to confirm the accuracy and validity of the proposed numerical method. The convergence of the method is ensured by comparing our Matlab software simulations based obtained results with the exact solutions in the literature, yielding negligible errors. Moreover, comparative results discussed in the literature are extended and improved in this study.

  18. Higher-order numerical solutions using cubic splines. [for partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, S. G.; Khosla, P. K.

    1975-01-01

    A cubic spline collocation procedure has recently been developed for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. In the present paper, this spline procedure is reformulated so that the accuracy of the second-derivative approximation is improved and parallels that previously obtained for lower derivative terms. The final result is a numerical procedure having overall third-order accuracy for a non-uniform mesh and overall fourth-order accuracy for a uniform mesh. Solutions using both spline procedures, as well as three-point finite difference methods, will be presented for several model problems.-

  19. Energy conserving norms for the solution of hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzburger, M. D.; Plemmons, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The hyperbolic system of partial differential equations with a real constant square coefficient matrix A is considered. The problem of finding an energy conserving norm for the solution of the system is reduced to the problem of characterizing those matrices appearing in the boundary conditions which satisfy two specific matrix equations. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the coefficient matrix A and the matrices appearing in boundary conditions are derived for an energy conserving norm. The conditions serve as criteria on a given system which determine whether or not the solution will have its energy conserved in some norm. Examples of specific systems and boundary conditions are also provided.

  20. Nonlinear grid error effects on numerical solution of partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    Finite difference solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations require discretizations and consequently grid errors are generated. These errors strongly affect stability and convergence properties of difference models. Previously such errors were analyzed by linearizing the difference equations for solutions. Properties of mappings of decadence were used to analyze nonlinear instabilities. Such an analysis is directly affected by initial/boundary conditions. An algorithm was developed, applied to nonlinear Burgers equations, and verified computationally. A preliminary test shows that Navier-Stokes equations may be treated similarly.

  1. Partial Melting of Solution-Spun Y1Ba2Cu3Ox Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tomoko; Sugishita, Takaaki

    1991-06-01

    A partial-melt growth process is used to enhance the Jc of solution-spun Y1Ba2Cu3Ox filaments. The filaments have been prepared by dry spinning through a homogeneous aqueous solution containing mixed acetates of Y, Ba and Cu, polyvinyl alcohol, and organic acids. By controlling the melt growth process of the filaments, dense and highly oriented textures are produced, and a transport critical current density of more than 1× 104 A/cm2 at 77 K and 0 T is achieved for the filaments, each with a diameter of 60 μm.

  2. Student Solutions Manual to Boundary Value Problems and Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, David L

    2005-01-01

    This student solutions manual accompanies the text, Boundary Value Problems and Partial Differential Equations, 5e. The SSM is available in print via PDF or electronically, and provides the student with the detailed solutions of the odd-numbered problems contained throughout the book.Provides students with exercises that skillfully illustrate the techniques used in the text to solve science and engineering problemsNearly 900 exercises ranging in difficulty from basic drills to advanced problem-solving exercisesMany exercises based on current engineering applications

  3. Operational Solution of Non-Integer Ordinary and Evolution-Type Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin V. Zhukovsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for the solution of linear differential equations (DE of non-integer order and of partial differential equations (PDE by means of inverse differential operators is proposed. The solutions of non-integer order ordinary differential equations are obtained with recourse to the integral transforms and the exponent operators. The generalized forms of Laguerre and Hermite orthogonal polynomials as members of more general Appèl polynomial family are used to find the solutions. Operational definitions of these polynomials are used in the context of the operational approach. Special functions are employed to write solutions of DE in convolution form. Some linear partial differential equations (PDE are also explored by the operational method. The Schrödinger and the Black–Scholes-like evolution equations and solved with the help of the operational technique. Examples of the solution of DE of non-integer order and of PDE are considered with various initial functions, such as polynomial, exponential, and their combinations.

  4. Standard Electrode Potentials Involving Radicals in Aqueous Solution: Inorganic Radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, David A.; Huie, Robert E.; Koppenol, Willem H.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Merenyi, Gabor; Neta, Pedatsur; Ruscic, Branko; Stanbury, David M.; Steenken, Steen; Wardman, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Recommendations are made for standard potentials involving select inorganic radicals in aqueous solution at 25 °C. These recommendations are based on a critical and thorough literature review and also by performing derivations from various literature reports. The recommended data are summarized in tables of standard potentials, Gibbs energies of formation, radical pKa’s, and hemicolligation equilibrium constants. In all cases, current best estimates of the uncertainties are provided. An extensive set of Data Sheets is appended that provide original literature references, summarize the experimental results, and describe the decisions and procedures leading to each of the recommendations

  5. Existence of pseudo almost periodic solutions for a class of partial functional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Sheng Ding

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we first introduce a new class of pseudo almost periodic type functions and investigate some properties of pseudo almost periodic type functions; and then we discuss the existence of pseudo almost periodic solutions to the class of abstract partial functional differential equations $x'(t=Ax(t+f(t,x_t$ with finite delay in a Banach space X.

  6. Stability analysis of multigrid acceleration methods for the solution of partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, John F.

    1990-01-01

    A calculation is made of the stability of various relaxation schemes for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. A multigrid acceleration method is introduced, and its effects on stability are explored. A detailed stability analysis of a simple case is carried out and verified by numerical experiment. It is shown that the use of multigrids can speed convergence by several orders of magnitude without adversely affecting stability.

  7. Existence of Solutions of a Partial Integrodifferential Equation with Thermostat and Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the mathematical analysis of a retarded partial integrodifferential equation that belongs to the class of thermostatted kinetic equations with time delay. Specifically, the paper is devoted to the proof of the existence and uniqueness of mild solutions of the related Cauchy problem. The main result is obtained by employing integration along the characteristic curves and successive approximations sequence arguments. Applications and perspective are also discussed within the paper.

  8. Partial melting of solution-spun (Y, Ho) 1Ba 2Cu 3O x filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tomoko; Shinzato, Masaru

    1993-07-01

    Partial melting of solution-spun (Y, Ho) 1Ba 2Cu 3O x filament is examined in order to enhance the reproducibility of the high Jc of the filament. The precursor filament was prepared by solution spinning through a homogeneous aqueous solution containing mixed acetates of Y, Ho, Ba and Cu, polyvinyl alcohol and organic acids. The substitution of Ho lowered the optimum partial-melted temperature to 1010°C. A high JcT value of more than 10 4 A/cm 2 at 77 K, 0 T that was reproducible appeared for the partially melted filament by applying a cooling rate of 40°C/h without the temperature gradient and without additional oxygenation. A maximum JcT value of 78 000 A/cm 2 at 77 K, 0 T was attained for the Y 0.75Ho 0.25Ba 2Cu 3O x filament. The micr microstructure presented in the filament is discussed as compared with the melt-textured bulk 123 superconductor.

  9. Stability of Standard Electrolytic Conductivity Solutions in Glass Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreiner, Rubina H.

    2002-01-01

    The stability of solutions having an electrolytic conductivity, κ, of 5 μS/cm to 100 000 μS/cm packaged in glass screw-cap bottles, glass serum bottles, and glass ampoules was monitored for 1 year to 2 years. The conductivity was determined by measuring the ac resistance of the solution. Mass loss was also monitored for solutions packaged in bottles. The solutions were prepared using KCl in water (κ ≥100 μS/cm) or KCl in 30 % (by mass) n-propanol 70 % (by mass) water (κ ≤ 15 μS/cm). The conductivity changes were compared by packaging type and by nominal κ. The main causes of the κ changes are evaporation (screw-cap bottles) and leaching (screw-cap bottles, serum bottles, and ampoules). Evaporation is determined from mass loss data; leaching occurs from the glass container with no change in mass. The choice of optimal packaging, which depends on the conductivity level, is the packaging in which κ changes the least with time. Ampoules are the most suitable packaging for standards having nominal κ values of 500 μS/cm to 100 000 μS/cm. Screw-cap bottles are most suitable for standards having a nominal κ of 5 μS/cm to 100 μS/cm. PMID:27446739

  10. Solutions to an advanced functional partial differential equation of the pantograph type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Ali A; Van Brunt, B; Wake, G C

    2015-07-08

    A model for cells structured by size undergoing growth and division leads to an initial boundary value problem that involves a first-order linear partial differential equation with a functional term. Here, size can be interpreted as DNA content or mass. It has been observed experimentally and shown analytically that solutions for arbitrary initial cell distributions are asymptotic as time goes to infinity to a certain solution called the steady size distribution. The full solution to the problem for arbitrary initial distributions, however, is elusive owing to the presence of the functional term and the paucity of solution techniques for such problems. In this paper, we derive a solution to the problem for arbitrary initial cell distributions. The method employed exploits the hyperbolic character of the underlying differential operator, and the advanced nature of the functional argument to reduce the problem to a sequence of simple Cauchy problems. The existence of solutions for arbitrary initial distributions is established along with uniqueness. The asymptotic relationship with the steady size distribution is established, and because the solution is known explicitly, higher-order terms in the asymptotics can be readily obtained.

  11. Vehicular ad hoc networks standards, solutions, and research

    CERN Document Server

    Molinaro, Antonella; Scopigno, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    This book presents vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) from the their onset, gradually going into technical details, providing a clear understanding of both theoretical foundations and more practical investigation. The editors gathered top-ranking authors to provide comprehensiveness and timely content; the invited authors were carefully selected from a list of who’s who in the respective field of interest: there are as many from Academia as from Standardization and Industry sectors from around the world. The covered topics are organized around five Parts starting from an historical overview of vehicular communications and standardization/harmonization activities (Part I), then progressing to the theoretical foundations of VANETs and a description of the day-one standard-compliant solutions (Part II), hence going into details of vehicular networking and security (Part III) and to the tools to study VANETs, from mobility and channel models, to network simulators and field trial methodologies (Part IV), and fi...

  12. Strong solutions for some nonlinear partial functional differential equations with infinite delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ezzinbi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we use the Kato approximation to prove the existence of strong solutions for partial functional differential equations with infinite delay. We assume that the undelayed part is $m$-accretive in Banach space and the delayed part is Lipschitz continuous. The phase space is axiomatically defined. Firstly, we show the existence of the mild solution in the sense of Evans. Secondly, when the Banach space has the Radon-Nikodym property, we prove the existence of strong solutions. Some applications are given for parabolic and hyperbolic equations with delay. The results of this work are extensions of the Kato-approximation results of Kartsatos and Parrot [8,9].

  13. Standardized Solution for Management Controller for MTCA.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, D.; Fenner, M.; Ludwig, F.; Mavrič, U.; Mielczarek, A.; Napieralski, A.; Perek, P.; Schlarb, H.

    2015-06-01

    The Micro Telecommunications Computing Architecture (MTCA) standard is a modern platform that is gaining popularity in the area of High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. The standard provides extensive management, monitoring and diagnostics functionalities. The hardware control and monitoring is based on the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI), that was initially developed for supervision of complex computers operation. The original IPMI specification was extended to support functions required by the MTCA specification. The Module Management Controller (MMC) is required on each Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC) installed in MTCA chassis. The Rear Transition Modules (RTMs) have to be equipped with RTM Management Controllers (RMCs) which is required by the MTCA.4 subsidiary specification. The commercially available implementations of MMC and RMC are expensive and do not provide the complete functionality that is required by specific HEP applications. Therefore, many research centers and commercial companies work on their own implementation of AMC and RTM controllers. The available implementations suffer because of lack of common approach and interoperability problems. Since both Lodz University of Technology (TUL) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) have long-term experience in developing ATCA and MTCA hardware, the authors decided to develop a unified solution of management controller fully compliant with AMC and MTCA.4 standards. The MMC v1.00 solution is dedicated for management of AMC and RTM modules. The MMC v1.00 is based on Atmel ATxmega MCUs and can be fully customized by the user or used as a drop-in-module without any modifications. The paper discusses the functionality of the MMC v1.00 solution. The implementation was verified with developed evaluation kits for AMC and RTM cards.

  14. A constrained backpropagation approach for the adaptive solution of partial differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Keith; Di Muro, Gianluca; Ferrari, Silvia

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a constrained backpropagation (CPROP) methodology for solving nonlinear elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs) adaptively, subject to changes in the PDE parameters or external forcing. Unlike existing methods based on penalty functions or Lagrange multipliers, CPROP solves the constrained optimization problem associated with training a neural network to approximate the PDE solution by means of direct elimination. As a result, CPROP reduces the dimensionality of the optimization problem, while satisfying the equality constraints associated with the boundary and initial conditions exactly, at every iteration of the algorithm. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated through several examples, including nonlinear elliptic and parabolic PDEs with changing parameters and nonhomogeneous terms.

  15. Numerical Solutions of Coupled Systems of Fractional Order Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a numerical method by using operational matrices of fractional order integrations and differentiations to obtain approximate solutions to a class of coupled systems of fractional order partial differential equations (FPDEs. We use shifted Legendre polynomials in two variables. With the help of the aforesaid matrices, we convert the system under consideration to a system of easily solvable algebraic equation of Sylvester type. During this process, we need no discretization of the data. We also provide error analysis and some test problems to demonstrate the established technique.

  16. An Analytical Solution of Partially Penetrating Hydraulic Fractures in a Box-Shaped Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method to give an analytical solution in Laplace domain directly that is used to describe pressure transient behavior of partially penetrating hydraulic fractures in a box-shaped reservoir with closed boundaries. The basic building block of the method is to solve diffusivity equation with the integration of Dirac function over the distance that is presented for the first time. Different from the traditional method of using the source solution and Green’s function presented by Gringarten and Ramey, this paper uses Laplace transform and Fourier transform to solve the diffusivity equation and the analytical solution obtained is accurate and simple. The effects of parameters including fracture height, fracture length, the position of the fracture, and reservoir width on the pressure and pressure derivative are fully investigated. The advantage of the analytical solution is easy to incorporate storage coefficient and skin factor. It can also reduce the amount of computation and compute efficiently and quickly.

  17. Isotherm-Based Thermodynamic Models for Solute Activities of Organic Acids with Consideration of Partial Dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Lucy; Ohm, Peter B; Dutcher, Cari S

    2016-06-23

    Organic acids make up a significant fraction of the organic mass in atmospheric aerosol particles. The calculation of gas-liquid-solid equilibrium partitioning of the organic acid is therefore critical for accurate determination of atmospheric aerosol physicochemical properties and processes such as new particle formation and activation to cloud condensation nuclei. Previously, an adsorption isotherm-based statistical thermodynamic model was developed for capturing solute concentration-activity relationships for multicomponent aqueous solutions over the entire concentration range (Dutcher et al. J. Phys. Chem. C/A 2011, 2012, 2013), with model parameters for energies of adsorption successfully related to dipole-dipole electrostatic forces in solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions for both electrolytes and organics (Ohm et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015). However, careful attention is needed for weakly dissociating semivolatile organic acids. Dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic acid and glutaric acid are treated here as a mixture of nondissociated organic solute (HA) and dissociated solute (H(+) + A(-)). It was found that the apparent dissociation was greater than that predicted by known dissociation constants alone, emphasizing the effect of dissociation on osmotic and activity coefficient predictions. To avoid additional parametrization from the mixture approach, an expression was used to relate the Debye-Hückel hard-core collision diameter to the adjustable solute-solvent intermolecular distance. An improved reference state treatment for electrolyte-organic aqueous mixtures, such as that observed here with partial dissociation, has also been proposed. This work results in predictive correlations for estimation of organic acid and water activities for which there is little or no activity data.

  18. Standard physics solution to the solar neutrino problem?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dar, A. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Physics

    1996-11-01

    The {sup 8}B solar neutrino flux predicted by the standard solar model (SSM) is consistent within the theoretical and experimental uncertainties with that at Kamiokande. The Gallium and Chlorine solar neutrino experiments, however, seem to imply that the {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux is strongly suppressed compared with that predicted by the SSM. If the {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux is suppressed, still it can be due to astrophysical effects not included in the simplistic SSM. Such effects include short term fluctuations or periodic variation of the temperature in the solar core, rotational mixing of {sup 3}He in the solar core, and dense plasma effects which may strongly enhance p-capture by {sup 7}Be relative to e-capture. The new generation of solar observations which already look non stop deep into the sun, like Superkamiokande through neutrinos, and SOHO and GONG through acoustic waves, may point at the correct solution. Only Superkamiokande and/or future solar neutrino experiments, such as SNO, BOREXINO and HELLAZ, will be able to find out whether the solar neutrino problem is caused by neutrino properties beyond the minimal standard electroweak model or whether it is just a problem of the too simplistic standard solar model. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs., refs.

  19. Analytic Approximation of Solutions of Parabolic Partial Differential Equations with Variable Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav V. Kravchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete family of solutions for the one-dimensional reaction-diffusion equation, uxx(x,t-q(xu(x,t=ut(x,t, with a coefficient q depending on x is constructed. The solutions represent the images of the heat polynomials under the action of a transmutation operator. Their use allows one to obtain an explicit solution of the noncharacteristic Cauchy problem with sufficiently regular Cauchy data as well as to solve numerically initial boundary value problems. In the paper, the Dirichlet boundary conditions are considered; however, the proposed method can be easily extended onto other standard boundary conditions. The proposed numerical method is shown to reveal good accuracy.

  20. LIMITS IN APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS TO INNOVATIVE CERAMIC SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gres Porcelain stoneware is a ceramic with a compact, hard, coloured and non-porous body. It is largely used as building materials, for a quality architecture, offering high resistance to impact, stress, wear, scratching, frost, chemical attach and stains. It is produced in flat tiles, billions of tons per year. A very prominent technology, based on a pyroclastic deformation, permits to obtain bended porcelain tiles as innovative solutions for a modern architecture. This technology is grounded on a proper combination of heavy machining by cutting tools and secondary firing in a kiln. This new element, the bended tile, can be used in several innovative applications (as steps, shelves, benches, radiators.... But, new functions require a better and in-depth knowledge of these materials, especially referring to the mechanical proprieties. This paper investigates the limits of applicability of ISO standards for the quality classification of ceramics and experimental measures of their mechanical proprieties.

  1. Study of the 125 GeV Standard Model Higgs Boson Partial Widths and Branching Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, Leandro G; Pokorski, Stefan; Wells, James D

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson, with mass known to better than the percent level, enables for the first time precision Higgs boson analyses. Toward this goal, we define an expansion formalism of the Higgs boson partial widths and branching fractions that facilitates such studies. This expansion yields the observables as a perturbative expansion around reference values of Standard Model input observables (quark masses, QCD coupling constant, etc.). We compute the coefficients of the expansion using state-of-the-art results. We also study the various sources of uncertainties in computing the partial widths and branching fractions more precisely. We discuss the impact of these results with efforts to discern new physics through precision Higgs boson studies.

  2. Global collocation methods for approximation and the solution of partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonoff, A.; Turkel, E.

    1986-01-01

    Polynomial interpolation methods are applied both to the approximation of functions and to the numerical solutions of hyperbolic and elliptic partial differential equations. The derivative matrix for a general sequence of the collocation points is constructed. The approximate derivative is then found by a matrix times vector multiply. The effects of several factors on the performance of these methods including the effect of different collocation points are then explored. The resolution of the schemes for both smooth functions and functions with steep gradients or discontinuities in some derivative are also studied. The accuracy when the gradients occur both near the center of the region and in the vicinity of the boundary is investigated. The importance of the aliasing limit on the resolution of the approximation is investigated in detail. Also examined is the effect of boundary treatment on the stability and accuracy of the scheme.

  3. Exact and Approximate Solutions of Fractional Partial Differential Equations for Water Movement in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninghu Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents solutions of the fractional partial differential equation (fPDE for analysing water movement in soils. The fPDE explains processes equivalent to the concept of symmetrical fractional derivatives (SFDs which have two components: the forward fractional derivative (FFD and backward fractional derivative (BFD of water movement in soils with the BFD representing the micro-scale backwater effect in porous media. The distributed-order time-space fPDE represents water movement in both swelling and non-swelling soils with mobile and immobile zones with the backwater effect operating at two time scales in large and small pores. The concept of flux-concentration relation is now updated to account for the relative fractional flux of water movement in soils.

  4. On the strong solution of a class of partial differential equations that arise in the pricing of mortgage backed securities

    KAUST Repository

    Parshad, Rana

    2011-01-01

    We consider a reduced form pricing model for mortgage backed securities, formulated as a non-linear partial differential equation. We prove that the model possesses a weak solution. We then show that under additional regularity assumptions on the initial data, we also have a mild solution. This mild solution is shown to be a strong solution via further regularity arguments. We also numerically solve the reduced model via a Fourier spectral method. Lastly, we compare our numerical solution to real market data. We observe interestingly that the reduced model captures a number of recent market trends in this data, that have escaped previous models.

  5. Open Partial Nephrectomy in Renal Cancer: A Feasible Gold Standard Technique in All Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Cozar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Partial nephrectomy (PN is playing an increasingly important role in localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC as a true alternative to radical nephrectomy. With the greater experience and expertise of surgical teams, it has become an alternative to radical nephrectomy in young patients when the tumor diameter is 4 cm or less in almost all hospitals since cancer-specific survival outcomes are similar to those obtained with radical nephrectomy. Materials and Methods. The authors comment on their own experience and review the literature, reporting current indications and outcomes including complications. The surgical technique of open partial nephrectomy is outlined. Conclusions. Nowadays, open PN is the gold standard technique to treat small renal masses, and all nonablative techniques must pass the test of time to be compared to PN. It is not ethical for patients to undergo radical surgery just because the urologists involved do not have adequate experience with PN. Patients should be involved in the final treatment decision and, when appropriate, referred to specialized centers with experience in open or laparoscopic partial nephrectomies.

  6. Tolerance of a standard intact protein formula versus a partially hydrolyzed formula in healthy, term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marunycz John D

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents who perceive common infant behaviors as formula intolerance-related often switch formulas without consulting a health professional. Up to one-half of formula-fed infants experience a formula change during the first six months of life. Methods The objective of this study was to assess discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance in healthy, term infants. Infants (335 were randomized to receive either a standard intact cow milk protein formula (INTACT or a partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formula (PH in a 60 day non-inferiority trial. Discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included number of infants who discontinued for any reason, including parent-assessed. Results Formula intolerance between groups (INTACT, 12.3% vs. PH, 13.7% was similar for infants who completed the study or discontinued due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance. Overall study discontinuance based on parent- vs. study physician-assessed intolerance for all infants (14.4 vs.11.1% was significantly different (P = 0.001. Conclusion This study demonstrated no difference in infant tolerance of intact vs. partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formulas for healthy, term infants over a 60-day feeding trial, suggesting nonstandard partially hydrolyzed formulas are not necessary as a first-choice for healthy infants. Parents frequently perceived infant behavior as formula intolerance, paralleling previous reports of unnecessary formula changes. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00666120

  7. On the singular solutions of nonlinear singular partial differential equations I

    OpenAIRE

    Tahara, Hidetoshi

    2001-01-01

    Let us consider the following nonlinear singular partial differential equation: $(t\\partial_{t})^{m}u=F(t,x,\\{(t\\partial_{t})^{j}\\partial_{x}^{\\alpha}u\\}_{j+|\\alpha|\\leq m,j0$ . Clearly $\\mathscr{S}_{log}\\supset \\mathscr{S}_{+}$ . The paper gives a sufficient condition for $\\mathscr{S}_{log}=\\mathscr{S}_{+}$ to be valid.

  8. Fixed point and anomaly mediation in partial {\\boldsymbol{N}}=2 supersymmetric standard models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the simple toroidal compactification of extra-dimensional SUSY theories, we investigate a partial N = 2 supersymmetric (SUSY) extension of the standard model which has an N = 2 SUSY sector and an N = 1 SUSY sector. We point out that below the scale of the partial breaking of N = 2 to N = 1, the ratio of Yukawa to gauge couplings embedded in the original N = 2 gauge interaction in the N = 2 sector becomes greater due to a fixed point. Since at the partial breaking scale the sfermion masses in the N = 2 sector are suppressed due to the N = 2 non-renormalization theorem, the anomaly mediation effect becomes important. If dominant, the anomaly-induced masses for the sfermions in the N = 2 sector are almost UV-insensitive due to the fixed point. Interestingly, these masses are always positive, i.e. there is no tachyonic slepton problem. From an example model, we show interesting phenomena differing from ordinary MSSM. In particular, the dark matter particle can be a sbino, i.e. the scalar component of the N = 2 vector multiplet of {{U}}{(1)}Y. To obtain the correct dark matter abundance, the mass of the sbino, as well as the MSSM sparticles in the N = 2 sector which have a typical mass pattern of anomaly mediation, is required to be small. Therefore, this scenario can be tested and confirmed in the LHC and may be further confirmed by the measurement of the N = 2 Yukawa couplings in future colliders. This model can explain dark matter, the muon g-2 anomaly, and gauge coupling unification, and relaxes some ordinary problems within the MSSM. It is also compatible with thermal leptogenesis.

  9. Analytic Approximate Solutions to the Boundary Layer Flow Equation over a Stretching Wall with Partial Slip at the Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Remus-Daniel; Marinca, Vasile; Marinca, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Analytic approximate solutions using Optimal Homotopy Perturbation Method (OHPM) are given for steady boundary layer flow over a nonlinearly stretching wall in presence of partial slip at the boundary. The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation by means of similarity transformations. Some examples are considered and the effects of different parameters are shown. OHPM is a very efficient procedure, ensuring a very rapid convergence of the solutions after only two iterations.

  10. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Approximation by Solutions of Partial Differential Equations, Quadrature Formulae, and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, M; Haussmann, W; Hayman, W; Rogge, L

    1992-01-01

    This volume consists of the proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Approximation by Solutions of Partial Differential Equations, Quadrature Formulae, and Related Topics, which was held at Hanstholm, Denmark. These proceedings include the main invited talks and contributed papers given during the workshop. The aim of these lectures was to present a selection of results of the latest research in the field. In addition to covering topics in approximation by solutions of partial differential equations and quadrature formulae, this volume is also concerned with related areas, such as Gaussian quadratures, the Pompelu problem, rational approximation to the Fresnel integral, boundary correspondence of univalent harmonic mappings, the application of the Hilbert transform in two dimensional aerodynamics, finely open sets in the limit set of a finitely generated Kleinian group, scattering theory, harmonic and maximal measures for rational functions and the solution of the classical Dirichlet problem. In ...

  11. A General Semi-Analytical Solution for Three Types of Well Tests in Confined Aquifers with a Partially Penetrating Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw-Yang Yang Hund-Der Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This note develops a general mathematical model for describing the transient hydraulic head response for constant-head test, constant-flux test, and slug test in a radial confined aquifer system with a partially penetrating well. The Laplace-domain solution for the model is derived by applying the Laplace transform with respect to time and finite Fourier cosine transform with respect to the z-direction. This new solution has been shown to reduce to the constant-head test when discounting the wellbore storage and maintaining a constant well water level. This solution can also be reduced to the constant-flux test solution when discounting the wellbore storage and keeping a constant pumping rate in the well. Moreover, the solution becomes the slug test solution when there is no pumping in the well. This general solution can be used to develop a single computer code to estimate aquifer parameters if coupled with an optimization algorithm or to assess the effect of well partial penetration on hydraulic head distribution for three types of aquifer tests.

  12. Stability of Standard Electrolytic Conductivity Solutions in Glass Containers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shreiner, Rubina H

    2002-01-01

    The stability of solutions having an electrolytic conductivity, κ , of 5 μS/cm to 100 000 μS/cm packaged in glass screw-cap bottles, glass serum bottles, and glass ampoules was monitored for 1 year to 2 years...

  13. Economic Impact of Routine Cavity Margins Versus Standard Partial Mastectomy in Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagpar, Anees B.; Horowitz, Nina R.; Killelea, Brigid K.; Tsangaris, Theodore; Longley, Peter; Grizzle, Sonia; Loftus, Michael; Li, Fangyong; Butler, Meghan; Stavris, Karen; Yao, Xiaopan; Harigopal, Malini; Bossuyt, Veerle; Lannin, Donald R.; Pusztai, Lajos; Davidoff, Amy J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to compare costs associated with excision of routine cavity shave margins (CSM) versus standard partial mastectomy (PM) in patients with breast cancer. Background Excision of CSM reduces re-excision rates by more than 50%. The economic implications of this is, however, unclear. Methods Between October 21, 2011 and November 25, 2013, 235 women undergoing PM for Stage 0–III breast cancer were randomized to undergo either standard PM (“no shave”, n = 116) or have additional CSM taken (“shave”, n = 119). Costs from both a payer and a hospital perspective were measured for index surgery and breast cancer surgery–related care through subsequent 90 days. Results The 2 groups were well-matched in terms of baseline characteristics. Those in the “shave” group had a longer operative time at the initial surgery (median 76 vs 66 min, P margins (13/119 = 10.9% vs 32/116 = 27.6%, P < 0.01). Actual direct hospital costs associated with operating room time ($1315 vs. $1137, P = 0.03) and pathology costs ($1195 vs $795, P < 0.01) were greater for the initial surgery in patients in the “shave” group. Taking into account the index surgery and the subsequent 90 days, there was no significant difference in cost from either the payer ($10,476 vs $11,219, P = 0.40) or hospital perspective ($5090 vs $5116, P = 0.37) between the “shave” and “no shave” groups. Conclusions Overall costs were not significantly different between the “shave” and “no shave” groups due to significantly fewer reoperative surgeries in the former. PMID:27192352

  14. Non-linear partial differential equations an algebraic view of generalized solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Rosinger, Elemer E

    1990-01-01

    A massive transition of interest from solving linear partial differential equations to solving nonlinear ones has taken place during the last two or three decades. The availability of better computers has often made numerical experimentations progress faster than the theoretical understanding of nonlinear partial differential equations. The three most important nonlinear phenomena observed so far both experimentally and numerically, and studied theoretically in connection with such equations have been the solitons, shock waves and turbulence or chaotical processes. In many ways, these phenomen

  15. A comparison of numerical solutions of partial differential equations with probabilistic and possibilistic parameters for the quantification of uncertainty in subsurface solute transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kejiang; Achari, Gopal; Li, Hua

    2009-11-03

    Traditionally, uncertainty in parameters are represented as probabilistic distributions and incorporated into groundwater flow and contaminant transport models. With the advent of newer uncertainty theories, it is now understood that stochastic methods cannot properly represent non random uncertainties. In the groundwater flow and contaminant transport equations, uncertainty in some parameters may be random, whereas those of others may be non random. The objective of this paper is to develop a fuzzy-stochastic partial differential equation (FSPDE) model to simulate conditions where both random and non random uncertainties are involved in groundwater flow and solute transport. Three potential solution techniques namely, (a) transforming a probability distribution to a possibility distribution (Method I) then a FSPDE becomes a fuzzy partial differential equation (FPDE), (b) transforming a possibility distribution to a probability distribution (Method II) and then a FSPDE becomes a stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE), and (c) the combination of Monte Carlo methods and FPDE solution techniques (Method III) are proposed and compared. The effects of these three methods on the predictive results are investigated by using two case studies. The results show that the predictions obtained from Method II is a specific case of that got from Method I. When an exact probabilistic result is needed, Method II is suggested. As the loss or gain of information during a probability-possibility (or vice versa) transformation cannot be quantified, their influences on the predictive results is not known. Thus, Method III should probably be preferred for risk assessments.

  16. A stopping criterion for the iterative solution of partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kaustubh; Malan, Paul; Perot, J. Blair

    2018-01-01

    A stopping criterion for iterative solution methods is presented that accurately estimates the solution error using low computational overhead. The proposed criterion uses information from prior solution changes to estimate the error. When the solution changes are noisy or stagnating it reverts to a less accurate but more robust, low-cost singular value estimate to approximate the error given the residual. This estimator can also be applied to iterative linear matrix solvers such as Krylov subspace or multigrid methods. Examples of the stopping criterion's ability to accurately estimate the non-linear and linear solution error are provided for a number of different test cases in incompressible fluid dynamics.

  17. Massive-scale data management using standards-based solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, J

    1999-01-01

    In common with many large institutes, CERN has traditionally developed and maintained its own data management solutions. Recently, a significant change of direction has taken place and we have now adopted commercial tools, together with a small amount of site- specific code, for this task. The solutions chosen were originally studied as part of research and development projects oriented towards the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is currently under construction at CERN. They have since been adopted not only by the LHC collaborations, which are due to take production data starting in 2005, but also by numerous current experiments, both at CERN and at other High Energy Physics laboratories. Previous experiments, that used data management tools developed in-house, are also studying a possible move to the new environment. To meet the needs of today's experiments, data rates of up to 35 MB/second and data volumes of many hundred TB per experiment must be supported. Data distribution to multiple sites must be pr...

  18. Solutions to $ar{partial}$-equations on strongly pseudo-convex domains with $L^p$-estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Abdelkader

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available We construct a solution to the $ar{partial}$-equation on a strongly pseudo-convex domain of a complex manifold. This is done for forms of type $(0,s$, $sgeq 1 $, with values in a holomorphic vector bundle which is Nakano positive and for complex valued forms of type $(r,s$, $1leq rleq n$, when the complex manifold is a Stein manifold. Using Kerzman's techniques, we find the $L^p$-estimates, $1leq pleq infty$, for the solution.

  19. Numerical Solution of the Fractional Partial Differential Equations by the Two-Dimensional Fractional-Order Legendre Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukang Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method is presented to obtain the approximate solutions of the fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs. The basic idea of this method is to achieve the approximate solutions in a generalized expansion form of two-dimensional fractional-order Legendre functions (2D-FLFs. The operational matrices of integration and derivative for 2D-FLFs are first derived. Then, by these matrices, a system of algebraic equations is obtained from FPDEs. Hence, by solving this system, the unknown 2D-FLFs coefficients can be computed. Three examples are discussed to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the proposed method.

  20. Solution of elliptic partial differential equations by fast Poisson solvers using a local relaxation factor. 2: Two-step method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S. C.

    1986-01-01

    A two-step semidirect procedure is developed to accelerate the one-step procedure described in NASA TP-2529. For a set of constant coefficient model problems, the acceleration factor increases from 1 to 2 as the one-step procedure convergence rate decreases from + infinity to 0. It is also shown numerically that the two-step procedure can substantially accelerate the convergence of the numerical solution of many partial differential equations (PDE's) with variable coefficients.

  1. Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations by Modified q-Homotopy Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheed N. Huseen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified q-homotopy analysis method (mq-HAM was proposed for solving nth-order nonlinear differential equations. This method improves the convergence of the series solution in the nHAM which was proposed in (see Hassan and El-Tawil 2011, 2012. The proposed method provides an approximate solution by rewriting the nth-order nonlinear differential equation in the form of n first-order differential equations. The solution of these n differential equations is obtained as a power series solution. This scheme is tested on two nonlinear exactly solvable differential equations. The results demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of the algorithm developed.

  2. Fast Time and Space Parallel Algorithms for Solution of Parabolic Partial Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, fast time- and Space -Parallel agorithms for solution of linear parabolic PDEs are developed. It is shown that the seemingly strictly serial iterations of the time-stepping procedure for solution of the problem can be completed decoupled.

  3. Soliton solutions for two nonlinear partial differential equations using a Darboux transformation of the Lax pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ji; Ren, Bo; Li, Hua-mei; Li, Yi-Shen

    2008-03-01

    Two Darboux transformations of the (1+1) -dimensional Wu-Zhang (WZ) equation and the two-component Camassa-Holm (2CH) system with the reciprocal transformation are obtained. One-loop and two-loop soliton solutions and multisoliton(like) solutions of the 2CH system are obtained by using the Darboux transformations and selecting different seed solutions of the corresponding equations. The bidirectional soliton solutions of the (1+1) -dimensional WZ equation are also obtained. The interactions of two-soliton head-on and overtaking collisions for the WZ equation and the evolution of the two-soliton(-like) solutions for the 2CH system are studied.

  4. Analysis of smoothing operators in the solution of partial differential equations by explicit difference schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, P.J. van der; Sommeijer, B.P.; Wubs, F.W.

    1990-01-01

    A smoothing technique for the “preconditioning” of the right-hand side of semidiscrete partial differential equations is analyzed. For a parabolic and a hyperbolic model problem, optimal smoothing matrices are constructed which result in a substantial amplification of the maximal stable integration

  5. Operational method of solution of linear non-integer ordinary and partial differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, K V

    2016-01-01

    We propose operational method with recourse to generalized forms of orthogonal polynomials for solution of a variety of differential equations of mathematical physics. Operational definitions of generalized families of orthogonal polynomials are used in this context. Integral transforms and the operational exponent together with some special functions are also employed in the solutions. The examples of solution of physical problems, related to such problems as the heat propagation in various models, evolutional processes, Black-Scholes-like equations etc. are demonstrated by the operational technique.

  6. A partial solution for Feynman's problem: A new derivation of the Weyl equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Inoue

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Associating classical mechanics to a system of partial differential equations, we give a procedure for Feynman-type quantization of a "Schrodinger-type equation with spin." Mathematically, we construct a "good parametrix" for the Weyl equation with an external electromagnetic field. Main ingredients are (i a new interpretation of the matrix structure using superanalysis and (ii another interpretation of the method of characteristics as a quantization procedure of Feynman type.

  7. Arrhenius' theory of partial dissociation and hydration of electrolytes in solutions replaces existing activity concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Raji Heyrovska

    2011-01-01

    The author shows that Arrhenius's theory of partial electrolytic dissociation was immaturely displaced about eight decades ago by the empirical concept of ionic activities and the assumption of complete dissociation of electrolytes at all concentrations. The latter brought the theory of electrolytes over the next decades into a complicated state without any physical significance. Therefore, the author started a systematic investigation of the available data and could completely restore t...

  8. Accurate Solutions of Stress Intensity Factors of Standard Fracture Test Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Saimoto, Akihide; Motomura, Fumitaka; Nisitani, Hironobu

    2010-01-01

    Practically exact solutions of stress intensity factor for several two-dimensional standard specimens were calculated and shown in numeric tables. The solutions were confirmed to converge until 6 significant figures through a systematical computation of discretization analysis. The convergence analyses were carried out by using a general purpose program based on a body force method.

  9. Boundedness and regularity of solutions of degenerate elliptic partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Seng-Kee

    2017-10-01

    We study quasilinear degenerate equations with their associated operators satisfying Sobolev and Poincaré inequalities. Our problems are similar to those in Sawyer and Wheeden (2006) [20], but we consider more general integral equations on abstract Sobolev spaces. Indeed, we provide a unified approach via abstract setting. Our main tool is Moser iteration. We obtain boundedness (assuming a weighted Sobolev embedding) of weak solutions and also Harnack inequalities for nonnegative solutions (assuming further that a weighted Poincaré inequality holds for their logarithm and existence of a sequence of cutoff functions) and hence Hölder's continuity of solutions. Our assumption is weaker than the above mentioned paper and other existing papers even in the case where the setting is on Rn; for example, we do not assume any doubling condition and we are able to deal with weighted estimates. Our results are new even when the leading term in the equations are vector fields that satisfy Hörmander's conditions.

  10. Blow up of mild solutions of a system of partial differential equations with distinct fractional diffusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Villa-Morales

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a sufficient condition for blow up of positive mild solutions to an initial value problem for a nonautonomous weakly coupled system with distinct fractional diffusions. The proof is based on the study of blow up of a particular system of ordinary differential equations.

  11. Physically-enhanced data visualisation: towards real time solution of Partial Differential Equations in 3D domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    Information provided by visualisation environments can be largely increased if the data shown is combined with some relevant physical processes and the used is allowed to interact with those processes. This is particularly interesting in VR environments where the user has a deep interplay with the data. For example, a geological seismic line in a 3D "cave" shows information of the geological structure of the subsoil. The available information could be enhanced with the thermal state of the region under study, with water-flow patterns in porous rocks or with rock displacements under some stress conditions. The information added by the physical processes is usually the output of some numerical technique applied to solve a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) that describes the underlying physics. Many techniques are available to obtain numerical solutions of PDE (e.g. Finite Elements, Finite Volumes, Finite Differences, etc). Although, all these traditional techniques require very large computational resources (particularly in 3D), making them useless in a real time visualization environment -such as VR- because the time required to compute a solution is measured in minutes or even in hours. We present here a novel alternative for the resolution of PDE-based problems that is able to provide a 3D solutions for a very large family of problems in real time. That is, the solution is evaluated in a one thousands of a second, making the solver ideal to be embedded into VR environments. Based on Model Order Reduction ideas, the proposed technique divides the computational work in to a computationally intensive "offline" phase, that is run only once in a life time, and an "online" phase that allow the real time evaluation of any solution within a family of problems. Preliminary examples of real time solutions of complex PDE-based problems will be presented, including thermal problems, flow problems, wave problems and some simple coupled problems.

  12. On substructuring algorithms and solution techniques for the numerical approximation of partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzburger, M. D.; Nicolaides, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Substructuring methods are in common use in mechanics problems where typically the associated linear systems of algebraic equations are positive definite. Here these methods are extended to problems which lead to nonpositive definite, nonsymmetric matrices. The extension is based on an algorithm which carries out the block Gauss elimination procedure without the need for interchanges even when a pivot matrix is singular. Examples are provided wherein the method is used in connection with finite element solutions of the stationary Stokes equations and the Helmholtz equation, and dual methods for second-order elliptic equations.

  13. Explicit solution for the natural frequency of structures with partial viscoelastic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2016-01-01

    The free vibration characteristics of structures with viscoelastic treatment are represented by the complex-valued natural frequencies. The assumed single mode representation associated with the low-frequency stiffness of the viscoelastic treatment is modified by a correction term representing...... the influence from residual vibration modes. The correction term is eliminated in terms of the corresponding natural frequency associated with the high-frequency stiffness of the viscoelastic treatment, whereby an expression is obtained for the complex-valued natural frequency, which only requires the solution...

  14. Increasing Diversity in the Sciences: a Partial Solution to the Challenge and the Benefits it Produces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givan, A. V.

    2009-12-01

    Science is supposed to be about talent devoid of the bias’ and judgments generated by background, gender, ethnicity or any culturally determined discriminators. The scientific, academic, corporate and government communities have a vested interest in developing models, practices and policies that significantly increase the number of U.S. graduates in scientific disciplines. Additionally, it is crucial that these graduates possess the essential competencies and creative problem solving skills to compete in the current global economy. The stakeholders (corporations, researchers, educational practitioners, policymakers and funders) who have the common goal of producing highly qualified scientists must commit to collaborate in developing innovative strategies and solutions to this complex challenge. Volumes of research data from a variety of sources such the social and cognitive sciences, educational psychology, National Science Foundation and non-profit groups have been and are available for use enabling us to rise to the challenge we have been charged with, and are responsible for the outcome. A proposed solution to part of the challenge and discussion of the impacts of increasing diversity in science will be discussed in this paper. The paper will address one element of the issue - strategies for the recruitment and retention of under-represented groups in science focusing on the historical and current culture, climate and barriers encountered by minorities as they progress through the educational system and career pathways. The paper will examine the benefits of diversity to the individual and society as a whole.

  15. Rheology of diluted and semi-diluted partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide solutions under shear: Experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM solutions were measured in oscillatory and flow shear. In oscillatory shear the storage and loss moduli increased as the concentrations of the solutions increased, but they decreased as salinity increased. The relaxation spectra were plotted using the Kontogiorgos method. As shown in the relaxation spectra, the number of density of segmental units increased at first and then the peaks shifted and split into several as the concentration increased. With salinity increasing, the number of motion units increase and the peaks of segmental units became broader. In flow shear tests, the curves of viscosity versus shear rate were fitted by a power law equation. The result showed that the flow behavior index decreased with increasing concentration, while it generally increased with increasing of salinity. Furthermore, the first normal stress difference increased as the concentration was increased, while it decreased as the salinity was increased. The first normal stress differences measured by the rheometer were compared with the first normal stress differences calculated by the Laun equation and the results showed that Laun equation deviates the experimental results.

  16. Electrical conductance of a sandstone partially saturated with varying concentrations of NaCl solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, R.; Nishiyama, N.; Katsura, M.; Nakashima, S.

    2017-05-01

    Electrical conductance G at 100 kHz of Berea sandstone initially saturated with varying NaCl concentrations was measured by an impedance meter at decreasing water saturation. The obtained conductance G values can be well simulated by the model equation composed of conductance of bulk pore water and that of mineral surfaces by introducing both tortuosities of bulk pore water τb and mineral surfaces τs. The surface conductivity Σs = 2.1 × 10- 10 S and the tortuosity of mineral surfaces τs = 2.6 in this equation can be valid for most of the data at varying water saturation except for the lowest water saturation (Sw = 0.05). The tortuosity of pore water τb increased from 1.7 at Sw = 1.0 to 15 at Sw = 0.05 with a power law relationship. The present electrical conduction model with double tortuosities of bulk pore water τb and mineral surfaces τs can be considered as an alternative expression of the combined Archie's first and second laws in terms of tortuosities and would be useful for describing conductance of electrolyte containing partially saturated rocks including very low water saturation.

  17. The adaptive CCCG({eta}) method for efficient solution of time dependent partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, F.F. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Birkett, N.R.C. [Oxford Univ. Computing Lab. (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The Controlled Cholesky factorisation has been shown to be a robust preconditioner for the Conjugate Gradient method. In this scheme the amount of fill-in is defined in terms of a parameter {eta}, the number of extra elements allowed per column. It is demonstrated how an optimum value of {eta} can be automatically determined when solving time dependent p.d.e.`s using an implicit time step method. A comparison between CCCG({eta}) and the standard ICCG solving parabolic problems on general grids shows CCCG({eta}) to be an efficient general purpose solver.

  18. Improvement of Physico-mechanical Properties of Partially Amorphous Acetaminophen Developed from Hydroalcoholic Solution Using Spray Drying Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Torab, Mansour; Khattab, Mostafa; Homayouni, Alireza; Afrasiabi Garekani, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): This study was performed aiming to investigate the effect of particle engineering via spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution on solid states and physico-mechanical properties of acetaminophen. Materials and Methods: Spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution (25% v/v ethanol/water) of acetaminophen (5% w/v) in the presence of small amounts of polyninylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP) (0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5% w/w based on acetaminophen weight) was carried out. The properties of spray dried particles namely morphology, surface characteristics, particle size, crystallinity, dissolution rate and compactibility were evaluated. Results: Spray drying process significantly changed the morphology of acetaminophen crystals from acicular (rod shape) to spherical microparticle. Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) studies ruled out any polymorphism in spray dried samples, however, a major reduction in crystallinity up to 65%, especially for those containing 5% w/w PVP was observed. Spray dried acetaminophen particles especially those obtained in the presence of PVP exhibited an obvious improvement of the dissolution and compaction properties. Tablets produced from spray dried samples exhibited excellent crushing strengths and no tendency to cap. Conclusions: The findings of this study revealed that spray drying of acetaminophen from hydroalcoholic solution in the presence of small amount of PVP produced partially amorphous particles with improved dissolution and excellent compaction properties. PMID:24379968

  19. Improvement of Physico-mechanical Properties of Partially Amorphous Acetaminophen Developed from Hydroalcoholic Solution Using Spray Drying Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadeghi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: This study was performed aiming to investigate the effect of particle engineering via spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution on solid states and physico-mechanical properties of acetaminophen.   Materials and Methods: Spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution (25% v/v ethanol/water of acetaminophen (5% w/v in the presence of small amounts of polyninylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP (0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5% w/w based on acetaminophen weight was carried out. The properties of spray dried particles namely morphology, surface characteristics, particle size, crystallinity, dissolution rate and compactibility were evaluated. Results: Spray drying process significantly changed the morphology of acetaminophen crystals from acicular (rod shape to spherical microparticle. Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD studies ruled out any polymorphism in spray dried samples, however, a major reduction in crystallinity up to 65%, especially for those containing 5% w/w PVP was observed. Spray dried acetaminophen particles especially those obtained in the presence of PVP exhibited an obvious improvement of the dissolution and compaction properties. Tablets produced from spray dried samples exhibited excellent crushing strengths and no tendency to cap. Conclusions: The findings of this study revealed that spray drying of acetaminophen from hydroalcoholic solution in the presence of small amount of PVP produced partially amorphous particles with improved dissolution and excellent compaction properties.

  20. Motion Artefacts in MRI: a Complex Problem with Many Partial Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Maxim; Maclaren, Julian.; Herbst, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Subject motion during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been problematic since its introduction as a clinical imaging modality. While sensitivity to particle motion or blood flow can be used to provide useful image contrast, bulk motion presents a considerable problem in the majority of clinical applications. It is one of the most frequent sources of artefacts. Over 30 years of research have produced numerous methods to mitigate or correct for motion artefacts, but no single method can be applied in all imaging situations. Instead, a ‘toolbox’ of methods exists, where each tool is suitable for some tasks, but not for others. This article reviews the origins of motion artefacts and presents current mitigation and correction methods. In some imaging situations, the currently available motion correction tools are highly effective; in other cases, appropriate tools still need to be developed. It seems likely that this multifaceted approach will be what eventually solves the motion sensitivity problem in MRI, rather than a single solution that is effective in all situations. This review places a strong emphasis on explaining the physics behind the occurrence of such artefacts, with the aim of aiding artefact detection and mitigation in particular clinical situations. PMID:25630632

  1. An Equation-Type Approach for the Numerical Solution of the Partial Differential Equations Governing Transport Phenomena in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shuyu

    2012-06-02

    A new technique for the numerical solution of the partial differential equations governing transport phenomena in porous media is introduced. In this technique, the governing equations as depicted from the physics of the problem are used without extra manipulations. In other words, there is no need to reduce the number of governing equations by some sort of mathematical manipulations. This technique enables the separation of the physics part of the problem and the solver part, which makes coding more robust and could be used in several other applications with little or no modifications (e.g., multi-phase flow in porous media). In this method, one abandons the need to construct the coefficient matrix for the pressure equation. Alternatively, the coefficients are automatically generated within the solver routine. We show examples of using this technique to solving several flow problems in porous media.

  2. DNA barcoding for identification of consumer-relevant mushrooms: A partial solution for product certification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Huzefa A; Baker, Timothy R; Little, Jason G; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2017-01-01

    One challenge in the dietary supplement industry is confirmation of species identity for processed raw materials, i.e. those modified by milling, drying, or extraction, which move through a multilevel supply chain before reaching the finished product. This is particularly difficult for samples containing fungal mycelia, where processing removes morphological characteristics, such that they do not present sufficient variation to differentiate species by traditional techniques. To address this issue, we have demonstrated the utility of DNA barcoding to verify the taxonomic identity of fungi found commonly in the food and dietary supplement industry; such data are critical for protecting consumer health, by assuring both safety and quality. By using DNA barcoding of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the rRNA gene with fungal specific ITS primers, ITS barcodes were generated for 33 representative fungal samples, all of which could be used by consumers for food and/or dietary supplement purposes. In the majority of cases, we were able to sequence the ITS region from powdered mycelium samples, grocery store mushrooms, and capsules from commercial dietary supplements. After generating ITS barcodes utilizing standard procedures accepted by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, we tested their utility by performing a BLAST search against authenticate published ITS sequences in GenBank. In some cases, we also downloaded published, homologous sequences of the ITS region of fungi inspected in this study and examined the phylogenetic relationships of barcoded fungal species in light of modern taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. We anticipate that these data will motivate discussions on DNA barcoding based species identification as applied to the verification/certification of mushroom-containing dietary supplements. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for its application as primary standard for partial pressure measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jousten, K; Bock, T [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Padilla-VIquez, G [Laboratorio Costarricense de MetrologIa (Lacomet), Ciudad de la Investigacion de la UCR, San Pedro de Montes de Oca (Costa Rica)], E-mail: Karl.jousten@ptb.de

    2008-03-01

    Partial pressures in vacuum systems can be quite accurately measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy in the infrared. To examine the possibility for its application as primary standard, for CO{sub 2} in the 2-{mu}m-region we made full traceability to the respective SI unit for each input quantity of the model, evaluated the results according to the ISO guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement, and validated the method successfully by comparison with gravimetrically produced samples of CO{sub 2} in N{sub 2}.

  4. Partial synthesis of ganglioside and lysoganglioside lipoforms as internal standards for MS quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Martin; Schwarzmann, Günter; Sandhoff, Konrad; Kolter, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Within recent years, ganglioside patterns have been increasingly analyzed by MS. However, internal standards for calibration are only available for gangliosides GM1, GM2, and GM3. For this reason, we prepared homologous internal standards bearing nonnatural fatty acids of the major mammalian brain gangliosides GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b, and of the tumor-associated gangliosides GM2 and GD2. The fatty acid moieties were incorporated after selective chemical or enzymatic deacylation of bovine brain gangliosides. For modification of the sphingoid bases, we developed a new synthetic method based on olefin cross metathesis. This method was used for the preparation of a lyso-GM1 and a lyso-GM2 standard. The total yield of this method was 8.7% for the synthesis of d17:1-lyso-GM1 from d20:1/18:0-GM1 in four steps. The title compounds are currently used as calibration substances for MS quantification and are also suitable for functional studies. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. 78 FR 14773 - U.S. Environmental Solutions Toolkit-Landfill Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... environmental technologies that will outline U.S. approaches to a series of environmental problems and highlight... Toolkit will refer users in foreign markets to U.S. approaches to solving environmental problems and to U... International Trade Administration U.S. Environmental Solutions Toolkit--Landfill Standards AGENCY...

  6. Assessment of NER solutions against the first and second CALBC Silver Standard Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Rebholz-Schuhmann (Dietrich); A. Jimeno-Yepes (Antonio); C. Li (Chen); S. Kafkas (Senay); I. Lewin (Ian); N. Kang (Ning); M.A. Corbett (Mark); D. Milward (David); E. Buyko (Ekaterina); E. Beisswanger (Elena); K. Hornbostel (Kerstin); A. Kouznetsov (Alexandre); R. Witte (René); J.B. Laurila (Jonas B); C.J.O. Baker (Christopher); C.-J. Kuo (Cheng-Ju); S. Clematide (Simone); F. Rinaldi (Fabio); R. Farkas (Richárd); G. Móra (György); K. Hara (Kazuo); L.I. Furlong (Laura); M. Rautschka (Michael); M.L. Neves (Mariana Lara); A. Pascual-Montano (Alberto); Q. Wei (Qi); N. Collier (Nigel); M.F.M. Chowdhury (Md Faisal Mahbub); A. Lavelli (Alberto); R. Berlanga (Rafael); R. Morante (Roser); V. Van Asch (Vincent); W. Daelemans (Walter); J.L. Marina (José Luís); E.M. Van Mulligen (Erik M.); J.A. Kors (Jan); U. Hahn (Udo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Competitions in text mining have been used to measure the performance of automatic text processing solutions against a manually annotated gold standard corpus (GSC). The preparation of the GSC is time-consuming and costly and the final corpus consists at the most of a few

  7. Standard specification for leak detector solutions intended for use on brasses and other copper alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for leak detector solutions suitable for use in checking the leakage of valves, pipes, fittings, joints, and so forth of a pressurized gas system fabricated from brasses and other copper alloys. 1.2 This specification deals with the stress corrosion cracking aspect of leak detector solutions. The effectiveness, chemical, physical and mechanical properties of leak detector solutions are not within the scope of this specification. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Dual-shaped offset reflector antenna designs from solutions of the geometrical optics first-order partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Israel, V.; Imbriale, W.; Shogen, K.; Mittra, R.

    1990-01-01

    In obtaining solutions to the first-order nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) for synthesizing offset dual-shaped reflectors, it is found that previously observed computational problems can be avoided if the integration of the PDEs is started from an inner projected perimeter and integrated outward rather than starting from an outer projected perimeter and integrating inward. This procedure, however, introduces a new parameter, the main reflector inner perimeter radius p(o), when given a subreflector inner angle 0(o). Furthermore, a desired outer projected perimeter (e.g., a circle) is no longer guaranteed. Stability of the integration is maintained if some of the initial parameters are determined first from an approximate solution to the PDEs. A one-, two-, or three-parameter optimization algorithm can then be used to obtain a best set of parameters yielding a close fit to the desired projected outer rim. Good low cross-polarization mapping functions are also obtained. These methods are illustrated by synthesis of a high-gain offset-shaped Cassegrainian antenna and a low-noise offset-shaped Gregorian antenna.

  9. Assessment of NER solutions against the first and second CALBC Silver Standard Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebholz-Schuhmann Dietrich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Competitions in text mining have been used to measure the performance of automatic text processing solutions against a manually annotated gold standard corpus (GSC. The preparation of the GSC is time-consuming and costly and the final corpus consists at the most of a few thousand documents annotated with a limited set of semantic groups. To overcome these shortcomings, the CALBC project partners (PPs have produced a large-scale annotated biomedical corpus with four different semantic groups through the harmonisation of annotations from automatic text mining solutions, the first version of the Silver Standard Corpus (SSC-I. The four semantic groups are chemical entities and drugs (CHED, genes and proteins (PRGE, diseases and disorders (DISO and species (SPE. This corpus has been used for the First CALBC Challenge asking the participants to annotate the corpus with their text processing solutions. Results All four PPs from the CALBC project and in addition, 12 challenge participants (CPs contributed annotated data sets for an evaluation against the SSC-I. CPs could ignore the training data and deliver the annotations from their genuine annotation system, or could train a machine-learning approach on the provided pre-annotated data. In general, the performances of the annotation solutions were lower for entities from the categories CHED and PRGE in comparison to the identification of entities categorized as DISO and SPE. The best performance over all semantic groups were achieved from two annotation solutions that have been trained on the SSC-I. The data sets from participants were used to generate the harmonised Silver Standard Corpus II (SSC-II, if the participant did not make use of the annotated data set from the SSC-I for training purposes. The performances of the participants’ solutions were again measured against the SSC-II. The performances of the annotation solutions showed again better results for DISO and SPE in

  10. Numerical solution of a non-linear conservation law applicable to the interior dynamics of partially molten planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Dan J.; Sanan, Patrick; Wolf, Aaron S.

    2018-01-01

    The energy balance of a partially molten rocky planet can be expressed as a non-linear diffusion equation using mixing length theory to quantify heat transport by both convection and mixing of the melt and solid phases. Crucially, in this formulation the effective or eddy diffusivity depends on the entropy gradient, ∂S / ∂r , as well as entropy itself. First we present a simplified model with semi-analytical solutions that highlights the large dynamic range of ∂S / ∂r -around 12 orders of magnitude-for physically-relevant parameters. It also elucidates the thermal structure of a magma ocean during the earliest stage of crystal formation. This motivates the development of a simple yet stable numerical scheme able to capture the large dynamic range of ∂S / ∂r and hence provide a flexible and robust method for time-integrating the energy equation. Using insight gained from the simplified model, we consider a full model, which includes energy fluxes associated with convection, mixing, gravitational separation, and conduction that all depend on the thermophysical properties of the melt and solid phases. This model is discretised and evolved by applying the finite volume method (FVM), allowing for extended precision calculations and using ∂S / ∂r as the solution variable. The FVM is well-suited to this problem since it is naturally energy conserving, flexible, and intuitive to incorporate arbitrary non-linear fluxes that rely on lookup data. Special attention is given to the numerically challenging scenario in which crystals first form in the centre of a magma ocean. The computational framework we devise is immediately applicable to modelling high melt fraction phenomena in Earth and planetary science research. Furthermore, it provides a template for solving similar non-linear diffusion equations that arise in other science and engineering disciplines, particularly for non-linear functional forms of the diffusion coefficient.

  11. Minimal nonuniversal electroweak extensions of the standard model: A chiral multiparameter solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Richard H.; Muñoz, Luis; Ponce, William A.; Rodríguez, Oscar; Rojas, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    We report the most general expression for the chiral charges of a nonuniversal U (1 )' with identical charges for the first two families but different charges for the third one. The model is minimal in the sense that only standard model fermions plus right-handed neutrinos are required. By imposing anomaly cancellation and constraints coming from Yukawa couplings, we obtain two different solutions. In one of these solutions, the anomalies cancel between fermions in different families. These solutions depend on four independent parameters which result very useful for model building. We build different benchmark models in order to show the flexibility of the parametrization. We also report LHC and low energy constraints for these benchmark models.

  12. Matrix-oriented implementation for the numerical solution of the partial differential equations governing flows and transport in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shuyu

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we introduce a new technique for the numerical solution of the various partial differential equations governing flow and transport phenomena in porous media. This method is proposed to be used in high level programming languages like MATLAB, Python, etc., which show to be more efficient for certain mathematical operations than for others. The proposed technique utilizes those operations in which these programming languages are efficient the most and keeps away as much as possible from those inefficient, time-consuming operations. In particular, this technique is based on the minimization of using multiple indices looping operations by reshaping the unknown variables into one-dimensional column vectors and performing the numerical operations using shifting matrices. The cell-centered information as well as the face-centered information are shifted to the adjacent face-center and cell-center, respectively. This enables the difference equations to be done for all the cells at once using matrix operations rather than within loops. Furthermore, for results post-processing, the face-center information can further be mapped to the physical grid nodes for contour plotting and stream lines constructions. In this work we apply this technique to flow and transport phenomena in porous media. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Effect of partial solution treatment on martensitic transformation of 12%Cr steels; 12% Cr ko no martensite hentai ni oyobosu bubun yotaika shori no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiyama, T.; Takai, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    When high chromium martensitic steels are subjected to partial solution treatment in (austenite+M23C6, carbide) two -phase region, not only the coarsening of austenite grains is effectively suppressed by insoluble-carbide particles, but also martensitic structure, which has formed during cooling, is refined through the treatment. In this study, the mechanism of refining of martensitic structure was discussed in Fe-12%Cr-C ternary alloys by investigating the relation between Ms temperature and solution treatment conditions, and the effect of insoluble-carbide particles on the substructures such as martensite-lath or -block. The Ms temperature of steels with full solution treatment simply depends on the content of C and Cr, but that of steels with partial solution treatment is dependent on the effective chemical composition of matrix, which is evaluated by taking the amount of C and Cr in insoluble-carbide away from their total content. Refining of martensite-block structure within grains is not caused directly by insoluble-carbide particles, but done indirectly through the refining of austenite grain size. While, on the martensite-lath structure, insoluble-carbide particles supply nucleation sites for laths, and work also as obstacles for growing laths. As a result, martensite-laths in steels with partial solution treatment are divided finely by insoluble carbide particles, and the arrangement of laths is tend to be confused. 14 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Comparison of Laboratories Directors’ and Assessors’ Opinions on Challenges and Solutions of Standardization in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaghi, Hamid; Abolhassani, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The quality medical laboratory services play a vital role in healthcare systems. Iran has set national standards based on the international standard ISO15189. These standards came into force in September 2007. Given the important role of both laboratories professional and assessors in the standardization, this study aims to compare and analyze medical laboratory directors’ and assessors’ opinions about this process, its challenges and relevant solutions. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted on two populations in 2013. The first survey population consisted of 150 assessors. The second group consisted of directors working in medical laboratory settings. From all universities of medical sciences, 258 medical laboratories were randomly selected. Data were gathered using two open-ended questionnaires and analyzed using the thematic analysis. Results: Challenges and relevant solutions regarding the standardization and standards, the assessment process and assessor, laboratories, external entities and contextual factors across laboratories directors and assessors were derived and compared. Both groups had a positive attitude towards the standardization process. However, they expressed some concerns regarding the process and accordingly proposed solutions to overcome the challenges. Conclusion: This study provides insights into the challenges and solutions of the standardization from two professional groups’ viewpoint. These two factors are closely related and should be considered when implementing standards since a positive perception of them increases the likelihood of successful standardization. Similarities and divergences regarding challenges and solutions of the standardization, in turn, can provide insights into how this process can be improved and deserve policy makers’ attention to continue the progress. PMID:25946940

  15. Comparison of laboratories directors' and assessors' opinions on challenges and solutions of standardization in Iran: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaghi, Hamid; Abolhassani, Nazanin

    2015-01-26

    The quality medical laboratory services play a vital role in healthcare systems. Iran has set national standards based on the international standard ISO15189. These standards came into force in September 2007. Given the important role of both laboratories professional and assessors in the standardization, this study aims to compare and analyze medical laboratory directors' and assessors' opinions about this process, its challenges and relevant solutions. This qualitative study was conducted on two populations in 2013. The first survey population consisted of 150 assessors. The second group consisted of directors working in medical laboratory settings. From all universities of medical sciences, 258 medical laboratories were randomly selected. Data were gathered using two open-ended questionnaires and analyzed using the thematic analysis. Challenges and relevant solutions regarding the standardization and standards, the assessment process and assessor, laboratories, external entities and contextual factors across laboratories directors and assessors were derived and compared. Both groups had a positive attitude towards the standardization process. However, they expressed some concerns regarding the process and accordingly proposed solutions to overcome the challenges. This study provides insights into the challenges and solutions of the standardization from two professional groups' viewpoint. These two factors are closely related and should be considered when implementing standards since a positive perception of them increases the likelihood of successful standardization. Similarities and divergences regarding challenges and solutions of the standardization, in turn, can provide insights into how this process can be improved and deserve policy makers' attention to continue the progress.

  16. Hyperosmolar irrigation compared with a standard solution in a canine shoulder arthroscopy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capito, Nicholas M; Smith, Matthew J; Stoker, Aaron M; Werner, Nikki; Cook, James L

    2015-08-01

    A hyperosmolar irrigation solution may decrease fluid extravasation during arthroscopic procedures. Demonstrating the safety of a hyperosmolar irrigation solution with respect to chondrocyte viability and cartilage water content was deemed necessary before designing a clinical efficacy study. We designed a translational animal model study in which hyperosmolar arthroscopy irrigation fluid (1.8%, 600 mOsm/L) was compared with normal saline (0.9%, 300 mOsm/L). Purpose-bred research dogs (n = 5) underwent bilateral shoulder arthroscopy. Irrigation fluid was delivered to each shoulder joint (n = 10) at 40 mm Hg for 120 minutes using standard ingress and egress portals. The percentage change in shoulder girth was documented at the completion of 120 minutes. Articular cartilage sections from the glenoid and humeral head were harvested from both shoulders. Chondrocyte viability and tissue water content were evaluated. Differences between groups and compared with time 0 controls were determined, with significance set at P irrigation solution used for arthroscopy was not associated with any detrimental effects on chondrocyte viability or tissue water content after 2 hours of arthroscopic irrigation. On the basis of potential benefits in conjunction with the safety demonstrated in these data, clinical evaluation of a hyperosmolar solution for irrigation during shoulder arthroscopy appears warranted. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic Impact of Routine Cavity Margins Versus Standard Partial Mastectomy in Breast Cancer Patients: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagpar, Anees B; Horowitz, Nina R; Killelea, Brigid K; Tsangaris, Theodore; Longley, Peter; Grizzle, Sonia; Loftus, Michael; Li, Fangyong; Butler, Meghan; Stavris, Karen; Yao, Xiaopan; Harigopal, Malini; Bossuyt, Veerle; Lannin, Donald R; Pusztai, Lajos; Davidoff, Amy J; Gross, Cary P

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare costs associated with excision of routine cavity shave margins (CSM) versus standard partial mastectomy (PM) in patients with breast cancer. Excision of CSM reduces re-excision rates by more than 50%. The economic implications of this is, however, unclear. Between October 21, 2011 and November 25, 2013, 235 women undergoing PM for Stage 0-III breast cancer were randomized to undergo either standard PM ("no shave", n = 116) or have additional CSM taken ("shave", n = 119). Costs from both a payer and a hospital perspective were measured for index surgery and breast cancer surgery-related care through subsequent 90 days. The 2 groups were well-matched in terms of baseline characteristics. Those in the "shave" group had a longer operative time at the initial surgery (median 76 vs 66 min, P margins (13/119 = 10.9% vs 32/116 = 27.6%, P < 0.01). Actual direct hospital costs associated with operating room time ($1315 vs. $1137, P = 0.03) and pathology costs ($1195 vs $795, P < 0.01) were greater for the initial surgery in patients in the "shave" group. Taking into account the index surgery and the subsequent 90 days, there was no significant difference in cost from either the payer ($10,476 vs $11,219, P = 0.40) or hospital perspective ($5090 vs $5116, P = 0.37) between the "shave" and "no shave" groups. Overall costs were not significantly different between the "shave" and "no shave" groups due to significantly fewer reoperative surgeries in the former.

  18. The principle of minimum of partial local variations for determining convective flows in the numerical solution of one-dimensional nonlinear scalar hyperbolic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloviznin, V. M.; Kanaev, A. A.

    2011-05-01

    For the CABARET finite difference scheme, a new approach to the construction of convective flows for the one-dimensional nonlinear transport equation is proposed based on the minimum principle of partial local variations. The new approach ensures the monotonicity of solutions for a wide class of problems of a fairly general form including those involving discontinuous and nonconvex functions. Numerical results illustrating the properties of the proposed method are discussed.

  19. Trace element analysis of extraterrestrial metal samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: the standard solutions and digesting acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiqin; Wu, Yangsiqian; Lin, Yangting

    2016-02-28

    Nearly 99% of the total content of extraterrestrial metals is composed of Fe and Ni, but with greatly variable trace element contents. The accuracy obtained in the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of solutions of these samples can be significantly influenced by matrix contents, polyatomic ion interference, and the concentrations of external standard solutions. An ICP-MS instrument (X Series 2) was used to determine 30 standard solutions with different concentrations of trace elements, and different matrix contents. Based on these measurements, the matrix effects were determined. Three iron meteorites were dissolved separately in aqua regia and HNO3. Deviations due to variation of matrix contents in the external standard solutions were evaluated and the analysis results of the two digestion methods for iron meteorites were assessed. Our results show obvious deviations due to unmatched matrix contents in the external standard solutions. Furthermore, discrepancy in the measurement of some elements was found between the sample solutions prepared with aqua regia and HNO3, due to loss of chloride during sample preparation and/or incomplete digestion of highly siderophile elements in iron meteorites. An accurate ICP-MS analysis method for extraterrestrial metal samples has been established using external standard solutions with matched matrix contents and digesting the samples with HNO3 and aqua regia. Using the data from this work, the Mundrabilla iron meteorite previously classified as IAB-ung is reclassified as IAB-MG. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part III. Renormalization equations and their solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica; INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In part I and II of this series of papers all elements have been introduced to extend, to two loops, the set of renormalization procedures which are needed in describing the properties of a spontaneously broken gauge theory. In this paper, the final step is undertaken and finite renormalization is discussed. Two-loop renormalization equations are introduced and their solutions discussed within the context of the minimal standard model of fundamental interactions. These equations relate renormalized Lagrangian parameters (couplings and masses) to some input parameter set containing physical (pseudo-)observables. Complex poles for unstable gauge and Higgs bosons are used and a consistent setup is constructed for extending the predictivity of the theory from the Lep1 Z-boson scale (or the Lep2 WW scale) to regions of interest for LHC and ILC physics. (orig.)

  1. Methods for constructing exact solutions of partial differential equations mathematical and analytical techniques with applications to engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Meleshko, Sergey V

    2005-01-01

    Differential equations, especially nonlinear, present the most effective way for describing complex physical processes. Methods for constructing exact solutions of differential equations play an important role in applied mathematics and mechanics. This book aims to provide scientists, engineers and students with an easy-to-follow, but comprehensive, description of the methods for constructing exact solutions of differential equations.

  2. Primary standardization of a {sup 177}Lu solution; Padronizacao primaria de uma solucao de {sup 177}Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, Akira; Silva, Carlos Jose da; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Estela Maria de, E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.b, E-mail: carlos@ird.gov.b, E-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.b, E-mail: estela@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rezende, Eduarda Alexandre, E-mail: eduarda@ird.gov.b [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Quimica (CEFET), Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For the purpose to make available reliable standards of {sup 177}Lu to the users and producers, a radionuclide solution was standardized using the primary methods of coincidence 4{pi}{beta}(PC)-{gamma}(NaI(Tl)) and of 4{pi}{beta}(LS)-{gamma}(NaI(Tl)). The results presented a convergence in the range of evaluated uncertainties. The standard uncertainties were of the 0.50 and 0.74% for the anticoincidence and coincidence respectively

  3. Designing amphotropic smectic liquid crystals based on phosphonium salts for partial ordering of solutes as monitored by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahkhatuni, Astghik A; Ma, Kefeng; Weiss, Richard G

    2009-04-02

    The ordering parameters of selected solutes from NMR spectroscopic measurements have been assessed in the thermotropic and amphotropic smectic liquid-crystalline phases of a wide structural range of phosphonium salts with three equivalent long n-alkyl chains, one shorter chain, and various anions. The nature of the added liquids that convert the salts to amphotropic phasesalcohols and other small organic moleculesand their concentrations have been determined. These factors are correlated with the NMR-derived parameters in order to understand how the phases can be optimized to maximize information about the solutes. The various salts cover a range of liquid crystallinity from -40 to 100 degrees C. The phosphonium salts are easily aligned in the strong magnetic fields of the spectrometers. In several of the systems, a coexistence of isotropic and anisotropic phases is observed over a wide range of temperatures. The order parameters of the amphotropic liquid-crystalline phases vary from high to very low values, and some of the systems provide good spectral resolution for the solute molecules. Also, structural and orientational parameters of a model molecule, (13)C-enriched acetonitrile, have been calculated in various systems in order to evaluate more precisely the applicability of the host systems for determining solute structures by NMR. The results, in toto, indicate that several of the phosphonium salts are very promising as hosts to determine solute structures.

  4. Effects of partial oxidation of PMAN carbon on their performance as anodes in 1M LiPF{sub 6}/EC-DMC solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Battery Development Dept.

    1996-12-31

    A study was undertaken to examine the effects of partial oxidation on the electrochemical performance of carbons derived from poly(methylacrylonitrile) (PMAN)-divinylbenzene (DVB) co-polymers. Mild oxidation was examined as a possible technique to increase the reversible capacity, improve cycleability, and reduce the amount of irreversible capacity associated with the formation of the passivation layer during the first reduction. Oxidizing conditions involved treatment of the PMAN carbon prepared at 700 C with dry CO{sub 2} or with steam at 600 C for one hour. The effects on the performance in 1M LiPF{sub 6}/ethylene carbonate (EC)-dimethyl carbonate (DMC) solutions were evaluated by galvanostatic cycling tests, complex-impedance spectroscopy, and, to a more limited extent, cyclic voltammetry. Partial oxidation of PMAN carbon showed little or no overall beneficial effects in performance relative to the control.

  5. Series expansion solutions for the multi-term time and space fractional partial differential equations in two- and three-dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, H.; Liu, F.; Turner, I.; Anh, V.; Burrage, K.

    2013-09-01

    Fractional partial differential equations with more than one fractional derivative in time describe some important physical phenomena, such as the telegraph equation, the power law wave equation, or the Szabo wave equation. In this paper, we consider two- and three-dimensional multi-term time and space fractional partial differential equations. The multi-term time-fractional derivative is defined in the Caputo sense, whose order belongs to the interval (1,2],(2,3],(3,4] or (0, m], and the space-fractional derivative is referred to as the fractional Laplacian form. We derive series expansion solutions based on a spectral representation of the Laplacian operator on a bounded region. Some applications are given for the two- and three-dimensional telegraph equation, power law wave equation and Szabo wave equation.

  6. Surface Analytical Study of CuInSe2 Treated in Cd-Containing Partial Electrolyte Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asher, S. E.; Ramanathan, K.; Wiesner H.; Moutinho, H. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Niles, D. W. (Hewlett-Packard Corporation)

    1998-11-19

    Junction formation in CuInSe2 (CIS) has been studied by exposing thin films and single-crystal samples to solutions containing NH4OH and CdSO4. The treated samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry to determine the amount and distribution of Cd deposited on the surface of the films. Cadmium is found to react with the surface for all the solution exposure times and temperatures studied. The reaction rapidly approaches the endpoint and remains relatively unchanged for subsequent solution exposure. Cadmium in-diffusion, as measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry, is obscured by topography effects in the thin-film samples and by ion-beam mixing and topography in the single-crystal sample.

  7. Comparison of the swelling kinetics of a partially neutralized poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel in distilled water and physiological solution

    OpenAIRE

    ALEKSANDAR KOSTIC; BORIVOJ ADNADJEVIC; ALEKSANDAR POPOVIC; JELENA JOVANOVIC

    2007-01-01

    The isothermal kinetics curves of the swelling of a poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel in distilled water and physiological solution at temperatures ranging from 20 to 40 ºC were determined. The possibility of applying both the Fick’s kinetics model and kinetics model of the first order chemical reaction to the swelling kinetics of the PAA hydrogel in distilled water and physiological solution were examined. It was found that the possibilities of applying these models were limited. The new model of ...

  8. A Semi-Analytical Solution for the Thickness-Vibration of Centrally Partially-Electroded Circular AT-Cut Quartz Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Dai, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Xintao; Qian, Zhenghua

    2017-01-01

    Vibration frequencies and modes for the thickness-shear vibrations of infinite partially-electroded circular AT-cut quartz plates are obtained by solving the two-dimensional (2D) scalar differential equation derived by Tiersten and Smythe. The Mathieu and modified Mathieu equations are derived from the governing equation using the coordinate transform and the collocation method is used to deal with the boundary conditions. Solutions of the resonant frequencies and trapped modes are validated by those results obtained from COMSOL software. The current study provides a theoretical way for figuring out the vibration analysis of circular quartz resonators. PMID:28783124

  9. Accurate determination of arsenic in arsenobetaine standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a by neutron activation analysis coupled with internal standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tsutomu; Chiba, Koichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Hioki, Akiharu; Matsue, Hideaki

    2010-09-15

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) coupled with an internal standard method was applied for the determination of As in the certified reference material (CRM) of arsenobetaine (AB) standard solutions to verify their certified values. Gold was used as an internal standard to compensate for the difference of the neutron exposure in an irradiation capsule and to improve the sample-to-sample repeatability. Application of the internal standard method significantly improved linearity of the calibration curve up to 1 microg of As, too. The analytical reliability of the proposed method was evaluated by k(0)-standardization NAA. The analytical results of As in AB standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a were (499+/-55)mgkg(-1) (k=2) and (10.16+/-0.15)mgkg(-1) (k=2), respectively. These values were found to be 15-20% higher than the certified values. The between-bottle variation of BCR-626 was much larger than the expanded uncertainty of the certified value, although that of NMIJ CRM 7901-a was almost negligible. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Standard molar Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of solvation of low polar solutes in formamide derivatives at 298 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedov, I.A., E-mail: igor_sedov@inbox.ru; Magsumov, T.I.; Stolov, M.A.; Solomonov, B.N.

    2016-01-10

    Highlights: • Standard molar enthalpies of solution of low polar solutes in NMF were measured. • Limiting activity coefficients in NMF were measured. • The solvophobic effects are present but weaker in NMF than in formamide. • We can tune the solvophobic effects by mixing NMF or formamide with other solvents. - Abstract: Novel experimental values of the limiting activity coefficients and standard molar enthalpies of solution in N-methylformamide at 298.15 K are reported and used to calculate the thermodynamic functions of solvation. We compare the plots of the standard molar Gibbs free energy against the standard molar enthalpy of solvation of low polar molecules in N-methylformamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, and formamide. The solvophobic effect is responsible for the deviations of the data points from the straight line corresponding to a correlation between thermodynamic functions of solvation in aprotic solvents. It is shown that the solvophobic effects are strong in formamide solutions, significantly weaker in N-methylformamide, and very weak in N,N-dimethylformamide, which coincides with the average number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds per unit volume of these solvents. Behavior of solutions in binary solvents composed of N-methylformamide or formamide mixed with water and ethylene glycol and a possibility to tune the solvophobic effect by changing the solvent composition are also considered.

  11. Evaluating Microtox as a tool for biodegradability assessment of partially treated solutions of pesticides using Fe3+ and TiO2 solar photo-assisted processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapertot, Milena; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Oller, Isabel; Maldonado, Manuel I; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Malato, Sixto; Pulgarín, César

    2008-03-01

    To shorten phototreatment time is of major concern for the cost and energy benefits of the xenobiotics degradation performed by photocatalytic processes. Using photo-Fenton and TiO(2) phototreatments, partially photodegraded solutions of 6 separate pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron, isoproturon and pentachlorophenol) were tested for biocompatibility, which was evaluated according to the Zahn-Wellens procedure. This study investigated if Microtox could be considered as a suitable global indicator capable of giving information on the evolution of biocompatibility of the water solution contaminated with organic pollutants during the phototreatment in order to promote biotreatment. The obtained results demonstrated that biodegradability increased significantly after short photo-Fenton treatment times for alachlor, diuron and pentachlorophenol. Uncertain results were obtained with atrazine and isoproturon. Microtox acute toxicity testing was shown to correctly represent dynamics and efficiency of phototreatment.

  12. Prediction of Setschenow constants of N-heteroaromatics in NaCl solutions based on the partial charge on the heterocyclic nitrogen atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng; Sun, Feifei; Zhu, Jingke

    2016-02-01

    The solubilities of 19 different kinds of N-heteroaromatic compounds in aqueous solutions with different concentrations of NaCl were determined at 298.15 K with a UV-vis spectrophotometry and titration method, respectively. Setschenow constants, Ks, were employed to describe the solubility behavior, and it is found that the higher ring numbers of N-heteroaromatics gave rise to the lower values of Ks. Moreover, Ks showed a good linear relationship with the partial charge on the nitrogen atom (QN) for either QN > 0 or QN salting-out effect for N-heteroaromatics compared to the conventional descriptors such as molar volume (VH) and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow). The heterocyclic N in N-heteroaromatics may interact with Na(+) ions in NaCl solution for QN 0.

  13. Investigation into the temporal stability of aqueous standard solutions of psilocin and psilocybin using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastos, N; Barnett, N W; Pfeffer, F M; Lewis, S W

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation into the temporal stability of aqueous solutions of psilocin and psilocybin reference drug standards over a period of fourteen days. This study was performed using high performance liquid chromatography utilising a (95:5% v/v) methanol: 10 mM ammonium formate, pH 3.5 mobile phase and absorption detection at 269 nm. It was found that the exclusion of light significantly prolonged the useful life of standards, with aqueous solutions of both psilocin and psilocybin being stable over a period of seven days.

  14. Solution of elliptic partial differential equations by fast Poisson solvers using a local relaxation factor. 1: One-step method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S. C.

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm for solving a large class of two- and three-dimensional nonseparable elliptic partial differential equations (PDE's) is developed and tested. It uses a modified D'Yakanov-Gunn iterative procedure in which the relaxation factor is grid-point dependent. It is easy to implement and applicable to a variety of boundary conditions. It is also computationally efficient, as indicated by the results of numerical comparisons with other established methods. Furthermore, the current algorithm has the advantage of possessing two important properties which the traditional iterative methods lack; that is: (1) the convergence rate is relatively insensitive to grid-cell size and aspect ratio, and (2) the convergence rate can be easily estimated by using the coefficient of the PDE being solved.

  15. The Effect of Sintering Oxygen Partial Pressure on a SmBiO3 Buffer Layer for Coated Conductors via Chemical Solution Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of high-temperature YBa2Cu3O7−δ (YBCO superconducting material is a considerable prospect for the growing energy shortages. Here, SmBiO3 (SBO films were deposited on (100-orientated yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ simple crystal substrates via the chemical solution deposition (CSD approach for coated conductors, and the effects of sintering oxygen partial pressure on SBO films were studied. The crystalline structures and surface morphologies of SBO films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and atomic force microscope (AFM. The optimized growth temperature, the intensity ratios of the SBO (200 peak to the SBO (111 peak, and the crystallinities of SBO films increased with the sintering oxygen partial pressure. The SEM and AFM images displayed a smooth and well-distributed surface in the argon atmosphere. The subsequent YBCO films with superconducting transition temperatures (Tc = 89.5 K, 90.2 K, and 86.2 K and critical current densities (Jc = 0.88 MA/cm2, 1.69 MA/cm2, and 0.09 MA/cm2; 77 K, self-field were deposited to further check the qualities of the SBO layer. These results indicated that sintering oxygen partial pressure had an effect on the epitaxial growth of the SBO buffer layer and YBCO superconducting properties. The experimental results may be a usable reference for the epitaxial growth of YBCO-coated conductors and other oxides.

  16. Suppression of time aliasing in the solution of the equations of motion of an impacted beam with partial constrained layer damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Jean-François; Cimmino, Massimo; Ross, Annie; Granger, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Signal processing issues encountered when an analytical spectrum is converted in the time domain with an inverse discrete Fourier transform are investigated. In the analytical model of the transient time response of an impacted beam with partial constrained layer damping (PCLD) developed in Ref. [D. Granger, A. Ross, Effects of partial constrained viscoelastic layer damping parameters on the initial transient response of impacted cantilever beams: experimental and numerical results, Journal of Sound and Vibration 321 (1-2) (2009) 45-64, doi:10.1016/j.jsv.2008.09.039], noncausal effects were observed for lightly damped structures. As discussed in the present paper, the noncausal effects were due to time aliasing occurring when continuous frequency spectra were discretized. To suppress such errors, the numerical Laplace transform is introduced and applied to the previous model, which was based on Fourier transforms. The equations of motion of the system and the viscoelastic properties of the core are formulated in the Laplace domain. A window is used in the Laplace domain to avoid amplification of the Gibbs oscillations that are caused by the truncation of the spectrum. The new solution technique is compared to the previous method. It is shown that noncausal effects appearing in the first milliseconds of time signals with the use of discrete Fourier transforms are avoided with the Laplace transform solution method. Numerical results are validated for transient responses using experimental impact force signals. The results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  17. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of hydrolyzed uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solutions by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This method applies to the determination of isotopic composition in hydrolyzed nuclear grade uranium hexafluoride. It covers isotopic abundance of 235U between 0.1 and 5.0 % mass fraction, abundance of 234U between 0.0055 and 0.05 % mass fraction, and abundance of 236U between 0.0003 and 0.5 % mass fraction. This test method may be applicable to other isotopic abundance providing that corresponding standards are available. 1.2 This test method can apply to uranyl nitrate solutions. This can be achieved either by transforming the uranyl nitrate solution to a uranyl fluoride solution prior to the deposition on the filaments or directly by depositing the uranyl nitrate solution on the filaments. In the latter case, a calibration with uranyl nitrate standards must be performed. 1.3 This test method can also apply to other nuclear grade matrices (for example, uranium oxides) by providing a chemical transformation to uranyl fluoride or uranyl nitrate solution. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address al...

  18. A randomized clinical study comparing reduced-volume oral sulfate solution with standard 4-liter sulfate-free electrolyte lavage solution as preparation for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, Douglas K; Di Palma, Jack A; Rodriguez, Reynaldo; McGowan, John; Cleveland, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Low-volume bowel preparations for colonoscopy improve tolerability. We compared the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of a new low-volume sulfate solution with a standard 4-L polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution as bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Multicenter, single-blind, randomized, noninferiority study. Five academic and community endoscopy centers in the United States. One hundred thirty-six outpatients undergoing colonoscopy. Patients were randomized to receive 4 L sulfate-free electrolyte lavage solution (SF-ELS) given the night before colonoscopy versus 12 oz oral sulfate solution (OSS) given in equally divided doses the evening before and the morning of colonoscopy. Successful (ie, good or excellent) bowel preparation. Successful bowel preparation was more frequent with OSS than with SF-ELS (98.4% vs 89.6%; P = .04). Excellent preparation also was achieved more frequently with OSS (71.4% vs 34.3%; P < .001). Patients receiving OSS had less residual stool in the cecum and ascending colon and less residual fluid in the cecum and ascending, transverse, and descending colon compared with SF-ELS. The percentage of patients with GI side effects and adverse events was not significantly different between the 2 groups. The OSS was administered in split doses, whereas the SF-ELS was administered the evening before (which is its FDA-approved regimen). Oral sulfate solution is promising as a safe low-volume preparation for colonoscopy. ( NCT00856843.). Copyright 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A model for large non-standard interactions of neutrinos leading to the LMA-Dark solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Farzan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that in addition to the standard LMA solution to solar anomaly, there is another solution called LMA-Dark which requires Non-Standard Interactions (NSI with effective couplings as large as the Fermi coupling. Although this solution satisfies all the bounds from various neutrino oscillation observations and even provides a better fit to low energy solar neutrino spectrum, it is not as popular as the LMA solution mainly because no model compatible with the existing bounds has been so far constructed to give rise to this solution. We introduce a model that provides a foundation for such large NSI with strength and flavor structure required for the LMA-Dark solution. This model is based on a new U(1′ gauge interaction with a gauge boson of mass ∼10 MeV under which quarks as well as the second and third generations of leptons are charged. We show that observable effects can appear in the spectrum of supernova and high energy cosmic neutrinos. Our model predicts a new contribution to the muon magnetic dipole moment and new rare meson decay modes.

  20. Protein-bound solute removal during extended multipass versus standard hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eloot, Sunny; Van Biesen, Wim; Axelsen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    ), hippuric acid (HA), indole acetic acid (IAA), indoxyl sulfate (IS), and p-cresylsulfate (PCS). Dialyser extraction ratio, reduction ratio, and solute removal were calculated for these solutes. RESULTS: Already at 60 min after dialysis start, the extraction ratio in the hemodialyser was a factor 1.4-4 lower...

  1. METHODICAL FEATURES OF USING AN INTERACTIVE GEOMETRIC ENVIRONMENT GEOGEBRA IN STUDYING TOPICS«SOLUTION OF NON-STANDARD EQUATIONS»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю В Садовничий

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The in the given article presents one of the options of the practical implementation of methodical features interactive-informational approach in teaching at profile level algebra and the beginnings of mathematical analysis high school students. The on using specific examples from developed by the article authors elective course «The decision of non-standard equations» demonstrates the use of interactive geometry environment GeoGebra, as a means of translation students from an empirical level search solution for non-standard equations on abstract-theoretical. The when doing so GCI GeoGebra in work with non-standard equations at the empirical level acts only as a tool for computer-assisted experiment. The According to his results occurs was put forward hypothesis concerning the method of solution of the given equation. After that on an abstract - theoretical level provide strict algebraic proof the proposed hypothesis.

  2. Matrix-Matched Iron-Oxide Laser Ablation ICP-MS U–Pb Geochronology Using Mixed Solution Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Courtney-Davies

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available U–Pb dating of the common iron-oxide hematite (α-Fe2O3, using laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS, provides unparalleled insight into the timing and processes of mineral deposit formation. Until now, the full potential of this method has been negatively impacted by the lack of suitable matrix-matched standards. To achieve matrix-matching, we report an approach in which a U–Pb solution and ablated material from 99.99% synthetic hematite are simultaneously mixed in a nebulizer chamber and introduced to the ICP-MS. The standard solution contains fixed U- and Pb-isotope ratios, calibrated independently, and aspiration of the isotopically homogeneous solution negates the need for a matrix-matched, isotopically homogenous natural iron-oxide standard. An additional advantage of using the solution is that the individual U–Pb concentrations and isotope ratios can be adjusted to approximate that in the unknown, making the method efficient for dating hematite containing low (~10 ppm to high (>1 wt % U concentrations. The above-mentioned advantage to this solution method results in reliable datasets, with arguably-better accuracy in measuring U–Pb ratios than using GJ-1 Zircon as the primary standard, which cannot be employed for such low U concentrations. Statistical overlaps between 207Pb/206Pb weighted average ages (using GJ-1 Zircon and U–Pb upper intercept ages (using the U–Pb mixed solution method of two samples from iron-oxide copper-gold (IOCG deposits in South Australia demonstrate that, although fractionation associated with a non-matrix matched standard does occur when using GJ-1 Zircon as the primary standard, it does not impact the 207Pb/206Pb or upper intercept age. Thus, GJ-1 Zircon can be considered reliable for dating hematite using LA-ICP-MS. Downhole fractionation of 206Pb/238U is observed to occur in spot analyses of hematite. The use of rasters in future studies will hopefully minimize

  3. Development of quantitative NMR method with internal standard for the standard solutions of paralytic shellfish toxins and characterisation of gonyautoxin-5 and gonyautoxin-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Oshima, Yasukatsu

    2010-09-15

    The chemical analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) requires standard solutions with accurate concentration. The mouse toxicity in each toxin is also essential knowledge for the introduction of chemical analysis as an alternative method to mouse bioassay (MBA) in routine monitoring of shellfish. In this study, we developed the quantitative analysis of PSTs by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), using tert-butanol as an internal standard. Only proton signals with longitudinal relaxation time (T(1)) of less than 2.5 s, including the internal standard, were used for quantitation of toxins. Our method showed good precision (results are useful to convert the amount of GTX5 and GTX6 into the mouse toxicity, especially in the areas where the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum predominantly produces both toxins. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Technique for Standardized Evaluation of Soft and Hard Peri-Implant Tissues in Partially Edentulous Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijndert, Leo; Meijer, Henny J.A.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan

    Background: There is a growing need to evaluate the esthetics of implant-supported crowns and bridges. An important tool for such an evaluation is standardized assessment of the soft and hard peri-implant tissue levels. Methods: A simple acrylic device has been developed for reliable and

  5. Polynomial Chaos Expansion of Random Coefficients and the Solution of Stochastic Partial Differential Equations in the Tensor Train Format

    KAUST Repository

    Dolgov, Sergey

    2015-11-03

    We apply the tensor train (TT) decomposition to construct the tensor product polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) of a random field, to solve the stochastic elliptic diffusion PDE with the stochastic Galerkin discretization, and to compute some quantities of interest (mean, variance, and exceedance probabilities). We assume that the random diffusion coefficient is given as a smooth transformation of a Gaussian random field. In this case, the PCE is delivered by a complicated formula, which lacks an analytic TT representation. To construct its TT approximation numerically, we develop the new block TT cross algorithm, a method that computes the whole TT decomposition from a few evaluations of the PCE formula. The new method is conceptually similar to the adaptive cross approximation in the TT format but is more efficient when several tensors must be stored in the same TT representation, which is the case for the PCE. In addition, we demonstrate how to assemble the stochastic Galerkin matrix and to compute the solution of the elliptic equation and its postprocessing, staying in the TT format. We compare our technique with the traditional sparse polynomial chaos and the Monte Carlo approaches. In the tensor product polynomial chaos, the polynomial degree is bounded for each random variable independently. This provides higher accuracy than the sparse polynomial set or the Monte Carlo method, but the cardinality of the tensor product set grows exponentially with the number of random variables. However, when the PCE coefficients are implicitly approximated in the TT format, the computations with the full tensor product polynomial set become possible. In the numerical experiments, we confirm that the new methodology is competitive in a wide range of parameters, especially where high accuracy and high polynomial degrees are required.

  6. Exact soliton solutions of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations: shape-changing collisions, logic gates, and partially coherent solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanna, T; Lakshmanan, M

    2003-04-01

    The different dynamical features underlying soliton interactions in coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, which model multimode wave propagation under varied physical situations in nonlinear optics, are studied. In this paper, by explicitly constructing multisoliton solutions (up to four-soliton solutions) for two-coupled and arbitrary N-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations using the Hirota bilinearization method, we bring out clearly the various features underlying the fascinating shape changing (intensity redistribution) collisions of solitons, including changes in amplitudes, phases and relative separation distances, and the very many possibilities of energy redistributions among the modes of solitons. However, in this multisoliton collision process the pairwise collision nature is shown to be preserved in spite of the changes in the amplitudes and phases of the solitons. Detailed asymptotic analysis also shows that when solitons undergo multiple collisions, there exists the exciting possibility of shape restoration of at least one soliton during interactions of more than two solitons represented by three- and higher-order soliton solutions. From an application point of view, we have shown from the asymptotic expressions how the amplitude (intensity) redistribution can be written as a generalized linear fractional transformation for the N-component case. Also we indicate how the multisolitons can be reinterpreted as various logic gates for suitable choices of the soliton parameters, leading to possible multistate logic. In addition, we point out that the various recently studied partially coherent solitons are just special cases of the bright soliton solutions exhibiting shape-changing collisions, thereby explaining their variable profile and shape variation in collision process.

  7. 77 FR 48491 - Regulatory New Drug Review: Solutions for Study Data Exchange Standards; Notice of Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Exchange Standards'' the purpose of which is to solicit input from industry, technology vendors, and other members of the public regarding the advantages and disadvantages of current and emerging open, consensus... technology. Moreover, it is not supported and maintained by an open, consensus-based standards development...

  8. The 1993 QUASIMEME laboratory-performance study: chlorobiphenyls in fish oil and standard solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, D.E.; Boer, de J.

    1994-01-01

    A laboratory-performance study has been undertaken to improve the measurement of chlorobiphenyls in marine biota as part of the QUASIMEME (EU - Measurement and Testing) project. Fifty-two laboratories were invited to participate, of which 47 returned data on nine congeners in iso-octane solution and

  9. SOLUTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Hoyos Guajardo, Ph.D. Candidate, M.Sc., B.Eng.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory that is presented below aims to conceptualise how a group of undergraduate students tackle non-routine mathematical problems during a problem-solving course. The aim of the course is to allow students to experience mathematics as a creative process and to reflect on their own experience. During the course, students are required to produce a written ‘rubric’ of their work, i.e., to document their thoughts as they occur as well as their emotionsduring the process. These ‘rubrics’ were used as the main source of data.Students’ problem-solving processes can be explained as a three-stage process that has been called ‘solutioning’. This process is presented in the six sections below. The first three refer to a common area of concern that can be called‘generating knowledge’. In this way, generating knowledge also includes issues related to ‘key ideas’ and ‘gaining understanding’. The third and the fourth sections refer to ‘generating’ and ‘validating a solution’, respectively. Finally, once solutions are generated and validated, students usually try to improve them further before presenting them as final results. Thus, the last section deals with‘improving a solution’. Although not all students go through all of the stages, it may be said that ‘solutioning’ considers students’ main concerns as they tackle non-routine mathematical problems.

  10. Standardization of sodium metabisulfite solution concentrations and immersion time for farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Trigueiro de Andrade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium metabisulfite is the main additive used in the prevention of melanosis in shrimp; however, it has currently been employed with great variation in concentration by producers. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between the concentration of the sodium metabisulfite solution and immersion time of the whole shrimp to obtain the concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2 in the edible muscle of farmed shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei in accordance with the limit established by law. For this, solutions of sodium metabisulfite at different concentrations (1%, 2 %, 3 %, 4% and 5% were prepared and samples of L. vannamei shrimp (100g were immersed during 10, 20 or 30 minutes at temperature of 7°C. For all treatment assayed the concentration of SO2 was determined in the edible muscle of farmed shrimp (L. vannamei. The results show that for the conditions used in this study, the correlations were linear, with significant increase (P<0.05 in the SO2 concentration in the edible muscle of shrimps both increasing sodium metabisulfite concentration as increasing immersion times, suggesting the immersion of shrimps in a 3% solution for a time of 13 minutes in order to obtain SO2 concentration of 100ppm in its edible muscle in accordance with Brazilian legislation

  11. Automatic evaluation of partial solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Fiorentino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Un approccio ben consolidato per la soluzione di un problema non banale prevede di scomporlo in una gerarchia di sottoproblemi più semplici (divide et impera. La stessa scomposizione può essere adottata come base per la valutazione parziale, attribuendo allo studente i meriti derivanti dai sottoproblemi risolti. L’articolo parte da questa convergenza per analizzare la fattibilità pratica della valutazione automatica di soluzioni parziali e proporre una regola di valutazione automatica applicabile a un’ampia gamma di problemi.

  12. Optimization and comparison of balloon-based partial breast brachytherapy using a single source, a standard plan line source, and both forward and inverse planned multilumen techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Katie; Whitney, Diane; Mukesh, Mukesh; Wilson, Charles; Coles, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This study directly compares four dosimetric techniques for balloon-based partial breast brachytherapy: single source, standard line source, and both forward planned and inverse planned multilumen (ML). A standard line source plan is presented to be used in a single catheter or as a starting point for forward planned ML. The study population consists of 12 patients previously treated with a single lumen. Inverse plans were created for 7 patients and used to create a standard line source plan. ML plans were created on the same patient data sets. The dosimetric aims were as follows: PTV_EVAL (planning target volume for evaluation) D95 (dose received [%] by 95% of PTV_EVAL volume)≥95% of the prescribed dose (PD), the maximum skin and rib dose ≤125% of prescription dose, breast V150 (volume [cc] receiving 150% of the PD)≤50cc, and V200 (volume [cc] receiving 200% of the PD)≤10cc. The number of patients fulfilling all dosimetric constraints went from 1 patient of 12 with a single catheter to 6 patients of 12 with inverse planned ML and 7 patients of 12 with forward planned ML. PTV_EVAL D95 increased significantly with the standard line source plans and ML plans when compared with the single-source plans. Forward planning took, on average, 7min longer than inverse planning. Multiple sources in a single catheter improve coverage at catheter ends, whereas ML can further improve coverage and reduce dose to organs at risk. Using a standard line source as a starting point for forward planning ML means increase in planning time is kept to a minimum, making it a practicable option for centers without inverse planning software. Patients previously ineligible for treatment with a single catheter may be treated using ML. Copyright © 2013 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Standard Methods of Analysis of Sulfochromate Etch Solution Used in Surface Preparation of Aluminum

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2012-01-01

    1.1 These methods offer a means for controlling the effectiveness of the etchant which is normally used for preparing the surface of aluminum alloys for subsequent adhesive bonding. As the etchant reacts with the aluminum, hexavalent chromium is converted to trivalent chromium; a measure of the two and the difference can be used to determine the amount of dichromate used. 1.2 The sulfochromate solution can be replenished by restoring the sodium dichromate and the sulfuric acid to the original formulation levels. The lower limit of usefulness will vary depending upon solution storage, adhesives used, critical nature of bond capability, variety of metals processed, etc. and should be determined. Replenishment will be limited to the number of times the chemical ingredients can be restored and maintained to the required levels and should be determined by the user. Sludge collecting in the bottom of a tank should be minimized by periodic removal of sludge. For some applications, the hexavalent chromium should not ...

  14. Expanding wave solutions of the Einstein equations that induce an anomalous acceleration into the Standard Model of Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Blake; Smoller, Joel

    2009-08-25

    We derive a system of three coupled equations that implicitly defines a continuous one-parameter family of expanding wave solutions of the Einstein equations, such that the Friedmann universe associated with the pure radiation phase of the Standard Model of Cosmology is embedded as a single point in this family. By approximating solutions near the center to leading order in the Hubble length, the family reduces to an explicit one-parameter family of expanding spacetimes, given in closed form, that represents a perturbation of the Standard Model. By introducing a comoving coordinate system, we calculate the correction to the Hubble constant as well as the exact leading order quadratic correction to the redshift vs. luminosity relation for an observer at the center. The correction to redshift vs. luminosity entails an adjustable free parameter that introduces an anomalous acceleration. We conclude (by continuity) that corrections to the redshift vs. luminosity relation observed after the radiation phase of the Big Bang can be accounted for, at the leading order quadratic level, by adjustment of this free parameter. The next order correction is then a prediction. Since nonlinearities alone could actuate dissipation and decay in the conservation laws associated with the highly nonlinear radiation phase and since noninteracting expanding waves represent possible time-asymptotic wave patterns that could result, we propose to further investigate the possibility that these corrections to the Standard Model might be the source of the anomalous acceleration of the galaxies, an explanation not requiring the cosmological constant or dark energy.

  15. Robust and scalable hierarchical matrix-based fast direct solver and preconditioner for the numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations

    KAUST Repository

    Chavez, Gustavo Ivan

    2017-07-10

    This dissertation introduces a novel fast direct solver and preconditioner for the solution of block tridiagonal linear systems that arise from the discretization of elliptic partial differential equations on a Cartesian product mesh, such as the variable-coefficient Poisson equation, the convection-diffusion equation, and the wave Helmholtz equation in heterogeneous media. The algorithm extends the traditional cyclic reduction method with hierarchical matrix techniques. The resulting method exposes substantial concurrency, and its arithmetic operations and memory consumption grow only log-linearly with problem size, assuming bounded rank of off-diagonal matrix blocks, even for problems with arbitrary coefficient structure. The method can be used as a standalone direct solver with tunable accuracy, or as a black-box preconditioner in conjunction with Krylov methods. The challenges that distinguish this work from other thrusts in this active field are the hybrid distributed-shared parallelism that can demonstrate the algorithm at large-scale, full three-dimensionality, and the three stressors of the current state-of-the-art multigrid technology: high wavenumber Helmholtz (indefiniteness), high Reynolds convection (nonsymmetry), and high contrast diffusion (inhomogeneity). Numerical experiments corroborate the robustness, accuracy, and complexity claims and provide a baseline of the performance and memory footprint by comparisons with competing approaches such as the multigrid solver hypre, and the STRUMPACK implementation of the multifrontal factorization with hierarchically semi-separable matrices. The companion implementation can utilize many thousands of cores of Shaheen, KAUST\\'s Haswell-based Cray XC-40 supercomputer, and compares favorably with other implementations of hierarchical solvers in terms of time-to-solution and memory consumption.

  16. Neuroprotective effect of Azadirachta indica standardized extract in partial sciatic nerve injury in rats: Evidence from anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandhare, Amit D.; Mukherjee, Anwesha A.; Bodhankar, Subhash L.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain is a common and widely recognized pain syndrome for patients and difficult to manage for physicians. Azadirachta indica (AI) possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of AI standardized extract in an animal model of peripheral neuropathy induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). PSNL was induced in male Wistar rats (180-200 g) with tight ligation of the nerve. Rats received treatment with either vehicle i.e. distilled water (PSNL control), Pyridoxine (100 mg/kg, p.o.) or AI (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) for 28 days. Various behavioral parameters, biochemical, molecular and histological parameters were evaluated. PSNL resulted in a significant decrease (p Azadirachta indica exerts its neuroprotection against PSNL induced neuropathic pain via inhibition of oxidative-nitrosative stress, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis to improve MNCV (graphical abstract, Figure 1(Fig. 1)). PMID:28694757

  17. Self-initiated and concentration-dependent degradation of tetracaine in neat standard solutions: A trouble-shooting story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aimin; Wu, Yanxin; Gu, Guifen; Fanaras, John C

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents the trouble-shooting for a very unusual stability case. Tetracaine was found unstable in neat solutions only at high concentrations, but not at low concentrations. Moreover, its stable-isotope labeled internal standard did not show similar behavior. A series of trouble-shooting experiments were conducted to uncover the root cause. Some generally applicable precautions/insights can be drawn from this investigation to avoid potential stability issues during bioanalytical method development and validation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis and specification of an open platform for outpatient care in consideration of actual standard solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosales Saurer, Bruno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The field of ambulatory nursing is rapidly growing due to rising health care costs and the demographic development. Today there are approximately 2 million persons in Germany who need outpatient care. Experts predict that there will be more than twice as much by 2050. Ambulatory care nurses must quickly and efficiently assess their patients’ condition and needs. Against this background, the VitaBIT project started in July 2007 with the objective of reorganizing ambulatory care in order to improve quality while at the same time increasing efficiency and saving costs. VitaBIT is promoted by the German federal ministry of economy and technology (BMWi. VitaBIT runs up to the end of 2009, partners of the project are CAS Software AG, PTV Planung Transport Verkehr AG, FZI Forschungszentrum Informatik, Sozial- und Diakoniestation Weinstadt e.V. und Wibu-Systems AG. VitaBIT aims to design an ICT platform for the safe application of mobile information services in ambulatory nursing. Communication and secure information exchange between all parties involved in the care process will also be guaranteed. The article explains the project’s current approach to develop a user-oriented solution by integrating already existing components and services.

  19. Watermarking Techniques Using Least Significant Bit Algorithm for Digital Image Security Standard Solution- Based Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Muzakir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ease of deployment of digital image through the internet has positive and negative sides, especially for owners of the original digital image. The positive side of the ease of rapid deployment is the owner of that image deploys digital image files to various sites in the world address. While the downside is that if there is no copyright that serves as protector of the image it will be very easily recognized ownership by other parties. Watermarking is one solution to protect the copyright and know the results of the digital image. With Digital Image Watermarking, copyright resulting digital image will be protected through the insertion of additional information such as owner information and the authenticity of the digital image. The least significant bit (LSB is one of the algorithm is simple and easy to understand. The results of the simulations carried out using android smartphone shows that the LSB watermarking technique is not able to be seen by naked human eye, meaning there is no significant difference in the image of the original files with images that have been inserted watermarking. The resulting image has dimensions of 640x480 with a bit depth of 32 bits. In addition, to determine the function of the ability of the device (smartphone in processing the image using this application used black box testing. 

  20. Treasure of the Past VI: Standard Potential of the Silver-Silver-Chloride Electrode from 0° to 95° C and the Thermodynamic Properties of Dilute Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Roger G.; Bower, Vincent E.

    2001-01-01

    From electromotive-force measurements of the cell without liquid junction: Pt;H2,HCl(m),AgCl;Agthrough the range 0° to 95° C, calculations have been made of (1) the standard potential of the silver–silver-chloride electrode, (2) the activity coefficient of hydrochloric acid in aqueous solutions from m (molality) =0 to m=0.1 and from 0° to 90° C, (3) the relative partial molal heat content of hydrochloric acid, and (4) the relative partial molal heat capacity of hydrochloric acid. The extrapolations were made by the method of least squares with the aid of punch-card techniques. Data from at least 24 cells were analyzed at each temperature, and 81 cells were studied at 25° C. The value of the standard potential was found to be 0.22234 absolute volt at 25° C, and the standard deviation was 0.02 millivolt at 0° C, 0.01 millivolt at 25° C, and 0.09 millivolt at 95° C. The results from 0° to 60° C are compared with earlier determinations of the standard potential and other quantities derived from the electromotive force. PMID:27500034

  1. Design challenges and gaps in standards in developing an interoperable zero footprint DI thin client for use in image-enabled electronic health record solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arun; Koff, David; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Castelli, Jane

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. A major challenge for these deployments has been support for ubiquitous image viewing. More specifically, these deployments require an imaging solution that can work over the Internet, leverage any point of service device: desktop, tablet, phone; and access imaging data from any source seamlessly. Whereas standards exist to enable ubiquitous image viewing, few if any solutions exist that leverage these standards and meet the challenge. Rather, most of the currently available web based DI viewing solutions are either proprietary solutions or require special plugins. We developed a true zero foot print browser based DI viewing solution based on the Web Access DICOM Objects (WADO) and Cross-enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I.b) standards to a) demonstrate that a truly ubiquitous image viewer can be deployed; b) identify the gaps in the current standards and the design challenges for developing such a solution. The objective was to develop a viewer, which works on all modern browsers on both desktop and mobile devices. The implementation allows basic viewing functionalities of scroll, zoom, pan and window leveling (limited). The major gaps identified in the current DICOM WADO standards are a lack of ability to allow any kind of 3D reconstruction or MPR views. Other design challenges explored include considerations related to optimization of the solution for response time and low memory foot print.

  2. Determining the drift potential of Venturi nozzles compared with standard nozzles across three insecticide spray solutions in a wind tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J Connor; Chechetto, Rodolfo G; O'Donnell, Chris C; Dorr, Gary J; Moore, John H; Baker, Greg J; Powis, Kevin J; Hewitt, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    nozzle types and tank mixes evaluated in this study. The greatest reduction in drift potential can be achieved by changing nozzle type, which can reduce the losses of the spray to the surrounding environment. Venturi nozzles greatly reduce the drift potential compared with standard nozzles by as much as 85% across all three insecticide spray solutions. Results suggest that a significant reduction in drift potential can be achieved by changing the nozzle type, and can be achieved without a loss in control of DBM. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Intensity modulated radiation therapy class solutions in Philips Pinnacle treatment planning for central nervous system malignancies: Standardized, efficient, and effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhacheva, Anna; Palmer, Matthew; Du, Weiliang; Brown, Paul D; Mahajan, Anita

    2012-01-01

    The use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is becoming more commonplace in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. However, the determination of beam arrangements is still an empirical process, and optimization of any given plan may take hours on the part of the dosimetrist and the physician to achieve optimal conformity and normal tissue doses. Regional CNS class solutions (CS) for IMRT planning with the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system (version 8.0; ADAC Laboratories, Milpitas, CA) have been in partial implementation at our institution since 2009. The purpose of this present work was to investigate their validity in clinical practice. The plans of 55 patients treated for high-grade gliomas since 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Thirty plans were categorized as having been planned with class solutions and 25 plans with user-defined optimization. Each plan was evaluated based on the following: (1) mean dose to the brain; (2) brain V30; and (3) Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) conformity index (CIRTOG). These data were then compared with 140 historical benchmark plans that were generated using user-defined optimization prior to 2009. The CS plans for gliomas in frontal, parietal-occipital, and temporal regions typically resulted in superior mean brain dose, brain V30, and conformity index when compared with user-defined plans. The CS plans for brainstem gliomas exhibited improved CIRTOG, but not brain V30 and brain mean dose. In trials of planning efficiency, the CS technique reduced treatment planning time by more than 2 times, independent of prior planning experience. We have developed a CS protocol for IMRT planning of gliomas that has dramatically simplified this complex planning process, allowing dosimetrists of all levels of experience to produce highly conformal plans in a time efficient manner. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative antimicrobial activities of aerosolized sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and electrochemically activated solutions evaluated using a novel standardized assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, R M S; Robinson, G M; Reynolds, D M

    2013-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a standardized experimental assay to enable differential antimicrobial comparisons of test biocidal aerosols. This study represents the first chlorine-matched comparative assessment of the antimicrobial activities of aerosolized sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and electrochemically activated solution (ECAS) to determine their relative abilities to decontaminate various surface-associated health care-relevant microbial challenges. Standard microbiological challenges were developed by surface-associating typed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis spores, or a clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain on stainless steel, polypropylene, or fabric. All test coupons were subjected to 20-min biocidal aerosols of chlorine-matched (100 ppm) sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, or ECAS within a standard aerosolization chamber using a commercial humidifier under defined conditions. Biocidal treatment type and material surface had a significant effect on the number of microorganisms recovered from various material surfaces following treatment exposure. Under the conditions of the assay, the order of antimicrobial efficacy of biocidal aerosol treatment was as follows: ECAS > chlorine dioxide > sodium hypochlorite. For all biocides, greater antimicrobial reductions were seen when treating stainless steel and fabric than when treating plastic-associated microorganisms. The experimental fogging system and assay protocol designed within this study were shown capable of differentiating the comparative efficacies of multiple chlorine-matched biocidal aerosols against a spectrum of target organisms on a range of test surface materials and would be appropriate for testing other biocidal aerosol treatments or material surfaces.

  5. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  6. Viscosity Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Camilli, Fabio; Prados, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Viscosity solution is a notion of weak solution for a class of partial differential equations of Hamilton-Jacobi type. The range of applications of the notions of viscosity solution and Hamilton-Jacobi equations is enormous, including common class of partial differential equations such as evolutive problems and problems with boundary conditions, equations arising in optimal control theory, differential games, second-order equations arising in stochastic optimal control...

  7. Standard Gibbs free energies of reactions of ozone with free radicals in aqueous solution: quantum-chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Sergej; von Sonntag, Clemens

    2011-11-01

    Free radicals are common intermediates in the chemistry of ozone in aqueous solution. Their reactions with ozone have been probed by calculating the standard Gibbs free energies of such reactions using density functional theory (Jaguar 7.6 program). O(2) reacts fast and irreversibly only with simple carbon-centered radicals. In contrast, ozone also reacts irreversibly with conjugated carbon-centered radicals such as bisallylic (hydroxycylohexadienyl) radicals, with conjugated carbon/oxygen-centered radicals such as phenoxyl radicals, and even with nitrogen- oxygen-, sulfur-, and halogen-centered radicals. In these reactions, further ozone-reactive radicals are generated. Chain reactions may destroy ozone without giving rise to products other than O(2). This may be of importance when ozonation is used in pollution control, and reactions of free radicals with ozone have to be taken into account in modeling such processes.

  8. TumourMetrics: a comprehensive clinical solution for the standardization of DCE-MRI analysis in research and routine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shih-Li; Metens, Thierry; Lemort, Marc

    2017-10-01

    A reliable analysis methodology is needed to provide valuable imaging biomarkers for clinical trials, with particular regards to dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) application using pharmacokinetic (PK) model analysis. In order to address this scientific challenge, we provided a comprehensive analysis solution that could overcome the impediments to clinical research and routine use. TumourMetrics has been designed to meet the Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA) v.1.0 profile. The quality performance was assessed using the QIBA test data and our customizable numeric phantom. The analysis workflow is made customizable to facilitate standardization of optimized protocol across centers. Our quantification workflow estimated the PK model parameters accurately. The method is robust, almost fully automatic and allows a direct integration of the results into the diagnostic workflow. The analysis is easy-to-use and accessible for routine implementation of DCE-MRI into clinical practice.

  9. Standard test method for gamma energy emission from fission products in uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of gamma energy emitted from fission products in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and uranyl nitrate solution. It is intended to provide a method for demonstrating compliance with UF6 specifications C 787 and C 996 and uranyl nitrate specification C 788. 1.2 The lower limit of detection is 5000 MeV Bq/kg (MeV/kg per second) of uranium and is the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual reporting limits of the nuclides to be measured. The limit of detection was determined on a pure, aged natural uranium (ANU) solution. The value is dependent upon detector efficiency and background. 1.3 The nuclides to be measured are106Ru/ 106Rh, 103Ru,137Cs, 144Ce, 144Pr, 141Ce, 95Zr, 95Nb, and 125Sb. Other gamma energy-emitting fission nuclides present in the spectrum at detectable levels should be identified and quantified as required by the data quality objectives. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its us...

  10. Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions for Partial Differential-Functional Equations of the First Order with Deviating Argument of the Derivative of Unknown Function

    OpenAIRE

    Augustynowicz, A.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the existence and uniqueness problem for partial differential-functional equations of the first order with the initial condition for which the right-hand side depends on the derivative of unknown function with deviating argument.

  11. Report of the CCQM-K97: measurement of arsenobetaine standard solution and arsenobetaine content in fish tissue (tunafish)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L. D.; Wang, J.; WEI, C.; Kuroiwa, T.; Narukawa, T.; Ito, N.; HIOKI, A.; CHIBA, K.; Yim, Y. H.; Lee, K. S.; Lim, Y. R.; Turk, G. C.; Davis, C. W.; Mester, Z.; Yang, L.; McCooeye, M.; Maxwell, P.; Cankur, O.; Tokman, N.; Coskun, F. G.

    2017-01-01

    The CCQM-K97 key comparison was organized by the inorganic analysis working group (IAWG) of CCQM as a follow-up to completed pilot study CCQM-P96 and P96.1 to test the abilities of the national metrology institutes to accurately quantitate the mass fraction of arsenobetaine (AsB) in standard solution and in fish tissue. A pilot study CCQM-P133 was parallelized with this key comparison. National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China and National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) acted as the coordinating laboratories. Six NMIs participated in CCQM-K97 and two institutes participated in CCQM-P133, and all of them submitted the results. Some NMIs submitted more than one results by different methods. The results were in excellent agreement with each other, and obviously better than those of previous P96 and P96.1. Therefore the calibrant which each NMI used was comparable. It shows that the capabilities of some of the participants have been improved after the previous pilot studies. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  13. Monitoring treatments with unfractionated heparin: CTAD must be used instead of citrate as the anticoagulant solution when using partial-draw collection tubes. Results of a multicenter evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toulon, Pierre; Abecassis, Liên; Smahi, Motalib; Ternisien, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    .... In patients on unfractionated heparin (UFH), significantly lower anti-FXa activity [median=0.29IU/mL (range:0.04-1.15) vs. 0.39 (0.05-1.25), n=89, p<0.0001] and shorter aPTT were measured in partial-draw tubes...

  14. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  15. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML...

  16. Partial Cooperative Equilibria: Existence and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Ghintran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the solution concepts of partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria. The partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibrium is axiomatically characterized by using notions of rationality, consistency and converse consistency with regard to reduced games. We also establish sufficient conditions for which partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria exist in supermodular games. Finally, we provide an application to strategic network formation where such solution concepts may be useful.

  17. Partial priapism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoyerup, Peter; Azawi, Nessn Htum

    2013-01-01

    With only 34 prior cases in world literature, partial priapism (PP), also called partial segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum, is a rare urological condition. The aetiology and treatment of PP is still unclear, but bicycle riding, trauma, drug usage, sexual intercourse, haematological...

  18. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M

  19. Analysis of the effects of stirring condition of separation of thorium in the elution process of monazite partial solution by solvent impregnated resin method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassanti, R.; Putra, D. S.; Kusuma, B. P.; Nawawi, F. W.

    2018-01-01

    Monazite is a natural mineral which contains abundant valuable element such as Radioactive Element and Rare Earth Element(REE). In this experiment, it is proven that solution of residual Thorium Sulfate from Monazite mineral process, can be seperated selectively by using extracting method of Solvent Impregnated Resin(SIR), with the elutant solution HNO3. In the earlier process, Thorium solution is conditioned at PH 1 by using H2SO4. Then REE, Thorium and Uranium elements are seperated. This seperation is conducted by using adsorption method by Amberlite XAD-16 Resin, which has been impregnated by Tributhyl Phosphate extractant. It is continued with elution process, which is aimed to obtain Thorium solution of a higher level of concentration. This elution process is conducted by using HNO3, with the elution variables of the lenght of mixing and amount concentration elutant. Based on this experiment, SIR extracting method is able to dissolve Thorium solution until 63,2%grade and a higher level of %grade about 92,40%. It can be concluded that this SIR method can extracted Thorium elements selectively, improve extracting process recovery, and determine optimum stripping condition in the 45th minutes with elutant concentration of 1,0M HNO3.

  20. [Validation Study on a Multi-Residue Method for Determination of Pesticide Residues in Vegetables and Fruits by using General Matrix Standard Solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Naoki; Takatori, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Satoko; Kitagawa, Yoko; Yoshimitsu, Masato; Osakada, Masakazu; Kajimura, Keiji; Obana, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods using the matrix-matched standard solutions approach are widely used for multi-residue pesticide determination by GC-MS/MS to deal with the issue of matrix effects. However, preparing matrix-matched standard solutions in analyses of many kinds of samples is very time-consuming. In order to solve this problem, a method that employs general matrix standard solutions has been developed using polyethylene glycol (PEG), extract of vegetables-fruit juice (VFJm) and triphenyl phosphate (named the PEG-VFJm method). Here, a validation study for 168 pesticides was performed on three kinds of samples [potato, spinach and apple] at concentrations of 0.010 and 0.050 μg/g. In these three commodities, 144 to 158 pesticides satisfied the required criteria using the matrix-matched method and 129 to 149 pesticides satisfied the same criteria using the PEG-VFJm method. Our results suggest that application of general matrix standard solutions would enable rapid and effective analyses of pesticides.

  1. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence C

    2010-01-01

    This text gives a comprehensive survey of modern techniques in the theoretical study of partial differential equations (PDEs) with particular emphasis on nonlinear equations. The exposition is divided into three parts: representation formulas for solutions; theory for linear partial differential equations; and theory for nonlinear partial differential equations. Included are complete treatments of the method of characteristics; energy methods within Sobolev spaces; regularity for second-order elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations; maximum principles; the multidimensional calculus of variations; viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations; shock waves and entropy criteria for conservation laws; and, much more.The author summarizes the relevant mathematics required to understand current research in PDEs, especially nonlinear PDEs. While he has reworked and simplified much of the classical theory (particularly the method of characteristics), he primarily emphasizes the modern interplay between funct...

  2. Understanding the Non-Gaussian Nature of Linear Reactive Solute Transport in 1D and 2D : From Particle Dynamics to the Partial Differential Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffink, G.J.M.; Elfeki, A.; Dekking, M.; Bruining, J.; Kraaikamp, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examine non-Gaussian spreading of solutes subject to advection, dispersion and kinetic sorption (adsorption/desorption). We start considering the behavior of a single particle and apply a random walk to describe advection/dispersion plus a Markov chain to describe kinetic

  3. Partial clinical remission in type 1 diabetes: a comparison of the accuracy of total daily dose of insulin of <0.3 units/kg/day to the gold standard insulin-dose adjusted hemoglobin A1c of ≤9 for the detection of partial clinical remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Rachel L; Marino, Katherine R; Jasrotia, Aastha; Maranda, Louise S; Barton, Bruce A; Alonso, Laura C; Nwosu, Benjamin Udoka

    2017-08-28

    It is unclear whether the gold standard test for the detection of partial clinical remission (PCR) in new-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D), the insulin-dose adjusted Hemoglobin A1c (IDAA1c) of ≤9, is superior to a new tool, total daily dose of insulin (TDD) of TDD of TDDTDD of TDDTDDTDDTDD of <0.3 units/kg/day.

  4. Topical petrolatum gel alone versus topical silver sulfadiazine with standard gauze dressings for the treatment of superficial partial thickness burns in adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuino, Glenn Angelo S; Baluyut-Angeles, Kathrina Victoria; Espiritu, Andre Paolo T; Lapitan, Marie Carmela M; Buckley, Brian S

    2014-11-01

    Non-extensive superficial partial thickness burns constitute a major proportion of burns. Conventional treatment involves regular changing of absorptive dressings including the application of a topical antimicrobial, commonly silver sulfadiazine. A systematic review has found insufficient evidence to support or refute such antimicrobial prophylaxis. Another review compared silver sulfadiazine dressings with other occlusive and non-antimicrobial dressings and found insufficient evidence to guide practice. Other research has suggested that dressings with petrolatum gel are as effective as silver sulfadiazine. Single-center, randomized, controlled parallel group trial comparing conventional silver sulfadiazine dressings with treatment with petrolatum gel alone. Consenting adults 18-45 years old with superficial partial thickness burns≤10% total body surface area seen within 24h of the injury were randomized to daily dressing either with petrolatum gel without top dressings or conventional silver sulfadiazine treatment with gauze dressings. Primary outcomes were blinded assessment of time to complete re-epithelialization, wound infection or allergic contact dermatitis. Secondary outcomes included assessment of ease, time and pain of dressing changes. 26 patients were randomized to petrolatum and 24 to silver sulfadiazine dressings. Follow up data available for 19 in each group. Mean time to re-epithelialization was 6.2 days (SD 2.8) in the petrolatum group and 7.8 days (SD 2.1) in the silver sulfadiazine group (p=0.050). No wound infection or dermatitis was observed in either group. Scores for adherence to wound, ease of dressing removal and time required to change dressings were significantly better in the petrolatum treatment arm (pdressings may be at least as effective as silver sulfadiazine gauze dressings with regard to time to re-epithelialization, and incidence of infection and allergic contact dermatitis. Petrolatum gel appears to be an effective, affordable

  5. Standard test method for determining whether gas-leak-detector fluid solutions can cause stress corrosion cracking of brass alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers an accelerated test method for evaluating the tendency of gas leak detection fluids (LDFs) to cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of brass components in compressed gas service. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Partial phase diagrams of Pb-Mo-O system and the standard molar Gibbs energy of formation of PbMoO4 and Pb2MoO5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiswarya, P. M.; Ganesan, Rajesh; Gnanasekaran, T.

    2017-09-01

    Partial phase diagrams of Pb-Mo-O system have been established at 773 K and 998 K based on phase equilibration studies. Standard molar Gibbs energy of formation of ternary oxides PbMoO4 and Pb2MoO5 were determined by measuring the equilibrium oxygen partial pressures over relevant phase fields using emf cells and are given by the following expressions: ΔfGm° ± 0.7(kJmol-1) = - 1030.1 + 0.3054(T /K) (T : 772to 1017K) ΔfGm° ± 0.8(kJmol-1) = - 1248.1 + 0.3872(T /K) (T : 741to 1021K)

  7. Do PCDD/PCDF standard solutions used in dioxin analysis pose a risk as potentially acutely toxic to lab personnel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malisch, Rainer; Denison, Michael S.; Fiedler, Heidelore; Fürst, Peter; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.; Schaechtele, Alexander; Schrenk, Dieter; Berg, van den Martin

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory safety requires protecting personnel from chemical exposures. Working with stock solutions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in routine analysis of feed and food with bioanalytical or physicochemical methods raises some concerns. Since PCDD/PCDFs are

  8. 77Se NMR chemical shifts of 9-(arylselanyl)triptycenes: new standard for planar structures of ArSeR and applications to determine the structures in solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Takashi; Hayashi, Satoko; Nakanishi, Waro

    2008-12-05

    A set of new delta(Se) parameters is proposed as a standard for the planar (pl) orientational effect of p-YC(6)H(4) (Ar) in ArSeR, employing 9-(arylselanyl)triptycenes (1: p-YC(6)H(4)SeTpc). The Se-C(R) bond in ArSeR is placed on the Ar plane in pl and it is perpendicular to the plane in pd. Large upfield shifts are observed for Y = NMe(2), OMe, and Me (-22 to -6 ppm) and large downfield shifts for Y = COOEt, CN, and NO(2) (19-37 ppm), relative to Y = H, with small upfield and moderate downfield shifts by Y of halogens (-1 ppm for Y = F and 4 ppm for Y = Cl and Br). This must be the result of the p(Se)-pi(C(6)H(4))-p(Y) conjugation in 1 (pl). While the character of delta(Se) in 1 (pl) is very similar to that in 9-(arylselanyl)anthracenes (2 (pl)), it is very different from that of 1-(arylselanyl)anthraquinones (3 (pd)). Sets of delta(Se) of 1 and 2 must serve as the standard for pl and that of 3 does for pd in solutions. Structures of various ArSeR in solutions are determined from the viewpoint of the orientational effect based on the standard delta(Se) of 1-3. While the structure of 2-methyl-1-(arylselanyl)naphthalenes is concluded to be all pl in solutions, those of 8-chloro- and 8-bromo-1-(arylselanyl)naphthalenes are all pd, except for Y = COOEt, CN, and NO(2): The equilibrium between pd and pl contributes to those with Y = COOEt, CN, and NO(2). The structure of 1-(arylselanyl)naphthalenes changes depending on Y. The structures of ArSeMe and ArSeCOPh are shown to be pl and pd, respectively, in solutions. Those of ArSePh and ArSeAr seem to change depending on Y. delta(Se) of 1-3 are demonstrated to serve as the standard to determine the structures in solutions. The rules of thumb derived from the characters in delta(Se) for 1-3 are very useful to determine the structures of ArSeR in solutions, in addition to the analysis based on the plots.

  9. On existence of solution in $\\mathbb{R}^n$ of stochastic differential inclusions with current velocities in the presence of approximations with uniformly bounded first partial derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla V. Makarova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Notion of mean derivatives was introduced by Edward Nelson for the needs of stochastic mechanics (a version of quantum mechanics. Nelson introduced forward and backward mean derivatives while only their half-sum, symmetric mean derivative called current velocity, is a direct analog of ordinary velocity for deterministic processes. Another mean derivative called quadratic, was introduced by Yuri E. Gliklikh and Svetlana V. Azarina. It gives information on the diffusion coefficient of the process and using Nelson's and quadratic mean derivatives together, one can in principle recover the process from its mean derivatives. Since the current velocities are natural analogs of ordinary velocities of deterministic processes, investigation of equations and especially inclusions with current velocities is very much important for applications since there are a lot of models of various physical, economical etc. processes based on such equations and inclusions. Existence of solution theorems are obtained for stochastic differential inclusions given in terms of the so-called current velocities (symmetric mean derivatives, a direct analogs of ordinary velocity of deterministic systems and quadratic mean derivatives (giving information on the diffusion coefficient on $\\mathbb{R}^n$. Right-hand sides in both the current velocity part and the quadratic part are set-valued but satisfy some natural conditions.

  10. Developing a yearlong Next Generation Science Standard (NGSS) learning sequence focused on climate solutions: opportunities, challenges and reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, E.; Centeno, D.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last four years, the Green Ninja Project (GNP) has been developing educational media (e.g., videos, games and online lessons) to help motivate student interest and engagement around climate science and solutions. Inspired by the new emphasis in NGSS on climate change, human impact and engineering design, the GNP is developing a technology focused, integrative, and yearlong science curriculum focused around solutions to climate change. Recognizing the importance of teacher training on the successful implementation of NGSS, we have also integrated teacher professional development into our curriculum. During the presentation, we will describe the design philosophy around our middle school curriculum and share data from a series of classes that are piloting the curriculum during Fall 2015. We will also share our perspectives on how data, media creation and engineering can be used to create educational experiences that model the type of 'three-dimensional learning' encouraged by NGSS.

  11. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Free Acid by Titration in an Oxalate Solution 8 to 15 Free Acid by Iodate Precipitation-Potentiometric Titration Test Method 16 to 22 Uranium by Arsenazo I Spectrophotometric Test Method 23 to 33 Thorium by Thorin Spectrophotometric Test Method 34 to 42 Iron by 1,10-Phenanthroline Spectrophotometric Test Method 43 to 50 Impurities by ICP-AES Chloride by Thiocyanate Spectrophotometric Test Method 51 to 58 Fluoride by Distillation-Spectrophotometric Test Method 59 to 66 Sulfate by Barium Sulfate Turbidimetric Test Method 67 to 74 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrom...

  12. Partial differential equations & boundary value problems with Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Articolo, George A

    2009-01-01

    Partial Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems with Maple presents all of the material normally covered in a standard course on partial differential equations, while focusing on the natural union between this material and the powerful computational software, Maple. The Maple commands are so intuitive and easy to learn, students can learn what they need to know about the software in a matter of hours- an investment that provides substantial returns. Maple''s animation capabilities allow students and practitioners to see real-time displays of the solutions of partial differential equations.  Maple files can be found on the books website. Ancillary list: Maple files- http://www.elsevierdirect.com/companion.jsp?ISBN=9780123747327  Provides a quick overview of the software w/simple commands needed to get startedIncludes review material on linear algebra and Ordinary Differential equations, and their contribution in solving partial differential equationsIncorporates an early introduction to Sturm-L...

  13. Partial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.М. Karimova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A girl with partial gigantism (the increased I and II fingers of the left foot is being examined. This condition is a rare and unresolved problem, as the definite reason of its development is not determined. Wait-and-see strategy is recommended, as well as correcting operations after closing of growth zones, and forming of data pool for generalization and development of schemes of drug and radial therapeutic methods.

  14. Prevention of ischemia-reperfusion lung injury during static cold preservation by supplementation of standard preservation solution with HEMO2life(®) in pig lung transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorion, M; Polard, V; Favereau, F; Hauet, T; Zal, F; Fadel, E; Sage, E

    2017-10-25

    We describe the results of adding a new biological agent HEMO2life(®) to a standard preservation solution for hypothermic static lung preservation aiming to improve early functional parameters after lung transplantation. HEMO2life(®) is a natural oxygen carrier extracted from Arenicola marina with high oxygen affinity developed as an additive to standard organ preservation solutions. Standard preservation solution (Perfadex(®)) was compared with Perfadex(®) associated with HEMO2life(®) and with sham animals after 24 h of hypothermic preservation followed by lung transplantation. During five hours of lung reperfusion, functional parameters and biomarkers expression in serum and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. After five hours of reperfusion, HEMO2life(®) group led to significant improvement in functional parameters: reduction of graft vascular resistance (p < .05) and increase in graft oxygenation ratio (p < .05). Several ischemia-reperfusion related biomarkers showed positive trends in the HEMO2life(®) group: expression of HMG B1 in serum tended to be lower in comparison (2.1 ± 0.8 vs. 4.6 ± 1.5) with Perfadex(®) group, TNF-α and IL-8 in BALF were significantly higher in the two experimental groups compared to control (p < .05). During cold ischemia, expression of HIF1α and histology remained unchanged and similar to control. Supplementation of the Perfadex(®) solution by an innovative oxygen carrier HEMO2life(®) during hypothermic static preservation improves early graft function after prolonged cold ischemia in lung transplantation.

  15. Solution NMR Structure and Backbone Dynamics of the Partially Disordered Arabidopsis thaliana Phloem Protein 16-1, A Putative mRNA Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashi, Pulikallu; Singarapu, Kiran Kumar; Bhuyan, Abani K

    2018-01-10

    Although RNA-binding proteins in plant phloem are believed to carry out long-distance systemic transport of RNA in the phloem conduit, the structure of none of them is known. The Arabidopsis thaliana phloem protein 16-1 (AtPP16-1) is such a putative mRNA transporter whose structure and backbone dynamics have been studied at pH 4.1, 25oC, by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Results obtained using basic optical spectroscopic tools show that the protein is unstable with little secondary structure near the physiological pH of the phloem sap. Fluorescence-monitored titrations reveal that AtPP16-1 binds not only A. thaliana RNA (Kdiss ~ 67 nM) but also sheared DNA and model dodecamer DNA, albeit the affinity for DNA is ~15-fold less. In the solution structure of the protein secondary structural elements are formed of residues 3-9 (β1), 56-62 (β2), 133-135 (β3), and 96-110 (αα-helix). Most of the rest of the chain segments is disordered. The N-terminal disordered regions (residues 10-55) form a small lobe, which conjoins the rest of the molecule via a deep and large irregular cleft that could have functional implications. The average order parameter extracted by model-free analysis of 15N relaxation and {1H}-15N heteronuclear NOE data is 0.66, suggesting less restricted backbone motion. The average conformational entropy of the backbone NH vectors is -0.31 cal mol-1 K-1. These results also suggest structural disorder in AtPP16-1.

  16. Partially massless monopoles and charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Rosen, Rachel A.

    2015-11-01

    Massive higher spin fields on de Sitter space exhibit enhanced gauge symmetries at special values of the mass. These fields are known as "partially massless." We study the structure of the charges and Gauss laws which characterize sources for the partially massless spin-2. Despite having a simple scalar gauge symmetry, there is a rich structure of gauge charges. The charges come in electric and magnetic varieties, each taking values in the fundamental representation of the de Sitter group. We find two invariant electriclike charges and two invariant magneticlike charges and we find the pointlike monopole solutions which carry these charges, analogous to the electric point-charge solution and Dirac monopole solution of Maxwell electrodynamics. These solutions are related by partially massless duality, analogous to the electromagnetic duality that relates electric to magnetic charges.

  17. Standard practice for exposure of metals and alloys by alternate immersion in neutral 3.5% Sodium Chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for making alternate immersion stress corrosion tests in 3.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) (). It is primarily for tests of aluminum alloys (Test Method G 47) and ferrous alloys, but may be used for other metals exhibiting susceptibility to chloride ions. It sets forth the environmental conditions of the test and the means for controlling them. Note 1 Alternate immersion stress corrosion exposures are sometimes made in substitute ocean water (without heavy metals) prepared in accordance with Specification D 1141. The general requirements of this present practice are also applicable to such exposures except that the reagents used, the solution concentration, and the solution pH should be as specified in Specification D 1141. 1.2 This practice can be used for both stressed and unstressed corrosion specimens. Historically, it has been used for stress-corrosion cracking testing, but is often used for other forms of corrosion, such as uniform, pitting, intergranular, and galvanic. ...

  18. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Determination of Uranium 7 Specific Gravity by Pycnometry 15-20 Free Acid by Oxalate Complexation 21-27 Determination of Thorium 28 Determination of Chromium 29 Determination of Molybdenum 30 Halogens Separation by Steam Distillation 31-35 Fluoride by Specific Ion Electrode 36-42 Halogen Distillate Analysis: Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 43 Determination of Chloride and Bromide 44 Determination of Sulfur by X-Ray Fluorescence 45 Sulfate Sulfur by (Photometric) Turbidimetry 46 Phosphorus by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 54-61 Silicon by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 62-69 Carbon by Persulfate Oxidation-Acid Titrimetry 70 Conversion to U3O8 71-74 Boron by ...

  19. Wave Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C

    2012-01-01

    In classical continuum physics, a wave is a mechanical disturbance. Whether the disturbance is stationary or traveling and whether it is caused by the motion of atoms and molecules or the vibration of a lattice structure, a wave can be understood as a specific type of solution of an appropriate mathematical equation modeling the underlying physics. Typical models consist of partial differential equations that exhibit certain general properties, e.g., hyperbolicity. This, in turn, leads to the possibility of wave solutions. Various analytical techniques (integral transforms, complex variables, reduction to ordinary differential equations, etc.) are available to find wave solutions of linear partial differential equations. Furthermore, linear hyperbolic equations with higher-order derivatives provide the mathematical underpinning of the phenomenon of dispersion, i.e., the dependence of a wave's phase speed on its wavenumber. For systems of nonlinear first-order hyperbolic equations, there also exists a general ...

  20. A Singlet Extension of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model: Towards a More Natural Solution to the Little Hierarchy Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Puente, Alejandro [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2012-05-01

    In this work, I present a generalization of the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), with an explicit μ-term and a supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield, as a route to alleviating the little hierarchy problem of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). I analyze two limiting cases of the model, characterized by the size of the supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield. The small and large limits of this mass parameter are studied, and I find that I can generate masses for the lightest neutral Higgs boson up to 140 GeV with top squarks below the TeV scale, all couplings perturbative up to the gauge unification scale, and with no need to fine tune parameters in the scalar potential. This model, which I call the S-MSSM is also embedded in a gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scheme. I find that even with a minimal embedding of the S-MSSM into a gauge mediated scheme, the mass for the lightest Higgs boson can easily be above 114 GeV, while keeping the top squarks below the TeV scale. Furthermore, I also study the forward-backward asymmetry in the t¯t system within the framework of the S-MSSM. For this purpose, non-renormalizable couplings between the first and third generation of quarks to scalars are introduced. The two limiting cases of the S-MSSM, characterized by the size of the supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield is analyzed, and I find that in the region of small singlet supersymmetric mass a large asymmetry can be obtained while being consistent with constraints arising from flavor physics, quark masses and top quark decays.

  1. Fundamental partial compositeness

    CERN Document Server

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  2. Fundamental partial compositeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannino, Francesco [CP-Origins and Danish IAS, University of Southern Denmark,Campusvej 55 (Denmark); Strumia, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Pisa and INFN,Pisa (Italy); Theory Division, CERN,Geneva (Switzerland); Tesi, Andrea [Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Vigiani, Elena [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Pisa and INFN,Pisa (Italy)

    2016-11-07

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Under certain assumptions on the dynamics of the scalars, successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough ‘square root’. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2){sub R}-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  3. Partial differential equations and boundary-value problems with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pinsky, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Building on the basic techniques of separation of variables and Fourier series, the book presents the solution of boundary-value problems for basic partial differential equations: the heat equation, wave equation, and Laplace equation, considered in various standard coordinate systems-rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical. Each of the equations is derived in the three-dimensional context; the solutions are organized according to the geometry of the coordinate system, which makes the mathematics especially transparent. Bessel and Legendre functions are studied and used whenever appropriate th

  4. A study of partial molar volumes of citric acid and tartaric acid in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Partial molar volumes; citric acid; tartaric acid; water + ethanol mixture; structure breaker. 1. Introduction ... ity water (sp. cond. ≈ 10–6 ohm–1 cm–1) was used as standard solvent and for making binary aqueous mixtures of ethanol (EtOH). Ethyl alcohol was kept ..... temperatures meaning thereby that solute–solute in-.

  5. Introduction to partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenspan, Donald

    2000-01-01

    Designed for use in a one-semester course by seniors and beginning graduate students, this rigorous presentation explores practical methods of solving differential equations, plus the unifying theory underlying the mathematical superstructure. Topics include basic concepts, Fourier series, second-order partial differential equations, wave equation, potential equation, heat equation, approximate solution of partial differential equations, and more. Exercises appear at the ends of most chapters. 1961 edition.

  6. Elements of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, Ian N

    2006-01-01

    Geared toward students of applied rather than pure mathematics, this volume introduces elements of partial differential equations. Its focus is primarily upon finding solutions to particular equations rather than general theory.Topics include ordinary differential equations in more than two variables, partial differential equations of the first and second orders, Laplace's equation, the wave equation, and the diffusion equation. A helpful Appendix offers information on systems of surfaces, and solutions to the odd-numbered problems appear at the end of the book. Readers pursuing independent st

  7. Elements of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, Ian Naismith

    1957-01-01

    Geared toward students of applied rather than pure mathematics, this volume introduces elements of partial differential equations. Its focus is primarily upon finding solutions to particular equations rather than general theory.Topics include ordinary differential equations in more than two variables, partial differential equations of the first and second orders, Laplace's equation, the wave equation, and the diffusion equation. A helpful Appendix offers information on systems of surfaces, and solutions to the odd-numbered problems appear at the end of the book. Readers pursuing independent st

  8. Combined major and trace element LA-ICP-MS analysis of compositional variations in simple solid solutions through cross correlation with an EPMA-characterized working standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellmer, Georg F; Dulski, Peter; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki

    2012-08-01

    Determining correlated major and trace element zoning profiles is an important goal in modern microanalysis and is critical to some geospeedometric applications. We show that a precise determination of relative variations in major element compositions of simple solid solutions is possible by LA-ICPMS, and that low accuracy (analytical bias) can be corrected for through cross correlation with electron problem microanalyzer (EPMA)-characterized working standards. Further, the relative uncertainties on binary or quasibinary solid solution endmember proportions are always lower than the relative uncertainties on the ratio of the principle substituting elements by at least a factor of 2. In calcic plagioclase, for example, the relative uncertainty on X(An) is a factor of (1-X(An)) smaller than the relative uncertainty on Ca/Na. Using a well-characterized, concentrically zoned bytownite crystal as an example, we compare reproducibilities of FE-EPMA and W-EPMA analyses with 2 μm beam diameter and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) with 16 μm beam diameter. While the accuracy of LA-ICP-MS analyses is low (analytical bias), the precision of LA-ICP-MS analyses is slightly higher than that of FE-EPMA data and comparable to that of the W-EPMA data. EPMA-corrected LA-ICP-MS data can thus be used to characterize major oxide compositional variations and potential covariations with trace elements within individual crystals.

  9. mixed type partial differential equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Denche

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a mixed problem with integral boundary conditions for a high order partial differential equation of mixed type. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution. The proof is based on energy inequality, and on the density of the range of the operator generated by the considered problem.

  10. Modeling of carbon dioxide absorption by aqueous ammonia solutions using the Extended UNIQUAC model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; van Well, Willy J. M.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2010-01-01

    ranges, enthalpy change from partial evaporation measurements, speciation data, heat capacity, enthalpy of solution and enthalpy of dilution data have been used to refit 43 model parameters and standard state properties. Henry’s law constant correlations have been used for extrapolating standard state...

  11. Osteosynthesis of partial rib osteotomy in a miniature pig model using human standard-sized magnesium plate/screw systems: Effect of cyclic deformation on implant integrity and bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Benoit; Saulacic, Nikola; Beck, Stefan; Imwinkelried, Thomas; Liu, Edwin Wei Yang; Nakahara, Ken; Hofstetter, Willy; Iizuka, Tateyuki

    2017-06-01

    Magnesium alloys are candidates for resorbable material in bone fixation. However, the degradation and performance of osteosynthesis plate/screw systems in vivo, under cyclic deformation, is unknown. We evaluated the outcomes of human standard-sized magnesium plate/screw systems with or without plasma-electrolytic surface modifications in a miniature pig rib model. Of a total of 14 minipigs, six were implanted with coated magnesium WE43 six-hole plates/screws, six received magnesium uncoated plates/screws, and two received titanium osteosynthesis systems. The performance of the plate/screw fixation system on partially osteotomized 7th ribs was compared with that on intact 9th ribs. Radiological examinations were performed in vivo at 1, 4 and 8 weeks and after euthanasia at 12 and 24 weeks. After euthanasia the bone blocks were analyzed by computed tomography (CT), microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT), histology and histomorphometry. Follow-up post-surgery showed no trouble with wound healing. In vivo radiological examinations showed higher amounts of gas formation above the uncoated magnesium plates fixed on the partially osteotomized and intact ribs. CT scans showed no broken plates or implant displacement. The micro-CT examination demonstrated better surrounding bone properties around the coated than the uncoated magnesium implants 12 weeks after surgery. No negative influence of magnesium degradation on bone healing was observed with histological examinations. Plastic deformation during surgery and cyclic deformation did not affect the integrity of the used magnesium plates. This study showed promising results for the further development of coated magnesium plate/screw systems for bone fixation. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An application for nonlinear partial differential equations involving mixed partial derivatives by Laplace substitution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handibag, S. S.; Karande, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    In this article, we develop a method to obtain approximate solutions of nonlinear coupled partial differential equations involving mixed partial derivatives with the help of Laplace Substitution Method (LSM). The technique is based on the application of Laplace transform to nonlinear coupled partial differential equations. The nonlinear term can easily be handled with the help of Adomian polynomials. We illustrate this technique with the help of three examples and results of the present technique have closed agreement with exact solutions.

  13. The Effects of Biocompatible Compared with Standard Peritoneal Dialysis Solutions on Peritonitis Microbiology, Treatment, and Outcomes: the balANZ Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Brown, Fiona G.; Clarke, Margaret; Boudville, Neil; Elias, Tony J.; Foo, Marjorie W.Y.; Jones, Bernard; Kulkarni, Hemant; Langham, Robyn; Ranganathan, Dwarakanathan; Schollum, John; Suranyi, Michael G.; Tan, Seng H.; Voss, David

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background: A multicenter, multi-country randomized controlled trial (the balANZ study) recently reported that peritonitis rates significantly improved with the use of neutral-pH peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions low in glucose degradation products (“biocompatible”) compared with standard solutions. The present paper reports a secondary outcome analysis of the balANZ trial with respect to peritonitis microbiology, treatment, and outcomes. ♦ Methods: Adult incident PD patients with residual renal function were randomized to receive either biocompatible or conventional (control) PD solutions for 2 years. ♦ Results: The safety population analysis for peritonitis included 91 patients in each group. The unadjusted geometric mean peritonitis rates in those groups were 0.30 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22 to 0.41] episodes per patient-year for the biocompatible group and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.39 to 0.62) episodes per patient-year for the control group [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.61; 95% CI: 0.41 to 0.90; p = 0.01]. When specific causative organisms were examined, the rates of culture-negative, gram-positive, gram-negative, and polymicrobial peritonitis episodes were not significantly different between the biocompatible and control groups, although the biocompatible group did experience a significantly lower rate of non-pseudomonal gram-negative peritonitis (IRR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.18 to 0.92; p = 0.03). Initial empiric antibiotic regimens were comparable between the groups. Biocompatible fluid use did not significantly reduce the risk of peritonitis-associated hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.34), but did result in a shorter median duration of peritonitis-associated hospitalization (6 days vs 11 days, p = 0.05). Peritonitis severity was more likely to be rated as mild in the biocompatible group (37% vs 10%, p = 0.001). Overall peritonitis-associated technique failures and peritonitis-related deaths were comparable in the two groups

  14. Three-year clinical outcome using the Contura multilumen balloon breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI): improving radiation standards for the optimal application of APBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Philip Z; Robbins, Angela; Shroff, Paulomi; Brown, Sheree; McLaughlin, Mark; Pope, Keith

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed our institution's 3-year clinical experience in treating patients with the Contura multilumen balloon (SenoRx, Inc., Aliso Viejo, CA) breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Forty-six patients treated with breast-conserving therapy received adjuvant radiation using the Contura catheter (34Gy in 3.4Gy fractions). Fourteen patients had Stage 0, 24 had Stage I, and 8 had Stage II breast cancer. Median follow-up was 36 months (range, 1-44 months). Only one local recurrence developed (2%). The rate of persistent seroma formation at latest reported follow-up was 4.3% (2 patients) and the incidence of any clinically detectable telengiectasias was 2.2%. No major toxicities (0% Grade III) have occurred. The median skin dose (% of the prescribed dose) was 99.7. The median dose to 95% of the planning target volume for evaluation was 98.8%. The percentage of patients with excellent/good cosmetic results at 24 (n=23) and 36 (n=22) months was 100% and 97%, respectively. Adjuvant APBI using the Contura multilumen balloon catheter exhibited similar locoregional control, cosmesis, and toxicities to other forms of APBI with similar lengths of follow-up. In addition, improved radiation standards for the delivery of APBI were demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Elliptic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Volpert, Vitaly

    If we had to formulate in one sentence what this book is about it might be "How partial differential equations can help to understand heat explosion, tumor growth or evolution of biological species". These and many other applications are described by reaction-diffusion equations. The theory of reaction-diffusion equations appeared in the first half of the last century. In the present time, it is widely used in population dynamics, chemical physics, biomedical modelling. The purpose of this book is to present the mathematical theory of reaction-diffusion equations in the context of their numerous applications. We will go from the general mathematical theory to specific equations and then to their applications. Mathematical anaylsis of reaction-diffusion equations will be based on the theory of Fredholm operators presented in the first volume. Existence, stability and bifurcations of solutions will be studied for bounded domains and in the case of travelling waves. The classical theory of reaction-diffusion equ...

  16. Standard Practice for Use of Mattsson's Solution of pH 7.2 to Evaluate the Stress- Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Copper-Zinc Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the preparation and use of Mattsson's solution of pH 7.2 as an accelerated stress-corrosion cracking test environment for brasses (copper-zinc base alloys). The variables (to the extent that these are known at present) that require control are described together with possible means for controlling and standardizing these variables. 1.2 This practice is recommended only for brasses (copper-zinc base alloys). The use of this test environment is not recommended for other copper alloys since the results may be erroneous, providing completely misleading rankings. This is particularly true of alloys containing aluminum or nickel as deliberate alloying additions. 1.3 This practice is intended primarily where the test objective is to determine the relative stress-corrosion cracking susceptibility of different brasses under the same or different stress conditions or to determine the absolute degree of stress corrosion cracking susceptibility, if any, of a particular brass or brass component ...

  17. Safety and hemostatic efficacy of fibrin pad in partial nephrectomy: Results of an open-label Phase I and a randomized, standard-of-care-controlled Phase I/II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nativ Ofer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bleeding severity, anatomic location, tissue characteristics, and visibility are common challenges encountered while managing intraoperative bleeding, and conventional hemostatic measures (suture, ligature, and cautery may sometimes be ineffective or impractical. While topical absorbable hemostats (TAH are useful hemostatic adjuvants, each TAH has associated disadvantages. Methods We evaluated the safety and hemostatic efficacy of a new advanced biologic combination product―fibrin pad―to potentially address some gaps associated with TAHs. Fibrin pad was assessed as adjunctive hemostat in open partial nephrectomy in single-center, open-label, Phase I study (N = 10, and as primary hemostat in multicenter, single-blind, randomized, standard-of-care (SOC-controlled Phase I/II study (N = 7 in Israel. It was used to control mild-to-moderate bleeding in Phase I and also spurting arterial bleeding in Phase I/II study. Phase I study assessed safety and Phase I/II study, proportion of successes at 10 min following randomization, analyzed by Fisher exact tests at 5% significance level. Results Phase I (N = 10: All patients completed the study. Hemostasis was achieved within 3–4 min (average = 3.1 min of a single application in all patients. Fibrin pad was found to be safe for human use, with no product-related adverse events reported. Phase I/II (N = 7: Hemostatic success at 10 min (primary endpoint was achieved in 3/4 patients treated with fibrin pad versus 0/3 patients treated with SOC. No clinically significant change in laboratory or coagulation parameters was recorded, except a case of post-procedural hemorrhage with fibrin pad, which was considered serious and related to the fibrin pad treatment, and required re-operation. Although Data Safety Monitoring Board authorized trial continuation, the sponsor decided against proceeding toward an indication for primary treatment of severe arterial

  18. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2004-01-01

    This primer on elementary partial differential equations presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs. What makes this book unique is that it is a brief treatment, yet it covers all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. Mathematical ideas are motivated from physical problems, and the exposition is presented in a concise style accessible to science and engineering students; emphasis is on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than formal theory. This second edition contains new and additional exercises, and it includes a new chapter on the applications of PDEs to biology: age structured models, pattern formation; epidemic wave fronts, and advection-diffusion processes. The student who reads through this book and solves many of t...

  19. Dynamics of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, C Eugene

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on the dynamics of partial differential equations that deal with closely related topics but can be read independently. Wayne reviews recent results on the global dynamics of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. This system exhibits stable vortex solutions: the topic of Wayne's contribution is how solutions that start from arbitrary initial conditions evolve towards stable vortices. Weinstein considers the dynamics of localized states in nonlinear Schrodinger and Gross-Pitaevskii equations that describe many optical and quantum systems. In this contribution, Weinstein reviews recent bifurcations results of solitary waves, their linear and nonlinear stability properties, and results about radiation damping where waves lose energy through radiation.   The articles, written independently, are combined into one volume to showcase the tools of dynamical systems theory at work in explaining qualitative phenomena associated with two classes of partial differential equ...

  20. Hearing preservation in partial deafness treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarzynski, Henryk; Lorens, Artur; Piotrowska, Anna; Skarzynski, Piotr Henryk

    2010-11-01

    Partial deafness (PD) is a condition in which hearing loss occurs in at least 1 frequency critical to speech understanding. Current options for partial deafness treatment (PDT) rely on preoperative hearing preservation, which, along with the use of different means of acoustic and electric stimulation, enable extending the indications for various assistive hearing devices. Possible solutions include acoustic methods only, the use of hearing aids or middle ear implants, electric complementation, and a combination of electric and acoustic stimulation. A total of 95 patients (63 adults, 32 children) with different types of PD were treated using selected types of electrodes and the optimal "round window" approach to the inner ear, with at least 36 months of observation. The extension of PDT indications created an opportunity for patients with different hearing impairments who obtained no benefit from a hearing aid and did not qualify for standard cochlear implant application. The authors' observations are based on the findings that preservation of preoperative hearing had been achieved in 97.1% of adult patients (8 years' observation) and in 100% of children (6 years' observation). Those results send the important message that PDT is feasible and effective. To allow comparison of PDT results from different studies, the authors developed the Skarzynski PDT classification system, which permits the comparison of postoperative results, including the degree of hearing preservation and, more importantly, the patient's understanding of speech after treatment.

  1. Bifurcation and stability for a nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafee, N.

    1973-01-01

    Theorems are developed to support bifurcation and stability of nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations in the solution of the asymptotic behavior of functions with certain specified properties.

  2. Optimal Variational Asymptotic Method for Nonlinear Fractional Partial Differential Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranwal, Vipul K; Pandey, Ram K; Singh, Om P

    2014-01-01

    We propose optimal variational asymptotic method to solve time fractional nonlinear partial differential equations. In the proposed method, an arbitrary number of auxiliary parameters γ 0, γ 1, γ 2,… and auxiliary functions H 0(x), H 1(x), H 2(x),… are introduced in the correction functional of the standard variational iteration method. The optimal values of these parameters are obtained by minimizing the square residual error. To test the method, we apply it to solve two important classes of nonlinear partial differential equations: (1) the fractional advection-diffusion equation with nonlinear source term and (2) the fractional Swift-Hohenberg equation. Only few iterations are required to achieve fairly accurate solutions of both the first and second problems.

  3. Optimal Variational Asymptotic Method for Nonlinear Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranwal, Vipul K.; Pandey, Ram K.

    2014-01-01

    We propose optimal variational asymptotic method to solve time fractional nonlinear partial differential equations. In the proposed method, an arbitrary number of auxiliary parameters γ 0, γ 1, γ 2,… and auxiliary functions H 0(x), H 1(x), H 2(x),… are introduced in the correction functional of the standard variational iteration method. The optimal values of these parameters are obtained by minimizing the square residual error. To test the method, we apply it to solve two important classes of nonlinear partial differential equations: (1) the fractional advection-diffusion equation with nonlinear source term and (2) the fractional Swift-Hohenberg equation. Only few iterations are required to achieve fairly accurate solutions of both the first and second problems. PMID:27437484

  4. Partially clairvoyant scheduling for aggregate constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Subramani

    2005-01-01

    constraints. In this paper, we extend the class of constraints for which partially clairvoyant schedules can be determined efficiently, to include aggregate constraints. Aggregate constraints form a strict superset of standard constraints and can be used to model performance metrics.

  5. Determination of binding properties of ampicillin in drug-human serum albumin standard solution using N-vinylpyrrolidone copolymer combined with the micellar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępnik, Katarzyna E; Malinowska, Irena

    2017-01-01

    It is well-known that only the unbound (free) drug fraction can achieve a pharmacological effect. Therefore the determination of free drug concentration is a very important issue in the field of pharmacology. In this study poly-1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (VP) crosslinked with divinylbenzene (DVB) compared with the micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) with and without pre-made drug adsorption was used for quantitative analysis of free ampicillin concentration in the standard solution of drug-human serum albumin owing to its ability to block protein adsorption. The commonly recognized adsorption method based on drug adsorption on VP-DVB has been compared to the entirely new application of MLC with direct sample injection (DSI) not requiring pre-made adsorption. Micellar aggregates are able to solubilize various compounds therefore micellar environment can be used for direct determination of free drug concentration. The obtained results show that the free drug concentration values obtained in the micellar systems based on cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) (93.98μgL-1, 78.3%) as well as on polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether (Brij35) (91.15μgL-1, 75.9%) are similar to those obtained after the drug adsorption on VP-DVB using both RP-HPLC (95.85μgmL-1, 79.9%) and spectrophotometry (96.47μgmL-1, 80.4%). However, only %PPB (% plasma protein binding) value calculated on the basis of Brij35 retention factor is similar to the literature data. The obtained results are within the analytical range of % of free drug concentration. Therefore N-vinylpyrrolidone copolymer as well as micellar system based on the non-ionic surfactant can be successfully applied for determination of free drug concentration. Moreover, the new application of MLC with DSI can be recognized as a promising, fast and simple method for quantitative determination of free drug concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  7. Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, S H

    2011-01-01

    A balanced guide to the essential techniques for solving elliptic partial differential equations Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations provides a comprehensive, self-contained treatment of the quantitative methods used to solve elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs), with a focus on the efficiency as well as the error of the presented methods. The author utilizes coverage of theoretical PDEs, along with the nu merical solution of linear systems and various examples and exercises, to supply readers with an introduction to the essential concepts in the numerical analysis

  8. Cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvaneswary, M; Macintosh, J; Cassey, J

    2006-06-01

    Cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma is a relatively rare tumour of the kidney usually affecting infants. Cystic Wilms' tumour and multilocular cystic nephroma should be distinguished from cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma. Multilocular cystic nephroma is a benign tumour whereas cystic Wilms' tumour is at the malignant end of the range of classification of such tumours. Cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma may undergo local recurrence but there is no report of metastasis.

  9. First-order partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Hyun-Ku; Amundson, Neal R

    2001-01-01

    This first volume of a highly regarded two-volume text is fully usable on its own. After going over some of the preliminaries, the authors discuss mathematical models that yield first-order partial differential equations; motivations, classifications, and some methods of solution; linear and semilinear equations; chromatographic equations with finite rate expressions; homogeneous and nonhomogeneous quasilinear equations; formation and propagation of shocks; conservation equations, weak solutions, and shock layers; nonlinear equations; and variational problems. Exercises appear at the end of mo

  10. An Accurate Approximate-Analytical Technique for Solving Time-Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bishehniasar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand of many scientific areas for the usage of fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs to explain their real-world systems has been broadly identified. The solutions may portray dynamical behaviors of various particles such as chemicals and cells. The desire of obtaining approximate solutions to treat these equations aims to overcome the mathematical complexity of modeling the relevant phenomena in nature. This research proposes a promising approximate-analytical scheme that is an accurate technique for solving a variety of noninteger partial differential equations (PDEs. The proposed strategy is based on approximating the derivative of fractional-order and reducing the problem to the corresponding partial differential equation (PDE. Afterwards, the approximating PDE is solved by using a separation-variables technique. The method can be simply applied to nonhomogeneous problems and is proficient to diminish the span of computational cost as well as achieving an approximate-analytical solution that is in excellent concurrence with the exact solution of the original problem. In addition and to demonstrate the efficiency of the method, it compares with two finite difference methods including a nonstandard finite difference (NSFD method and standard finite difference (SFD technique, which are popular in the literature for solving engineering problems.

  11. Minimizing Ports During Robotic Partial Nephrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Argun, Omer Burak; Mourmouris, Panagiotis; Tufek, Ilter; Obek, Can; Tuna, Mustafa Bilal; Keskin, Selcuk; Kural, Ali Riza

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Robotic upper urinary tract surgery is in most of the cases performed utilizing a standard 5 port configuration. Fewer ports can potentially produce a less invasive operation. Taking in consideration the above we report a novel technique for robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy utilizing fewer ports and we test its feasibility and safety profile. Methods: Data on 11 robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomies performed by using our technique from Feb...

  12. A hybrid perturbation-Galerkin technique for partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, James F.; Anderson, Carl M.

    1990-01-01

    A two-step hybrid perturbation-Galerkin technique for improving the usefulness of perturbation solutions to partial differential equations which contain a parameter is presented and discussed. In the first step of the method, the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion(s) of the solution about one or more values of the perturbation parameter are obtained using standard perturbation methods. In the second step, the perturbation functions obtained in the first step are used as trial functions in a Bubnov-Galerkin approximation. This semi-analytical, semi-numerical hybrid technique appears to overcome some of the drawbacks of the perturbation and Galerkin methods when they are applied by themselves, while combining some of the good features of each. The technique is illustrated first by a simple example. It is then applied to the problem of determining the flow of a slightly compressible fluid past a circular cylinder and to the problem of determining the shape of a free surface due to a sink above the surface. Solutions obtained by the hybrid method are compared with other approximate solutions, and its possible application to certain problems associated with domain decomposition is discussed.

  13. A Riccati-Bernoulli sub-ODE method for nonlinear partial differential equations and its application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Zi-Chen; Wei, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The Riccati-Bernoulli sub-ODE method is firstly proposed to construct exact traveling wave solutions, solitary wave solutions, and peaked wave solutions for nonlinear partial differential equations...

  14. Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

  15. The Austrian Tobacco Act in practice--analysing the effectiveness of partial smoking bans in Austrian restaurants and bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Gerhard; Sommersguter-Reichmann, Margit

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of partial smoking bans in restaurants and bars, such as those currently in place in Austria, by evaluating adherence to the relevant regulations and assessing the satisfaction levels of those affected by these regulations. To evaluate adherence, 127 randomly selected restaurants and bars were observed using a form of structured observation. In order to evaluate their level of satisfaction with the regulations, 342 randomly selected customers and 29 restaurant owners were interviewed using standardized questionnaires. The customers widely adhered to the partial smoking bans, but many of them were dissatisfied with the fragmented Austrian solution. Most restaurant owners showed neither adherence to the relevant regulations nor satisfaction with the partial smoking bans. The present study reveals that partial bans on smoking are an ineffective solution. The presumed advantages of these regulations, such as still allowing smoking in restaurants provided a spatial separation of smoking and non-smoking areas is guaranteed, cannot be confirmed; adherence to the partial bans is rather inadequate, especially among restaurant owners, and the level of satisfaction with the Austrian solution is poor as well, not only among smoking and non-smoking customers, but also restaurant owners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment by Partial Geochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Ni, Mo and P (Thompson, 1983). Table 2. Geochemical analytical procedure for the three leachates. Water extraction (W). Partial extraction (HA). Total extraction (AR). 10 gm,. 1gm. 1gm. Adding 25ml demineralized water. 20 ml of 0.25M hydroxylamine and 0.1M HCl solution. 5ml agua regia and 5ml demineralized water.

  17. Partially dynamic vehicle routing - models and algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Solomon, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework for dynamic routing systems based on their degree of dynamism. Next, we consider its impact on solution methodology and quality. Specifically, we introduce the Partially Dynamic Travelling Repairman Problem and describe several dynamic policies to minimize rou...

  18. Partial purification, characterization and hydrolytic activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    α-Amylase and amyloglucosidase produced by amylolytic Bacillus licheniformis and Aspergillus niger isolated from plantain and yam peels media were partially purified and characterized. Following cultivation of the microbial isolates on the agricultural residue media, crude enzyme solutions were obtained by filtration and ...

  19. Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derex, Maxime; Boyd, Robert

    2016-03-15

    Complex technologies used in most human societies are beyond the inventive capacities of individuals. Instead, they result from a cumulative process in which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population's ability to develop complex technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present a simple computer-based experiment that compares the accumulation of innovations by fully and partially connected groups of the same size in a complex fitness landscape. We find that the propensity to learn from successful individuals drastically reduces cultural diversity within fully connected groups. In comparison, partially connected groups produce more diverse solutions, and this diversity allows them to develop complex solutions that are never produced in fully connected groups. These results suggest that explanations of ancestral patterns of cultural complexity may need to consider levels of population fragmentation and interaction patterns between partially isolated groups.

  20. arXiv Minimal Fundamental Partial Compositeness

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Sannino, Francesco; Thomsen, Anders Eller

    Building upon the fundamental partial compositeness framework we provide consistent and complete composite extensions of the standard model. These are used to determine the effective operators emerging at the electroweak scale in terms of the standard model fields upon consistently integrating out the heavy composite dynamics. We exhibit the first effective field theories matching these complete composite theories of flavour and analyse their physical consequences for the third generation quarks. Relations with other approaches, ranging from effective analyses for partial compositeness to extra dimensions as well as purely fermionic extensions, are briefly discussed. Our methodology is applicable to any composite theory of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking featuring a complete theory of flavour.

  1. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  2. Non-standard and improperly posed problems

    CERN Document Server

    Straughan, Brian; Ames, William F

    1997-01-01

    Written by two international experts in the field, this book is the first unified survey of the advances made in the last 15 years on key non-standard and improperly posed problems for partial differential equations.This reference for mathematicians, scientists, and engineers provides an overview of the methodology typically used to study improperly posed problems. It focuses on structural stability--the continuous dependence of solutions on the initial conditions and the modeling equations--and on problems for which data are only prescribed on part of the boundary.The book addresses continuou

  3. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  4. Emprego do sal di-sódico de edta como padrão no preparo de soluções Use of EDTA disodium salt as standard for preparation of solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. Pereira da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrated sodium salt of EDTA, Na2H2Y·2H2O, cannot be used as a primary standard for titrations due to uncertainties in the water content. An alkalimetric titration of the homogenized solid in the presence of a small excess of BaCl2·2H2O allows one to titrate quantitatively the released two hydrogen cations with end-point indication by phenolphthalein or potentiometry. This leads one to calculate the average molar mass of the reagent and its water content, allowing to use it to prepare EDTA standard solutions. One titrated sample led to the formula Na2H2Y·1.876 H2O, and 370.01 g.mol-1 for the average molar mass.

  5. Practical solution for control of the pre-analytical phase in decentralized clinical laboratories for meeting the requirements of the medical laboratory accreditation standard DIN EN ISO 15189.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacata, Vladimir; Jahns-Streubel, Gerlinde; Baldus, Mirjana; Wood, William Graham

    2007-01-01

    This report was written in response to the article by Wood published recently in this journal. It describes a practical solution to the problems of controlling the pre-analytical phase in the clinical diagnostic laboratory. As an indicator of quality in the pre-analytical phase of sample processing, a target analyte was chosen which is sensitive to delay in centrifugation and/or analysis. The results of analyses of the samples sent by satellite medical practitioners were compared with those from an on-site hospital laboratory with a controllable optimized pre-analytical phase. The aim of the comparison was: (a) to identify those medical practices whose mean/median sample values significantly deviate from those of the control situation in the hospital laboratory due to the possible problems in the pre-analytical phase; (b) to aid these laboratories in the process of rectifying these problems. A Microsoft Excel-based Pre-Analytical Survey tool (PAS tool) has been developed which addresses the above mentioned problems. It has been tested on serum potassium which is known to be sensitive to delay and/or irregularities in sample treatment. The PAS tool has been shown to be one possibility for improving the quality of the analyses by identifying the sources of problems within the pre-analytical phase, thus allowing them to be rectified. Additionally, the PAS tool has an educational value and can also be adopted for use in other decentralized laboratories.

  6. Standard Glbbs Energy of Formation of the Hydroxyl Radical in Aqueous Solution. Rate Constants for the Reaction C102- -t O3 S 03- -t CIO,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klaning, U. K.; Sehested, Knud; Holcman, J.

    1985-01-01

    Eoa,(OH/OH-) were determined by means of kf and k,, the equilibrium constant of 03- + O2 + 0-, the pK of the hydroxyl radical, A&Oa, of 030, 2a,n d OH-i n aqueous solution, and E0,,(C1O2/C1O2-) = 0.934 V determined in the present work. Apoa,(OH) = 26.8 * 1 kJ mol-' and Eoao(OH/OH-) = 1.91 * 0.01 V......The rate constants of the following reactions were determined by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow experiments: C102- + O3 + C102 + 03-(k f= (4 f 1) X lo6 dm3 mol-' s-', k, = (1.8 f 0.2) X lo5 dm3 mol-' s-]); C102 + OH - C103- + H+ (k = (4.0 * 0.4) X lo9 dm3 mol-' s-l); C102 + 0- - C103- (k = (2...

  7. Improved stochastic approximation methods for discretized parabolic partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiaş, Flavius

    2016-12-01

    We present improvements of the stochastic direct simulation method, a known numerical scheme based on Markov jump processes which is used for approximating solutions of ordinary differential equations. This scheme is suited especially for spatial discretizations of evolution partial differential equations (PDEs). By exploiting the full path simulation of the stochastic method, we use this first approximation as a predictor and construct improved approximations by Picard iterations, Runge-Kutta steps, or a combination. This has as consequence an increased order of convergence. We illustrate the features of the improved method at a standard benchmark problem, a reaction-diffusion equation modeling a combustion process in one space dimension (1D) and two space dimensions (2D).

  8. A low-cost solution to measure mouse licking in an electrophysiological setup with a standard analog-to-digital converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayar, Abdallah; Bryant, Jeri L; Boughter, John D; Heck, Detlef H

    2006-06-15

    Licking behavior in rodents is widely used to determine fluid consumption in various behavioral contexts and is a typical example of rhythmic movement controlled by internal pattern-generating mechanisms. The measurement of licking behavior by commercially available instruments is based on either tongue protrusion interrupting a light beam or on an electrical signal generated by the tongue touching a metal spout. We report here that licking behavior can be measured with high temporal precision by simply connecting a metal sipper tube to the input of a standard analog/digital (A/D) converter and connecting the animal to ground (via a metal cage floor). The signal produced by a single lick consists of a 100-800 mV dc voltage step, which reflects the metal-to-water junction potential and persists for the duration of the tongue-spout contact. This method does not produce any significant electrical artifacts and can be combined with electrophysiological measurements of single unit activity from neurons involved in the control of the licking behavior.

  9. Comparison of early enteral nutrition in severe acute pancreatitis with prebiotic fiber supplementation versus standard enteral solution: A prospective randomized double-blind study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakan, Tarkan; Ergun, Meltem; Dogan, Ibrahim; Cindoruk, Mehmet; Unal, Selahattin

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To compare the beneficial effects of early enteral nutrition (EN) with prebiotic fiber supplementation in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients with severe AP, who required stoppage of oral feeding for 48 h, were randomly assigned to nasojejunal EN with or without prebiotics. APACHE II score, Balthazar’s CT score and CRP were assessed daily during the study period. RESULTS: The median duration of hospital stay was shorter in the study group [10 ± 4 (8-14) d vs 15 ± 6 (7-26) d] (P 0.05). Deaths occurred in 6 patients (20%), 2 in the study group and 4 in the control group. The mean duration of APACHE II normalization (APACHE II score < 8) was shorter in the study group than in the control group (4 ± 2 d vs 6.5 ± 3 d, P < 0.05). The mean duration of CRP normalization was also shorter in the study group than in the control group (7 ± 2 d vs 10 ± 3 d, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Nasojejunal EN with prebiotic fiber supplementation in severe AP improves hospital stay, duration nutrition therapy, acute phase response and overall complications compared to standard EN therapy. PMID:17569144

  10. Algebraic partial Boolean algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, D

    2003-01-01

    Partial Boolean algebras, first studied by Kochen and Specker in the 1960s, provide the structure for Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems which deny the existence of non-contextual hidden variable theories. In this paper, we study partial Boolean algebras which are 'algebraic' in the sense that their elements have coordinates in an algebraic number field. Several of these algebras have been discussed recently in a debate on the validity of Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems in the context of finite precision measurements. The main result of this paper is that every algebraic finitely-generated partial Boolean algebra B(T) is finite when the underlying space H is three-dimensional, answering a question of Kochen and showing that Conway and Kochen's infinite algebraic partial Boolean algebra has minimum dimension. This result contrasts the existence of an infinite (non-algebraic) B(T) generated by eight elements in an abstract orthomodular lattice of height 3. We then initiate a study of higher-dimensional algebraic partial...

  11. Clustering stocks using partial correlation coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sean S.; Chang, Woojin

    2016-11-01

    A partial correlation analysis is performed on the Korean stock market (KOSPI). The difference between Pearson correlation and the partial correlation is analyzed and it is found that when conditioned on the market return, Pearson correlation coefficients are generally greater than those of the partial correlation, which implies that the market return tends to drive up the correlation between stock returns. A clustering analysis is then performed to study the market structure given by the partial correlation analysis and the members of the clusters are compared with the Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS). The initial hypothesis is that the firms in the same GICS sector are clustered together since they are in a similar business and environment. However, the result is inconsistent with the hypothesis and most clusters are a mix of multiple sectors suggesting that the traditional approach of using sectors to determine the proximity between stocks may not be sufficient enough to diversify a portfolio.

  12. Optimal moving grids for time-dependent partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathen, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    Various adaptive moving grid techniques for the numerical solution of time-dependent partial differential equations were proposed. The precise criterion for grid motion varies, but most techniques will attempt to give grids on which the solution of the partial differential equation can be well represented. Moving grids are investigated on which the solutions of the linear heat conduction and viscous Burgers' equation in one space dimension are optimally approximated. Precisely, the results of numerical calculations of optimal moving grids for piecewise linear finite element approximation of PDE solutions in the least-squares norm are reported.

  13. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  14. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  15. A Line-Tau Collocation Method for Partial Differential Equations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with the numerical solution of second order linear partial differential equations with the use of the method of lines coupled with the tau collocation method. The method of lines is used to convert the partial differential equation (PDE) to a sequence of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) which is then ...

  16. Solving Fractional Partial Differential Equations with Corrected Fourier Series Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hafizah Zainal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrected Fourier series (CFS is proposed for solving partial differential equations (PDEs with fractional time derivative on a finite domain. In the previous work, we have been solving partial differential equations by using corrected Fourier series. The fractional derivatives are described in Riemann sense. Some numerical examples are presented to show the solutions.

  17. Topiramate monotherapy for partial onset seizures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sachdeo, R C; Reife, R A; Lim, P; Pledger, G

    1997-01-01

    .... A total of 48 patients were evaluated in a double-blind, parallel-group trial. During a 56-day baseline period, patients had at least eight partial onset seizures while being treated with one or two standard antiepileptic drugs (AEDs...

  18. Dynamics of partial control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuco, Juan; Sanjuán, Miguel A F; Yorke, James A

    2012-12-01

    Safe sets are a basic ingredient in the strategy of partial control of chaotic systems. Recently we have found an algorithm, the sculpting algorithm, which allows us to construct them, when they exist. Here we define another type of set, an asymptotic safe set, to which trajectories are attracted asymptotically when the partial control strategy is applied. We apply all these ideas to a specific example of a Duffing oscillator showing the geometry of these sets in phase space. The software for creating all the figures appearing in this paper is available as supplementary material.

  19. Partial differential equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of solutions in the spirit of the work of Gidas–. Ni–Nirenberg, etc. No effort is being made in this writeup to explain their significance in which case the article would go beyond resonable length. References. [1] Brezis H and Nirenberg L 1983 Positive Solutions of nonlinear elliptic equations involving critical Sobolev.

  20. Partially ordered models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, R.; Deveaux, V.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal definition and study the basic properties of partially ordered chains (POC). These systems were proposed to model textures in image processing and to represent independence relations between random variables in statistics (in the later case they are known as Bayesian networks).

  1. Partial Biotinidase Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1990-01-01

    The symptoms, biochemical features and inheritance pattern of partial biotinidase deficiency have been studied at the Departments of Human Genetics and Pediatrics, Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA; the State Laboratory Institute, Massachusetts Department of Public Health; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; the Lincoln Clinic, NB; and the Division of Human Genetics, university of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore.

  2. Partial gravity habitat study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Stephen; Lorandos, Jason; Akhidime, Eval; Bunch, Michael; Lund, Denise; Moore, Nathan; Murakawa, Kiosuke

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate comprehensive design requirements associated with designing habitats for humans in a partial gravity environment, then to apply them to a lunar base design. Other potential sites for application include planetary surfaces such as Mars, variable-gravity research facilities, and a rotating spacecraft. Design requirements for partial gravity environments include locomotion changes in less than normal earth gravity; facility design issues, such as interior configuration, module diameter, and geometry; and volumetric requirements based on the previous as well as psychological issues involved in prolonged isolation. For application to a lunar base, it is necessary to study the exterior architecture and configuration to insure optimum circulation patterns while providing dual egress; radiation protection issues are addressed to provide a safe and healthy environment for the crew; and finally, the overall site is studied to locate all associated facilities in context with the habitat. Mission planning is not the purpose of this study; therefore, a Lockheed scenario is used as an outline for the lunar base application, which is then modified to meet the project needs. The goal of this report is to formulate facts on human reactions to partial gravity environments, derive design requirements based on these facts, and apply the requirements to a partial gravity situation which, for this study, was a lunar base.

  3. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression wher...

  4. Honesty in partial logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Hoek (Wiebe); J.O.M. Jaspars; E. Thijsse

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the

  5. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset...

  6. Uniqueness of large positive solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Julián; Maire, Luis

    2017-08-01

    We establish the uniqueness of the positive solution of the singular problem (1.1) through some standard comparison techniques involving the maximum principle. Our proofs do not invoke to the blow-up rates of the solutions, as in most of the specialized literature. We give two different types of results according to the geometrical properties of Ω and the regularity of partial Ω . Even in the autonomous case, our theorems are extremely sharp extensions of all existing results. Precisely, when a(x)≡ 1, it is shown that the monotonicity and superadditivity of f( u) with constant C≥ 0 entail the uniqueness; f is said to be superadditive with constant C≥ 0 if f(a+b) ≥ f(a) + f(b) - C \\quad for all a, b ≥ 0. This condition, introduced by Marcus and Véron (J Evol Equ 3:637-652, 2004), weakens all previous sufficient conditions for uniqueness, as it will become apparent in this paper.

  7. Discretized partial differential equations - Examples of control systems defined on modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockett, R. W.; Willems, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how the important problems of linear system theory can be solved concisely for a particular class of linear systems, namely block circulant systems, by exploiting the algebraic structure. This type of system arises in lumped approximations to linear partial differential equations. The computation of the transition matrix, the variation of constants formula, observability, controllability, pole allocation, realization theory, stability and quadratic optimal control are discussed. In principle, all questions which are solved here could also be solved by standard methods; the present paper clearly exposes the structure of the solution, and thus permits various savings in computational effort.

  8. Comparison of performance of partial least squares regression, secured principal component regression, and modified secured principal component regression for determination of human serum albumin, gamma-globulin and glucose in buffer solutions and in vivo blood glucose quantification by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo-Yan; Kasemsumran, Sumaporn; Hu, Yun; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2007-01-01

    The performances of three multivariate analysis methods--partial least squares (PLS) regression, secured principal component regression (sPCR) and modified secured principal component regression (msPCR)--are compared and tested for the determination of human serum albumin (HSA), gamma-globulin, and glucose in phosphate buffer solutions and blood glucose quantification by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Results from the application of PLS, sPCR and msPCR are presented, showing that the three methods can determine the concentrations of HSA, gamma-globulin and glucose in phosphate buffer solutions almost equally well provided that the prediction samples contain the same spectral information as the calibration samples. On the other hand, when some potential spectral features appear in new measurements, sPCR and msPCR outperform PLS significantly. The reason for this is that such spectral features are not included during calibration, which leads to a degradation in PLS prediction performance, while sPCR and msPCR can improve their predictions for the concentrations of the analytes by removing the uncalibrated features from the original spectra. This point is demonstrated by successfully applying sPCR and msPCR to in vivo blood glucose measurements. This work therefore shows that sPCR and msPCR may provide possible alternatives to PLS in cases where some uncalibrated spectral features are present in measurements used for concentration prediction.

  9. Solution phase combinatorial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, A T

    1998-06-01

    Combinatorial chemistry and parallel array synthesis techniques are now used extensively in the drug discovery process. Although published literature has been dominated by solid phase chemistry approaches, the use of solution phase techniques has also been widely explored. This review considers the advantages and disadvantages of choosing solution phase approaches in the various stages of drug discovery and optimisation, and assesses the practical issues related to these approaches. The uses of standard solution chemistry, the related liquid phase approach, and of supported materials to enhance solution phase chemistry are all illustrated by a comprehensive review of the published literature over the past three years.

  10. Numerical approximation of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bartels, Sören

    2016-01-01

    Finite element methods for approximating partial differential equations have reached a high degree of maturity, and are an indispensible tool in science and technology. This textbook aims at providing a thorough introduction to the construction, analysis, and implementation of finite element methods for model problems arising in continuum mechanics. The first part of the book discusses elementary properties of linear partial differential equations along with their basic numerical approximation, the functional-analytical framework for rigorously establishing existence of solutions, and the construction and analysis of basic finite element methods. The second part is devoted to the optimal adaptive approximation of singularities and the fast iterative solution of linear systems of equations arising from finite element discretizations. In the third part, the mathematical framework for analyzing and discretizing saddle-point problems is formulated, corresponding finte element methods are analyzed, and particular ...

  11. The analysis of a sparse grid stochastic collocation method for partial differential equations with high-dimensional random input data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Clayton; Tempone, Raul (Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL); Nobile, Fabio (Politecnico di Milano, Italy)

    2007-12-01

    This work describes the convergence analysis of a Smolyak-type sparse grid stochastic collocation method for the approximation of statistical quantities related to the solution of partial differential equations with random coefficients and forcing terms (input data of the model). To compute solution statistics, the sparse grid stochastic collocation method uses approximate solutions, produced here by finite elements, corresponding to a deterministic set of points in the random input space. This naturally requires solving uncoupled deterministic problems and, as such, the derived strong error estimates for the fully discrete solution are used to compare the computational efficiency of the proposed method with the Monte Carlo method. Numerical examples illustrate the theoretical results and are used to compare this approach with several others, including the standard Monte Carlo.

  12. ERC Workshop on Geometric Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Novaga, Matteo; Valdinoci, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    This book is the outcome of a conference held at the Centro De Giorgi of the Scuola Normale of Pisa in September 2012. The aim of the conference was to discuss recent results on nonlinear partial differential equations, and more specifically geometric evolutions and reaction-diffusion equations. Particular attention was paid to self-similar solutions, such as solitons and travelling waves, asymptotic behaviour, formation of singularities and qualitative properties of solutions. These problems arise in many models from Physics, Biology, Image Processing and Applied Mathematics in general, and have attracted a lot of attention in recent years.

  13. Partially composite Higgs models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Buarque Franzosi, Diogo; Frandsen, Mads T.

    2018-01-01

    constraints. A small part of parameter space around the classically conformal limit is stable up to the Planck scale. This is however already strongly disfavored by LHC results. in different limits, the models realize both (partially) composite-Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models and a dynamical extension......We study the phenomenology of partially composite-Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced, and the Higgs is a mixture of a composite and an elementary state. The models considered have explicit realizations in terms of gauge-Yukawa theories with new strongly...... interacting fermions coupled to elementary scalars and allow for a very SM-like Higgs state. We study constraints on their parameter spaces from vacuum stability and perturbativity as well as from LHC results and find that requiring vacuum stability up to the compositeness scale already imposes relevant...

  14. Ambit processes and stochastic partial differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Benth, Fred Espen; Veraart, Almut

    Ambit processes are general stochastic processes based on stochastic integrals with respect to Lévy bases. Due to their flexible structure, they have great potential for providing realistic models for various applications such as in turbulence and finance. This papers studies the connection betwe...... ambit processes and solutions to stochastic partial differential equations. We investigate this relationship from two angles: from the Walsh theory of martingale measures and from the viewpoint of the Lévy noise analysis....

  15. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.

  16. Mergers by Partial Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Lindqvist, Tobias

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates partial acquisition strategies. The model allows for buying a share of a firm before the actual acquisition takes place. Holding a share in a competing firm before the acquisition of another firm, outsider-toehold, eliminates the insiders' dilemma, i.e. profitable mergers do not occur. This strategy may thus be more profitable for a buyer than acquiring entire firms at once. Furthermore, the insiders' dilemma arises from the assumption of a positive externality on the out...

  17. Standards not that standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Cristina; Tanner, Kristie; Dorado-Morales, Pedro; Villaescusa, Paula; Chugani, Divya; Frías, Alba; Segredo, Ernesto; Molero, Xavier; Fritschi, Marco; Morales, Lucas; Ramón, Daniel; Peña, Carlos; Peretó, Juli; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    There is a general assent on the key role of standards in Synthetic Biology. In two consecutive letters to this journal, suggestions on the assembly methods for the Registry of standard biological parts have been described. We fully agree with those authors on the need of a more flexible building strategy and we highlight in the present work two major functional challenges standardization efforts have to deal with: the need of both universal and orthogonal behaviors. We provide experimental data that clearly indicate that such engineering requirements should not be taken for granted in Synthetic Biology.

  18. Convergence of hybrid methods for solving non-linear partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is concerned with the numerical solution and convergence analysis of non-linear partial differential equations using a hybrid method. The solution technique involves discretizing the non-linear system of PDE to obtain a corresponding non-linear system of algebraic difference equations to be solved at each time ...

  19. Multiple imputation to correct for partial verification bias revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J. A. H.; Janssen, K. J. M.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Moons, K. G. M.; Reitsma, J. B.

    2008-01-01

    Partial verification refers to the situation where a subset of patients is not verified by the reference (gold) standard and is excluded from the analysis. If partial verification is present, the present, the observed (naive) measures of accuracy such as sensitivity and specificity are most likely

  20. Gravimetric imaging of partially molten bodies beneath the Bolivian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Potro, R.; Diez, M.; Gottsmann, J.; Camacho, A. J.; Sunagua, M.

    2011-12-01

    The presence of partial melt in the Earth's crust causes a decrease in density, and hence a density contrast, that generates a potential field anomaly. Gravimetric techniques can quantify such an anomaly and invert its signature to produce a subsurface density distribution model, from which images of anomalous density bodies can be isolated. Here, we present a 3D gravimetric image of four deep-rooted negative density bodies in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes in southern Bolivia, which we interpret to contain partial melt. The underlying gravimetric data were obtained by the combination of 143 new with 60 existing observation from previous regional surveys. The survey covers an area of ~5000 km2 that comprises the Central Andean Bouguer anomaly minima of about -450 μGal. After standard data reduction, the local residual gravity signal was inverted using a priori determined plausible density contrasts (±50 to ±300 kg m-3). The inversion routine builds a subsurface model (defined by the 3D aggregation of parallel-piped cells) based on a controlled 'growth' process of anomalous density bodies by means of an exploratory approach. Non-uniqueness is addressed by favouring solutions that balance minimum residuals and minimum number of anomalous bodies with minimum anomalous mass. Within the range of assumed density contrasts, all inversion models show the presence of the deep-rooted low-density bodies, providing a significant confidence level to the inversion results. Our favoured 3D model of the anomalous bodies is obtained from a negative density contrast of 150 kg m-3 that corresponds to bodies appear to connect the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (AMPB) at ~20 km depth, to shallower (~5 km) pre-eruption levels beneath the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex (APVC). One of the bodies is located beneath a large on-going ground uplift centred at Uturuncu volcano and the modelled ground deformation source lies within the gravimetrically imaged body of partial melt.

  1. Innovative methods for numerical solution of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hafez, M M

    2001-01-01

    This book consists of 20 review articles dedicated to Prof. Philip Roe on the occasion of his 60th birthday and in appreciation of his original contributions to computational fluid dynamics. The articles, written by leading researchers in the field, cover many topics, including theory and applications, algorithm developments and modern computational techniques for industry. Contents: "A One-Sided View": The Real Story (B van Leer); Collocated Upwind Schemes for Ideal MHD (K G Powell); The Penultimate Scheme for Systems of Conservation Laws: Finite Difference ENO with Marquina's Flux Splitting

  2. Lectures on the Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Paris Professor Milos Zlamal Centre D’Orsay Technical University Mathematique , Batiment 425 Dbrancu Miru 21 91405 Orsay Brno France Czechoslovakia 1v I I...Sobolev spaces. We shall omit the symbol dx in an integral of the form f f(x)dx, except in those int.!grals where the variable of integration is x 3 E...1,11, in which case the specific symbol dt will be used. As a rule, Greek indices ; c,8,i,..., take their values in the set 81,21, uhile Latin

  3. Wavelet transforms as solutions of partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweig, G.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Wavelet transforms are useful in representing transients whose time and frequency structure reflect the dynamics of an underlying physical system. Speech sound, pressure in turbulent fluid flow, or engine sound in automobiles are excellent candidates for wavelet analysis. This project focused on (1) methods for choosing the parent wavelet for a continuous wavelet transform in pattern recognition applications and (2) the more efficient computation of continuous wavelet transforms by understanding the relationship between discrete wavelet transforms and discretized continuous wavelet transforms. The most interesting result of this research is the finding that the generalized wave equation, on which the continuous wavelet transform is based, can be used to understand phenomena that relate to the process of hearing.

  4. Optical Analog & Hybrid Computer Solution of Partial Differential Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-02

    exterrally for v-5 min. prior to evaporation. 111. Plintoresist and Etch Step a) NJormali splin but it 4000 ERiM, pie -bake 90’C for 30 main. This will yisld a...fo r clarity. 25 A4 1 7, -) (En -I-j cz- ~ . Cix.o 4 C3) ci. CC~t 0 f-3~ Cl)- (F) - --’ til) ~ L O C) JV 0 o26 G ~ I ou riftd SwiI £1 Inq Arco ...Grounded eI ciodc Electrode Icirlode OPTICAL EPOXY - SAPHIBE E2 C2 SVLr1 n-Si VC C G IOu dd swiic1iiri Arco Groundcd Llecirodu Elet irode Electrode (b) I g

  5. Exact solutions of some nonlinear partial differential equations using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences, University of Mazandaran,. Babolsar, Iran ... tion play significant roles in many areas of science such as solid-state physics, nonlinear optics and quantum field theory. ..... the nonlinear phenomena arising in applied physical sciences. This method definitely can.

  6. Elastic interaction of partially debonded circular inclusions. II. Application to fibrous composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kushch, V.I.; Shmegera, S.V.; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2011-01-01

    A complete analytical solution has been obtained of the elasticity problem for a plane containing periodically distributed, partially debonded circular inclusions, regarded as the representative unit cell model of fibrous composite with interface damage. The displacement solution is written...

  7. Efficient partial element calculation and the extension to cylindrical elements for the PEEC method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muesing, A.; Kolar, J. W.

    2008-07-01

    For various electrical interconnect and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems, the Partial Element Equivalent Circuit (PEEC) method has proven to be a valid and fast solution method of the electrical field integral equation in the time as well as the frequency domain. Therefore, PEEC has become a multipurpose full-wave simulation method, especially suited for the solution of combined circuit and EM problems, as found on printed circuit board layouts, power electronics devices or EMC filters. Recent research introduced various extensions to the basic PEEC approach, for example a non-orthogonal cell geometry formulation. This work presents a fast, flexible and accurate computational method for determining the matrix entries of partial inductances and the coefficients of potential for general non-orthogonal PEEC cell geometries. The presented computation method utilizes analytical filament formulas to reduce the integration order and therefore to reduce computation time. The validity, accuracy and speed of the proposed method is compared with a standard integration routine on example cell geometries where the numeric results of the new method show improved accuracy, coming along with reduced computation time. Furthermore, this work shows an extension to cylindrical elements which is consistent with classical PEEC models, using the proposed integration routines for the partial element calculations. (author)

  8. Partial model checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1995-01-01

    A major obstacle in applying finite-state model checking to the verification of large systems is the combinatorial explosion of the state space arising when many loosely coupled parallel processes are considered. The problem also known as the state-explosion problem has been attacked from various...... sides. This paper presents a new approach based on partial model checking where parts of the concurrent system are gradually removed while transforming the specification accordingly. When the intermediate specifications constructed in this manner can be kept small, the state-explosion problem is avoided...

  9. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovich, M S

    2002-01-01

    Mark Vishik's Partial Differential Equations seminar held at Moscow State University was one of the world's leading seminars in PDEs for over 40 years. This book celebrates Vishik's eightieth birthday. It comprises new results and survey papers written by many renowned specialists who actively participated over the years in Vishik's seminars. Contributions include original developments and methods in PDEs and related fields, such as mathematical physics, tomography, and symplectic geometry. Papers discuss linear and nonlinear equations, particularly linear elliptic problems in angles and gener

  10. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  11. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret...... of view as well as w.r.t. computational complexity. Finally, we present algorithms for both approaches for NMI which is comparable in speed to Sum of Squared Differences (SSD), and we illustrate the differences between PW and GPV on a number of registration examples....

  12. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Harold

    1997-01-01

    The subject matter, partial differential equations (PDEs), has a long history (dating from the 18th century) and an active contemporary phase. An early phase (with a separate focus on taut string vibrations and heat flow through solid bodies) stimulated developments of great importance for mathematical analysis, such as a wider concept of functions and integration and the existence of trigonometric or Fourier series representations. The direct relevance of PDEs to all manner of mathematical, physical and technical problems continues. This book presents a reasonably broad introductory account of the subject, with due regard for analytical detail, applications and historical matters.

  13. Elliptic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Elliptic Partial Differential Equations by Qing Han and FangHua Lin is one of the best textbooks I know. It is the perfect introduction to PDE. In 150 pages or so it covers an amazing amount of wonderful and extraordinary useful material. I have used it as a textbook at both graduate and undergraduate levels which is possible since it only requires very little background material yet it covers an enormous amount of material. In my opinion it is a must read for all interested in analysis and geometry, and for all of my own PhD students it is indeed just that. I cannot say enough good things abo

  14. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, D; Süli, E

    2001-01-01

    /homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html7-Volume Set now available at special set price ! Over the second half of the 20th century the subject area loosely referred to as numerical analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs) has undergone unprecedented development. At its practical end, the vigorous growth and steady diversification of the field were stimulated by the demand for accurate and reliable tools for computational modelling in physical sciences and engineering, and by the rapid development of computer hardware and architecture. At the more theoretical end, the analytical insight in

  15. Experts' Understanding of Partial Derivatives Using the Partial Derivative Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of…

  16. Furnace brazing under partial vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckown, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

  17. Anterior partial fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, W; Heintz, A; Trinh, T T; Junginger, T

    2003-07-01

    This study examined the effect of anterior partial fundoplication on reflux symptoms and dysphagia in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Perioperative results in 249 patients were evaluated retrospectively for 93 conventional and prospectively for 156 laparoscopic procedures. The patients were followed up by standardized questionnaire. Median clinical follow-up period was 9 months (range 6-44) after laparoscopic and 88 months (range 15-194) following partial open fundoplication. The median operating time was 58 and 115 min for laparoscopic and open partial fundoplication. Intraoperative complications were rare (1%) for both approaches. After introduction of the laparoscopic procedure the morbidity rate was reduced (mean 3.2% vs. 1.3%) at a shorter postoperative hospital stay (10 vs. 5 days). No reflux symptoms were found in 71.4% patients after conventional and in 69% after laparoscopic partial fundoplication, dysphagia did not develop in 86% and 85%, respectively, and 66% and 82% received no medications. Among the patients with reflux symptoms 6.5% and 0.9% underwent revision surgery. Satisfaction with the surgical outcome was expressed by 78% and 85% of patients, respectively. Anterior partial fundoplication achieves effective medium- and long-term control of reflux symptoms. Technically easy to perform and associated with few complications, the procedure is superior to fundoplication with respect to the development of postoperative dysphagia and therefore represents a viable alternative to fundoplication.

  18. Tutorial on Online Partial Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Cook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short tutorial introduction to online partial evaluation. We show how to write a simple online partial evaluator for a simple, pure, first-order, functional programming language. In particular, we show that the partial evaluator can be derived as a variation on a compositionally defined interpreter. We demonstrate the use of the resulting partial evaluator for program optimization in the context of model-driven development.

  19. Partial networking. Deactivation of inactive ECUs; Teilnetzbetrieb. Abschaltung inaktiver Steuergeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, Stephan [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany); Meyer, Juergen [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany). Projekt Teilnetzbetrieb und WakeUp-Sleep-Konzepte; Linn, Guenter [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany). Bereich Physical Layer Flexray und Hardware-Teilnetzbetrieb

    2012-02-15

    CAN partial networking technology makes it possible to reduce power consumption and ensures energy efficiency during both operating and idle time. Audi is developing and standardizing this technology in collaboration with other OEMs and semiconductor manufacturers. Partial networking technology will become an inherent item in the Volkswagen Group Networking Technology Kit, with series production planned to begin in 2014. The article deals with the development, application and verification of partial network technology at Audi. The standardization process within the OEM overarching bodies Switch, Autosar and ISO is also outlined. (orig.)

  20. Stochastic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, Pao-Liu

    2014-01-01

    Preliminaries Introduction Some Examples Brownian Motions and Martingales Stochastic Integrals Stochastic Differential Equations of Itô Type Lévy Processes and Stochastic IntegralsStochastic Differential Equations of Lévy Type Comments Scalar Equations of First Order Introduction Generalized Itô's Formula Linear Stochastic Equations Quasilinear Equations General Remarks Stochastic Parabolic Equations Introduction Preliminaries Solution of Stochastic Heat EquationLinear Equations with Additive Noise Some Regularity Properties Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion Equations Parabolic Equations with Grad

  1. Partial pressure gauges

    CERN Document Server

    Peter, G J

    2007-01-01

    The determination of partial pressures in vacuum systems is usually performed by mass spectrometers. The most common type is the QMS. Quadrupole mass spectrometers were developed decades ago and have been used by vacuum specialists as a diagnostic tool since then. In the first part of the paper the principles of these mass spectrometers are briefly reviewed together with the key features of the instruments. This is necessary to operate these instruments. In the second part the boundary conditions which arise from the application as residual gas analyser in UHV/XHV plants are described. These lead to special versions of mass spectrometers. Results obtained with these instruments and typical artefacts in mass spectra obtained in the UHV are discussed.

  2. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: Superiority over laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroki, Ryoichi; Fukami, Naohiko; Fukaya, Kosuke; Kusaka, Mamoru; Natsume, Takahiro; Ichihara, Takashi; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Nephron-sparing surgery has been proven to positively impact the postoperative quality of life for the treatment of small renal tumors, possibly leading to functional improvements. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is still one of the most demanding procedures in urological surgery. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy sometimes results in extended warm ischemic time and severe complications, such as open conversion, postoperative hemorrhage and urine leakage. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy exploits the advantages offered by the da Vinci Surgical System to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, equipped with 3-D vision and a better degree in the freedom of surgical instruments. The introduction of the da Vinci Surgical System made nephron-sparing surgery, specifically robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, safe with promising results, leading to the shortening of warm ischemic time and a reduction in perioperative complications. Even for complex and challenging tumors, robotic assistance is expected to provide the benefit of minimally-invasive surgery with safe and satisfactory renal function. Warm ischemic time is the modifiable factor during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to affect postoperative kidney function. We analyzed the predictive factors for extended warm ischemic time from our robot-assisted partial nephrectomy series. The surface area of the tumor attached to the kidney parenchyma was shown to significantly affect the extended warm ischemic time during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. In cases with tumor-attached surface area more than 15 cm(2) , we should consider switching robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to open partial nephrectomy under cold ischemia if it is imperative. In Japan, a nationwide prospective study has been carried out to show the superiority of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in improving warm ischemic time and complications. By facilitating robotic technology, robot-assisted partial nephrectomy

  3. Computable Error Estimates for Finite Element Approximations of Elliptic Partial Differential Equations with Rough Stochastic Data

    KAUST Repository

    Hall, Eric Joseph

    2016-12-08

    We derive computable error estimates for finite element approximations of linear elliptic partial differential equations with rough stochastic coefficients. In this setting, the exact solutions contain high frequency content that standard a posteriori error estimates fail to capture. We propose goal-oriented estimates, based on local error indicators, for the pathwise Galerkin and expected quadrature errors committed in standard, continuous, piecewise linear finite element approximations. Derived using easily validated assumptions, these novel estimates can be computed at a relatively low cost and have applications to subsurface flow problems in geophysics where the conductivities are assumed to have lognormal distributions with low regularity. Our theory is supported by numerical experiments on test problems in one and two dimensions.

  4. Hamiltonian partial differential equations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholls, David; Sulem, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This book is a unique selection of work by world-class experts exploring the latest developments in Hamiltonian partial differential equations and their applications. Topics covered within are representative of the field’s wide scope, including KAM and normal form theories, perturbation and variational methods, integrable systems, stability of nonlinear solutions as well as applications to cosmology, fluid mechanics and water waves. The volume contains both surveys and original research papers and gives a concise overview of the above topics, with results ranging from mathematical modeling to rigorous analysis and numerical simulation. It will be of particular interest to graduate students as well as researchers in mathematics and physics, who wish to learn more about the powerful and elegant analytical techniques for Hamiltonian partial differential equations.

  5. Stochastic partial differential equations an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the theory of stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) of evolutionary type. SPDEs are one of the main research directions in probability theory with several wide ranging applications. Many types of dynamics with stochastic influence in nature or man-made complex systems can be modelled by such equations. The theory of SPDEs is based both on the theory of deterministic partial differential equations, as well as on modern stochastic analysis. Whilst this volume mainly follows the ‘variational approach’, it also contains a short account on the ‘semigroup (or mild solution) approach’. In particular, the volume contains a complete presentation of the main existence and uniqueness results in the case of locally monotone coefficients. Various types of generalized coercivity conditions are shown to guarantee non-explosion, but also a systematic approach to treat SPDEs with explosion in finite time is developed. It is, so far, the only book where the latter and t...

  6. Partially supervised speaker clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Chu, Stephen Mingyu; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Huang, Thomas S

    2012-05-01

    Content-based multimedia indexing, retrieval, and processing as well as multimedia databases demand the structuring of the media content (image, audio, video, text, etc.), one significant goal being to associate the identity of the content to the individual segments of the signals. In this paper, we specifically address the problem of speaker clustering, the task of assigning every speech utterance in an audio stream to its speaker. We offer a complete treatment to the idea of partially supervised speaker clustering, which refers to the use of our prior knowledge of speakers in general to assist the unsupervised speaker clustering process. By means of an independent training data set, we encode the prior knowledge at the various stages of the speaker clustering pipeline via 1) learning a speaker-discriminative acoustic feature transformation, 2) learning a universal speaker prior model, and 3) learning a discriminative speaker subspace, or equivalently, a speaker-discriminative distance metric. We study the directional scattering property of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) mean supervector representation of utterances in the high-dimensional space, and advocate exploiting this property by using the cosine distance metric instead of the euclidean distance metric for speaker clustering in the GMM mean supervector space. We propose to perform discriminant analysis based on the cosine distance metric, which leads to a novel distance metric learning algorithm—linear spherical discriminant analysis (LSDA). We show that the proposed LSDA formulation can be systematically solved within the elegant graph embedding general dimensionality reduction framework. Our speaker clustering experiments on the GALE database clearly indicate that 1) our speaker clustering methods based on the GMM mean supervector representation and vector-based distance metrics outperform traditional speaker clustering methods based on the “bag of acoustic features” representation and statistical

  7. New Fractional Complex Transform for Conformable Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çenesiz Y.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Conformable fractional complex transform is introduced in this paper for converting fractional partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations. Hence analytical methods in advanced calculus can be used to solve these equations. Conformable fractional complex transform is implemented to fractional partial differential equations such as space fractional advection diffusion equation and space fractional telegraph equation to obtain the exact solutions of these equations.

  8. [Post traumatic partial seizures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, P; Almárcegui, C; Pablo, M J; Peralta, P; Bernal, M; Valdizán, J R

    Post traumatic epilepsy represents 4% of the prevalence of the disorder and is one of the sequelas which is most difficult to prevent. Risk factors have been described to predict the appearance of seizures. A seven year old boy with a severe head injury was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. On neuroimaging studies there were multiple foci of contusion, mainly in the left hemisphere, and blood in the III and IV ventricles and frontal horn of the left lateral ventricle. The patient had severe sequelae of head injury with a right spastic hemiplegia and hemiparesia with hypertony of the left side, together with complete blindness of both eyes due to bilateral atrophy of the optic nerve. Serial EEG were done, in which a recording showed alternating periods of hypervoltage grapho elements superimposed on a trace of very low voltage, with continuous activity of low voltage and low frequency. There were no grapho elements with acute morphology. However, the patient had a first partial seizure a year and a half after his head injury. On the EEG an epileptogenic focus was identified in the left hemisphere. Within two years of his head injury he had seven seizures. He had not received prophylactic antiepileptic treatment after the head injury. We report a case of epilepsy secondary to a head injury, in which the first seizure occurred one and a half years after injury. In view of the risk factors, we discuss whether prophylactic anti epileptic treatment might have been beneficial.

  9. Ultrasonic partial discharge monitoring method on instrument transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartalović Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sonic and ultrasonic partial discharge monitoring have been applied since the early days of these phenomena monitoring. Modern measurement and partial discharge acoustic (ultrasonic and sonic monitoring method has been rapidly evolving as a result of new electronic component design, information technology and updated software solutions as well as the development of knowledge in the partial discharge diagnosis. Electrical discharges in the insulation system generate voltage-current pulses in the network and ultrasonic waves that propagate through the insulation system and structure. Amplitude-phase-frequency analysis of these signals reveals information about the intensity, type and location of partial discharges. The paper discusses the possibility of ultrasonic method selectivity improvement and the increase of diagnosis reliability in the field. Measurements were performed in the laboratory and in the field while a number of transformers were analysed for dissolved gases in the oil. A comparative review of methods for the partial discharge detection is also presented in this paper.

  10. Partial Differential Equations A unified Hilbert Space Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Picard, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    This book presents a systematic approach to a solution theory for linear partial differential equations developed in a Hilbert space setting based on a Sobolev Lattice structure, a simple extension of the well established notion of a chain (or scale) of Hilbert spaces. Thefocus on a Hilbert space setting is a highly adaptable and suitable approach providing a more transparent framework for presenting the main issues in the development of a solution theory for partial differential equations.This global point of view is takenby focussing on the issues involved in determining the appropriate func

  11. Boundary value problems and partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, David L

    2005-01-01

    Boundary Value Problems is the leading text on boundary value problems and Fourier series. The author, David Powers, (Clarkson) has written a thorough, theoretical overview of solving boundary value problems involving partial differential equations by the methods of separation of variables. Professors and students agree that the author is a master at creating linear problems that adroitly illustrate the techniques of separation of variables used to solve science and engineering.* CD with animations and graphics of solutions, additional exercises and chapter review questions* Nearly 900 exercises ranging in difficulty* Many fully worked examples

  12. An introduction to viscosity solutions for fully nonlinear PDE with applications to calculus of variations in l∞

    CERN Document Server

    Katzourakis, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to give a quick and elementary, yet rigorous, presentation of the rudiments of the so-called theory of Viscosity Solutions which applies to fully nonlinear 1st and 2nd order Partial Differential Equations (PDE). For such equations, particularly for 2nd order ones, solutions generally are non-smooth and standard approaches in order to define a "weak solution" do not apply: classical, strong almost everywhere, weak, measure-valued and distributional solutions either do not exist or may not even be defined. The main reason for the latter failure is that, the standard idea of using "integration-by-parts" in order to pass derivatives to smooth test functions by duality, is not available for non-divergence structure PDE.

  13. Experts’ understanding of partial derivatives using the partial derivative machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Roundy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. In this paper, we report on an initial study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering, and mathematics. We report on the central research question of how disciplinary experts understand partial derivatives, and how their concept images of partial derivatives differ, with a focus on experimentally measured quantities. Using the partial derivative machine (PDM, we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context without a known functional form. In particular, we investigated which representations were cued by the experts’ interactions with the PDM. Whereas the physicists and engineers were quick to use measurements to find a numeric approximation for a derivative, the mathematicians repeatedly returned to speculation as to the functional form; although they were comfortable drawing qualitative conclusions about the system from measurements, they were reluctant to approximate the derivative through measurement. On a theoretical front, we found ways in which existing frameworks for the concept of derivative could be expanded to include numerical approximation.

  14. A new application of micellar liquid chromatography in the determination of free ampicillin concentration in the drug-human serum albumin standard solution in comparison with the adsorption method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępnik, Katarzyna E; Malinowska, Irena; Maciejewska, Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    The determination of free drug concentration is a very important issue in the field of pharmacology because only the unbound drug fraction can achieve a pharmacological effect. Due to the ability to solubilize many different compounds in micellar aggregates, micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) can be used for direct determination of free drug concentration. Proteins are not retained on the stationary phase probably due to the formation of protein - surfactant complexes which are excluded from the pores of stationary phase. The micellar method is simple and fast. It does not require any pre-preparation of the tested samples for analysis. The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate a completely new applicability of the analytical use of MLC concerning the determination of free drug concentration in the standard solution of human serum albumin. The well-known adsorption method using RP-HPLC and the spectrophotometric technique was applied as the reference method. The results show that the free drug concentration value obtained in the MLC system (based on the RP-8 stationary phase and CTAB) is similar to that obtained by the adsorption method: both RP-HPLC (95.83μgmL(-1), 79.86% of free form) and spectrophotometry (95.71μgmL(-1), 79.76%). In the MLC the free drug concentration was 93.98μgmL(-1) (78.3%). This indicates that the obtained results are within the analytical range of % of free ampicillin fraction and the MLC with direct sample injection can be treated like a promising method for the determination of free drug concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Solution preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  16. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs.  Emphasis is placed on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than on formal theory. The concise treatment of the subject is maintained in this third edition covering all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. In this third edition, text remains intimately tied to applications in heat transfer, wave motion, biological systems, and a variety other topics in pure and applied science. The text offers flexibility to instructors who, for example, may wish to insert topics from biology or numerical methods at any time in the course. The exposition is presented in a friendly, easy-to-read, style, with mathematical ideas motivated from physical problems. Many exercises and worked e...

  17. Numerical Solution of Stochastic Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations

    KAUST Repository

    El-Beltagy, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-07

    Using Wiener-Hermite expansion (WHE) technique in the solution of the stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) has the advantage of converting the problem to a system of deterministic equations that can be solved efficiently using the standard deterministic numerical methods [1]. WHE is the only known expansion that handles the white/colored noise exactly. This work introduces a numerical estimation of the stochastic response of the Duffing oscillator with fractional or variable order damping and driven by white noise. The WHE technique is integrated with the Grunwald-Letnikov approximation in case of fractional order and with Coimbra approximation in case of variable-order damping. The numerical solver was tested with the analytic solution and with Monte-Carlo simulations. The developed mixed technique was shown to be efficient in simulating SPDEs.

  18. Orthogonal spline collocation methods for partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialecki, B.; Fairweather, G.

    2001-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the formulation, analysis and implementation of orthogonal spline collocation (OSC), also known as spline collocation at Gauss points, for the numerical solution of partial differential equations in two space variables. Advances in the OSC theory for elliptic boundary value problems are discussed, and direct and iterative methods for the solution of the OSC equations examined. The use of OSC methods in the solution of initial-boundary value problems for parabolic, hyperbolic and Schrödinger-type systems is described, with emphasis on alternating direction implicit methods. The OSC solution of parabolic and hyperbolic partial integro-differential equations is also mentioned. Finally, recent applications of a second spline collocation method, modified spline collocation, are outlined.

  19. Generalised solutions for fully nonlinear PDE systems and existence-uniqueness theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzourakis, Nikos

    2017-07-01

    We introduce a new theory of generalised solutions which applies to fully nonlinear PDE systems of any order and allows for merely measurable maps as solutions. This approach bypasses the standard problems arising by the application of Distributions to PDEs and is not based on either integration by parts or on the maximum principle. Instead, our starting point builds on the probabilistic representation of derivatives via limits of difference quotients in the Young measures over a toric compactification of the space of jets. After developing some basic theory, as a first application we consider the Dirichlet problem and we prove existence-uniqueness-partial regularity of solutions to fully nonlinear degenerate elliptic 2nd order systems and also existence of solutions to the ∞-Laplace system of vectorial Calculus of Variations in L∞.

  20. Electrolyte Solutions and Specific Ion Effects on Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ran

    2013-01-01

    Introductory general and physical chemistry courses often deal with colligative properties of solutions and do not discuss nonideal solutions in detail. Yet, a growing body of evidence reveals that even at physiological concentrations electrolyte solutions cannot be treated as ideal when a charged or partially charged solute (such as a protein) is…

  1. Petition for Partial Supplemental Waiver of the 2016 Cellulosic Biofuel Volumetric Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    January 13, 2017, EPA sent a letter to the American Petrochemical and Fuel Manufacturers (“AFPM”) denying its petition for a partial supplemental waiver of the 2016 cellulosic biofuel standard established under the Renewable Fuel Standard.

  2. Algorithms over partially ordered sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Robert M.; Østerby, Ole

    1969-01-01

    We here study some problems concerned with the computational analysis of finite partially ordered sets. We begin (in § 1) by showing that the matrix representation of a binary relationR may always be taken in triangular form ifR is a partial ordering. We consider (in § 2) the chain structure...

  3. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  4. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  5. Ion-molecular interactions in solutions of potassium and cadmium thiocyanates in N-methylpyrrolidone at 298.15 k, according to calorimetry and densitometry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassokhina, L. Yu.; Novikov, A. N.

    2013-11-01

    The heat capacity and density of KNCS-N-methylpyrrolidone (MP), Cd(NCS)2-MP, and KNCS-Cd(NCS)2-MP solutions at 298.15 K are studied by means of calorimetry and densitometry. Standard partial molar heat capacities and volumes ( and ) of the studied electrolytes in MP are calculated. Standard values of heat capacity and volume of NCS- ions in MP at 298.15 K are determined. Values of the heat capacity and volume changes upon the formation of the three-component system KNCS-Cd(NCS)2-MP from binary solutions are obtained and discussed.

  6. New exact wave solutions for Hirota equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... integrals in polynomial form with a high accuracy for two-dimensional plane autonomous systems. Exact soliton solution is constructed through the established first integrals. This method is a powerful tool for searching exact travelling solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs) in mathematical physics.

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Partial Differential Equations in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halburd, Rodney G.

    2008-11-01

    Although many books on general relativity contain an overview of the relevant background material from differential geometry, very little attention is usually paid to background material from the theory of differential equations. This is understandable in a first course on relativity but it often limits the kinds of problems that can be studied rigorously. Einstein's field equations lie at the heart of general relativity. They are a system of partial differential equations (PDEs) relating the curvature of spacetime to properties of matter. A central part of most problems in general relativity is to extract information about solutions of these equations. Most standard texts achieve this by studying exact solutions or numerical and analytical approximations. In the book under review, Alan Rendall emphasises the role of rigorous qualitative methods in general relativity. There has long been a need for such a book, giving a broad overview of the relevant background from the theory of partial differential equations, and not just from differential geometry. It should be noted that the book also covers the basic theory of ordinary differential equations. Although there are many good books on the rigorous theory of PDEs, methods related to the Einstein equations deserve special attention, not only because of the complexity and importance of these equations, but because these equations do not fit into any of the standard classes of equations (elliptic, parabolic, hyperbolic) that one typically encounters in a course on PDEs. Even specifying exactly what ones means by a Cauchy problem in general relativity requires considerable care. The main problem here is that the manifold on which the solution is defined is determined by the solution itself. This means that one does not simply define data on a submanifold. Rendall's book gives a good overview of applications and results from the qualitative theory of PDEs to general relativity. It would be impossible to give detailed

  8. Cast Partial Denture versus Acrylic Partial Denture for Replacement of Missing Teeth in Partially Edentulous Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramita Suwal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effects of cast partial denture with conventional all acrylic denture in respect to retention, stability, masticatory efficiency, comfort and periodontal health of abutments. Methods: 50 adult partially edentulous patient seeking for replacement of missing teeth having Kennedy class I and II arches with or without modification areas were selected for the study. Group-A was treated with cast partial denture and Group-B with acrylic partial denture. Data collected during follow-up visit of 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year by evaluating retention, stability, masticatory efficiency, comfort, periodontal health of abutment. Results: Chi-square test was applied to find out differences between the groups at 95% confidence interval where p = 0.05. One year comparison shows that cast partial denture maintained retention and stability better than acrylic partial denture (p< 0.05. The masticatory efficiency was significantly compromising from 3rd month to 1 year in all acrylic partial denture groups (p< 0.05. The comfort of patient with cast partial denture was maintained better during the observation period (p< 0.05. Periodontal health of abutment was gradually deteriorated in all acrylic denture group (p

  9. Partially folded intermediates in insulin fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Atta; Millett, Ian S; Doniach, Sebastian; Uversky, Vladimir N; Fink, Anthony L

    2003-10-07

    Native zinc-bound insulin exists as a hexamer at neutral pH. Under destabilizing conditions, the hexamer dissociates, and is very prone to forming fibrils. Insulin fibrils exhibit the typical properties of amyloid fibrils, and pose a problem in the purification, storage, and delivery of therapeutic insulin solutions. We have carried out a systematic investigation of the effect of guanidine hydrochloride (Gdn.HCl)-induced structural perturbations on the mechanism of fibrillation of insulin. At pH 7.4, the addition of as little as 0.25 M Gdn.HCl leads to dissociation of insulin hexamers into dimers. Moderate concentrations of Gdn.HCl lead to formation of a novel partially unfolded dimer state, which dissociates into a partially unfolded monomer state. High concentrations of Gdn.HCl resulted in unfolded monomers with some residual structure. The addition of even very low concentrations of Gdn.HCl resulted in substantially accelerated fibrillation, although the yield of fibrils decreased at high concentrations. Accelerated fibrillation correlated with the population of the expanded (partially folded) monomer, which existed up to >6 M Gdn.HCl, accounting for the formation of substantial amounts of fibrils under such conditions. In the presence of 20% acetic acid, where insulin exists as the monomer, fibrillation was also accelerated by Gdn.HCl. The enhanced fibrillation of the monomer was due to the increased ionic strength at low denaturant concentrations, and due to the presence of the partially unfolded, expanded conformation at Gdn.HCl concentrations above 1 M. The data suggest that under physiological conditions, the fibrillation of insulin involves both changes in the association state (with rate-limiting hexamer dissociation) and conformational changes, leading to formation of the amyloidogenic expanded monomer intermediate.

  10. Differential geometry techniques for sets of nonlinear partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, Frank B.

    1990-01-01

    An attempt is made to show that the Cartan theory of partial differential equations can be a useful technique for applied mathematics. Techniques for finding consistent subfamilies of solutions that are generically rich and well-posed and for introducing potentials or other usefully consistent auxiliary fields are introduced. An extended sample calculation involving the Korteweg-de Vries equation is given.

  11. A fast exact sequential algorithm for the partial digest problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mostafa M; Bahig, Hazem M

    2016-12-22

    Restriction site analysis involves determining the locations of restriction sites after the process of digestion by reconstructing their positions based on the lengths of the cut DNA. Using different reaction times with a single enzyme to cut DNA is a technique known as a partial digestion. Determining the exact locations of restriction sites following a partial digestion is challenging due to the computational time required even with the best known practical algorithm. In this paper, we introduce an efficient algorithm to find the exact solution for the partial digest problem. The algorithm is able to find all possible solutions for the input and works by traversing the solution tree with a breadth-first search in two stages and deleting all repeated subproblems. Two types of simulated data, random and Zhang, are used to measure the efficiency of the algorithm. We also apply the algorithm to real data for the Luciferase gene and the E. coli K12 genome. Our algorithm is a fast tool to find the exact solution for the partial digest problem. The percentage of improvement is more than 75% over the best known practical algorithm for the worst case. For large numbers of inputs, our algorithm is able to solve the problem in a suitable time, while the best known practical algorithm is unable.

  12. Oscillation of a time fractional partial differential equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prakash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider a time fractional partial differential equation subject to the Neumann boundary condition. Several sufficient conditions are established for oscillation of solutions of such equation by using the integral averaging method and a generalized Riccati technique. The main results are illustrated by examples.

  13. Surface waves in a cylindrical borehole through partially-saturated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M D Sharma

    2018-02-14

    Feb 14, 2018 ... Keywords. Cylindrical waves; phase velocity; dispersion; porous solid; partial saturation; multiphase pore-fluid. Nomenclature t. Time ... on Biot's theory of poroelasticity (Biot 1956), was observed. In a later study, Chao et al. ... model and used it to obtain the analytical solution for wave propagation in a 1-D ...

  14. An XFEM Model for Hydraulic Fracturing in Partially Saturated Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimzadeh Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is a complex multi-physics phenomenon. Numerous analytical and numerical models of hydraulic fracturing processes have been proposed. Analytical solutions commonly are able to model the growth of a single hydraulic fracture into an initially intact, homogeneous rock mass. Numerical models are able to analyse complex problems such as multiple hydraulic fractures and fracturing in heterogeneous media. However, majority of available models are restricted to single-phase flow through fracture and permeable porous rock. This is not compatible with actual field conditions where the injected fluid does not have similar properties as the host fluid. In this study we present a fully coupled hydro-poroelastic model which incorporates two fluids i.e. fracturing fluid and host fluid. Flow through fracture is defined based on lubrication assumption, while flow through matrix is defined as Darcy flow. The fracture discontinuity in the mechanical model is captured using eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM while the fracture propagation criterion is defined through cohesive fracture model. The discontinuous matrix fluid velocity across fracture is modelled using leak-off loading which couples fracture flow and matrix flow. The proposed model has been discretised using standard Galerkin method, implemented in Matlab and verified against several published solutions. Multiple hydraulic fracturing simulations are performed to show the model robustness and to illustrate how problem parameters such as injection rate and rock permeability affect the hydraulic fracturing variables i.e. injection pressure, fracture aperture and fracture length. The results show the impact of partial saturation on leak-off and the fact that single-phase models may underestimate the leak-off.

  15. Partial order infinitary term rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    with the partial order model restricted to total terms. Hence, partial order convergence constitutes a conservative extension of metric convergence, which additionally offers a fine-grained distinction between different levels of divergence. In the second part, we focus our investigation on strong convergence...... of orthogonal systems. The main result is that the gap between the metric model and the partial order model can be bridged by extending the term rewriting system by additional rules. These extensions are the well-known Böhm extensions. Based on this result, we are able to establish that -- contrary...

  16. Apparent molar volumes and viscosity B-coefficients of glycine in aqueous silver sulphate solutions at T = (298.15, 308.15, 318.15) k.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Biswajit; Roy, Pran Kumar; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2010-09-01

    Apparent molar volumes (φV) and viscosity B-coefficients for glycine in 0.005, 0.010, 0.015, and 0.020 mol dm-3 aqueous silver sulphate (Ag2SO4) solutions have been determined from solution density and viscosity measurements at (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K as a function of glycine concentration. The standard partial molar volume (φV0) and experimental slopes (SV*) obtained from the Masson equation have been interpreted in terms of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, respectively. The viscosity data were analyzed using the Jones-Dole equation, and the derived parameters A and B were interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions, respectively. The standard volumes of transfer (ΔφV0) and viscosity B-coefficients of transfer (ΔB) of glycine from water to aqueous Ag2SO4 solutions were derived to study various interactions in the ternary solutions. The structure making or breaking ability of glycine has been discussed in terms of the sign of (δ2φV0/δT2)P. The activation parameters of viscous flow for the ternary solutions were also calculated and explained in terms of transition state theory.

  17. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systematic...... environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven...

  18. Standard dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Willis B; Donati, George L; Calloway, Clifton P; Jones, Bradley T

    2015-02-17

    Standard dilution analysis (SDA) is a novel calibration method that may be applied to most instrumental techniques that will accept liquid samples and are capable of monitoring two wavelengths simultaneously. It combines the traditional methods of standard additions and internal standards. Therefore, it simultaneously corrects for matrix effects and for fluctuations due to changes in sample size, orientation, or instrumental parameters. SDA requires only 200 s per sample with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Neither the preparation of a series of standard solutions nor the construction of a universal calibration graph is required. The analysis is performed by combining two solutions in a single container: the first containing 50% sample and 50% standard mixture; the second containing 50% sample and 50% solvent. Data are collected in real time as the first solution is diluted by the second one. The results are used to prepare a plot of the analyte-to-internal standard signal ratio on the y-axis versus the inverse of the internal standard concentration on the x-axis. The analyte concentration in the sample is determined from the ratio of the slope and intercept of that plot. The method has been applied to the determination of FD&C dye Blue No. 1 in mouthwash by molecular absorption spectrometry and to the determination of eight metals in mouthwash, wine, cola, nitric acid, and water by ICP OES. Both the accuracy and precision for SDA are better than those observed for the external calibration, standard additions, and internal standard methods using ICP OES.

  19. Waves Described By The Nonlinear Fifth Order Partial Differential Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, N. A.; Soukharev, M. B.; Siroklin, S. A.

    Nonlinear long waves on the water are considered taking into account the general- ization of the Korteveg - de Vries equation that is the fifth order partial differential equation. The following problems are studied. First of all it was shown the Cauchy problem can not be solved for the partial differential equation considered by the in- verse scattering transform. However a number of special solution are found in the form of solitary waves and in the form of cnoidal waves. In the general case the boundary value problem described by this fifth order nonlinear partial differential equation is solved by means of the finite difference method. With this aim the finite - difference approximations of the fifth nonlinear partial differential equations was developed. The stability condition and the convergence of the difference equation are discussed. The possible types of nonlinear waves (kinks, periodical waves and solitary waves) are considered. The stability of nonlinear waves studied is discussed taking into account the numerical approach.

  20. 3G Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saugstrup, Dan; Henten, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to analyze which standard/technology will win the 3G mobile markets. In addition, two sub topics are examined. First, which kind of victory will it be – will one technological solution be all-dominating or is co-existence more likely? Second, which are ...

  1. Beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Csáki, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    We introduce aspects of physics beyond the Standard Model focusing on supersymmetry, extra dimensions, and a composite Higgs as solutions to the Hierarchy problem. Lectures given at the 2013 European School of High Energy Physics, Parádfürdo, Hungary, 5-18 June 2013.

  2. Beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The necessity for new physics beyond the Standard Model will be motivated. Theoretical problems will be exposed and possible solutions will be described. The goal is to present the exciting new physics ideas that will be tested in the near future. Supersymmetry, grand unification, extra dimensions and string theory will be presented.

  3. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  4. Podcast solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    Podcasting is the art of recording radio show style audio tracks, then distributing them to listeners on the Web via podcasting software such as iPodder. From downloading podcasts to producing a track for fun or profit, ""Podcast Solutions"" covers the entire world of podcasting with insight, humor, and the unmatched wisdom of experience.

  5. Partial domain wall partition functions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foda, O; Wheeler, M

    2012-01-01

    We consider six-vertex model configurations on an (n × N) lattice, n ≤ N, that satisfy a variation on domain wall boundary conditions that we define and call partial domain wall boundary conditions...

  6. Physics of partially ionized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Krishan, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter; the other three being solid, liquid and gas. Several components, such as molecular clouds, diffuse interstellar gas, the solar atmosphere, the Earth's ionosphere and laboratory plasmas, including fusion plasmas, constitute the partially ionized plasmas. This book discusses different aspects of partially ionized plasmas including multi-fluid description, equilibrium and types of waves. The discussion goes on to cover the reionization phase of the universe, along with a brief description of high discharge plasmas, tokomak plasmas and laser plasmas. Various elastic and inelastic collisions amongst the three particle species are also presented. In addition, the author demonstrates the novelty of partially ionized plasmas using many examples; for instance, in partially ionized plasma the magnetic induction is subjected to the ambipolar diffusion and the Hall effect, as well as the usual resistive dissipation. Also included is an observation of kinematic dynam...

  7. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  8. Planarian immobilization, partial irradiation, and tissue transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedelhoefer, Otto C; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2012-08-06

    culture of large animals, immobilization, preparation for partial irradiation, tissue transplantation, and the optimization of animal recovery. Furthermore, the work described here demonstrates the first application of the partial irradiation method for use with the most widely studied planarian, Schmidtea mediterranea. Additionally, efficient tissue grafting in planaria opens the door for the functional testing of subpopulations of naïve or treated stem cells in repopulation assays, which has long been the gold-standard method of assaying adult stem cell potential in mammals. Broad adoption of these techniques will no doubt lead to a better understanding of the cellular behaviors of adult stem cells during tissue homeostasis and regeneration.

  9. The partial thromboplastin (cephalin) time test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poller, L.; Thomson, Jean M.

    1972-01-01

    Nine partial thromboplastin (cephalin) reagents have been compared in a parallel investigation of groups of patients on `long-term' anticoagulants, a group with moderate haemophilia, and patients on heparin infusion. Results with the seven commercial reagents and a human cephalin extract have been correlated with those of a specially prepared and standardized reference preparation of human brain origin. The comparison was similar in principle to that of the prothrombin time thromboplastin standardization using the British Comparative Thromboplastin (BCT). Results, which for comparative purposes were expressed as ratio of patients' cephalin times to control cephalin times, varied greatly in all three groups. In the oral anticoagulant group some of the commercial reagents were particularly insensitive to the `intrinsic' clotting defect. The correlation between the `standardized preparation' and the other reagents was not good and the use of a reference cephalin material for quality control of cephalin time tests does not appear promising. In moderate haemophilia the commercial reagents were either relatively poor at picking out the clotting defect compared with the `standardized preparation' or gave such a bad endpoint that the results were not dependable. The poor endpoint also limited the dependability of the results of all but the `standardized preparation' and two of the commercial reagents in controlling heparin administration. In view of these standardization difficulties, which cannot apparently be resolved by the use of reference material, there is need for bulk, routine supplies of a sensitive, standardized cephalin reagent giving good reproducible endpoints. The method for the provision of such material in a recently introduced national supply scheme is described. PMID:4655857

  10. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  11. Partial cecal necrosis treated by laparoscopic partial cecal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Zdravko; Bilan, Kanito; Vilović, Katarina; Druzijanić, Nikica; Kraljević, Damir; Juriicić, Josko; Krnić, Dragan; Srsen, Darko; Pogorelić, Zenon; Tomić, Snjezana

    2006-12-01

    Acute colonic ischemia is the common cause of colitis in elderly population. However, isolated ischemic necrosis of cecum is rare entity, often associated with variety of conditions. Here we present a case of a 73-year old woman with a past history of hypertension presented with clinical symptoms of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and tenderness localized to the right lower quadrant, guarding and rebound tenderness. With diagnosis of acute appendicitis, the patient underwent laparoscopy where the cecal partial necrosis was discovered. Necrotic area of cecum was excised using two endoscopic cutters and laparoscopic appendectomy was performed. Pathologist report showed thrombosis of vessels and necrosis of entire cecal wall. The patient completely recovered without any surgical complications. This is the first case of partial cecum necrosis laparoscopicaly managed and with a partial cecal resection only.

  12. Semantic–Syntactic Partial Word Knowledge Growth Through Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Margaret S.; Petroski, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Incidental reading provides a powerful opportunity for partial word knowledge growth in the school-age years. The extent to which children of differing language abilities can use reading experiences to glean partial knowledge of words is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to compare semantic–syntactic partial word knowledge growth of children with higher language skills (HL group; overall language standard scores of 85 or higher) to that of children with relatively lower language skills (LL group; overall receptive or expressive standard score below 85). Method Thirty-two children, 16 per group, silently read stories containing unfamiliar nouns and verbs 3 times over a 1-week period. Semantic–syntactic partial word knowledge growth was assessed after each reading and 2–3 days later to assess retention. Results Over time, both groups showed significant partial word knowledge growth, with the HL group showing significantly more growth. In addition, both groups retained knowledge several days later. Conclusion Regardless of language skill level, children benefit from multiple exposures to unfamiliar words in reading in their development and retention of semantic–syntactic partial word knowledge growth. PMID:25409978

  13. On the numerical solution of the diffusion equation with a nonlocal boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghan Mehdi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Parabolic partial differential equations with nonlocal boundary specifications feature in the mathematical modeling of many phenomena. In this paper, numerical schemes are developed for obtaining approximate solutions to the initial boundary value problem for one-dimensional diffusion equation with a nonlocal constraint in place of one of the standard boundary conditions. The method of lines (MOL semidiscretization approach is used to transform the model partial differential equation into a system of first-order linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs. The partial derivative with respect to the space variable is approximated by a second-order finite-difference approximation. The solution of the resulting system of first-order ODEs satisfies a recurrence relation which involves a matrix exponential function. Numerical techniques are developed by approximating the exponential matrix function in this recurrence relation. We use a partial fraction expansion to compute the matrix exponential function via Pade approximations, which is particularly useful in parallel processing. The algorithm is tested on a model problem from the literature.

  14. Heat capacity and density of solutions of calcium and cadmium nitrates in N-methylpyrrolidone at 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, A. N.; Rassokhina, L. Yu.

    2013-08-01

    The heat capacity and density of solutions of calcium and cadmium nitrates in N-methylpyrrolidone (MP) at 298.15 K are studied by calorimetry and densimetry. The obtained data are discussed in relation to certain features of solvation and complex formation in solutions of these salts. The standard partial molar heat capacities and volumes (overline {C_{p^2 }^0 } and overline {V_2^0 }) of the electrolytes in MP are calculated. The standard heat capacities overline {C_{p^i }^0 } and volumes overline {V_i^0 } of Ca2+ and Cd2+ ions in MP at 298.15 K were determined, along with the contribution from specific interactions to the values of overline {C_{p^i }^0 } and overline {V_i^0 } of Cd2+ ions in MP solution.

  15. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  16. Fast methods for static Hamilton-Jacobi Partial Differential Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimirsky, Alexander Boris [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The authors develop a family of fast methods approximating the solution to a wide class of static Hamilton-Jacobi partial differential equations. These partial differential equations are considered in the context of control-theoretic and front-propagation problems. In general, to produce a numerical solution to such a problem, one has to solve a large system of coupled non-linear discretized equations. The techniques use partial information about the characteristic directions to de-couple the system. Previously known fast methods, available for isotropic problems, are discussed in detail. They introduce a family of new Ordered Upwinding Methods (OUM) for general (anisotropic) problems and prove convergence to the viscosity solution of the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi partial differential equation. The hybrid methods introduced here are based on the analysis of the role played by anisotropy in the context of front propagation and optimal trajectory problems. The performance of the methods is analyzed and compared to that of several other numerical approaches to these problems. Computational experiments are performed using test problems from control theory, computational geometry and seismology.

  17. Partial Differential Equations and Solitary Waves Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid

    2009-01-01

    "Partial Differential Equations and Solitary Waves Theory" is a self-contained book divided into two parts: Part I is a coherent survey bringing together newly developed methods for solving PDEs. While some traditional techniques are presented, this part does not require thorough understanding of abstract theories or compact concepts. Well-selected worked examples and exercises shall guide the reader through the text. Part II provides an extensive exposition of the solitary waves theory. This part handles nonlinear evolution equations by methods such as Hirota’s bilinear method or the tanh-coth method. A self-contained treatment is presented to discuss complete integrability of a wide class of nonlinear equations. This part presents in an accessible manner a systematic presentation of solitons, multi-soliton solutions, kinks, peakons, cuspons, and compactons. While the whole book can be used as a text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in applied mathematics, physics and engineering, Part II w...

  18. [Partial lipodystrophy: a spot diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidder, A R Sander; van der Deure, Hans J; Westra, Dineke W

    2015-01-01

    Partial lipodystrophy is a rare acquired disorder characterised by gradual loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue in the upper half of the body. We saw a 9-year-old girl who had been referred on account of recurrent urinary tract infections. On physical examination, she was noticed to be very thin in the face. Her upper extremities were also skinny. Strikingly, the lower half of her body was normally proportioned, which immediately suggested a diagnosis of partial lipodystrophy. Additional examinations showed a low level of complement factor C3 and the presence of C3 nephritic factor. Partial lipodystrophy is rare but it is important to include it in the differential diagnosis of unwanted disproportional subcutaneous fat loss because of the somatic and psychological consequences.

  19. Partially composite Goldstone Higgs boson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Frandsen, Mads T.

    2017-01-01

    We consider a model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking with a partially composite Goldstone Higgs boson. The model is based on a strongly interacting fermionic sector coupled to a fundamental scalar sector via Yukawa interactions. The SU(4)×SU(4) global symmetry of these two sectors...... is broken to a single SU(4) via Yukawa interactions. Electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced by condensation due to the strong interactions in the new fermionic sector which further breaks the global symmetry SU(4)→Sp(4). The Higgs boson arises as a partially composite state which is an exact...... Goldstone boson in the limit where SM interactions are turned off. Terms breaking the SU(4) global symmetry explicitly generate a mass for the Goldstone Higgs boson. The model realizes in different limits both (partially) composite Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models, thereby providing a convenient...

  20. Partial monoids: associativity and confluence

    CERN Document Server

    Poinsot, Laurent; Tollu, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    A partial monoid $P$ is a set with a partial multiplication $\\times$ (and total identity $1_P$) which satisfies some associativity axiom. The partial monoid $P$ may be embedded in a free monoid $P^*$ and the product $\\star$ is simulated by a string rewriting system on $P^*$ that consists in evaluating the concatenation of two letters as a product in $P$, when it is defined, and a letter $1_P$ as the empty word $\\epsilon$. In this paper we study the profound relations between confluence for such a system and associativity of the multiplication. Moreover we develop a reduction strategy to ensure confluence and which allows us to define a multiplication on normal forms associative up to a given congruence of $P^*$. Finally we show that this operation is associative if, and only if, the rewriting system under consideration is confluent.

  1. Partial metrizability in value quantales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph D. Kopperman

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Partial metrics are metrics except that the distance from a point to itself need not be 0. These are useful in modelling partially defined information, which often appears in computer science. We generalize this notion to study “partial metrics” whose values lie in a value quantale which may be other than the reals. Then each topology arises from such a generalized metric, and for each continuous poset, there is such a generalized metric whose topology is the Scott topology, and whose dual topology is the lower topology. These are both corollaries to our result that a bitopological space is pairwise completely regular if and only if there is such a generalized metric whose topology is the first topology, and whose dual topology is the second.

  2. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

    2004-11-25

    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  3. A New Fractional Subequation Method and Its Applications for Space-Time Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanwei Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fractional subequation method is proposed for finding exact solutions for fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs. The fractional derivative is defined in the sense of modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. As applications, abundant exact solutions including solitary wave solutions as well as periodic wave solutions for the space-time fractional generalized Hirota-Satsuma coupled KdV equations are obtained by using this method.

  4. Convergence of Variational Iteration Method for Solving Singular Partial Differential Equations of Fractional Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Ali Elbeleze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned here with singular partial differential equations of fractional order (FSPDEs. The variational iteration method (VIM is applied to obtain approximate solutions of this type of equations. Convergence analysis of the VIM is discussed. This analysis is used to estimate the maximum absolute truncated error of the series solution. A comparison between the results of VIM solutions and exact solution is given. The fractional derivatives are described in Caputo sense.

  5. Actor-critic-based optimal tracking for partially unknown nonlinear discrete-time systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiumarsi, Bahare; Lewis, Frank L

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a partially model-free adaptive optimal control solution to the deterministic nonlinear discrete-time (DT) tracking control problem in the presence of input constraints. The tracking error dynamics and reference trajectory dynamics are first combined to form an augmented system. Then, a new discounted performance function based on the augmented system is presented for the optimal nonlinear tracking problem. In contrast to the standard solution, which finds the feedforward and feedback terms of the control input separately, the minimization of the proposed discounted performance function gives both feedback and feedforward parts of the control input simultaneously. This enables us to encode the input constraints into the optimization problem using a nonquadratic performance function. The DT tracking Bellman equation and tracking Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) are derived. An actor-critic-based reinforcement learning algorithm is used to learn the solution to the tracking HJB equation online without requiring knowledge of the system drift dynamics. That is, two neural networks (NNs), namely, actor NN and critic NN, are tuned online and simultaneously to generate the optimal bounded control policy. A simulation example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Higher-order Solution of Stochastic Diffusion equation with Nonlinear Losses Using WHEP technique

    KAUST Repository

    El-Beltagy, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-06

    Using Wiener-Hermite expansion with perturbation (WHEP) technique in the solution of the stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) has the advantage of converting the problem to a system of deterministic equations that can be solved efficiently using the standard deterministic numerical methods [1]. The Wiener-Hermite expansion is the only known expansion that handles the white/colored noise exactly. The main statistics, such as the mean, covariance, and higher order statistical moments, can be calculated by simple formulae involving only the deterministic Wiener-Hermite coefficients. In this poster, the WHEP technique is used to solve the 2D diffusion equation with nonlinear losses and excited with white noise. The solution will be obtained numerically and will be validated and compared with the analytical solution that can be obtained from any symbolic mathematics package such as Mathematica.

  7. Osmotic coefficient of aqueous solutions of cyclohexylsulfamic Acid at the freezing point of solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bešter-Rogač, Marija; Klofutar, Cveto; Rudan-Tasič, Darja

    2010-12-01

    The osmotic coefficient of aqueous solutions of cyclohexylsulfamic acid was determined by freezing point measurements up to the molality 0.65 mol kg-1. The osmotic coefficients were fitted to the Pitzer equation, and ion interaction parameters α1, β(0) and β(1) were evaluated. The mean ion activity coefficient of the solute was calculated, and the non-ideal behaviour of the system investigated was characterized by calculation of the excess Gibbs energy of solution, as well as the respective partial molar functions of solute and solvent. The partial molar excess Gibbs energy of the solute is negative, like the excess Gibbs energy of its solution, while the partial molar excess Gibbs energy of the solvent is positive and increases with increasing concentration of the solute. The solvation ability of water was calculated from the difference between the Gibbs energy of solution of water in solution and that of pure water, and found to be positive and small for the solute investigated, throughout the concentration range studied.

  8. Partial Molar Volumes of Aqua Ions from First Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktor, Julia; Bruneval, Fabien; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2017-08-08

    Partial molar volumes of ions in water solution are calculated through pressures obtained from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The correct definition of pressure in charged systems subject to periodic boundary conditions requires access to the variation of the electrostatic potential upon a change of volume. We develop a scheme for calculating such a variation in liquid systems by setting up an interface between regions of different density. This also allows us to determine the absolute deformation potentials for the band edges of liquid water. With the properly defined pressures, we obtain partial molar volumes of a series of aqua ions in very good agreement with experimental values.

  9. A New Approach for Solving Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanwei Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach for solving fractional partial differential equations based on a nonlinear fractional complex transformation and the general Riccati equation and apply it to solve the nonlinear time fractional biological population model and the (4+1-dimensional space-time fractional Fokas equation. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are obtained. This approach can be suitable for solving fractional partial differential equations with more general forms than the method proposed by S. Zhang and H.-Q. Zhang (2011.

  10. Preconditioners based on windowed Fourier frames applied to elliptic partial differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhowmik, S.K.; Stolk, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the application of windowed Fourier frames to the numerical solution of partial differential equations, focussing on elliptic equations. The action of a partial differential operator (PDO) on a windowed plane wave is close to a multiplication, where the multiplication factor is given

  11. Higher order multi-term time-fractional partial differential equations involving Caputo-Fabrizio derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkinjon Karimov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we discuss higher order multi-term partial differential equation (PDE with the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative in time. Using method of separation of variables, we reduce fractional order partial differential equation to the integer order. We represent explicit solution of formulated problem in particular case by Fourier series.

  12. Ab initio calculations of partial molar properties in the single-site approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the application of the single-site approximation in calculations of partial molar quantities, e.g., impurity solution energy, segregation energy, and effective chemical potential, which are related to a variation of the composition of an alloy or its nonequivalent parts. We demonstrate...... properly applied in calculations of partial molar quantities....

  13. A default Bayesian hypothesis test for correlations and partial correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, R.; Wagenmakers, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a default Bayesian hypothesis test for the presence of a correlation or a partial correlation. The test is a direct application of Bayesian techniques for variable selection in regression models. The test is easy to apply and yields practical advantages that the standard frequentist tests

  14. A case for partial patellectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal V

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of fractures of the the patella is a subject of controversy. Partial patellectomy with retention of a major fragment and suture of the quadriceps to it, seems reasonable. 18 cases of patella fracture underwent such a procedure. The average age of the patients was 47 years. Maximum recovery took an average of 5 months. There were 6 excellent results, 9 good, 3 fair. Results were assessed on the basis of pain, muscle wasting, quadriceps power, and range of knee motion. Total patellectomy and patella fixation as alternative modes of treatment are discussed. Partial patellectomy, whenever possible, is a good choice.

  15. Yet another partial wave calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwald, Daniel; Rauch, Johannes [TUM, Munich (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We will present a new C++ library for partial wave analysis: YAP - yet another partial wave calculator. YAP is intended for amplitude analyses of the decays of spin-0 heavy mesons (principally B and D) to multiple (3, 4, etc.) pseudoscalar mesons but is not hard coded for such situations and is flexible enough to handle other decay scenarios. The library allows for both model dependent and model independent analysis methods. We introduce the software, and demonstrate examples for generating Monte Carlo data efficiently, and for analyzing data (both with the aid of the Bayesian Analysis Toolkit).

  16. Basic linear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Treves, Francois

    1975-01-01

    Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

  17. Basic linear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Treves, Francois

    2006-01-01

    Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

  18. Adaptive Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rasmussen, Tage

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding.......Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding....

  19. Sensitivity analysis of efficient solution in vector MINMAX boolean programming problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Emelichev

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider a multiple criterion Boolean programming problem with MINMAX partial criteria. The extreme level of independent perturbations of partial criteria parameters such that efficient (Pareto optimal solution preserves optimality was obtained.

  20. Introducing a standard method for experimental determination of the solvent response in laser pump, x-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle x-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov; Brandt van Driel, Tim; Kehres, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In time-resolved laser pump, X-ray probe wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution the structural response of the system is accompanied by a solvent response. The solvent response is caused by reorganization of the bulk solvent following the laser pump event, and in order to ...

  1. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  2. Effect of Hydroxylamine Sulfate on Volumetric Behavior of Glycine, L-Alanine, and L-Arginine in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The apparent molar volumes of glycine, L-alanine, and L-arginine in aqueous hydroxylamine sulfate solutions have been determined at T=298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The standard partial molar volumes, V20, corresponding partial molar volumes of transfer, ΔtrV20, and hydration numbers, NH, have been calculated for these α-amino acids from the experimental data. The ΔtrV20 values are positive for glycine, L-alanine, and L-arginine and are all increased with the increase in the concentration of hydroxylamine ions. These parameters obtained from the volumetric data are interpreted in terms of various mixing effects between amino acids and hydroxylamine sulfate in aqueous solutions.

  3. Sterilization potential of contact lens solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Dada Vijay; Mehta Manoj

    1988-01-01

    In a dynamic field of Contact Lens Solutions maintenance of high standards of anti-microbial activity is a must Resterilization Activity Time′ is a universally accepted yardstick for such an evaluation. In this study eight brands of indigenous popular solutions alongwith two FDA approved solutions were tested for their sterilization efficacy: Standardized suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus were used for the purpose. ...

  4. Partial Model Checking with ROBDDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Maretti, Niels; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces a technique for localizing model checking of concurrent state-based systems. The technique, called partial model checking, isfully automatic and performs model checking by gradually specializing the specification with respect to the concurrent components one by one...

  5. Bayesian Sparse Partial Least Squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidaurre, D.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Bielza, C.; Larrañaga, P.; Heskes, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    Partial least squares (PLS) is a class of methods that makes use of a set of latent or unobserved variables to model the relation between (typically) two sets of input and output variables, respectively. Several flavors, depending on how the latent variables or components are computed, have been

  6. Variable Selection via Partial Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runze; Liu, Jingyuan; Lou, Lejia

    2017-07-01

    Partial correlation based variable selection method was proposed for normal linear regression models by Bühlmann, Kalisch and Maathuis (2010) as a comparable alternative method to regularization methods for variable selection. This paper addresses two important issues related to partial correlation based variable selection method: (a) whether this method is sensitive to normality assumption, and (b) whether this method is valid when the dimension of predictor increases in an exponential rate of the sample size. To address issue (a), we systematically study this method for elliptical linear regression models. Our finding indicates that the original proposal may lead to inferior performance when the marginal kurtosis of predictor is not close to that of normal distribution. Our simulation results further confirm this finding. To ensure the superior performance of partial correlation based variable selection procedure, we propose a thresholded partial correlation (TPC) approach to select significant variables in linear regression models. We establish the selection consistency of the TPC in the presence of ultrahigh dimensional predictors. Since the TPC procedure includes the original proposal as a special case, our theoretical results address the issue (b) directly. As a by-product, the sure screening property of the first step of TPC was obtained. The numerical examples also illustrate that the TPC is competitively comparable to the commonly-used regularization methods for variable selection.

  7. Supergravity solutions for Born-Infeld dyons

    CERN Document Server

    Youm, D

    1999-01-01

    We construct partially localized supergravity counterpart solutions to the 1/2 supersymmetric nonthreshold and the 1/4 supersymmetric threshold bound state BI dyons in the D3-brane Dirac-Born-Infeld theory. Such supergravity solutions have all the parameters of the BI dyons. By applying the type-IIA-type-IIB T-duality transformations to these supergravity solutions, we obtain the supergravity counterpart solutions to 1/2 and 1/4 supersymmetric bions carrying electric and magnetic charges of the world volume U(1) gauge field in the Dirac- Born-Infeld theory in other dimensions. (70 refs).

  8. The partial-birth stratagem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In Wisconsin, physicians stopped performing abortions when a Federal District Court Judge refused to issue a temporary restraining order against the state's newly enacted "partial birth" abortion ban that was couched in such vague language it actually covered all abortions. While ostensibly attempting to ban late-term "intact dilation and extraction," the language of the law did not refer to that procedure or to late terms. Instead, it prohibited all abortions in which a physician "partially vaginally delivers a living child, causes the death of the partially delivered child with the intent to kill the child and then completes the delivery of the child." The law also defined "child" as "a human being from the time of fertilization" until birth. It is clear that this abortion ban is unconstitutional under Row v. Wade, and this unconstitutionality is compounded by the fact that the law allowed no exception to protect a woman's health, which is required by Roe for abortion bans after fetal viability. Wisconsin is only one of about 28 states that have enacted similar laws, and only two have restricted the ban to postviability abortions. Many of these laws have been struck down in court, and President Clinton has continued to veto the Federal partial-birth bill. The Wisconsin Judge acknowledged that opponents of the ban will likely prevail when the case is heard, but his action in denying the temporary injunction means that many women in Wisconsin will not receive timely medical care. The partial birth strategy is really only another anti-abortion strategy.

  9. Rationale and design of the balANZ trial: A randomised controlled trial of low GDP, neutral pH versus standard peritoneal dialysis solution for the preservation of residual renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Margaret

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main hypothesis of this study is that neutral pH, low glucose degradation product (GDP peritoneal dialysis (PD fluid better preserves residual renal function in PD patients over time compared with conventional dialysate. Methods/Design Inclusion criteria are adult PD patients (CAPD or APD aged 18-81 years whose first dialysis was within 90 days prior to or following enrolment and who have a residual GFR ≥ 5 ml/min/1.73 m2, a urine output ≥ 400 ml/day and an ability to understand the nature and requirements of this trial. Pregnant or lactating patients or individuals with an active infection at the time of enrolment, a contra-indication to PD or participation in any other clinical trial where an intervention is designed to moderate rate of change of residual renal function are excluded. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receive either neutral pH, low GDP dialysis solution (Balance® or conventional dialysis solution (Stay.safe® for a period of 2 years. During this 2 year study period, urinary urea and clearance measurements will be performed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. The primary outcome measure will be the slope of residual renal function decline, adjusted for centre and presence of diabetic nephropathy. Secondary outcome measures will include time from initiation of peritoneal dialysis to anuria, peritoneal small solute clearance, peritoneal transport status, peritoneal ultrafiltration, technique survival, patient survival, peritonitis rates and adverse events. A total of 185 patients has been recruited into the trial. Discussion This investigator-initiated study has been designed to provide evidence to help nephrologists determine the optimal dialysis solution for preserving residual renal function in PD patients. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12606000044527

  10. Generalized geometry and partial supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triendl, Hagen Mathias

    2010-08-15

    This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part we use the formalism of (exceptional) generalized geometry to derive the scalar field space of SU(2) x SU(2)-structure compactifications. We show that in contrast to SU(3) x SU(3) structures, there is no dynamical SU(2) x SU(2) structure interpolating between an SU(2) structure and an identity structure. Furthermore, we derive the scalar manifold of the low-energy effective action for consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations as expected from N = 4 supergravity. In the second part we then determine the general conditions for the existence of stable Minkowski and AdS N = 1 vacua in spontaneously broken gauged N = 2 supergravities and construct the general solution under the assumption that two appropriate commuting isometries exist in the hypermultiplet sector. Furthermore, we derive the low-energy effective action below the scale of partial supersymmetry breaking and show that it satisfies the constraints of N = 1 supergravity. We then apply the discussion to special quaternionic-Kaehler geometries which appear in the low-energy limit of SU(3) x SU(3)-structure compactifications and construct Killing vectors with the right properties. Finally we discuss the string theory realizations for these solutions. (orig.)

  11. Some partial-unit-memory convolutional codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, K.; Mceliece, R. J.; Solomon, G.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study on a class of error correcting codes called partial unit memory (PUM) codes are presented. This class of codes, though not entirely new, has until now remained relatively unexplored. The possibility of using the well developed theory of block codes to construct a large family of promising PUM codes is shown. The performance of several specific PUM codes are compared with that of the Voyager standard (2, 1, 6) convolutional code. It was found that these codes can outperform the Voyager code with little or no increase in decoder complexity. This suggests that there may very well be PUM codes that can be used for deep space telemetry that offer both increased performance and decreased implementational complexity over current coding systems.

  12. Inverse problems for partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Isakov, Victor

    2017-01-01

    This third edition expands upon the earlier edition by adding nearly 40 pages of new material reflecting the analytical and numerical progress in inverse problems in last 10 years. As in the second edition, the emphasis is on new ideas and methods rather than technical improvements. These new ideas include use of the stationary phase method in the two-dimensional elliptic problems and of multi frequencies\\temporal data to improve stability and numerical resolution. There are also numerous corrections and improvements of the exposition throughout. This book is intended for mathematicians working with partial differential equations and their applications, physicists, geophysicists, and financial, electrical, and mechanical engineers involved with nondestructive evaluation, seismic exploration, remote sensing, and various kinds of tomography. Review of the second edition: "The first edition of this excellent book appeared in 1998 and became a standard reference for everyone interested in analysis and numerics of...

  13. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  14. Evaluation of circulant partial diallel crosses in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, B S; Singh, J

    1978-01-01

    The present study was conducted in maize (Zea mays L.) on crosses among 20 diverse parents. The materials were evaluated in four different environments for eight characters. Combining ability analysis was carried out following diallel and partial diallel crosses. The number of crosses per parent (s) varied from 3 to 19 and the results were studied to identify the critical value of s that would provide an adequate information with minimum resources. The S5 partial diallel was as good as the S19 for the detection of differences among general combining ability (GCA) effects. Even the S3 gave adequate information in the case of characters with high heritability. However, partial diallel analysis was less efficient in detecting the differences due to specific combining ability (SCA) effects. These results varied with environments, and characters with low heritability were more prone to misinterpretation. GCA effects showed fluctuations in partial diallel analysis which were more pronounced in S5 and S3, particularly for characters with low heritability. The average standard error of difference between GCA effects increased with a decrease in s, with a steep slope for s diallel analysis was more efficient for the estimation of the variance component of GCA than for SCA, as the estimate of SCA was biased upwards. Estimates of broad sense heritability obtained from the partial diallels agreed with the full diallel analysis better than the narrow sense estimates. Smaller partial diallels gave erratic estimates of heritability, particularly for the characters with low heritability.

  15. Nanoparticle standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havrilla, George Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-08

    We will purchase a COTS materials printer and adapt it for solution printing of known elemental concentration solutions. A methodology will be developed to create deposits of known mass in known locations on selected substrates. The deposits will be characterized for deposited mass, physical morphology, thickness and uniformity. Once an acceptable methodology has been developed and validated, we will create round robin samples to be characterized by LGSIMS instruments at LANL, PNNL and NIST. We will demonstrate the feasibility of depositing nanoparticles in known masses with the goal of creating separated nanoparticles in known locations.

  16. Numerical approaches to system of fractional partial differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, by introducing the fractional derivative in sense of Caputo, the Laplace- variational iteration method (LVIM and the Laplace-Adomian decomposition method (LADM are directly extended to study the linear and nonlinear systems of fractional partial differential equations, as a result the approximated numerical solutions are acquired in the form of rapidly convergent series with easily computable components. Numerical results show that the two approaches are easy to implement and accurate when are applied. Compassions are made between the two methods and exact solutions. Figures are used to show the efficiency as well as the accuracy of the achieved approximated results.

  17. The marketing of partial hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsap, P; Brown, E; Kiser, L; Pruitt, D

    1987-09-01

    Health-care professionals are currently operating in the context of a rapidly changing health-care delivery system, including the move away from inpatient services to outpatient services in order to control costs. Those who practice in partial-hospital settings are in a position to offer effective, cost-efficient services; however, there continue to be obstacles which hinder appropriate utilization of the modality. The development and use of a well-designed marketing plan is one strategy for removing these obstacles. This paper presents a brief overview of the marketing process, ideas for developing a marketing plan, and several examples of specific marketing strategies as well as ways to monitor their effectiveness. Partial-hospital providers must take an active role in answering the calls for alternative sources of psychiatric care. A comprehensive, education-oriented marketing approach will increase the public's awareness of such alternatives and enable programs to survive in a competitive environment.

  18. Introduction to partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Borthwick, David

    2016-01-01

    This modern take on partial differential equations does not require knowledge beyond vector calculus and linear algebra. The author focuses on the most important classical partial differential equations, including conservation equations and their characteristics, the wave equation, the heat equation, function spaces, and Fourier series, drawing on tools from analysis only as they arise.Within each section the author creates a narrative that answers the five questions: (1) What is the scientific problem we are trying to understand? (2) How do we model that with PDE? (3) What techniques can we use to analyze the PDE? (4) How do those techniques apply to this equation? (5) What information or insight did we obtain by developing and analyzing the PDE? The text stresses the interplay between modeling and mathematical analysis, providing a thorough source of problems and an inspiration for the development of methods.

  19. Removable partial dentures: clinical concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenkamp, David M

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a review of the traditional clinical concepts for the design and fabrication of removable partial dentures (RPDs). Although classic theories and rules for RPD designs have been presented and should be followed, excellent clinical care for partially edentulous patients may also be achieved with computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and unique blended designs. These nontraditional RPD designs and fabrication methods provide for improved fit, function, and esthetics by using computer-aided design software, composite resin for contours and morphology of abutment teeth, metal support structures for long edentulous spans and collapsed occlusal vertical dimensions, and flexible, nylon thermoplastic material for metal-supported clasp assemblies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  1. Another piece in the jigsaw of accelerated partial breast irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Coles, Charlotte Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Whole-breast radiotherapy is the standard of care following breast conservation surgery, but an increasing number of trials are reporting the use of partial breast irradiation for selected patients. In The Lancet Oncology, Csaba Polgár and colleagues1 present the results of the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) trial of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), whereby patients were randomly assigned to whole-breast irradiation in...

  2. A stability analysis for a semilinear parabolic partial differential equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafee, N.

    1973-01-01

    The parabolic partial differential equation considered is u sub t = u sub xx + f(u), where minus infinity x plus infinity and o t plus infinity. Under suitable hypotheses pertaining to f, a class of initial data is exhibited: phi(x), minus infinity x plus infinity, for which the corresponding solutions u(x,t) appraoch zero as t approaches the limit of plus infinity. This convergence is uniform with respect to x on any compact subinterval of the real axis.

  3. Exp-Function Method for Solving Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the Exp-function method to fractional partial differential equations in the sense of modified Riemann-Liouville derivative based on nonlinear fractional complex transformation. For illustrating the validity of this method, we apply it to the space-time fractional Fokas equation and the nonlinear fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olver (STO equation. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are successfully established.

  4. Exp-function method for solving fractional partial differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin

    2013-01-01

    We extend the Exp-function method to fractional partial differential equations in the sense of modified Riemann-Liouville derivative based on nonlinear fractional complex transformation. For illustrating the validity of this method, we apply it to the space-time fractional Fokas equation and the nonlinear fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olver (STO) equation. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are successfully established.

  5. Partial oral treatment of endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kasper; Høst, Nis; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2013-01-01

    Guidelines for the treatment of left-sided infective endocarditis (IE) recommend 4 to 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. Conversion from intravenous to oral antibiotics in clinically stabilized patients could reduce the side effects associated with intravenous treatment and shorten the length...... of hospital stay. Evidence supporting partial oral therapy as an alternative to the routinely recommended continued parenteral therapy is scarce, although observational data suggest that this strategy may be safe and effective....

  6. (Terminology standardization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehlow, R.A.

    1990-10-19

    Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

  7. Management of partial traumatic hemipelvectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Zhou, Dongsheng; Shen, Wun-Jer; Xin, Maoyuan; He, Jiliang; Li, Qinghu; Tan, Guoqing

    2013-11-01

    Partial traumatic hemipelvectomy is a devastating condition. Although by definition the affected limb is not totally transected from the trunk because of retained soft tissue, the reported mortality rate is actually higher than in complete traumatic hemipelvectomy. Between January 2000 and December 2011, a total of 917 patients were admitted to the authors' institution for pelvic fracture. Seven of these patients met the criteria for partial traumatic hemipelvectomy. All 7 patients had multiple associated injuries and met the criteria for Baskett class IV hypovolemic shock on arrival at the emergency department. The amount of bleeding was the greatest issue, and control of hemorrhage and rapid blood transfusion were the initial goals. Abdominal aorta balloon occlusion, laparotomy and packing, and pelvic external fixation were useful to control bleeding. Two patients died during the initial resuscitation phase. Angiography (digital subtraction or computed tomographic) was performed in 4 patients but did not provide any treatment-altering information. Limb preservation was attempted in 2 patients; both of these patients eventually required hindquarter amputation. One patient died, and the second patient survived after a difficult postoperative course. The best results were obtained in 3 patients who underwent completion of the hindquarter amputation within 24 hours of trauma. All patients became wheelchair dependent, and no patient was able to return to work. Early completion of hindquarter amputation after hemorrhaging has been controlled is recommended in patients with partial traumatic hemipelvectomy. Angiography did not prove useful in decision making. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Partially composite Goldstone Higgs boson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanne, Tommi; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Frandsen, Mads T.

    2017-11-01

    We consider a model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking with a partially composite Goldstone Higgs boson. The model is based on a strongly interacting fermionic sector coupled to a fundamental scalar sector via Yukawa interactions. The SU (4 )×SU (4 ) global symmetry of these two sectors is broken to a single SU(4) via Yukawa interactions. Electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced by condensation due to the strong interactions in the new fermionic sector which further breaks the global symmetry SU (4 )→Sp (4 ). The Higgs boson arises as a partially composite state which is an exact Goldstone boson in the limit where SM interactions are turned off. Terms breaking the SU(4) global symmetry explicitly generate a mass for the Goldstone Higgs boson. The model realizes in different limits both (partially) composite Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models, thereby providing a convenient unified framework for phenomenological studies of composite dynamics. It is also a dynamical extension of the recent elementary Goldstone Higgs model.

  9. [Benign partial epilepsies of childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, R

    To carry out, by means of a literature review, an update of the entities that can be included within the group of benign partial epilepsies of childhood. Among partial epilepsies with onset in the first stages of life, a group extended in the last years with a favourable course and a trend to reverse, even spontaneously, has been identified. Some of these entities have a genetic origin but we do not know the mechanisms by which these epilepsies show a self limited course, which have given rise to the denomination of epilepsy that comes and goes; nevertheless, an evolution to other more complex forms is also possible. Benign partial epilepsies of childhood constitute a wide group of conditions of varied semiology, usually with a good prognosis even without treatment. Occasionally, these epilepsies may show a more unfavourable course with a worsening, in spite of medication, and the appearance of neurologic and neuropsychologic disorders. All these aspects must be known and considered by the physician in charge of these patients management.

  10. Density of aqueous solutions of CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Julio E.

    2001-01-01

    In this report, we present a numerical representation for the partial molar volume of CO2 in water and the calculation of the corresponding aqueous solution density. The motivation behind this work is related to the importance of having accurate representations for aqueous phase properties in the numerical simulation of carbon dioxide disposal into aquifers as well as in geothermal applications. According to reported experimental data the density of aqueous solutions of CO2 can be as mu...

  11. Solving Partial Differential Equations Using a New Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natee Panagant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an alternative meshless approach to solve partial differential equations (PDEs. With a global approximate function being defined, a partial differential equation problem is converted into an optimisation problem with equality constraints from PDE boundary conditions. An evolutionary algorithm (EA is employed to search for the optimum solution. For this approach, the most difficult task is the low convergence rate of EA which consequently results in poor PDE solution approximation. However, its attractiveness remains due to the nature of a soft computing technique in EA. The algorithm can be used to tackle almost any kind of optimisation problem with simple evolutionary operation, which means it is mathematically simpler to use. A new efficient differential evolution (DE is presented and used to solve a number of the partial differential equations. The results obtained are illustrated and compared with exact solutions. It is shown that the proposed method has a potential to be a future meshless tool provided that the search performance of EA is greatly enhanced.

  12. Existence of solutions for elliptic systems with critical Sobolev exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Amster

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We establish conditions for existence and for nonexistence of nontrivial solutions to an elliptic system of partial differential equations. This system is of gradient type and has a nonlinearity with critical growth.

  13. Lectures on the practical solution of differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.

    1979-11-01

    This report comprises lectures on the practical solution of ordinary and partial differential equations given in the In-Hours Continuing Education Program for Scientific and Technical Personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. Existence of Weak Solutions for a Nonlinear Elliptic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert RobertP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence of weak solutions to the following Dirichlet boundary value problem, which occurs when modeling an injection molding process with a partial slip condition on the boundary. We have in ; in ; , and on .

  15. Global Regularity for Several Incompressible Fluid Models with Partial Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiahong; Xu, Xiaojing; Ye, Zhuan

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines the global regularity problem on several 2D incompressible fluid models with partial dissipation. They are the surface quasi-geostrophic (SQG) equation, the 2D Euler equation and the 2D Boussinesq equations. These are well-known models in fluid mechanics and geophysics. The fundamental issue of whether or not they are globally well-posed has attracted enormous attention. The corresponding models with partial dissipation may arise in physical circumstances when the dissipation varies in different directions. We show that the SQG equation with either horizontal or vertical dissipation always has global solutions. This is in sharp contrast with the inviscid SQG equation for which the global regularity problem remains outstandingly open. Although the 2D Euler is globally well-posed for sufficiently smooth data, the associated equations with partial dissipation no longer conserve the vorticity and the global regularity is not trivial. We are able to prove the global regularity for two partially dissipated Euler equations. Several global bounds are also obtained for a partially dissipated Boussinesq system.

  16. 24 CFR 200.926c - Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions. 200.926c Section 200.926c Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Minimum Property Standards § 200.926c Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code...

  17. Existence of positive radial solutions for a weakly coupled system via blow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta García-Huidobro

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of positive solutions to certain systems of ordinary differential equations is studied. Particular forms of these systems are satisfied by radial solutions of associated partial differential equations.

  18. Sterilization potential of contact lens solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dada Vijay

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In a dynamic field of Contact Lens Solutions maintenance of high standards of anti-microbial activity is a must Resterilization Activity Time′ is a universally accepted yardstick for such an evaluation. In this study eight brands of indigenous popular solutions alongwith two FDA approved solutions were tested for their sterilization efficacy: Standardized suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus were used for the purpose. It was observed that the contact lens solutions available ir, the domestic market were not upto the mark Suggestions for improvement have also been made.

  19. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  20. Explicit solutions of the Rand Equation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Nonlinear partial differential equations, evolution equations, symmetries, similarity solutions, Rand Equation. PACS-Code: ... Classical symmetry analysis - algebraic group properties ... The result is a well-defined system of eight linear homogeneous PDEs (describing the point symmetries) for the infinitesimals. ),(.

  1. Python Classes for Numerical Solution of PDE's

    CERN Document Server

    Mushtaq, Asif; Olaussen, Kåre

    2015-01-01

    We announce some Python classes for numerical solution of partial differential equations, or boundary value problems of ordinary differential equations. These classes are built on routines in \\texttt{numpy} and \\texttt{scipy.sparse.linalg} (or \\texttt{scipy.linalg} for smaller problems).

  2. New exact wave solutions for Hirota equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs) of mathematical physics are major sub- jects in physical science. With the development of soliton theory, many useful methods for obtaining exact solutions of NPDEs have been presented. Some of them are: the (G /G)- expansion method [1–4], the simplest equation method ...

  3. Boundary Value Problems and Approximate Solutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we discuss about some basic things of boundary value problems. Secondly, we study boundary conditions involving derivatives and obtain finite difference approximations of partial derivatives of boundary value problems. The last section is devoted to determine an approximate solution for boundary value ...

  4. Synchronizing Strategies under Partial Observability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Embedded devices usually share only partial information about their current configurations as the communication bandwidth can be restricted. Despite this, we may wish to bring a failed device into a given predetermined configuration. This problem, also known as resetting or synchronizing words, has...... been intensively studied for systems that do not provide any information about their configurations. In order to capture more general scenarios, we extend the existing theory of synchronizing words to synchronizing strategies, and study the synchronization, short-synchronization and subset...

  5. Laparoscopic Partial Hepatectomy: Animal Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhiro Inoue

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available As a first step in firmly establishing laparoscopic hepatectomy, we introduce a porcine model of laparoscopic partial hepatectomy. This procedure has been successfully performed under the normal-pressure or low-pressure pneumoperitoneum condition supported by the full-thickness abdominal wall lifting technique. An ultrasonic dissector combined with electrocautery, newly developed by Olympus Optical Corporation (Japan was effectively utilized in facilitating safe and smooth incisions into the liver parenchyma. Although indications for this procedure seem to be limited only to peripheral lesions and not to central lesions, clinical application of this method may be useful for some patients in the near future.

  6. Partial differential equations an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Colton, David

    2004-01-01

    Intended for a college senior or first-year graduate-level course in partial differential equations, this text offers students in mathematics, engineering, and the applied sciences a solid foundation for advanced studies in mathematics. Classical topics presented in a modern context include coverage of integral equations and basic scattering theory. This complete and accessible treatment includes a variety of examples of inverse problems arising from improperly posed applications. Exercises at the ends of chapters, many with answers, offer a clear progression in developing an understanding of

  7. Implementing circularity using partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2001-01-01

    of an imperative C-like language, by extending the language with a new construct, persistent variables. We show that an extension of partial evaluation can eliminate persistent variables, producing a staged C program. This approach has been implemented in the Tempo specializer for C programs, and has proven useful......Complex data dependencies can often be expressed concisely by defining a variable in terms of part of its own value. Such a circular reference can be naturally expressed in a lazy functional language or in an attribute grammar. In this paper, we consider circular references in the context...

  8. Partial coalescence of soap bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel M.; Pucci, Giuseppe; Bush, John W. M.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the merger of a soap bubble with a planar soap film. When gently deposited onto a horizontal film, a bubble may interact with the underlying film in such a way as to decrease in size, leaving behind a smaller daughter bubble with approximately half the radius of its progenitor. The process repeats up to three times, with each partial coalescence event occurring over a time scale comparable to the inertial-capillary time. Our results are compared to the recent numerical simulations of Martin and Blanchette and to the coalescence cascade of droplets on a fluid bath.

  9. Adaptive Partially Hidden Markov Models with Application to Bilevel Image Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rasmussen, Tage

    1999-01-01

    Adaptive Partially Hidden Markov Models (APHMM) are introduced extending the PHMM models. The new models are applied to lossless coding of bi-level images achieving resluts which are better the JBIG standard.......Adaptive Partially Hidden Markov Models (APHMM) are introduced extending the PHMM models. The new models are applied to lossless coding of bi-level images achieving resluts which are better the JBIG standard....

  10. The heat capacity and density of solutions of barium and tetrabutylammonium iodides in N-methylpyrrolidone at 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, A. N.; Lenina, O. F.; Vasilev, V. A.

    2009-03-01

    The heat capacity and density of solutions of barium and tetrabutylammonium iodides in N-methylpyrrolidone (MP) were studied at 298.15 K by calorimetry and densimetry. The standard partial molar heat capacities and volumes ( overline {C_{p^2 }^ circ } and overline {V_2^ circ } ) of the electrolytes in MP were calculated. The standard heat capacities overline {C_{pi}^ circ } and volumes overline {V_i^ circ } of the Ba2+ and (C4H9)4N+ ions in solution in MP at 298.15 K were determined. With the tetrabutylammonium ion, these values were in agreement with those calculated on the basis of the tetraphenylarsonium-tetraphenyl borate and tetraphenylphosphonium-tetraphenyl borate assumptions. The results are discussed in relation to the special features of solvation in solutions of the salts studied.

  11. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  12. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  13. PKI standards

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Chris J

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the current state of the art in standards for Public Key Infrastructures. The main focus of the paper is the recent work by the Internet Engineering Task Force, ITU-T, and ISO/IEC.

  14. Complex partial seizures: cerebellar metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodore, W.H.; Fishbein, D.; Deitz, M.; Baldwin, P.

    1987-07-01

    We used positron emission tomography (PET) with (/sup 18/F)2-deoxyglucose to study cerebellar glucose metabolism (LCMRglu) and the effect of phenytoin (PHT) in 42 patients with complex partial seizures (CPS), and 12 normal controls. Mean +/- SD patient LCMRglu was 6.9 +/- 1.8 mg glucose/100 g/min (left = right), significantly lower than control values of 8.5 +/- 1.8 (left, p less than 0.006), and 8.3 +/- 1.6 (right, p less than 0.02). Only four patients had cerebellar atrophy on CT/MRI; cerebellar LCMRglu in these was 5.5 +/- 1.5 (p = 0.054 vs. total patient sample). Patients with unilateral temporal hypometabolism or EEG foci did not have lateralized cerebellar hypometabolism. Patients receiving phenytoin (PHT) at the time of scan and patients with less than 5 years total PHT exposure had lower LCMRglu, but the differences were not significant. There were weak inverse correlations between PHT level and cerebellar LCMRglu in patients receiving PHT (r = -0.36; 0.05 less than p less than 0.1), as well as between length of illness and LCMRglu (r = -0.22; 0.05 less than p less than 0.1). Patients with complex partial seizures have cerebellar hypometabolism that is bilateral and due only in part to the effect of PHT.

  15. Heat capacity and density of solutions of lithium and sodium nitrates in N-methylpyrrolidone at 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    The heat capacity and density of solutions of lithium and sodium nitrates in N-methylpyrrolidone (MP) at 298.15 K are studied by calorimetry and densimetry. The standard partial molar heat capacities and volumes ( C¯ p,2° and V¯ 2°) of LiNO3 and NaNO3 in MP are calculated. The standard heat capacities C¯ p,i ° and volumes V¯ i ° of Li+ and Na+ ions in MP at 298.15 K are determined on the basis of a proposed scale of ionic contributions of C¯ p,2° and V¯ 2° values. The obtained data are discussed in relation to certain features of solvation in solutions of the investigated salts.

  16. Numerical Solution of Parabolic Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerby, Ole

    These lecture notes are designed for a one-semester course on finite-difference methods for parabolic equations. These equations which traditionally are used for describing diffusion and heat-conduction problems in Geology, Physics, and Chemistry have recently found applications in Finance Theory...... approximations which depend on a step size, such as numerical integration and solution of ordinary and partial differential equations. An integral part of the error estimation is the estimation of the order of the method and can thus satisfy the inquisitive mind: Is the order what we expect it to be from theopry...

  17. Approximate solution for Fokker-Planck equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Araujo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approximate solution to a specific class of the Fokker-Planck equation is proposed. The solution is based on the relationship between the Schrödinger type equation with a partially confining and symmetrical potential. To estimate the accuracy of the solution, a function error obtained from the original Fokker-Planck equation is suggested. Two examples, a truncated harmonic potential and non-harmonic polynomial, are analyzed using the proposed method. For the truncated harmonic potential, the system behavior as a function of temperature is also discussed.

  18. Extended solutions for the biadjoint scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Pieter-Jan; White, Chris D.

    2017-12-01

    Biadjoint scalar field theories are increasingly important in the study of scattering amplitudes in various string and field theories. Recently, some first exact nonperturbative solutions of biadjoint scalar theory were presented, with a pure power-like form corresponding to isolated monopole-like objects located at the origin of space. In this paper, we find a novel family of extended solutions, involving non-trivial form factors that partially screen the divergent field at the origin. All previous solutions emerge as special cases.

  19. Impaired consciousness in partial seizures is bimodally distributed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Courtney; Chen, William C; Shorten, Andrew; McClurkin, Michael; Choezom, Tenzin; Schmidt, Christian P; Chu, Victoria; Bozik, Anne; Best, Cameron; Chapman, Melissa; Furman, Moran; Detyniecki, Kamil; Giacino, Joseph T; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2014-05-13

    To investigate whether impaired consciousness in partial seizures can usually be attributed to specific deficits in the content of consciousness or to a more general decrease in the overall level of consciousness. Prospective testing during partial seizures was performed in patients with epilepsy using the Responsiveness in Epilepsy Scale (n = 83 partial seizures, 30 patients). Results were compared with responsiveness scores in a cohort of patients with severe traumatic brain injury evaluated with the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (n = 552 test administrations, 184 patients). Standardized testing during partial seizures reveals a bimodal scoring distribution, such that most patients were either fully impaired or relatively spared in their ability to respond on multiple cognitive tests. Seizures with impaired performance on initial test items remained consistently impaired on subsequent items, while other seizures showed spared performance throughout. In the comparison group, we found that scores of patients with brain injury were more evenly distributed across the full range in severity of impairment. Partial seizures can often be cleanly separated into those with vs without overall impaired responsiveness. Results from similar testing in a comparison group of patients with brain injury suggest that the bimodal nature of Responsiveness in Epilepsy Scale scores is not a result of scale bias but may be a finding unique to partial seizures. These findings support a model in which seizures either propagate or do not propagate to key structures that regulate overall arousal and thalamocortical function. Future investigations are needed to relate these behavioral findings to the physiology underlying impaired consciousness in partial seizures.

  20. Abstract methods in partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Detailed, self-contained treatment examines modern abstract methods in partial differential equations, especially abstract evolution equations. Suitable for graduate students with some previous exposure to classical partial differential equations. 1969 edition.

  1. [Removable partial dentures. Oral functions and types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creugers, N H J; de Baat, C

    2009-11-01

    A removable partial denture enables the restoration or improvement of 4 oral functions: aesthetics, mandibular stability, mastication, and speech. However, wearing a removable partial denture should not cause oral comfort to deteriorate. There are 3 types of removable partial dentures: acrylic tissue-supported dentures, dentures with cast metal frameworks en dentures with cast metal frameworks and (semi)precision attachments. Interrupted tooth arches,free-ending tooth arches, and a combination of interrupted as well as free-ending tooth arches can be restored using these dentures. Well-known disadvantages of removable partial dentures are problematic oral hygiene, negative influence on the remaining dentition and limited oral comfort. Due to the advanced possibilities of fixed tooth- or implant-supported partial dentures, whether or not free-ending, or tooth- as well as implant-supported partial dentures, the indication of removable partial dentures is restricted. Nevertheless, for the time being the demand for removable partial dentures is expected to continue.

  2. Studies on volumetric properties of some saccharides in aqueous potassium chloride solutions over temperature range (288.15 to 318.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banipal, Parampaul K. [Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005 (India)], E-mail: pkbanipal@yahoo.com; Chahal, Amanpreet K. [Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005 (India); Banipal, Tarlok S. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005 (India)

    2009-04-15

    The standard partial molar volumes, V{sub 2}{sup {infinity}} at infinite dilution of monosaccharides; D(+)-xylose, D(-)-arabinose, D(-)-ribose, D(+)-mannose, D(+)-galactose, D(-)-fructose and D(+)-glucose, disaccharides; D(+)-melibiose, D(+)-cellobiose, D(+)-maltose monohydrate, D(+)-trehalose dihydrate, D(+)-lactose monohydrate and sucrose, trisaccharide; D(+)-raffinose pentahydrate, methylglycosides; {alpha}-methyl-D(+)-glucoside, methyl-{alpha}-D-xylopyranoside and methyl-{beta}-D-xylopyranoside have been determined in water and in aqueous solutions of potassium chloride (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0) mol . kg{sup -1} at T = (288.15, 298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K from density measurements employing a vibrating-tube densimeter. These results have been utilized to determine the corresponding standard partial molar volumes of transfer, {delta}{sub t}V{sub 2}{sup {infinity}} for the transfer of various saccharides from water to aqueous potassium chloride solutions. The standard transfer volumes have been found to be positive (except for {alpha}- and {beta}-methyl xylopyranosides in 0.5 mol . kg{sup -1} solutions of potassium chloride) whose magnitude increase with the concentration of potassium chloride as well as temperature for all the saccharides. Partial molar expansion coefficients, ({partial_derivative}V{sub 2}{sup {infinity}}/{partial_derivative}T){sub p} and the second derivative ({partial_derivative}{sup 2}V{sub 2}{sup {infinity}}/{partial_derivative}T{sup 2}){sub p} values have been estimated. Pair and higher order volumetric interaction coefficients have also been calculated from {delta}{sub t}V{sub 2}{sup {infinity}} by using the McMillan-Mayer theory. These parameters have been discussed in terms of the solute-cosolute interactions and are used to understand various mixing effects due to these interactions. The effect of substitution of -OH by glycosidic group, -OCH{sub 3} is also discussed. Attempt has also been made to discuss the stereochemical effects

  3. CERN Single Sign On Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Ormancey, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his ...

  4. partial replacement of partial replacement of cement with bagasse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    specified by the relevant codes so as to see the suitability or otherwise of the ... suitable for use in Civil Engineering work. Table 5: Comparison of test result on cement with standard specifications. Test. Result. Code Specification. Initial Setting Time .... Province (NWFP), Pakistan and its Recycling in. Cement Manufacturing.

  5. Minimizing Ports During Robotic Partial Nephrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argun, Omer Burak; Tufek, Ilter; Obek, Can; Tuna, Mustafa Bilal; Keskin, Selcuk; Kural, Ali Riza

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Robotic upper urinary tract surgery is in most of the cases performed utilizing a standard 5 port configuration. Fewer ports can potentially produce a less invasive operation. Taking in consideration the above we report a novel technique for robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy utilizing fewer ports and we test its feasibility and safety profile. Methods: Data on 11 robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomies performed by using our technique from February 2015 through June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The robotic platform used was DaVinci Xi (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, California, USA) with a 3-arm setup. The AirSeal system (SurgiQuest, Milford, Connecticut, USA) was used as a port allowing simultaneous introduction of 2 instruments for the bedside surgeon, obviating the need for an additional (fourth) robotic arm. A long suction-and-irrigation device and atraumatic grasping forceps were used. Both instruments were introduced through the trocar of the AirSeal system, making simultaneous introduction and use possible. We preferred the long suction-and-irrigation device, because it minimizes collision of the instruments. Results: Mean age and BMI of the patients were 55 ±14.6 y and 29.18 ± 6.85, respectively. Seven tumors were on the right side and 4 were on the left. The mean size of the tumors was 32.45 mm (± 11.31). Surgical time was 132.2 minutes (±37.17), with an estimated blood loss and ischemia time of 103.63 mL (±65.92) and 16.72 minutes (±9.52), respectively. One patient had postoperative bleeding that was resolved without transfusion. The median hospitalization period was 3.9 d (±0.53). Loss of intra-abdominal pressure was not observed, and pressure was stable at 10 mm Hg. Conclusion: The AirSeal System and its valveless trocar eliminated the need for an additional port placement in our series. The technique is feasible, safe, and reproducible; therefore, it may be implemented in selected

  6. Problems in Hydrodynamics and Partial Differential Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS, RESEARCH MANAGEMENT ), NONLINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS, EQUATIONS, INEQUALITIES, MEASURE THEORY , INTEGRALS, ABSTRACTS

  7. PKQuest: volatile solutes - application to enflurane, nitrous oxide, halothane, methoxyflurane and toluene pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, David G

    2002-08-15

    BACKGROUND: The application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models (PBPK) to human studies has been limited by the lack of the detailed organ information that is required for this analysis. PKQuest is a new generic PBPK that is designed to avoid this problem by using a set of "standard human" default parameters that are applicable to most solutes. RESULTS: PKQuest is used to model the human pharmacokinetics of the volatile solutes. A "standard human" value for the lipid content of the blood and each organ (klip) was chosen. This set of klip and the oil/water partition coefficient then specifies the organ/blood partition for each organ. Using this approach, the pharmacokinetics of inert volatile solute is completely specified by just 2 parameters: the water/air and oil/water partition coefficients. The model predictions of PKQuest were in good agreement with the experimental data for the inert solutes enflurane and nitrous oxide and the metabolized solutes halothane and toluene. METHODS: The experimental data that was modeled was taken from previous publications. CONCLUSIONS: This approach greatly increases the predictive power of the PBPK. For inert volatile solutes the pharmacokinetics are determined just from the water/air and oil/water partition coefficient. Methoxyflurane cannot be modeled by this PBPK because the arterial and end tidal partial pressures are not equal (as assumed in the PBPK). This inequality results from the "washin-washout" artifact in the large airways that is established for solutes with large water/air partition coefficients.PKQuest and the worked examples are available on the web www.pkquest.com.

  8. PKQuest: volatile solutes – application to enflurane, nitrous oxide, halothane, methoxyflurane and toluene pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levitt David G

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models (PBPK to human studies has been limited by the lack of the detailed organ information that is required for this analysis. PKQuest is a new generic PBPK that is designed to avoid this problem by using a set of "standard human" default parameters that are applicable to most solutes. Results PKQuest is used to model the human pharmacokinetics of the volatile solutes. A "standard human" value for the lipid content of the blood and each organ (klip was chosen. This set of klip and the oil/water partition coefficient then specifies the organ/blood partition for each organ. Using this approach, the pharmacokinetics of inert volatile solute is completely specified by just 2 parameters: the water/air and oil/water partition coefficients. The model predictions of PKQuest were in good agreement with the experimental data for the inert solutes enflurane and nitrous oxide and the metabolized solutes halothane and toluene. Methods The experimental data that was modeled was taken from previous publications. Conclusions This approach greatly increases the predictive power of the PBPK. For inert volatile solutes the pharmacokinetics are determined just from the water/air and oil/water partition coefficient. Methoxyflurane cannot be modeled by this PBPK because the arterial and end tidal partial pressures are not equal (as assumed in the PBPK. This inequality results from the "washin-washout" artifact in the large airways that is established for solutes with large water/air partition coefficients. PKQuest and the worked examples are available on the web http://www.pkquest.com.

  9. Pancharatnam geometric phase originating from successive partial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The spin of a polarized neutron beam subjected to a partial projection in another direction, traces a geodesic arc in the 2-sphere ray space. We delineate the geometric phase resulting from two successive partial projections on a general quantal state and derive the direction and strength of the third partial ...

  10. The Hydra-k Partial Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pendavingh; S.H.M. van Zwam (Stefan)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the paper "Confinement of matroid representations to subsets of partial fields" (arXiv:0806.4487) we introduced the Hydra-k partial fields to study quinary matroids with inequivalent representations. The proofs of some results on these partial fields require extensive computations.

  11. Parameter Estimation of Partial Differential Equation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Xiaolei; Cao, Jiguo; Mallick, Bani; Carroll, Raymond J; Maity, Arnab

    2013-01-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) models are commonly used to model complex dynamic systems in applied sciences such as biology and finance. The forms of these PDE models are usually proposed by experts based on their prior knowledge and understanding of the dynamic system. Parameters in PDE models often have interesting scientific interpretations, but their values are often unknown, and need to be estimated from the measurements of the dynamic system in the present of measurement errors. Most PDEs used in practice have no analytic solutions, and can only be solved with numerical methods. Currently, methods for estimating PDE parameters require repeatedly solving PDEs numerically under thousands of candidate parameter values, and thus the computational load is high. In this article, we propose two methods to estimate parameters in PDE models: a parameter cascading method and a Bayesian approach. In both methods, the underlying dynamic process modeled with the PDE model is represented via basis function expansion. For the parameter cascading method, we develop two nested levels of optimization to estimate the PDE parameters. For the Bayesian method, we develop a joint model for data and the PDE, and develop a novel hierarchical model allowing us to employ Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to make posterior inference. Simulation studies show that the Bayesian method and parameter cascading method are comparable, and both outperform other available methods in terms of estimation accuracy. The two methods are demonstrated by estimating parameters in a PDE model from LIDAR data.

  12. Removable partial dentures: The clinical need for innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stephen D; Cooper, Lyndon; Craddock, Helen; Hyde, T Paul; Nattress, Brian; Pavitt, Sue H; Seymour, David W

    2017-09-01

    The number of partially dentate adults is increasing, and many patients will require replacement of missing teeth. Although current treatment options also include fixed partial dentures and implants, removable partial dentures (RPDs) can have advantages and are widely used in clinical practice. However, a significant need exists to advance materials and fabrication technologies because of the unwanted health consequences associated with current RPDs. The purpose of this review was to assess the current state of and future need for prosthetics such as RPDs for patients with partial edentulism, highlight areas of weakness, and outline possible solutions to issues that affect patient satisfaction and the use of RPDs. The data on treatment for partial edentulism were reviewed and summarized with a focus on currently available and future RPD designs, materials, means of production, and impact on oral health. Data on patient satisfaction and compliance with RPD treatment were also reviewed to assess patient-centered care. Design, materials, ease of repair, patient education, and follow-up for RPD treatment all had a significant impact on treatment success. Almost 40% of patients no longer use their RPD within 5 years because of factors such as sociodemographics, pain, and esthetics. Research on RPD-based treatment for partial edentulism for both disease-oriented and patient-centered outcomes is lacking. Future trials should evaluate new RPD materials and design technologies and include both long-term follow-up and health-related and patient-reported outcomes. Advances in materials and digital design/production along with patient education promise to further the application of RPDs and improve the quality of life for patients requiring RPDs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Partially coherent lensfree tomographic microscopy⋄

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikman, Serhan O.; Bishara, Waheb; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Optical sectioning of biological specimens provides detailed volumetric information regarding their internal structure. To provide a complementary approach to existing three-dimensional (3D) microscopy modalities, we have recently demonstrated lensfree optical tomography that offers high-throughput imaging within a compact and simple platform. In this approach, in-line holograms of objects at different angles of partially coherent illumination are recorded using a digital sensor-array, which enables computing pixel super-resolved tomographic images of the specimen. This imaging modality, which forms the focus of this review, offers micrometer-scale 3D resolution over large imaging volumes of, for example, 10–15 mm3, and can be assembled in light weight and compact architectures. Therefore, lensfree optical tomography might be particularly useful for lab-on-a-chip applications as well as for microscopy needs in resource-limited settings. PMID:22193016

  14. Partial Return Yoke for MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte H.; Plate, S

    2013-05-03

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a large scale experiment which is presently assembled at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Didcot, UK. The purpose of MICE is to demonstrate the concept of ionization cooling experimentally. Ionization cooling is an important accelerator concept which will be essential for future HEP experiments such as a potential Muon Collider or a Neutrino Factory. The MICE experiment will house up to 18 superconducting solenoids, all of which produce a substantial amount of magnetic flux. Recently it was realized that this magnetic flux leads to a considerable stray magnetic field in the MICE hall. This is a concern as technical equipment in the MICE hall may may be compromised by this. In July 2012 a concept called partial return yoke was presented to the MICE community, which reduces the stray field in the MICE hall to a safe level. This report summarizes the general concept, engineering considerations and the expected shielding performance.

  15. Business-to-business electronic commerce systems and services. Smart EC solution; Kigyoka nrenkei system solution system. Smart EC solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setoguchi, T.; Manchu, Y.; Katsumata, M. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Toshiba provides a range of information technology (IT) solutions called SmartEC Solution, which includes business-to-business electronic commerce systems and services based on international standards and industrial know-how, especially our electronic data interchange (EDI) know-how as a manufacturer. These IT solutions are supplied as services covering strategy planning, system integration, and application service provider based on five types of business-to-business electronic commerce. (author)

  16. Topological Partial *-ALGEBRAS:. Basic Properties and Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, J.-P.; Bagarello, F.; Trapani, C.

    Let {A} be a partial *-algebra endowed with a topology τ that makes it into a locally convex topological vector space {A} {[ τ ]}. Then {A} is called a topological partial *-algebra if it satisfies a number of conditions, which all amount to require that the topology τ fits with the multiplier structure of {A}. Besides the obvious cases of topological quasi *-algebras and CQ*-algebras, we examine several classes of potential topological partial *-algebras, either function spaces (lattices of Lp spaces on [0, 1] or on ℝ, amalgam spaces), or partial *-algebras of operators (operators on a partial inner product space, O*-algebras).

  17. An ansatz for solving nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, M Ali; Ali, Norhashidah Hj Mohd

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we introduce an ansatz involving exact traveling wave solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations. To obtain wave solutions using direct method, the choice of an appropriate ansatz is of great importance. We apply this ansatz to examine new and further general traveling wave solutions to the (1+1)-dimensional modified Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation. Abundant traveling wave solutions are derived including solitons, singular solitons, periodic solutions and general solitary wave solutions. The solutions emphasize the nobility of this ansatz in providing distinct solutions to various tangible phenomena in nonlinear science and engineering. The ansatz could be more efficient tool to deal with higher dimensional nonlinear evolution equations which frequently arise in many real world physical problems.

  18. Existence of infinitely many radial solutions for quasilinear Schrodinger equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Bao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we prove the existence of radial solutions with arbitrarily many sign changes for quasilinear Schrodinger equation $$ -\\sum_{i,j=1}^{N}\\partial_j(a_{ij}(u\\partial_iu +\\frac{1}{2}\\sum_{i,j=1}^{N}a'_{ij}(u\\partial_iu\\partial_ju+V(xu =|u|^{p-1}u,~x\\in\\mathbb{R}^N, $$ where $N\\geq3$, $p\\in(1,\\frac{3N+2}{N-2}$. The proof is accomplished by using minimization under a constraint.

  19. Standard deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Did you know that having a messy room will make you racist? Or that human beings possess the ability to postpone death until after important ceremonial occasions? Or that people live three to five years longer if they have positive initials, like ACE? All of these ‘facts' have been argued with a straight face by researchers and backed up with reams of data and convincing statistics.As Nobel Prize-winning economist Ronald Coase once cynically observed, ‘If you torture data long enough, it will confess.' Lying with statistics is a time-honoured con. In Standard Deviations, ec

  20. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  1. New exact solutions of the generalized Zakharov–Kuznetsov ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In §2, an extended trial equation method is described for finding exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations with higher-order nonlinearity. In §3, as an application, some exact solutions to nonlinear partial differential equation such as the generalized Zakharov–Kuznetsov modified equal-width equation ...

  2. Soliton solutions of Hirota equation and Hirota-Maccari system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Arnous

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the trial equation method is presented to seek the exact solutions of two nonlinear partial differential equations (NLPDEs, namely, the Hirota equation and the Hirota-Maccari system. The obtained solutions are solitary, topological, singular solitons and singular periodic waves. This method is powerful, effective and it can be extended to many NLPDEs.

  3. Solubility of non-polar gases in electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. L., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Solubility theory describes the effects of both concentration and temperature on solute activity coefficients. It predicts the salting-out effect and the decrease in solubility of non-polar gases with increased electrolyte concentration, and can be used to calculate heats of solution, entropies, and partial molal volumes of dissolved gases

  4. Travelling wave solutions to nonlinear physical models by means of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the first integral method to carry out the integration of nonlinear partial differential equations in terms of travelling wave solutions. For illustration, three important equations of mathematical physics are analytically investigated. Through the established first integrals, exact solutions are successfully ...

  5. Hybrid Solution for Integrated Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad DIACONITA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated applications are complex solutions, whose complexity are determined by the economic processes they implement, the amount of data employed (millions of records grouped in hundreds of tables, databases, hundreds of GB and the number of users. Service oriented architecture (SOA, is now the most talked-about integration solution in mainstream journals, addressing both simple applications, for a department but also at enterprise level. SOA can refer to software architecture or to a way of standardizing the technical architecture of an enterprise and it shows its value when operating in several distinct and heterogeneous environments.

  6. A Dual Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.; Slikker, M.; Tijs, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this note we introduce an egalitarian solution, called the dual egalitarian solution, that is the natural counterpart of the egalitarian solution of Dutta and Ray (1989).We prove, among others, that for a convex game the egalitarian solution coincides with the dual egalitarian solution for its

  7. Partial difference equations arising from the Cauchy-Riemann equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haruki

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider some functional equations arising from the Cauchy-Riemann equations, and certain related functional equations. First we propose a new functional equation (E.1 below, over a $2$-divisible Abelian group, which is a discrete version of the Cauchy-Riemann equations, and give the general solutions of (E.1. Next we study a functional equation which is equivalent to (E.1. Further we propose and solve partial difference-differential functional equations and nonsymmetric partial difference equations which are also arising from the Cauchy--Riemann equations. [ f(x+t,y- f(x-t,y = - i [f(x,y+t- f(x,y-t].    (E.1

  8. Simplified hemostatic technique during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tsivian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN has gained popularity in recent years, although it remains a challenging procedure. Herein we describe our technique of renal defect closure using sutures as the sole means of hemostasis during LPN. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: The kidney is approached transperitoneally in a standard fashion. After the renal artery is clamped and the tumor has been excised, the defect is closed in two separate knot-free suture layers. The deep layer suture is continuous and involves deep parenchyma including the collecting system, if opened. The superficial layer suture approximates the margins of the defect using absorbable clips on one parenchymal edge only. No bolsters, glues or other additional hemostatic agents are used. RESULTS: At present this technique was applied in 34 patients. Tumor size ranged from 17-85 mm. Median warm ischemia time was 23 min (range 12-45 and estimated blood loss 55 mL (30-1000. There were no intraoperative complications or conversions to open surgery. No urine leaks or postoperative bleedings were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This simplified technique appears reliable and quick, and therefore may be attractive for many urologic surgeons. Furthermore, the avoidance of routine use of additional hemostatic maneuvers may provide an economical advantage to this approach with no compromise of the surgical outcome.

  9. Hyperbolic partial differential equations populations, reactors, tides and waves theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Matthew

    1983-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations, Volume 1: Population, Reactors, Tides and Waves: Theory and Applications covers three general areas of hyperbolic partial differential equation applications. These areas include problems related to the McKendrick/Von Foerster population equations, other hyperbolic form equations, and the numerical solution.This text is composed of 15 chapters and begins with surveys of age specific population interactions, populations models of diffusion, nonlinear age dependent population growth with harvesting, local and global stability for the nonlinear renewal eq

  10. Chemical Control of Hydrodynamic Instabilities in Partially Miscible Two-layer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Budroni, Marcello; Riolfo, Luis Atilio; Lemaigre, Lorena; Rossi, Federico; Rustici, Mauro; De Wit, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities at the interface between two partially miscible liquids impact numerous applications, including CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers. We introduce here a new laboratory-scale model system on which buoyancy- and Marangoni-driven convective instabilities of such partially miscible two-layer systems can easily be studied. This system consists of the stratification of a pure alkyl formate on top of a denser aqueous solution in the gravitational field. A rich spectrum of...

  11. Seismic Response Analysis of Continuous Multispan Bridges with Partial Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tubaldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partially isolated bridges are a particular class of bridges in which isolation bearings are placed only between the piers top and the deck whereas seismic stoppers restrain the transverse motion of the deck at the abutments. This paper proposes an analytical formulation for the seismic analysis of these bridges, modelled as beams with intermediate viscoelastic restraints whose properties describe the pier-isolator behaviour. Different techniques are developed for solving the seismic problem. The first technique employs the complex mode superposition method and provides an exact benchmark solution to the problem at hand. The two other simplified techniques are based on an approximation of the displacement field and are useful for preliminary assessment and design purposes. A realistic bridge is considered as case study and its seismic response under a set of ground motion records is analyzed. First, the complex mode superposition method is applied to study the characteristic features of the dynamic and seismic response of the system. A parametric analysis is carried out to evaluate the influence of support stiffness and damping on the seismic performance. Then, a comparison is made between the exact solution and the approximate solutions in order to evaluate the accuracy and suitability of the simplified analysis techniques for evaluating the seismic response of partially isolated bridges.

  12. Standardization work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    For several years now, the main civil aircraft manufacturers (Airbus and its partners, Boeing, Fokker, McDonnell Douglas) have been working jointly on the writing of technical recommendations and the drawing up of an international standard. This work concerns the evaluation of the processes and products used to strip aeronautical paint systems. This procedure was initiated on request from the main airlines. In effect, the airlines are faced with situations in which the financial and operational objectives are becoming increasingly important. The need was felt to rationalize and, if possible, harmonize the criteria and technical requirements of the various civil aircraft manufacturers in order to facilitate in-service maintenance of the fleets of airlines operating Airbus, Boeing, Douglas aircraft, etc.

  13. Partial fasciectomy for Dupuytren's contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Spyridonos, Sarantis G; Ignatiadis, Ioannis A; Antonopoulos, Dimitrios; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2009-01-01

    One hundred ninety-six patients with Dupuytren's contractures were treated by partial fasciectomy and adequate postoperative rehabilitation. All patients had flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint of >20 degrees ; 93 patients had flexion contracture of the associated metacarpophalangeal joint of >30 degrees ; 143 patients had risk factors for Dupuytren's disease. Primary skin closure and splinting were done in all patients. Range of motion was begun by the 1st week. Splinting was discontinued by the 2nd week, followed by night-time splinting until the 8th week. The mean follow-up was 6.6 years (range, 2-9 years). At the latest examination, 72.5% of the patients had complete range of motion of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints; 20.2% had 5 degrees -10 degrees of extension deficit and 7.3% had recurrent contractures of >20 degrees at the proximal interphalangeal joint and were subjected to reoperation. Complications included digital neurovascular injury in 5%, complex regional pain syndrome in 10.1%, and wound-healing problems and superficial infections in 15.1%.

  14. Timed Testing under Partial Observability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao

    2009-01-01

    To steer model-based conformance testing of real-time systems towards certain test purposes or test coverage, many testing methods need (to be enhanced with) the assumption of full observability of the System Under Test (SUT), which means that the tester can observe precisely what state or config......To steer model-based conformance testing of real-time systems towards certain test purposes or test coverage, many testing methods need (to be enhanced with) the assumption of full observability of the System Under Test (SUT), which means that the tester can observe precisely what state...... framework, define a partial observation-based conformance relation, present the test execution algorithms, and prove the soundness and completeness of this test method (i.e., a detected error is really an error, and if the SUT violates the test purpose, then a test case can be generated to detect...... this violation). Experiments on some non-trivial examples show that this method yields encouraging results....

  15. Beyond the Standard Model course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    The necessity for new physics beyond the Standard Model will be motivated. Theoretical problems will be exposed and possible solutions will be described. The goal is to present the exciting new physics ideas that will be tested in the near future, at LHC and elsewhere. Supersymmetry, grand unification, extra dimensions and a glimpse of string theory will be presented.

  16. A Decrease in NiO-MgO Phase Through Its Solid Solution Equilibrium with Tetragonal (La1−zSrz2Ni1−yMgyO4−δ: Effect on Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Yin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcination of an oxide mixture consisting of 0.4 La2O3, 0.2 SrCO3, (1−xNiO, and xMgO at 800∘C results in an equilibrium between tetragonal (La1−zSrz2Ni1−yMgyO4−δ phase and NiO-MgO phase. Forming rock-salt NiO-MgO facilitates the NiO to join the tetragonal phase. The size of the NiO-MgO phase in the resulting composite is reduced with the increase in MgO (the x value. The composite thus obtained is used to catalyze partial oxidation of methane, and the maximum methane conversion of ca. 93% is achieved when x=0.2. A further rise in x value results in a monotonic decrease in the methane conversion. X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and chemosorption all confirm a decrease in both size and amount of the supported Ni0 clusters with the increase in MgO dosage. The reduction in size promotes the dispersion of Ni0 sites and gives rise to both high activity and strong coking resistance.

  17. Partial Interference and Its Performance Impact on Wireless Multiple Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau WingCheong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the capacity of wireless multiple access networks, the interference among the wireless links must be accurately modeled. In this paper, we formalize the notion of the partial interference phenomenon observed in many recent wireless measurement studies and establish analytical models with tractable solutions for various types of wireless multiple access networks. In particular, we characterize the stability region of IEEE 802.11 networks under partial interference with two potentially unsaturated links numerically. We also provide a closed-form solution for the stability region of slotted ALOHA networks under partial interference with two potentially unsaturated links and obtain a partial characterization of the boundary of the stability region for the general M-link case. Finally, we derive a closed-form approximated solution for the stability region for general M-link slotted ALOHA system under partial interference effects. Based on our results, we demonstrate that it is important to model the partial interference effects while analyzing wireless multiple access networks. This is because such considerations can result in not only significant quantitative differences in the predicted system capacity but also fundamental qualitative changes in the shape of the stability region of the systems.

  18. Implant-assisted removable partial dentures as an alternative treatment for partial edentulism: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzivasileiou, Konstantinos; Kotsiomiti, Eleni; Emmanouil, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    This study reviewed the current literature concerning implant-assisted removable partial dentures (RPDs) in order to present the existing knowledge about performance issues. An electronic search was conducted on the PubMed database for published English-language articles that contained information about implant-assisted RPDs. A review of these articles indicated that the combination of dental implants with RPDs constitutes a cost-efficient prosthetic protocol that can offer solutions to problematic aspects of treatment with removable partial dentures. Well-designed studies are still needed to provide robust evidence on critical issues, such as design guidelines, long-term survival of implants associated with RPDs, and their effect on patients' quality of life.

  19. Cauchy problem for a parabolic equation with Bessel operator and Riemann–Liouville partial derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima G. Khushtova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Cauchy problem for a parabolic equation with Bessel operator and with Riemann–Liouville partial derivative is considered. The representation of the solution is obtained in terms of integral transform with Wright function in the kernel. It is shown that when this equation becomes the fractional diffusion equation, obtained solution becomes the solution of Cauchy problem for the corresponding equation. The uniqueness of the solution in the class of functions that satisfy the analogue of Tikhonov condition is proved.

  20. Partial migration in fishes: causes and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, B.B.; Hulthén, K.; Brodersen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Partial migration, where only some individuals from a population migrate, has been widely reported in a diverse range of animals. In this paper, what is known about the causes and consequences of partial migration in fishes is reviewed. Firstly, the ultimate and proximate drivers of partial...... migration are reflected upon: what ecological factors can shape the evolution of migratory dimorphism? How is partial migration maintained over evolutionary timescales? What proximate mechanisms determine whether an individual is migratory or remains resident? Following this, the consequences of partial...... migration are considered, in an ecological and evolutionary context, and also in an applied sense. Here it is argued that understanding the concept of partial migration is crucial for fisheries and ecosystem managers, and can provide information for conservation strategies. The review concludes...