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Sample records for solution nutrient concentrations

  1. Nitrogen and potassium concentrations in the nutrients solution for melon plants growing in coconut fiber without drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratieri, Luiz Augusto; Cecílio Filho, Arthur Bernardes; Barbosa, José Carlos; Pavani, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    With the objective of evaluating the effects of N and K concentrations for melon plants, an experiment was carried out from July 1, 2011 to January 3, 2012 in Muzambinho city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The "Bonus no. 2" was cultivated at the spacing of 1.1 × 0.4. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme with four N concentrations (8, 12, 16, and 20 mmol L(-1)) and four K concentrations (4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol L(-1)). The experimental plot constituted of eight plants. It was observed that the leaf levels of N and K, of N-NO₃ and of K, and the electrical conductivity (CE) of the substrate increased with the increment of N and K in the nutrients' solution. Substratum pH, in general, was reduced with increments in N concentration and increased with increasing K concentrations in the nutrients' solution. Leaf area increased with increments in N concentration in the nutrients solution. Fertigation with solutions stronger in N (20 mmol L(-1)) and K (10 mmol L(-1)) resulted in higher masses for the first (968 g) and the second (951 g) fruits and crop yield (4,425 gm(-2)).

  2. Nitrogen and Potassium Concentrations in the Nutrients Solution for Melon Plants Growing in Coconut Fiber without Drainage

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    Luiz Augusto Gratieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating the effects of N and K concentrations for melon plants, an experiment was carried out from July 1, 2011 to January 3, 2012 in Muzambinho city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The “Bonus no. 2” was cultivated at the spacing of 1.1 × 0.4. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme with four N concentrations (8, 12, 16, and 20 mmol L−1 and four K concentrations (4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol L−1. The experimental plot constituted of eight plants. It was observed that the leaf levels of N and K, of N-NO3 and of K, and the electrical conductivity (CE of the substrate increased with the increment of N and K in the nutrients' solution. Substratum pH, in general, was reduced with increments in N concentration and increased with increasing K concentrations in the nutrients' solution. Leaf area increased with increments in N concentration in the nutrients solution. Fertigation with solutions stronger in N (20 mmol L−1 and K (10 mmol L−1 resulted in higher masses for the first (968 g and the second (951 g fruits and crop yield (4,425 gm−2.

  3. The effect of growing media and concentration of nutrient solution on growth, flowering and macroelement content of media and leaves of Tymophylla tenuiloba Small

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    Joanna Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of growing media and concentration of nutrient solution on growth, flowering, evapotranspiration and macroelement content of media and leaves of Tymophylla tenuiloba were evaluated under ebb-and-flow conditions. Two media: peat and peat + perlite (3:l, v/v, and four concentrations of nutrient solution: 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 mS cm-1 were applied. High quality plants were produced in both media and all concentration of nutrient solution. The lowest evapotranspiration was measured at the highest concentration of nutrient solution. N concentration of leaves was high in all treatments. Concentrations of K, Ca, and Mg decreased with increasing concentration of nutrient solution. Opposite was found for P. At the end of cultivation the lowest pH was measured in the upper layer of growing media. The highest total soluble salt level was measured in the upper layers. Upper layers accumulated more N-NO3, P, Ca, and Mg. Mineral element content of both media was high in all concentrations of nutrient solution. Low concentration of nutrient solution at 1.0 mS cm-1 is recommended, although -1Tymophylla tenuiloba-1 can be also cultivated at higher concentrations of nutrient solution up to 2.5mS cm-1, if placed on the same bench with other bedding plants requiring more nutrients.

  4. Tomato root growth and phosphorus absorption kinetics by tomato plants as affected by phosphorus concentration in nutrient solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, P.C.R.; Barber, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the effects P concentrations in nutrient solution on root growth and on root physiological characteristics involved in P uptake by tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill plants, six seedlings were grown in nutrient solution at initial concentrations of 48.5, 97, 194 and 388 μMP until one day before harvest. They were then transferred to solutions with P at 20 μM and 30 μM, and the depletion curves and Michaelis-Menten parameters were determined. The conclusions were that as P supply increased and as the plant P contents are sufficient for maximum growth, the rate of P uptake tends to be lower. The results also indicate that total P uptake by tomato seedlings depends on the amount of root surface area exposed to P. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. Influence of drainage and nutrient-solution nitrogen and potassium concentrations on the agronomic behavior of bell-pepper plants cultivated in a substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamser, Anderson Fernando; Cecilio Filho, Arthur Bernardes; Nowaki, Rodrigo Hiyoshi Dalmazzo; Mendoza-Cortez, Juan Waldir; Urrestarazu, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The interactive effects of N (6, 9, 12 and 15 mmol L-1) and K (3, 5, 7, and 9 mmol L-1) concentrations in nutrient solutions were evaluated on bell pepper grown in a coconut-coir substrate and fertilized without drainage. An additional treatment with drainage was evaluated using N and K concentrations of 12 and 7 mmol L-1, respectively. The hybrid Eppo cultivar of yellow bell pepper was cultivated for 252 days beginning 9 November 2012. Electrical conductivity (EC), the N and K concentrations in the substrate solution, marketable fruit yield, total dry weight and macronutrient concentrations in shoots were periodically evaluated. Fruit production was lower in the system without drainage, regardless of the N and K concentrations, compared to the recommended 10-20% drainage of the volume of nutrient solution applied. Higher K concentrations in the nutrient solution did not affect plant production in the system without drainage for the substrate with an initial K concentration of 331.3 mg L-1. Fruit yield was higher without drainage at a nutrient-solution N concentration of 10.7 mmol L-1. The upper EC limit of the substrate solution in the system without drainage was exceeded 181 days after planting. Either lower nutrient concentrations in the nutrient solution or a drainage system could thus control the EC in the substrate solution.

  6. Effect of phosphorus concentration of the nutrient solution on the volatile constituents of leaves and bracts of Origanum dictamnus.

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    Economakis, C; Skaltsa, Helen; Demetzos, Costas; Soković, M; Thanos, Costas A

    2002-10-23

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the leaves and bracts of hydroponically cultivated Origanum dictamnus were analyzed by GC-MS techniques. Three different concentrations of phosphorus (5, 30, and 60 mg/L) in the nutrient solution were used for the cultivation, using the nutrient film technique (NFT). A total of 46 different compounds were identified and significant differences (qualitative and quantitative) were observed between the samples. Carvacrol and p-cymene were identified as the main compounds in all samples analyzed, whereas thymoquinone was found in higher percentage in the leaves than in bracts. The essential oils were tested for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The oils obtained from the bracts were found to be more active. The results obtained from GC-MS analyses were submitted to chemometric analysis.

  7. Gamma radiation and osmotic potential of the nutrient solution differentially affect macronutrient concentrations, pH and EC in chilhuacle pepper fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor Garcia-Gaytan, Libia Iris Trejo-Tellez; Olga Tejeda-Sartorius; Maribel Ramirez-Martinez; Julian Delgadillo-Martinez; Fernando Carlos Gomez-Merino; Soledad Garcia-Morales

    2018-01-01

    Chilhuacle pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds were exposed to gamma radiation (GR) doses (0, 10, 80 and 120 Gy), and plants were grown in hydroponics with different osmotic potentials (OP) (- 0.036, - 0.072, - 0.092, and - 0.108 MPa) in the nutrient solution. We measured the nutrient concentrations, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) in fruits at different time points after transplanting (70, 90 and 130 dat), and found the GR, nutrient solution OP and their interactions differentially affected N, P, K, Ca, and Mg concentrations, as well as pH and EC in chilhuacle peppers. (author)

  8. Effect of Nitrogen Form and pH of Nutrient Solution on the Shoot Concentration of Phosphorus, Nitrate, and Nitrogen of Spinach in Hydroponic Culture

    OpenAIRE

    N. Najafi; M. Parsazadeh

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the effect of nitrogen form and pH of nutrient solution on the shoot concentration of P, nitrate, organic N + inorganic ammonium, and total N of spinach, a factorial experiment was conducted with two factors including pH of nutrient solution in three levels (4.5, 6.5 and 8.0) and nitrate to ammonium ratio of nutrient solution in five levels (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100). This factorial experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with four replicatio...

  9. Effect of increasing concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, or zinc on lettuce grown in nutrient solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroughi, M.; Hoffmann, G.; Teicher, K.; Venter, F.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine concentrations at which excess symptoms could be expected, which kind of damage symptoms appear and in which amount the heavy metals are enriched in roots and leaves. The following results were revealed. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L.) can tolerate amounts of Cd below 1 ppm, of Ni below 2 ppm and of Pb below 20 ppm in the nutrient solution without any symptoms of excess. The growth of lettuce was mostly influenced by Cd, least of all by Pb. Only Ni caused specific poisoning symptoms. Heavy metals were enriched in different amounts in roots and leaves. The contents of Cd and Ni were more than twice as high as those of Pb. The heavy metals influenced the uptake and distribution of macro-elements more (nitrogen) or less (potassium) vigorously.

  10. The Effect of Potassium Concentration in Nutrient Solution on Lycopene, Vitamin C and Qualitative Characteristics of Cherry Tomato in Saline Conditions

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    E. Shabani Sangtarashani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K has a special place in improving the quality of agricultural products. To evaluate the effect of K concentration in nutrient solution on lycopene content, vitamin C and qualitative characteristics of cherry tomato in NaCl salinity conditions, an experiment was carried out as a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications at university of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran, in 2010. Treatments consisted of four concentrations of K (0.2, 2, 7 and 14 mM in nutrient solution with 60 mM NaCl concentration. A nutrient solution treatment without salinity was considered as control. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse, in a hydroponic system. The results indicated that increasing of K concentration increased lycopene content in fruit. Lycopene content in control treatment showed significant difference (P<0.01 in comparison with salinity treatments. With increasing the K concentration (except at 14 mM concentration, vitamin C content was increased, but indicated no statistically significant difference. Vitamin C content in saline conditions was more than control treatment, but showed no significant difference. Adding potassium concentration in nutrient solution improved yield and enhanced quality parameters such as percentage of dry matter, soluble solids and electrical conductivity of fruit extract. Since in saline conditions, the qualitative characteristics of tomato at 7 mM concentration were in the best situation, therefore using this concentration is recommended.

  11. New Culture Medium Containing Ionic Concentrations of Nutrients Similar to Concentrations Found in the Soil Solution

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    Angle, J. Scott; McGrath, Stephen P.; Chaney, Rufus L.

    1991-01-01

    A new growth medium which closely approximates the composition of the soil solution is presented. This soil solution equivalent (SSE) medium contains the following components (millimolar): NO3, 2.5; NH4, 2.5; HPO4, 0.005; Na, 2.5; Ca, 4.0; Mg, 2.0; K, 0.503; Cl, 4.0; SO4, 5.0; ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid), 0.02; and MES [2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid] (to maintain the pH at 6.0), 10, plus 0.1% arabinose. The advantages of the SSE medium are discussed. PMID:16348614

  12. Heavy metal toxicities in vegetable crops. VI. The effect of potassium and calcium concentration in the nutrient solution on manganese toxicities in vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, T; Ikeda, H

    1977-01-01

    Eight species of vegetable crops were grown in solution culture in order to investigate the effect of potassium and calcium concentration in the nutrient solution on manganese toxicities in vegetable crops. Manganese was supplied at levels of 0.5, 30, and 100 ppm. At each manganese level potassium or calcium was supplied at rates of 2, 6, and 18 me/l. The pH of the nutrient solution was adjusted to 5. Manganese excess induced interveinal chlorosis on upper leaves in bean, eggplant, pepper, and spinach, and marginal chlorosis on lower leaves in cabbage, lettuce, and celery. In Welsh onions chlorosis was induced on lower leaves. Increasing the supply of potassium and calcium reduced the severity of manganese-induced chlorosis. This beneficial effect was generally more marked with calcium than with potassium. Increasing the supply of potassium and calcium was effective in alleviating the growth reduction of vegetable crops due to manganese excess. This effect also was more marked with calcium than with potassium. With increasing manganese level in the nutrient solution the manganese concentration in leaves of vegetable crops increased. Increasing the supply of potassium and calcium inhibited excessive accumulation of manganese in leaves. The influence of calcium was stronger than that of potassium. In any of the vegetable crops tested, regardless of potassium and calcium treatments, manganese concentration in leaves was closely related to manganese toxicities; the more the accumulation of manganese in leaves increased, the more the severity of manganese-induced chlorosis and growth reduction increased.

  13. Effect of Nutrient Solution Concentration, Time and Frequency of Foliar Application on Growth of Leaf and Daughter Corms of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    R Khorasani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different levels of nutrient solution concentration and times and frequencies of foliar applications on dry weight, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of leaf and corm of saffron, a pot experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications under open door conditions in research garden of ferdowsi university, faculty of agriculture. The experimental treatments were included 4 levels of solution concentration (0, 4, 8 and 12 per 1000 and 7 levels of time and frequency of foliar applications (F1: foliar application on 3th February, F2: foliar application on 18th February, F3: foliar application on 5th March, F4: foliar applications on 3th and 18th February, F5: foliar applications on 3th February and 5th March, F6: foliar applications on 18th February and 5th March, F7: foliar applications on 3th and 18th February and 5th March. Results of variance analysis showed that fresh and dry weight of corm and leaf were not influenced by concentration, time and frequency of foliar applications. Also, comparison of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of leaf and corm showed that there was no significant difference between levels of foliar treatments and control. Therefore, it seems that due attention to pattern of leaf and low nutrient demand of saffron, foliar applications in different levels of nutrient solution concentrations and times and frequencies of foliar applications could not increase vegetative growth and consequently, could not improve the growth and nutritional properties of saffron corms.

  14. Concentration of nutrient solution in the hydroponic production of potato minitubers Concentração da solução nutritiva na produção hidropônica de minitubérculos de batata

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    Manuel Benito Novella

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the nutrient solution concentration on potato plant growth and minituber yield were determined in a sand closed hydroponic system. Minitubers and micropropagated plantlets of the cv. 'Macaca' were used. Treatments were five nutrient solution concentrations at electrical conductivities (EC of 1.0 (T1, 2.2 (T2, 3.4 (T3, 4.7 (T4 and 5.8dS m-1 (T5. The split plot randomised experimental design was used with three replications. Plants from minitubers produced higher fresh and mean weight of minitubers, shoot dry mass and leaf area index than the micropropagated ones. However, higher dry mass of minitubers was found with micropropagated plantlets compared to minitubers. The concentration of the nutrient solution did not affect minituber number. Increasing the nutrient solution concentration decreased total and minituber dry mass production of micropropagated plantlets and plant growth and minituber production of minituber-originated plants. Low concentration of nutrient solution at an EC of about 1.0dS m-1 can be used in the hydroponic production of potato minitubers of both micropropagated and minituber-originated plants.Neste trabalho foi determinado o efeito da concentração da solução nutritiva no crescimento e na produtividade de minitubérculos de batata em um sistema hidropônico fechado empregando areia como substrato. Plântulas micropropagadas e minitubérculos foram plantados em 24 de março de 2004. Os tratamentos foram cinco soluções nutritivas com condutividades elétricas (CE de 1,0 (T1, 2,2 (T2, 3,4 (T3, 4,7 (T4 e 5,8dS m-1 (T5. O experimento foi conduzido em parcelas subdivididas no delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Plantas originadas de minitubérculos produziram mais massa fresca total e média de minitubérculos, massa seca da parte aérea e maior índice de área foliar que plantas micropropagadas. Entretanto, maior massa seca dos minitubérculos foi obtida em plantas micropropagadas

  15. Effect of organic substrates on available elemental contents in nutrient solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ao, Y.S.; Sun, M.; Li, Y.Q. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China). School for Agriculture & Biology

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, the changes of available elemental contents in the nutrient solution extracts of organic substrates (peat moss, charred rice husk, chicken manure, sawdust, turfgrass clipping and weathered coal) were studied and compared with that in the water extracts. Results showed that available elemental contents in the nutrient solution extracts are significantly different between organic substrates, whereas ionic concentrations are basically under steady condition after treatment for 36-108 h. Ionic contents in the nutrient solution extracts are not equal to the value of adding ionic concentrations in the supplied nutrient solution to that in the water extract. Thus, a mathematical model was proposed for adjusting the composition of supplied nutrient solution to match plant requirements in the organic soilless culture system.

  16. Response of non-added solutes during nutrient addition experiments in streams

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    Rodriguez-Cardona, B.; Wymore, A.; Koenig, L.; Coble, A. A.; McDowell, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient addition experiments, such as Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC), have become widely popular as a means to study nutrient uptake dynamics in stream ecosystems. However, the impact of these additions on ambient concentrations of non-added solutes is often overlooked. TASCC addition experiments are ideal for assessing interactions among solutes because it allows for the characterization of multiple solute concentrations across a broad range of added nutrient concentrations. TASCC additions also require the addition of a conservative tracer (NaCl) to track changes in conductivity during the experimental manipulation. Despite its use as a conservative tracer, chloride (Cl) and its associated sodium (Na) might change the concentrations of other ions and non-added nutrients through ion exchange or other processes. Similarly, additions of biologically active solutes might change the concentrations of other non-added solutes. These methodological issues in nutrient addition experiments have been poorly addressed in the literature. Here we examine the response of non-added solutes to pulse additions (i.e. TASCC) of NaCl plus nitrate (NO3-), ammonium, and phosphate across biomes including temperate and tropical forests, and arctic taiga. Preliminary results demonstrate that non-added solutes respond to changes in the concentration of these added nutrients. For example, concentrations of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in suburban headwater streams of New Hampshire both increase and decrease in response to NO3- additions, apparently due to biotic processes. Similarly, cations such as potassium, magnesium, and calcium also increase during TASCC experiments, likely due to cation exchange processes associated with Na addition. The response of non-added solutes to short-term pulses of added nutrients and tracers needs to be carefully assessed to ensure that nutrient uptake metrics are accurate, and to detect biotic interactions that may

  17. Doses de N e K no tomateiro sob estresse salino: I. Concentração de nutrientes no solo e na planta Doses of N and K in tomato under saline stress: I. Concentration of nutrients in the soil solution and plant

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    Flávio F. Blanco

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Em geral, culturas tolerantes à salinidade geralmente apresentam maiores teores foliares de certos nutrientes, sugerindo que a adubação em culturas sensíveis poderia elevar os teores desses nutrientes nas folhas, aumentando sua tolerância aos sais. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar os efeitos do N e do K na condutividade elétrica, pH e concentração de nutrientes da solução do solo e nos teores de nutrientes e prolina nas folhas do tomateiro irrigado com água salina. Os tratamentos foram compostos da combinação de três níveis de N (7,5; 15,0 e 22,5 g por planta e de K (8, 16 e 24 gK2O por planta aplicados via fertirrigação por gotejamento, no esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com cinco repetições, sendo que à água de irrigação foram adicionados os sais cloreto de sódio e cloreto de cálcio, para obtenção de condutividade elétrica da água de 9,5 dS m-1. As concentrações de NO3 e K na solução do solo e de N e K nas folhas do tomateiro aumentaram com as doses de N e K mas não promoveram redução dos teores de Cl nem de Na nas folhas das plantas. O aumento do teor de prolina com as doses de K e a redução de Cl/N com as doses de N, sugerem que o aumento na adubação potássica e nitrogenada pode ser benéfico para o tomateiro sob condições de salinidade moderada.Crops tolerant to salinity generally present higher concentrations of some nutrients in the leaves, suggesting that the fertilization of sensitive crops could increase the contents of these nutrients in the leaves to increase the crop tolerance to salts. This work had the objective of studying the effects of N and K on electrical conductivity, pH and nutrient concentrations of soil solution and on concentration of nutrients and proline in the leaves of tomatos irrigated with saline water. The treatments were composed of the combination of three levels of N (7.5, 15.0 and 22.5 g per plant and K (8, 16 and 24 g K2O per plant applied by drip fertigation, in a 3

  18. Growth and yield of summer squash: effect of the ionic concentration of nutrient solutionCrescimento e produtividade da abobrinha italiana: efeito da concentração iônica da solução nutritiva

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    Tiago Zanatta Aumonde

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating the effect of different ionic concentrations of the nutrient solution on growth of summer squash cultivated in raw rice husk substrate with leaching recirculation, two experiments were conducted in two crop-seasons: spring-summer of 2005 and summer-autumn of 2006, in Pelotas, RS. Four ionic concentrations of the nutrient solution (based on electrical conductivity - EC were studied: 1.3; 1.7; 2.1 and 4.2 dS m-1. Crop growth was determinated by accumulated dry mass production and partitioning among the different above-ground plant organs (leafs, stem and fruits at the end of the crop-seasons. Fruit yield was also evaluated. The obtained results indicate that ionic concentrations equal or lower than 1.7 dS m-1 were limiting for proper growth and yield of the crop. The effect of high ionic concentration of the nutrient solution (above 2.1 dS m-1 on dry mass production and partitioning varied according to the crop-season. The lower solar radiation availability of the summer-autumn crop season minimized the effects of the different concentrations of nutrient solution on dry mass production and partitioning to the fruits, as well as on the yield. The fruits comprised from 28 to 52% of the total above-ground dry mass production. Fruits represented the largest sink of assimilates of the plant only at 2.1 dS m-1 ionic concentration of the nutrient solution and in crescent solar radiation availability condition (spring-summer. According the mathematics models, the electrical conductivity that maximizes dry mass production and yield is approximately 3.0 dS m-1 for both crop-seasons.Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações iônicas da solução nutritiva sobre o crescimento e a produtividade da abobrinha italiana cultivada em substrato de casca de arroz in natura com recirculação dos lixiviados, foram realizados dois experimentos em duas épocas de cultivo: primavera-verão de 2005 e verão-outono de

  19. Biofortification of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with iodine: the effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce grown in water culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, Wim; Holwerda, Harmen T; Khodabaks, Rashied

    2010-04-15

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Two billion individuals have insufficient iodine intake. Biofortification of vegetables with iodine offers an excellent opportunity to increase iodine intake by humans. The main aim was to study the effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce, grown in water culture. In both a winter and summer trial, dose rates of 0, 13, 39, 65, and 90 or 129 microg iodine L(-1), applied as iodate (IO(3)(-)) or iodide (I(-)), did not affect plant biomass, produce quality or water uptake. Increases in iodine concentration significantly enhanced iodine content in the plant. Iodine contents in plant tissue were up to five times higher with I(-) than with IO(3)(-). Iodine was mainly distributed to the outer leaves. The highest iodide dose rates in both trials resulted in 653 and 764 microg iodine kg(-1) total leaf fresh weight. Biofortification of lettuce with iodine is easily applicable in a hydroponic growing system, both with I(-) and IO(3)(-). I(-) was more effective than IO(3)(-). Fifty grams of iodine-biofortified lettuce would provide, respectively, 22% and 25% of the recommended daily allowance of iodine for adolescents and adults. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Swift recovery of Sphagnum nutrient concentrations after excess supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpens, Juul; Heijmans, Monique M P D

    2008-08-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the effects of increased N deposition on nutrient-poor environments such as raised bogs, few studies have dealt with to what extent, and on what time-scale, reductions in atmospheric N supply would lead to recovery of the ecosystems in question. Since a considerable part of the negative effects of elevated N deposition on raised bogs can be related to an imbalance in tissue nutrient concentrations of the dominant peat-former Sphagnum, changes in Sphagnum nutrient concentration after excess N supply may be used as an early indicator of ecosystem response. This study focuses on the N and P concentrations of Sphagnum magellanicum and Sphagnum fallax before, during and after a factorial fertilization experiment with N and P in two small peatlands subject to a background bulk deposition of 2 g N m(-2) year(-1). Three years of adding N (4.0 g N m(-2) year(-1)) increased the N concentration, and adding P (0.3 g P m(-2) year(-1)) increased the P concentration in Sphagnum relative to the control treatment at both sites. Fifteen months after the nutrient additions had ceased, N concentrations were similar to the control whereas P concentrations, although strongly reduced, were still slightly elevated. The changes in the N and P concentrations were accompanied by changes in the distribution of nutrients over the capitulum and the stem and were congruent with changes in translocation. Adding N reduced the stem P concentration, whereas adding P reduced the stem N concentration in favor of the capitulum. Sphagnum nutrient concentrations quickly respond to reductions in excess nutrient supply, indicating that a management policy aimed at reducing atmospheric nutrient input to bogs can yield results within a few years.

  1. Produtividade e qualidade de frutos de meloeiro cultivado em substrato com três doses de solução nutritiva Yield and quality of muskmelon fruits grown in substrate under three concentrations of the nutrient solution

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    Jerônimo Luiz Andriolo

    2005-08-01

    .0 K+ ; 5.01 Ca++ ; 2.25 Mg++ ; 2.25 SO4-, with added micronutrients. For treatments T1 and T3, quantities of fertilizers from T2 were multiplied by a factor of 0.5 and 2, respectively. LAI values at the ending date were 1.99; 2.22 and 2.28 m² m-2 for T1, T2 and T3, respectively, T1 differing significantly from T2 and T3. Fruit yield reached 56.2; 65.0 and 65.9 Mg++ ha-1, for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Maximum fruit yield was estimated by a nutrient concentration of 44.1 mmol L-1, corresponding to the following composition of the nutrient solution, in mmol L-1: 19.5 of NO3-; 1.35 of H2PO4-; 9.0 of K+; 7.51 of Ca++; 3.37 of Mg++; 3.37 of SO4-, and in mumol L-1: 50.25 of Fe; 22.5 of Mn; 3.45 of Zn; 1.5 of Cu; 22.5 of B e 0.78 of Mo. Similar results were observed for fruit quality variables.

  2. Characterization of nutrient deficiency in Hancornia speciosa Gomes seedlings by omitting micronutrients from the nutrient solution

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    Layara Alexandre Bessa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangaba tree is a fruit tree belonging to the Apocynaceae family and is native to Brazil. The production of seedlings of this species is limited by a lack of technical and nutritional expertise. To address this deficiency, this study aimed to characterize the visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiency and to assess growth and leaf nutrient accumulation in H. speciosa seedlings supplied with nutrient solutions that lack individual micronutrients. H. speciosa plants were grown in nutrient solution in a greenhouse according to a randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of a group receiving complete nutrient solution and groups treated with a nutrient solution lacking one of the following micronutrients: boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, and molybdenum (Mo. The visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency were generally easy to characterize. Dry matter production was affected by the omission of micronutrients, and the treatment lacking Fe most limited the stem length, stem diameter, root length, and number of leaves in H. speciosa seedlings as well as the dry weight of leaves, the total dry weight, and the relative growth in H. speciosa plants. The micronutrient contents of H. speciosa leaves from plants receiving the complete nutrient solution treatment were, in decreasing order, Fe>Mn>Cu>Zn>B.

  3. Production of gherkin seedlings in coconut fiber fertirrigated with different nutrient solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seedling quality is a key factor to achieve success in vegetable production. The present work aimed to evaluate the production of gherkin seedlings in substrate of coconut fiber fertirrigated with different concentrations of nutrients. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3 × 5 factorial with four replications. The treatments consisted of combinations of three cultivars of gherkin (Do Norte, Liso de Calcutá, e Liso Gibão with five concentrations of nutrients in the solution (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%. The nutrient solution, considered standard, matches the recommended solution for melon in hydroponic systems. We evaluated the variables: chlorophyll index, shoot length, number of leaves, stem diameter, main root length, dry weight of leaves, roots, and stem, mass of total dry matter, leaf area, specific leaf area, and leaf area ratio. All variables were affected by the ionic concentration in nutrient solutions. The use of coconut fiber in the production of gherkin seedlings is more efficient with nutrient solutions in concentrations ranging from 75 to 100% of the recommended solution for melon cultivation.

  4. Interactions between nitrate and chloride in nutrient solutions for substrate grown tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Sonneveld, C.

    2004-01-01

    In two successive experiments tomato was grown at different Cl and NO3 concentrations in the root environment with rockwool as a sub-strate. The EC value in the nutrient solution was fairly constant, varying between 3.5 and 4.0 dS m-1 in all treatments. The NO3 concentrations in the treatments

  5. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nutrient concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nutrient concentrations in plantain ( Musa spp.) ... Fruit parameters measured were fruit weight, edible proportion and pulp dry matter content; also, the concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in fruits were determined.

  6. Lake nutrient stoichiometry is less predictable than nutrient concentrations at regional and sub-continental scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah M; Oliver, Samantha K; Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Stanley, Emily H; Jones, John R; Wagner, Tyler; Soranno, Patricia A

    2017-07-01

    Production in many ecosystems is co-limited by multiple elements. While a known suite of drivers associated with nutrient sources, nutrient transport, and internal processing controls concentrations of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in lakes, much less is known about whether the drivers of single nutrient concentrations can also explain spatial or temporal variation in lake N:P stoichiometry. Predicting stoichiometry might be more complex than predicting concentrations of individual elements because some drivers have similar relationships with N and P, leading to a weak relationship with their ratio. Further, the dominant controls on elemental concentrations likely vary across regions, resulting in context dependent relationships between drivers, lake nutrients and their ratios. Here, we examine whether known drivers of N and P concentrations can explain variation in N:P stoichiometry, and whether explaining variation in stoichiometry differs across regions. We examined drivers of N:P in ~2,700 lakes at a sub-continental scale and two large regions nested within the sub-continental study area that have contrasting ecological context, including differences in the dominant type of land cover (agriculture vs. forest). At the sub-continental scale, lake nutrient concentrations were correlated with nutrient loading and lake internal processing, but stoichiometry was only weakly correlated to drivers of lake nutrients. At the regional scale, drivers that explained variation in nutrients and stoichiometry differed between regions. In the Midwestern U.S. region, dominated by agricultural land use, lake depth and the percentage of row crop agriculture were strong predictors of stoichiometry because only phosphorus was related to lake depth and only nitrogen was related to the percentage of row crop agriculture. In contrast, all drivers were related to N and P in similar ways in the Northeastern U.S. region, leading to weak relationships between drivers and stoichiometry

  7. Nutrient uptake dynamics across a gradient of nutrient concentrations and ratios at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Catherine A.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Conine, Andrea L.; Lipshutz, Sondra M.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding interactions between nutrient cycles is essential for recognizing and remediating human impacts on water quality, yet multielemental approaches to studying nutrient cycling in streams are currently rare. Here we utilized a relatively new approach (tracer additions for spiraling curve characterization) to examine uptake dynamics for three essential nutrients across a landscape that varied in absolute and relative nutrient availability. We measured nutrient uptake for soluble reactive phosphorous, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen in 16 headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains, New York. Across the landscape, ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus had shorter uptake lengths and higher uptake velocities than nitrate-nitrogen. Ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus uptake velocities were tightly correlated, and the slope of the relationship did not differ from one, suggesting strong demand for both nutrients despite the high ambient water column dissolved inorganic nitrogen: soluble reactive phosphorus ratios. Ammonium-nitrogen appeared to be the preferred form of nitrogen despite much higher nitrate-nitrogen concentrations. The uptake rate of nitrate-nitrogen was positively correlated with ambient soluble reactive phosphorus concentration and soluble reactive phosphorus areal uptake rate, suggesting that higher soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations alleviate phosphorus limitation and facilitate nitrate-nitrogen uptake. In addition, these streams retained a large proportion of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen supplied by the watershed, demonstrating that these streams are important landscape filters for nutrients. Together, these results (1) indicated phosphorus limitation across the landscape but similarly high demand for ammonium-nitrogen and (2) suggested that nitrate-nitrogen uptake was influenced by variability in soluble reactive phosphorus availability and preference for

  8. Nutrient Infiltrate Concentrations from Three Permeable Pavement Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types have on nutrient concentrations present in stormwater runoff are limited. In 2009, the U.S. EPA constructed a 0.4-ha...

  9. A targeted management of the nutrient solution in a soilless tomato crop according to plant needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo eSignore

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of closed soilless systems is useful in minimizing the environmental impact of the greenhouse crops. Instead, a significant problem in closed soilless systems is represented by the accumulation of ions in the recycled nutrient solution, in particular the unabsorbed or poorly absorbed ones. To overcome such problem, we: 1 studied the effect of several values of the electrical conductivity (EC of nutrient solution in a NFT (Nutrient Film Technique system on a cherry type tomato crop, and 2 define a NS (called recovery solution, based on the concept of uptake concentration and transpiration-biomass ratio, that fits the real needs of the plant with respect to water and nutrients. Three levels of EC set point (SP, above which the NS was completely replaced (SP5, SP7.5, and SP10 for the EC limit of 5, 7.5 and 10 dS m-1, respectively, were established. The SP10 treatment yield was not different from other treatments, and it allowed a better quality of the berries (for dry matter and total soluble solids and higher environmental sustainability due to a lower discharge of total nutrients into the environment (37 and 59% with respect to SP7.5 and SP5, respectively.The recovery solution used in the second trial allowed a more punctual NS management, by adapting to the real needs of the crop. Moreover, it allowed a lesser amount of water and nutrients to be discharged into the environment and a better use of brackish water, due to a more accurate management of the EC of the NS. The targeted management, based on transpiration-biomass ratio, indicates that, in some stages of the plant cycle, the nutrient solution used can be diluted, in order to save water and nutrients. With such management a closed cycle can be realized without affecting the yield, but improving the quality of the tomato berries.

  10. Sudden increase in atmospheric concentration reveals strong coupling between shoot carbon uptake and root nutrient uptake in young walnut trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaire, M.; Sigogne, M.; Beaujard, F.; Frak, E.; Adam, B.; Le Roux, X.

    2005-01-01

    Short-term effects of a sudden increase in carbon dioxide concentration on nutrient uptake by roots during vegetative growth was studied in young walnut trees. Rates of carbon dioxide uptake and water loss by individual trees were determined by a branch bag method from three days before and six days after carbon dioxide concentration was increased. Nutrient uptake rates were measured concurrently by a hydroponic recirculating nutrient solution system. Carbon dioxide uptake rates increased greatly with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide; nutrient uptake rates were proportional to carbon dioxide uptake rates, except for the phosphorus ion. Daily water loss rates were only slightly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Overall, it was concluded that in the presence of non-limiting supplies of water and nutrients, root nutrient uptake and shoot carbon assimilation are strongly coupled in the short term in young walnut trees despite the important carbon and nutrient storage capacities od woody species. 45 refs., 7 figs

  11. NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION AND RETRANSLOCATION IN THE Pinus taeda L. NEEDLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at evaluating nutrients concentration and retranslocation in the Pinus taeda L. needles, this study was developed in two stands, in native grass area and in second rotation area, with same species and same age (7.5 years old in Cambará do Sul, RS. The needles were collected in plants in four orthogonal points (South, North, East and West, sampled new needles, mature needles and old needles. The material was dried in a stove, milled and chemically analyzed (macro and micronutrients. The concentrations of N, P, K, B, Cu and Zn had decreased, of Ca, Fe and Mn increased, and the Mg and S have remained constant with the age of the needles. The retranslocation rate (old-new needles was more than 50% for most nutrients, except for Mn and Fe, showed that cumulative effect and the Ca reference element.

  12. Detecting terrestrial nutrient limitation: a global meta-analysis of foliar nutrient concentrations after fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eOstertag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Examining foliar nutrient concentrations after fertilization provides an alternative method for detecting nutrient limitation of ecosystems, which is logistically simpler to measure than biomass change. We present a meta-analysis of response ratios of foliar nitrogen and phosphorus (RRN, RRP after addition of fertilizer of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, or the two elements in combination, in relation to climate, ecosystem type, life form, family, and methodological factors. Results support other meta-analyses using biomass, and demonstrate there is strong evidence for nutrient limitation in natural communities. However, because N fertilization experiments greatly outnumber P fertilization trials, it is difficult to discern the absolute importance of N vs. P vs. co-limitation across ecosystems. Despite these caveats, it is striking that results did not follow conventional wisdom that temperate ecosystems are N-limited and tropical ones are P-limited. In addition, the use of ratios of N-to-P rather than response ratios also are a useful index of nutrient limitation, but due to large overlap in values, there are unlikely to be universal cutoff values for delimiting N vs. P limitation. Differences in RRN and RRP were most significant across ecosystem types, plant families, life forms, and between competitive environments, but not across climatic variables.

  13. Influence of lead on atrazine uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings from nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Hong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2005-01-01

    Atrazine is a widely used herbicide, and its persistence in soil and water causes environmental concerns. In the past, plant uptake processes are mainly investigated for single contaminants. However, in many cases, contaminants co-exist in environmental matrix, such as soil, and plant uptake of one contaminant may be influenced by its co-existing ones. The uptake of atrazine by rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) from nutrient solution through the roots was investigated in a solution culture, over an exposure period of 4 weeks. Atrazine accumulation in plant tissues was determined by gas chromatography, and lead was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. With different ratios of atrazine and Pb2+ concentrations in solution, the observed atrazine concentrations in shoots and roots varied significantly. In atrazine-Pb2+ mixture systems, the added Pb2+ either increased or decreased the concentrations or BCFs of atrazine in seedlings (relative to those without Pb2+), depending on the atrazine-Pb2+ ratio in nutrient solution. The enhanced atrazine uptake results presumably from atrazine-Pb2+ complex formation. The reduced atrazine uptake, which occurred mainly at high atrazine concentrations, is attributed to atrazine toxicity that inhibited seedling growth and transpiration. The formation of atrazine-Pb2+ complex both in the solution and within plant tissues may affect the accumulation of both contaminants by rice plants.

  14. Excess nutrients in hydroponic solutions alter nutrient content of rice, wheat, and potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Mitchell, C. A.; Wheeler, R. M.; Bugbee, B.; Nielsen, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    Environment has significant effects on the nutrient content of field-grown crop plants. Little is known, however, about compositional changes caused by controlled environments in which plants receive only artificial radiation and soilless, hydroponic culture. This knowledge is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Three crops that are candidates for inclusion in a CELSS (rice, wheat, and white potato) were grown both in the field and in controlled environments where the hydroponic nutrient solution, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and CO2 level were manipulated to achieve rapid growth rates. Plants were harvested at maturity, separated into discrete parts, and dried prior to analysis. Plant materials were analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate, minerals, and amino-acid composition. The effect of environment on nutrient content varied by crop and plant part. Total N and nonprotein N (NPN) contents of plant biomass generally increased under controlled-environment conditions compared to field conditions, especially for leafy plant parts and roots. Nitrate levels were increased in hydroponically-grown vegetative tissues, but nitrate was excluded from grains and tubers. Mineral content changes in plant tissue included increased phosphorus and decreased levels of certain micronutrient elements under controlled-environment conditions. These findings suggest that cultivar selection, genetic manipulation, and environmental control could be important to obtain highly nutritious biomass in a CELSS.

  15. Sterilization of Fusarium oxysporum by treatment of non-thermalequilibrium plasma in nutrient solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Shinji; Seki, Satoshi; Yoshida, Ryohei; Shoji, Kazuhiro; Terazoe, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of spinach due to F. oxysporum infection is one of the most destructive root diseases in hydroponics in factories using the nutrient film technique. We investigated new technologies for the sterilization of microconidia of F. oxysporum by using a non-thermalequilibrium plasma treatment method in nutrient solution. Specifically, we investigated the sterilization capabilities of five types of gas (air, O2, N2, He, and Ar) used for plasma generation. The highest sterilization capability was achieved by using O2 plasma. However, ozone, which causes growth inhibition, was then generated and released into the atmosphere. The sterilization capability was lower when N2 or air plasma was used in the nutrient solution. It was confirmed that sterilization can be achieved by plasma treatment using inert gases that do not generate ozone; therefore, we determined that Ar plasma is the most preferable. In addition, we investigated the sterilization capabilities of other factors associated with Ar plasma generation, without direct plasma treatment. However, none of these other factors, which included Ar bubbling, pH reduction, increased temperature, hydrogen peroxide concentration, and UV radiation, could completely reproduce the results of direct plasma treatment. We assume that radicals such as O or OH may contribute significantly to the sterilization of microconidia of F. oxysporum in a nutrient solution.

  16. Tolerance of physic nut plants to aluminum activity in nutrient solution

    OpenAIRE

    Lana, Maria do Carmo; Steiner, Fábio [UNESP; Zoz, Tiago [UNESP; Fey, Rubens; Frandoloso, Jucenei Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Plants have different levels of tolerance to phytotoxic effects of aluminum and the exploitation of this characteristic is of significant importance to the use of acid soils. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of aluminum activity in nutrient solution on growth of physic nut young plant. After seven days of adaptation, plants were submitted to Al concentrations of 0; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1,000 μmol L-1, corresponding to Al3+ activity solution, of: 14.5, 21.4; 46.6; 75.6; 108.3 e 144...

  17. Cerium enhances germination and shoot growth, and alters mineral nutrient concentration in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Soledad; Pérez-Sato, Juan Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Cerium (Ce) belongs to the rare earth elements (REEs), and although it is not essential for plants, it can stimulate growth and other physiological processes. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of Ce on seed germination, initial seedling growth, and vegetative growth in rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. Morelos A-98. During the germination process, the seeds were treated with Ce concentrations of 0, 4, 8, and 12 μM; after 5 d, germination percentage was recorded and after 10 d seedling growth was measured. For vegetative growth, a hydroponic system was established where 14-d-old plants without previous Ce treatment were transferred into nutrient solution. After two weeks of acclimatizing, 0, 25, 50, and 100 μM Ce were added to the nutrient solution for 28 d. Ce significantly increased germination and the initial growth variables of the seedlings. During vegetative growth, Ce increased plant height, number of tillers, root volume, and shoot fresh and dry biomass, without affecting root biomass weight. With low Ce concentrations (25 and 50 μM), the concentrations of chlorophylls and amino acids in the shoots were similar to those in the control, like amino acid concentration in the roots at a concentration of 25 μM Ce. Conversely, the concentration of total sugars increased in the shoot with the application of 25, 50, and 100 μM Ce, and in the roots with the application of 50 μM Ce. Also, Ce did not affect the concentration of macro or micronutrients in the shoots. However, in the roots, the high Ce concentration decreased the concentrations of Ca, Fe, Mn, and Zn, while the Mg concentration increased. Our results indicate that Ce, at the right concentrations, can function as a biostimulant in rice germination and growth. PMID:29579100

  18. Limiting nutrient emission from a cut rose closed system by high-flux irrigation and low nutrient concentrations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, R.; Berg, van der D.

    2004-01-01

    A two-year project was aimed at decreasing nutrient emission from closed nutrient systems by using high irrigation rates in order to allow lower EC levels in the presence of accumulated Na and Cl. Experimental variables were growing media, irrigation frequencies, EC and NaCl concentrations for cut

  19. Experimental analysis of an effect of the nutrient type and its concentration on the rheological properties of the baker’s yeast suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major-Godlewska Marta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study presented was to experimentally analyze an effect of the nutrient type and its concentration on the variability of rheological properties of the baker’s yeast suspensions for different time periods. Aqueous suspensions of the baker’s yeast of various concentration (solution I, without nutrient and yeasts suspended in aqueous solution of sucrose or honey as nutrients with different concentration (solution II or solution III were tested. Experiments were carried out using rotational rheoviscometer of type RT10 by a company HAAKE. The measurements were conducted for different time periods (from 1 h up to 144 h at given fluid temperature. On the basis of the obtained data, rheological characteristics of the aqueous solution of baker’s yeast suspensions without and with nutrients of different sucrose or honey concentration were identified and mathematically described.

  20. Wheat cultivar tolerance to boron deficiency and toxicity in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlani Ângela Maria Cangiani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Field symptoms of open spikelets in wheat were observed in specific cultivars and supposedly related to low B soils and differential B requirement among cultivars. This study aimed to evaluate the response of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, IAC 24, IAC 60, IAC 287 and IAC 289, to increasing B concentrations in nutrient solution. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design, with four replicates and five B concentrations (0.0, 0.05, 0.2, 0.8 and 2.0 mg L-1, during 1997/1998, in a greenhouse. Plants were grown to maturity and evaluated for plant height, spike number and length, open spikelet number, grains per spike, plant parts dry matter, B, P, K, Ca and Mg leaf concentrations and total nutrient contents. The visual symptoms of B deficiency consisted of open spikelets, distorted spikes without grains. 'IAC 60' and 'IAC 287' had higher B efficiency, with the highest grain yields in lower B concentrations. The 'IAC 287' and 'IAC 24' were more tolerant to the highest B concentrations. 'IAC 24' required more B for grain production as compared to the other cultivars. The critical leaf B concentration for deficiency was 25 mg kg-1 of dry matter tissue for all cultivars, and for toxicity were: 44 to 45 mg kg-1 for 'IAC 60' and 'IAC 289'; 228 and 318 mg kg-1 for 'IAC 24' and 'IAC 287', respectively. Except for the highest B level in the nutrient solution, the leaf P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations and whole plant contents were in an adequate range in the plants and did not vary among cultivars.

  1. The Concentration of Nutrients in Tissues of Plantation-Grown Eastern Cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bart.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. G. Shelton; L. E. Nelson; G. L. Switzer; B. G. Blackmon

    1981-01-01

    Nutrient concentrations were determined for 10 tissues from each of 24 cottonwood trees that ranged in age from four to 16 years. Highest concentrations occurred in the most physiologically active tissues; i.e., stemtips, current branches and foliage. Tree age had little influence on the variation in nutrient concentration of tissues. Some differences in concentrations...

  2. Deciphering relationships between in-stream travel times, nutrient concentrations, and uptake through analysis of hysteretic and non-hysteretic kinetic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, T. P.; Bowden, W. B.; Gooseff, M. N.; Wollheim, W. M.; McGlynn, B. L.; Whittinghill, K. A.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Herstand, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between solute travel time, concentration, and nutrient uptake remains a central question in watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry. Theoretical understanding predicts that nutrient uptake should increase as in-stream solute travel time lengthens and/or as concentration increases; however, results from field-based studies have been contradictory. We used a newly developed approach, Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC), to investigate relationships between solute travel time, nutrient concentration, and nutrient uptake across a range of stream types. This approach allows us to quantify in-stream nutrient uptake across a range of travel times and nutrient concentrations using single instantaneous injections (slugs) of conservative and non-conservative tracers. In some systems we observed counter-clockwise hysteresis loops in the relationship between nutrient uptake and concentration. Greater nutrient uptake on the falling limb of tracer breakthrough curves indicates stronger uptake for a given concentration at longer travel times. However, in other systems we did not observe hysteresis in these relationships. Lack of hysteresis indicates that nutrient uptake kinetics were not influenced by travel time travel time. Here we investigate the potential roles of travel time and in-stream flowpaths that could be responsible for hysteretic behavior.

  3. Absorption and nutrient concentration in apple (Pyrus mains L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Trani, P.E.; Haag, H.P.; Sarruge, J.R.; Dechen, A.R.; Catani, CB

    1981-01-01

    In order to obtain the following informations: a) dry matter production and extraction of nutrients by the fruits at different ages; b) dry matter production and extraction of nutrient by the leaves and "trunk + branches" collected at the flowering stage; c) dry matter production and export of nutrients by pruning (leaves and branches) at the begining dormant stage; A trial was conducted on Latossolo Vermelho Escuro Orto group (Orthox) at Buri, São Paulo State, Brazil. The material was collec...

  4. USE CELLULOSE FOR CLEANING CONCENTRATED SUGAR SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kul’neva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Producing high quality intermediate products in the boiling-crystallization station is an actual problem of sugar production. In the production of white sugar brown sugar syrup is not further purified that decreases the quality of the end product. Studies have been conducted using cellulose as an adsorbent for the purification of concentrated sugar solutions, having affinity to dyes and other impurities. Research have been carried out with the intermediate products of the Lebedyan sugar plant. Test results have shown cellulose ability to adsorb the dyes in sugar production. The influence of the adsorbent concentration and the mass fraction of solids in the syrup on the decolorization effect has been studied; rational process parameters have been obtained. It has been found that proceeding an additional adsorption purification of brown sugars syrup allows to reduce the solution color, increase the amount and quality of the end product. Adsorbing means, received from production wastes on the basis of organic resources, have many advantages: economical, environmentally friendly for disposal, safe to use, reliable and efficient in use. Conducted research on using cellulose as adsorbent for treatment of concentrated sugar solutions, having an affinity for colouring matter and other impurities. The experiments were carried out on the intermediates Lebedyanskiy sugar factory. The test results showed the ability of cellulose to adsorb coloring matter of sugar production. To evaluate the effect of bleaching depending on the mass fraction of dry substances prepared yellow juice filtration of sugar concentration of 55, 60, 65 % with subsequent adsorption purification of cellulose. The results of the experiment built adsorption isotherm of dyestuffs. The influence of the concentration of the adsorbent and a mass fraction of solids of juice filtration on the efficiency of decolorization obtained by rational parameters of the process. It is

  5. Radiolysis of concentrated nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaishi, R.; Jiang, P.Y.; Katsumura, Y.; Domae, M.; Ishigure, K.

    1995-01-01

    A study on electron pulse- and 60 Co γ-radiolysis of concentrated nitric acid and nitrate solutions has been carried out to elucidate the radiation induced reactions taking place in the solutions. Dissociation into NO 2 - and O( 3 P) was proposed as a direct action of the radiation on nitrate and gave the G-values were dependent on the chemical forms of nitrate: g s2 (-NO 3 - )=1.6 and g s2 (-HNO 3 )=2.2 (molecules/100eV). Based on the experimental yields of HNO 2 and reduced Ce IV , the primary yields of radiolysis products of water, g w , were evaluated to clarify the effects of nitrate on spur reactions of water in various nitrate solutions. (author)

  6. Data to support "Boosted Regression Tree Models to Explain Watershed Nutrient Concentrations & Biological Condition"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Spreadsheets are included here to support the manuscript "Boosted Regression Tree Models to Explain Watershed Nutrient Concentrations and Biological Condition". This...

  7. Concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva, na produtividade e na qualidade de frutos de melão cultivado em substrato Nitrogen concentration of the nutrient solution on yield and quality of muskmelon fruits grown in substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Freitas Fogaça

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido, na UFSM, entre agosto de 2004 e janeiro de 2005, com o híbrido "Magelan". As mudas foram plantadas em sacolas de polietileno contendo 4,5dm3 do substrato Plantmax PXT®, na densidade de 3,3 plantas m-2. As plantas foram conduzidas verticalmente em haste única, com até dois frutos por planta, e despontadas ao atingir a altura de 2m. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por concentrações de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva de 8 (T1, 11 (T2, 14 (T3, 17 (T4 e 20 (T5 mmol L-1. Os demais nutrientes foram fornecidos nas concentrações, em mmol L-1, de 0,9 de H2PO4-; 2,25 de SO4--; 10,0 de Ca++; 6,0 de K+ e 5,0 de Mg++, e, em mg L-1, 0,42 de Mn; 0,26 de Zn; 0,05 de Cu; 0,50 de B; 0,04 de Mo e 4,82 de quelato de Fe. A solução nutritiva foi fornecida várias vezes ao dia, de acordo com a demanda hídrica da cultura, com um coeficiente de drenagem diário não inferior a 30%. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foi observada resposta linear dos tratamentos na matéria seca vegetativa e de frutos, na área foliar, no número de frutos e na produtividade. Quanto às características qualitativas dos frutos, somente a acidez titulável apresentou diferença significativa, decrescendo com o aumento da concentração de N. A concentração de até 20mmol L-1 de N pode ser empregada na fertirrigação de lavouras comerciais dessa cultura em substrato.The experiment was carried out inside a greenhouse at UFSM, from August to January 2005, using the hybrid Magelan. Planting was made in polyethylene bags with 4.5dm3 of the commercial substrate Plantmax PXT®, in a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2. Plants were vertically trained with two fruits per plant and the main stem was cut at 2m height. Treatments were N concentrations of 8 (T1, 11 (T2, 14 (T3, 17 (T4 and 20 (T5 mmol L-1 in the nutrient solution. The other nutrients were supplied at

  8. Effects of macro nutrient concentration on biological N2 fixation by Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew Pauline Woan Ying; Nazalan Najimudin; Jong Bor Chyan; Latiffah Noordin; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Amir Hamzah Ahmad Ghazali

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic changes of biological N 2 fixation by Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837 under the influence of various macro nutrients, specifically phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), was investigated. In this attempt, Oryza sativa L. var. MR 219 was used as the model plant. Results obtained showed changes in the biological N 2 fixation activities with different macro nutrient(s) manipulations. The research activity enables optimisation of macro nutrients concentration for optimal/ enhanced biological N 2 fixation by A. vinelandii ATCC 12837. (author)

  9. Use of ultraviolet-disinfected nutrient solutions in greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acher, A.; Heuer, B.; Rubinskaya, E.; Fischer, E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental concerns and economics require the recycling of plant nutrient solutions (PNS) used in soilless cultures in greenhouses. To avoid possible outbreaks of plant diseases, disinfection of the recycled PNS might be necessary. This paper describes a case study on the stability of Fe 3+ -chelates, present in PNS and exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV 254 nm) for disinfection, and the effect on plant growth. Three Fe-chelates, each containing 2 mg Fe 3+ l -1 , in PNS were: i, Fe-EDDHA (Fe-ethylene-diamine-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid); ii, Fe-Na-EDTA (Fe-ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid); and iii, Fe-DTPA (Fe-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid). Seedlings of sorghum, corn and tomatoes were grown hydroponically for four weeks in continuously aerated PNS, which had been exposed previously for 0, 2.5 and 130 s to a UV radiation fluence of 80 mW s -1 cm -2 . The accumulation of plant fresh weight (APFW) differed from non-treated controls, depending on chelating agent and on exposure time to UV. The greatest APFW was observed in sorghum (128, 178 and 98%) at 2.5 s UV-exposure for PNS containing i, ii and iii, respectively. For corn and tomato, the respective results were: 108, 139 and 96%, and 129, 91 and 89% for tomatoes, respectively. The stability of i, ii and iii upon exposure to UV radiation is discussed. (author)

  10. Calcium and potassium contents in nutrient solution on Phoma leaf spot intensity in coffee seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aricléia de Moraes Catarino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Coffee is one of the main export commodities of Brazilian agribusiness. Phoma leaf spot [Phoma tarda (Stewart Boerema & Bollen] is one of the most important coffee fungal diseases in Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the intensity of Phoma leaf spot in coffee seedlings supplied with different rates of Ca+2 and K+. The study was conducted under controlled conditions in a growth chamber, at the Department of Phytopathology - UFLA, from February 2010 to December 2011. The assay was repeated twice under the same conditions. The nutrient solutions consisted of five concentrations of K+ (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 mmol L-1 and Ca+2 (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mmol L-1. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with 25 treatments and three replicates, with two plants per plot. The areas under incidence progress curve (AUIPC and severity (AUSPC were calculated. At the lowest rate of Ca2+ (2 mmol L-1 and highest K+ (6 and 7 mmol L-1, approximately, the AUIPC was the smallest. For the AUSPC, the lowest rates of Ca+2 and K+ resulted in the lowest severities. Supply of Ca+2 and K+ in nutrient solution reduced AUIPC and AUSPC of Phoma leaf spot, and these nutrients can be recommended for the management of the disease.

  11. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nutrient concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... food energy and basic nutrients for proper nutrition of man. ... 2008). Irrespective of the variety, crop yield is a direct ..... had recently formed the research drive of scientists so as .... Bioresource Technology for Sustainable.

  12. Nutrient depletion from rhizosphere solution by maize grown in soil with long-term compost amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved understanding of rhizosphere chemistry will enhance our ability to model nutrient dynamics and on a broader scale, to develop effective management strategies for applied plant nutrients. With a controlled-climate study, we evaluated in situ changes in macro-nutrient concentrations in the rh...

  13. Crescimento, desenvolvimento e produtividade do tomateiro cultivado em substrato com três concentrações de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva Growth, development and yield of tomato plants grown in substrate under three nitrogen concentrations of the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Luiz Andriolo

    2004-10-01

    e T3, com produtividade máxima estimada de 7,8kg m-2 na dose de 9,3mmolN L-1. Concluiu-se que a concentração de N na solução nutritiva afetou o crescimento e a produtividade da cultura do tomateiro em substrato, porém não foi observada resposta similar nos dois ciclos de cultivo.The effect of three N concentrations of the nutrient solution on growth and yield of tomato plants grown in substrate was determined in autumn and spring growing periods. Two experiments were conducted inside a polyethylene tunnel, at Departamento de Fitotecnia - UFSM, using the hybrid Monte Carlo. Sowing was made on February 8 and on July 5, 2002, and planting inside the tunnel 36 and 40 days later, in autumn and spring, respectively. Plants were grown in plastic bags filled with 5.5dm³ of commercial substrate (Plantmax®, with one plant per bag and a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2. Nutrients were supplied to plants by a complete nutrient solution, with the following composition, in mmol L-1: 5.5 of KNO3; 1.3 of KH2PO4; 2.75 of Ca(NO32; 0.75 of MgSO4, with iron chelate and micronutrients. The treatment T2 was the nutrient solution described above, with 11.0mmolN L-1. For treatment T1, the N concentration of the nutrient solution was reduced to 5.5mmolN L-1, whereas for T3 it was increased to 15.16mmolN L-1. A randomised experimental design was used, with four replications and 15 plants per plot. Plants were harvested at 33, 48, 55, 62, 69, 76 and 83 days after planting (DAP in autumn, and at 55, 62, 69, 78, 85 and 92 DAP in spring, to measure plant growth and development. Crop yield was determined by fresh weight of fruits. The number of leaves was lower on T3 plants in autumn and spring, whereas the number of fruits was higher on T1 plants in spring. The dynamics of fruit dry mass accumulation did not show significant differences among treatments in autumn. In spring, the lowest value of this variable was recorded on T3 plants. Mean values of fresh fruit weight reached 5.4; 5

  14. Biofortification of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with iodine: The effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce grown in water culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Holwerda, H.T.; Khodabaks, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Two billion individuals have insufficient iodine intake. Biofortification of vegetables with iodine offers an excellent opportunity to increase iodine intake by humans. The main aim was to study the effect of iodine form and concentration

  15. Nutrient and salinity concentrations effects on quality and storability of cherry tomato fruits grown by hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zahirul Islam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of nutrient and salinity concentrations on the quality of deepflow technique hydroponic system cultivated cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ‘Unicorn’. The conditions were: (1 control (NS-1 × nutrient Solution, Electrical Conductivity – EC: 2.5 mS∙cm–1; (2 2 × NS (2 × NS-Double NS, EC: 5 mS∙cm–1; (3 NS + 4.23 mM NaCl (NaCl-Sodium Chloride, EC: 5 mS∙cm–1; and (4 NS + 13.70 mM Sea Water – SW (EC: 7.5 mS∙cm–1. NS + 13.70 mM SW treatment showed the lowest fresh weight loss. Visual quality as well as shelf life was the longest in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits. The longest shelf life at 5 °C, 11 °C, and 24 °C were 21, 16, and 8 days, respectively, in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits. The highest firmness was recorded in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits, which was retained after storage. Moreover, NS + 13.70 mM SW treatment increased the cherry tomato fruit’s quality, especially soluble solids and sugar contents. These results indicate that salinity concentration has effect the soluble solids and sugar of cherry tomato fruits. In addition, nutrient concentration influenced the shelf life and firmness of cherry tomato fruits.

  16. The effect of pH on phosphorus availability and speciation in an aquaponics nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerozi, Brunno da Silva; Fitzsimmons, Kevin

    2016-11-01

    The interaction between the main ions in aquaponics nutrient solutions affects chemical composition and availability of nutrients, and nutrient uptake by plant roots. This study determined the effect of pH on phosphorus (P) speciation and availability in an aquaponics nutrient solution and used Visual MINTEQ to simulate P species and P activity. In both experimental and simulated results, P availability decreased with increase in pH of aquaponics nutrient solutions. According to simulations, P binds to several cations leaving less free phosphate ions available in solution. High pH values resulted in the formation of insoluble calcium phosphate species. The study also demonstrated the importance of organic matter and alkalinity in keeping free phosphate ions in solution at high pH ranges. It is recommended though that pH in aquaponics systems is maintained at a 5.5-7.2 range for optimal availability and uptake by plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Managed nutrient reduction impacts on nutrient concentrations, water clarity, primary production, and hypoxia in a north temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Candace; Smith, Leslie; Krumholz, Jason; Coupland, Catherine; Stoffel, Heather; Keller, Aimee; McManus, M. Conor; Reed, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Except for the Providence River and side embayments like Greenwich Bay, Narragansett Bay can no longer be considered eutrophic. In summer 2012 managed nitrogen treatment in Narragansett Bay achieved a goal of reducing effluent dissolved inorganic nitrogen inputs by over 50%. Narragansett Bay represents a small northeast US estuary that had been heavily loaded with sewage effluent nutrients since the late 1800s. The input reduction was reflected in standing stock nutrients resulting in a statistically significant 60% reduction in concentration. In the Providence River estuary, total nitrogen decreased from 100 μm to about 40 μm, for example. We tested four environmental changes that might be associated with the nitrogen reduction. System apparent production was significantly decreased by 31% and 45% in the upper and mid Bay. Nutrient reductions resulted in statistically improved water clarity in the mid and upper Bay and in a 34% reduction in summer hypoxia. Nitrogen reduction also reduced the winter spring diatom bloom; winter chlorophyll levels after nutrient reduction have been significantly lower than before the reduction. The impact on the Bay will continue to evolve over the next few years and be a natural experiment for other temperate estuaries that will be experiencing nitrogen reduction. To provide perspective we review factors effecting hypoxia in other estuaries with managed nutrient reduction and conclude that, as in Narragansett Bay, physical factors can be as important as nutrients. On a positive note managed nutrient reduction has mitigated further deterioration in most estuaries.

  18. Nutrição mineral, crescimento e teor de óleo essencial da menta em solução nutritiva sob diferentes concentrações de fósforo e épocas de coleta Mineral nutrition, growth and essential oil content of mint in nutrient solution under different phosphorus concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Rodrigues

    2004-09-01

    content of mint (Mentha piperita L. was evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized blocks in a split-plot scheme, in a 2x5 factorial with four replications, being two harvest periods (65 and 95 days of cultivation (DC and five concentrations of P in the nutrient solution (6; 12; 18; 24 and 30 mg L-1 evaluated. The leaves dry weight (MSF, stems dry weight (MRS, roots dry weight (MSR, total dry weight (MST, leaf:stem ratio (F:C and aerial part:root ratio (PA:R were evaluated. The essential oil content in fresh leaves was determined. The critical levels and nutrient accumulation in leaves and stems were estimated through leaves and stems chemical analysis. The level of P increased the leaf dry matter production 65 DC. At 95 DC, the P concentration in the nutrient solution, did significantly increase plant growth and essential oil content, the maximum essential oil content being (2.192 dag kg-1 obtained with 19.48 mg L-1 of P. The higher P concentration in nutrient solution (24 and 30 mg L-1, increased the fresh and dry matter of the aerial portion of the plants, but, decreased the essential oil content. Due to the dilution effect, the increase of fresh and dry matter production did not result in an increase in the oil yield per plant. The critical levels of nutrients in the leaves corresponding to the maximum essential oil content at 95 DC in g kg-1 were: N=37,2; P=3,9; K=21,2; Ca=9,3; Mg=3,8; S=3,0 and, in mg kg-1: B=35; Cu=8; Fe=323; Mn=145 and Zn=22. The nutrients requested at 95 DC related to the maximum essential oil content was: N>K>Ca>P>Mg>S>Fe>Mn>B>Zn>Cu.

  19. Human skin condition and its associations with nutrient concentrations in serum and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Roza, L.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Nutritional factors exert promising actions on the skin, but only scant information is available on the modulating effects of physiologic concentrations of nutrients on the skin condition of humans. Objective: The objective was to evaluate whether nutrient concentrations in serum and

  20. Fertilizer drawn forward osmosis process for sustainable water reuse to grow hydroponic lettuce using commercial nutrient solution

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, Laura

    2017-03-10

    This study investigated the sustainable reuse of wastewater using fertilizer drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) process through osmotic dilution of commercial nutrient solution for hydroponics, a widely used technique for growing plants without soil. Results from the bench-scale experiments showed that the commercial hydroponic nutrient solution (i.e. solution containing water and essential nutrients) exhibited similar performance (i.e., water flux and reverse salt flux) to other inorganic draw solutions when treating synthetic wastewater. The use of hydroponic solution is highly advantageous since it provides all the required macro- (i.e., N, P and K) and micronutrients (i.e., Ca, Mg, S, Mn, B, Zn and Mo) in a single balanced solution and can therefore be used directly after dilution without the need to add any elements. After long-term operation (i.e. up to 75% water recovery), different physical cleaning methods were tested and results showed that hydraulic flushing can effectively restore up to 75% of the initial water flux while osmotic backwashing was able to restore the initial water flux by more than 95%; illustrating the low-fouling potential of the FDFO process. Pilot-scale studies demonstrated that the FDFO process is able to produce the required nutrient concentration and final water quality (i.e., pH and conductivity) suitable for hydroponic applications. Coupling FDFO with pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) in the later stages could help in saving operational costs (i.e., energy and membrane replacement costs). Finally, the test application of nutrient solution produced by the pilot FDFO process to hydroponic lettuce showed similar growth pattern as the control without any signs of nutrient deficiency.

  1. Assessment of Nutrient Concentration in Sokori River, Southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient enrichment leads to excessive growth of primary producers as well as heterotrophic bacteria and fungi, which increases the metabolic activities of stream water leading to a depletion of dissolved oxygen. The low discharge of stream and its fairly flat terrain nature also influenced the metabolic activities in the mid- ...

  2. Nutrient and Bacteria Concentrations in the Coastal Waters off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, soluble reactive phosphorous) and bacteria (total and faecal coliforms) in the waters off Zanzibar Town. The study covered both the SE and NE monsoon and the two transition periods for a total of one year. Nutrient ...

  3. Produção do melão rendilhado em função da concentração de potássio na solução nutritiva e do número de frutos por planta Net melon yield as affected by potassium concentration in nutrient solution and number of fruits per plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caciana C. Costa

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em hidroponia (NFT, de junho a novembro de 2001, na UNESP, em Jaboticabal. A cultivar Bônus nº 2 foi cultivada sob blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com seis repetições. Foram avaliados o número de frutos por planta (2; 3; 4 e fixação livre e a concentração de potássio na solução nutritiva (66; 115,5; 165 e 247,5 mg L-1 de K. Nas colheitas ocorridas entre 105 e 133 dias após o transplantio (DAT, foram obtidos 2,0; 2,5; 2,7 e 2,3 frutos por planta, enquanto que aos 85 DAT, o número de frutos fixados tinha sido, respectivamente, 2; 3; 4 e 6,2 frutos por planta. O incremento da concentração de potássio na solução nutritiva aumentou, inicialmente, o número de frutos fixados, e contribuiu, posteriormente, para a redução do abortamento dos frutos. Também, promoveu aumento no peso médio do segundo fruto. A produção e o peso médio dos frutos não foram influenciados pelo emprego de soluções nutritivas com concentração de potássio acima de 66 mg L-1. Entretanto, o número de frutos por planta afetou a produção e o peso médio dos frutos, promovendo respectivamente, aumento e redução à medida que maior foi o número de frutos por planta.The experiment was carried out using hidroponic solution (NFT from June to November-2001, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. The 'Bonus nº 2' was cultivated in randomized blocks design, with split-plot scheme and six replications. Fruit number per plant (2; 3; 4 and free and potassium concentration in the nutrient solution (66; 115.5; 165 e 247.5 mg L-1 were the studied factors. At harvests [105 to 133 days after transplant (DAT], 2.0; 2.5; 2.7 and 2.3 fruits per plant were obtained, whereas at 85 DAT, 2; 3; 4 and 6.2 fruits had been set, respectively. Increasing potassium concentration in the nutrient solution improved initially fruit set and contributed later to reduce the fruit aborting in plants. Also the potassium promoted

  4. Measuring calcium, potassium, and nitrate in plant nutrient solutions using ion-selective electrodes in hydroponic greenhouse of some vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, Gökay; Altıkatoğlu, Melda; Ortaç, Deniz; Cemek, Mustafa; Işıldak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Generally, the life cycle of plants depends on the uptake of essential nutrients in a balanced manner and on toxic elements being under a certain concentration. Lack of control of nutrient levels in nutrient solution can result in reduced plant growth and undesired conditions such as blossom-end rot. In this study, sensitivity and selectivity tests for various polyvinylchloride (PVC)-based ion-selective membranes were conducted to identify those suitable for measuring typical concentration ranges of macronutrients, that is, NO(3-), K(+), and Ca(2+), in hydroponic solutions. The sensitivity and selectivity of PVC-membrane-based ion-selective sensors prepared with tetradodecylammoniumnitrate for NO(3-), valinomycin for K(+), and Ca ionophore IV for Ca(2+) were found to be satisfactory for measuring NO(3-), K(+), and Ca(2+) ions in nutrient solutions over typical ranges of hydroponic concentrations. Potassium, calcium, and nitrate levels that were utilized by cucumber and tomato seedlings in the greenhouse were different. The findings show that tomato plants consumed less amounts of nitrate than cucumber plants over the first 2 months of their growth. We also found that the potassium intake was higher than other nutritional elements tested for all plants. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Nutrient solution and substrates for ‘cedro doce’ (Pochota fendleri seedling production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar J. Smiderle

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study assessed the effect of different substrates and addition of nutrient solution on the production of Pochota fendleri seedlings, leaf contents of macro and micronutrients and chlorophyll a and b. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replicates. The factors were three substrates, with or without addition of nutrient solution, composing six treatments: (T1 = sand; (T2 = soil; (T3 = sand + soil (1:1; (T4 = sand + nutrient solution; (T5 = soil + nutrient solution; (T6 = sand + soil + nutrient solution. Growth characteristics (height, collar diameter, shoot dry matter, root dry matter, root/shoot ratio and total dry matter and contents of macro- and micronutrients and chlorophyll a and b were evaluated. The use of nutrient solution reduces the time to obtain seedlings of Pochota fendleri, and it is important for proper growth and quality of seedlings. The sequence of nutritional requirement presented by Pochota fendleri seedlings in three substrates with addition of nutrient solution follows the descending order: macronutrients (N > Ca > K > Mg > P > S and micronutrients (Fe > Mn > B > Zn > Cu.

  6. Development of an automated flow injection analysis system for determination of phosphate in nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadağ, Sevinç; Görüşük, Emine M; Çetinkaya, Ebru; Deveci, Seda; Dönmez, Koray B; Uncuoğlu, Emre; Doğu, Mustafa

    2018-01-25

    A fully automated flow injection analysis (FIA) system was developed for determination of phosphate ion in nutrient solutions. This newly developed FIA system is a portable, rapid and sensitive measuring instrument that allows on-line analysis and monitoring of phosphate ion concentration in nutrient solutions. The molybdenum blue method, which is widely used in FIA phosphate analysis, was adapted to the developed FIA system. The method is based on the formation of ammonium Mo(VI) ion by reaction of ammonium molybdate with the phosphate ion present in the medium. The Mo(VI) ion then reacts with ascorbic acid and is reduced to the spectrometrically measurable Mo(V) ion. New software specific for flow analysis was developed in the LabVIEW development environment to control all the components of the FIA system. The important factors affecting the analytical signal were identified as reagent flow rate, injection volume and post-injection flow path length, and they were optimized using Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology. The optimum point for the maximum analytical signal was calculated as 0.50 mL min -1 reagent flow rate, 100 µL sample injection volume and 60 cm post-injection flow path length. The proposed FIA system had a sampling frequency of 100 samples per hour over a linear working range of 3-100 mg L -1 (R 2  = 0.9995). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.09% and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.34 mg L -1 . Various nutrient solutions from a tomato-growing hydroponic greenhouse were analyzed with the developed FIA system and the results were found to be in good agreement with vanadomolybdate chemical method findings. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. An Integrated Multimodal Sensor for the On-site Monitoring of the Water Content and Nutrient Concentration of Soil by Measuring the Phase and Electrical Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato FUTAGAWA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated a new multimodal sensor chip which is capable of simultaneous on-site measurements of the water content and nutrient concentration. Until now, in agriculture, water content sensors, such as TDR sensors, have been unable to provide accurate measurements, since these sensors are affected by the nutrient concentration in the soil solution. Therefore, tensiometers have generally been used. However, these are large-scale sensors and are not suitable for the precise measurements required in agriculture. Our proposed sensors are the world’s first to enable independent measurements of the water content and nutrient concentration.

  8. Effect of mycorrhiza and phosphorus content in nutrient solution on the yield and nutritional status of tomato plants grown on rockwool or coconut coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kowalska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of P level in nutrient solution and the colonization of roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on P uptake by tomato plants, their nutritional status, yield and quality of fruits were studied. Plants were grown on rockwool or coconut coir. Inoculation by a mixture of several AMF species was performed three times during the growing period. The mycorrhizal frequency in roots inoculated with AMF amounted to 35.79 – 50.82%. The highest level of mycorrhiza was found in plants receiving nutrient solution with a lower concentration of P. Among the experimental factors, only P level influenced the fruit yield, being higher from plants receiving a nutrient solution with a higher P level. A higher concentration of P in nutrient solution imposed better nutritional status of plants. Higher contents of ascorbic acid and total soluble sugars were found in fruits collected from inoculated plants, grown on rockwool.

  9. Concentração de potássio na solução nutritiva e a qualidade e número de frutos de melão por planta em hidroponia Potassium concentration in nutrient solution and quality and number of fruits of melon, cultivated in hidroponic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caciana Cavalcanti Costa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em hidroponia (NFT no período de junho a novembro de 2001, na FCAV-UNESP em Jaboticabal-SP, situada a 21º15’ 22" Sul, 48º18’58" Oeste, e altitude de 575 metros. O híbrido Bônus n0 2 foi cultivado em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com seis repetições. Os elementos avaliados foram número de frutos por planta (2, 3, 4 e fixação livre e concentração de potássio na solução nutritiva (66; 115,5; 165 e 247,5mg L-1. O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a concentração de potássio na solução nutritiva e número de frutos por planta sobre a qualidade dos frutos do meloeiro. Concentrações maiores do que 66mg L-1 de potássio na solução nutritiva não promoveram incrementos nas características de qualidade dos frutos do meloeiro como: teor de sólidos solúveis médio de todos os frutos da planta, do segundo fruto, da acidez total titulável média de todos os frutos da planta, do primeiro fruto, do segundo fruto, do índice de maturação, da espessura da polpa e do índice de formato dos frutos. Frutos oriundos de plantas de melão com dois frutos apresentaram maior teor de sólidos solúveis e acidez total titulável, independente da concentração de potássio na solução nutritiva. O maior número de frutos por planta reduziu a espessura do mesocarpo dos frutos.The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal-SP. The hybrid Bonus n0 2 was cropped in randomized blocks design, in split-plot scheme and six replications. Fruit number per plant (2, 3, 4 e free fruit set and potassium concentration in the nutrient solution (66, 115.5, 165 and 247.5mg L-1 were the studied factors. The increase of potassium concentration in the nutrient solution did not promote increase melon fruit quality characteristics such as: average soluble solid content from all plant fruits or that of the second fruit; average total tritratable acidity from all plant fruits and that of the first or

  10. Crescimento e produtividade do almeirão em concentrações de N total contendo NH4+ na solução nutritiva Growth and yield of chicory plants under total N concentrations containing NH4+ in the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo dos Santos Godoi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento e a produtividade do almeirão foram determinados em cultivo hidropônico fechado com cinco concentrações de N contendo NH4+ na solução nutritiva. As cultivares "Amarelo" e "Pão de Açúcar" foram semeadas diretamente em fileiras distanciadas de 0,05m, em uma camada de areia de 0,15m, distribuída sobre telhas de fibrocimento. Após a emergência, foi efetuado o desbaste, mantendo-se uma densidade de 1.600plantas m-2. Foi empregada uma solução nutritiva padrão com a composição de, em mmol L-1, 11,0 de NO3-; 1,5 de H2PO4-; 6,5 de SO4-2; 7,5 de Ca+2; 10,0 de K+ e 1,5 de Mg+2 e, em mg L-1, 0,42 de Mn; 0,26 de Zn; 0,05 de Cu; 0,50 de B; 0,04 de Mo, e 4,82 de Fe quelatizado. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por concentrações totais de N de 11,0 (T1; 16,0 (T2; 21,0 (T3; 26,0 (T4 e 31,0 (T5mmol L-1, contendo concentrações de NH4+ de, zero; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0mmol L-1, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado foi empregado, com quatro repetições e parcelas subdivididas. Foram efetuadas colheitas aos 35, 59, 76 e 97 dias após a semeadura, mediante corte da parte aérea das plantas a 0,02m acima da superfície da areia, para determinar a matéria seca e fresca. A maior produtividade foi obtida com a solução nutritiva contendo 16mmol L-1 de N total e 2,5mmol L-1 de NH4+.Chicory plants, cv. Amarela and Pão de Açúcar, were hidroponically grown to determine growth and yield under five ammonium and nitrate N concentrations in the nutrient solution. Sowing was made in rows placed 0.05m apart, over a 0.15m deep sand growing bed supported by fibber cement tiles. After emergency, plants were thinned to a plant density of 1,600plants m-2. A standard nutrient solution was used, with the composition of, in mmol L-1, 11.0 de NO3-; 1.5 H2PO4-; 6.5 SO4-2; 7.5 Ca+2; 10.0 K+ and 1.5 Mg+2, and, in mg L-1, 0.42 Mn; 0.26 Zn; 0.05 Cu; 0.50 B; 0.04 Mo, and 4.82 chelated Fe. Treatments were total N

  11. Development of a soilless growing system for blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum): nutrient demand and nutrient solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Dijk, van P.; Douven, F.; Maas, van der M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of blueberries in The Netherlands are soil grown, interest in soilless culture has increased recently. Modern cultivation with high yield and fruit quality needs maximum control of growth and crop development, which is expected to be achieved with irrigation and nutrient

  12. Toxic metabolities of disulfoton: behavior in bean-seedlings, in soil, and in nutrient solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, M.M. de

    1986-10-01

    The absorption, translocation and degradation in bean-seedlings of three toxic metabolites of the pesticide 14 C- disulfoton from nutrient solution or three different types of Brazilian soils is studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  13. Structural study of concentrated micellar solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemb, Thomas

    1985-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the structure of concentrated soap-water binary micelles with a comparison of measurements of light, neutrons and X-ray scattering, and the relaxation induced by paramagnetic ions adsorbed at the interface. In the first part, the author discusses the specific sensitivity ranges of different experimental techniques, outlines the resolution which can be obtained with scattering experiments, and proposes a critical analysis of results published in the relevant literature. In a second part, the author discusses the compared results of the application of various techniques (magnetic resonance, X-light and neutron scattering) on the two most used model systems: sodium octanoate and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in solution. Then, the author addresses the case of ternary systems: study of the influence of the presence of a co-surfactant on the structure, study of the effect of interfacial charge on the micellar structure, use of the same previous quantitative methods to study the disturbances brought to the structure due to the presence of reactants [fr

  14. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bittsánszky, András; Uzinger, Nikolett; Gyulai, Gábor; Mathis, Alex; Junge, Ranka; Villarroel, Morris; Kotzen, Benzion; Komives, Tamas

    2016-01-01

    In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponic systems, and compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in aquaponic system are significantly lower for most nutrients, compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels than “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy...

  15. Influence of harvest managements on biomass nutrient concentrations and removal rates of festulolium and tall fescue from a poorly drained nutrient-rich fen peatland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka; Elsgaard, Lars; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to show the effects of harvest time and frequency on biomass nutrient concentrations (total ash, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) as well as total nutrient removal potential by festulolium and tall fescue cultivated on a nutrient-rich fen peatland. The harvest managemen...

  16. Effects of thermal discharges on the seasonal patterns of nutrient concentrations in brackish water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitchals, D.

    1985-05-01

    Massiv quantities of water are used in power plant cooling systems, especially nuclear power plants, and are often returned to the donor ecosystem at significantly elevated temperatures. Few studies of the environmental effects of such a situation have looked extensively at the effects on nutrients in the water. The present study examined the effects of cooling water discharges from a nuclear power plant on the seasonal nutrient patterns within and outside a brackish water, research artificial lake, the 0.9 km 2 Biotest Basin on Sweden's east coast. The lack of ice cover in winter is the most apparent effect. In a portion of the lake with a relatively long water residence time, on the order of a few days, the vernal nutrient depletion of phosphate, nitrate, and nitrite apparently began sooner than outside the lake. Benthic influence on nutrient concentrations in the free water mass may be very significant in coastal areas receiving heat inputs. This study's data apparently support the conclusion by other researchers that phosphorus may be the nutrient limiting algal growth in the spring in this area of the central Baltic Sea. Determination of a nutrient budget for the Basin was unachievable because inlet and outlet nutrient concentrations were insufficiently different to override experimental variation. Implications for management of heat inputs to coastal ecosystems include avoidance of areas with high nutrient content, rich organic sediment, or poor flushing. (author)

  17. Trace elements and nutrients adsorption onto nano-maghemite in a contaminated-soil solution: A geochemical/statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández, Domingo; Bingöl, Deniz; Komárek, Michael

    2014-07-15

    Two experiments were carried out to study the competition for adsorption between trace elements (TEs) and nutrients following the application of nano-maghemite (NM) (iron nano-oxide; Fe2O3) to a soil solution (the 0.01molL(-1) CaCl2 extract of a TEs-contaminated soil). In the first, the nutrients K, N, and P were added to create a set of combinations: potential availability of TEs during their interaction with NM and nutrients were studied. In the second, response surface methodology was used to develop predictive models by central composite design (CCD) for competition between TEs and the nutrients K and N for adsorption onto NM. The addition of NM to the soil solution reduced specifically the concentrations of available As and Cd, but the TE-adsorption capacity of NM decreased as the P concentration increased. The CCD provided more concise and valuable information, appropriate to estimate the behavior of NM sequestering TEs: according to the suggested models, K(+) and NH4(+) were important factors for Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, and Zn adsorption (Radj(2)=95%, except for Zn with Radj(2)=87%). The obtained information and models can be used to predict the effectiveness of NM for the stabilization of TEs, crucial during the phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Part 2: A field study of enhanced remediation of Toluene in the vadose zone using a nutrient solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J.A.; Weeks, E.P.; Friedel, M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a nitrate-rich nutrient solution and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to enhance in-situ microbial remediation of toluene in the unsaturated zone. Three sand-filled plots were tested in three phases (each phase lasting approximately 2 weeks). During the control phase, toluene was applied uniformly via sprinkler irrigation. Passive remediation was allowed to occur during this phase. A modified Hoagland nutrient solution, concentrated in 150 L of water, was tested during the second phase. The final phase involved addition of 230 moles of H2O2 in 150 L of water to increase the available oxygen needed for aerobic biodegradation. During the first phase, measured toluene concentrations in soil gas were reduced from 120 ppm to 25 ppm in 14 days. After the addition of nutrients during the second phase, concentrations were reduced from 90 ppm to about 8 ppm within 14 days, and for the third phase (H 2O2), toluene concentrations were about 1 ppm after only 5 days. Initial results suggest that this method could be an effective means of remediating a contaminated site, directly after a BTEX spill, without the intrusiveness and high cost of other abatement technologies such as bioventing or soil-vapor extraction. However, further tests need to be completed to determine the effect of each of the BTEX components. ?? Springer 2005.

  19. Improving tolerance of sunflower and safflower during growth stages to salinity through foliar spray of nutrient solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, N.; Ahmad, R.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of salinity and foliar application of nutrient solutions on sunflower and safflower in vegetative and reproductive phases of the growth were investigated in Bio saline Research Field, University of Karachi, Pakistan. The seeds were sown in pots under non saline condition and saline water irrigation was started at three leaf stage after germination. Different concentration of saline water were made by dissolving 3g and 6g sea salt per litre of tap water, equivalent to an EC of 4.8 and 8.6 dS/m respectively. Nutrient solution (KNO/sub 3 /, H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/, Fe-EDTA or its mixture) was sprayed thrice, i.e., 45, 75 and 95 days after planting. KNO/sub 3/ was given at the rate 250 ppm and other H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/ and Fe-EDTA was given at the rate 5 ppm. Salinity caused a significant reduction in nutrient uptake, height, biomass and yield of both sunflower and safflower. Foliar application of macro and micro nutrients (i.e. KNO/sub 3/, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, Fe-EDTA and mixture of KNO/sub 3/ + H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ + Fe-EDTA) partially minimized the salt induced deficiency and showed significant increase in height, fresh and dry biomass, number and weight of seeds, and amount of oil per sunflower and safflower plant irrespective to their growth under non saline or saline conditions. Among the nutrient solutions, mixture of KNO/sub 3/+ H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ + Fe-EDTA seemed to be the most effective followed by H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/ and Fe-EDTA. These results suggested that foliar application of nutrients could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity by alleviating the adverse effects of salinity on growth and reproductive yield. (author)

  20. Mapping of trophic states based on nutrients concentration and phytoplankton abundance in Jatibarang Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiyanti, Siti; Anggoro, Sutrisno; Rahman, Arif

    2018-02-01

    Jatibarang Reservoir is one of the Indonesian Reservoirs, which used for human activities such as tourism and agriculture. These activities will provide input of organic matter and nutrients into the water. These materials will impact water quality and eutrophication process. Eutrophication is the water enrichment by nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus which can promote the growth of phytoplankton. Some indicators of eutrophication are increasing nutrients, trophic states, and change of phytoplankton composition. The relationship between water quality and phytoplankton community can be used as an indicator of trophic states in Jatibarang Reservoir. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of nutrients concentration and phytoplankton abundance to the trophic states and mapping trophic states based on nutrients concentration and phytoplankton in Jatibarang Reservoir. This study was conducted in June and July 2017 at 9 stations around Jatibarang Reservoir. The results showed that average concentration of nitrate, phosphate, and chlorophyll-a in Jatibarang Reservoir was 0.69 mg/L, 0.27 mg/L, and 1.66 mg/m3, respectively. The phytoplankton abundance ranged 16-62,200 cells/L, consists of 21 genera of four classes, i.e. Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Dinophyceae. Cyanophyceae was a dominant phytoplankton group based on the composition of abundance (>80%). High nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton dominated by Anabaena (Cyanophyceae) which indicated that the waters in Jatibarang Reservoir were eutrophic.

  1. Nutrient concentration in leaves, a tool for nutritional diagnosis in cocoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yina Jazbleidi Puentes-Páramo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the foliar concentrations in cocoa farming (Theobroma cacao L as a diagnostic tool of their nutritional status. At the Research Center of the National Federation of Cocoa Producers (Fedecacao located in Miranda-Cauca, Colombia, the study assessed the effect of five doses of NPK fertilization in nutrient concentration in leaves of four cocoa clones CCN-51, TSH-565, ICS-39, and ICS-95 from 20102012. Experimental design was randomized complete block design with five treatments: TR(control, T1(25% NPK, T2(50% NPK, T3(75% NPK, T4(100% NPK and four replicates. The concentration of 11 nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+, S, Mg2+, B, Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Mn2+ and their relation with yield was evaluated for three years. Results showed differences in the foliar concentration of nutrients assessed by effect of treatments, by clone, and by clone*treatment interaction. The foliar concentration used was derived from higher yield-related treatment, whereby, a proposal for nutritional diagnosis in cocoa based on nutrient monitoring was created to evaluate nutrient concentration in leaves.

  2. Nutrient concentration age dynamics of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Moya, J.; Murillo, R.; Portuguez, E.; Fallas, J. L.; Rios, V.; Kottman, F.; Verjans, J. M.; Mata, R.; Alvarado, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study. Appropriate knowledge regarding teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) nutrition is required for a better management of the plantations to attain high productivity and sustainability. This study aims to answer the following questions: How can it be determined if a teak tree suffers a nutrient deficiency before it shows symptoms? Are nutrient concentration decreases in older trees associated with age-related declines in forest productivity? Area of study. Costa Rica and Panama. Material and Methods. Nutrient concentration in different tree tissues (bole, bark, branches and foliage) were measured at different ages using false-time-series in 28 teak plantations Research highlights. Foliar N concentration decreases from 2.28 in year 1 to 1.76% in year 19. Foliar Mg concentration increases from 0.23 in year 1 to 0.34% in year 19. The foliar concentrations of the other nutrients are assumed to be constant with tree age: 1.33% Ca, 0.88% K, 0.16% P, 0.12% S, 130 mg kg{sup -}1 Fe, 43 mg kg{sup -}1 Mn, 11 mg kg{sup -}1 Cu, 32 mg kg{sup -}1 Zn and 20 mg kg{sup -}1 B. The nutrient concentration values showed can be taken as a reference to evaluate the nutritional status of similar teak plantations in the region. The concentrations of K, Mg and N could be associated with declines in teak plantation productivity as the plantation becomes older. Whether age-related changes in nutrient concentrations are a cause or a consequence of age-related declines in productivity is an issue for future research with the aim of achieving higher growth rates throughout the rotation period. (Author) 35 refs.

  3. Concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva e número de frutos sobre a qualidade de frutos de melão Nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution and number of fruits on quality of melon fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Villani Purquerio

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em ambiente protegido, na UNESP-FCAV, em Jaboticabal (SP, de junho a novembro de 2001, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade dos frutos do meloeiro (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus, híbrido Bônus nº2, cultivado em sistema hidropônico NFT, em função da concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva (80; 140; 200 e 300 mg L-1 e do número de fruto por planta (2; 3; 4 e livre. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com seis repetições. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável foram maiores em frutos colhidos de plantas com menor número de frutos pré-estabelecidos. O aumento da concentração de N na solução nutritiva proporcionou aumento na acidez total titulável e nenhum efeito sobre o teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Houve redução nos diâmetros longitudinal, transversal e na espessura do mesocarpo com o aumento da concentração de N, bem como com o aumento do número de frutos por planta. O índice de formato de fruto manteve-se igual ou muito próximo a 1.The effect of nitrogen concentrations (80; 140; 200 and 300 mg L-1 and fruit number per plant (2; 3; 4 and free setting, on the quality of net melon fruits (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus, Bonus nº 2 hybrid was investigated. The experiment was carried out at UNESP-FCAV, Jaboticabal, Brazil, using a NFT hydroponic system, from June to November/2001. The experimental design was of randomized split plots, with six replications. Total soluble solids content and total acidity were higher in fruits harvested from plants with a smaller number of pre-set fruits. A slight increase was observed on total acidity due to the increase of nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution, without any significant effect on total soluble solids. An increase of the N concentration and the number of fruits per plant resulted in a reduction of fruit longitudinal and transversal diameters and pulp thickness. Fruit

  4. Nutrient concentrations in a Littorella uniflora community at higher CO2 concentrations and reduced light intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.; Pedersen, O.; Andersen, F. Ø.

    2005-01-01

    laboratory experiments with isoetid vegetation (Littorella uniflora) where water column CO2 and light could be manipulated in order to test whether (i) light and CO2 availability affect nutrient concentrations in isoetid vegetation, and (ii) if changes in light and CO2 climate affect fluxes of inorganic...... nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from sediment to water column, which potentially could result in increased growth of epiphytic algae. 3. The results showed that the standing stocks of phosphorus and nitrogen in the L. uniflora vegetation were significantly influenced by CO2 concentration and light...... intensity. Both standing stocks of P and N were significantly higher in the mesocosm treatments with high CO2 concentration than in those at low CO2 concentration. Similarly, standing stocks of P and N enhanced with increasing light intensity. 4. Measurements of nutrient fluxes both in the field...

  5. Concerted diurnal patterns in riverine nutrient concentrations and physical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholefield, David; Le Goff, Thierry; Braven, Jim; Ebdon, Les; Long, Terry; Butler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Several long-term sets of hourly nitrate concentration data were obtained through deployment of a nitrate sensor in an upper reach of the River Taw, a small moorland-fed river in the South West of the UK. Examination of the data obtained during periods of low flow and the absence of rainfall in the catchment revealed the presence of marked diurnal cycles, which were in concert and negatively correlated with diurnal cycles in water temperature. After verifying that these cycles were natural, an intensive 90-h field monitoring campaign was conducted, in which river water was sampled hourly and immediately analysed in the laboratory for molybdate-reactive phosphorus (P), nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and pH. Coincident measurements of water temperature, river discharge and solar energy were also taken at, or close to, the site. All measurements revealed diurnal patterns and all patterns were concerted. The cycles of P, nitrate, nitrite, and discharge had two maxima and minima per 24 h, while the cycle of water temperature had one, with a maximum at 20.00 and a minimum at 08.00. The amplitudes of the cycles of P and nitrate were each about 30% of the mean values, while the amplitude of the nitrite cycle was as great as 80% of the mean value on occasions. Both biological and physical mechanisms for the cycling could operate through water temperature and/or incident radiation to account for the observed phenomenon, but there remains uncertainty of which is the more important. The observations have important implications for both the accuracy of pollution assessment in rivers and the physiological rhythms of riverine organisms

  6. Concerted diurnal patterns in riverine nutrient concentrations and physical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholefield, David; Le Goff, Thierry; Braven, Jim; Ebdon, Les; Long, Terry; Butler, Mark

    2005-05-15

    Several long-term sets of hourly nitrate concentration data were obtained through deployment of a nitrate sensor in an upper reach of the River Taw, a small moorland-fed river in the South West of the UK. Examination of the data obtained during periods of low flow and the absence of rainfall in the catchment revealed the presence of marked diurnal cycles, which were in concert and negatively correlated with diurnal cycles in water temperature. After verifying that these cycles were natural, an intensive 90-h field monitoring campaign was conducted, in which river water was sampled hourly and immediately analysed in the laboratory for molybdate-reactive phosphorus (P), nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and pH. Coincident measurements of water temperature, river discharge and solar energy were also taken at, or close to, the site. All measurements revealed diurnal patterns and all patterns were concerted. The cycles of P, nitrate, nitrite, and discharge had two maxima and minima per 24 h, while the cycle of water temperature had one, with a maximum at 20.00 and a minimum at 08.00. The amplitudes of the cycles of P and nitrate were each about 30% of the mean values, while the amplitude of the nitrite cycle was as great as 80% of the mean value on occasions. Both biological and physical mechanisms for the cycling could operate through water temperature and/or incident radiation to account for the observed phenomenon, but there remains uncertainty of which is the more important. The observations have important implications for both the accuracy of pollution assessment in rivers and the physiological rhythms of riverine organisms.

  7. Decadal and seasonal trends of nutrient concentration and export from highly managed coastal catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongshan; Wan, Lei; Li, Yuncong; Doering, Peter

    2017-05-15

    Understanding anthropogenic and hydro-climatic influences on nutrient concentrations and export from highly managed catchments often necessitates trend detection using long-term monitoring data. This study analyzed the temporal trend (1979-2014) of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and export from four adjacent coastal basins in south Florida where land and water resources are highly managed through an intricate canal network. The method of integrated seasonal-trend decomposition using LOESS (LOcally weighted regrESSion) was employed for trend detection. The results indicated that long-term trends in TN and TP concentrations (increasing/decreasing) varied with basins and nutrient species, reflecting the influence of basin specific land and water management practices. These long-term trends were intervened by short-term highs driven by high rainfall and discharges and lows associated with regional droughts. Seasonal variations in TP were more apparent than for TN. Nutrient export exhibited a chemostatic behavior for TN from all the basins, largely due to the biogenic nature of organic N associated with the ubiquity of organic materials in the managed canal network. Varying degrees of chemodynamic export was present for TP, reflecting complex biogeochemical responses to the legacy of long-term fertilization, low soil P holding capacity, and intensive stormwater management. The anthropogenic and hydro-climatic influences on nutrient concentration and export behavior had great implications in nutrient loading abatement strategies for aquatic ecosystem restoration of the downstream receiving waterbody. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Properties of concentrated plutonium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Swanson, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Selected properties were measured for solutions containing about 500 and 700 g/l plutonium (IV) in 4--5M nitric acid: density, viscosity, vapor pressure, boiling point, radiolytic gas (H 2 ) evolution rates, and corrosion rate on Ti and 304L stainless steel. Pu solubility was determined to be 550 to 800 g/l in 2.5 to 7M HNO 3 at ambient temperature and 820 to 860 g/l in 3M HNO 3 at 50 0 C

  9. Can We Manage Nonpoint-Source Pollution Using Nutrient Concentrations during Seasonal Baseflow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. McCarty

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nationwide, a substantial amount of resources has been targeted toward improving water quality, particularly focused on nonpoint-source pollution. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between nutrient concentrations observed during baseflow and runoff conditions from 56 sites across five watersheds in Arkansas. Baseflow and stormflow concentrations for each site were summarized using geometric mean and then evaluated for directional association. A significant, positive correlation was found for NO–N, total N, soluble reactive P, and total P, indicating that sites with high baseflow concentrations also had elevated runoff concentrations. Those landscape factors that influence nutrient concentrations in streams also likely result in increased runoff, suggesting that high baseflow concentrations may reflect elevated loads from the watershed. The results highlight that it may be possible to collect water-quality data during baseflow to help define where to target nonpoint-source pollution best management practices within a watershed.

  10. Automated pH Control of Nutrient Solution in a Hydroponic Plant Growth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.; Dogan, N.; Aglan, H.; Mortley, D.; Loretan, P.

    1998-01-01

    Over, the years, NASA has played an important role in providing to and the development of automated nutrient delivery and monitoring, systems for growing crops hydroponically for long term space missions. One example are the systems used in the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The current KSC monitoring system is based on an engineering workstation using standard analog/digital input/output hardware and custom written software. The monitoring system uses completely separate sensors to provide a check of control sensor accuracy and has the ability to graphically display and store data form past experiment so that they are available for data analysis [Fortson, 1992]. In many cases, growing systems have not been fitted with the kind of automated control systems as used at KSC. The Center for Food and Environmental Systems for Human Exploration of Space (CFESH) located on the campus of Tuskegee University, has effectively grown sweetpotatoes and peanuts hydroponically for the past five years. However they have adjusted the pH electrical conductivity and volume of the hydroponic nutrient solution only manually at times when the solution was to be replenished or changed out according to its protocol (e.g. one-week, two-week, or two-day cycle). But the pH of the nutrient solution flowing through the channel is neither known nor controlled between the update, change out, or replenishment period. Thus, the pH of the nutrient solution is not held at an optimum level over the span of the plant's growth cycle. To solve this dilemma, an automated system for the control and data logging of pH data relative to sweetpotato production using the nutrient film technique (NFT) has been developed, This paper discusses a microprocessor-based system, which was designed to monitor, control, and record the pH of a nutrient solution used for growing sweetpotatoes using NFT.

  11. Nutrient concentrations in coarse and fine woody debris of Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests, northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockow, Paul A.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Fraver, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary forest harvesting practices, specifically harvesting woody biomass as a source of bioenergy feedstock, may remove more woody debris from a site than conventional harvesting. Woody debris, particularly smaller diameter woody debris, plays a key role in maintaining ecosystem nutrient stores following disturbance. Understanding nutrient concentrations within woody debris is necessary for assessing the long-term nutrient balance consequences of altered woody debris retention, particularly in forests slated for use as bioenergy feedstocks. Nutrient concentrations in downed woody debris of various sizes, decay classes, and species were characterized within one such forest type, Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests of northern Minnesota, USA. Nutrient concentrations differed significantly between size and decay classes and generally increased as decay progressed. Fine woody debris (≤ 7.5 cm diameter) had higher nutrient concentrations than coarse woody debris (> 7.5 cm diameter) for all nutrients examined except Na and Mn, and nutrient concentrations varied among species. Concentrations of N, Mn, Al, Fe, and Zn in coarse woody debris increased between one and three orders of magnitude, while K decreased by an order of magnitude with progressing decay. The variations in nutrient concentrations observed here underscore the complexity of woody debris nutrient stores in forested ecosystems and suggest that retaining fine woody debris at harvest may provide a potentially important source of nutrients following intensive removals of bioenergy feedstocks.

  12. Effect of pH Upper Control Limit on Nutrient Solution Component and Water Spinach Growth under Hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Xuzhang Xue; Yinkun Li; Feng Li; Fang Zhang; Wenzhong Guo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, experiment with four levels of nutrient solution pH control upper limit was conducted to explore the optimal nutrient solution pH management scheme under hydroponics by evaluating the nutrient solution characters i.e., pH, Electric Conductivity (EC), nitrate, soluble phosphorus (soluble-P), water spinach growth and quality. The results showed that the nutrient solution pH was 8.2 and unsuitable for water spinach growth under the treatment with no pH regulation during the experi...

  13. Wind-induced flow velocity effects on nutrient concentrations at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Abdul; Li, Yiping; Du, Wei; Wang, Jianwei; Gao, Xiaomeng; Wang, Wencai; Acharya, Kumud

    2017-07-01

    Shallow lakes are highly sensitive to respond internal nutrient loading due to wind-induced flow velocity effects. Wind-induced flow velocity effects on nutrient suspension were investigated at a long narrow bay of large shallow Lake Taihu, the third largest freshwater lake in China. Wind-induced reverse/compensation flow and consistent flow field probabilities at vertical column of the water were measured. The probabilities between the wind field and the flow velocities provided a strong correlation at the surface (80.6%) and the bottom (65.1%) layers of water profile. Vertical flow velocity profile analysis provided the evidence of delay response time to wind field at the bottom layer of lake water. Strong wind field generated by the west (W) and west-north-west (WNW) winds produced displaced water movements in opposite directions to the prevailing flow field. An exponential correlation was observed between the current velocities of the surface and the bottom layers while considering wind speed as a control factor. A linear model was developed to correlate the wind field-induced flow velocity impacts on nutrient concentration at the surface and bottom layers. Results showed that dominant wind directions (ENE, E, and ESE) had a maximum nutrient resuspension contribution (nutrient resuspension potential) of 34.7 and 43.6% at the surface and the bottom profile layers, respectively. Total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) average concentrations were 6.38, 1.5, and 0.03 mg/L during our field experiment at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu. Overall, wind-induced low-to-moderate hydrodynamic disturbances contributed more in nutrient resuspension at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu. The present study can be used to understand the linkage between wind-induced flow velocities and nutrient concentrations for shallow lakes (with uniform morphology and deep margins) water quality management and to develop further models.

  14. Coupled Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Solute Transport, Metabolism and Nutrient Uptake in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, M. J.; Schmidt, C.

    2017-12-01

    Slower flow velocities and longer residence times within stream transient storage (TS) zones facilitate interaction between solutes and microbial communities, potentially increasing local rates of metabolic activity. Multiple factors, including channel morphology and substrate, variable hydrology, and seasonal changes in biological and physical parameters, result in changes in the solute transport dynamics and reactivity of TS zones over time and space. These changes would be expected to, in turn, influence rates of whole-stream ecosystem functions such as metabolism and nutrient uptake. However, the linkages between solute transport and ecosystem functioning within TS zones, and the contribution of TS zones to whole-stream functioning, are not always so straight forward. This may be due, in part, to methodological challenges. In this study we investigated the influence of stream channel hydro-morphology and substrate type on reach (103 m) and sub-reach (102 m) scale TS and ecosystem functioning. Patterns in solute transport, metabolism and nitrate uptake were tracked from April through October in two contrasting upland streams using several methods. The two streams, located in the Harz Mountains, Germany, are characterized by differing size (0.02 vs. 0.3 m3/s), dominant stream channel substrate (bedrock vs. alluvium) and sub-reach morphology (predominance of pools, riffles and glides). Solute transport parameters and respiration rates at the reach and sub-reach scale were estimated monthly from coupled pulse injections of the reactive tracer resazurin (Raz) and conservative tracers uranine and salt. Raz, a weakly fluorescent dye, irreversibly transforms to resorufin (Rru) under mildly reducing conditions, providing a proxy for aerobic respiration. Daily rates of primary productivity, respiration and nitrate retention at the reach scale were estimated using the diel cycles in dissolved oxygen and nitrate concentrations measured by in-situ sensors. Preliminary

  15. Computer model of hydroponics nutrient solution pH control using ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, M; Stutte, G

    1999-01-01

    A computer simulation of a hydroponics-based plant growth chamber using ammonium to control pH was constructed to determine the feasibility of such a system. In nitrate-based recirculating hydroponics systems, the pH will increase as plants release hydroxide ions into the nutrient solution to maintain plant charge balance. Ammonium is an attractive alternative to traditional pH controls in an ALSS, but requires careful monitoring and control to avoid overdosing the plants with ammonium. The primary advantage of using NH4+ for pH control is that it exploits the existing plant nutrient uptake charge balance mechanisms to maintain solution pH. The simulation models growth, nitrogen uptake, and pH of a l-m2 stand of wheat. Simulation results indicated that ammonium-based control of nutrient solution pH is feasible using a proportional integral controller. Use of a 1 mmol/L buffer (Ka = 1.6 x 10(-6)) in the nutrient solution is required.

  16. Nutrient concentrations in leachate and runoff from dairy cattle lots with different surface materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss from agriculture persists as a water quality issue, and outdoor cattle lots can have a high loss potential. We monitored hydrology and nutrient concentrations in leachate and runoff from dairy heifer lots constructed with three surface materials (soil, sand, bark...

  17. Relationships Between Land Use and Stream Nutrient Concentrations in a Highly Urbanized Tropical Region of Brazil: Thresholds and Riparian Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromboni, F; Dodds, W K

    2017-07-01

    Nutrient enrichment in streams due to land use is increasing globally, reducing water quality and causing eutrophication of downstream fresh and coastal waters. In temperate developed countries, the intensive use of fertilizers in agriculture is a main driver of increasing nutrient concentrations, but high levels and fast rates of urbanization can be a predominant issue in some areas of the developing world. We investigated land use in the highly urbanized tropical State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We collected total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and inorganic nutrient data from 35 independent watersheds distributed across the State and characterized land use at a riparian and entire watershed scales upstream from each sample station, using ArcGIS. We used regression models to explain land use influences on nutrient concentrations and to assess riparian protection relationships to water quality. We found that urban land use was the primary driver of nutrient concentration increases, independent of the scale of analyses and that urban land use was more concentrated in the riparian buffer of streams than in the entire watersheds. We also found significant thresholds that indicated strong increases in nutrient concentrations with modest increases in urbanization reaching maximum nutrient concentrations between 10 and 46% urban cover. These thresholds influenced calculation of reference nutrient concentrations, and ignoring them led to higher estimates of these concentrations. Lack of sewage treatment in concert with urban development in riparian zones apparently leads to the observation that modest increases in urban land use can cause large increases in nutrient concentrations.

  18. Gas exchange, phisiological indexes and ionic accumulation in Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer seedlings in nutrients solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Baron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available "Araticum-de-terra-fria" (Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer has been consider a good alternative in rootstock production for the main commercial Annonaceae species. Although this species develops in different soil and climate conditions, there is no understanding by the physiological responses of this species at different nutritional levels. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different ionic strengths on development of vegetative species known as "Araticum-de-terra-fria". It was evaluated in seedlings grown in different ionic strengths (25% I, 50% I, 75% I and 100% I of the complete nutrient solution Hoagland and Arnon (1950 nº 2, for 140 days, the following characteristics: Gas Exchange (CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration, transpiration rate, water use efficiency, Rubisco carboxylation efficiency; Vegetative growth characteristics (diameter, leaf number, dry matter; Physiological Indexes (leaf area ratio, specific leaf area, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf weight ratio and Ionic Accumulation (nutrients leaf analysis. Seedlings grown under 50% I showed the highest values of Leaf CO2 assimilation rate, water use efficiency, carboxylation efficiency, growth, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and ionic accumulation in the total dry matter. So it is concluded that "Araticum-de-terra-fria" seedlings grown under intermediate nutrient concentrations of complete nutrient solution Hoagland and Arnon (1950 nº 2, explored more adequately their physiological potential that justify their adaptation in different nutritional conditions and allow reducing the amount of mineral nutrition of seedlings production.

  19. Increased nutrient concentrations in Lake Erie tributaries influenced by greenhouse agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Timothy J; Wellen, Christopher; Stammler, Katie L; Mundle, Scott O C

    2018-08-15

    Greenhouse production of vegetables is a growing global trade. While greenhouses are typically captured under regulations aimed at farmland, they may also function as a point source of effluent. In this study, the cumulative impacts greenhouse effluents have on riverine macronutrient and trace metal concentrations were examined. Water samples were collected Bi-weekly for five years from 14 rivers in agriculturally dominated watersheds in southwestern Ontario. Nine of the watersheds contained greenhouses with their boundaries. Greenhouse influenced rivers had significantly higher concentrations of macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) and trace metals (copper, molybdenum, and zinc). Concentrations within greenhouse influenced rivers appeared to decrease over the 5-year study while concentrations within non-greenhouse influenced river remained constant. The different temporal pattern between river types was attributed to increased precipitation during the study period. Increases in precipitation diluted concentrations in greenhouse influenced rivers; however, non-influenced river runoff proportionally increased nutrient mobility and flow, stabilizing the observed concentrations of non-point sources. Understanding the dynamic nature of environmental releases of point and non-point sources of nutrients and trace metals in mixed agricultural systems using riverine water chemistry is complicated by changes in climatic conditions, highlighting the need for long-term monitoring of nutrients, river flows and weather data in assessing these agricultural sectors. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Concentração e conteúdo de nutrientes em lisianto, cultivado em hidroponia, em sistema NFT = Concentration and nutrient content in lisianthus grown in a hydroponic NFT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alice Antonello Londero Backes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico nutricional é fundamental para determinar as exigências das plantas quanto aos nutrientes, de forma a se proceder a um manejo adequado, de acordo com a espécie. Assim, para determinar as concentrações e conteúdos nutricionais adequados à produção e qualidade de plantas de lisianto em cultivo hidropônico, instalou-se um experimento onde as plantas foram cultivadas em sistema NFT, em diferentes soluções nutritivas. O experimento foi conduzido, segundo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4x3, totalizando 12 tratamentos, com três repetições. Ostratamentos foram compostos de quatro cultivares (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow e Ávila Blue Rim e três soluções nutritivas (Teste, Steiner modificada e Barbosa. Foram avaliadas as concentrações e os conteúdos dos nutrientes nas folhas e conteúdos na parte aérea das plantas. As plantas cultivadas nas soluções Barbosa eTeste apresentaram resultados satisfatórios quanto às concentrações e aos conteúdos de nutrientes, enquanto a solução Steiner modificada produziu plantas com limitações nutricionais.The nutritional diagnosis is fundamental for determining plantnutrients, in order to correctly manage the nutritional requirements for each species. Thus, in order to determine the ideal nutrient amount and concentration for obtaining the best yield and quality of lisianthus grown hydroponically, an experiment was conducted inwhich the plants were grown under the NFT system in different nutrient solutions. The experiment was conducted according to a random block design arrangement in a 4x3 factorial scheme, totaling 12 treatments with three repetitions. The treatments werecomprised of four cultivars (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow and Ávila Blue Rim and three nutrient solutions (Test, modified Steiner and Barbosa. In the leaves, nutrient concentration and content were evaluated; in the aerial

  1. Distribution and emission of oxamyl in a rockwool cultivation system with open drainage of the nutrient solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runia, W.T.; Dekker, A.; Houx, N.W.H.

    1995-01-01

    On a 1.8 ha eggplant nursery with open drainage of the excess of nutrient solution the distribution of oxamyl was measured after it had been added to the nutrient solution. When it was applied via injection at a tap of a section, the distribution was more uniform than when applied via the central

  2. Nitrate concentrations in soil solutions below Danish forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Gundersen, Per

    1999-01-01

    leaching in relation to land-use, a national monitoring programme has established sampling routines in a 7x7 km grid including 111 points in forests. During winters of 1986-1993, soil samples were obtained from a depth of 0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm. Nitrate concentrations in soil solutions were...... species. A few sites deviated radically from the general pattern of low concentrations. The elevated concentrations recorded there were probably caused by high levels of N deposition due to emission from local sources or temporal disruptions of the N cycle. The nitrate concentration in the soil solution...

  3. Processing recommendations for using low-solids digestate as nutrient solution for poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate production with Synechocystis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, K; Fritz, I; Daffert, C; Markl, K; Fuchs, W; Drosg, B

    2016-12-20

    Within the last decades, environmental pollution with persistent plastics steadily increased; therefore the production of biodegradable materials like poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is essential. Currently, PHB is produced with heterotrophic bacteria from crops. This leads to competition with food and feed production, which can be avoided by using photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, as Synechocystis salina, synthesizing PHB from CO 2 at nutrient limitation. This study aims to increase the economic efficiency of PHB production with cyanobacteria by using nutrients from anaerobic digestate. First, growth and PHB production of S. salina in digestate fractions (supernatant and permeate, with/without precipitating agents) and dilutions thereof and then the scale-up (photobioreactor, 200 L working volume) were evaluated. With precipitated and centrifuged digestate diluted 1/3 the highest biomass (1.55gL -1 ) and PHB concentrations (95.4mgL -1 ), being 78% of those in mineral media, were achieved. In the photobioreactor-experiments biomass (1.63gL -1 ) and PHB concentrations (88.7mgL -1 ), being 79% and 72% of those in mineral medium, were reached, but in a cultivation time 10days longer than in mineral medium. The possibility to use digestate as sustainable and low cost nutrient solution for microalgae cultivation and photoautotrophic PHB production, instead of applying it on fields or processing it to achieve discharge limits, makes this application a highly valid option. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stability and Concentration Verification of Ammonium Perchlorate Dosing Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsui, David

    1998-01-01

    Stability and concentration verification was performed for the ammonium perchlorate dosing solutions used in the on-going 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study conducted by Springborn Laboratories, Inc. (SLI Study No. 3433.1...

  5. Microrheology of concentrated DNA solutions using optical tweezers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . In this work, we report the determination of microrheological properties of concentrated, double-stranded calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) solutions using passive, laser-scattering based particle-tracking methodology. From power spectral analysis, ...

  6. Influence of Phosphorus and Manganese Rats in Nutrient Solution on Mn-54 Uptake by Mango Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaf, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was designed using solution culture and Mn-54 to study the effect of P and Mn rates on absorption of Mn-54, its translocation and percentage using six month old mango seedlings (Hindi Bi-Sinara cv.). Rates of P in nutrient solution were zero, half, one and two strength i.e. 0, 1, 2 and 4 m M whereas Mn rates were 1, 2 and 3 strength i.e. 2, 4 and 6 μM. The prepared nutrient solutions were labelled with carrier free Mn-54. Total absorption of Mn-54 by mango roots from nutrient solution was highly increased by increasing Mn rates, moreover, increasing P rates in media tended to enhance Mn-54 absorption. Translocation and distribution pattern of absorbed Mn-54 followed, to a great extent, the same trend of total absorption of it but with different magnitude. In this concern, more than 90% (about 94%) of total absorption of Mn-54 was retained in root system, whereas about 4% and 2% was translocated in stems and leaves, respectively. Retained Mn in mango roots is considered a good source of Mn for supplying mango plants with it for long term during growing season.

  7. Nutrient Concentrations and Stable Isotopes of Runoff from a Midwest Tile-Drained Corn Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, B. P.; Woo, D.; Li, J.; Michalski, G. M.; Kumar, P.; Conroy, J. L.; Keefer, D. A.; Keefer, L. L.; Hodson, T. O.

    2017-12-01

    Tile drains are a common crop drainage device used in Midwest agroecosystems. While efficient at drainage, the tiles provide a quick path for nutrient runoff, reducing the time available for microbes to use nutrients (e.g., NO3- and PO43-) and reduce export to riverine systems. Thus, understanding the effects of tile drains on nutrient runoff is critical to achieve nutrient reduction goals. Here we present isotopic and concentration data collected from tile drain runoff of a corn field located near Monticello, IL. Tile flow samples were measured for anion concentrations and stable isotopes of H2O and NO3-, while precipitation was measured for dual isotopes of H2O. Results demonstrate early tile flow from rain events have a low Cl- concentration (60% contribution) in the beginning of the hydrograph. As flow continues H2O isotopic values reflect pre-event water (ground and soil water), and Cl- concentrations increase representing a greater influence by matrix flow (60-90% contribution). Nitrate concentrations change dramatically, especially during the growing season, and do not follow a similar trend as the conservative Cl-, often decreasing days before, which represents missing nitrate in the upper surface portion of the soil. Nitrate isotopic data shows significant changes in 15N (4‰) and 18O (4‰) during individual hydrological events, representing that in addition to plant uptake and leaching, considerate NO3- is lost through denitrification. It is notable, that throughout the season d15N and d18O of nitrate change significantly representing that seasonally, substantial denitrification occurs.

  8. Nutritional disorder of lettuce cv. Veronica in nutrient solution with suppressed macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Batista Firmato de Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is the most popular of the leafy vegetables. It is known worldwide and its consumption occurs mainly in the natural form. The objective was to evaluate the effect of macronutrient omission on the growth and nutritional status of the lettuce cv. Veronica, and to describe the visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency. The treatments complete consisted of the solution and the individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S, under a completely randomized design with three replications. Plants were grown in Hoagland & Arnon, in pots (8L. At 56 days after transplant we evaluated plant height, leaf number, leaf area, SPAD index, dry matter of shoots, roots and whole plant, levels of macronutrients in shoots and roots, and the nature of nutritional disorders. The omission of nutrients affected the growth variables. The nutrients found in lettuce plants from nutrient solution and the complete omission in the shoot were, respectively, N= 23.2 to 9.5, P= 5.4 to 1.3, K= 58,9 to 3.2, Ca= 12.1 to 3.6, Mg= 5.5 to 0.7 and S= 3.2 to 1.5g.kg-1. The omission of macronutrients caused quality losses, since it affected the nutrition of the vegetables and this resulted in morphological changes, reflected as symptoms of deficiency for each nutrient.

  9. Bacterial Shifts in Nutrient Solutions Flowing Through Biofilters Used in Tomato Soilless Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, David; Déniel, Franck; Vallance, Jessica; Bruez, Emilie; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Rey, Patrice

    2017-11-25

    In soilless culture, slow filtration is used to eliminate plant pathogenic microorganisms from nutrient solutions. The present study focused on the characterization and the potential functions of microbial communities colonizing the nutrient solutions recycled on slow filters during a whole cultivation season of 7 months in a tomato growing system. Bacterial microflora colonizing the solutions before and after they flew through the columns were studied. Two filters were amended with Pseudomonas putida (P-filter) or Bacillus cereus strains (B-filter), and a third filter was a control (C-filter). Biological activation of filter unit through bacterial amendment enhanced very significantly filter efficacy against plant potential pathogens Pythium spp. and Fusarium oxysporum. However, numerous bacteria (10 3 -10 4  CFU/mL) were detected in the effluent solutions. The community-level physiological profiling indicated a temporal shift of bacterial microflora, and the metabolism of nutrient solutions originally oriented towards carbohydrates progressively shifted towards degradation of amino acids and carboxylic acids over the 7-month period of experiment. Single-strand conformation polymorphism fingerprinting profiles showed that a shift between bacterial communities colonizing influent and effluent solutions of slow filters occurred. In comparison with influent, 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that phylotype diversity was low in the effluent of P- and C-filters, but no reduction was observed in the effluent of the B-filter. Suppressive potential of solutions filtered on a natural filter (C-filter), where the proportion of Proteobacteria (α- and β-) increased, whereas the proportion of uncultured candidate phyla rose in P- and B-filters, is discussed.

  10. A portable concentrator for processing plutonium containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Chen, L.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a horizontal, compact agitated-film concentrator called a Rototherm, manufactured by Artisan Industries, Inc. which can be used to process aqueous solutions of radioactive wastes containing plutonium. The unit is designed to concentrate liquid streams to a high-solid content slurry

  11. Lignification in beech grown at elevated CO2 concentrations: interaction with nutrient availability and leaf maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaschke, L; Forstreuter, M.; Sheppard, L. J.; Leith, K.; Murray, M. B.; Polle, A.

    2002-01-01

    Results of a study undertaken to investigate contradictory observations reported in the literature to the effect that growth in elevated carbon dioxide affects ontogeny, are discussed. Results of this study showed that seedlings grown at elevated carbon dioxide had nitrogen concentrations of about 15 per cent lower than seedlings grown in ambient carbon dioxide. Elevated carbon dioxide caused increased growth and biomass production in trees with a medium to high nutrient supply, but had no effect on growth of trees with a low nutrient supply rate. Because elevated carbon dioxide enhanced seedling growth in the high nutrient supply treatments, the total amount of lignin produced per seedling was higher in these treatments. Overall, the results suggest that carbon dioxide availability does not directly affect lignin concentrations, but affects them indirectly through the effects on or an interaction with nitrogen supply and growth. In seedlings, elevated carbon dioxide reduced lignin concentration on a dry mass basis, indicating diminished wood quality in a carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere. 51 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  12. Effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility in rams fed high or low concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, M J; Azizabadi, E; Momeni, Z; Rezvani, M R; Atashi, H; Akhlaghi, A

    2015-01-01

    Published data on the effects of essential oils (EO) on in vivo nutrient digestibility in sheep are contradictory. In 2 experiments, the effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility was studied in sheep fed with high (70%) or low (52%) concentrate diets, using incomplete Latin Square designs. The essential oils were mixed with the concentrate portion of the diet at the rate of 0.0, 0.3, or 0.6 g per kg dry matter (DM) diet. Supplementation of thymol had no significant effect on digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The main effect of thymol on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ether extract (EE) digestibility and on nitrogen balance (NB) was significant (Pdigestibility. The main effect of carvacrol on ruminal ammonia levels and NB was significant, but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed in ammonia levels and NB. Inclusion of 0.3 g/kg diet DM of carvacrol or thyme was more effective than 0.6 g/kg diet DM in terms of NB but neither dose affected nutrient digestibility. Future research should determine the long-term effects of essential oils on digestibility and performance in sheep, before recommendation can be made for their use under practical husbandry conditions.

  13. Litter production and its nutrient concentration in some fuelwood trees grown on sodic soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, V.K. (National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India))

    1992-01-01

    Litter production was estimated in 8-year-old tree plantations of Acacia nilotica, Prosopis juliflora, Dalbergia sisso, and Terminalia arjuna planted in a monoculture tree cropping system on sodic soils of Lucknow Division, India. Mean annual litter fall of these trees amounted to 5.9, 7.4, 5.0 and 5.4 t ha[sup -1], respectively. Irrespective of tree species, the leaf litter concentrations of N, K and Ca were greater than those of P and Mg. The concentration of nutrients in leaf tissues was negatively correlated for N and Ca, with the magnitude of leaf fall in D. sissoo, but was positively correlated for Ca and Mg in A. nilotica; no such correlations were found in P. juliflora and T. arjuna. The variations in the concentration of leaf litter nutrient did not appear to be species specific but depended on adverse edaphic properties including the fertility status of sodic soil. A. nilotica and P. juliflora with bimodal patterns of litter fall return greater amounts of nutrients to the soil surface than D. sissoo and T. arjuna which have unimodal patterns of litter fall. The study indicated the potential benefit of a mixed plantation system having variable leaf fall patterns among the planted trees so providing constant litter mulch to help in conserving soil moisture. (author).

  14. Influence of nutrient solutions in an open-field soilless system on the quality characteristics and shelf life of fresh-cut red and green lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) in different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, María C; Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Selma, María V; Tudela, Juan A; Baixauli, Carlos; Gil, María I

    2013-01-01

    Little information is available about the impact of nutrient solution ion concentration on quality characteristics and shelf life of fresh-cut lettuce grown in soilless systems in open field. Three lettuce genotypes, lollo rosso and red oak leaf as red-leafed genotypes and butterhead as green-leafed genotype, were studied. The influence of three nutrient solutions with low, medium and high ion concentrations, which varied in the macroanion (NO₃⁻) and macrocations (K⁺, Ca²⁺ and NH₄⁺), were compared in summer and winter. The nutrient solutions evaluated in this study for the production of lettuce in a soilless system did not strongly influence the quality characteristics of the raw material. When the ion concentration of the nutrient solution was increased, fresh weight decreased, although it depended on the genotype and season. Maturity index and dry matter content varied with the season but independently of the nutrient solution. In summer, maturity index was higher and dry matter lower than in winter. Initial texture and visual quality were not influenced by the nutrient solution. Medium ion concentration provided the highest content of vitamin C and phenolic compounds. Our observations pointed out that the genotype had a strong influence on the shelf life of the fresh-cut product with minor differences among nutrient solutions. In general, red-leafed lettuces showed the highest antioxidant content, helping the maintenance of sensory characteristics throughout storage. The combination of optimal nutrient solution ion concentration and suitable cultivar is considered essential to ensure lettuce post-cutting life. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Influência da condutividade elétrica, concentração iônica e vazão de soluções nutritivas na produção de alface hidropônica Effect of electric conductivity, ionic concentration and flow of nutrient solutions in the production of hidroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Helbel Junior

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estudar os efeitos de diferentes soluções nutritivas aplicadas em duas vazões na produção hidropônica da alface (Lactuca sativa, cultivada pelo sistema NFT (Nutritive Film Technique. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, na unidade de pesquisa em agricultura irrigada da Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Os tratamentos constaram de três soluções nutritivas com concentrações diferentes (S1=0,8 dS/m, S2=1,2 dS/m e S3=2,5 dS/m, combinadas com duas vazões de aplicação (V1=0,8 L.min-1 e V2=1,2 L.min-1 nos canais de cultivo em esquema fatorial 3 x 2. Para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos no desenvolvimento da cultura os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância (teste F, e os resultados avaliados através de teste de média de Tukey (5%. A análise dos resultados permitiu concluir que os fatores solução e vazão não apresentaram interação significativa e que os maiores valores avaliados de biomassa fresca e diâmetro do caule foram obtidos no tratamento solução 2 (CE= 1,2 dS/m.The porpose of this work was to study the effect of different nutrient solutions applied in two outflow in the hidroponic yeld of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. This research was accomplished at greenhouse through hydroponic system NFT in Maringá State University. The treatments consisted of three nutrient solutions (S1=0,8 dS/m, S2=1,2 dS/m e S3=2,5 dS/m combined with two flows of application (V1=0,8 L.min-1 e V2=1,2 L.min-1 in the growing channels of cultivation. The flows of application of the solutions were 0,8 L.min-1 (V1 and 1,2 L.min-1 (V2, placed alternately in the growing channels in a 3 x 2 factorial scheme. To evaluate the effect of treatments on the culture development the data were submitted to the variance analysis (Test F, and the results were evaluated through Tukey (5% average test. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the factories nutrient solution and flow did not show

  16. Effects of watershed and riparian zone characteristics on nutrient concentrations in the River Scheldt Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Meynendonckx

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative influence of a set of watershed characteristics on surface water nutrient concentrations was examined in 173 watersheds within two subcatchments (Upper-Scheldt and Nete of the River Scheldt Basin (Flanders, Belgium. Each watershed was described by seasonal rainfall, discharge loading of point sources, morphological characteristics (area, average slope, drainage density, elongation, land use and soil properties (soil texture and drainage. Partial regression analysis revealed that soil drainage variables had the strongest influence on nutrient concentrations. Additional influence was exerted by land use and point source loading variables. Nitrate concentrations were positively correlated with effluent loadings coming from wastewater treatment plants and with the area of agricultural land. Phosphate concentrations were best explained by effluent loadings of industrial point sources and by the area of urban land. Land use close to the river was not a better predictor of nitrate and phosphate concentrations than land use away from the river. This suggests that the mediating impact of riparian zones is rather explained by the hydrologic pathways within the buffer strip.

  17. Salt type and concentration affect the viscoelasticity of polyelectrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoz, Emre; Perazzo, Antonio; Arnold, Craig B.; Stone, Howard A.

    2018-05-01

    The addition of small amounts of xanthan gum to water yields viscoelastic solutions. In this letter, we show that the viscoelasticity of aqueous xanthan gum solutions can be tuned by different types of salts. In particular, we find that the decrease in viscoelasticity not only depends, as is known, on the salt concentration, but also is affected by the counterion ionic radius and the valence of the salt.

  18. Modeled sensitivity of Lake Michigan productivity and zooplankton to changing nutrient concentrations and quagga mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Darren J.; McKinley, Galen A.; Kralj, James; Bootsma, Harvey A.; Reavie, Euan D.

    2017-08-01

    The recent decline in Lake Michigan productivity is often attributed to filter feeding by invasive quagga mussels, but some studies also implicate reductions in lakewide nutrient concentrations. We use a 3-D coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model to evaluate the effect of changing nutrient concentrations and quagga mussel filtering on phytoplankton production and phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass. Sensitivity experiments are used to assess the net effect of each change separately and in unison. Quagga mussels are found to have the greatest impact during periods of isothermal mixing, while nutrients have the greatest impact during thermal stratification. Quagga mussels also act to enhance spatial heterogeneity, particularly between nearshore-offshore regions. This effect produces a reversal in the gradient of nearshore-offshore productivity: from relatively greater nearshore productivity in the prequagga lake to relatively lesser nearshore productivity after quaggas. The combined impact of both processes drives substantial reductions in phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass, as well as significant modifications to the seasonality of surface water pCO2, particularly in nearshore regions where mussel grazing continues year-round. These results support growing concern that considerable losses of phytoplankton and zooplankton will yield concurrent losses at higher trophic levels. Comparisons to observed productivity suggest that both quagga mussel filtration and lower lakewide total phosphorus are necessary to accurately simulate recent changes in primary productivity in Lake Michigan.

  19. The MANAGE database: nutrient load and site characteristic updates and runoff concentration data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmel, Daren; Qian, Song; Reckhow, Ken; Casebolt, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    The "Measured Annual Nutrient loads from AGricultural Environments" (MANAGE) database was developed to be a readily accessible, easily queried database of site characteristic and field-scale nutrient export data. The original version of MANAGE, which drew heavily from an early 1980s compilation of nutrient export data, created an electronic database with nutrient load data and corresponding site characteristics from 40 studies on agricultural (cultivated and pasture/range) land uses. In the current update, N and P load data from 15 additional studies of agricultural runoff were included along with N and P concentration data for all 55 studies. The database now contains 1677 watershed years of data for various agricultural land uses (703 for pasture/rangeland; 333 for corn; 291 for various crop rotations; 177 for wheat/oats; and 4-33 yr for barley, citrus, vegetables, sorghum, soybeans, cotton, fallow, and peanuts). Across all land uses, annual runoff loads averaged 14.2 kg ha(-1) for total N and 2.2 kg ha(-1) for total P. On average, these losses represented 10 to 25% of applied fertilizer N and 4 to 9% of applied fertilizer P. Although such statistics produce interesting generalities across a wide range of land use, management, and climatic conditions, regional crop-specific analyses should be conducted to guide regulatory and programmatic decisions. With this update, MANAGE contains data from a vast majority of published peer-reviewed N and P export studies on homogeneous agricultural land uses in the USA under natural rainfall-runoff conditions and thus provides necessary data for modeling and decision-making related to agricultural runoff. The current version can be downloaded at http://www.ars.usda.gov/spa/manage-nutrient.

  20. Influence of light presence and biomass concentration on nutrient kinetic removal from urban wastewater by Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J; Arbib, Z; Alvarez-Díaz, P D; Garrido-Pérez, C; Barragán, J; Perales, J A

    2014-05-20

    This work was aimed at studying the effect of light-darkness and high-low biomass concentrations in the feasibility of removing nitrogen and phosphorus from urban treated wastewater by the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. Laboratory experiments were conducted in batch, where microalgae were cultured under different initial biomass concentrations (150 and 1500mgSSl(-1)) and light conditions (dark or illuminated). Nutrient uptake was more dependent on internal nutrient content of the biomass than on light presence or biomass concentration. When a maximum nitrogen or phosphorus content in the biomass was reached (around 8% and 2%, respectively), the removal of that nutrient was almost stopped. Biomass concentration affected more than light presence on the nutrient removal rate, increasing significantly with its increase. Light was only required to remove nutrients when the maximum nutrient storage capacity of the cells was reached and further growth was therefore needed. Residence times to maintain a stable biomass concentration, avoiding the washout of the reactor, were much higher than those needed to remove the nutrients from the wastewater. This ability to remove nutrients in the absence of light could lead to new configurations of reactors aimed to wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Conductivity and electrochemical stability of concentrated aqueous choline chloride solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, E. P.; Kudryakova, N. O.

    2017-10-01

    The conductivity and electrochemical stability of choline chloride (ChCl) solutions with water contents ranging from 20 to 39 wt % are studied. Exposing ChCl to moist ambient air yields a highly concentrated aqueous solution that, as an electrolyte, exhibits the properties and variations in conductivity with temperature and concentration characteristic of other similar systems. Its electrochemical stability window, determined by cyclic voltammetry, is comparable to that of ChCl-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Products of the electrolysis of ChCl‒H2O mixtures seem to be less toxic than those of Reline, Ethaline, and Maline.

  2. Symptoms of nutritional deficiencies in neem plants cultivated in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnky Chaell Braga da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The planting of forest species is an activity that, besides introducing new exotic types of plants, can lessen the environmental impacts resulting from extractivism. Nevertheless, such success depends, upon other factors, on the knowledge of the nutritional needs of the species to be used. This study intended to check the typical symptoms of nutritional deficiency of macronutrients in the culture of Neem, through the visual observation of the plants. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at the College of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine (FAMEV of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT in Cuiabá/MT, and it was set up in randomized blocks, with seven treatments and three repetitions. Each experimental unit was represented by a plastic vase, two liters capacity. The treatments used were: complete nutritive solution and solution with the omission of the following nutrients: -N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg and -S. It was ascertained that the visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency were, as a general rule, of easy characterization except for the treatment with omission of sulphur. Therefore, the omission of macronutrients decreases the production of total dry matter of the Neem plants, except for the omission of the S nutrient.

  3. Hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in saline solution: sequestration of nutrients on carbonaceous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nover

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, feasibility of selected nutrient sequestration during hydrothermal carbonization (HTC was tested for three different HTC temperatures (180, 230, and 300 °C. To study the nutrient sequestration in solid from liquid solution, sugar and salt solutions were chosen as HTC feedstock. Glucose was used as carbohydrate source and various salts e.g., ammonium hydrophosphate, potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, and anhydrous ferric chloride were used as source of nitrogen and phosphorus, potassium, and iron, respectively. Solid hydrochar was extensively characterized by means of elemental, ICP-OES, SEM-EDX, surface area, pore volume and size, and ATR-FTIR to determine nutrients’ sequestration as well as hydrochar quality variation with HTC temperatures. The spherical mesoporous hydrochars produced during HTC have low surface area in the range of 1.0–3.5 m2 g−1. Hydrochar yield was increased about 10% with the increase of temperature from 180 °C to 300 °C. Nutrient sequestration was also increased with HTC temperature. In fact, around 71, 31, and 23 wt% nitrogen, iron, and phosphorus were sequestered at 300 °C, respectively. Potassium sequestration was very low throughout the HTC and maximum 5.2% was observed in solid during HTC.

  4. Development of system on predicting uranium concentration from pregnant solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Weiping

    2004-01-01

    Uranium concentration from pregnant solution is primary index of process for in-situ leaching of uranium, and the suitable method with which to predicate this index and effective means to solve it with were continuously studied hard. SPUC-system on predicting uranium concentration based on GM model of gray system theory is developed, and the mathematical model, constitution, function and theory foundation of this system are introduced. (authors)

  5. Nutrient digestibility and beef cattle performance fed by lerak (Sapindus rarak meal in concentrate ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suharti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the use of Lerak fruit meal to improve performance and feed digestibility of beef cattle. The research consisted of two trials (in vitro and in vivo studies. The in vitro trial was screening of bioactive compounds (saponin, tanin, dan diosgenin in Lerak fruit (including seed and continued to evaluate the effectivity of these compounds against ruminal protozoa. The in vivo study was done using 12 Ongole Crossbreed cattle which received 1of 3 different treatments: 1 concentrate without Lerak as control, 2 concentrate containing 2.5% Lerak, and 3 concentrate containing 5% Lerak. Anti protozoal activity, daily gain, and nutrient digestibility of beef cattle were measured. Results showed that saponin concentration in Lerak extracted by methanol was higher than that in Lerak extracted by water and Lerak meal, 81.5%; 8.2% and 3.85% respectively. Lerak extracted by methanol have higher antiprotozoal activity in vitro than Lerak extracted by water. In vivo experiment showed that there were no significant differences (P>0.05 of nutrient intake and digestibility in all treatments, that means the ration had good palatability and quality. Average daily gain of PO fed 2.5% Lerak was 20% higher than that of control diet (0.9 kg/day.

  6. THE MAIN NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION FROM INTRA TISSUE WATER OF BENTHOS ORAGANISMS FROM MURES BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA POPA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the hydrographic basin of Mures river, aboard an altitude gradient, were taken samples of intra tissue waters from benthonic organisms for research the nutrients concentrations. The reference point was represented by a dairy caw farm where the agricultural fields of this is applied the organic fertilization with manure. The intra tissue water samples from benthonic organisms were prelevated in spring and autumn and the prelevate dates are the same with spread manure dates. At the intra tissue water level, concentrations value of N and P are bigger at the second data prelevations than first data prelevations and we can conclude that the benthonic oligochetas activity increase, more than, they density increase in Mures basin. The high concentrations of NH4 show as that Mures basin is a zone characterized by high degree of anoxia and this fact is supported by significant differences between seasonal prelevations. The explication is the manifestation to the cumulated and at distance effects of introduction in water to some organic products, very probably washed from neighborhoods agricultural field. Were calculated values of Student test for seasonal comparisons and were founded significant differences between nutrients concentration values at first and second prelevations.

  7. Impact of solute concentration on the electrocatalytic conversion of dissolved gases in buffered solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    . These alterations of the electrolyte properties associated with the solute concentration are universally applicable to other aqueous gas-related electrochemical reactions because the currents are purely determined by mass transfer of the dissolved gases. © 2015

  8. Fertilizer drawn forward osmosis process for sustainable water reuse to grow hydroponic lettuce using commercial nutrient solution

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, Laura; Eun Kim, Jung; El Saliby, Ibrahim; Kim, Youngjin; Phuntsho, Sherub; Li, Sheng; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Kyong Shon, Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the sustainable reuse of wastewater using fertilizer drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) process through osmotic dilution of commercial nutrient solution for hydroponics, a widely used technique for growing plants without soil

  9. Densities concentrations of aqueous of uranyl nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo Otero, A.; Rodriguez Hernandez, B.; Fernandez Rodriguez, L.

    1966-01-01

    The ratio density-concentration of aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions expressed as U 3 O 8 grams/liter, U grams/liter and hexahydrate uranyl nitrate weight percent at different temperatures, are established. Experimental values are graphically correlated and compared whit some published data. (Author) 2 refs

  10. Rheological properties of concentrated solutions of carboxymethyl starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Željko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl starch was synthesized by the esterification of starch with monochloroacetic acid in ethanol as a reaction medium. Three samples of carboxymethyl starch having different degrees of substitution were prepared. The influence of temperature on the viscosity of concentrated carboxymethyl starch solutions, as well as the dynamic-mechanical properties of the concentrated solutions were investigated. The activation energy of viscous flow was determined and it was found that it decreased with increasing degree of substitution. The results of the dynamic-mechanical measurements showed that solutions of starch and carboxymethyl starches with higher degrees of substitution behave as gels. Values of the storage modulus in the rubbery plateau were used to calculate the molar masses between two points of physical crosslinking, the density of crosslinking and the distance between two points of crosslinking.

  11. NPK fertilization effects on concentration of nutrients in Valencia orange leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, C.; Mielniczuk, J.; Bohnen, H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of NPK fertilization on the nutrient concentration in the leaves was evaluated in a field experiment of Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) growing in a sandy acid soil, with 4N, 3P and 4K fertilizer levels. N and Cu contents in the leaves were high, while P and Zn levels were low, in all treatments. Increasing the levels of N, P 2 O 5 and K 2 O fertilization resulted in an increase of the N, P and K concentration in the leaves, respectively. Crescent levels of N fertilization raised Mn and decreased Ca concentration in the leaves. P and K contents in the leaves correlated positively. With a great availability and absorption of K, reduction on he foliar contents of Mg and Ca ocurred. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. Relation of nutrient concentrations, nutrient loading, and algal production to changes in water levels in Kabetogama Lake, Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Maki, Ryan P.; Kiesling, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment has led to excessive algal growth in Kabetogama Lake, Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota. Water- and sediment-quality data were collected during 2008-09 to assess internal and external nutrient loading. Data collection was focused in Kabetogama Lake and its inflows, the area of greatest concern for eutrophication among the lakes of Voyageurs National Park. Nutrient and algal data were used to determine trophic status and were evaluated in relation to changes in Kabetogama Lake water levels following changes to dam operation starting in 2000. Analyses were used to estimate external nutrient loading at inflows and assess the potential contribution of internal phosphorus loading. Kabetogama Lake often was mixed vertically, except for a few occasionally stratified areas, including Lost Bay in the northeastern part of Kabetogama Lake. Stratification, combined with larger bottom-water nutrient concentrations, larger sediment phosphorus concentrations, and estimated phosphorus release rates from sediment cores indicate that Lost Bay may be one of several areas that may be contributing substantially to internal loading. Internal loading is a concern because nutrients may cause excessive algal growth including potentially toxic cyanobacteria. The cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, microcystin, was detected in 7 of 14 cyanobacterial bloom samples, with total concentrations exceeding 1.0 microgram per liter, the World Health Organization's guideline for finished drinking water for the congener, microcystin-LR. Comparisons of the results of this study to previous studies indicate that chlorophyll-a concentrations and trophic state indices have improved since 2000, when the rules governing dam operation changed. However, total-phosphorus concentrations have not changed significantly since 2000.

  13. Acquisition and Analysis of Data from High Concentration Solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Besong, Tabot M.D.

    2016-05-13

    The problems associated with ultracentrifugal analysis of macromolecular solutions at high (>10 mg/ml) are reviewed. Especially for the case of solutes which are non-monodisperse, meaningful results are not readily achievable using sedimentation velocity approaches. It is shown however by both simulation and analysis of practical data that using a modified form of an algorithm (INVEQ) published in other contexts, sedimentation equilibrium (SE) profiles can be analysed successfully, enabling topics such as oligomer presence or formation to be defined.To achieve this, it is necessary to employ an approach in which the solution density, which in an SE profile is radius-dependent, is taken into consideration. Simulation suggests that any reasonable level of solute concentration can be analysed.

  14. Acquisition and Analysis of Data from High Concentration Solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Besong, Tabot M.D.; Rowe, Arthur J.

    2016-01-01

    The problems associated with ultracentrifugal analysis of macromolecular solutions at high (>10 mg/ml) are reviewed. Especially for the case of solutes which are non-monodisperse, meaningful results are not readily achievable using sedimentation velocity approaches. It is shown however by both simulation and analysis of practical data that using a modified form of an algorithm (INVEQ) published in other contexts, sedimentation equilibrium (SE) profiles can be analysed successfully, enabling topics such as oligomer presence or formation to be defined.To achieve this, it is necessary to employ an approach in which the solution density, which in an SE profile is radius-dependent, is taken into consideration. Simulation suggests that any reasonable level of solute concentration can be analysed.

  15. Long-Term Trends in Nutrient Concentrations and Fluxes in Streams Draining to Lake Tahoe, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Lake Tahoe, situated in the rain shadow of the eastern Sierra Nevada at an elevation of 1,897 meters, has numerous small to medium sized tributaries that are sources of nutrients and fine sediment. The Tahoe watershed is relatively small and the surface area of the lake occupies about 38% of the total watershed area (1,313 km2). Each stream contributing water to the lake therefore also occupies a small watershed, mostly forested, with typical trees being Jeffrey, Ponderosa, or Sugar Pine and White Fir. Outflow from the lake contributes to downstream uses such as water supply and ecological resources. Only about 6% of the watershed is urbanized or residential land, and wastewater is exported to adjacent basins and not discharged to the lake as part of a plan to maintain water clarity. The lake's exceptional clarity has been diminishing due to phytoplankton and fine sediment, prompting development of management plans to improve water quality. Much of the annual discharge and flux of nutrients to the lake results from snowmelt in the spring and summer months, and climatic changes have begun to shift this melt to earlier time frames. Winter rains on urbanized land also contribute to nutrient loads. To understand the relative importance of land use, climate, and other factors affecting stream concentrations and fluxes, a Weighted Regression on Time Discharge and Season (WRTDS) model documented trends over a time frame of greater than 25 years. Ten streams have records of discharge, nutrient (NO3, NH3, OP, TP, TKN) and sediment data to complete this analysis. Both urbanized and non-urbanized locations generally show NO3 trending down in the 1980s. Some locations show initially decreasing orthophosphate trends, followed by small significant increases in concentration and fluxes starting around 2000 to 2005. Although no wastewater enters the streams, ammonia concentrations mimic those of orthophosphate, with initially negative trends in concentration and flux followed by

  16. Transposing Concentration-Discharge Curves onto Unmonitored Catchments to Estimate Seasonal Nutrient Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaudo, C.; Moatar, F.; Abbott, B. W.; Dupas, R.; Gascuel-Odoux, C.; Pinay, G.; Roubeix, V.; Danis, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Many lakes and reservoirs in Europe suffer from severe eutrophication. Accurate quantification of nutrient loads are critical for effective mitigation measures, but this information is often unknown. For example, in France, only 50 out of 481 lakes and reservoirs have national monitoring allowing estimation of interannual nitrogen and phosphorus loads, and even these loads are computed from low-frequency data. To address this lack of data, we developed a straightforward method to predict seasonal loads in lake tributaries. First, we analyzed concentration-discharge (C-Q) curves in monitored catchments and identified slopes, intercepts, and coefficient of variation of the log(C)-log(Q) regressions determined for both low and high flows, separated by the median daily flow [Moatar et al., 2017]. Then, we used stepwise multiple linear regression models to empirically link the characteristics of C-Q curves with a set of catchment descriptors such as land use, lithology, morphology indices, climate, and hydrological indicators. Modeled C-Q relationships were then used to estimate annual and seasonal nutrient loads in nearby and similar unmonitored catchments. We implemented this approach on a large dataset from France where stream flow was surveyed daily and water quality (suspended solids, nitrate, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate concentrations) was measured on a monthly basis at 233 stations over the past 20 years in catchments from 10 to 3000 km². The concentration at the median daily flow (seen here as a metric of the general level of contamination in a catchment) was predicted with uncertainty ranging between 30 and 100 %, depending on the variable. C-Q slopes were predicted with large errors, but a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the impact of C-Q slopes uncertainties on computed annual and seasonal loads. This approach allows estimation of seasonal and annual nutrient loads and could be potentially implemented to improve protection and

  17. Differences in nutrient concentrations and resources between seagrass communities on carbonate and terrigenous sediments in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erftemeijer, P.L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Water column, sediment and plant parameters were studied in six tropical seagrass beds in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, to evaluate the relation between seagrass bed nutrient concentrations and sediment type. Coastal seagrass beds on terrigenous sediments had considerably higher biomass of

  18. EPA's Review of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Permits and Nutrient Management Plans in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starting in 2013, EPA conducted reviews of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) permits and nutrient management plans (NMPs) in six of the Bay jurisdictions (Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia).

  19. Micro and Macroscale Drivers of Nutrient Concentrations in Urban Streams in South, Central and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiselle, Steven A; Gasparini Fernandes Cunha, Davi; Shupe, Scott; Valiente, Elsa; Rocha, Luciana; Heasley, Eleanore; Belmont, Patricia Pérez; Baruch, Avinoam

    Global metrics of land cover and land use provide a fundamental basis to examine the spatial variability of human-induced impacts on freshwater ecosystems. However, microscale processes and site specific conditions related to bank vegetation, pollution sources, adjacent land use and water uses can have important influences on ecosystem conditions, in particular in smaller tributary rivers. Compared to larger order rivers, these low-order streams and rivers are more numerous, yet often under-monitored. The present study explored the relationship of nutrient concentrations in 150 streams in 57 hydrological basins in South, Central and North America (Buenos Aires, Curitiba, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Mexico City and Vancouver) with macroscale information available from global datasets and microscale data acquired by trained citizen scientists. Average sub-basin phosphate (P-PO4) concentrations were found to be well correlated with sub-basin attributes on both macro and microscales, while the relationships between sub-basin attributes and nitrate (N-NO3) concentrations were limited. A phosphate threshold for eutrophic conditions (>0.1 mg L-1 P-PO4) was exceeded in basins where microscale point source discharge points (eg. residential, industrial, urban/road) were identified in more than 86% of stream reaches monitored by citizen scientists. The presence of bankside vegetation covaried (rho = -0.53) with lower phosphate concentrations in the ecosystems studied. Macroscale information on nutrient loading allowed for a strong separation between basins with and without eutrophic conditions. Most importantly, the combination of macroscale and microscale information acquired increased our ability to explain sub-basin variability of P-PO4 concentrations. The identification of microscale point sources and bank vegetation conditions by citizen scientists provided important information that local authorities could use to improve their management of lower order river ecosystems.

  20. Long-term effects of rainforest disturbance on the nutrient composition of throughfall, organic layer percolate and soil solution at Mt. Kilimanjaro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrumpf, Marion; Axmacher, Jan C; Zech, Wolfgang; Lehmann, Johannes; Lyaruu, Herbert V C

    2007-04-15

    At the lower parts of the forest belt at Mt. Kilimanjaro, selective logging has led to a mosaic of mature forest, old secondary forests ( approximately 60 years), and old clearings ( approximately 10 years) covered by shrub vegetation. These variations in the vegetation are reflected by differences in nutrient leaching from the canopy and in both amount and quality of litter reaching the ground, thereby also influencing mineralization rates and the composition of seepage water in litter percolate and soil solution. The aim of this study was to investigate how above- and belowground nutrient dynamics vary between regeneration stages, and if forest regeneration at the clearings is hampered by a deterioration of abiotic site conditions. K, Mg, Ca, Na and N compounds were analysed in rainfall, throughfall, organic layer percolate and the soil solution to a depth of 1.00 m at three clearings, three secondary forest and four mature forest sites. Element fluxes via throughfall showed only small variations among regeneration stages except for K and NO(3)-N. With 57-83 kg ha(-1) a(-1)and 2.6-4.1 kg ha(-1) a(-1) respectively, K and NO(3)-N fluxes via throughfall were significantly higher at the clearings than at the mature forest sites (32-37 and 0.7-1.0 kg ha(-1) a(-1) for K and NO(3)-N). In organic layer percolate and in soil solution at 0.15-m soil depth, concentrations of K, Mg, Ca and N were highest at the clearings. In the organic layer percolate, median K concentrations were e.g. 7.4 mg l(-1) for the clearings but only 1.4 mg l(-1) for the mature forests, and for NO(3)-N, median concentrations were 3.1 mg l(-1) for the clearings but only 0.92 mg l(-1) for the mature forest sites. Still, differences in annual means between clearings and mature forests were not always significant due to a high variability within the clearings. With the exception of NO(3)-N, belowground nutrient concentrations in secondary forests ranged between concentrations in mature forests and

  1. Ultraviolet-B radiation and nitrogen affect nutrient concentrations and the amount of nutrients acquired by above-ground organs of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Carlos M; Coutinho, João F; Bacelar, Eunice A; Gonçalves, Berta M; Björn, Lars Olof; Moutinho Pereira, José

    2012-01-01

    UV-B radiation effects on nutrient concentrations in above-ground organs of maize were investigated at silking and maturity at different levels of applied nitrogen under field conditions. The experiment simulated a 20% stratospheric ozone depletion over Portugal. At silking, UV-B increased N, K, Ca, and Zn concentrations, whereas at maturity Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu increased and N, P and Mn decreased in some plant organs. Generally, at maturity, N, Ca, Cu, and Mn were lower, while P, K, and Zn concentrations in stems and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) were higher in N-starved plants. UV-B and N effects on shoot dry biomass were more pronounced than on nutrient concentrations. Nutrient uptake decreased under high UV-B and increased with increasing N application, mainly at maturity harvest. Significant interactions UV-B x N were observed for NUE and for concentration and mass of some elements. For instance, under enhanced UV-B, N, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations decreased in leaves, except on N-stressed plants, whereas they were less affected by N nutrition. In order to minimize nutritional, economical, and environmental negative consequences, fertiliser recommendations based on element concentration or yield goals may need to be adjusted.

  2. Ultraviolet-B Radiation and Nitrogen Affect Nutrient Concentrations and the Amount of Nutrients Acquired by Above-Ground Organs of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Correia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-B radiation effects on nutrient concentrations in above-ground organs of maize were investigated at silking and maturity at different levels of applied nitrogen under field conditions. The experiment simulated a 20% stratospheric ozone depletion over Portugal. At silking, UV-B increased N, K, Ca, and Zn concentrations, whereas at maturity Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu increased and N, P and Mn decreased in some plant organs. Generally, at maturity, N, Ca, Cu, and Mn were lower, while P, K, and Zn concentrations in stems and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE were higher in N-starved plants. UV-B and N effects on shoot dry biomass were more pronounced than on nutrient concentrations. Nutrient uptake decreased under high UV-B and increased with increasing N application, mainly at maturity harvest. Significant interactions UV-B x N were observed for NUE and for concentration and mass of some elements. For instance, under enhanced UV-B, N, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations decreased in leaves, except on N-stressed plants, whereas they were less affected by N nutrition. In order to minimize nutritional, economical, and environmental negative consequences, fertiliser recommendations based on element concentration or yield goals may need to be adjusted.

  3. Nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads in the Steele Bayou Basin, northwestern Mississippi, 2010–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Matthew B.; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Stocks, Shane J.

    2017-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Vicksburg District, monitored streamflow, water quality, and sediment at two stations on the Steele Bayou in northwestern Mississippi from October 2010 through September 2014 to characterize nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads in areas where substantial implementation of conservation efforts have been implemented. The motivation for this effort was to quantify improvements, or lack thereof, in water quality in the Steele Bayou watershed as a result of implementing large- and small-scale best-management practices aimed at reducing nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads. The results of this study document the hydrologic, water-quality, and sedimentation status of these basins following over two decades of ongoing implementation of conservation practices.Results from this study indicate the two Steele Bayou stations have comparable loads and yields of total nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment when compared to other agricultural basins in the southeastern and central United States. However, nitrate plus nitrite yields from basins in the Mississippi River alluvial plain, including the Steele Bayou Basin, are generally lower than other agricultural basins in the southeastern and central United States.Seasonal variation in nutrient and sediment loads was observed at both stations and for most constituents. About 50 percent of the total annual nutrient and sediment load was observed during the spring (February through May) and between 25 and 50 percent was observed during late fall and winter (October through January). These seasonal patterns probably reflect a combination of seasonal patterns in precipitation, runoff, streamflow, and in the timing of fertilizer application.Median concentrations of total nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, and suspended sediment were slightly higher at the upstream station, Steele Bayou near Glen Allan

  4. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Bittsanszky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponics systems, and we compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in the aquaponics system are significantly lower for most nutrients compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels compared to “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy vegetables that rarely need additional nutritional supplementation. It is concluded that in the highly complex system of aquaponics, special care has to be taken, via continuous monitoring of the chemical composition of the circulating water, to provide adequate concentrations and ratios of nutrients, and especially for the potentially toxic component, ammonium. If certain plants require nutrient supplementation, we consider that one based on organic substances would be most beneficial. However, protocols for the application of such nutrient amendments still need to be developed.

  5. Monitoring Stream Nutrient Concentration Trends in a Mixed-Land-Use Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, S. J.; Hubbart, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mixed-land use watersheds are often a complex patchwork of forested, agricultural, and urban land-uses where differential land-use mediated non-point source pollution can significantly impact water quality. Stream nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations serve as important variables for quantifying land use effects on non-point source pollution in receiving waters and relative impacts on aquatic biota. The Hinkson Creek Watershed (HCW) is a representative mixed land use urbanizing catchment (231 km2) located in central Missouri, USA. A nested-scale experimental watershed study including five permanent hydroclimate stations was established in 2009 to provide quantitative understanding of multiple land use impacts on nutrient loading. Spectrophotometric analysis was used to quantify total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and total phosphorus (TP as PO4) regimes. Results (2010 - 2013) indicate average nitrate (NO3-) concentration (mg/l) range of 0.28 to 0.46 mg/l, nitrite (NO2-) range of 0.02 to 0.03 mg/l, ammonia (NH3) ranged from 0.04 to 0.08 mg/l, and TP range of 0.26 to 0.39 mg/l. With n=858, NO3-, NO2-, NH3, and TP concentrations were significantly (CI=95%, p=0.00) higher in the subbasin with the greatest percent cumulative agricultural land use (57%). NH3 and TP concentrations were significantly (CI=95%, p=0.00) higher (with the exception of the agricultural subbasin) in the subbasin with the greatest percent cumulative urban land use (26%). Results from multiple regression analyses showed percent cumulative agricultural and urban land uses accounted for 85% and 96% of the explained variance in TIN loading (CI=95%, p=0.08) and TP loading (CI=95%, p=0.02), respectively, between gauging sites. These results improve understanding of agricultural and urban land use impacts on nutrient concentrations in mixed use watersheds of the Midwest and have implications for nutrient reduction programs in the Mississippi River Basin and hypoxia reductions in the Gulf of Mexico, USA.

  6. [Effect of microbial nutrient concentration on improvement of municipal sewage sludge dewaterability through bioleaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong-wei; Liu, Fen-wu; Zhou, Li-xiang

    2012-08-01

    In this study, shaking flask batch experiments and practical engineering application tests were performed to investigate the effect of microbial nutrient concentration on the dewaterability of municipal sewage sludge with 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% solid contents via bioleaching. Meanwhile, the changes of pH value and the utilization efficiency of microbial nutrients during bioleaching were analyzed in this study. The results showed that the pH value decreased gradually at the beginning and then maintained a stable state in the treatments with different solid contents, and the nutrients were completely used up by the microorganisms after 2 days of bioleaching. It was found that the SRF of 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% sludges decreased quickly and then rose gradually with the extension of bioleaching time. In addition, the higher solid content the greater the increase. It was determined that the optimum microbial nutrient dosage for sludge with solid content of 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% were 3.0 g x L(-1), 4.5 g x L(-1), 8.3 g x L(-1) and 12.8 g x L(-1) respectively. At this point, the lowest SRF of sludge with each solid content were 0.61 x 10(12) m x kg(-1), 1.22 x 10(12) m x kg(-1), 3.09 x 10(12) m x kg(-1) and 4.83 x 10(12) m x kg(-1), respectively. Through the engineering application, it was showed that diluting the solid content of sewage sludge from 5% to 3% before bioleaching was feasible. It could not only improve the dewaterability of bioleached sewage sludge (the SRF declined from 3.29 x 10(12) m x kg(-1) to 1.10 x 10(12) m x kg(-1)), but also shorten the sludge nutrient time (shortened from 4 days to 2.35 days) and reduce the operation costs. Therefore, the results of this study have important significance for the engineering application of bioleaching of municipal sewage sludge with high solid content.

  7. Effects of soil characteristics on grape juice nutrient concentrations and other grape quality parameters in Shiraz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria; Romero, Maria Paz

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the response of grapes to soil properties in the variety Shiraz (SH) cultivated in the Costers de Segre Designation of Origin (NE, Spain). The research was carried out in two areas with differences in vigor, which was examined using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Soil properties such as organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity and nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn) were analysed in the two areas. Soil analyses were limited to the upper 40 cm. Soil N-NO3 was measured in 2M KCl extracts. Assimilable phosphorus was analysed by extraction with 0.5 M NaHCO3 at pH 8.5 using the Olsen method. The available K, Ca and Mg were evaluated in hemaaxinecobalt trichloride extracts and the available fraction of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in DTPA- trietanolamine extracts, by spectroscopy atomic emission/absorption. Berry grapes were collected at maturity. Nutrients in grape juice (K, Ca, Mg Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe) were determined after a microwave hydrogen peroxide digestion in a closed vessel microwave digestion system and measured by spectroscopy. Other grape properties that determine grape quality such as pH, berry weight and sugar content were analysed using the methods proposed by the OIV. Differences in soil properties were observed between plots, which determined the differences in vigour. The vines with lower vigour were grown in the soils with higher pH, electrical conductivity and silt content, which had in addition higher Ca, Mg and K available levels as well as higher levels of Fe and Mn than the soil in which vines had higher vigour. However, the available fraction of Cu and Zn was smaller. Similar differences in nutrient concentration in the berry were observed for all nutrients except for Cu. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids (°Brix) were higher in the most vigorous vines. However, the differences in berry weight and total acidity at ripening were not significant. Keywords: acidity; berry weight; nutrients; p

  8. Concentration Fluctuations and Capacitive Response in Dense Ionic Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uralcan, Betul; Aksay, Ilhan A; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Limmer, David T

    2016-07-07

    We use molecular dynamics simulations in a constant potential ensemble to study the effects of solution composition on the electrochemical response of a double layer capacitor. We find that the capacitance first increases with ion concentration following its expected ideal solution behavior but decreases upon approaching a pure ionic liquid in agreement with recent experimental observations. The nonmonotonic behavior of the capacitance as a function of ion concentration results from the competition between the independent motion of solvated ions in the dilute regime and solvation fluctuations in the concentrated regime. Mirroring the capacitance, we find that the characteristic decay length of charge density correlations away from the electrode is also nonmonotonic. The correlation length first decreases with ion concentration as a result of better electrostatic screening but increases with ion concentration as a result of enhanced steric interactions. When charge fluctuations induced by correlated ion-solvent fluctuations are large relative to those induced by the pure ionic liquid, such capacitive behavior is expected to be generic.

  9. Fissile materials in solution concentration measured by active neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Passard, Ch.; Cloue, J.; Bignan, G.

    1993-01-01

    The use of the active neutron interrogation to measure the concentration of plutonium contained in flow solutions is particularly interesting for fuel reprocessing plants. Indeed, this method gives a signal which is in a direct relation with the fissile materials concentration. Moreover, it is less sensitive to the gamma dose rate than the other nondestructive methods. Two measure methods have been evolved in CEA. Their principles are given into details in this work. The first one consists to detect fission delayed neutrons induced by a 252 Cf source. In the second one fission prompt neutrons induced by a neutron generator of 14 MeV are detected. (O.M.)

  10. Small angle X-ray scattering on concentrated hemoglobin solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinke, M.; Damaschun, G.; Mueller, J.J.; Ruckpaul, K.

    1978-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering technique was used to determine the intermolecular structure and interaction potentials in oxi-and deoxi-hemoglobin solutions. The pair correlation function obtained by the ZERNICKE-PRINS equation characterizes the intermolecular structure of the hemoglobin molecules. The intermolecular structure is concentration dependent. The hemoglobin molecules have a 'short range order structure' with a range of about 4 molecule diameters at 324 g/l. The potential functions of the hemoglobin-hemoglobin interaction have been determined on the basis of fluid theories. Except for the deoxi-hemoglobin solution having the concentration 370 g/l, the pair interaction consists in a short repulsion and a weak short-range attraction against kT. The potential minimum is between 1.2 - 1.5 nm above the greatest hemoglobin diameter. (author)

  11. Nutrient Management in Recirculating Hydroponic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing need to recirculate and reuse nutrient solutions in order to reduce environmental and economic costs. However, one of the weakest points in hydroponics is the lack of information on managing the nutrient solution. Many growers and research scientists dump out nutrient solutions and refill at weekly intervals. Other authors have recommended measuring the concentrations of individual nutrients in solution as a key to nutrient control and maintenance. Dumping and replacing solution is unnecessary. Monitoring ions in solution is not always necessary; in fact the rapid depletion of some nutrients often causes people to add toxic amounts of nutrients to the solution. Monitoring ions in solution is interesting, but it is not the key to effective maintenance.

  12. Osmotic potential calculations of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide solute concentration levels and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochrane, T. T., E-mail: agteca@hotmail.com [AGTECA S.A., 230 Oceanbeach Road, Mount Maunganui, Tauranga 3116 (New Zealand); Cochrane, T. A., E-mail: tom.cochrane@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate that the authors’ new “aqueous solution vs pure water” equation to calculate osmotic potential may be used to calculate the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide ranges of solute concentrations and temperatures. Currently, the osmotic potentials of solutions used for medical purposes are calculated from equations based on the thermodynamics of the gas laws which are only accurate at low temperature and solute concentration levels. Some solutions used in medicine may need their osmotic potentials calculated more accurately to take into account solute concentrations and temperatures. Methods: The authors experimented with their new equation for calculating the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions up to and beyond body temperatures by adjusting three of its factors; (a) the volume property of pure water, (b) the number of “free” water molecules per unit volume of solution, “N{sub f},” and (c) the “t” factor expressing the cooperative structural relaxation time of pure water at given temperatures. Adequate information on the volume property of pure water at different temperatures is available in the literature. However, as little information on the relative densities of inorganic and organic solutions, respectively, at varying temperatures needed to calculate N{sub f} was available, provisional equations were formulated to approximate values. Those values together with tentative t values for different temperatures chosen from values calculated by different workers were substituted into the authors’ equation to demonstrate how osmotic potentials could be estimated over temperatures up to and beyond bodily temperatures. Results: The provisional equations formulated to calculate N{sub f}, the number of free water molecules per unit volume of inorganic and organic solute solutions, respectively, over wide concentration ranges compared well with the calculations of N{sub f

  13. Osmotic potential calculations of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide solute concentration levels and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochrane, T. T.; Cochrane, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that the authors’ new “aqueous solution vs pure water” equation to calculate osmotic potential may be used to calculate the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide ranges of solute concentrations and temperatures. Currently, the osmotic potentials of solutions used for medical purposes are calculated from equations based on the thermodynamics of the gas laws which are only accurate at low temperature and solute concentration levels. Some solutions used in medicine may need their osmotic potentials calculated more accurately to take into account solute concentrations and temperatures. Methods: The authors experimented with their new equation for calculating the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions up to and beyond body temperatures by adjusting three of its factors; (a) the volume property of pure water, (b) the number of “free” water molecules per unit volume of solution, “N f ,” and (c) the “t” factor expressing the cooperative structural relaxation time of pure water at given temperatures. Adequate information on the volume property of pure water at different temperatures is available in the literature. However, as little information on the relative densities of inorganic and organic solutions, respectively, at varying temperatures needed to calculate N f was available, provisional equations were formulated to approximate values. Those values together with tentative t values for different temperatures chosen from values calculated by different workers were substituted into the authors’ equation to demonstrate how osmotic potentials could be estimated over temperatures up to and beyond bodily temperatures. Results: The provisional equations formulated to calculate N f , the number of free water molecules per unit volume of inorganic and organic solute solutions, respectively, over wide concentration ranges compared well with the calculations of N f using recorded

  14. Impact of solute concentration on the electrocatalytic conversion of dissolved gases in buffered solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya

    2015-04-24

    To maintain local pH levels near the electrode during electrochemical reactions, the use of buffer solutions is effective. Nevertheless, the critical effects of the buffer concentration on electrocatalytic performances have not been discussed in detail. In this study, two fundamental electrochemical reactions, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), on a platinum rotating disk electrode are chosen as model gas-related aqueous electrochemical reactions at various phosphate concentrations. Our detailed investigations revealed that the kinetic and limiting diffusion current densities for both the ORR and HOR logarithmically decrease with increasing solute concentration (log|jORR|=-0.39c+0.92,log|jHOR|=-0.35c+0.73). To clarify the physical aspects of this phenomenon, the electrolyte characteristics are addressed: with increasing phosphate concentration, the gas solubility decrease, the kinematic viscosity of the solution increase and the diffusion coefficient of the dissolved gases decrease. The simulated limiting diffusion currents using the aforementioned parameters match the measured ones very well (log|jORR|=-0.43c+0.99,log|jHOR|=-0.40c+0.54), accurately describing the consequences of the electrolyte concentration. These alterations of the electrolyte properties associated with the solute concentration are universally applicable to other aqueous gas-related electrochemical reactions because the currents are purely determined by mass transfer of the dissolved gases. © 2015 The Authors.

  15. Automated assay of uranium solution concentration and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horley, E.C.; Gainer, K.; Hansen, W.J.; Kelley, T.A.; Parker, J.L.; Sampson, T.E.; Walton, G.; Jones, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    For the first time, the concentration and enrichment of uranium solutions can be measured in one step. We have developed a new instrument to automatically measure the concentration and enrichment of uranium solutions through the adaptation of a commercial robot. Two identical solution enrichment systems are being installed in the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. These automated systems will reduce radiation exposure to personnel and increase the reliability and repeatability of the measurements. Each robotic system can process up to 40 batch and 8 priority samples in an unattended mode. Both passive gamma-ray and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses are performed to determine total uranium concentration and 235 U enrichment. Coded samples are read by a bar-code reader to determine measurement requirements, then assayed by either or both of the gamma-ray and XRF instruments. The robot moves the sample containers and operates all shield doors and shutters, reducing hardware complexity. If the robots is out of service, an operator can manually perform all operations

  16. Methylparaben concentration in commercial Brazilian local anesthetics solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Rodriguez da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To detect the presence and concentration of methylparaben in cartridges of commercial Brazilian local anesthetics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve commercial brands (4 in glass and 8 in plastic cartridges of local anesthetic solutions for use in dentistry were purchased from the Brazilian market and analyzed. Different lots of the commercial brands were obtained in different Brazilian cities (Piracicaba, Campinas and São Paulo. Separation was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV-Vis detector. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile:water (75:25 - v/v, pH 4.5, adjusted with acetic acid at a flow rate of 1.0 ml.min-1. RESULTS: When detected in the solutions, the methylparaben concentration ranged from 0.01% (m/v to 0.16% (m/v. One glass and all plastic cartridges presented methylparaben. CONCLUSION: 1. Methylparaben concentration varied among solutions from different manufacturers, and it was not indicated in the drug package inserts; 2. Since the presence of methylparaben in dental anesthetics is not regulated by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA and this substance could cause allergic reactions, it is important to alert dentists about its possible presence.

  17. Biochar and manure affect calcareous soil and corn silage nutrient concentrations and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, R D; Ippolito, J A

    2012-01-01

    Carbon-rich biochar derived from the pyrolysis of biomass can sequester atmospheric CO, mitigate climate change, and potentially increase crop productivity. However, research is needed to confirm the suitability and sustainability of biochar application to different soils. To an irrigated calcareous soil, we applied stockpiled dairy manure (42 Mg ha dry wt) and hardwood-derived biochar (22.4 Mg ha), singly and in combination with manure, along with a control, yielding four treatments. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied when needed (based on preseason soil test N and crop requirements) in all plots and years, with N mineralized from added manure included in this determination. Available soil nutrients (NH-N; NO-N; Olsen P; and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-extractable K, Mg, Na, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe), total C (TC), total N (TN), total organic C (TOC), and pH were evaluated annually, and silage corn nutrient concentration, yield, and uptake were measured over two growing seasons. Biochar treatment resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in available soil Mn and a 1.4-fold increase in TC and TOC, whereas manure produced a 1.2- to 1.7-fold increase in available nutrients (except Fe), compared with controls. In 2009 biochar increased corn silage B concentration but produced no yield increase; in 2010 biochar decreased corn silage TN (33%), S (7%) concentrations, and yield (36%) relative to controls. Manure produced a 1.3-fold increase in corn silage Cu, Mn, S, Mg, K, and TN concentrations and yield compared with the control in 2010. The combined biochar-manure effects were not synergistic except in the case of available soil Mn. In these calcareous soils, biochar did not alter pH or availability of P and cations, as is typically observed for acidic soils. If the second year results are representative, they suggest that biochar applications to calcareous soils may lead to reduced N availability, requiring additional soil N inputs to maintain yield targets. Copyright © by the

  18. Quantifying Nutrient and Mercury Concentrations and Loads in Lake Tahoe Snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, C.; Obrist, D.; Schumer, R.

    2012-12-01

    Recent climate models predict a large decrease in Sierra Nevada snowpack over the next fifty years as a result of climate change. This decrease will not only affect the hydrologic balance but also change inputs of nutrients and pollutants through atmospheric deposition. In the Lake Tahoe basin, winter precipitation dominates and snowfall provides approximately 70 percent of the annual water input. From the first snowfall until the end of melting, snowpack acts as a temporary storage for atmospheric deposition that accumulates throughout winter and spring. Through melt and runoff processes, these nutrients and pollutants can enter the aquatic ecosystem where they can have detrimental effects on lake clarity and health. Most previous studies in this basin have focused on direct atmospheric deposition loads to the lake surface, and little temporal and spatial information is available on the dynamics of atmospheric deposition in the basin's snowpack. We here present nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and mercury (Hg) concentrations and pool sizes in snowpack along two elevational transects in the Tahoe Basin from January to April of 2012. Total N and P concentrations in the snowpack ranged from 0.07 mg/L to 0.38 mg/L and 0.003 mg/L to 0.109 mg/L, respectively. P concentrations showed strong increases from the west-side to the east-side of the basin which we attribute to local (e.g., urban or road-dust), in-basin sources that are distributed along the dominant west-wind patterns. N species, on the other hand, generally showed little spatial trends, indicating that its sources were more diffuse and possibly from out-of- basin. Hg concentrations ranged from 0.81 ppt to 6.25 ppt and showed similar spatial patterns as N. Hg, however, also showed significant snowpack concentration decreases during storm-free periods which we attribute to gaseous losses of Hg back to the atmosphere from photochemical reduction. These emissions are further supported by lower Hg concentrations in

  19. The Effects of Different Isocaloric Oral Nutrient Solutions on Psychophysical, Metabolic, Cognitive, and Olfactory Function in Young Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Bachlechner, Stephan; Denzer-Lippmann, Melanie Y.; Wielopolski, Jan; Fischer, Marie; Buettner, Andrea; Doerfler, Arndt; Schöfl, Christof; Münch, Gerald; Kornhuber, Johannes; Thürauf, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    Food intake influences human cognition, olfaction, hunger, and food craving. However, little research has been done in this field to elucidate the effects of different nutrients. Thus, the goal of our study was to investigate the effects of oral ingestion of different nutrient solutions on olfactory, cognitive, metabolic and psychophysical function. Twenty healthy men participated in our study employing a double-blind, cross-over, repeated measurement design. Participants were tested on four ...

  20. Opalescence in monoclonal antibody solutions and its correlation with intermolecular interactions in dilute and concentrated solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Ashlesha S; Kalonia, Devendra S

    2015-04-01

    Opalescence indicates physical instability of a formulation because of the presence of aggregates or liquid-liquid phase separation in solution and has been reported for monoclonal antibody (mAb) formulations. Increased solution opalescence can be attributed to attractive protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Techniques including light scattering, AUC, or membrane osmometry are routinely employed to measure PPIs in dilute solutions, whereas opalescence is seen at relatively higher concentrations, where both long- and short-range forces contribute to overall PPIs. The mAb molecule studied here shows a unique property of high opalescence because of liquid-liquid phase separation. In this study, opalescence measurements are correlated to PPIs measured in diluted and concentrated solutions using light scattering (kD ) and high-frequency rheology (G'), respectively. Charges on the molecules were calculated using zeta potential measurements. Results indicate that high opalescence and phase separation are a result of the attractive interactions in solution; however, the presence of attractive interactions do not always imply phase separation. Temperature dependence of opalescence suggests that thermodynamic contribution to opalescence is significant and Tcloud can be utilized as a potential tool to assess attractive interactions in solution. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. Effect of interactions between carbon dioxide enrichment and NH4+/NO3- ratio on pH of culturing nutrient solution,growth and vigor of tomato root system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan LI; Jianmin ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    A growth chamber experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of NH4+/NO3- ratio and elevated CO2 concentration on the pH in nutrient solution,growth and root vigor system of tomato seedling roots,which attempts to understand whether the elevated CO2 concentration can alleviate the harmful effects of higher NH4+-N concentration in nutrient solutions on the tomato root system.Tomato (Lycopersicon esculenturn Mill.var.Hezuo 906) was grown in pots with nutrient solutions varying in NH4+/NO3- ratio (0:1,1:3,1:1,3:1and 1:0) and the growth chambers were supplied with with the growth process and CO2 concentration increased.At both CO2 levels,pH increased when 100% NO3--N was supplied and decreased in other treatments.The pH decrease in the nutrient solution was directly correlated to the NH4+-N proportion.The pH value was more reduced in 100% NH4+-N nutrient solution than increased in the 100% NO3--N nutrient solution.CO2 enrichment increased the dry weight of shoots and roots,root vigor system,total absorbing area and active absorbing area of tomato seedlings.All the measurement indexes above were increased in the elevated CO2 concentration treatment with the NO3- proportion increase in the nutrient solutions.Thus,under the elevated CO2 concentration,the dry weights of shoots and roots,root vigor system,total root absorbing area and active absorbing area were found to be inversely correlated to NH4+/NO3- ratio,leading to about 65.8%,78.0%,18.9%,12.9% and 18.9% increase,respectively,compared with that under the ambient CO2 concentration.Our results indicated that tomato seedling roots may benefit mostly from CO2 enrichment when 100% NO3--N nutrient solutions was supplied,but the CO2 concentration elevation did not alleviate the harmful effects when 100% NHa+-N was supplied.

  2. Effect of solution concentration on MEH-PPV thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affendi, I. H. H.; Sarah, M. S. P.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    MEH-PPV thin films were prepared with a mixture of THF (tetrahydrofuran) solution deposited by spin coating method. The surface topology of MEH-PPV thin film were characterize by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical properties of absorption spectra were characterized by using Ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR). The MEH-PPV concentration variation affects the surface and optical properties of the thin film where 0.5 mg/ml MEH-PPV concentration have a good surface topology provided the same film also gives the highest absorption coefficient were then deposited to a TiO2 thin film forming composite layer. The composite layer then shows low current flow of short circuit current of Isc = -5.313E-7 A.

  3. Glacier Melting Increases the Solute Concentrations of Himalayan Glacial Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Rogora, Michela; Balestrini, Raffaella; Lami, Andrea; Tartari, Gabriele A; Thakuri, Sudeep; Godone, Danilo; Freppaz, Michele; Tartari, Gianni

    2016-09-06

    Over the past two decades, we observed a substantial rise in ionic content that was mainly determined by the sulfate concentration at 20 remote high elevation lakes located in central southern Himalaya. At LCN9, which was monitored on an annual basis for the last 20 years, the sulfate concentrations increased over 4-fold. Among the main causes, we exclude a change in the composition of wet atmospheric deposition, as well as a possible influence of decrease in seasonal snow cover duration, which could have exposed larger basin surfaces to alteration processes. Glacier retreat likely was the main factor responsible for the observed increase of sulfate concentrations. We attribute this chemical changes mainly to the sulfide oxidation processes that occur in subglacial environments. Moreover, we observe that the weakened monsoon of the past two decades has only partially contributed to the lakes enrichment through runoff waters that are more concentrated in solutes or lowering the water table, resulting in more rock exposed to air and enhanced mineral oxidation.

  4. The Effects of Different Isocaloric Oral Nutrient Solutions on Psychophysical, Metabolic, Cognitive, and Olfactory Function in Young Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlechner, Stephan; Denzer-Lippmann, Melanie Y; Wielopolski, Jan; Fischer, Marie; Buettner, Andrea; Doerfler, Arndt; Schöfl, Christof; Münch, Gerald; Kornhuber, Johannes; Thürauf, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    Food intake influences human cognition, olfaction, hunger, and food craving. However, little research has been done in this field to elucidate the effects of different nutrients. Thus, the goal of our study was to investigate the effects of oral ingestion of different nutrient solutions on olfactory, cognitive, metabolic and psychophysical function. Twenty healthy men participated in our study employing a double-blind, cross-over, repeated measurement design. Participants were tested on four different study days. Each day participants received, in randomized order, one of three isocaloric (protein, carbohydrate or fat 600 kcal, 1,500 mL) solutions or a placebo. Olfactory and cognitive tests (monitoring only) were conducted three times, i.e., 60 min before the beginning of nutrient intake, following oral ingestion of the solution and 60, and 240 min after. Psychophysical and metabolic function tests (active grehlin, desacyl ghrelin, insulin, glucagon, glucose, triglyceride, urea) were performed 7 times on each examination day (observation period: -60 min, 0 = solution intake, +60, +120, +180, +240, and +300 min). Ratings of hunger and food craving significantly differed over the observation period with lowest ratings following application of the protein solution. Highest ratings of craving were found following placebo intake. We further observed a significant positive correlation of active grehlin with hunger and fat, protein and sweets craving for each nutrient solution. Active grehlin significantly correlated with carbohydrate craving for carbohydrate and fat solution and with vegetable craving for fat solution only. Hunger hormone levels, hunger and food craving ratings demonstrated that the hierarchical order that appears in satiating efficiencies of isovolumetric-isocaloric ingested macronutrients is protein > fat > carbohydrate. Our study reveals that the type of nutrient exerts a significant influence on metabolic parameters, hunger and food craving.

  5. The Effects of Different Isocaloric Oral Nutrient Solutions on Psychophysical, Metabolic, Cognitive, and Olfactory Function in Young Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Bachlechner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Food intake influences human cognition, olfaction, hunger, and food craving. However, little research has been done in this field to elucidate the effects of different nutrients. Thus, the goal of our study was to investigate the effects of oral ingestion of different nutrient solutions on olfactory, cognitive, metabolic and psychophysical function. Twenty healthy men participated in our study employing a double-blind, cross-over, repeated measurement design. Participants were tested on four different study days. Each day participants received, in randomized order, one of three isocaloric (protein, carbohydrate or fat 600 kcal, 1,500 mL solutions or a placebo. Olfactory and cognitive tests (monitoring only were conducted three times, i.e., 60 min before the beginning of nutrient intake, following oral ingestion of the solution and 60, and 240 min after. Psychophysical and metabolic function tests (active grehlin, desacyl ghrelin, insulin, glucagon, glucose, triglyceride, urea were performed 7 times on each examination day (observation period: −60 min, 0 = solution intake, +60, +120, +180, +240, and +300 min. Ratings of hunger and food craving significantly differed over the observation period with lowest ratings following application of the protein solution. Highest ratings of craving were found following placebo intake. We further observed a significant positive correlation of active grehlin with hunger and fat, protein and sweets craving for each nutrient solution. Active grehlin significantly correlated with carbohydrate craving for carbohydrate and fat solution and with vegetable craving for fat solution only. Hunger hormone levels, hunger and food craving ratings demonstrated that the hierarchical order that appears in satiating efficiencies of isovolumetric-isocaloric ingested macronutrients is protein > fat > carbohydrate. Our study reveals that the type of nutrient exerts a significant influence on metabolic parameters, hunger and food

  6. Intelligent fiber optic sensor for solution concentration examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, Michal; Kruszewski, Jerzy

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents the working principles of intelligent fiber-optic intensity sensor used for solution concentration examination. The sensor head is the ending of the large core polymer optical fiber. The head works on the reflection intensity basis. The reflected signal level depends on Fresnel reflection and reflection on suspended matter when the head is submersed in solution. The sensor head is mounted on a lift. For detection purposes the signal includes head submerging, submersion, emerging and emergence is measured. This way the viscosity turbidity and refraction coefficient has an effect on measured signal. The signal forthcoming from head is processed electrically in opto-electronic interface. Then it is feed to neural network. The novelty of presented sensor is implementation of neural network that works in generalization mode. The sensor resolution depends on opto-electronic signal conversion precision and neural network learning accuracy. Therefore, the number and quality of points used for learning process is very important. The example sensor application for examination of liquid soap concentration in water is presented in the paper.

  7. Modeling the interaction of light intensity, nutrient concentration and uranium toxicity in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, E.; Horemans, N.; Vandenhove, H. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Cedergreen, N. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jager, T. [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-07-01

    Radioecology aims at assessing the effect of radionuclides and radiation on the environment. Since we cannot test every possible environmental situation in the laboratory, we need modeling approaches to extrapolate the results of toxicity assays to environmentally relevant scenarios. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to understand the effect of relevant environmental factors, such as nutrients, temperature and light on the toxicity of the test. Radionuclides are often found to induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In plants, an overload of ROS can lead to disturbances of the photosynthetic system. Since the light intensity determines the efficiency of the photo-systems in plants, it can be expected to interact with the effect of radionuclides. The nutrient concentration of the test medium determines the physiological state of the plant, affecting in turn the plant's capability of dealing with stress and hence influences the toxicity of the contaminant. To study the interaction of stressors with environmental conditions, mechanistic effect modeling is promoted widely in ecotoxicology. In principle, the modelling aims at a mechanistic understanding of the different processes causing the stress individually, and integrating them in one framework to study their joint effect and possible interaction. We here present a mechanistic effect model for Lemna minor (common duckweed), which is based on Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory. Models based on DEB have been used widely to study the effects of compounds on animals. Due to its general applicability to all types of organisms, it holds potential to be used for comparison of species and compounds in a broad context. Energy uptake from the environment is modeled explicitly, and metabolic rates are set to depend on temperature in DEB models. Therefore, they can be used to extrapolate effects to a wide range of environmentally relevant scenarios. Until now, the DEB research in ecotoxicology has

  8. Zinc deficiency in field-grown pecan trees: changes in leaf nutrient concentrations and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Barrios, Dámaris; Abadía, Javier; Lombardini, Leonardo; Abadía, Anunciación; Vázquez, Saúl

    2012-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a typical nutritional disorder in pecan trees [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] grown under field conditions in calcareous soils in North America, including northern Mexico and south-western United States. The aim of this study was to assess the morphological and nutritional changes in pecan leaves affected by Zn deficiency as well as the Zn distribution within leaves. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf chlorophyll concentrations, leaf area and trunk cross-sectional area. Zinc deficiency increased significantly the leaf concentrations of K and Ca, and decreased the leaf concentrations of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu. All nutrient values found in Zn-deficient leaves were within the sufficiency ranges, with the only exception of Zn, which was approximately 44, 11 and 9 µg g(-1) dry weight in Zn-sufficient, moderately and markedly Zn-deficient leaves, respectively. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf thickness, mainly due to a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, as well as to increases in stomatal density and size. The localisation of Zn was determined using the fluorophore Zinpyr-1 and ratio-imaging technique. Zinc was mainly localised in the palisade mesophyll area in Zn-sufficient leaves, whereas no signal could be obtained in Zn-deficient leaves. The effects of Zn deficiency on the leaf characteristics of pecan trees include not only decreases in leaf chlorophyll and Zn concentrations, but also a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, an increase in stomatal density and pore size and the practical disappearance of Zn leaf pools. These characteristics must be taken into account to design strategies to correct Zn deficiency in pecan tree in the field. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Ultraviolet-B Radiation and Nitrogen Affect Nutrient Concentrations and the Amount of Nutrients Acquired by Above-Ground Organs of Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Carlos M.; Coutinho, João F.; Bacelar, Eunice A.; Gonçalves, Berta M.; Björn, Lars Olof; Moutinho Pereira, José

    2012-01-01

    UV-B radiation effects on nutrient concentrations in above-ground organs of maize were investigated at silking and maturity at different levels of applied nitrogen under field conditions. The experiment simulated a 20% stratospheric ozone depletion over Portugal. At silking, UV-B increased N, K, Ca, and Zn concentrations, whereas at maturity Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu increased and N, P and Mn decreased in some plant organs. Generally, at maturity, N, Ca, Cu, and Mn were lower, while P, K, and Zn con...

  10. Dredging effects on selected nutrient concentrations and ecoenzymatic activity in two drainage ditch sediments in the lower Mississippi River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Moore

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural drainage ditches are conduits between production acreage and receiving aquatic systems. Often overlooked for their mitigation capabilities, agricultural drainage ditches provide an important role for nutrient transformation via microbial metabolism. Variations in ecoenzyme activities have been used to elucidate microbial metabolism and resource demand of microbial communities to better understand the relationship between altered nutrient ratios and microbial activity in aquatic ecosystems. Two agricultural drainage ditches, one in the northeast portion of the Arkansas Delta and the other in the lower Mississippi Delta, were monitored for a year. Sediment samples were collected prior to each ditch being dredged (cleaned, and subsequent post-dredging samples occurred as soon as access was available. Seasonal samples were then collected throughout a year to examine effects of dredging on selected nutrient concentrations and ecoenzymatic activity recovery in drainage ditch sediments. Phosphorus concentrations in sediments after dredging decreased 33–66%, depending on ditch and phosphorus extraction methodology. Additionally, ecoenzymatic activity was significantly decreased in most sediment samples after dredging. Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis activity, an estimate of total microbial activity, decreased 56–67% after dredging in one of the two ditches. Many sample sites also had significant phosphorus and ecoenzymatic activity differences between the post-dredge samples and the year-long follow-up samples. Results indicate microbial metabolism in dredged drainage ditches may take up to a year or more to recover to pre-dredged levels. Likewise, while sediment nutrient concentrations may be decreased through dredging and removal, runoff and erosion events over time tend to quickly replenish nutrient concentrations in replaced sediments. Understanding nutrient dynamics and microbial metabolism within agricultural drainage ditches is

  11. High nutrient concentration and temperature alleviated formation of large colonies of Microcystis: Evidence from field investigations and laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Zhou, Xiaohua; Chen, Huaimin; Gao, Li; Xiao, Man; Li, Ming

    2016-09-15

    Correlations between Microcystis colony size and environmental factors were investigated in Meiliang Bay and Gonghu Bay of Lake Taihu (China) from 2011 to 2013. Compared with Gonghu Bay, both nutrient concentrations and Microcystis colony sizes were greater in Meiliang Bay. The median colony size (D50: 50% of the total mass of particles smaller than this size) increased from April to August and then decreased until November. In both bays, the average D50 of Microcystis colonies were 500 μm) dominated in summer. The differences in colony size in Meiliang Bay and Gonghu Bay were probably due to horizontal drift driven by the prevailing south wind in summer. Redundancy analysis (RDA) of field data indicated that colony size was negatively related to nutrient concentrations but positively related to air temperature, suggesting that low nutrient concentrations and high air temperature promoted formation of large colonies. To validate the field survey, Microcystis colonies collected from Lake Taihu were cultured at different temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30 °C) under high and low nutrient concentrations for 9 days. The size of Microcystis colonies significantly decreased when temperature was above 20 °C but had no significant change at 15 °C. The differences in temperature effects on colony formation shown from field and laboratory suggested that the larger colonies in summer were probably due to the longer growth period rather than the higher air temperature and light intensity. In addition, colony size decreased more significantly at high nutrient levels. Therefore, it could be concluded that high nutrient concentration and temperature may alleviate formation of large colonies of Microcystis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of the river Liffey discharge on nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations in the Liffey estuary and Dublin Bay (Irish Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Higgins, T. G.; Wilson, J. G.

    2005-08-01

    Temperature, salinity, nutrients (total oxidised nitrogen (TON), ammonium (NH 4) and orthophosphate (PO 4)) and chlorophyll a were monitored in the Liffey estuary and Dublin Bay from June 2000 to June 2003. Four groups of sites were defined comprising the upper estuary (Gp. I), the outer estuary (Gp. III) with a small set (Gp. II) of sites between Groups I and III heavily influenced by the sewage treatment works outflow, and the Bay proper (Gp. IV). Riverine inputs of TON and PO 4 were calculated at an average of 826 t N y -1 and 31 t P y -1, respectively, and were largely controlled by flow rate. The sewage treatment works were identified as a major source of PO 4 and NH 4 to the system. Mixing in the upper estuary of nutrient limited saline waters with hypernutrified river water regularly (i.e. annually) produced relatively high concentrations of chlorophyll a (>10 mg chl a m -3), and also sporadic blooms with extremely high chlorophyll a values (max. 121.6 mg chl a m -3). These latter phytoplankton blooms occurred in high salinity waters and were due to mixing of nutrient limited saline waters and nutrient rich river waters. The mean annual flux of phytoplankton carbon from the river Liffey was calculated at 23.5 t C y -1, of which half was accumulated or remineralised in the estuary and did not enter the Bay. In the Bay proper (Gp. IV) summer nutrient concentrations dropped below detection limits, and chlorophyll a concentrations followed the classic pattern with a spring bloom maximum of 5.5 mg chl a m -3. This pattern in nutrients and chlorophyll a came from the advection of waters into the Bay from an offshore source. Overall while there was considerable evidence for eutrophication in the estuary, the bay itself showed little biological response to nutrient loading.

  13. Ion-exchange concentration of inorganic anions from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Bondareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of natural waters in the present time - consuming process, the accuracy of which is influenced by many factors: the composition of water, the presence of impurities and "interfering" components. The water sample preparation process includes the step of concentration and separation of ions determined. The most versatile, efficient, and frequently used method is the concentration of inorganic anions from aqueous solutions by ion exchanger, which can optimize the composition of water to the optimal for identification and quantitative determination of anions. The characteristics of sorption chloride, nitrate and sulfate ions of basic anion exchange resin AВ-17 and Purolite A430 were compared in the article. The constants of protolysis of ion exchangers both AB 17 and Purolite A430 are the same and equal 0.037 ± 0,002. The value of total capacity (POE Purolite A430 was 4.3 mmol/g, AB 17 – 3.4 mmol/g. The studied ion exchangers have the same type of ionic groups – quaternary ammonium, but their number and denotes differ. The number of quaternary ammonium groups is higher in Purolite A430, respectively the number of absorbed anions of these ion exchanger is higher. The values of dynamic exchange capacity (DOE of ion exchanger Purolite A430 is higher than these values of AB-17 and equal to 1.48 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for chloride ion, 1.50 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for nitrate ion, 1.62 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for sulfate ion. The values of the POE and DOE of anion-exchange resins Purolite A430 and AV-17 and the characteristics of the individual sorption of chloride, nitrate, sulfate ions showed an advantage of the Purolite for the concentrationing of anions. It is found that times of anions sorption from triple-anion solutions by Purolite A430 are significantly different for different anions, and these times are close for anion-exchanger AV-17. It proves the possibility of quantitative separation and concentration by anion-exchanger Purolite A430.

  14. Solução nutritiva para produção de menta em hidroponia Nutrient solution for mint production in hydroponic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Paulus

    2008-03-01

    ,50 x 0,25 m pode ser recomendada para o cultivo hidropônico de Mentha arvensis.The mint (Mentha arvensis L. is an aromatic plant that produces essential oil with high menthol concentration. For the hydroponic cultivation of vegetables and fruits, a great number of recommended formulas exist; however, little information exists about hydroponic solutions for mint. The goal of this work was to evaluate a nutrient solution for the mint cultivation in hydroponic system. Two experiments were carried out from October to December, 2004. For the field experiment, transplants were obtained from cuttings and produced in organic mineral substrates (plantmax®. Later they were transplanted in seed beds of 5.00 m length and 1.00 m width, spacings of 0.60 x 0.30 m. For the hydroponic system NFT, seedlings were obtained from cuttings and planted in phenolic foam where they stayed during 18 days. After that, they were transplanted to a production canal. The experimental design was a 2x2 factorial (nutrient solution concentrations x spacings. The hydroponic solution with 100% concentration in transplant and 50% replacement when the electric condutivity decreased 50% of the initial value and 0.5 x 0.25 m spacings resulted in the highest concentration of essential oil (0.60 mL 100 g-1 fresh leaves, menthol (82,4% and total dry matter (45 g plant-1. In hydroponic system the yield of dry matter and content of essential oil was higher than under soil conditions 27 g planta-1 of dry matter, concentration oil 0.53 mL 100 g-1 and 64,43% of menthol. The hydroponic solution with 100% concentration in transplant and 50% replacement when the electric condutivity decreased 50% of the initial value and 0.5 x 0.25 m spacing can be recommended for the cultivation of mint in hydroponic solution.

  15. Radiation crosslinking of methylcellulose and hydroxyethylcellulose in concentrated aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, Radoslaw A.; Mitomo, Hiroshi; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio

    2003-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on aqueous solutions of cellulose ethers, methylcellulose (MC) and hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) were investigated. The well-established knowledge states that cellulose and its derivatives belong to degrading type of polymers. However, in our study intermolecular crosslinking initiated by gamma rays or electron beam leaded to the formation of insoluble gel. This is an opposite effect of irradiation to the degradation. Paste-like form of the initial specimen, i.e. concentration 20-30%, when water plasticizes the bulk of polymer; and a high dose rate were favorable for hydrogel formation. Gel fraction up to 60% and 70% was obtained from solutions of HEC and MC, respectively. Produced hydrogels swell markedly in aqueous media by imbibing and holding the solvent. Radiation parameters of irradiation, such as yields of degradation and crosslinking and the gelation dose, were evaluated by sol-gel analysis on the basis of Charlesby-Rosiak equation. Despite of the crosslinked structure, obtained hydrogels can be included into the group of biodegradable materials. They undergo decomposition by the action of cellulase enzyme or microorganisms from compost

  16. Zn availability in nutrient solutions for cucumber (Cucumis sativus L) in hydroponics as affected by Fe-chelates and pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Sonneveld, C.

    2017-01-01

    In soil-less culture systems Fe is usually supplied as chelate to ensure an adequate availability of this element. As chelates have affinity for many metal ions these chelates will interact with other cation nutrients in nutrient solutions. This affects the availability of Fe and other nutrients.

  17. Relationships between nutrients and chlorophyll a concentration in the international Alma Gol Wetland, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Balali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between nutrients and chlorophyll, a concentration in the International Alma Gol Wetland. Chlorophyll a is the major photosynthetic pigment in lots of phytoplanktons and has been used as a trophy index in aquatic ecosystems. Water samples were collected fortnightly from five stations in the wetland during summer and autumn. Chlorophyll-a ranged between 4.38 to 156.55 mg/m3, sulfate ranged between 138 to 190 mg/l, total alkalinity ranged between 80 to 280 mg/l, silica ranged between 3.80 to 35.00 mg/l, phosphate ranged between 0.02 to 3.70 mg/l, ammonia ranged between 0.10 to 11.90 mg/l, nitrate ranged between 0.01 to 2.75 mg/l and nitrite ranged between 0.01 to 0.39 mg/l. There was a significant correlation between chlorophyll a and nitrate, nitrite and ammonia but there was no significant correlation between chlorophyll a and silica, total alkalinity, sulfate and phosphorus.

  18. Plants sensitivity on nickel under different conditions of iron or calcium concentration in the nutrient medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Matraszek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of six vegetable plants on nickel at early stages of their growth was investigated by index of tolerance. Besides the possibility of nickel fitostabilization by additional application of iron or calcium was tested. The experiment was conducted on Petri dishes. Different concentrations of nickel (0; 0,03; 0,06mM Ni as nickel sulphate, iron (0,05; O,OlmM Fe as Fe2+ citrate and calcium (0,50; 0,75; lmM Ca as calcium carbonate were added. Taking into consideration the sensitivity, investigated vegetables can be ordered in the following way: Cucurbita pepo conv. giromontiina L.>Lactuca sativa L.>Sinapis alba L.>Spinacia oleracea L.=Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke.>Phaseolus vulgaris L. Positive, statistically significant effect ofnickel fitostabilization (0,03 or 0,06mM Ni on elongative growth by the iron application (0,10mM Fe was shown for Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke independently of Ni concentration in the nutrient medium as well as for Sinapis alba L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. in 0,06mM Ni. Addition as much as 0,75mM Ca in the presence 0,03mM Ni had positive result on Sinapis alba L and Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings as well as on Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke and Lactuca sativa L. roots and Cucurbita pepo convar. giromontiina L. shoots. Addition of 0,75mM Ca in the presence 0,06mM Ni promoted elongative growth of Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke seedlings. Application lmM Ca resulted in the promotion of elongative growth of Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke. roots (0,03mM Ni as well as Spinacia oleracea L. roots (0,06mM Ni.

  19. Lead phytotoxicity in soils and nutrient solutions is related to lead induced phosphorus deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheyns, Karlien; Peeters, Sofie; Delcourt, Dorien; Smolders, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This study was set up to relate lead (Pb) bioavailability with its toxicity to plants in soils. Tomato and barley seedlings were grown in six different PbCl 2 spiked soils (pH: 4.7–7.4; eCEC: 4.2–41.7 cmol c /kg). Soils were leached and pH corrected after spiking to exclude confounding factors. Plant growth was halved at 1600–6500 mg Pb/kg soil for tomato and at 1900–8300 mg Pb/kg soil for barley. These soil Pb threshold were unrelated to soil pH, organic carbon, texture or eCEC and neither soil solution Pb nor Pb 2+ ion activity adequately explained Pb toxicity among soils. Shoot phosphorus (P) concentrations significantly decreased with increasing soil Pb concentrations. Tomato grown in hydroponics at either varying P supply or at increasing Pb (equal initial P) illustrated that shoot P explained growth response in both scenarios. The results suggest that Pb toxicity is partially related to Pb induced P deficiency, likely due to lead phosphate precipitation. - Highlights: ► Tomato and barley shoot growth was affected by Pb toxicity in six different soils. ► Soil properties did not explain differences in plant Pb toxicity among soils. ► Neither soil solution Pb nor Pb 2+ ion activity explained Pb toxicity among soils. ► Shoot phosphorus concentration decreased with increasing soil Pb concentrations. ► Lead induced a P deficiency in plants, likely due to lead phosphate precipitation. - Soil properties did not explain differences in plant lead toxicity among different soils. Shoot phosphorus concentration decreased with increasing soil lead concentrations.

  20. Nutrient and secondary metabolite concentrations in a savanna are independently affected by large herbivores and shoot growth rate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scogings, PF

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSMs) such as tannins are assumed to function as plant defences against herbivores. CBSMs are thought to be inversely related to growth rate and nutrient concentrations because a physiological trade-off exists...

  1. A Wavefront Division Polarimeter for the Measurements of Solute Concentrations in Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Calixto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polarimeters are useful instruments that measure concentrations of optically active substances in a given solution. The conventional polarimetric principle consists of measuring the rotation angle of linearly polarized light. Here, we present a novel polarimeter based on the study of interference patterns. A Mach–Zehnder interferometer with linearly polarized light at the input is used. One beam passes through the liquid sample and the other is a reference beam. As the linearly polarized sample beam propagates through the optically active solution the vibration plane of the electric field will rotate. As a result, the visibility of the interference pattern at the interferometer output will decrease. Fringe contrast will be maximum when both beams present a polarization perpendicular to the plane of incidence. However, minimum visibility is obtained when, after propagation through the sample the polarization of the sample beam is oriented parallel to the plane of incidence. By using different solute concentrations, a calibration plot is obtained showing the behavior of visibility.

  2. Calagem em solos de várzea e a disponibilidade de nutrientes na solução do solo após o alagamento Liming in lowland soils and nutrient availability in soil solution after flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Souza da Silva

    2005-10-01

    mixed with different lime quantities: zero, ½ SMP to pH 5,5; 1 SMP to pH 5,5; and 1 SMP to pH 6,0. After 90 days of incubation, the samples were placed in plastic pots with a soil solution collector. After flooding, soil solution was collected at 2, 8, 15, 22, 28, 42 and 56 days and Fe, Ca, Mg, K e P concentrations were analyzed. After flooding, the Fe concentration was reduced, the Ca and Mg were increased, and the K and P concentrations were not changed by lime rates. The soil solution nutrient concentrations after liming were different among the three soils types.

  3. Application of TXRF spectrometry and HPLC for the characterization of xylem saps of nickel contaminated cucumber plants grown in urea containing nutrient solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatar, E.; Mihucz, V.G.; Varga, G.; Zaray, G.; Cseh, E.

    2000-01-01

    The total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry was used to determine the elemental composition of xylem saps of cucumber plants grown in nutrient solutions having urea, as the sole nitrogen source and artificially contaminated with nickel(II) ions in concentration of 10 μM, which proved to be toxic for the plants. The saps of uncontaminated plants - grown at the same time with the contaminated ones - were also investigated. The collection of the samples was performed for 1 hour followed by two additional 30-minute-long time periods, thus three samples resulted for each group of plants. The TXRF measurements were performed using Ga as internal standard. For excitation, Mo tube was used and the integration time was 300 s. The nutrient heavy metals determined by the TXRF spectrometry in the saps were Fe, Mn and Zn in concentration range of ng/cm 3 . Two other nutrient elements, Ca and K were also determined and they were present in the samples in concentration of μg/cm 3 . The concentration of nickel in the saps originating from the contaminated plants, was approximately 1400 ng/cm 3 . The concentration of another nutrient heavy metal, Cu was determined by the graphite furnace atomic absorption (GF-AAS) spectrometry. Applying a reversed-phased HPLC method, the organic acids of the samples, citric, malic and fumaric acids were also quantified, their concentrations being also in the μg/cm 3 concentration range. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) measurements were also performed in order to detect possible macromolecules of the saps. Both techniques, having low sample volume demand, were suitable to perform reliable measurements of the samples whose masses were between 0,9-2,5 g. Furthermore, the absence of the matrix effects is also an important advantage of the TXRF spectrometry that permits the direct analysis of the xylem saps. These investigations form part of our work focusing on the availability, accumulation and transport of heavy metals in

  4. A discussion about maximum uranium concentration in digestion solution of U3O8 type uranium ore concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Dechang; Liu Chao

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of discussing the influence of single factor on maximum uranium concentration in digestion solution,the influence degree of some factors such as U content, H 2 O content, mass ratio of P and U was compared and analyzed. The results indicate that the relationship between U content and maximum uranium concentration in digestion solution was direct ratio, while the U content increases by 1%, the maximum uranium concentration in digestion solution increases by 4.8%-5.7%. The relationship between H 2 O content and maximum uranium concentration in digestion solution was inverse ratio, the maximum uranium concentration in digestion solution decreases by 46.1-55.2 g/L while H 2 O content increases by 1%. The relationship between mass ratio of P and U and maximum uranium concentration in digestion solution was inverse ratio, the maximum uranium concentration in digestion solution decreases by 116.0-181.0 g/L while the mass ratio of P and U increase 0.1%. When U content equals 62.5% and the influence of mass ratio of P and U is no considered, the maximum uranium concentration in digestion solution equals 1 578 g/L; while mass ratio of P and U equals 0.35%, the maximum uranium concentration decreases to 716 g/L, the decreased rate is 54.6%, so the mass ratio of P and U in U 3 O 8 type uranium ore concentrate is the main controlling factor. (authors)

  5. Effect of subalpine canopy removal on snowpack, soil solution, and nutrient export, Fraser Experimental Forest, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottlemyer, R.; Troendle, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    proportionally greater than water flux. Increased subsurface flow accounted for most of the increase in non-limiting nutrient loss. For limiting nutrients, loss of plant uptake and increased shallow subsurface flow accounted for the greater loss. Seasonal ion concentration patterns in streamwater and subsurface flow were similar.Research on the effects of vegetation manipulation on snowpack, soil water, and streamwater chemistry and flux has been underway at the Fraser Experimental Forest (FEF), CO, since 1982. Greater than 95% of FEF snowmelt passes through watersheds as subsurface flow where soil processes significantly alter meltwater chemistry. To better understand the mechanisms accounting for annual variation in watershed streamwater ion concentration and flux with snowmelt, we studied subsurface water flow, its ion concentration, and flux in conterminous forested and clear cut plots. Repetitive patterns in subsurface flow and chemistry were apparent. Control plot subsurface flow chemistry had the highest ion concentrations in late winter and fall. When shallow subsurface flow occurred, its Ca2+, SO42-, and HCO3- concentrations were lower and K+ higher than deep flow. The percentage of Ca2+, NO3-, SO42-, and HCO3- flux in shallow depths was less and K+ slightly greater than the percentage of total flow. Canopy removal increased precipitation reaching the forest floor by about 40%, increased peak snowpack water equivalent (SWE) > 35%, increased the average snowpack Ca2+, NO3-, and NH4+ content, reduced the snowpack K+ content, and increased the runoff four-fold. Clear cutting doubled the percentage of subsurface flow at shallow depths, and increased K+ concentration in shallow subsurface flow and NO3- concentrations in both shallow and deep flow. The percentage change in total Ca2+, SO42-, and HCO3- flux in shallow depths was less than the change in water flux, while that of K+ and NO3- flux was greater. Relative to the control, in the clear cut the percentage of total Ca

  6. Soil Respiration Controls Ionic Nutrient Concentration In Percolating Water In Rice Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, M.

    2004-12-01

    Soil water in the plow layer in rice fields contains various kinds of cations and anions, and they are lost from the plow layer by water percolation. Some portions of CO2 produced by respirations of rice roots and soil microorganisms are also leached by water percolation to the subsoil layer as HCO3-. As the electrical neutrality of inorganic substances in percolating water is maintained when they are assumed to be in the form of simple cations and anions, soil respiration accelerates the leaching of ionic nutrients from the plow layer by water percolation. The proportion of inorganic carbon (Σ CO2) originated from photosynthates in the total Σ CO2 in soil solution in the plow layer was from 28 to 36 % in the rice straw amended soil and from 16 to 31 % in the soil without rice straw amendment in a soil pot experiment with rice plant after the maximum tillering stage. Most of Σ CO2 in percolating water from the plow layer accumulates in the subsoil layer. Periodical measurement of Σ CO2 in percolating water at 13 and 40 cm soil depths indicated that 10 % of total soil organic C in the plow layer was leached down from the plow layer (13 cm), and that about 90 % of it was retained in the subsoil layer to the depth of 40 cm. Water soluble organic materials are also leached from the plow layer by water percolation, and the leaching is accelerated by soil reduction. Soil reduction decreased the content of organic materials that were bound with ferric iron in soil (extractable by 0.1M Na4P2O7 + NaBH4) and increased the content of organic materials that were extractable by the neutral chelating solution (0.1M Na4P2O7). In addition, water percolation transformed the latter organic materials to those that were extractable by water and a neutral salt. Considerable portions of organic materials in percolating water are adsorbed in the subsoil layer, and then partially decomposed and polymerized to specific soil organic materials in the subsoil. Organic materials that were

  7. A field study to evaluate the impact of different factors on the nutrient pollutant concentrations in green roof runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochen; Zhao, Xinhua; Peng, Chenrui; Zhang, Xinbo; Wang, Jianghai

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the impact of different factors on the nutrient pollutant concentrations in green roof runoff and to provide reference data for the engineering design of dual substrate layer green roofs. The data were collected from eight different trays under three kinds of artificial rains. The results showed that except for total phosphorus, dual substrate layer green roofs behaved as a sink for most of the nutrient pollutants (significant at p green roof and the depth of the adsorption substrates. Compared with the influence of the substrates, the influence of the plant density and drainage systems was small.

  8. Contribution of the ''simple solutions'' concept to estimate density of actinides concentrated solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorel, C.; Moisy, Ph.; Dinh, B.; Blanc, P.

    2000-01-01

    In order to calculate criticality parameters of nuclear fuel solution systems, number density of nuclides are needed and they are generally estimated from density equations. Most of the relations allowing the calculation of the density of aqueous solutions containing the electrolytes HNO 3 -UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 -Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , usually called 'nitrate dilution laws' are strictly empirical. They are obtained from a fit of assumed polynomial expressions on experimental density data. Out of their interpolation range, such mathematical expressions show discrepancies between calculated and experimental data appearing in the high concentrations range. In this study, a physico-chemical approach based on the isopiestic mixtures rule is suggested. The behaviour followed by these mixtures was first observed in 1936 by Zdanovskii and expressed as: 'Binary solutions (i.e. one electrolyte in water) having a same water activity are mixed without variation of this water activity value'. With regards to this behaviour, a set of basic thermodynamic expressions has been pointed out by Ryazanov and Vdovenko in 1965 concerning enthalpy, entropy, volume of mixtures, activity and osmotic coefficient of the components. In particular, a very simple relation for the density is obtained from the volume mixture expression depending on only two physico-chemical variables: i) concentration of each component in the mixture and in their respectively binary solutions having the same water activity as the mixture and ii), density of each component respectively in the binary solution having the same water activity as the mixture. Therefore, the calculation needs the knowledge of binary data (water activity, density and concentration) of each component at the same temperature as the mixture. Such experimental data are largely published in the literature and are available for nitric acid and uranyl nitrate. Nevertheless, nitric acid binary data show large discrepancies between the authors and need to be

  9. Concentration of rhenium from dilute sodium chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGOLJUB M. LUKIC

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the desorption of rhenium from the anion exchange resin Dowex 1-x8 by HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 and NaOH were determined. The solution (5.0´10-3 mol dm-3 Re in 0.15 mol dm-3 NaCl was passed through a column containing 0.10 g of the resin. The total sorbed amount of rhenium was 0.20 g/g of the resin. It was then eluted by the corresponding eluent in the concentration range up to about 3.0 mol dm-3. The highest elution efficiency and the most favourable elution profile were found with 3.0 mol dm-3 HNO3. Over 77 % of the sorbed rhenium was found in the first 5 ml of the eluate. Practically all the rhenium was recovered with 20 ml of the acid. Under the given experimental conditions, HCl and H2SO4 were less favourable while NaOH was not applicable, due to very low efficiency of rhenium elution.

  10. Synergistic effects and optimization of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on the growth and nutrient uptake of a freshwater Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alketife, Ahmed M; Judd, Simon; Znad, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    The synergistic effects and optimization of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris (CCAP 211/11B, CS-42) and nutrient removal have been investigated under different concentrations of N (0-56 mg/L) and P (0-19 mg/L). The study showed that N/P ratio has a crucial effect on the biomass growth and nutrient removal. When N/P=10, a complete P and N removal was achieved at the end of cultivation with specific growth rate (SGR) of 1 d -1 and biomass concentration of 1.58 g/L. It was also observed that when the N content <2.5 mg/L, the SGR significantly reduced from 1.04 to 0.23 d -1 and the maximum biomass produced was decreased more than three-fold to 0.5 g/L. The Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface method were used to study the effects of the initial concentrations (P, N and C) on P and N removal efficiencies. The optimized P, N and C concentrations supporting 100% removal of both P and N at an SGR of 0.95 were 7, 55 and 10 mg/L respectively, with desirability value of 0.94. The results and analysis obtained could be very useful when applying the microalgae for efficient wastewater treatment and nutrient removal.

  11. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Voshell, J Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO(4)-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations >1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (>1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R(2) = 0.56-0.81) and E2Eq (R(2) = 0.39-0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO(4)-P were weaker, but were also significant (R(2) = 0.27-0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO(4)-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO(4)-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Voshell, J. Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations > 1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (> 1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R2 = 0.56–0.81) and E2Eq (R2 = 0.39–0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R2 = 0.27–0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms.

  13. Phytotoxic effects of nickel on yield and concentration of macro- and micro-nutrients in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) achenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel; Ashraf, Muhammad; Hussain, Mumtaz

    2011-01-30

    The phytotoxic effects of varying levels of nickel (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg L(-1)) on growth, yield and accumulation of macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were appraised in this study. A marked reduction in root and shoot fresh biomass was recorded at higher Ni levels. Nickel stress also caused a substantial decrease in all macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes. The lower level of Ni (10 mg L(-1)) had a non-significant effect on various yield attributes, but higher Ni levels considerably decreased these parameters. Higher Ni levels decreased the concentrations of Ca, Mn and Fe in achenes. In contrast, achene N, K, Zn, Mn and Cu decreased consistently with increasing level of Ni, even at lower level (10 mg L(-1)). Sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 had better yield and higher most of the nutrients in achenes as compared with SF-187. The maximum reduction in all parameters was observed at the maximum level of nickel (40 mg L(-1)) where almost all parameters were reduced more than 50% of those of control plants. In conclusion, the pattern of uptake and accumulation of different nutrients in sunflower plants were nutrient- and cultivar-specific under Ni-stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of surface roughness and solution concentration on pool boiling process in Diethanolamine aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshechin, Mohsen; Salimi, Farhad; Jahangiri, Alireza

    2018-04-01

    In this research, the effect of surface roughness and concentration of solution on bubble departing frequency and nucleation site density for pool boiling of water/diethanolamine (DEA) binary solution were investigated experimentally. In this investigation, boiling heat transfer coefficient, bubble departing frequency and nucleation site density have been experimentally investigated in various concentrations and heat fluxes. Microstructured surfaces with a wide range of well-defined surface roughness were fabricated, and a heat flux between 1.5-86 kW/m2 was achieved under atmospheric conditions. The Results indicated that surface roughness and concentration of solution increase the bubble departing frequency and nucleation site density with increasing heat flux. The boiling heat transfer coefficient in mixtures of water/DEA increases with increasing concentration of DEA in water. The experimental results were compared with predictions of several used correlations in the literatures. Results showed that the boiling heat transfer coefficients of this case study are much higher than the predicted values by major existing correlations and models. The excellent agreement for bubble departing frequency found between the models of Jackob and Fritz (1966) and experimental data and also the nucleation site density were in close agreement with the model of Paul (1983) data. f bubble departure frequency, 1/s or Hz N Number of nucleation sites per area per time R c Minimum cavity size, m D c critical diameter, m g gravitational acceleration, m/s2 ρ density, kg/m3 T temperature, °c ΔT temperature difference, °c d d vapor bubble diameter, m h fg enthalpy of vaporization, J/kg R Roughness, μm Ja Jakob number cp specific heat, J/kg °c Pr Prandtl number Ar Archimedes number h Heat transfer coefficient, J/(m2 °c) tg time it takes to grow a bubble, s q/A heat flux (kW/m2) tw time required to heat the layer, s gc Correction coefficient of incompatible units R a Surface

  15. Affordable nutrient solutions for improved food security as evidenced by crop trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Marijn; See, Linda; You, Liangzhi; Balkovič, Juraj; Fritz, Steffen; Khabarov, Nikolay; Obersteiner, Michael; Wood, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The continuing depletion of nutrients from agricultural soils in Sub-Saharan African is accompanied by a lack of substantial progress in crop yield improvement. In this paper we investigate yield gaps for corn under two scenarios: a micro-dosing scenario with marginal increases in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) of 10 kg ha(-1) and a larger yet still conservative scenario with proposed N and P applications of 80 and 20 kg ha(-1) respectively. The yield gaps are calculated from a database of historical FAO crop fertilizer trials at 1358 locations for Sub-Saharan Africa and South America. Our approach allows connecting experimental field scale data with continental policy recommendations. Two critical findings emerged from the analysis. The first is the degree to which P limits increases in corn yields. For example, under a micro-dosing scenario, in Africa, the addition of small amounts of N alone resulted in mean yield increases of 8% while the addition of only P increased mean yields by 26%, with implications for designing better balanced fertilizer distribution schemes. The second finding was the relatively large amount of yield increase possible for a small, yet affordable amount of fertilizer application. Using African and South American fertilizer prices we show that the level of investment needed to achieve these results is considerably less than 1% of Agricultural GDP for both a micro-dosing scenario and for the scenario involving higher yet still conservative fertilizer application rates. In the latter scenario realistic mean yield increases ranged between 28 to 85% in South America and 71 to 190% in Africa (mean plus one standard deviation). External investment in this low technology solution has the potential to kick start development and could complement other interventions such as better crop varieties and improved economic instruments to support farmers.

  16. Influence of concentration on the radiolytic decomposition of thiamine, riboflavin, and pyridoxine in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Albarrán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin loss during irradiation has been claimed as a critical area in food irradiation technology, especially that of thiamine (B1, which has been considered as the most sensitive to radiation. Although it has been suggested that no vitamin deficiency could result from consuming irradiated food, a long debate on the loss of vitamins and other nutrients during food irradiation has been maintained by the lack of experimental studies monitoring decomposition rates at different concentrations and doses. Since thiamine, riboflavin, and pyridoxine are labile vitamins, this study has focused on their radiolytic decomposition in dilute aqueous solutions in the presence of air. The decomposition process was followed by HPLC and UV-spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous solutions showed a dependence of the decomposition as a nonlinear function of the dose. Of these three compounds, the decomposition was higher for thiamine than for riboflavin and even less in pyridoxine.

  17. Effect of molybdenum on the severity of toxicity symptoms in flax induced by an excess of either manganese, zinc, copper, nickel or cobalt in the nutrient solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millikan, C R

    1947-01-01

    The addition of molybdenum to solutions containing an excess of either manganese, zinc, copper, nickel or cobalt respectively, resulted in decreases in the severity of iron deficiency symptoms which normally occurred when flax was grown in solutions containing the same concentrations of any of these elements, but without molybdenum. The efficacy of molybdenum in this regard increased with increasing concentration up to 25 parts per million. However, concentrations of 0.5 to 2 parts per million of molybdenum had little effect on the severity of iron deficiency symptoms at the concentrations of heavy metals used. Molybdenum 5, 10 or 25 parts per million also retarded the date of appearance and reduced the severity of lower leaf necrosis which is another characteristic symptom of the presence of excess manganese (25 to 100 parts per million) in the nutrient solution. It is concluded that an essential function of molybdenum is intimately associated with the regulation of the deleterious effect of manganese, zinc, copper, nickel or cobalt on the physiological availability of iron to the plant. 46 references, 3 figures.

  18. Iodine uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) plants grown in solution culture: effects of iodine species and solution concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y-G; Huang, Y-Z; Hu, Y; Liu, Y-X

    2003-04-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of iodine species and solution concentrations on iodine uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Five iodine concentrations (0, 1, 10, 50 and 100 microM) for iodate (IO(3)(-)) and iodide (I(-)) were used. Results show that higher concentrations of I(-) (> or =10 microM) had some detrimental effect on plant growth, while IO(3)(-) had little effect on the biomass production of spinach plants. Increases in iodine concentration in the growth solution significantly enhanced I concentrations in plant tissues. The detrimental effect of I(-) on plant growth was probably due to the excessively high accumulation of I in plant tissues. The solution-to-spinach leaf transfer factors (TF(leaf), fresh weight basis) for plants treated with iodide were between 14.2 and 20.7 at different solution concentrations of iodide; TF(leaf) for plants treated with iodate decreased gradually from 23.7 to 2.2 with increasing solution concentrations of iodate. The distribution coefficients (DCs) of I between leaves and roots were constantly higher for plants treated with iodate than those treated with iodide. DCs for plants treated with iodide increased with increasing solution concentrations of iodide, while DCs for plants treated with iodate (around 5.5) were similar across the range of solution concentrations of iodate used in this experiment. The implications of iodine accumulation in leafy vegetables in human iodine nutrition are also discussed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Value assignment of nutrient concentrations in five standard reference materials and six reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, K E; Gill, L M

    2000-01-01

    A number of food-matrix reference materials (RMs) are available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and from Agriculture Canada through NIST. Most of these materials were originally value-assigned for their elemental composition (major, minor, and trace elements), but no additional nutritional information was provided. Two of the materials were certified for selected organic constituents. Ten of these materials (Standard Reference Material [SRM] 1,563 Cholesterol and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Coconut Oil [Natural and Fortified], SRM 1,566b Oyster Tissue, SRM 1,570a Spinach Leaves, SRM 1,974a Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis), RM 8,415 Whole Egg Powder, RM 8,418 Wheat Gluten, RM 8,432 Corn Starch, RM 8,433 Corn Bran, RM 8,435 Whole Milk Powder, and RM 8,436 Durum Wheat Flour) were recently distributed by NIST to 4 laboratories with expertise in food analysis for the measurement of proximates (solids, fat, protein, etc.), calories, and total dietary fiber, as appropriate. SRM 1846 Infant Formula was distributed as a quality control sample for the proximates and for analysis for individual fatty acids. Two of the materials (Whole Egg Powder and Whole Milk Powder) were distributed in an earlier interlaboratory comparison exercise in which they were analyzed for several vitamins. Value assignment of analyte concentrations in these 11 SRMs and RMs, based on analyses by the collaborating laboratories, is described in this paper. These materials are intended primarily for validation of analytical methods for the measurement of nutrients in foods of similar composition (based on AOAC INTERNATIONAL's fat-protein-carbohydrate triangle). They may also be used as "primary control materials" in the value assignment of in-house control materials of similar composition. The addition of proximate information for 10 existing reference materials means that RMs are now available from NIST with assigned values for proximates in 6 of the 9 sectors of

  20. Isolated effects of external bath osmolality, solute concentration, and electrical charge on solute transport across articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouran, Behdad; Arbabi, Vahid; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic function of cartilage primarily depends on transport of solutes through diffusion mechanism. In the current study, we use contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography to determine equilibrium concentration of solutes through different cartilage zones and solute flux in the cartilage, using osteochondral plugs from equine femoral condyles. Diffusion experiments were performed with two solutes of different charge and approximately equal molecular weight, namely iodixanol (neutral) and ioxaglate (charge=-1) in order to isolate the effects of solute's charge on diffusion. Furthermore, solute concentrations as well as bath osmolality were changed to isolate the effects of steric hindrance on diffusion. Bath concentration and bath osmolality only had minor effects on the diffusion of the neutral solute through cartilage at the surface, middle and deep zones, indicating that the diffusion of the neutral solute was mainly Fickian. The negatively charged solute diffused considerably slower through cartilage than the neutral solute, indicating a large non-Fickian contribution in the diffusion of charged molecules. The numerical models determined maximum solute flux in the superficial zone up to a factor of 2.5 lower for the negatively charged solutes (charge=-1) as compared to the neutral solutes confirming the importance of charge-matrix interaction in diffusion of molecules across cartilage. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Growth and development of Mentha piperita L. in nutrient solution as affected by rates of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Valmorbida

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of potassium on the development of Mentha piperita L. was evaluated in the plants grown in nutritive solution modified by variations in potassium, at 6.0, 3.0, and 1.5 mmol L-1, establishing differences between treatments and corresponding, respectively, to the concentration proposed in Hoagland and Arnon's no. 2 solution and reductions by 50% and 75%. Until 21 days after transplanting, the concentration used was diluted to 50% in the three treatments. Evaluations consisted of leaf area, development of the above-ground part, and dry matter of different plant organs. Plants grown with 1.5/3.0 mmol L-1 K showed greater development of the above-ground part. Other variables were not different among plants in the different treatments.A influência do potássio no desenvolvimento de Mentha piperita L. foi avaliada em plantas cultivadas em solução nutritiva modificada pela variação de potássio, com 6.0, 3.0 e 1.5 mmol L-1, que estabeleceram as diferenças entre tratamentos e corresponderam, respectivamente, a sua concentração proposta na solução nº 2 de Hoagland e Arnon e diminuição em 50% e 75%. Até os 21 dias após o transplante a concentração utilizada foi diluída em 50% nos três tratamentos. Avaliou-se área foliar, desenvolvimento da parte aérea e matéria secas dos diferentes órgãos. Plantas cultivadas com 1.5/3.0 mmol L-1 K apresentaram maior desenvolvimento da parte aérea. Demais variáveis não diferiram entre as plantas dos diferentes tratamentos.

  2. Yield, Quality, and Nutrient Concentrations of Strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. cv. 'Sonata') Grown with Different Organic Fertilizer Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Bhaniswor; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    2015-06-17

    Four combinations of two solid organic fertilizers (Monterra Malt and chicken manure) applied before planting and two liquid organic fertilizers (broad bean and Pioner Hi-Fruit/K-Max) given through drip irrigation (fertigation) were compared with inorganic fertilization regarding growth, yield, nutrient concentration, and fruit quality of strawberries. Broad bean fertigation combined with Monterra Malt resulted in a similar fruit yield as inorganic fertilizer and a higher yield than Monterra Malt combined with Pioner; however, total soluble solids, firmness, and titratable acid were improved with Pioner fertigation, although these parameters were more affected by harvest time than the applied fertilizers. The concentrations of most nutrients in fruits and leaves were higher in inorganically fertigated plants. The reductions in fruit yield in three of four treatments and fruit weight in all organic treatments may be due to a combination of the following conditions in the root zone: (1) high pH and high NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio; (2) high EC and/or high NaCl concentration; (3) cation imbalance; and (4) nutrient deficiency.

  3. Effect of Ni and Urea on Growth, Nitrate and Nutrients Concentration in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa Grown in Hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Nazari Mamaqani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The N source used in commercial hydroponic culture of vegetables is mainly NO3-N. The rate of NO3- uptake is usually high, particularly in leafy vegetables and it can be markedly increased when the NO3- supply in the environment is high. An abundant N supply leads to a high NO3-N absorption and accumulation in plants. When NO3- rich vegetables are consumed, various harmful effects on human health may occur such as met-hemoglobinemia (Blue Baby Syndrome and cancer. Keeping levels of NO3- below limits of FAO seems to be impossible without changing conventional fertilizer application techniques. The suitability of urea for the cultivation of field crops has been well documented. Urea is used as the main source of N fertilizer for crops grown in soil. Its use as N source for crops grown under the hydroponic system has yet to be evaluated. To hydrolyze urea, the enzyme urease requires Ni as a component. Substitution of urea for commonly used N03-N fertilizers in hydroponic culture of vegetables would not only enable to avoid excessive accumulation of N03- in plants but would also reduce the cost of production. Leafy vegetable crops, such as lettuce and spinach, contain large amounts of N03-N. Therefore, it is important to reduce N03- concentrations in hydroponically grown with lowest negative effects on yield. Materials and Methods: The experiments were carried outin greenhouse hydroponicsResearchFaculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz in randomized complete block designwithtwo factors ureaatfivelevels of 0,25, 50, 75and100milligrams perliter(U0, U25,U50, U75, U100andnickelattwo levels of0and2mg per liter (Ni0, Ni2ofnickelsulfate(NiSO4in4replicatesusinglettuce(Lactuca sativa cv. Siyahoo. Plants fed with the modifiedHoagland solutionorhalf theconcentration. Treatments added to nutrient solution when plants were in four leaf stage. Plants were harvested 50 days after treatment. Different organs (leaves, stems and roots were separated

  4. Predicted harvest time effects on switchgrass moisture content, nutrient concentration, yield, and profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production costs change with harvest date of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a result of nutrient recycling and changes in yield of this perennial crop. This study examines the range of cost of production from an early, yield-maximizing harvest date to a late winter harvest date at low moisture...

  5. Affordable nutrient solutions for improved food security as evidenced by crop trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Marijn; See, Linda; You, Liangzhi; Balkovic, Juraj; Fritz, Steffen; Khabarov, Nikolay; Obersteiner, Michael; Wood, Stanley

    2013-04-01

    Robust assessments of attainable crop yields in Africa and South America are pivotal for projections of food security and cropland expansion. In contract to South America, Africa has not achieved significant increases in crop yields. Here we utilize a database of historical FAO crop fertilizer trials at 1358 locations for Sub-Saharan Africa and South America to calculate corn yield gaps at the continental scale. To further the African crop productivity discourse we consider the importance of soil nutrient stoichiometry and the viability of micro-dosing. Importantly, besides N, our crop yield potential estimates account for P which has a notoriously low availability in weathered tropical soils. We investigated yield gaps for corn under two scenarios: a micro-dosing scenario with marginal increases in N and P of 10 kg/ha and a larger yet still conservative scenario with proposed N and P applications of 80 and 20 kg/ha respectively. Two critical findings emerged from the analysis. The first is the degree to which P limits increases in corn yields. For example, under a micro-dosing scenario, in Africa, the addition of small amounts of N alone resulted in yield increases of 8% while the addition of only P increased yields by 26%, with implications for designing better balanced fertilizer distribution schemes. Application of both N and P at 10 kg ha-1 lead to 15% and 32% yield increase. To put the benefits of these higher yields in context, this could save more than 4 and 25 million ha of cropland, or alternatively potentially feed 64 and 150 million people in South America and Africa respectively. The second finding was the relatively large amount of yield increase possible for a small, yet affordable amount of fertilizer application. Using African and South American fertilizer prices we show that the level of investment needed to achieve these results is considerably less than 1% of Agricultural GDP for both a micro-dosing scenario and for a scenario involving higher

  6. Geographic variation in the relationships of temperature, salinity or sigma sub t versus plant nutrient concentrations in the world ocean. [silicic acid, nitrate, and phosphate concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamykowski, D.; Zentara, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A NODC data set representing all regions of the world ocean was analyzed for temperature and sigma-t relationships with nitrate, phosphate or silicic acid. Six cubic regressions were for each ten degree square of latitude and longitude containing adequate data. World maps display the locations that allow the prediction of plant nutrient concentrations from temperature or sigma-t. Geographic coverage improves along the sequence: nitrate, phosphate, and silicic acid and is better for sigma-t than for temperature. Contour maps of the approximate temperature of sigma-t at which these nitrients are no longer measurable in a parcel of water are generated, based on a percentile analysis of the temperature or sigma-t at which less than a selected amount of plant nutrient occurs. Results are stored on magnetic tape in tabular form. The global potential to predict plant nutrient concentrations from remotely sensed temperature of sigma-t and to emphasize the latitudinally and longitudinally changing phytoplankton growth environment in present and past oceans is demonstrated.

  7. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, A; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Yilma, D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are increasingly used in HIV programmes in resource-limited settings. However, the possible effects of LNSs on the plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs have not been assessed. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of LNSs on plasma...... efavirenz and nevirapine trough concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The effects of LNSs were studied in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a randomized trial. Patients with body mass index (BMI) > 17 kg/m(2) (n = 282) received daily supplementation of an LNS.......9; -0.9 μg/mL; P = 0.01), respectively, compared with the group not receiving supplements. There were no differences between groups with respect to efavirenz plasma concentrations. The CYP2B6 516 G>T polymorphism was associated with a 5 μg/mL higher plasma efavirenz concentration compared with the wild...

  8. Systematic review to support the development of nutrient reference intake values: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workshops sponsored by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the World Health Organization (WHO) suggested that incorporating systematic reviews into the process of updating nutrient reference values would enhance the transparency of the process. The IOM issues the Dietary Reference Intake values (DR...

  9. Tree harvest in an experimental sand ecosystem: plant effects on nutrient dynamics and solute generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. K. Keller; R. O' Brien; J. R. Havig; J. L. Smith; B. T. Bormann; D. Wang

    2006-01-01

    The hydrochemical signatures of forested ecosystems are known to be determined by a time-variant combination of physical-hydrologic, geochemical, and biologic processes. We studied subsurface potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and nitrate (NO3) in an experimental red-pine mesocosm to determine how trees affect the behavior of these nutrients in soil...

  10. Accurate Description of Calcium Solvation in Concentrated Aqueous Solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohagen, Miriam; Mason, Philip E.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 28 (2014), s. 7902-7909 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016; GA MŠk LH12001 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : calcium chloride * aqueous solution * molecular dynamics * neutron scattering Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014

  11. Source Material and Concentration of Wildfire-Produced Pyrogenic Carbon Influence Post-Fire Soil Nutrient Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. Michelotti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyrogenic carbon (PyC is produced by the thermal decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen (O. PyC affects nutrient availability, may enhance post-fire nitrogen (N mineralization rates, and can be a significant carbon (C pool in fire-prone ecosystems. Our objectives were to characterize PyC produced by wildfires and examine the influence that contrasting types of PyC have on C and N mineralization rates. We determined C, N, O, and hydrogen (H concentrations and atomic ratios of charred bark (BK, charred pine cones (PC, and charred woody debris (WD using elemental analysis. We also incubated soil amended with BK, PC, and WD at two concentrations for 60 days to measure C and N mineralization rates. PC had greater H/C and O/C ratios than BK and WD, suggesting that PC may have a lesser aromatic component than BK and WD. C and N mineralization rates decreased with increasing PyC concentrations, and control samples produced more CO2 than soils amended with PyC. Soils with PC produced greater CO2 and had lower N mineralization rates than soils with BK or WD. These results demonstrate that PyC type and concentration have potential to impact nutrient dynamics and C flux to the atmosphere in post-fire forest soils.

  12. Changing climate and nutrient transfers: Evidence from high temporal resolution concentration-flow dynamics in headwater catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenden, M C; Deasy, C E; Benskin, C McW H; Beven, K J; Burke, S; Collins, A L; Evans, R; Falloon, P D; Forber, K J; Hiscock, K M; Hollaway, M J; Kahana, R; Macleod, C J A; Reaney, S M; Snell, M A; Villamizar, M L; Wearing, C; Withers, P J A; Zhou, J G; Haygarth, P M

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesise that climate change, together with intensive agricultural systems, will increase the transfer of pollutants from land to water and impact on stream health. This study builds, for the first time, an integrated assessment of nutrient transfers, bringing together a) high-frequency data from the outlets of two surface water-dominated, headwater (~10km(2)) agricultural catchments, b) event-by-event analysis of nutrient transfers, c) concentration duration curves for comparison with EU Water Framework Directive water quality targets, d) event analysis of location-specific, sub-daily rainfall projections (UKCP, 2009), and e) a linear model relating storm rainfall to phosphorus load. These components, in combination, bring innovation and new insight into the estimation of future phosphorus transfers, which was not available from individual components. The data demonstrated two features of particular concern for climate change impacts. Firstly, the bulk of the suspended sediment and total phosphorus (TP) load (greater than 90% and 80% respectively) was transferred during the highest discharge events. The linear model of rainfall-driven TP transfers estimated that, with the projected increase in winter rainfall (+8% to +17% in the catchments by 2050s), annual event loads might increase by around 9% on average, if agricultural practices remain unchanged. Secondly, events following dry periods of several weeks, particularly in summer, were responsible for high concentrations of phosphorus, but relatively low loads. The high concentrations, associated with low flow, could become more frequent or last longer in the future, with a corresponding increase in the length of time that threshold concentrations (e.g. for water quality status) are exceeded. The results suggest that in order to build resilience in stream health and help mitigate potential increases in diffuse agricultural water pollution due to climate change, land management practices should target

  13. Efeito da concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva e do número de frutos por planta sobre a produção do meloeiro Effect of nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution and number of fruits per plant on yield of melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe V. Purquerio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, na UNESP em Jaboticabal (SP, de junho a novembro de 2001, com o objetivo de avaliar a produção do melão (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus, híbrido Bônus nº2, cultivado em sistema hidropônico NFT, em função da concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva (80, 140, 200 e 300 mg L-1 e número de frutos por planta (2, 3, 4 e livre. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com seis repetições. Aos 80 dias após o transplantio, foram observados 2, 3, 4 e 5,1 frutos por planta e, posteriormente na colheita, 2, 2,9, 3,0 e 3,4 frutos por planta, respectivamente para os tratamentos com 2, 3, 4 e fixação livre, sendo esta redução atribuída ao abortamento de frutos. Houve redução no peso médio do 1º, 2º e 3º fruto colhido, com o aumento da concentração de nitrogênio. Plantas com o menor número de frutos, apresentaram maior peso médio dos mesmos, porém com menor produção por planta. A maior produção (2.474 g/planta foi obtida com 80 mg L-1 de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva.The effects of different nitrogen concentrations (80; 140; 200 and 300 mg L-1 and fruit number per plant (2; 3; 4 and free setting, were investigated on net melon production (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus, Bonus nº 2 hybrid. The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, in NFT hydroponic system, from June to November, 2001. The experimental design was of randomized split plots, replicated six times. At 80 days after seedling transplant 2; 3; 4 and 5.1 fruits per plant were found. However, at harvest there were 2; 2.9; 3.0 and 3.4 fruits per plant, relative to 2; 3; 4 and free setting per plant treatment. This observed fruit reduction was attributed to fruit abortion. With the increase of nitrogen concentrations a reduction in first, second and third fruit weight was found. Plants with fewer fruits, produced higher average

  14. Plutonium solution in concentration range from 8 to 17 G/liter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly discusses the need for a fundamental criticality study of low concentrations of plutonium solutions. Examples of the occurrence of such solutions, which are characteristic of waste, are cited. Due to the prevalence of decontaminating and decommissioning activities, low concentration solutions are expected to become an important concern. Technical deficiencies in previous calculations are also discussed as a reason for performing low concentration criticality studies. 3 refs.

  15. Plutonium solution in concentration range from 8 to 17 G/liter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper very briefly discusses the need for a fundamental criticality study of low concentrations of plutonium solutions. Examples of the occurrence of such solutions, which are characteristic of waste, are cited. Due to the prevalence of decontaminating and decommissioning activities, low concentration solutions are expected to become an important concern. Technical deficiencies in previous calculations are also discussed as a reason for performing low concentration criticality studies. 3 refs

  16. Response of dissolved carbon and nitrogen concentrations to moderate nutrient additions in a tropical montane forest of south Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velescu, Andre; Valarezo, Carlos; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    In the past two decades, the tropical montane rain forests in south Ecuador experienced increasing deposition of reactive nitrogen mainly originating from Amazonian forest fires, while Saharan dust inputs episodically increased deposition of base metals. Increasing air temperature and unevenly distributed rainfall have allowed for longer dry spells in a perhumid ecosystem. This might have favored mineralization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by microorganisms and increased nutrient release from the organic layer. Environmental change is expected to impact the functioning of this ecosystem belonging to the biodiversity hotspots of the Earth. In 2007, we established a nutrient manipulation experiment (NUMEX) to understand the response of the ecosystem to moderately increased nutrient inputs. Since 2008, we have continuously applied 50 kg ha-1 a-1 of nitrogen (N), 10 kg ha-1 a-1 of phosphorus (P), 50 kg + 10 kg ha-1 a-1 of N and P and 10 kg ha-1 a-1 of calcium (Ca) in a randomized block design at 2000 m a.s.l. in a natural forest on the Amazonia-exposed slopes of the south Ecuadorian Andes. Nitrogen concentrations in throughfall increased following N+P additions, while separate N amendments only increased nitrate concentrations. Total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations showed high seasonal variations in litter leachate and decreased significantly in the P and N+P treatments, but not in the N treatment. Thus, P availability plays a key role in the mineralization of DOM. TOC/DON ratios were narrower in throughfall than in litter leachate but their temporal course did not respond to nutrient amendments. Our results revealed an initially fast, positive response of the C and N cycling to nutrient additions which declined with time. TOC and DON cycling only change if N and P supply are improved concurrently, while NO3-N leaching increases only if N is separately added. This indicates co-limitation of the microorganisms by N and P

  17. Response of dissolved carbon and nitrogen concentrations to moderate nutrient additions in a tropical montane forest of south Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre eVelescu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, the tropical montane rain forests in south Ecuador experienced increasing deposition of reactive nitrogen mainly originating from Amazonian forest fires, while Saharan dust inputs episodically increased deposition of base metals. Increasing air temperature and unevenly distributed rainfall have allowed for longer dry spells in a perhumid ecosystem. This might have favored mineralization of dissolved organic matter (DOM by microorganisms and increased nutrient release from the organic layer. Environmental change is expected to impact the functioning of this ecosystem belonging to the biodiversity hotspots of the Earth.In 2007, we established a nutrient manipulation experiment (NUMEX to understand the response of the ecosystem to moderately increased nutrient inputs. Since 2008, we have continuously applied 50 kg ha-1 a-1 of nitrogen (N, 10 kg ha-1 a-1 of phosphorus (P, 50 kg + 10 kg ha-1 a-1 of N and P and 10 kg ha-1 a-1 of calcium (Ca in a randomized block design at 2000 m a.s.l. in a natural forest on the Amazonia-exposed slopes of the south Ecuadorian Andes.Nitrogen concentrations in throughfall increased following N+P additions, while separate N amendments only increased nitrate concentrations. Total organic carbon (TOC and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON concentrations showed high seasonal variations in litter leachate and decreased significantly in the P and N+P treatments, but not in the N treatment. Thus, P availability plays a key role in the mineralization of DOM. TOC/DON ratios were narrower in throughfall than in litter leachate but their temporal course did not respond to nutrient amendments.Our results revealed an initially fast, positive response of the C and N cycling to nutrient additions which declined with time. TOC and DON cycling only change if N and P supply are improved concurrently, while NO3-N leaching increases only if N is separately added. This indicates co-limitation of the microorganisms by N

  18. The use of erbium fiber laser relaxation frequency for sensing refractive index and solute concentration of aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano-Sotelo, H; Barmenkov, Yu O; Kir'yanov, A V

    2008-01-01

    We report a novel-principle fiber-laser intra-cavity sensor for measuring refractive index and solute concentration of aqueous solutions. The sensor operation is based on a variation of the laser oscillation relaxation frequency (the measured parameter), sensitive to the intra-cavity loss change. The sensor capacity is demonstrated on the example of measurements of sugar concentration in water. A modeling of the sensor operation is presented, allowing its performance optimization

  19. Whispering Gallery Mode Based Optical Fiber Sensor for Measuring Concentration of Salt Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chin Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An optical fiber solution-concentration sensor based on whispering gallery mode (WGM is proposed in this paper. The WGM solution-concentration sensors were used to measure salt solutions, in which the concentrations ranged from 1% to 25% and the wavelength drifted from the left to the right. The experimental results showed an average sensitivity of approximately 0.372 nm/% and an R2 linearity of 0.8835. The proposed WGM sensors are of low cost, feasible for mass production, and durable for solution-concentration sensing.

  20. Growth and Accumulation of Secondary Metabolites in Perilla as Affected by Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density and Electrical Conductivity of the Nutrient Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Lu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for medicinal plants is increasing. The quality of plants grown outdoors, however, is difficult to control. Myriad environmental factors influence plant growth and directly impact biosynthetic pathways, thus affecting the secondary metabolism of bioactive compounds. Plant factories use artificial lighting to increase the quality of medicinal plants and stabilize production. Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD and electrical conductivity (EC of nutrient solutions are two important factors that substantially influence perilla (Perilla frutescens, Labiatae plant growth and quality. To identify suitable levels of PPFD and EC for perilla plants grown in a plant factory, the growth, photosynthesis, and accumulation of secondary metabolites in red and green perilla plants were measured at PPFD values of 100, 200, and 300 μmol m-2 s-1 in nutrient solutions with EC values of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 dS m-1. The results showed significant interactive effects between PPFD and EC for both the fresh and dry weights of green perilla, but not for red perilla. The fresh and dry weights of shoots and leafy areas were affected more by EC than by PPFD in green perilla, whereas they were affected more by PPFD than by EC in red perilla. Leaf net photosynthetic rates were increased as PPFD increased in both perilla varieties, regardless of EC. The perillaldehyde concentration (mg g-1 in red perilla was unaffected by the treatments, but accumulation in plants (mg per plant was significantly enhanced as the weight of dry leaves increased. Perillaldehyde concentrations in green perilla showed significant differences between combinations of the highest PPFD with the highest EC and the lowest PPFD with the lowest EC. Rosmarinic acid concentration (mg g-1 was increased in a combination of low EC and high PPFD conditions. Optimal cultivation conditions of red and green perilla in plant factory will be discussed in terms of plant growth and contents of

  1. An isotherm-based thermodynamic model of multicomponent aqueous solutions, applicable over the entire concentration range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, Cari S; Ge, Xinlei; Wexler, Anthony S; Clegg, Simon L

    2013-04-18

    In previous studies (Dutcher et al. J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 16474-16487; 2012, 116, 1850-1864), we derived equations for the Gibbs energy, solvent and solute activities, and solute concentrations in multicomponent liquid mixtures, based upon expressions for adsorption isotherms that include arbitrary numbers of hydration layers on each solute. In this work, the long-range electrostatic interactions that dominate in dilute solutions are added to the Gibbs energy expression, thus extending the range of concentrations for which the model can be used from pure liquid solute(s) to infinite dilution in the solvent, water. An equation for the conversion of the reference state for solute activity coefficients to infinite dilution in water has been derived. A number of simplifications are identified, notably the equivalence of the sorption site parameters r and the stoichiometric coefficients of the solutes, resulting in a reduction in the number of model parameters. Solute concentrations in mixtures conform to a modified Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson mixing rule, and solute activity coefficients to a modified McKay-Perring relation, when the effects of the long-range (Debye-Hückel) term in the equations are taken into account. Practical applications of the equations to osmotic and activity coefficients of pure aqueous electrolyte solutions and mixtures show both satisfactory accuracy from low to high concentrations, together with a thermodynamically reasonable extrapolation (beyond the range of measurements) to extreme concentration and to the pure liquid solute(s).

  2. Reactivity of the cadmium ion in concentrated phosphoric acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gyves, J; Gonzales, J; Louis, C; Bessiere, J

    1989-07-01

    The solvation transfer coefficients which characterize the changes of ion reactivity with phosphoric acid concentration have been calculated for cadmium from the constants of the successive chloride complexes, and for silver and diethyldithiophosphate from potentiometric measurements. They evidence the strong desolvation of the cadmium species in concentrated phosphoric acid media, causing a remarkable increase of its reactivity. They allow the results of liquid-liquid extraction, precipitation and flotation reactions to be correctly interpreted and their changes to be foreseen when the reagents are modified.

  3. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance....... Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by...

  4. Effects of arsenic on concentration and distribution of nutrients in the fronds of the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Cong; Ma, Lena Q.

    2005-01-01

    Pteris vittata was the first terrestrial plant known to hyperaccumulate arsenic (As). However, it is unclear how As hyperaccumulation influences nutrient uptake by this plant. P. vittata fern was grown in soil spiked with 0-500 mg As kg -1 in the greenhouse for 24 weeks. The concentrations of essential macro- (P, K, Ca, and Mg) and micro- (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B and Mo) elements in the fronds of different age were examined. Both macro- and micronutrients in the fronds were found to be within the normal concentration ranges for non-hyperaccumulators. However, As hyperaccumulation did influence the elemental distribution among fronds of different age of P. vittata. Arsenic-induced P and K enhancements in the fronds contributed to the As-induced growth stimulation at low As levels. The frond P/As molar ratios of 1.0 can be used as the threshold value for normal growth of P. vittata. Potassium may function as a counter-cation for As in the fronds as shown by the As-induced K increases in the fronds. The present findings not only demonstrate that P. vittata has the ability to maintain adequate concentrations of essential nutrients while hyperaccumulating As from the soil, but also have implications for soil management (fertilization in particular) of P. vittata in As phytoextraction practice

  5. Changes in nutrients and decay rate of Ginkgo biloba leaf litter exposed to elevated O3 concentration in urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground-level ozone (O3 pollution has been widely concerned in the world, particularly in the cities of Asia, including China. Elevated O3 concentrations have potentially influenced growth and nutrient cycling of trees in urban forest. The decomposition characteristics of urban tree litters under O3 exposure are still poorly known. Ginkgo biloba is commonly planted in the cities of northern China and is one of the main tree species in the urban forest of Shenyang, where concentrations of ground-level O3 are very high in summer. Here, we hypothesized that O3 exposure at high concentrations would alter the decomposition rate of urban tree litter. In open-top chambers (OTCs, 5-year-old G. biloba saplings were planted to investigate the impact of elevated O3 concentration (120 ppb on changes in nutrient contents and decomposition rate of leaf litters. The results showed that elevated O3 concentration significantly increased K content (6.31 ± 0.29 vs 17.93 ± 0.40, P < 0.01 in leaves of G. biloba, significantly decreased the contents of total phenols (2.82 ± 0.93 vs 1.60 ± 0.44, P < 0.05 and soluble sugars (86.51 ± 19.57 vs 53.76 ± 2.40, P < 0.05, but did not significantly alter the contents of C, N, P, lignin and condensed tannins, compared with that in ambient air. Furthermore, percent mass remaining in litterbags after 150 days under ambient air and elevated O3 concentration was 56.0% and 52.8%, respectively. No significant difference between treatments was observed in mass remaining at any sampling date during decomposition. The losses of the nutrients in leaf litters of G. biloba showed significant seasonal differences regardless of O3 treatment. However, we found that elevated O3 concentration slowed down the leaf litter decomposition only at the early decomposition stage, but slightly accelerated the litter decomposition at the late stage (after 120 days. This study provides our understanding of the ecological processes regulating

  6. Sedimentation Characteristics of Kaolin and Bentonite in Concentrated Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulah Obut

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The sedimentation characteristics of two clays, namely kaolinite and bentonite, were determinated at high clay (5 % wt/vol and electrolyte (1 N concentrations using various inorganic-organic compounds. It was observed that the settling behaviour of kaolinite (1:1 clay and montmorillonite (2:1 clay is quite different due to the structural differences between these minerals. Although, similar initial settling rates and final sediment volumes were obtained after 24 hours of settling time for kaolin suspensions, the corresponding rates and volumes for bentonite suspensions varied greatly with the used chemical compound. According to the experimental results, a further intensive theoretical and experimental investigation is needed to reveal the mechanism underlying the sedimentation characteristics of clay minerals at high clay and electrolyte concentrations.

  7. Effect of nitrogen form and pH of nutrient solution on the changes in pH and EC of spinach rhizosphere in hydroponic culture

    OpenAIRE

    M. Parsazadeh; N. Najafi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of nitrate to ammonium ratio and pH of nutrient solution on the changes in pH and EC of rhizosphere during spinach growth period in perlite culture, under greenhouse conditions, was investigated. A split factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with four replications was conducted with three factors including nutrient solution’s pH in three levels (4.5, 6.5 and 8), nitrate to ammonium ratio of nutrient solution in five levels (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75...

  8. Influence of starch origin on rheological properties of concentrated aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Željko P.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of corn and potato starch concentrated aqueous solutions were investigated at 25ºC. The starches were previously dispersed in water and the solutions were obtained by heating of dispersions at 115-120ºC for 20 minutes. The solutions of potato starch were transparent, while the corn starch solutions were opalescent. The results of dynamic mechanical measurements showed that the values of viscosity, h, storage modulus, G′, and loss modulus, G″, of the corn starch solutions increased with the storage time. This phenomenon was not observed for the potato starch solutions. It was assumed that the increase of h, G′ and G″ is the result of starch solutions retrogradation. The potato starch solutions retrogradation did not occur probably because of the phosphates presence. The viscosity of 2 mass % corn starch solution is less than the viscosity of 2 mass % potato starch solution. By increasing the concentration of corn starch solution the gel with elastic behavior was formed. The corn starch solutions formed gel as early as at 4 mass % concentration, while potato starch solutions achieved the gel state at the concentration of 5 mass %. The value of exponent m (G′ and G″ µ wm during the transition of potato starch solutions to gel is 0.414, which gives the fractal dimensions for corn starch of 2.10. The obtained value of fractal dimension corresponds to slow aggregation. The corn starch solutions with the starch concentrations higher than 4 mass % form weak gels. For these solutions the values of modulus in rubber plateau were determined. It was found that the modulus in rubber plateau increased with the concentration by the exponent of 4.36. Such high exponent value was obtained in the case when the tridimensional network is formed, i.e. when supermolecular structures like associates or crystal domains are formed.

  9. The Relative Concentrations of Nutrients and Toxins Dictate Feeding by a Vertebrate Browser, the Greater Glider Petauroides volans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora M Jensen

    Full Text Available Although ecologists believe that vertebrate herbivores must select a diet that allows them to meet their nutritional requirements, while avoiding intoxication by plant secondary metabolites, this is remarkably difficult to show. A long series of field and laboratory experiments means that we have a good understanding of the factors that affect feeding by leaf-eating marsupials. This knowledge and the natural intraspecific variation in Eucalyptus chemistry allowed us to test the hypothesis that the feeding decisions of greater gliders (Petauroides volans depend on the concentrations of available nitrogen (incorporating total nitrogen, dry matter digestibility and tannins and of formylated phloroglucinol compounds (FPCs, potent antifeedants unique to Eucalyptus. We offered captive greater gliders foliage from two species of Eucalyptus, E. viminalis and E. melliodora, which vary naturally in their concentrations of available nitrogen and FPCs. We then measured the amount of foliage eaten by each glider and compared this with our laboratory analyses of foliar total nitrogen, available nitrogen and FPCs for each tree offered. The concentration of FPCs was the main factor that determined how much gliders ate of E. viminalis and E. melliodora, but in gliders fed E. viminalis the concentration of available nitrogen was also a significant influence. In other words, greater gliders ate E. viminalis leaves with a particular combination of FPCs and available nitrogen that maximised the nutritional gain but minimised their ingestion of toxins. In contrast, the concentration of total nitrogen was not correlated with feeding. This study is among the first to empirically show that browsing herbivores select a diet that balances the potential gain (available nutrients and the potential costs (plant secondary chemicals of eating leaves. The major implication of the study is that it is essential to identify the limiting nutrients and relevant toxins in a system in

  10. Relationships between fruit nutrients and concentrations of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in 'Elstar' apple skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, M.A.; Jager, de A.

    2002-01-01

    The relationships between fruit N, P, K, Mg and Ca concentrations during the season and flavonoid and chlorogenic acid concentrations in skin of `Elstar¿ apples at maturity have been studied during three seasons in a nutrition experiment (with the mutant `Elshof¿), and in a separate experiment with

  11. Influência do extrato pirolenhoso na calda de pulverização sobre o teor foliar de nutrientes em limoeiro 'Cravo' Effect of pyroligneous acid in the spraymg solutions on foliar nutrients content of 'Rangpur' lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zanetti

    2004-12-01

    the following solutions: T0 = water; T1 = micronutrients solution without PA; T2 = micronutrients solution+ PA (1 cm³ dm-3; T3 = micronutrients solution + PA (2 cm³ dm-3; T4 = micronutrients solution + PA (5 cm³ dm-3; T5 = micronutrients solution + PA (10 cm³ dm-3. The micronutrient solutions were prepared by using sulphates of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn (250 mg dm-3 of the elements, and boric acid (42.5 mg dm-3 of B. The experiment was set up on 0.280 dm³ conical containers, in growing media with no addition of micronutrients. The solutions were sprayed once, at 140 days after planting (DAP, when the plants were about 20 cm high. At the end of the experiment (160 DAP, dry mass of plants and concentrations of nutrients of aerial part and root system were evaluated. The presence of pyroligneous acid in the spraying solution did not affect B, Fe and Zn concentration in the leaves. However, increased Cu and Mn concentration for treatments containing PA at 10 cm³ dm-3 in the micronutrients solution. It was also observed that plants sprayed with solutions of PA (1 to 10 cm³ dm-3 + micronutrients showed lower Fe and higher Ca concentration on the root system.

  12. Evanescent Wave Absorption Based Fiber Sensor for Measuring Glucose Solution Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ahmad; Candra Pratiwi, Arni; Suryanti, Venty

    2018-03-01

    An optical fiber sensor based on evanescent wave absorption designed for measuring glucose solution consentration was proposed. The sensor was made to detect absorbance of various wavelength in the glucose solution. The sensing element was fabricated by side polishing of multimode polymer optical fiber to form a D-shape. The sensing element was immersed in different concentration of glucoce solution. As light propagated through the optical fiber, the evanescent wave interacted with the glucose solution. Light was absorbed by the glucose solution. The larger concentration the glucose solution has, the more the evanescent wave was absorbed in particular wavelenght. Here in this paper, light absorbtion as function of glucose concentration was measured as function of wavelength (the color of LED). We have shown that the proposed sensor can demonstrated an increase of light absorption as function of glucose concentration.

  13. A new method to measure effective soil solution concentration predicts copper availability to plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Zhao, F J; Sun, B; Davison, W; McGrath, S P

    2001-06-15

    Risk assessments of metal contaminated soils need to address metal bioavailability. To predict the bioavailability of metals to plants, it is necessary to understand both solution and solid phase supply processes in soils. In striving to find surrogate chemical measurements, scientists have focused either on soil solution chemistry, including free ion activities, or operationally defined fractions of metals. Here we introduce the new concept of effective concentration, CE, which includes both the soil solution concentration and an additional term, expressed as a concentration, that represents metal supplied from the solid phase. CE was measured using the technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) which, like a plant, locally lowers soil solution concentrations, inducing metal supply from the solid phase, as shown by a dynamic model of the DGT-soil system. Measurements of Cu as CE, soil solution concentration, by EDTA extraction and as free Cu2+ activity in soil solution were made on 29 different soils covering a large range of copper concentrations. Theywere compared to Cu concentrations in the plant material of Lepidium heterophyllum grown on the same soils. Plant concentrations were linearly related and highly correlated with CE but were more scattered and nonlinear with respect to free Cu2+ activity, EDTA extraction, or soil solution concentrations. These results demonstrate that the dominant supply processes in these soils are diffusion and labile metal release, which the DGT-soil system mimics. The quantity CE is shown to have promise as a quantitative measure of the bioavailable metal in soils.

  14. Soil solution Ni concentrations over which Kd is constant in Japanese agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei-Ishikawa, Nao; Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko; Satta, Naoya

    2011-01-01

    The soil-soil solution distribution coefficient (K d ) is one of the most important parameters required by the models used for radioactive waste disposal environmental impact assessment. The models are generally based on the assumption that K d is independent of the element concentration in soil solution. However, at high soil solution concentrations, this assumption is not valid. Since the sorption of most radionuclides in soil is influenced by their stable isotope concentrations, it is necessary to consider if the range in the naturally occurring stable isotope concentrations in the soil solution is within the range over which K d is valid. The objective of this study was to determine if the K d for nickel (Ni) can be assumed to be constant over the ranges of stable Ni concentration in five main Japanese agricultural soil types. To obtain Ni sorption isotherms for five Japanese soils, two types of batch sorption tests were carried out using radioactive 63 Ni as a tracer. The concentration at which the relationship between soil and soil solution concentration became nonlinear was determined using the two types of sorption isotherms: the Langmuir and Henry isotherms. The result showed that the Ni concentration in the soil solution at which the assumption of a constant K d becomes valid is at least ten times higher than the natural Ni concentrations in solutions of Japanese agricultural soils. This value is sufficient to treat K d for Ni as constant for environmental impact assessment models for the disposal of radioactive waste. (author)

  15. Problems of evaluating isotope analysis of concentrated salt solutions in potash mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedl, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    Three problems of quantitative evaluation of analytic D and 18 O isotope data of concentrated salt solutions are discussed: (1) Consideration of the influence of admixtures of hydrated salts in determining meteoric or marine water fractions in a concentrated salt solution, (2) analytic accuracy and detection limits in determining meteoric water in salt solutions, and (3) processes of isotopic exchange with reservoir rock and sample matrix

  16. Linking river nutrient concentrations to land use and rainfall in a paddy agriculture-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yongqiu; Ti, Chaopu; She, Dongli; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-10-01

    The effects of land use and land-use changes on river nutrient concentrations are not well understood, especially in the watersheds of developing countries that have a mixed land use of rice paddy fields and developing urban surfaces. Here, we present a three-year study of a paddy agricultural-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China. The annual anthropogenic nitrogen (N) input from the agricultural region to the urban region was high, yet the results showed that the monthly nutrient concentrations in the river were low in the rainy seasons. The nutrient concentrations decreased continuously as the river water passed through the traditional agriculture region (TAR; paddy rice and wheat rotation) and increased substantially in the city region (CR). The traditional agricultural reference region exported most of the nutrient loads at high flows (>1mmd(-1)), the intensified agricultural region (IAR, aquaculture and poultry farming) exported most of the nutrient loads at moderate flows (between 0.5 and 1mmd(-1)), and the CR reference area exported most of the nutrient loads under low to moderate flows. We developed a statistical model to link variations in the nutrient concentrations to the proportion of land-use types and rainfall. The statistical results showed that impervious surfaces, which we interpret as a proxy for urban activities including sewage disposal, were the most important drivers of nutrient concentrations, whereas water surfaces accounted for a substantial proportion of the nutrient sinks. Therefore, to efficiently reduce water pollution, sewage from urban areas must be addressed as a priority, although wetland restoration could also achieve substantial pollutant removal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effects of Organic Corrosion Inhibitor and Chloride Ion Concentration on Steel Depassivation and Repassivation in Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zixiao; YU Lei; LIU Zhiyong; SONG Ning

    2015-01-01

    Effect of an organic corrosion inhibitor (OCI) named PCI-2014 added in chloride solution on the critical chlo-ride concentration of mild steel depassivation and the critical OCI concentrations for repairing the steel in different chlo-ride solution were investigated. The results show that the critical chloride concentration increases exponentially with raises of PCI-2014 concentration in the solution. Within a certain chloride ion concentration range, the critical PCI-2014 concentration for repairing the corroded steel is also increases exponentially with enhancement of chloride content in the solution. Atomic force microscopy images display the molecular particles of inhibitor are adsorbed on the steel surface and formed a protective layer. Analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the chloride ions at the surface of steel are displaced by atoms or molecules of the inhibitor in chloride condition.

  18. Interannual heavy element and nutrient concentration trends in the top sediments of Venice Lagoon (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Facca, Chiara; Visin, Flavia; Sfriso, Adriano; Pavoni, Bruno

    2014-12-15

    The elemental composition of surficial sediments of Venice Lagoon (Italy) in 1987, 1993, 1998 and 2003 were investigated. Zn and Cr concentrations resulted in higher than background levels, but only Cd and Hg were higher than legal quality standards (Italian Decree 2010/260 and Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC). Contaminants with similar spatial distribution are sorted into three groups by means of correlation analysis: (i) As, Co, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn; (ii) Ni, Cr; (iii) Hg. Interannual concentrations are compared by applying a factor analysis to the matrix of differences between subsequent samplings. A general decrease of heavy metal levels is observed from 1987 to 1993, whereas particularly high concentrations of Ni and Cr are recorded in 1998 as a consequence of intense clam fishing, subsequently mitigated by better prevention of illegal harvesting. Due to the major role played by anthropogenic sediment resuspension, bathymetric variations are also considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Substitution of common concentrates with by-products modulated ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradation, and microbial community composition in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Knaus, W; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Klevenhusen, F; Khiaosa-Ard, R; Zebeli, Q

    2015-07-01

    A rumen simulation technique was used to evaluate the effects of the complete substitution of a common concentrate mixture (CON) with a mixture consisting solely of by-products from the food industry (BP) at 2 different forage-to-concentrate ratios on ruminal fermentation profile, nutrient degradation, and abundance of rumen microbiota. The experiment was a 2×2 factorial arrangement with 2 concentrate types (CON and BP) and 2 concentrate levels (25 and 50% of diet dry matter). The experiment consisted of 2 experimental runs with 12 fermentation vessels each (n=6 per treatment). Each run lasted for 10d, with data collection on the last 5d. The BP diets had lower starch, but higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and fat contents compared with CON. Degradation of crude protein was decreased, but NDF and nonfiber carbohydrate degradation were higher for the BP diets. At the 50% concentrate level, organic matter degradation tended to be lower for BP and CH4 formation per unit of NDF degraded was also lower for BP. The BP mixture led to a higher concentration of propionate and a lower acetate-to-propionate ratio, whereas concentrations of butyrate and caproate decreased. Concentrate type did not affect microbial community composition, except that the abundance of bacteria of the genus Prevotella was higher for BP. Increasing the concentrate level resulted in higher degradation of organic matter and crude protein. At the higher concentrate level, total short-chain fatty acid formation increased and concentrations of isobutyrate and valerate decreased. In addition, at the 50% concentrate level, numbers of protozoa increased, whereas numbers of methanogens, anaerobic fungi, and fibrolytic bacteria decreased. No interaction was noted between the 2 dietary factors on most variables, except that at the higher concentrate level the effects of BP on CH4 and CO2 formation per unit of NDF degraded, crude protein degradation, and the abundance of Prevotella were more prominent. In

  20. Estimating space-time mean concentrations of nutrients in surface waters of variable depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knotters, M.; Brus, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    A monitoring scheme has been designed to test whether the space-time mean concentration total Nitrogen (N-total) in the surface water in the Northern Frisian Woodlands (NFW, The Netherlands) complies with standards of the European Water Framework directive. Since in statistical testing for

  1. Interannual heavy element and nutrient concentration trends in the top sediments of Venice Lagoon (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Facca, Chiara; Visin, Flavia; Sfriso, Adriano; Pavoni, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heavy element concentrations in sediments of a transitional system were studied. • Element contamination in the recent years has generally declined. • Mercury and cadmium contamination still remain above the limits in hot spots. • The role of sediment resuspension due to anthropogenic activity is discussed. • A basic knowledge to assess the impact of the MOSE construction is provided. - Abstract: The elemental composition of surficial sediments of Venice Lagoon (Italy) in 1987, 1993, 1998 and 2003 were investigated. Zn and Cr concentrations resulted in higher than background levels, but only Cd and Hg were higher than legal quality standards (Italian Decree 2010/260 and Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC). Contaminants with similar spatial distribution are sorted into three groups by means of correlation analysis: (i) As, Co, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn; (ii) Ni, Cr; (iii) Hg. Interannual concentrations are compared by applying a factor analysis to the matrix of differences between subsequent samplings. A general decrease of heavy metal levels is observed from 1987 to 1993, whereas particularly high concentrations of Ni and Cr are recorded in 1998 as a consequence of intense clam fishing, subsequently mitigated by better prevention of illegal harvesting. Due to the major role played by anthropogenic sediment resuspension, bathymetric variations are also considered

  2. Intake and nutrient digestibilies of all-concentrate diet form forage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total or 20 animals comprising 10 rams and 10 bucks were involved in a digestibility study to assess the nutritive value of a combination of yam peel, ... The dry matter intakes in the all-concentrate diet by the sheep and goat ( > 4% of body weight) were higher (p<0.05) than obtained for the conventional diet of grass hay ...

  3. An integrated membrane bioreactor - nanofiltration concept with concentrate recirculation for wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappel, C.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing water shortages drive the need for water reuse. Membranes are a very suitable technology for purification of wastewater. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) permeate can be polished by nanofiltration (NF), allowing the production of high quality reusable water. The NF concentrate potentially is an

  4. Dynamic response of land use and river nutrient concentration to long-term climatic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussi, Gianbattista; Janes, Victoria; Whitehead, Paul G; Dadson, Simon J; Holman, Ian P

    2017-07-15

    The combined indirect and direct impacts of land use change and climate change on river water quality were assessed. A land use allocation model was used to evaluate the response of the catchment land use to long-term climatic changes. Its results were used to drive a water quality model and assess the impact of climatic alterations on freshwater nitrate and phosphorus concentrations. Climatic projections were employed to estimate the likelihood of such response. The River Thames catchment (UK) was used as a case-study. If land use is considered as static parameter, according to the model results, climate change alone should reduce the average nitrate concentration, although just by a small amount, by the 2050s in the Lower Thames, due to reduced runoff (and lower export of nitrate from agricultural soils) and increased instream denitrification, and should increase the average phosphorus concentration by 12% by the 2050s in the Lower Thames, due to a reduction of the effluent dilution capacity of the river flow. However, the results of this study also show that these long-term climatic alterations are likely to lead to a reduction in the arable land in the Thames, replaced by improved grassland, due to a decrease in agriculture profitability in the UK. Taking into account the dynamic co-evolution of land use with climate, the average nitrate concentration is expected to be decreased by around 6% by the 2050s in both the upper and the lower Thames, following the model results, and the average phosphorus concentration increased by 13% in the upper Thames and 5% in the lower Thames. On the long term (2080s), nitrate is expected to decrease by 9% and 8% (upper and lower Thames respectively) and phosphorus not to change in the upper thames and increase by 5% in the lower Thames. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spectral Quantitation Of Hydroponic Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Kahle, Scott J.; Wilson, Monica A.; Boehlen, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    Instrument continuously monitors hydroponic solution by use of absorption and emission spectrometry to determine concentrations of principal nutrients, including nitrate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and others. Does not depend on extraction and processing of samples, use of such surrograte parameters as pH or electrical conductivity for control, or addition of analytical reagents to solution. Solution not chemically altered by analysis and can be returned to hydroponic process stream after analysis.

  6. Isolation of transplutonium elements on ion exchangers from solutions of high salt concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, L.I.; Tikhomirova, G.S.; Stepushkina, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    The behaviour of transplutonium elements (TPE) on cation and anion exchangers in aqueous alcoholic solutions of chlorides and nitrates of some alkali and alkaline earth metals depending on different factors: salt concentration, content of alcohol and of acid in the solution as well as the nature of a cation was studied. The data obtained were used to determine the optimal conditions of concentration of TPE on ion exchangers from solutions containing great quantities of salts. The advantages of the use of aqueous alcoholic solutions of nitric acid in the isolation of TPE are shown. (author)

  7. The effect of nutrient enrichment on the growth, nucleic acid concentrations, and elemental stoichiometry of coral reef macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reef, Ruth; Pandolfi, John M; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2012-08-01

    The growth rate hypothesis (GRH) links growth rates with organism elemental stoichiometry. Support for the GRH was found for many animal species, but less so for plants. This is the first study to test the GRH in macroalgae. Tropical coral reef macroalgae from three lineages, Caulerpa serrulata (Chlorophyta), Laurencia intricata (Rhodophyta), and Sargassum polyphyllum (Phaeophyceae) were grown enriched with nitrogen or phosphorous and under control conditions at Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Growth rate, photosynthesis, nucleic acid composition, and elemental stoichiometry were measured. Nutrient enrichment had positive effects on photosynthetic rates and on investment in RNA. However, growth rate was not correlated with either photosynthetic rates or RNA content; thus, we did not find support for the GRH in tropical macroalgae. Macroalgae, especially L. intricata, accumulated P to very high levels (>0.6% of dry weight). The growth rate response to tissue P concentrations was unimodal. Above 0.21%, P accumulation had negative effects on growth. Nitrogen was not stored, but evidence of futile cycling was observed. The capacity to store large amounts of P is probably an adaptation to the low and patchy nutrient environment of the tropical oceans.

  8. Prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements increase cord leptin concentration in pregnant women from rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybregts, Lieven; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lanou, Hermann; Meda, Nicolas; Taes, Youri; Valea, Innocent; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John

    2013-05-01

    In developing countries, prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) were shown to increase birth size; however, the mechanism of this effect remains unknown. Cord blood hormone concentrations are strongly associated with birth size. Therefore, we hypothesize that LNSs increase birth size through a change in the endocrine regulation of fetal development. We compared the effect of daily prenatal LNSs with multiple micronutrient tablets on cord blood hormone concentrations using a randomized, controlled design including 197 pregnant women from rural Burkina Faso. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) I and II, their binding proteins IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3, leptin, cortisol, and insulin were quantified in cord sera using immunoassays. LNS was associated with higher cord blood leptin mainly in primigravidae (+57%; P = 0.02) and women from the highest tertile of BMI at study inclusion (+41%; P = 0.02). We did not find any significant LNS effects on other measured cord hormones. The observed increase in cord leptin was associated with a significantly higher birth weight. Cord sera from small-for-gestational age newborns had lower median IGF-I (-9 μg/L; P = 0.003), IGF-II (-79 μg/L; P = 0.003), IGFBP-3 (-0.7 μg/L; P = 0.007), and leptin (-1.0 μg/L; P = 0.016) concentrations but higher median cortisol (+18 μg/L; P = 0.037) concentrations compared with normally grown newborns. Prenatal LNS resulted in increased cord leptin concentrations in primigravidae and mothers with higher BMI at study inclusion. The elevated leptin concentrations could point toward a higher neonatal fat mass.

  9. Effects of Salinity Stress on Gas Exchange, Growth, and Nutrient Concentrations of Two Citrus Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Khoshbakht

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study was undertaken to assess the salt tolerance of two citrus rootstocks, namely, Bakraii (Citrus sp. and Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata. A factorial experiment through a completely randomized design (CRD with three replications and four levels of salt including 0, 20, 40 and 60 mM NaCl was conducted. After eight weeks of treatment, number of leaves, plant height, leaf area, wet and dry weight of leaf, stem and root, length of root, chlorophyll content, net CO2 assimilation rate (ACO2, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration (E and water use efficiency (WUE and ion concentrations were measured. Salinity decreased growth and net gas exchange. Trifoliate orange showed the most decrease in growth indices and net gas exchange compared with Bakraii. The ability to limit the transfer of sodium to leaves in low levels of salt was observed in Trifoliate orange, but this ability was not observed in high levels of salt. Results showed that accumulation of chloride in leaves and roots were less in Bakraii compared to the Trifoliate orange. The lower Cl- concentration in leaves of Bakraii than trifoliate orange suggests that the salinity tolerance of Bakraii is associated with less transport of Cl- to the leaves. Salinity increased K+ and decreased Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentrations in leaves of both rootstocks. It is proposed that salt stress effect on plant physiological processes such as changes in plant growth, Cl- and Na+ toxicity, and mineral distribution, decreases chlorophyll content and reduces the photosynthetic efficiency of these citrus species.

  10. Effect of xylose and nutrients concentration on ethanol production by a newly isolated extreme thermophilic bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Ana Faria; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    An extreme thermophilic ethanol-producing strain was isolated from an ethanol high-yielding mixed culture, originally isolated from a hydrogen producing reactor operated at 70 °C. Ethanol yields were assessed with increasing concentrations of xylose, up to 20 g/l. The ability of the strain to gro...... product under most of the conditions tested, including in media lacking vitamins, peptone and yeast extract. The results indicate that this new organism is a promising candidate for the development of a second generation bio-ethanol production process. © IWA Publishing 2011....

  11. Investigation into sorption of uranium fron its high-concentrated nitric acid solutions on resin AMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'eva, V.I.; Sudarikov, B.N.; Kireeva, G.N.; Ryzhkova, V.N.; Kandaryuk, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    Sorption of uranium has been studied on strongly basic anion-exchange resin from nitric acid solutions with concentration in metal 10-150 g/l in presence of sodium, calcium, and aluminium nitrates. Sorption of uranium from solutions has been performed by the static method with the aid of contacting the initial solution with airdry resin for 4 hours, resin to solution ratio being 1:12.5. It has been established that sorption of uranium increases with a rise in concentration of salting out agents in the following order: Al(NO 3 ) 3 > Ca(NO 3 ) 2 > Na(NO 3 ). It has been shown spectrophotometricatly that in solutions of nitrates and HNO 3 with a concentration 3 exceeds 6 mol/l

  12. Anomalous concentration gradient in NaI solutions inadvertently frozen in transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinghurst, M.W.; Abrams, D.N.; Coutts, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    Therapeutic doses of iodine-131 ( 131 I) are frequently dispensed volumetrically from a stock vial containing a solution of sodium iodide. During the winter months the authors have observed that initial aliquots do not always have the same radioactive concentration as that calculated for the bulk solution. In order to evaluate the cause and extent of this problem, they prepared a stock solution of low radioactive concentration sodium iodide with the same concentration of sodium thiosulfate and pH as that in the stock therapeutic iodine vial. Aliquots of this solution were transferred to plastic tubes and were stored at various temperatures. These results clearly show that when there is a risk of freezing during transportation of therapeutic solutions of sodium iodide it is essential to physically mix the liquid once thawing is complete if therapeutic doses are to be dispensed accurately on a volume basis

  13. Effect of calcium chelators on physical changes in casein micelles in concentrated micellar casein solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, de E.J.P.; Minor, M.; Snoeren, T.H.M.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Linden, van der E.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of calcium chelators on physical changes of casein micelles in concentrated micellar casein solutions was investigated by measuring calcium-ion activity, viscosity and turbidity, and performing ultracentrifugation. The highest viscosities were measured on addition of sodium

  14. Radiolysis of concentrated solutions. 2. Pulse and #betta#-radiolysis studies of direct and indirect effects in lithium iodide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjadj, A.; Julien, R.; Pucheault, J.; Ferradini, C.; Hickel, B.

    1982-01-01

    In the preceding study of the radiolysis of concentrated aqueous LiCl solutions, one of the hypotheses used to explain the apparent inefficacy of Cl 2- formation by the direct effect was that molecular chlorine, not detectable by spectrophotometry, could be formed during the early stages of water radiolysis. Such an hypothesis is confirmed here for pulse and #betta#-radiolysis of concentrated aqueous neutral LiI solutions. Indeed, it is shown that, 10 ns after the pulse, molecular iodine, detected as I 3- , is formed with a yield that increases with the LiI concentration. The experimental results yields values of 4.8 and 7.3 respectively for the indirect and direct effects of total oxidation G/sub I 2- / + 2G/sub I 3- /. This last high value is discussed

  15. Response of Yield, Yield Components and Nutrient Concentration of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. to Mycorrhizal Symbiosis under Salt Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bijhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation and salinity stress on the growth, yield and nutrient concentrations of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L., an experiment was carried out as split plot in a completely randomized block design at Zabol University Research Farm in 2013. Treatments consisted of three salinity stresses: 1 (control, 5 and 10 dSm-1, was considered as the main treatments, and four levels of mycorrhizal inoculation (Glomus intraradices, G. etanicatum, G. hoi and non-inoculation as control as the sub-treatments. The effects of salinity on all traits under study, except umbers per plant, were significant, and severe stress (10 dSm-1 reduced 100 seed weight, number of seeds per umbel, concentrations of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in seeds by 17.71, 11.4, 14.95, 46.08, 13.60 %, respectively, as compared to the control. The numbers of seeds per umbel and phosphorus concentration in seed were highest in G. intraradices with 28.4 and 54.4%, respectively as compared to control and umbels per plant was also maximum (9.7 by using G. etanicatum. Mycorrhizal inoculation did not have significant effect on calcium and magnesium concentrations in seeds and 1000 seed weight. However mycorrhiza × salinity stress interaction was significant about concentration of sodium, potassium and sodium to potassium ratio (Na/K in seeds, as well as seed yield and seed number per plant. Among the species of mycorrhiza, applied G. intraradices had better performance in severe salinity (10 dS-1 and increased seed yield and seed number per plant by 28.5 and 47.6%, respectively in comparision control. The results suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation improves water absorption by plant. Yield increases of plants under different salinity regimes dependent on their mycorrhizal inoculation.

  16. In vitro reduction of dental erosion by low-concentration TiF4 solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, A.M.; Ruben, J.L.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare daily versus single applications of low-concentration TiF(4) solutions for reduction of enamel erosion and to evaluate the enamel surface loss due to application of these solutions. Sixty bovine enamel samples were randomly divided into 2 groups: single versus

  17. Computation of major solute concentrations and loads in German rivers using regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, T.D.

    1980-01-01

    Regression functions between concentrations of several inorganic solutes and specific conductance and between specific conductance and stream discharge were derived from intermittent samples collected for 2 rivers in West Germany. These functions, in conjunction with daily records of streamflow, were used to determine monthly and annual solute loadings. -from Author

  18. In vitro Reduction of Dental Erosion by Low-Concentration TiF4 Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, A. M.; Ruben, J. L.; Bronkhorst, E. M.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare daily versus single applications of low-concentration TiF4 solutions for reduction of enamel erosion and to evaluate the enamel surface loss due to application of these solutions. Sixty bovine enamel samples were randomly divided into 2 groups: single versus

  19. Effects of Dietary Zinc Pectin Oligosaccharides Chelate Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Tissue Zinc Concentrations of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongcheng; Yu, Huimin; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Cui, Hu; Wan, Chunmeng; Gao, Xiuhua

    2016-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc pectin oligosaccharides (Zn-POS) chelate on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and tissue zinc concentrations of Arbor Acre broilers aged from 1 to 42 days. A total of 576 1-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 9 replicates per group and 16 chicks per replicate. Chicks were fed either a basal diet (control) or basal diet supplemented with Zn-POS at 300 (Zn-POS-300), 600 (Zn-POS-600), or 900 mg/kg (Zn-POS-900), respectively, for 42 days. A 3-day metabolism trial was conducted during the last week of the experiment feeding. The average daily gain and the average daily feed intake of Zn-POS-600 were significantly higher (P digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and metabolic energy among all groups. The control group had the lowest apparent digestibility of dry matter (P digestibility of dry matter in Zn-POS-600 was higher (P digestibility of crude protein in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P digestibility of metabolic energy in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P < 0.05) than that of Zn-POS-300. Zn-POS-600 had the highest liver zinc concentrations (P < 0.05), while Zn-POS-900 had the highest pancreatic zinc concentrations (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that the supplementation of 600 mg/kg Zn-POS is optimal in improving the average daily gain and the average daily feed intake, utilization of dietary dry matter and crude protein, and increasing tissue zinc concentrations in liver and pancreas of broilers.

  20. Modelling trends in soil solution concentrations under five forest-soil combinations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, van der C.; Vries, de W.; Kros, J.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of forest and soil properties on changes in soil solution concentration upon a reduction deposition was examined for five forest-soil combinations with the dynamic RESAM model. Predicted concentrations decreased in the direction Douglas fir - Scotch pine - oak, due to decreased

  1. Physical Property Modeling of Concentrated Cesium Eluate Solutions, Part I - Derivation of Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.S.; Pierce, R. A.; Edwards, T. B.; Calloway, T. B.

    2005-09-15

    Major analytes projected to be present in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant cesium ion-exchange eluate solutions were identified from the available analytical data collected during radioactive bench-scale runs, and a test matrix of cesium eluate solutions was designed within the bounding concentrations of those analytes. A computer model simulating the semi-batch evaporation of cesium eluate solutions was run in conjunction with a multi-electrolyte aqueous system database to calculate the physical properties of each test matrix solution concentrated to the target endpoints of 80% and 100% saturation. The calculated physical properties were analyzed statistically and fitted into mathematical expressions for the bulk solubility, density, viscosity, heat capacity and volume reduction factor as a function of temperature and concentration of each major analyte in the eluate feed. The R{sup 2} of the resulting physical property models ranged from 0.89 to 0.99.

  2. Alterações no teores de nutrientes em dois solos alagados, com e sem plantas de arroz Nutrients concentration changes in two flooded soils during the rice cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Souza da Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O alagamento e a presença de plantas alteram as propriedades biológicas e químicas do solo em relação ao ambiente anteriormente oxidado, influenciando a disponibilidade de nutrientes. Foi conduzido um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar as alterações dos teores de alguns nutrientes na solução de um Planossolo e um Gleissolo durante o ciclo do arroz. Os solos foram acondicionados em vasos (50 litros contendo dispositivos para coleta da solução em diferentes profundidades, mantidos sem ou com plantas de arroz. A solução foi coletada aos 10, 19, 44, 77 e 113 dias de alagamento e determinados os teores de P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe e Mn. A concentração dos nutrientes na solução, especialmente o K, variou com a profundidade de coleta e com a presença de plantas, demonstrando a influência desses fatores na disponibilidade dos nutrientes em solos alagados.Flooding a soil and growing plant on it can change its biological and chemistry properties, in comparison with a non-flooded environment. An experiment was conducted in order to study the nutrients dynamics in the solution of two soils (Planossolo and Gleissolo during the rice cycle. Rice plants were cultivated in 50L containers having devices to collect soil solution at several depths (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 31cm. In the soil solution, with and without plant, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn, were measured at 10, 19, 44, 77, and 113 days after the flooding. Potassium was especially sensible to the rice plant and depth of sampling

  3. Irrigation water acidification to neutralize alkalinity for nursery crop production: Substrate pH, electrical conductivity, nutrient concentrations, and plant nutrition and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming agents in irrigation water, typically associated with carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium, contribute to water alkalinity. Repeated application of LA to container crops can cause media-solution pH to rise overtime, that uncorrected, can lead to a nutrient availability imbalan...

  4. Irrigation water acidification to neutralize alkalinity for nursery crop production: Substrate pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient concentrations; and plant nutrition and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming agents (LA) in irrigation water, typically associated with carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), contribute to water alkalinity. Repeated application of LA to container crops can cause media-solution pH to rise overtime, that uncorrected, can lead to a nutrient avail...

  5. A path-independent integral for the characterization of solute concentration and flux at biofilm detachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, B.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Reeves, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    A path-independent (conservation) integral is developed for the characterization of solute concentration and flux in a biofilm in the vicinity of a detachment or other flux limiting boundary condition. Steady state conditions of solute diffusion are considered and biofilm kinetics are described by an uptake term which can be expressed in terms of a potential (Michaelis-Menten kinetics). An asymptotic solution for solute concentration at the tip of the detachment is obtained and shown to be analogous to that of antiplane crack problems in linear elasticity. It is shown that the amplitude of the asymptotic solution can be calculated by evaluating a path-independent integral. The special case of a semi-infinite detachment in an infinite strip is considered and the amplitude of the asymptotic field is related to the boundary conditions and problem parameters in closed form for zeroth and first order kinetics and numerically for Michaelis-Menten kinetics. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007.

  6. Stilbazolium Merocyanine Dye Determination in Different Solutions, Concentrations and Colloids Using SERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pajchrowski, Grzegorz; Abdali, Salim; Nørbygaard, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) measurements were carried out on stilbazolium merocyanine dye in methanol and pyridine solvents. Both solutions were measured in series of concentrations, covering a range of 5·10-5 M to 5·10-8 M. In these measurements Ag and Au colloids were used and the ......Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) measurements were carried out on stilbazolium merocyanine dye in methanol and pyridine solvents. Both solutions were measured in series of concentrations, covering a range of 5·10-5 M to 5·10-8 M. In these measurements Ag and Au colloids were used...... report here on the success of using SERS to obtain Raman spectra of merocyanine dye at very low concentration in an attempt of new approach, which can be used for further investigations of the dye. The SERS spectra will here be reported and the results from different solutions, colloids, concentrations...

  7. Methods to homogenize electrochemical concentration cell (ECC ozonesonde measurements across changes in sensing solution concentration or ozonesonde manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Deshler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ozone plays a significant role in the chemical and radiative state of the atmosphere. For this reason there are many instruments used to measure ozone from the ground, from space, and from balloons. Balloon-borne electrochemical cell ozonesondes provide some of the best measurements of the ozone profile up to the mid-stratosphere, providing high vertical resolution, high precision, and a wide geographic distribution. From the mid-1990s to the late 2000s the consistency of long-term records from balloon-borne ozonesondes has been compromised by differences in manufacturers, Science Pump (SP and ENSCI (EN, and differences in recommended sensor solution concentrations, 1.0 % potassium iodide (KI and the one-half dilution: 0.5 %. To investigate these differences, a number of organizations have independently undertaken comparisons of the various ozonesonde types and solution concentrations, resulting in 197 ozonesonde comparison profiles. The goal of this study is to derive transfer functions to allow measurements outside of standard recommendations, for sensor composition and ozonesonde type, to be converted to a standard measurement and thus homogenize the data to the expected accuracy of 5 % (10 % in the stratosphere (troposphere. Subsets of these data have been analyzed previously and intermediate transfer functions derived. Here all the comparison data are analyzed to compare (1 differences in sensor solution composition for a single ozonesonde type, (2 differences in ozonesonde type for a single sensor solution composition, and (3 the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO and manufacturers' recommendations of 1.0 % KI solution for Science Pump and 0.5 % KI for ENSCI. From the recommendations it is clear that ENSCI ozonesondes and 1.0 % KI solution result in higher amounts of ozone sensed. The results indicate that differences in solution composition and in ozonesonde type display little pressure dependence at pressures

  8. Nutrient concentrations, loads, and yields in the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin, Arkansas and Oklahoma, 2002-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The city of Tulsa, Oklahoma, uses Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lake in the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin in northwestern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma for public water supply. The city has spent millions of dollars over the last decade to eliminate taste and odor problems in the drinking water from the Eucha-Spavinaw system, which may be attributable to blue-green algae. Increases in the algal biomass in the lakes may be attributable to increases in nutrient concentrations in the lakes and in the waters feeding the lakes. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Tulsa, investigated and summarized total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in water samples and provided estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus loads, yields, and flow-weighted concentrations during base flow and runoff for two streams discharging to Lake Eucha for the period January 2002 through December 2009. This report updates a previous report that used data from water-quality samples collected from January 2002 through December 2006. Based on the results from the Mann-Whitney statistical test, unfiltered total nitrogen concentrations were significantly greater in runoff water samples than in base-flow water samples collected from Spavinaw Creek near Maysville and near Cherokee City, Arkansas; Spavinaw Creek near Colcord, Oklahoma, and Beaty Creek near Jay, Oklahoma. Nitrogen concentrations in runoff water samples collected from all stations generally increased with increasing streamflow. Nitrogen concentrations in base-flow and runoff water samples collected in Spavinaw Creek significantly increased from the station furthest upstream (near Maysville) to the Sycamore station and then significantly decreased from the Sycamore station to the station furthest downstream (near Colcord). Nitrogen concentrations in base-flow and runoff water samples collected from Beaty Creek were significantly less than base-flow and runoff water samples collected from Spavinaw Creek. Based on the results

  9. Effect of Sulfide Concentration on Copper Corrosion in Anoxic Chloride-Containing Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Decheng; Dong, Chaofang; Xu, Aoni; Man, Cheng; He, Chang; Li, Xiaogang

    2017-04-01

    The structure and property of passive film on copper are strongly dependent on the sulfide concentration; based on this, a series of electrochemical methods were applied to investigate the effect of sulfide concentration on copper corrosion in anaerobic chloride-containing solutions. The cyclic voltammetry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that the corrosion products formed on copper in anaerobic sulfide solutions comprise Cu2S and CuS. And the corrosion resistance of copper decreased with increasing sulfide concentration and faster sulfide addition, owing to the various structures of the passive films observed by the atomic force microscope and scanning electron microscope. A p-type semiconductor character was obtained under all experimental conditions, and the defect concentration, which had a magnitude of 1022-1023 cm-3, increased with increasing sulfide concentration, resulting in a higher rate of both film growth and dissolution.

  10. ELECTRODIALYSIS IN THE CONVERSION STEP OF THE CONCENTRATED SALT SOLUTIONS IN THE PROCESS OF BATTERY SCRAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Niftaliev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The concentrated sodium sulfate solution is formed during the processing of waste battery scrap. A promising way to further treatment of the concentrated salt solution could be the conversion of these salts into acid and bases by electrodialysis, that can be reused in the same technical process cycle. For carrying out the process of conversion of salts into the corresponding acid and base several cells schemes with different combinations of cation, anion and bipolar membranes are used. At this article a comparative analysis of these cells is carried out. In the cells there were used the membranes МC-40, МА-41 and МB-2I. Acid and base solutions with higher concentration may be obtained during the process of electrodialysis in the circulation mode, when a predetermined amount of salt in the closed loop is run through a set of membranes to obtain the desired concentration of the product. The disadvantages of this method are the high cost of buffer tanks and the need to work with small volumes of treated solutions. In industrial applications it is advisable to use continuous electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, since this configuration allows to increase the number of repeating sections, which is necessary to reduce the energy costs. The increase of the removal rate of salts can be achieved by increasing the process steps, and to produce a more concentrated products after the conversion step can be applied electrodialysis-concentrator or evaporator.

  11. Equilibrium and Dynamic Osmotic Behaviour of Aqueous Solutions with Varied Concentration at Constant and Variable Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkov, Ivan L.; Manev, Emil D.; Sazdanova, Svetla V.; Kolikov, Kiril H.

    2013-01-01

    Osmosis is essential for the living organisms. In biological systems the process usually occurs in confined volumes and may express specific features. The osmotic pressure in aqueous solutions was studied here experimentally as a function of solute concentration (0.05–0.5 M) in two different regimes: of constant and variable solution volume. Sucrose, a biologically active substance, was chosen as a reference solute for the complex tests. A custom made osmotic cell was used. A novel operative experimental approach, employing limited variation of the solution volume, was developed and applied for the purpose. The established equilibrium values of the osmotic pressure are in agreement with the theoretical expectations and do not exhibit any evident differences for both regimes. In contrast, the obtained kinetic dependences reveal striking divergence in the rates of the process at constant and varied solution volume for the respective solute concentrations. The rise of pressure is much faster at constant solution volume, while the solvent influx is many times greater in the regime of variable volume. The results obtained suggest a feasible mechanism for the way in which the living cells rapidly achieve osmotic equilibrium upon changes in the environment. PMID:24459448

  12. Radiolysis of concentrated solutions. 1. Pulse and γ radiolysis studies of direct and indirect effects in LiCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucheault, J.; Ferradini, C.; Julien, R.; Deysine, A.; Gilles, L.; Moreau, M.

    1979-01-01

    This study of the radiolysis of concentrated aqueous LiCl solutions enables the relative contributions of the direct and indirect effects to be evaluated as a function of Cl - concentration and also permits an evaluation of the role of Cl - in the early stages of water radiolysis. Radicalar and molecular yields G/sub Cl 2 - /, G/sub OH/, G//sub e//sub aq/ - / + G/sub H/, G/sub H 2 O 2 /, and G/sub H 2 / are determined for all concentrations employed, and the material balance is verified. The main conclusions concerning the apparent inefficacy of the direct effect and the importance of OH scavenging in spurs are discussed

  13. Passivation behavior of a ferritic stainless steel in concentrated alkaline solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Fattah-alhosseini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The passivation behavior of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel was investigated in concentrated alkaline solutions in relation to several test parameters, using electrochemical techniques. Increasing solution pH (varying from 11.5 to 14.0 leads to an increase in the corrosion rate of the alloy. Mott–Schottky analysis revealed that passive films formed on AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel behave as n-type semiconductor and the donor densities increased with pH. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS results showed that the reciprocal capacitance of the passive film is directly proportional to its thickness, which decreases with pH increase. The results revealed that for this ferritic stainless steel in concentrated alkaline solutions, decreasing the solution pH offers better conditions for forming passive films with higher protection behavior, due to the growth of a much thicker and less defective film.

  14. Separation and Concentration of Succinic Adic from Multicomponent Aqueous Solutions by Nanofiltration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antczak Jerzy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the determined suitability of nanofiltration (NF membrane separation for selective isolation and concentration of succinic acid from aqueous solutions which are post-fermentation multicomponent fluids. The study analyzed the influence of concentration and the pH of the separated solutions on the efficiency and selectivity of NF process that runs in a module equipped with a ceramic membrane. Moreover, the effect of applied trans-membrane pressure on the retention of succinic acid and sodium succinate has been studied. The investigations have shown that in the used NF module the retention of succinic acid salt is equal almost 50% in the case of a three-component model solution, although the degree of retention depends on both the transmembrane pressure and the initial concentration of separated salt.

  15. Ammonia complexes of metals in aqueous solutions with high concentrations of ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padar, T.G.; Novikov, L.K.; Stupko, T.V.; Isaev, I.D.; Pashkov, G.L.; Mironov, V.E.

    1991-01-01

    Potentiometric method, glass electrodes and Bierrum function were used to study the formation of ammonia complexes of magnesium, calcium, cadmium, zinc, copper(2) and silver in 2.0 mol/dm 3 aqueous solutions of ammonia nitrate with 0-18 mol/dm 3 ammonia concentrations at 25.0 deg C. Step constants of stability of studied complexes were calculated and their compositions were determined with account of nonideal character of aqueous-salt solutions with ammonia concentrations above 1.0 mol/dm 3 . Values of correction effects on salting out ammonia action for Bierrum function in solutions with 1.0-18 mol/dm 3 ammonia concentrations were found

  16. Determination of the uranium concentration in soil solutions by the fission track registration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, G.P.

    1980-02-01

    The fission tracks registration technique was used to determine the uranium concentration in soil solutions. The Makrofol KG, a synthetic plastic manufactured by Bayer, was used as a detector and the wet method was applied. From the calibration curves obtained, it was possible to determine uranium concentrations in soil solutions, from 90 to 320 μg U/l, with an error between 9.4% and 4.0%, respectively. The method was applied to a few soil samples from Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais in Brazil. The uranium concentrations in the sample and residues were also determined by other methods to compare the results obtained; only one sample showed deviation from the results obtained by the fission tracks method. And this discrepancy was explained in a reasonable way. It was shown that the fission tracks technique can be used with sucess for application in soil solutions. (Author) [pt

  17. Intercropping of Green Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Induces Nutrient Concentration Changes in the Soil and Plants in Continuously Cropped Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a Plastic Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xuemei; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Lihong; Li, Hezi; Dong, Yinxin

    2013-01-01

    A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg) concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe) concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn) concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic. PMID:23637994

  18. Intercropping of green garlic (Allium sativum L.) induces nutrient concentration changes in the soil and plants in continuously cropped cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a plastic tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xuemei; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Lihong; Li, Hezi; Dong, Yinxin

    2013-01-01

    A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg) concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe) concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn) concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic.

  19. Intercropping of green garlic (Allium sativum L. induces nutrient concentration changes in the soil and plants in continuously cropped cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. in a plastic tunnel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Xiao

    Full Text Available A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and manganese (Mn in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic.

  20. Mass loss and nutrient concentrations of buried wood as a function of organic matter removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control in a regenerating oak-pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Ponder; John M. Kabrick; Mary Beth Adams; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Marty F. Jurgensen

    2017-01-01

    Mass loss and nutrient concentrations of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and white oak (Q. alba) wood stakes were measured 30 months after their burial in the upper 10 cm of soil in a regenerating forest after harvesting and soil disturbance. Disturbance treatments were two levels of organic matter (OM) removal (only...

  1. Effect of Carbohydrate Source and Cottonseed Meal Level in the Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg. Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05. Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p0.05. Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw.

  2. Hydrogen-bonded structure in highly concentrated aqueous LiBr solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imano, Masahiro; Kameda, Yasuo; Usuki, Takeshi; Uemura, Osamu

    2001-01-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements were carried out for H/D isotopically substituted aqueous 10, 25 and 33 mol% LiBr solutions in order to obtain structural information on the intermolecular hydrogen bonds among water molecules in highly concentrated aqueous solutions. Observed scattering cross sections for D 2 O (99.9 % D), 0 H 2 O(35.9 % D) and 0-2 H 2 O(68.0 % D) solutions were combined to deduce partial structure factors, a HH (Q), a XH (Q) and a XX (Q) (X: O, Br and Li). The least squares fitting analysis was applied to the observed partial structure factors to determine the nearest neighbor interatomic distance, root-mean-square amplitude and coordination number. Intermolecular distances, r OH =1.91(1) A, r HH =2.38(1) A and r OO =3.02(1) A, between the nearest neighbor water molecules, were obtained for the 10 mol% LiBr solution. On the other hand, the intermolecular O···H interaction was found to almost disappear in concentrated 25 and 33 mol% LiBr solutions. The result implies that the hydrogen-bonded network is completely broken in highly concentrated aqueous LiBr solutions. (author)

  3. Synthesis of Copper-Chelates Derived from Amino Acids and Evaluation of Their Efficacy as Copper Source and Growth Stimulator for Lactuca sativa in Nutrient Solution Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewchangwat, Narongpol; Dueansawang, Sattawat; Tumcharern, Gamolwan; Suttisintong, Khomson

    2017-11-15

    Five tetradentate ligands were synthesized from l-amino acids and utilized for the synthesis of Cu(II)-chelates 1-5. The efficacy of Cu(II)-chelates as copper (Cu) source and growth stimulator in hydroponic cultivation was evaluated with Lactuca sativa. Their stability test was performed at pH 4-10. The results suggested that Cu(II)-chelate 3 is the most pH tolerant complex. Levels of Cu, Zn, and Fe accumulated in plants supplied with Cu(II)-chelates were compared with those supplied with CuSO 4 at the same Cu concentration of 8.0 μM. The results showed that Cu(II)-chelate 3 significantly enhanced Cu, Zn, and Fe content in shoot by 35, 15, and 48%, respectively. Application of Cu(II)-chelate 3 also improved plant dry matter yield by 54%. According to the results, Cu(II)-chelate 3 demonstrated the highest stimulating effect on plant growth and plant mineral accumulation so that it can be used as an alternative to CuSO 4 for supplying Cu in nutrient solutions and enhancing the plant growth.

  4. Critical zone structure controls concentration-discharge relationships and solute generation in forested tropical montane watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymore, Adam S.; Brereton, Richard L.; Ibarra, Daniel E.; Maher, Kate; McDowell, William H.

    2017-07-01

    Concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships are poorly known for tropical watersheds, even though the tropics contribute a disproportionate amount of solutes to the global ocean. The Luquillo Mountains in Puerto Rico offer an ideal environment to examine C-Q relationships across a heterogeneous tropical landscape. We use 10-30 years of weekly stream chemistry data across 10 watersheds to examine C-Q relationships for weathering products (SiO2(aq), Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+) and biologically controlled solutes (dissolved organic carbon [DOC], dissolved organic nitrogen [DON], NH4+, NO3-, PO43-, K+, and SO42-). We analyze C-Q relationships using power law equations and a solute production model and use principal component analysis to test hypotheses regarding how the structure of the critical zone controls solute generation. Volcaniclastic watersheds had higher concentrations of weathering solutes and smaller tributaries were approximately threefold more efficient at generating these solutes than larger rivers. Lithology and vegetation explained a significant amount of variation in the theoretical maximum concentrations of weathering solutes (r2 = 0.43-0.48) and in the C-Q relationships of PO43- (r2 = 0.63) and SiO2(aq) (r2 = 0.47). However, the direction and magnitude of these relationships varied. Across watersheds, various forms of N and P displayed variable C-Q relationships, while DOC was consistently enriched with increasing discharge. Results suggest that PO43- may be a useful indicator of watershed function. Relationships between C-Q and landscape characteristics indicate the extent to which the structure and function of the Critical zone controls watershed solute fluxes.

  5. A NOVEL INTERPRETATION OF CONCENTRATION DEPENDENCE OF VISCOSITY OF DILUTE POLYMER SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Pan; Rong-shi Cheng

    2000-01-01

    The concentration dependence of the reduced viscosity of dilute polymer solution is interpreted in the light of a new concept of the self-association of polymer chains in dilute solution. The apparent self-association constant is defined as the molar association constant divided by the molar mass of individual polymer chain and is numerically interconvertible with the Huggins coefficient. The molar association constant is directly proportional to the effective hydrodynamic volume of the polymer chain in solution and is irrespective of the chain architecture. The effective hydrodynamic volume accounts for the non-spherical conformation of a short polymer chain in solution and is a product of a shape factor and hydrodynamic volume. The observed enhancement of Huggins coefficient for short chain and branched polymer is satisfactorily interpreted by the concept of self-association. The concept of self-association allows us to predict the existence of a boundary concentration Cs (dynamic contact concentration) which divides the dilute polymer solution into two regions.

  6. Influence of Concentration and Agitation of Sodium Hypochlorite and Peracetic Acid Solutions on Tissue Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Silveira, Bruna Ramos Franco; Martelo, Roberta Bosso; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria

    2015-11-01

    To evaluated the tissue dissolution of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and peracetic acid (PA) solutions at different concentrations, with or without ultrasonic agitation. The following solutions were analyzed: 2.5% NaOCl, 0.5, 1 and 2% PA, 1% PA associated with 6.5% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and saline. Fragments of bovine pulp tissue with 25 ± 2g mg were immersed into test tubes containing 4 mL of the solutions for 10 minutes. In the groups with agitation, pulp tissues were submitted to 2 cycles of 1 minute of ultrasonic agitation. The specimens were weighed after the removal from the solutions. The percentage of mass loss was calculated according to the difference of mass before and after exposure to solutions. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (p Peracetic acid solution has pulp tissue dissolution. However, this ability is lower than 2.5% NaOCl solution. The sodium hypochlorite solution shows higher ability to dissolve tissue than PA.

  7. Simulating Osmotic Equilibria: A New Tool for Calculating Activity Coefficients in Concentrated Aqueous Salt Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Michael; Duvail, Magali; Guilbaud, Philippe; Dufrêche, Jean-François

    2017-10-19

    Herein, a new theoretical method is presented for predicting osmotic equilibria and activities, where a bulk liquid and its corresponding vapor phase are simulated by means of molecular dynamics using explicit polarization. Calculated time-averaged number density profiles provide the amount of evaporated molecules present in the vapor phase and consequently the vapor-phase density. The activity of the solvent and the corresponding osmotic coefficient are determined by the vapor density at different solute concentrations with respect to the reference vapor density of the pure solvent. With the extended Debye-Hückel equation for the activity coefficient along with the corresponding Gibbs-Duhem relation, the activity coefficients of the solutes are calculated by fitting the osmotic coefficients. A simple model based on the combination of Poisson processes and Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distributions is introduced to interpret statistical phenomena observed during the simulations, which are related to evaporation and recondensation. This method is applied to aqueous dysprosium nitrate [Dy(NO 3 ) 3 ] solutions at different concentrations. The obtained densities of the liquid bulk and the osmotic and activity coefficients are in good agreement with the experimental results for concentrated and saturated solutions. Density profiles of the liquid-vapor interface at different concentrations provide detailed insight into the spatial distributions of all compounds.

  8. A study on prediction of uranium concentration in pregnant solution from in-situ leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Weiping; Zhou Quan; Yu Yunzhen; Wang Shude; Yang Yihan; Lei Qifeng

    2005-01-01

    The modeling course on prediction of uranium concentration in pregnant solution from in-situ leaching of uranium is described, a mathematical model based on grey system theory is put forward, and a set of computer application software is correspondingly developed. (authors)

  9. Communication: Modeling of concentration dependent water diffusivity in ionic solutions: Role of intermolecular charge transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yi; Berkowitz, Max L., E-mail: maxb@unc.edu, E-mail: ykanai@unc.edu; Kanai, Yosuke, E-mail: maxb@unc.edu, E-mail: ykanai@unc.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    The translational diffusivity of water in solutions of alkali halide salts depends on the identity of ions, exhibiting dramatically different behavior even in solutions of similar salts of NaCl and KCl. The water diffusion coefficient decreases as the salt concentration increases in NaCl. Yet, in KCl solution, it slightly increases and remains above bulk value as salt concentration increases. Previous classical molecular dynamics simulations have failed to describe this important behavior even when polarizable models were used. Here, we show that inclusion of dynamical charge transfer among water molecules produces results in a quantitative agreement with experiments. Our results indicate that the concentration-dependent diffusivity reflects the importance of many-body effects among the water molecules in aqueous ionic solutions. Comparison with quantum mechanical calculations shows that a heterogeneous and extended distribution of charges on water molecules around the ions due to ion-water and also water-water charge transfer plays a very important role in controlling water diffusivity. Explicit inclusion of the charge transfer allows us to model accurately the difference in the concentration-dependent water diffusivity between Na{sup +} and K{sup +} ions in simulations, and it is likely to impact modeling of a wide range of systems for medical and technological applications.

  10. Removing ferric ions from concentrated acid leaching solution of an uranium ore by jarosite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Huanbi; Hu Yezang

    1997-01-01

    The author expounds the fundamental rules of removing ferric ions by jarosite and presents results of removing ferric ions from concentrated acid curing-trickle leaching solution of an uranium ore. It turns out that the method can be applied to uranium hydrometallurgical process effectively

  11. Membrane distillation with porous metal hollow fibers for the concentration of thermo-sensitive solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, Sushumna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an original approach for the concentration of thermo-sensitive solutions: the Sweep Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD) process. A new membrane contactor with metallic hollow fibers has been designed and allows the distillation process to be operational at low temperature. Heat is

  12. The determination of hydroxide and carbonate in concentrated sodium chloride solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roolvink, W.B.; Bos, M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer method for the determination of carbonate and hydroxide in concentrated (2.89 M) sodium chloride solutions is described. The method is based on multiparametric curve-fitting and can also be applied to salts of dibasic acids with unknown equilibrium constants. The systematic error is not

  13. Sodium concentration in home made salt – sugar – solution (sss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a cohort of 210 young mothers, selected through cluster sampling technique from Ogida health district of Egor Local Government Area of Edo State, the electrolyte concentration of prepared salt-sugar-solutions (SSS) were evaluated. This was predicated on the need to determine the effects of introduction of various ...

  14. Biological regeneration of ferric ("Fe3+") solution during desulphurisation of gaseous streams: effect of nutrients and support material

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulopo, J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available + are reduced to ferrous ions Fe2+. During the industrial regeneration of Fe3+, nutrients and trace minerals usually provided in a laboratory setup are not present and this depletion of nutrients may have a negative impact on the bacteria responsible for ferrous...

  15. The relation between temperature and concentration gradients in superfluid sup 3 He- sup 4 He solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Zadorozhko, A A; Rudavskij, E Y; Chagovets, V K; Sheshin, G A

    2003-01-01

    The temperature and concentration gradients nabla T and nabla x in a superfluid sup 3 He- sup 4 He mixture with an initial concentration 9,8 % of sup 3 He are measured in a temperature range 70-500 mK. The gradients are produced by a steady thermal flow with heating from below. It is shown that the value of nabla x/nabla T observed in the experiment is in good agreement with the theoretical model derived from the temperature and concentration dependences of osmotic pressure. The experimental data permitted us to obtain a thermal diffusion ratio of the solution responsible for the thermal diffusion coefficient.

  16. Determination of the unfrozen water content of maximally freeze-concentrated carbohydrate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatley, R H; Mant, A

    1993-08-01

    The heat capacity change at T'g has been studied in freeze-concentrated carbohydrate solutions. The values obtained have been compared with those found for high concentration solutions that do not undergo freezing above Tg. The analysis has indicated that the freezing process influences the degree of stress in the glassy phase. This results in a complex power-time curve when frozen solutions are heated in a differential scanning calorimeter. The endotherm produced by the stress relaxation can cause considerable error in W'g measurement obtained by any method that relies on the integration of the power-time curve. A more reliable method for W'g determination is via the intersection of T'g with a previously prepared Tg/Wg calibration curve.

  17. Interaction of Celestine Concentrate and Reagent Grade SrSO4 with Oxalate Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Obut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of reagent grade strontium sulphate and celestine concentrate with aqueous solutions of oxalic acid, sodiumoxalate and ammonium oxalate for the production of strontium carbonate were investigated for different oxalate compound:SrSO4 moleratios and reaction times using x-ray diffraction analysis and dissolution tests. Under the same experimental conditions, it was foundthat aqueous oxalic acid and sodium oxalate solutions had no or little effect on reagent grade strontium sulphate or celestineconcentrate, but aqueous ammonium oxalate solution converted them into strontium oxalate hydrate. Strontium carbonate was obtainedat conversion ratios of 74.7% for the celestine concentrate and 84.6 % for the reagent grade strontium sulphate by the decompositionof the obtained strontium oxalate hydrate at 600 °C under air atmosphere.

  18. The use of acoustic doppler meters to estimate sediment and nutrient concentrations in freshwater inflows to Texas coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullmar Lucena; Micheal Lee

    2016-01-01

    Excessive sediment and nutrient loading are among the leading causes of impairment in water bodies of the United States due to their effect on biologic productivity, water quality, and aquatic food webs. Understanding the nutrient and suspended sediment loads affecting estuarine waters is fundamental to the assessment of the physical, chemical, and biological processes...

  19. Concentration and purification of plutonium solutions by means of ion-exchange columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, R W; Aikin, A M

    1953-02-15

    Equilibrium experiments using Dowex 50 ion-exchange resin and nitric acid solutions of Pu{sup 3+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+} cations have yielded values for the absorption affinities for these ions. Trivalent plutonium was found to be far more strongly absorbed than UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 2+}. Column studies have shown that uranium can be completely separated from plutonium even when the initial concentration of uranium is very much greater than that of the plutonium. A plutonium concentration increase of about fifty-fold can be obtained from solutions about 10{sup -3} M in plutonium and 1.0M in nitric acid. The equation K{sub Pu}{sup 3+} = X{sub R} (1-X{sub S}){sup 3} C{sub S}{sup 2}/X{sub S} (1-X{sub R}){sup 3} C{sub R}{sup 2} for estimating the maximum amount of plutonium taken up by a column of resin of unit volume from a solution of total equivalent concentration, C{sub S} , has been shown to hold for values of C{sub S} up to 3 equivalents per litre. X{sub R}, the equivalent fraction of plutonium on the resin, is the number of equivalents of plutonium absorbed by the resin divided by the total capacity of the column. X{sub S}, the equivalent fraction of plutonium in solution, is the equivalent concentration of plutonium divided by the total equivalent concentration of cations in solution. C{sub R} is the total capacity of the resin in milli-equivalents per gram of dry resin. Recommendations have been made for the application and operation of ion-exchange columns in the Plutonium-Extraction Plant. (author)

  20. Thermodynamic characteristics of solutions of Bu4NI in dimethylsulfoxide over a wide concentration range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safonova, L.P.; Shmukler, L.Eh.; Kolker, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The integral heats of solution of Bu 4 NI in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were measured at 298.15, 313.15, and 328.15 K and concentrations from dilute to saturation. The standard enthalpies and heat capacities of solution and solvation of Bu 4 NI in DMSO at various temperatures and the C-bar p 0 (Bu 4 N + ) value at 298.15 K were calculated. The obtained and literature data were used to consider the influence of the nature of solvents on Δ sol H m (Bu 4 NI) and of the electrolyte on Δ sol H m in dimethylsulfoxide at 298.15 K. The dynamic viscosity and density of the Bu 4 NI-DMSO system were determined at various concentrations and temperatures. The Eyring equation was used to calculate the activation energy of viscous flow at all the concentrations studied [ru

  1. The thermodynamic characteristics of solutions of Bu4NI in dimethylsulfoxide over a wide concentration range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, L. P.; Shmukler, L. E.; Kolker, A. M.

    2008-05-01

    The integral heats of solution of Bu4NI in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were measured at 298.15, 313.15, and 328.15 K and concentrations from dilute to saturation. The standard enthalpies and heat capacities of solution and solvation of Bu4NI in DMSO at various temperatures and the bar C_p^o (Bu_4 N^ + ) value at 298.15 K were calculated. The obtained and literature data were used to consider the influence of the nature of solvents on Δsol H m (Bu4NI) and of the electrolyte on Δsol H m in dimethylsulfoxide at 298.15 K. The dynamic viscosity and density of the Bu4NI-DMSO system were determined at various concentrations and temperatures. The Eyring equation was used to calculate the activation energy of viscous flow at all the concentrations studied.

  2. Effect of ion concentrations on uranium absorption from sodium carbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traut, D.E.; El Hazek, N.M.T.; Palmer, G.R.; Nichols, I.L.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of various ion concentrations on uranium absorption from a sodium carbonate solution by a strong-base, anion resin was investigated in order to help assure an adequate uranium supply for future needs. The studies were conducted to improve the recovery of uranium from in situ leach solutions by ion exchange. The effects of carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate ions were examined. Relatively low (less than 5 g/l) concentrations of chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate were found to be detrimental to the absorption of uranium. High (greater than 10 g/l) carbonate concentrations also adversely affected the uranium absorption. In addition, the effect of initial resin form was investigated in tests of the chloride, carbonate, and bicarbonate forms; resin form was shown to have no effect on the absorption of uranium

  3. assessment of concentration of air pollutants using analytical and numerical solution of the atmospheric diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmail, S.F.H.

    2011-01-01

    The mathematical formulation of numerous physical problems a results in differential equations actually partial or ordinary differential equations.In our study we are interested in solutions of partial differential equations.The aim of this work is to calculate the concentrations of the pollution, by solving the atmospheric diffusion equation(ADE) using different mathematical methods of solution. It is difficult to solve the general form of ADE analytically, so we use some assumptions to get its solution.The solutions of it depend on the eddy diffusivity profiles(k) and the wind speed u. We use some physical assumptions to simplify its formula and solve it. In the present work, we solve the ADE analytically in three dimensions using Green's function method, Laplace transform method, normal mode method and these separation of variables method. Also, we use ADM as a numerical method. Finally, comparisons are made with the results predicted by the previous methods and the observed data.

  4. Polymer-Coated Urea Delays Growth and Accumulation of Key Nutrients in Aerobic Rice but Does Not Affect Grain Mineral Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry J. Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced efficiency nitrogen (N fertilizers (EEFs may improve crop recovery of fertilizer-N, but there is evidence that some EEFs cause a lag in crop growth compared to growth with standard urea. Biomass and mineral nutrient accumulation was investigated in rice fertilized with urea, urea-3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP and polymer-coated urea (PCU to determine whether any delays in biomass production alter the accumulation patterns, and subsequent grain concentrations, of key mineral nutrients. Plant growth and mineral accumulation and partitioning to grains did not differ significantly between plants fertilized with urea or urea-DMPP. In contrast, biomass accumulation and the accumulation of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and manganese were delayed during the early growth phase of plants fertilized with PCU. However, plants in the PCU treatment ultimately compensated for this by increasing growth and nutrient uptake during the latter vegetative stages so that no differences in biomass or nutrient accumulation generally existed among N fertilizer treatments at anthesis. Delayed biomass accumulation in rice fertilized with PCU does not appear to reduce the total accumulation of mineral nutrients, nor to have any impact on grain mineral nutrition when biomass and grain yields are equal to those of rice grown with urea or urea-DMPP.

  5. [Effects of nitrogen deposition on the concentration and spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter in soil solution in a young Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao Chun; Chen, Yue Min; Yuan, Shuo; Zheng, Wei; Si, You Tao; Yuan, Zhi Peng; Lin, Wei Sheng; Yang, Yu Sheng

    2017-01-01

    To study the effects of nitrogen deposition on the concentration and spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the forest soil solution from the subtropical Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation, using negative pressure sampling method, the dynamics of DOM in soil solutions from 0-15 and 15-30 cm soil layer was monitored for two years and the spectroscopic features of DOM were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen deposition significantly reduced the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and increased the aromatic index (AI) and the humic index (HIX), but had no significant effect on dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentration in both soil layers. There was obvious seasonal variation in DOM concentration of the soil solution, which was prominently higher in summer and autumn than in spring and winter.Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectrometry indicated that the DOM in forest soil solution had absorption peaks in the similar position of six regions, being the highest in wave number of 1145-1149 cm -1 . Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that DOM was mainly consisted of protein-like substances (Ex/Em=230 nm/300 nm) and microbial degradation products (Ex/Em=275 nm/300 nm). The availability of protein-like substances from 0-15 cm soil layer was reduced in the nitrogen treatments. Nitrogen deposition significantly reduced the concentration of DOC in soil solution, maybe largely by reducing soil pH, inhibiting soil carbon mineralization and stimulating plant growth. In particular, the decline of DOC concentration in the surface layer was due to the production inhibition of the protein-like substances and carboxylic acids. Short-term nitrogen deposition might be beneficial to the maintenance of soil fertility, while the long-term accumulation of nitrogen deposition might lead to the hard utilization of soil nutrients.

  6. Efficacy of Fe(o,o-EDDHA) and Fe(o,p-EDDHA) isomers in supplying Fe to strategy I plants differs in nutrient solution and calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Carmen L; Romera, Francisco J; Alcántara, Esteban; Pérez-Vicente, Rafael; Sariego, Cristina; Garcaí-Alonso, J Ignacio; Boned, Javier; Marti, Gabriel

    2008-11-26

    The FeEDDHA [iron(3+) ethylenediamine di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid] is one of the most efficient iron chelates employed in the correction of iron clorosis in calcareous soils. FeEDDHA presents different positional isomers: the ortho-ortho (o,o), the ortho-para (o,p), and the para-para (p,p). Of these isomers, the p,p cannot chelate Fe in soil solution in a wide range of pH values, while both o,o and o,p can. The objective of this work was to compare the efficiency of both isomers (o,o and o,p) to provide Fe to two Strategy I plants (tomato and peach) in nutrient solution (pH approximately 6.0), as well as in calcareous soil (pH approximately 8.4; CALCIXEREPT). For this, chelates of both o,o-EDDHA and o,p-EDDHA with 57Fe (a nonradioactive isotope of Fe) were used, where the 57Fe acts as a tracer. The results obtained showed that the o,o isomer is capable of providing sufficient Fe to plants in both nutrient solution and calcareous soil. However, the o,p isomer is capable of providing sufficient Fe to plants in nutrient solution but not in calcareous soil.

  7. Increase The Sugar Concentration of The Solution Sugar by Reverse Osmotic Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redjeki, S.; Hapsari, N.; Iriani

    2018-01-01

    Sugar is one of the basic needs of people and food and drink industry. As technology advances and the demand for efficient usage of sugar rises, crystal sugar is seen as less advantageous than liquid sugar. If sugar is always dissolved in water before use, then it will be more efficient and practical for consumers to use sugar in liquid form than in crystal form. Other than that, liquid sugar is also attractive to consumers because it is economical, hygienic, instantly soluble in hot and cold water, fresher and longer-lasting, able to thicken and enrich the texture of foods and drinks, and functions as sweetener, syrup, and flavor enhancer. Liquid sugar is also more beneficial for sugar producers because of simpler production process, cheaper production cost, and similar yield with no extra cost. In sugar production, separation process is found in most of its stages and therefore the use of membrane technology for separating solute and water content has a good potential. In this research, water content reduction of sugar solution was done in order to increase the sugar concentration of the solution. The parameters of this research were 4%, 5%, and 6% starting concentration of sugar solution; 20, 40, and 60 minutes of process time; and 85 and 60 PSI ΔP. The best result was acquired on 4% starting concentration, 60 PSI ΔP, and 60 minutes process time.

  8. Effects of potential and concentration of bicarbonate solution on stress corrosion cracking of annealed carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruna, Takumi; Zhu, Liehong; Murakami, Makoto; Shibata, Toshio

    2000-01-01

    Effects of potential and concentration of bicarbonate on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of annealed SM 400 B carbon steel has been investigated in bicarbonate solutions at 343 K. The surface of annealed specimen had decarburized layer of about 0. 5 mm thickness. A potentiostatic slow strain rate testing apparatus equipped with a charge coupled device camera system was employed to evaluate SCC susceptibility from the viewpoint of the crack behavior. In a constant bicarbonate concentration of 1 M, cracks were observed in the potential range from -800 to 600 mV Ag/ A gCl . and especially, the initiation and the propagation of the cracks were accelerated at -600 mV. At a constant potential of -600 mV, cracks were observed in the concentration range from 0.001 to 1 M, and the initiation and the propagation of the cracks were suppressed as the concentration decreased. Polarization curves for the decarburized surface were measured with two different scan rates. High SCC susceptibility may be expected in the potential range where the difference between the two current densities is large. It was found in this system that the potential with the maximum difference in the current density was -600 mV for 1 M bicarbonate solution, and the potential increased with a decrease in the concentration of bicarbonate. This means that an applied potential of -600 mV provides the highest SCC susceptibility for 1 M bicarbonate solution, and that the SCC susceptibility decreases as the concentration decreases. These findings support the dependence of the actual SCC behavior on the potential and the concentration of bicarbonate. (author)

  9. Toward new instruments for measurement of low concentration hydrogen sulfide in small-quantity aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiao Chu; Wu, Dong Qing; Zhang, W J; Sammynaiken, R; Yang, Wei; Wang, Rui

    2008-01-01

    Endogenously generated hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been found to play some important physiological roles in the nervous and cardiovascular systems, such as a neuromodulator and a vasorelaxant. These roles are in contrast to our common perception that H 2 S is toxic. However, whether H 2 S plays a positive or negative role is dependent on the H 2 S concentration levels in mammals. This further puts a high demand on the accurate measurement of H 2 S in mammals with a further desire to be real time, continuous and in vivo. Existing methods for H 2 S measurement require a large number of tissue samples with complex procedures, and these methods are extremely invasive. The development of new in vivo and real-time methods for measuring H 2 S is, however, a great challenge. In the present study, we proposed and examined five potential H 2 S measurement methods: (1) atomic force microscopy with coating materials, (2) Raman spectroscopy on the H 2 S solutions, (3) gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (with the static headspace technique) on the H 2 S solutions, (4) mass spectroscopy on unfunctionalized carbon nanotubes treated with the H 2 S solutions and (5) Raman spectroscopy on unfunctionalized carbon nanotubes treated with the H 2 S solutions. Our study concluded that method (5) is the most promising one for detecting low concentration H 2 S in small-quantity aqueous solutions in terms of measurement resolution and non-invasiveness, but the method is not very robust

  10. How to know which food is good for you: bumblebees use taste to discriminate between different concentrations of food differing in nutrient content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedenauer, Fabian A; Spaethe, Johannes; Leonhardt, Sara D

    2015-07-01

    In view of the ongoing pollinator decline, the role of nutrition in bee health has received increasing attention. Bees obtain fat, carbohydrates and protein from pollen and nectar. As both excessive and deficient amounts of these macronutrients are detrimental, bees would benefit from assessing food quality to guarantee an optimal nutrient supply. While bees can detect sucrose and use it to assess nectar quality, it is unknown whether they can assess the macronutrient content of pollen. Previous studies have shown that bees preferentially collect pollen of higher protein content, suggesting that differences in pollen quality can be detected either by individual bees or via feedback from larvae. In this study, we examined whether and, if so, how individuals of the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) discriminate between different concentrations of pollen and casein mixtures and thus nutrients. Bumblebees were trained using absolute and differential conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER). As cues related to nutrient concentration could theoretically be perceived by either smell or taste, bees were tested on both olfactory and, for the first time, chemotactile perception. Using olfactory cues, bumblebees learned and discriminated between different pollen types and casein, but were unable to discriminate between different concentrations of these substances. However, when they touched the substances with their antennae, using chemotactile cues, they could also discriminate between different concentrations. Bumblebees are therefore able to discriminate between foods of different concentrations using contact chemosensory perception (taste). This ability may enable them to individually regulate the nutrient intake of their colonies. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Solute concentration affects bradykinin-mediated increases in renal prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenser, T.V.; Davis, E.S.; Rapp, N.S.; Davis, B.B.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of solute concentration on the bradykinin-mediated increase in inner medullary slice prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis were investigated. PG content was determined by specific RIA. Bradykinin stimulation was prevented by the addition of the following solutes to Krebs buffer: 1.0 M urea, 0.5 or 1.0 M NaCl, 0.5 or 1.0 M mannitol, 1.0 M urea plus 0.5 M NaCl, or 1.0 M mannitol plus 0.5 M NaCl. By contrast, basal PGE2 synthesis was increased by 1.0 M mannitol or by 1.0 M mannitol plus 0.5 M NaCl, but decreased by 1.0 M urea. Urea elicited a concentration-dependent, reversible inhibition of bradykinin stimulation, with 0.01 M urea being the lowest effective concentration. By contrast, basal PGE2 synthesis was only reduced at a urea concentration greater than 0.6 M. Arachidonic acid-mediated increases in both PGE2 and PGF2 alpha synthesis were not prevented by 1.0 M urea. The latter suggests that neither PG endoperoxide synthetase nor PG endoperoxide E isomerase are inhibited by urea. The data indicate that different hypertonic solutions have different effects on basal PG production, but all inhibit bradykinin stimulation

  12. Formation and stabilization of anionic metal complexes in concentrated aqueous quaternary ammonium salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, F.L.; Hwang, L.L.Y.; Ronca, N.; Solomon, N.A.; Steigman, J.

    1985-01-01

    Anionic complexes of transition metals were stabilized in aqueous solutions containing high concentrations of various short-chain quaternary ammonium salts. Compounds with longer paraffin chains were effective in much less concentrated solution. Complex ions were detected spectrophotometrically. FeCl 4 - , which is usually formed in concentrated HCl, was the predominant Fe(III) complex in 30 m choline chloride containing only 0.12 M HCl. A yellow transitory Tc(VII) chloro-addition intermediate, formed in the reduction of TcO 4 - by concentrated HCl, was stabilized when the solution also contained 25 m choline chloride. Its spectrum, as well as the isolation of an already known Tc(VII) bipyridyl complex, is reported. Concentrated organic electrolytes also stabilized Tc(V) oxide halides against disproportionation and Tc(IV) hexahalides against hydrolysis. Halochromates of Cr(VI) were formed and stabilized in dilute acid containing quaternary ammonium salts. Their UV spectra showed the well-resolved vibronic fine structure associated with the symmetric chromium-to-oxygen charge-transfer band. It is known that these progressions are resolved in aprotic solvents, but not in aqueous acidic solution alone, and that the loss of fine structure in aqueous media is due to hydrogen bonding. The stabilization of anionic metal complexes and the resolution of vibronic structure in halochromates are probably consequences of water-structure-enforced ion paring. The present work suggests that the water molecules in immediate contact with the complex anions are more strongly hydrogen bonded to each other than to the complex. 21 references, 4 figures

  13. Scintillation detector with anticoincidence shield for determination of the radioactive concentration of standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, R.; Radoszewski, T.

    1982-01-01

    The construction and parameters of the prototype liquid scintillation detector for disintegration rate determination of standard solutions is described. The detector is equipped with a liquid scintillation anticoincidence shield with a volume of 40 l. The instrument is placed in the building of the Radioisotope Production and Distribution Centre in the Institute of Nuclear Research at Swierk. The results of instrument background reduction are described. The counting efficiency of several beta-emitters 3 H, 63 Ni, 14 C and 90 Sr + 90 Y is given, as well as the examples of a disintegration rate determination of low radioactivity concentration of standard solutions. (author)

  14. The prediction of concentration profiles for a NIMCIX column absorbing uranium from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    A procedure is proposed for the prediction of concentration profiles for a countercurrent ion-exchange absorption column, use being made of equilibrium and kinetic data derived from small-scale batch tests. A comparison is presented between the predictions and the measured performance of a column (2,5 m in diameter) absorbing uranium from solution. The method is shown to be adequate for design purposes provided that the data used are from tests in which the solution and resin conditions approximate those for which the plant is being designed [af

  15. Oxidative Pressure Leaching of Silver from Flotation Concentrates with Ammonium Thiocyanate Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Hai; Yang, Jian-Guang; Liu, Wei; Chen, Geng-Tao; Tang, Mo-Tang; Qiu, Guan-Zhou

    2010-02-01

    The thermodynamics and technologies of the selective pressure leaching of silver from flotation concentrates were investigated in an ammonium thiocyanate medium. Thermodynamic analyses, which include silver solubility in NH4SCN solution and Eh-pH diagrams of the Me-MeS-NH4SCN-H2O system at 25 °C, were discussed. The effects of several factors, such as temperature, leaching time, oxidant, pH value, flotation concentrates concentration, surfactant concentration, and so on, on the extraction percentages of silver and zinc were investigated. The following optimal leaching conditions were obtained: NH4SCN concentration 1.5 M, lignin concentration 0.5 g/L, Fe3+ concentration 2 g/L, flotation concentrates addition 200 g/L, and oxygen pressure 1.2 MPa at 130 °C for 3 hours. Under these optimum conditions, the average extraction percentage of silver exceeded 94 pct, whereas the average extraction percentage of zinc was less than 3 pct. Only 7 pct of ammonium thiocyanate was consumed after 4 cycles, which indicated that ammonium thiocyanate hardly was oxidized under these oxidative pressure leaching conditions.

  16. Unusual concentration-dependent microscopic dynamics of dendrimers in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Kaikin; Wu, Chin Ming; Lam, Hak Fai; Chathoth, Suresh M.

    2016-01-01

    Dendrimers are novel three-dimensional, hyperbranched globular nanopolymeric macromolecules. The nanoscopic size, narrow polydispersity index, excellent control over molecular structure, availability of multiple functional groups at the periphery, and cavities in the interior made them very attractive candidate for drug delivery. In this communication, we have studied the microscopic dynamics of tetra-acid and pentaerythritol glycidyl ether dendrimers dissolved in aqueous solution with different concentrations. The effects of concentration and temperature to their long-range diffusion process are investigated by dynamic light scattering. Experimental results show a huge variation in the translational diffusion coefficient for the two dendrimers samples. Besides, the dependence of diffusion coefficients on concentration is unusually different in these dendrimer samples. Although the diffusion process follows Arrhenius relation with the temperature in both systems, the activation energy for the diffusion process has a distinct concentration dependence.

  17. Unusual concentration-dependent microscopic dynamics of dendrimers in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kaikin; Wu, Chin Ming; Lam, Hak Fai; Chathoth, Suresh M.

    2016-05-01

    Dendrimers are novel three-dimensional, hyperbranched globular nanopolymeric macromolecules. The nanoscopic size, narrow polydispersity index, excellent control over molecular structure, availability of multiple functional groups at the periphery, and cavities in the interior made them very attractive candidate for drug delivery. In this communication, we have studied the microscopic dynamics of tetra-acid and pentaerythritol glycidyl ether dendrimers dissolved in aqueous solution with different concentrations. The effects of concentration and temperature to their long-range diffusion process are investigated by dynamic light scattering. Experimental results show a huge variation in the translational diffusion coefficient for the two dendrimers samples. Besides, the dependence of diffusion coefficients on concentration is unusually different in these dendrimer samples. Although the diffusion process follows Arrhenius relation with the temperature in both systems, the activation energy for the diffusion process has a distinct concentration dependence.

  18. Unusual concentration-dependent microscopic dynamics of dendrimers in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Kaikin; Wu, Chin Ming; Lam, Hak Fai; Chathoth, Suresh M., E-mail: smavilac@cityu.edu.hk [City University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics and Materials Science (Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China) (China)

    2016-05-15

    Dendrimers are novel three-dimensional, hyperbranched globular nanopolymeric macromolecules. The nanoscopic size, narrow polydispersity index, excellent control over molecular structure, availability of multiple functional groups at the periphery, and cavities in the interior made them very attractive candidate for drug delivery. In this communication, we have studied the microscopic dynamics of tetra-acid and pentaerythritol glycidyl ether dendrimers dissolved in aqueous solution with different concentrations. The effects of concentration and temperature to their long-range diffusion process are investigated by dynamic light scattering. Experimental results show a huge variation in the translational diffusion coefficient for the two dendrimers samples. Besides, the dependence of diffusion coefficients on concentration is unusually different in these dendrimer samples. Although the diffusion process follows Arrhenius relation with the temperature in both systems, the activation energy for the diffusion process has a distinct concentration dependence.

  19. Condutividade elétrica da solução nutritiva e acúmulo de macro e micronutrientes no cultivo de crisântemo Electrical conductivity of nutrient solution on growth and nutrient accumulation in chrysanthemum plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Rocha D'Almeida Mota

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A análise de crescimento com base no acúmulo de fitomassa e na marcha de absorção de nutrientes são importantes para determinar as épocas da maior demanda nutricional, de modo a programar a fertirrigação. Assim, esta pesquisa tem como objetivo determinar o crescimento e o acúmulo de nutrientes em plantas de crisântemo desenvolvidas em diferentes níveis de condutividade elétrica (CE da solução nutritiva. Realizou-se experimento em casa de vegetação, utilizando o delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos corresponderam aos níveis de CE da solução aplicada, com valores de 1,42; 1,65; 1,89; 2,13 e 2,36 dS m¹(fase vegetativa e 1,71; 1,97; 2,28; 2,57 e 2,85 dS m¹(fase de botão. Após o enraizamento das estacas, determinou-se a fitomassa seca da parte aérea e realizou-se a análise química dos macronutrientes e micronutrientes a cada quatorze dias. Os nutrientes tiveram a seguinte ordem de absorção: K>N>Ca>P>Mg>S (1425, 892, 184, 150, 110 e 59 mg planta¹ e Fe>Zn>B>Mn>Cu (2254, 2219, 1725, 1287,210 µg planta¹. Grande parte dos nutrientes tem seu teor aumentado com a elevação do nível da CE da solução, sem que haja efeito salino até a CE de 2,85 dS m¹The study of growth and uptake of nutrients is important to determine the times of increased demand in order to schedule the fertigation. The present research was developed with the objective of evaluating the effects of different levels of electrical conductivity on growth and accumulation of nutrients in chrysanthemum plants under greenhouse conditions. The electri- cal conductivity levels on the applied solution were 1. 42, 1. 65, 1. 89, 2. 13 and 2. 36 dS m¹(bud vegetative stage; 1. 71, 1. 97, 2. 28, 2. 57 and 2. 85 dS m¹(bud stage. The dry mass of the aerial portion of the plant and the contents of macronutrients and micronutrients were determined every 14 days. The nutrient accumulation in chrysanthemum plant

  20. Condutividade elétrica da solução nutritiva e acúmulo de macro e micronutrientes no cultivo de crisântemo Electrical conductivity of nutrient solution on growth and nutrient accumulation in chrysanthemum plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Rocha D'Almeida Mota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise de crescimento com base no acúmulo de fitomassa e na marcha de absorção de nutrientes são importantes para determinar as épocas da maior demanda nutricional, de modo a programar a fertirrigação. Assim, esta pesquisa tem como objetivo determinar o crescimento e o acúmulo de nutrientes em plantas de crisântemo desenvolvidas em diferentes níveis de condutividade elétrica (CE da solução nutritiva. Realizou-se experimento em casa de vegetação, utilizando o delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos corresponderam aos níveis de CE da solução aplicada, com valores de 1,42; 1,65; 1,89; 2,13 e 2,36 dS m¹(fase vegetativa e 1,71; 1,97; 2,28; 2,57 e 2,85 dS m¹(fase de botão. Após o enraizamento das estacas, determinou-se a fitomassa seca da parte aérea e realizou-se a análise química dos macronutrientes e micronutrientes a cada quatorze dias. Os nutrientes tiveram a seguinte ordem de absorção: K>N>Ca>P>Mg>S (1425, 892, 184, 150, 110 e 59 mg planta¹ e Fe>Zn>B>Mn>Cu (2254, 2219, 1725, 1287,210 µg planta¹. Grande parte dos nutrientes tem seu teor aumentado com a elevação do nível da CE da solução, sem que haja efeito salino até a CE de 2,85 dS m¹The study of growth and uptake of nutrients is important to determine the times of increased demand in order to schedule the fertigation. The present research was developed with the objective of evaluating the effects of different levels of electrical conductivity on growth and accumulation of nutrients in chrysanthemum plants under greenhouse conditions. The electri- cal conductivity levels on the applied solution were 1. 42, 1. 65, 1. 89, 2. 13 and 2. 36 dS m¹(bud vegetative stage; 1. 71, 1. 97, 2. 28, 2. 57 and 2. 85 dS m¹(bud stage. The dry mass of the aerial portion of the plant and the contents of macronutrients and micronutrients were determined every 14 days. The nutrient accumulation in chrysanthemum plant

  1. Direct Analysis of Proteins from Solutions with High Salt Concentration Using Laser Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Santosh; Shi, Fengjian; Archer, Jieutonne J.; Sistani, Habiballah; Levis, Robert J.

    2018-05-01

    The detection of lysozyme, or a mixture of lysozyme, cytochrome c, and myoglobin, from solutions with varying salt concentrations (0.1 to 250 mM NaCl) is compared using laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Protonated protein peaks were observed up to a concentration of 250 mM NaCl in the case of LEMS. In the case of ESI-MS, a protein solution with salt concentration > 0.5 mM resulted in predominantly salt-adducted features, with suppression of the protonated protein ions. The constituents in the mixture of proteins were assignable up to 250 mM NaCl for LEMS and were not assignable above a NaCl concentration of 0.5 mM for ESI. The average sodium adducts () bound to the 7+ charge state of lysozyme for LEMS measurements from salt concentrations of 2.5, 25, 50, and 100 mM NaCl are 1.71, 5.23, 5.26, and 5.11, respectively. The conventional electrospray measurements for lysozyme solution containing salt concentrations of 0.1, 1, 2, and 5 mM NaCl resulted in of 2.65, 6.44, 7.57, and 8.48, respectively. LEMS displays an approximately two orders of magnitude higher salt tolerance in comparison with conventional ESI-MS. The non-equilibrium partitioning of proteins on the surface of the charged droplets is proposed as the mechanism for the high salt tolerance phenomena observed in the LEMS measurements. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Effect of Temperature and Nutrient Concentration on Survival of Foodborne Pathogens in Deciduous Fruit Processing Environments for Effective Hygiene Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2016-11-01

    Temperature and good sanitation practices are important factors for controlling growth of microorganisms. Fresh produce is stored at various temperatures to ensure quality and to prolong shelf life. When foodborne pathogens survive and grow on fresh produce at storage temperatures, then additional control strategies are needed to inactivate these pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine how temperatures associated with deciduous fruit processing and storage facilities (0.5, 4, and 21°C) affect the growth and/or survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes , Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus under different nutrient conditions (nutrient rich and nutrient poor) and on simulated contact surfaces (vinyl coupons). Information on the growth and survival of foodborne pathogens at specific deciduous fruit processing and storage temperatures (0.5°C) is not available. All pathogens except E. coli O157:H7 were able to survive on vinyl coupons at all temperatures. L. monocytogenes proliferated under both nutrient conditions independent of temperature. S. aureus was the pathogen least affected by nutrient conditions. The survival of foodborne pathogens on the vinyl coupons, a model system for studying surfaces in fruit preparation and storage environments, indicates the potential for cross-contamination of deciduous fruit products under poor sanitation conditions. Foodborne pathogens that can proliferate and survive at various temperatures under different nutrient conditions could lead to fruit cross-contamination. Temperature mismanagement, which could allow pathogen proliferation in contaminated fruit packing houses and storage environments, is a concern. Therefore, proper hygiene and sanitation practices, removal of possible contaminants, and proper food safety management systems are needed to ensure food safety.

  3. Relating soil solution Zn concentration to diffusive gradients in thin films measurements in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degryse, Fien; Smolders, Erik; Oliver, Ian; Zhang, Hao

    2003-09-01

    The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) has been suggested to sample an available fraction of metals in soil. The objectives of this study were to compare DGT measurements with commonly measured fractions of Zn in soil, viz, the soil solution concentration and the total Zn concentration. The DGT technique was used to measure fluxes and interfacial concentrations of Zn in three series of field-contaminated soils collected in transects toward galvanized electricity pylons and in 15 soils amended with ZnCl2 at six rates. The ratio of DGT-measured concentration to pore water concentration of Zn, R, varied between 0.02 and 1.52 (mean 0.29). This ratio decreased with decreasing distribution coefficient, Kd, of Zn in the soil, which is in agreement with the predictions of the DGT-induced fluxes in soils (DIFS) model. The R values predicted with the DIFS model were generally larger than the observed values in the ZnCl2-amended soils at the higher Zn rates. A modification of the DIFS model indicated that saturation of the resin gel was approached in these soils, despite the short deployment times used (2 h). The saturation of the resin with Zn did not occur in the control soils (no Zn salt added) or the field-contaminated soils. Pore water concentration of Zn in these soils was predicted from the DGT-measured concentration and the total Zn content. Predicted values and observations were generally in good agreement. The pore water concentration was more than 5 times underpredicted for the most acid soil (pH = 3) and for six other soils, for which the underprediction was attributed to the presence of colloidal Zn in the soil solution.

  4. Effects of over-winter green cover on soil solution nitrate concentrations beneath tillage land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine E; Hackett, Richard; Kirwan, Laura; Richards, Karl G

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing need to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural systems to increase food production while reducing negative environmental impacts. The efficacy of vegetation cover for reducing nitrate leaching in tillage systems during fallow periods has been widely investigated. Nitrate leaching reductions by natural regeneration (i.e. growth of weeds and crop volunteers) have been investigated to a lesser extent than reductions by planted cover crops. This study compares the efficacy of natural regeneration and a sown cover crop (mustard) relative to no vegetative cover under both a reduced tillage system and conventional plough-based system as potential mitigation measures for reducing over-winter soil solution nitrate concentrations. The study was conducted over three winter fallow seasons on well drained soil, highly susceptible to leaching, under temperate maritime climatic conditions. Mustard cover crop under both reduced tillage and conventional ploughing was observed to be an effective measure for significantly reducing nitrate concentrations. Natural regeneration under reduced tillage was found to significantly reduce the soil solution nitrate concentrations. This was not the case for the natural regeneration under conventional ploughing. The improved efficacy of natural regeneration under reduced tillage could be a consequence of potential stimulation of seedling germination by the autumn reduced tillage practices and improved over-winter plant growth. There was no significant effect of tillage practices on nitrate concentrations. This study shows that over winter covers of mustard and natural regeneration, under reduced tillage, are effective measures for reducing nitrate concentrations in free draining temperate soils. © 2013.

  5. Plant-Scale Concentration Column Designs for SHINE Target Solution Utilizing AG 1 Anion Exchange Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, Dominique C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, G. F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Argonne is assisting SHINE Medical Technologies (SHINE) in their efforts to develop SHINE, an accelerator-driven process that will utilize a uranyl-sulfate solution for the production of fission product Mo-99. An integral part of the process is the development of a column for the separation and recovery of Mo-99, followed by a concentration column to reduce the product volume from 15-25 L to <1 L. Argonne has collected data from batch studies and breakthrough column experiments to utilize the VERSE (Versatile Reaction Separation) simulation program (Purdue University) to design plant-scale product recovery and concentration processes.

  6. Specific wavelength colorimeter. [for measuring given solute concentration in test sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, C. C.; Mcdavid, L. S.; Walsh, J. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A self contained, specific wavelength, single beam colorimeter is described for direct spectrophotometric measurement of the concentration of a given solute in a test sample. An electrical circuit employing a photoconductive cell converts the optical output into a linear, directly readable meter output. The colorimeter is simple to operate and is adapted for use in zero gravity conditions. In a specific application, the colorimeter is designed to analyze the concentration of iodine in potable water carried aboard a space vehicle such as the 4B stage of Skylab.

  7. Physiological indexese macro- and micronutrients in plant tissue and essential oil of Mentha piperita L. grown in nutrient solution with variation in N, P, K and Mg levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F.S. David

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentha piperita L. is an aromatic and medicinal species of the family Lamiaceae, known as mint or peppermint, and its leaves and branches produce essential oil rich in menthol. This study aimed to evaluate physiological indexes, macro- and micronutrients inthe shootsand essential oil of Mentha piperita L. grown in nutrient solution number 2 of Hoagland and Arnon (1950 with different N, P, K and Mg levels. Shoot length, dry mass of the different organs, total dry mass, leaf area, essential oil yield and composition, and macronutrient (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S and micronutrient (Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn contents in the shoot were evaluated. Plants treated with 65%N/50%P/25%K/100%Mg had a tendency towards longer shoot, greaterroot and leaf blade dry masses, higher essential oil yield, higher menthol levels and lower menthone levels. The results showed that Mentha can be grown in nutrient solution by reducing 65% N, 50% P, 25% K and 100% Mg. This solution had better development compared to the other tested treatments. Therefore,we recommendMentha piperita L. to be grown with such nutrient levels.

  8. Influence of chemical disorder on energy dissipation and defect evolution in concentrated solid solution alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Lumin; Caro, Alfredo; Weber, William J.; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

    2015-01-01

    A long-standing objective in materials research is to understand how energy is dissipated in both the electronic and atomic subsystems in irradiated materials, and how related non-equilibrium processes may affect defect dynamics and microstructure evolution. Here we show that alloy complexity in concentrated solid solution alloys having both an increasing number of principal elements and altered concentrations of specific elements can lead to substantial reduction in the electron mean free path and thermal conductivity, which has a significant impact on energy dissipation and consequentially on defect evolution during ion irradiation. Enhanced radiation resistance with increasing complexity from pure nickel to binary and to more complex quaternary solid solutions is observed under ion irradiation up to an average damage level of 1 displacement per atom. Understanding how materials properties can be tailored by alloy complexity and their influence on defect dynamics may pave the way for new principles for the design of radiation tolerant structural alloys

  9. Green synthesis of highly concentrated aqueous colloidal solutions of large starch-stabilised silver nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Betts, Jonathan W; Kelly, Stephen M; Hector, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    A simple, environmentally friendly and cost-effective method has been developed to prepare a range of aqueous silver colloidal solutions, using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent, water-soluble starch as a combined crystallising, stabilising and solubilising agent, and water as the solvent. The diameter of silver nanoplatelets increases with higher concentrations of AgNO3 and starch. The silver nanoparticles are also more uniform in shape the greater the diameter of the nanoparticles. Colloidal solutions with a very high concentration of large, flat, hexagonal silver nanoplatelets (~230 nm in breadth) have been used to deposit and fix an antibacterial coating of these large starch-stabilised silver nanoplates on commercial cotton fibres, using a simple dip-coating process using water as the solvent, in order to study the dependence of the antibacterial properties of these nanoplatelets on their size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular Effects of Concentrated Solutes on Protein Hydration, Dynamics, and Electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriata, Luciano A; Spiga, Enrico; Peraro, Matteo Dal

    2016-08-23

    Most studies of protein structure and function are performed in dilute conditions, but proteins typically experience high solute concentrations in their physiological scenarios and biotechnological applications. High solute concentrations have well-known effects on coarse protein traits like stability, diffusion, and shape, but likely also perturb other traits through finer effects pertinent at the residue and atomic levels. Here, NMR and molecular dynamics investigations on ubiquitin disclose variable interactions with concentrated solutes that lead to localized perturbations of the protein's surface, hydration, electrostatics, and dynamics, all dependent on solute size and chemical properties. Most strikingly, small polar uncharged molecules are sticky on the protein surface, whereas charged small molecules are not, but the latter still perturb the internal protein electrostatics as they diffuse nearby. Meanwhile, interactions with macromolecular crowders are favored mainly through hydrophobic, but not through polar, surface patches. All the tested small solutes strongly slow down water exchange at the protein surface, whereas macromolecular crowders do not exert such strong perturbation. Finally, molecular dynamics simulations predict that unspecific interactions slow down microsecond- to millisecond-timescale protein dynamics despite having only mild effects on pico- to nanosecond fluctuations as corroborated by NMR. We discuss our results in the light of recent advances in understanding proteins inside living cells, focusing on the physical chemistry of quinary structure and cellular organization, and we reinforce the idea that proteins should be studied in native-like media to achieve a faithful description of their function. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Recrystallization of freezable bound water in aqueous solutions of medium concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵立山; 潘礼庆; 纪爱玲; 曹则贤; 王强

    2016-01-01

    For aqueous solutions with freezable bound water, vitrification and recrystallization are mingled, which brings diffi-culty to application and misleads the interpretation of relevant experiments. Here, we report a quantification scheme for the freezable bound water based on the water-content dependence of glass transition temperature, by which also the concentra-tion range for the solutions that may undergo recrystallization finds a clear definition. Furthermore, we find that depending on the amount of the freezable bound water, different temperature protocols should be devised to achieve a complete recrys-tallization. Our results may be helpful for understanding the dynamics of supercooled aqueous solutions and for improving their manipulation in various industries.

  12. Thermosolutal convection in saturated porous enclosure with concentrated energy and solute sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Di; Zhao, Fu-Yun; Tang, Guang-Fa [College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China)

    2008-01-15

    Double diffusive natural convection within a vertical porous enclosure with localized heating and salting from one side is numerically studied by the finite element based finite volume method. In the formulation of the problem, use is made of the Darcy model, which allows the slip boundary condition on a solid wall to be satisfied. Comparisons with benchmark solutions for natural convection in fluid saturated porous enclosures are first presented to validate the code. Following that, an extensive series of numerical simulations is conducted in the range of -55 {<=} N {<=} + 55 and 0.125 {<=} L {<=} 0.875, where N and L are the buoyancy ratio and the element location, respectively. Streamlines, heatlines, masslines, isotherms and iso-concentrations in the system are produced to illustrate the flow structure transition from solutal dominated opposing to thermal dominated and solutal dominated aiding flows, respectively. The computed average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers provide guidance for locating the heating and salting element. (author)

  13. Thermosolutal convection in saturated porous enclosure with concentrated energy and solute sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Di [College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China)], E-mail: liudi66@163.com; Zhao Fuyun [College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China)], E-mail: zfycfdnet@163.com; Tang Guangfa [College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China)], E-mail: gftangcfd@163.com

    2008-01-15

    Double diffusive natural convection within a vertical porous enclosure with localized heating and salting from one side is numerically studied by the finite element based finite volume method. In the formulation of the problem, use is made of the Darcy model, which allows the slip boundary condition on a solid wall to be satisfied. Comparisons with benchmark solutions for natural convection in fluid saturated porous enclosures are first presented to validate the code. Following that, an extensive series of numerical simulations is conducted in the range of -55 {<=} N {<=} + 55 and 0.125 {<=} L {<=} 0.875, where N and L are the buoyancy ratio and the element location, respectively. Streamlines, heatlines, masslines, isotherms and iso-concentrations in the system are produced to illustrate the flow structure transition from solutal dominated opposing to thermal dominated and solutal dominated aiding flows, respectively. The computed average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers provide guidance for locating the heating and salting element.

  14. Behaviour of solute and particle markers in the stomach of sheep given a concentrate diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faichney, G.J.; Griffiths, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Fistulated sheep given a concentrate diet were used to study the behaviour of solute ([ 51 Cr]EDTA) and particle ([ 103 Ru]phenanthroline) markers in the stomach under conditions of continuous feeding. An injection of a mixed dose of [ 51 Cr]EDTA and [ 103 Ru]phenanthroline was given into the rumen and the time course of marker concentrations in the rumen and the abomasum was recorded. The curves were analysed on the assumption that the stomach of the sheep could be represented as two mixing compartments (reticulo-rumen and abomasum) and a time delay (omasum). This model provided a very good description of the data. [ 103 Ru]-phenanthroline associated with small particles was retained in the rumen much longer than [ 51 Cr]EDTA. Although exchange of [ 103 Ru] phenanthroline occurred between large and small particle fractions, the results suggested that small particles may have been retained somewhat longer in the rumen than solutes. However, it was clear from the results that the mean retention times for particulate matter in the rumen could not be simply obtained using adsorbable markers. Cyclical fluctuations in the concentration of [ 51 Cr]EDTA in the rumen indicated that there were daily variations in net water flux in the rumen. The presence of protozoa was associated with much shorter retention times of both solutes and particles in the rumen. Protozoa were also associated with reduced rumen volumes. (author)

  15. Metrological assessment of TDR performance for measurement of potassium concentration in soil solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac de M. Ponciano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite the growing use of the time domain reflectometry (TDR technique to monitoring ions in the soil solution, there are few studies that provide insight into measurement error. To overcome this lack of information, a methodology, based on the central limit theorem error, was used to quantify the uncertainty associated with using the technique to estimate potassium ion concentration in two soil types. Mathematical models based on electrical conductivity and soil moisture derived from TDR readings were used to estimate potassium concentration, and the results were compared to potassium concentration determined by flame spectrophotometry. It was possible to correct for random and systematic errors associated with TDR readings, significantly increasing the accuracy of the potassium estimation methodology. However, a single TDR reading can lead to an error of up to ± 18.84 mg L-1 K+ in soil solution (0 to 3 dS m-1, with a 95.42% degree of confidence, for a loamy sand soil; and an error of up to ± 12.50 mg L-1 of K+ (0 to 2.5 dS m-1 in soil solution, with a 95.06% degree of confidence, for a sandy clay soil.

  16. Effect of solute atom concentration on vacancy cluster formation in neutron-irradiated Ni alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Koichi; Itoh, Daiki; Yoshiie, Toshimasa; Xu, Qiu; Taniguchi, Akihiro; Toyama, Takeshi

    2011-10-01

    The dependence of microstructural evolution on solute atom concentration in Ni alloys was investigated by positron annihilation lifetime measurements. The positron annihilation lifetimes in pure Ni, Ni-0.05 at.%Si, Ni-0.05 at.%Sn, Ni-Cu, and Ni-Ge alloys were about 400 ps even at a low irradiation dose of 3 × 10 -4 dpa, indicating the presence of microvoids in these alloys. The size of vacancy clusters in Ni-Si and Ni-Sn alloys decreased with an increase in the solute atom concentration at irradiation doses less than 0.1 dpa; vacancy clusters started to grow at an irradiation dose of about 0.1 dpa. In Ni-2 at.%Si, irradiation-induced segregation was detected by positron annihilation coincidence Doppler broadening measurements. This segregation suppressed one-dimensional (1-D) motion of the interstitial clusters and promoted mutual annihilation of point defects. The frequency and mean free path of the 1-D motion depended on the solute atom concentration and the amount of segregation.

  17. Resposta de cultivares de milho a zinco em solução nutritiva Corn cultivar responses to zinc in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Cangiani Furlani

    1996-01-01

    nutrient solution with two zinc levels (0.125 and 0.350 mg Zn/ L, during 30 days, in a randomized complete block design, arranged in a split-plot, with two replications and four plants/ cultivar/ plot. Plant height, top dry matter yield, top Zn concentration and content were the traits scored. Low Zn treatment gave rise to reduced dry matter yields and plant heights, as well as to low top Zn concentrations and contents. The cultivars D-468, ICI-791152 and C-701 were the best in the low zinc level. By the other hand, the cultivars C-808, Hatã-2000, OC-5045-6 and BR-201 were more responsive to the high Zn level. High and positive correlation (r = 0,86 was estimated between plant height and top zinc content, which might be useful in future selection schemes. However, more research is needed to quantify, with higher precision, genotype differences in zinc demands.

  18. Macro- and micro-nutrient concentration in leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Bart T. Sexton; Richard B. Hall

    2007-01-01

    Landfill leachate offers an opportunity to supply water and plant nutritional benefits at a lower cost than traditional sources. Information about nutrient uptake and distribution into tissues of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate helps increase biomass production along with evaluating the impacts of leachate chemistry on tree health.

  19. Solution Behavior and Activity of a Halophilic Esterase under High Salt Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lang; Zhao, Xiubo; Pan, Fang; Li, Yin; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe; Lu, Jian R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Halophiles are extremophiles that thrive in environments with very high concentrations of salt. Although the salt reliance and physiology of these extremophiles have been widely investigated, the molecular working mechanisms of their enzymes under salty conditions have been little explored. Methodology/Principal Findings A halophilic esterolytic enzyme LipC derived from archeaon Haloarcula marismortui was overexpressed from Escherichia coli BL21. The purified enzyme showed a range of hydrolytic activity towards the substrates of p-nitrophenyl esters with different alkyl chains (n = 2−16), with the highest activity being observed for p-nitrophenyl acetate, consistent with the basic character of an esterase. The optimal esterase activities were found to be at pH 9.5 and [NaCl] = 3.4 M or [KCl] = 3.0 M and at around 45°C. Interestingly, the hydrolysis activity showed a clear reversibility against changes in salt concentration. At the ambient temperature of 22°C, enzyme systems working under the optimal salt concentrations were very stable against time. Increase in temperature increased the activity but reduced its stability. Circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) were deployed to determine the physical states of LipC in solution. As the salt concentration increased, DLS revealed substantial increase in aggregate sizes, but CD measurements revealed the maximal retention of the α-helical structure at the salt concentration matching the optimal activity. These observations were supported by SANS analysis that revealed the highest proportion of unimers and dimers around the optimal salt concentration, although the coexistent larger aggregates showed a trend of increasing size with salt concentration, consistent with the DLS data. Conclusions/Significance The solution α-helical structure and activity relation also matched the highest proportion of enzyme unimers and dimers. Given that

  20. Structure and interaction of silk fibroin and graphene oxide in concentrated solution under shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Shao, Huili; Luo, Jie; Hu, Xuechao; Zhang, Yaopeng

    2018-02-01

    Considering the high biocompatibility of regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) and the good enhancement effect of graphene oxide (GO), various RSF/GO composite materials have been previously investigated, and found that GO plays a vital role in the fabrication of high-performance RSF/GO materials. However, its effects on the structure of RSF solution are unclear. Therefore, in this work, we studied the rheological and optical properties, as well as the aggregation behavior of concentrated RSF/GO solution in response to applied shear. The results demonstrated that the presence of GO sheets in RSF solution increased the shear resistance, while delayed the sol-gel transition. Moreover, GO sheets were not favorable to the formation of the ordered structures of RSF. The results from small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of RSF/GO solution also showed that the shear process promoted the formation of RSF/GO interface. The data also provided insights into the structural evolution within the mixture solutions, which can be beneficial to the future design and fabrication of nanofiller-reinforced high-performance materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of four additive solutions on canine leukoreduced red cell concentrate quality during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Luciana A; Hlavac, Nicole R C; Terra, Silvia R; Back, Franciele P; Jane Wardrop, K; González, Félix H D

    2014-09-01

    Additive solutions (AS) and prestorage leukoreduction (LR) are important tools used to maintain erythrocyte viability during storage and avoid transfusion reactions in recipients, respectively. The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of a WBC filter (Immugard IIIRC) and compare the effect of 4 AS (phosphate-adenine-glucose-guanosine-gluconate-mannitol [PAGGGM], saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol [SAGM], Adsol, Optisol) on the in vitro quality of canine leukoreduced packed RBC units (pRBC) stored for 41 days. Five hundred milliliters of blood were collected from 8 healthy dogs each into 70 mL of citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) solution, and were leukoreduced by a polyurethane filter. pRBC of each dog were divided equally into 4 bags containing a different AS. Bags were stored for 41 days at 4°C and evaluated every 10 days. Variables analyzed included pH, PCV, and% hemolysis, and lactate, glucose, potassium, sodium, ATP, and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentrations. The LR resulted in residual WBC counts comparable to human standards. During storage, pH, and glucose, 2,3-DPG, and ATP concentrations decreased, and hemolysis, and lactate, sodium, and potassium concentrations increased (P 2,3-DPG concentrations. When compared with day 1 values, significant changes were seen in these variables by day 31 with all AS. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  2. Physico-chemical stability of eribulin mesylate containing concentrate and ready-to-administer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindeldreier, Kirsten; Thiesen, Judith; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Krämer, Irene

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the stability of commercially available eribulin mesylate containing injection solution as well as diluted ready-to-administer solutions stored under refrigeration or at room temperature. Stability was studied by a novel developed stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) assay with ultraviolet detection (detection wavelength 200 nm). Triplicate test solutions of eribulin mesylate containing injection concentrate (0.5 mg/mL) and with 0.9% sodium chloride solution diluted ready-to-administer preparations (0.205 mg/mL eribulin mesylate in polypropylene (PP) syringes, 0.020 mg/mL eribulin mesylate in polypropylene/polyethylene (PE) bags) were stored protected from light either at room temperature (25) or under refrigeration (2-8). Samples were withdrawn on day 0 (initial), 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of storage and assayed. Physical stability was determined by measuring the pH value once a week and checking for visible precipitations or colour changes. The stability tests revealed that concentrations of eribulin mesylate remained unchanged over a period of 28 days irrespective of concentration, container material or storage temperature. Neither colour changes nor visible particles have been observed. The pH value varied slightly over time but remained in the stability favourable range of 5-9. Eribulin mesylate injection (0.5 mg/mL) is physico-chemically stable over a period of 28 days after first puncture of the vial. After dilution with 0.9% NaCl vehicle solution, ready-to-administer eribulin mesylate injection solutions (0.205 mg/mL in PP syringe) and infusion solutions (0.02 mg/mL in prefilled PP/PE bags) are physico-chemically stable for a period of at least four weeks either refrigerated or stored at room temperature. For microbiological reasons storage under refrigeration is recommended.

  3. K-edge x-ray fluorescence analysis for actinide and heavy elements solution concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, D.C.

    1984-07-01

    Advantages of using Co-57 as an exciter for K XRFA include: a compact design that requires no x-ray tubes; the exciter-detector assembly locates remote from support electronics; on-line, at-line, or off-line configurations for monitor/measurements; systems that can be run by semi-skilled technicians, once programmed; and operated via remote terminals with results sent to control rooms; heavy element concentrations that are measurable thru industrial pipes; independent of minor changes in solution matrix or source half life with concentration results reported in near-real-time; a dynamic range of measurable concentrations that is greater than 10 4 ; measurement times that are reasonable even at 1 gram/liter; and for nuclear safeguards, it provides the <0.5% accuracy required by DOE for the accountability of U, Pu, or both, once the system is calibrated

  4. Nutrient management in substrate systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Speaking about nutrient solutions in soilless cultivation, different solutions can be discerned. Originally, in soilless culture only one nutrient solution was taken into account, being the solution in the containers in which the plants were grown. Such solutions were intensively moved by air

  5. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  6. Removal of cadmium (II) from aqueous solution: A comparative study of raw attapulgite clay and a reusable waste–struvite/attapulgite obtained from nutrient-rich wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Xuejiang, E-mail: wangxj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ma, Jinxing, E-mail: jinxing.ma@unsw.edu.au [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Xia, Peng; Zhao, Jianfu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • Both nutrient recovery and Cd(II) removal were achieved by MAP/APT. • The nutrient recovery process was used as a novel method of modification. • Compared with raw APT, MAP/APT enhanced Cd(II) adsorption capacity. • Cd(II) adsorption mechanisms from aqueous solution were extensively investigated. - Abstract: In this study, raw attapulgite (APT) and a novel adsorbent, struvite/attapulgite (MAP/APT) obtained from nutrient-rich wastewater treated by MgO modified APT, were applied as the absorbent for Cd(II) ion removal from aqueous solution. The two adsorbents were characterized by BET, SEM-EDS, XRD, FT-IR. Raw APT and MAP/APT separately presented the maximum Cd(II) adsorption capacities of 10.38 mg/g and 121.14 mg/g at pH of 5.45. The Cd(II) adsorption on raw APT and MAP/APT could be well fitted by Freundlich isotherm and Langmuir isotherm, respectively. Pseudo-second order equation was able to properly describe the kinetics of Cd(II) adsorption by raw APT and MAP/APT. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated that Cd(II) adsorption onto raw APT and MAP/APT were spontaneous and endothermic. An economic evaluation revealed that the treatment costs of the adsorption process by raw APT and MPA/APT were 0.013 $ per 1000 mg Cd and 0.004 $ per 1000 mg Cd, respectively.

  7. Solute concentration dependence of the decay curves of the liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Masayoshi; Niki, Eiji.

    1976-01-01

    The decay curves of the liquid scintillation of 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) in toluene by the irradiation of β ray from 14 C were measured. Solute concentration dependences of the decay times of the fast and slow components were studied. The decay time tau sub(f) of the fast component of the air saturated scintillator was the smallest at 1.8x10 -2 --4.5x10 -2 mol/l, and about (3.4--3.5)ns. When the concentration became less than 1.8x10 -2 mol/l, the peak of the decay curve became roundish and the pulse width became large. The increase of the necessary time for the energy transfer due to the difficulty of the nonradiative transfer from excited solvent molecules to the solute was the reason. When the concentration became less than about 2.26x10 -3 mol/l, tau sub(f) became larger and the energy transfer became radiative. The pulse width and tau sub(f) were very small because of oxygen quenching compared with oxygen free. At higher concentrations such as 1.6x10 -1 and 2.3x10 -1 mol/l, the effect of the PPO excimer was observed on the fast component, and tau sub(f) became larger apparently. This denied the presumption of the close relation between PPO molecular interaction and the slow component together with the fact that the decay time tau sub(s) of the slow component was independent of PPO concentration. (auth.)

  8. Molecular studies of Cs adsorption sites in inorganic layered materials: the influence of solution concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kiminori; Hunger, Michael

    2017-07-19

    Radioactive Cs released into a soil environment migrates along with groundwater in a manner dependent on Cs concentration. Data on the variation of Cs adsorption as a function of solution concentration are an essential prerequisite to successful decontamination work in Fukushima. To aid the ongoing decontamination work, the adsorption of Cs in aqueous solution across a wide Cs + molarity range is studied for the case of saponite clay as adsorbent, an inorganic layered material that is an abundant mineral in the soil environment. The local molecular structures, i.e. nanosheet surfaces, nanosheet edges, and oncoming hexagonal cavities, participating in Cs adsorption are qualitatively highlighted by means of a recently developed analytical method using data from a conventional elution test, 133 Cs magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR), and the radiocesium interception potential (RIP) [K. Sato, et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 2016, 120, 1270]. The concentrations of nanosheet edges amount to between 100 and 400 mmol kg -1 , which are not substantially different from those of the nanosheet surfaces, generally regarded as the main decontamination sites. This unambiguously implies that the nanosheet edges should be targeted as the molecular sites for decontaminating radioactive Cs, in addition to the nanosheet surfaces.

  9. Modification of a Turbulent Boundary Layer within a Homogeneous Concentration of Drag reducing Polymer Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsiani, Yasaman; Elbing, Brian

    2017-11-01

    High molecular weight polymer solutions in wall-bounded flows can reduce the local skin friction by as much as 80%. External flow studies have typical focused on injection of polymer within a developing turbulent boundary layer (TBL), allowing the concentration and drag reduction level to evolve with downstream distance. Modification of the log-law region of the TBL is directly related to drag reduction, but recent results suggest that the exact behavior is dependent on flow and polymer properties. Weissenberg number and the viscosity ratio (ratio of solvent viscosity to the zero-shear viscosity) are concentration dependent, thus the current study uses a polymer ocean (i.e. a homogenous concentration of polymer solution) with a developing TBL to eliminate uncertainty related to polymer properties. The near-wall modified TBL velocity profiles are acquired with particle image velocimetry. In the current presentation the mean velocity profiles and the corresponding flow (Reynolds number) and polymer (Weissenberg number, viscosity ratio, and length ratio) properties are reported. Note that the impact of polymer degradation on molecular weight will also be quantified and accounted for when estimating polymer properties This work was supported by NSF Grant 1604978.

  10. Study on the spectrum of photonic crystal cavity and its application in measuring the concentration of NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yun [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing (China). Dept. of Physics; Wuxi Institute of Commerce, Wuxi (China). School of Electromechanical Technology; Xie, Xun; Hao, Jiong-Ju; Yang, Hong-Wei [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing (China). Dept. of Physics; Yang, Ze-Kun [Lanzhou Univ. (China). School of Information Science and Engineering; Xu, Zhi-Gang [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing (China). College of Agriculture

    2017-07-01

    In this article, we propose an approach to measure solution concentrations by using photonic crystal cavities. Based on the experimental data, the refractive index of a NaCl solution is proportional to the concentration. Filling the proposed photonic crystal cavity with a NaCl solution, we calculate the spectral transmission using the transfer matrix method. We found that the cavity transmittance was proportional to the refractive index of the NaCl solution, and thus we obtained a linear relationship between cavity transmittance and the concentration of the NaCl solution. The formula was found by fitting the simulation results with experimental data. Such a formula can be applied to the measurement of an unknown concentration of NaCl solution utilizing a photonic crystal cavity.

  11. Effect of Concentration on the Interfacial and Bulk Structure of Ionic Liquids in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H-W; Weiss, H; Stock, P; Chen, Y-J; Reinecke, C R; Dienemann, J-N; Mezger, M; Valtiner, M

    2018-02-27

    Bio and aqueous applications of ionic liquids (IL) such as catalysis in micelles formed in aqueous IL solutions or extraction of chemicals from biologic materials rely on surface-active and self-assembly properties of ILs. Here, we discuss qualitative relations of the interfacial and bulk structuring of a water-soluble surface-active IL ([C 8 MIm][Cl]) on chemically controlled surfaces over a wide range of water concentrations using both force probe and X-ray scattering experiments. Our data indicate that IL structuring evolves from surfactant-like surface adsorption at low IL concentrations, to micellar bulk structure adsorption above the critical micelle concentration, to planar bilayer formation in ILs with Interfacial structuring is controlled by mesoscopic bulk structuring at high water concentrations. Surface chemistry and surface charges decisively steer interfacial ordering of ions if the water concentration is low and/or the surface charge is high. We also demonstrate that controlling the interfacial forces by using self-assembled monolayer chemistry allows tuning of interfacial structures. Both the ratio of the head group size to the hydrophobic tail volume as well as the surface charging trigger the bulk structure and offer a tool for predicting interfacial structures. Based on the applied techniques and analyses, a qualitative prediction of molecular layering of ILs in aqueous systems is possible.

  12. Mycorrhiza formation and nutrient concentration in leeks (¤Allium porrum¤) in relation to previous crop and cover crop management on high P soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.N.; Larsen, J.; Jakobsen, I.

    2005-01-01

    An improved integration of mycorrhizas may increase the sustainability in plant production. Two strategies for increasing the soil inoculum potential of mycorrhizal fungi were investigated in field experiments with leeks: Pre-cropping with mycorrhizal main crops and pre-establishment of mycorrhizal......, increased the colonization of leek roots by mycorrhizal fungi. During early growth stages, this increase was 45-95% relative to no cover crop. However, cover cropping did not significantly increase nutrient concentration or growth. These variables were not influenced by the time of cover crop incorporation...... or tillage treatments. Differences in colonization, nutrient uptake and plant growth diminished during the growing period and at the final harvest date, the effects on plant production disappeared. High soil P level or high soil inoculum level was most likely responsible for the limited response of increased...

  13. Preferential solvation, ion pairing, and dynamics of concentrated aqueous solutions of divalent metal nitrate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sushma; Chandra, Amalendu

    2017-12-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of preferential solvation of ions, structure of solvation shells, ion pairing, and dynamics of aqueous solutions of divalent alkaline-earth metal nitrate salts at varying concentration by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Hydration shell structures and the extent of preferential solvation of the metal and nitrate ions in the solutions are investigated through calculations of radial distribution functions, tetrahedral ordering, and also spatial distribution functions. The Mg2+ ions are found to form solvent separated ion-pairs while the Ca2+ and Sr2+ ions form contact ion pairs with the nitrate ions. These findings are further corroborated by excess coordination numbers calculated through Kirkwood-Buff G factors for different ion-ion and ion-water pairs. The ion-pairing propensity is found to be in the order of Mg(NO3) 2 lead to the presence of substantial dynamical heterogeneity in these solutions of strongly interacting ions. The current study helps us to understand the molecular details of hydration structure, ion pairing, and dynamics of water in the solvation shells and also of ion diffusion in aqueous solutions of divalent metal nitrate salts.

  14. Effect of solute concentration on grain boundary migration with segregation in stainless steel and model alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, H.; Hashimoto, N.; Takahashi, H.

    The phenomenon of grain boundary migration due to boundary diffusion via vacancies is a well-known process for recrystallization and grain growth during annealing. This phenomenon is known as diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM) and has been recognized in various binary systems. On the other hand, grain boundary migration often occurs under irradiation. Furthermore, such radiation-induced grain boundary migration (RIGM) gives rise to solute segregation. In order to investigate the RIGM mechanism and the interaction between solutes and point defects during the migration, stainless steel and Ni-Si model alloys were electron-irradiated using a HVEM. RIGM was often observed in stainless steels during irradiation. The migration rate of boundary varied, and three stages of the migration were recognized. At lower temperatures, incubation periods up to the occurrence of the boundary migration were observed prior to first stage. These behaviors were recognized particularly for lower solute containing alloys. From the relation between the migration rates at stage I and inverse temperatures, activation energies for the boundary migration were estimated. In comparison to the activation energy without irradiation, these values were very low. This suggests that the RIGM is caused by the flow of mixed-dumbbells toward the grain boundary. The interaction between solute and point defects and the effective defect concentration generating segregation will be discussed.

  15. Electrochemical behaviour of brass in chloride solution concentrations found in eccrine fingerprint sweat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, John W., E-mail: jwb13@le.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, George Porter Building, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Lieu, Elaine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Corrosion of brass in NaCl concentrations found in eccrine sweat was investigated. • Concentrations < 0.2 M produce a layer of mainly zinc oxide after 24 h. • A concentration of 0.2 M enables active corrosion of brass at room temperature. • 0.2 M NaCl gives both zinc and copper dissolution. • 24-h immersion of brass in 0.2 M NaCl gives an oxide film thickness of 1.3 nm. - Abstract: In this work, the corrosion properties of α phase brass immersed in concentrations of aqueous NaCl solutions that are typically found in eccrine fingerprint sweat and range between 0.01 M and 0.2 M have been analysed. Analysis methods employed were electrochemical techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical profiling. For NaCl concentrations <0.2 M, active corrosion did not occur although, after a period of 24 h, a passivating layer of mainly zinc oxide formed. At a concentration of 0.2 M active corrosion did occur, with measured corrosion potentials consistent with both brass and copper dissolution. A 1 h contact time at this concentration (0.2 M) resulted in the formation of a zinc oxide passivating layer with the surface ratio of zinc oxide to copper oxide increasing with time. Film thickness was calculated to be of the order of 1.3 nm after 24 h contact. Formation of oxide layers on brass by fingerprint sweat as observed here may well have implications for the successful investigation of crime by the visualisation of corrosion fingerprint ridge patterns or the reduction of hospital environmental contamination by hand contact with brass objects such as door handles or taps.

  16. Corrosion of dissimilar metal crevices in simulated concentrated ground water solutions at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, B.M.; Quinn, M.J

    2003-01-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada is under consideration by the US Department of Energy. The proposed facility will be located in the unsaturated zone approximately 300 m below the surface and 300 m above the water table. The proposed waste container consists of an outer corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 shell surrounding a 316 NG stainless steel structural inner container that encapsulates the used nuclear fuel waste. A titanium drip shield is proposed to protect the waste container from ground water seepage arid rock-fail. A cycle of dripping/evaporation could result in the generation of concentrated aggressive solutions, which could contact the waste container. The waste container material could be susceptible to crevice corrosion from such solutions. The experiments described in this report support the modeling of waste package degradation processes. The intent was to provide parameter values that are required to model crevice corrosion chemistry, as it relates to hydrogen pick-up, and stress corrosion cracking for selected candidate waste package materials. The purpose of the experiments was to study the crevice corrosion behavior of various candidate materials under near freely corroding conditions and to determine the pH developed in crevice solutions. Experimental results of crevice corrosion of dissimilar metal pairs (Alloy 22, Grade-7 and -16 titanium and 316 stainless steel) immersed in a simulated concentrated ground water at {approx}90{sup o}C are reported. The corrosion potential was measured during exposure periods of between 330 and 630 h. Following the experiments, the pH of the crevice solution was measured. The results indicate that a limited degree of crevice acidification occurred during the experiment. The values for corrosion potential suggest that crevice corrosion may have initiated. The total corrosion was limited, with little visible evidence for crevice corrosion being observed on the sample coupon faces

  17. Corrosion of dissimilar metal crevices in simulated concentrated ground water solutions at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, B.M.; Quinn, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada is under consideration by the US Department of Energy. The proposed facility will be located in the unsaturated zone approximately 300 m below the surface and 300 m above the water table. The proposed waste container consists of an outer corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 shell surrounding a 316 NG stainless steel structural inner container that encapsulates the used nuclear fuel waste. A titanium drip shield is proposed to protect the waste container from ground water seepage arid rock-fail. A cycle of dripping/evaporation could result in the generation of concentrated aggressive solutions, which could contact the waste container. The waste container material could be susceptible to crevice corrosion from such solutions. The experiments described in this report support the modeling of waste package degradation processes. The intent was to provide parameter values that are required to model crevice corrosion chemistry, as it relates to hydrogen pick-up, and stress corrosion cracking for selected candidate waste package materials. The purpose of the experiments was to study the crevice corrosion behavior of various candidate materials under near freely corroding conditions and to determine the pH developed in crevice solutions. Experimental results of crevice corrosion of dissimilar metal pairs (Alloy 22, Grade-7 and -16 titanium and 316 stainless steel) immersed in a simulated concentrated ground water at ∼90 o C are reported. The corrosion potential was measured during exposure periods of between 330 and 630 h. Following the experiments, the pH of the crevice solution was measured. The results indicate that a limited degree of crevice acidification occurred during the experiment. The values for corrosion potential suggest that crevice corrosion may have initiated. The total corrosion was limited, with little visible evidence for crevice corrosion being observed on the sample coupon faces. The

  18. Solution-processed organic thermoelectric materials exhibiting doping-concentration-dependent polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sunbin; Potscavage, William J; Yang, Yu Seok; Park, In Seob; Matsushima, Toshinori; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-10-26

    Recent progress in conducting polymer-based organic thermoelectric generators (OTEGs) has resulted in high performance due to high Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity (σ), and low thermal conductivity obtained by chemically controlling the materials's redox levels. In addition to improving the properties of individual OTEGs to obtain high performance, the development of solution processes for the fabrication of OTEG modules is necessary to realize large thermoelectric voltage and low-cost mass production. However, the scarcity of good candidates for soluble organic n-type materials limits the use of π-leg module structures consisting of complementary elements of p- and n-type materials because of unbalanced transport coefficients that lead to power losses. In particular, the extremely low σ of n-type materials compared with that of p-type materials is a serious challenge. In this study, poly(pyridinium phenylene) (P(PymPh)) was tested as an n-type semiconductor in solution-processed OTEGs, and the carrier density was controlled by a solution-based chemical doping process using the dopant sodium naphthalenide, a well-known reductant. The electronic structures and doping mechanism of P(PymPh) were explored based on the changes in UV-Vis-IR absorption, ultraviolet photoelectron, and X-ray photoelectron spectra. By controlling the dopant concentration, we demonstrate a maximum n-type power factor of 0.81 μW m -1 K -2 with high σ, and at higher doping concentrations, a switch from n-type to p-type TE operation. This is one of the first cases of a switch in polarity just by increasing the concentration of the reductant and may open a new route for simplified fabrication of complementary organic layers.

  19. Effect of CO2 Enrichment on the Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Tomato Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Juan; ZHOU Jian-Min; DUAN Zeng-Qiang; DU Chang-Wen; WANG Huo-Yan

    2007-01-01

    Exposing tomato seedlings to elevated CO2 concentrations may have potentially profound impacts on the tomato yield and quality. A growth chamber experiment was designed to estimate how different nutrient concentrations influenced the effect of elevated CO2 on the growth and nutrient uptake of tomato seedlings. Tomato (Hezuo 906) was grown in pots placed in controlled growth chambers and was subjected to ambient or elevated CO2 (360 or 720 μL L-1), and four nutrient solutions of different strengths (1/2-, 1/4-, 1/8-, and 1/16-strength Japan Yamazaki nutrient solutions) in a completely randomized design. The results indicated that some agricultural characteristics of the tomato seedlings such as the plant height, stem thickness, total dry and fresh weights of the leaves, stems and roots, the G value (G value = total plant dry weight/seedling age),and the seedling vigor index (seedling vigor index = stem thickness/(plant height × total plant dry weight) increased with the elevated CO2, and the increases were strongly dependent on the nutrient solution concentrations, being greater with higher nutrient solution concentrations. The elevated CO2 did not alter the ratio of root to shoot. The total N, P, K, and C absorbed from all the solutions except P in the 1/8- and 1/16-strength nutrient solutions increased in the elevated CO2 treatment. These results demonstrate that the nutrient demands of the tomato seedlings increased at elevated CO2 concentrations.

  20. On the Usage of Cyclic Voltammetry and Impedance Spectroscopy for Measuring the Concentration of Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fiedler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes sensors for concentration measurement based on the electro- chemical properties of the liquid being measured. Herein two electrical methods, namely cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy, are being presented. The measurement can be performed quasi simultaneously using the same measurement medium. Further optimization of the combined methods is possible by adapting the geometric design of the electrode structure, the electrode material, the optional passivation and the electric coupling (galvanically or capacitively. In summary, by combining multiple sensory principles on a device it becomes possible to analyze mixtures of substances contained in a solution with respect to their composition.

  1. Existence and concentration of positive solutions for a quasilinear elliptic equation in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisandra Gloss

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence and concentration of positive solutions for the quasilinear elliptic equation $$ -varepsilon^2u'' -varepsilon^2(u^2''u+V(x u = h(u $$ in $mathbb{R}$ as $varepsilono 0$, where the potential $V:mathbb{R}o mathbb{R}$ has a positive infimum and $inf_{partial Omega}V>inf_{ Omega}V$ for some bounded domain $Omega$ in $mathbb{R}$, and $h$ is a nonlinearity without having growth conditions such as Ambrosetti-Rabinowitz.

  2. Structural study of concentrated micelle-solutions of sodium octanoate by light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayoun, Marc

    1982-05-01

    Structural investigation of sodium octanoate (CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 6 -COONa) by light scattering has been made to study properties of concentrated aqueous micelle-solutions. From static light scattering data, the micellar weight and shape have been determined. The monomer aggregation number and the apparent micellar charge have been confirmed. Quasi-elastic light scattering, has been used to measure the effective diffusion coefficient as a function of the volume fraction. Extrapolation to the c.m.c. give the hydrodynamic radius of the micelles. At low micelle-concentration, strong exchange reaction between monomers and micelles affects the Brownian motion and resulting is an increase in the diffusion coefficient. The experimental data show a strong hydrodynamic contribution to S(q) (factor structure) and D(q) (effective diffusion coefficient) arising from hard spheres interactions with a large repulsive potential. (author) [fr

  3. Chemical concentration of a new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide from solutions with low salt background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkin, Yu.S.; Ter-Akop'yan, G.M.; Popeko, A.G.; Drobina, T.P.; Zhuravleva, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of experiments on further concentration of a new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide, the concentrates of which form the Cheleken geothermal brines have been obtained, are presented. The conclusions are drown about the chemical nature of a new spontaneously fissionable nuclide. It is a chalcophile element which copreipitates with sulphides of copper, lead, arsenic and mercury from weakly acid solutions. The behaviour of the new nuclide in sulphide systems in many respects is similar to the behaviour of polonium, astatine and probably of bismuth. The most probable stable valence of the new nuclide varies from +1 up to +3. The data available on the chemical behaviour of the new nuclide as well as the analysis over contamination by spontaneously fissionable isotopes permit to state that the new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide does not relate to the known isotopes

  4. Effect of applied voltage and initial concentration to desalting NaCl solution using electrodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubakri, Ali; Gzara, Lassaad; Dhahbi, Mahmoud; Bouguecha, Salah

    2009-01-01

    The desalination process of electrodialysis is one of membrane separation that competes with reverse osmosis for desalination of brackish water and seawater. In this work water desalination using a laboratory electrodialysis was performed and evaluated to desalting aqueous solutions containing 5000, 10000 and 20000 mg/L NaCl at different applied potential (10, 15 and 20 V) and at a constant flow rate of 3 L/min. Nine electrodialysis runs were performed. The results showed that the increasing of applied potential and decreasing of NaCl concentration have an important effect to enhance the electrodialysis performance. The efficiencies of each experiment were evaluated as function of specific power consumption with the electrical energy consumed in electrodialysis stack. It was obtained that the specific power consumption increased when the salt concentration and applied voltage increased. A laboratory electrodialysis stack containing fifteen cation exchange membranes and fifteen anion exchange membranes of 0,716 m 2 total effective area was used.

  5. Spatial and temporal shifts in gross primary productivity, respiration, and nutrient concentrations in urban streams impacted by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, S. H.; Toran, L.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of wastewater treatment plant effluent on nutrient retention and stream productivity are highly varied. The working theory has been that large pulses of nutrients from plants may hinder in-stream nutrient retention. We evaluated nitrate, total dissolved phosphorus, and dissolved oxygen in Wissahickon Creek, an urban third-order stream in Montgomery and Philadelphia counties, PA, that receives effluent from four wastewater treatment plants. Wastewater treatment plant effluent had nitrate concentrations of 15-30 mg N/L and total dissolved phosphorus of 0.3 to 1.8 mg/L. Seasonal longitudinal water quality samples showed nitrate concentrations were highest in the fall, peaking at 22 mg N/L, due to low baseflow, but total dissolved phosphorous concentrations were highest in the spring, reaching 0.6 mg/L. Diurnal dissolved oxygen patterns above and below one of the treatment plants provided estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER). A site 1 km below effluent discharge had higher GPP in April (80 g O2 m-2 d-1) than the site above the plant (28 g O2 m-2 d-1). The pulse in productivity did not continue downstream, as the site 3 km below the plant had GPP of only 12 g O2 m-2 d-1. Productivity fell in June to 1-2 g O2 m-2 d-1 and the differences in productivity above and below plants were minimal. Ecosystem respiration followed a similar pattern in April, increasing from -17 g O2 m-2 d-1 above the plant to -47 g O2 m-2 d-1 1 km below the plant, then decreasing to -8 g O2 m-2 d-1 3 km below the plant. Respiration dropped to -3 g O2 m-2 d-1 above the plant in June but only fell to -9 to -10 g O2 m-2 d-1 at the two downstream sites. These findings indicate that large nutrient pulses from wastewater treatment plants spur productivity and respiration, but that these increases may be strongly seasonally dependent. Examining in-stream productivity and respiration is critical in wastewater impacted streams to understanding the seasonal and

  6. Determination of the thermodynamic state of concentrated hemoglobin solutions by means of small angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinke, M.

    1979-01-01

    Exemplified by hemoglobin, the thermodynamic equilibrium properties of the dissolved macromolecular system could be determined solely from the small angle X-ray scattering of concentrated macromolecular solutions via the intermolecular structure of the dissolved macromolecules and their intermolecular potentials. From the scattering experiment on concentrated Hb solutions the concentration dependence of the following properties of the dissolved Hb system were determined: fluctuation, isothermic compressibility, internal energy, surface tension, and osmotic pressure. (author)

  7. Concentration of Rutin Model Solutions from Their Mixtures with Glucose Using Ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid S. Saleh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Separation of polyphenolic phytochemical compounds from their mixtures with sugars is necessary to produce an added-value sugar-reduced extract with high biological activity from fruit juice processing industry waste streams. The separation characteristics of a binary mixture of rutin and glucose using a Pellicon-2 regenerated cellulose ultrafiltration membrane with an area of 0.1 m2 having nominal MWCO of 1,000 Da were investigated, to demonstrate the separation of phenolic compounds from sugars. The effects of the operating variables–transmembrane pressure, feed solution temperature and pH, initial feed concentration and feed flow rate–on the permeate flux and enrichment of rutin, were determined. The permeate flux increased with the increase in transmembrane pressure up to a certain limit and after that the flux remained more or less constant. The optimum transmembrane pressure was within 4–5 bar. The flux increased with the increase in feed solution temperature because of reduced feed viscosity, and better solubility. The concentration of rutin was optimum at lower temperature (30ºC, with an enrichment factor of 1.3. The effect of pH on permeate flux was less obvious. Lowering the feed solution pH increased the retention of rutin and the optimum separation was obtained within pH 3–4. The permeate flux decreased with the increase in feed concentration of rutin (concentration range 0.1–0.5 g/L. The enrichment of rutin was significant in the glucose concentration range 0.35–0.5 g/L. The feed flow rate had a significant effect on the flux and separation characteristics. Higher cross-flow through the membrane reduced the fouling by providing a shear force to sweep away deposited materials from the membrane surface. At high feed flow rate, more rutin was retained by the membrane with less sugar permeating through. The optimum feed flow rate was 1.5 L/min. For the separation of rutin (in the retentate and glucose (in the permeate, the

  8. Concentration dependence of solute atoms on vacancy cluster formation in neutron irradiated Ni alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Itoh, D.; Yoshiie, T.; Xu, Q.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: One dimensional (1-D) motion of interstitial clusters is important for the microstructural evolution in metals. The movement of interstitial clusters was often observed in neutron irradiated metals by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Alloying elements are expected to affect the motion of interstitial clusters. Yoshiie et al. have studied the effect of alloying elements in Ni. For example, in neutron irradiated pure Ni, well-developed dislocation networks and voids were observed at 573 K at a dose of 0.026 dpa by TEM. After the addition of 2at.%Si (-5.81% volume size factor to Ni) and Sn (74.08% volume size factor), no voids were detected by TEM observation and positron lifetime measurement. Alloying elements of Si and Sn were expected to prevent the 1-D motion of the interstitial clusters. In this study, the concentration dependence of alloying elements on the 1-D motion of the interstitial clusters was investigated by positron annihilation lifetime measurements, and the microstructural evolution was discussed. Specimens irradiated were 99.99 pure Ni (Johnson Matthey) and Ni based binary alloys, which contain Si, Cu, Ge and Sn as solute atoms. The concentration of solute atoms was 0.05at.%o, 0.3at.% and 2at.%. Neutron irradiation was performed with the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) and Japan materials testing reactor (JMTR) at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Neutron dose was 6x10 -5 -1x10 -2 dpa at KUR, and 8x10 -3 -0.3 dpa at JMTR. Irradiation temperature was 573 K at KUR and 563 K at JMTR. After the neutron irradiation, positron annihilation lifetime measurements were performed at room temperature. Microvoids were detected in pure Ni, Ni-0.05%Si, Ni-0.05%Sn, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge alloys. In Ni-Si and Ni-Sn alloys, the size of microvoids decreased as the concentration of solute atoms increased. This is because the frequency of 1-D motion of the interstitial clusters depends on the alloy concentration. High concentration of alloying

  9. Concentration dependence of solute atoms on vacancy cluster formation in neutron irradiated Ni alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Itoh, D.; Yoshiie, T.; Xu, Q. [Kyoto Univ., Research Reactor Institute, Osaka (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: One dimensional (1-D) motion of interstitial clusters is important for the microstructural evolution in metals. The movement of interstitial clusters was often observed in neutron irradiated metals by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Alloying elements are expected to affect the motion of interstitial clusters. Yoshiie et al. have studied the effect of alloying elements in Ni. For example, in neutron irradiated pure Ni, well-developed dislocation networks and voids were observed at 573 K at a dose of 0.026 dpa by TEM. After the addition of 2at.%Si (-5.81% volume size factor to Ni) and Sn (74.08% volume size factor), no voids were detected by TEM observation and positron lifetime measurement. Alloying elements of Si and Sn were expected to prevent the 1-D motion of the interstitial clusters. In this study, the concentration dependence of alloying elements on the 1-D motion of the interstitial clusters was investigated by positron annihilation lifetime measurements, and the microstructural evolution was discussed. Specimens irradiated were 99.99 pure Ni (Johnson Matthey) and Ni based binary alloys, which contain Si, Cu, Ge and Sn as solute atoms. The concentration of solute atoms was 0.05at.%o, 0.3at.% and 2at.%. Neutron irradiation was performed with the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) and Japan materials testing reactor (JMTR) at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Neutron dose was 6x10{sup -5}-1x10{sup -2} dpa at KUR, and 8x10{sup -3} -0.3 dpa at JMTR. Irradiation temperature was 573 K at KUR and 563 K at JMTR. After the neutron irradiation, positron annihilation lifetime measurements were performed at room temperature. Microvoids were detected in pure Ni, Ni-0.05%Si, Ni-0.05%Sn, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge alloys. In Ni-Si and Ni-Sn alloys, the size of microvoids decreased as the concentration of solute atoms increased. This is because the frequency of 1-D motion of the interstitial clusters depends on the alloy concentration. High

  10. Effect of Concentration on the Electrochemistry and Speciation of the Magnesium Aluminum Chloride Complex Electrolyte Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Kimberly A; Liu, Yao-Min; Ha, Yeyoung; Barile, Christopher J; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2017-10-18

    Magnesium batteries offer an opportunity to use naturally abundant Mg and achieve large volumetric capacities reaching over four times that of conventional Li-based intercalation anodes. High volumetric capacity is enabled by the use of a Mg metal anode in which charge is stored via electrodeposition and stripping processes, however, electrolytes that support efficient Mg electrodeposition and stripping are few and are often prepared from highly reactive compounds. One interesting electrolyte solution that supports Mg deposition and stripping without the use of highly reactive reagents is the magnesium aluminum chloride complex (MACC) electrolyte. The MACC exhibits high Coulombic efficiencies and low deposition overpotentials following an electrolytic conditioning protocol that stabilizes species necessary for such behavior. Here, we discuss the effect of the MgCl 2 and AlCl 3 concentrations on the deposition overpotential, current density, and the conditioning process. Higher concentrations of MACC exhibit enhanced Mg electrodeposition current density and much faster conditioning. An increase in the salt concentrations causes a shift in the complex equilibria involving both cations. The conditioning process is strongly dependent on the concentration suggesting that the electrolyte is activated through a change in speciation of electrolyte complexes and is not simply due to the annihilation of electrolyte impurities. Additionally, the presence of the [Mg 2 (μ-Cl) 3 ·6THF] + in the electrolyte solution is again confirmed through careful analysis of experimental Raman spectra coupled with simulation and direct observation of the complex in sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry. Importantly, we suggest that the ∼210 cm -1 mode commonly observed in the Raman spectra of many Mg electrolytes is indicative of the C 3v symmetric [Mg 2 (μ-Cl) 3 ·6THF] + . The 210 cm -1 mode is present in many electrolytes containing MgCl 2 , so its assignment is of broad interest

  11. A simple model for predicting solute concentration in agricultural tile lines shortly after application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Steenhuis

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural tile drainage lines have been implicated as a source of pesticide contamination of surface waters. Field experiments were conducted and a simple model was developed to examine preferential transport of applied chemicals to agricultural tile lines. The conceptual model consists of two linear reservoirs, one near the soil surface and one near the tile drain. The connection between the two reservoirs is via preferential flow paths with very little interaction with the soil matrix. The model assumes that only part of the field contributes solutes to the tile drain. The model was evaluated with data from the field experiments in which chloride, 2,4-D, and atrazine concentrations were measured on eight tile-drained plots that were irrigated twice. Atrazine was applied two months prior to the experiment, 2,4-D was sprayed just before the first irrigation, and chloride before the second irrigation. All three chemicals were found in the tile effluent shortly after the rainfall began. Generally, the concentration increased with increased flow rates and decreased exponentially after the rainfall ceased. Although the simple model could simulate the observed chloride concentration patterns in the tile outflow for six of the eight plots, strict validation was not possible because of the difficulty with independent measurement of the data needed for a preferential flow model applied to field conditions. The results show that, to simulate pesticide concentration in tile lines, methods that can measure field averaged preferential flow characteristics need to be developed.

  12. River export of nutrients to the coastal waters of China: the MARINA model to assess sources, effects and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Strokal, Maryna

    2016-01-01

    Rivers export increasing amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the coastal waters of China. This causes eutrophication problems that can damage living organisms when oxygen levels drop and threaten human health through toxic algae. We know that these problems result from human activities on land such as agriculture and urbanization. However, the relative importance of these human activities for river export of nutrients to Chinese seas is not well studied. There are two important issu...

  13. Biodesulfurization of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite concentrates and pH control of bioleaching solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-rong; Jiang, Sheng-cai; Liu, Yan-jun; Li, Hui; Wang, Hua-jun

    2013-10-01

    Vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite concentrates were desulfurized with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ( A. ferrooxidans). The sulfur content of the concentrates was reduced from 0.69wt% to 0.14wt% after bioleaching for 15 d with a 10% pulp density at 30°C. Maintaining a stable pH value during biodesulfurization was critical because of high acid consumption, resulting from a combination of nonoxidative and oxidative dissolution of pyrrhotite in acid solution. It is discovered that the citric acid-disodium hydrogen phosphate buffer of pH 2.0 can control the solution pH value smoothly in the optimal range of 2.0-3.0 for A. ferrooxidans growth. Using the buffer in the volume fraction range of 5.0%-15.0% stimulates A. ferrooxidans growth and improves the biodesulfurization efficiency. Compared with the buffer-free control case, the maximum increase of biodesulfurization rate is 29.7% using a 10.0vol% buffer. Bioleaching provides an alternative process for desulfurization of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite ores.

  14. Effects of nanoparticle heating on the structure of a concentrated aqueous salt solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindt, Julien O.; Alexander, Andrew J.; Camp, Philip J.

    2017-12-01

    The effects of a rapidly heated nanoparticle on the structure of a concentrated aqueous salt solution are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. A diamond-like nanoparticle of radius 20 Å is immersed in a sodium-chloride solution at 20% above the experimental saturation concentration and equilibrated at T = 293 K and P = 1 atm. The nanoparticle is then rapidly heated to several thousand degrees Kelvin, and the system is held under isobaric-isoenthalpic conditions. It is observed that after 2-3 ns, the salt ions are depleted far more than water molecules from a proximal zone 15-25 Å from the nanoparticle surface. This leads to a transient reduction in molality in the proximal zone and an increase in ion clustering in the distal zone. At longer times, ions begin to diffuse back into the proximal zone. It is speculated that the formation of proximal and distal zones, and the increase in ion clustering, plays a role in the mechanism of nonphotochemical laser-induced nucleation.

  15. Effects of nanoparticle heating on the structure of a concentrated aqueous salt solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindt, Julien O; Alexander, Andrew J; Camp, Philip J

    2017-12-07

    The effects of a rapidly heated nanoparticle on the structure of a concentrated aqueous salt solution are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. A diamond-like nanoparticle of radius 20 Å is immersed in a sodium-chloride solution at 20% above the experimental saturation concentration and equilibrated at T = 293 K and P = 1 atm. The nanoparticle is then rapidly heated to several thousand degrees Kelvin, and the system is held under isobaric-isoenthalpic conditions. It is observed that after 2-3 ns, the salt ions are depleted far more than water molecules from a proximal zone 15-25 Å from the nanoparticle surface. This leads to a transient reduction in molality in the proximal zone and an increase in ion clustering in the distal zone. At longer times, ions begin to diffuse back into the proximal zone. It is speculated that the formation of proximal and distal zones, and the increase in ion clustering, plays a role in the mechanism of nonphotochemical laser-induced nucleation.

  16. Temperature and concentration calibration of aqueous polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP solutions for isotropic diffusion MRI phantoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Wagner

    Full Text Available To use the "apparent diffusion coefficient" (Dapp as a quantitative imaging parameter, well-suited test fluids are essential. In this study, the previously proposed aqueous solutions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP were examined and temperature calibrations were obtained. For example, at a temperature of 20°C, Dapp ranged from 1.594 (95% CI: 1.593, 1.595 μm2/ms to 0.3326 (95% CI: 0. 3304, 0.3348 μm2/ms for PVP-concentrations ranging from 10% (w/w to 50% (w/w using K30 polymer lengths. The temperature dependence of Dapp was found to be so strong that a negligence seems not advisable. The temperature dependence is descriptively modelled by an exponential function exp(c2 (T - 20°C and the determined c2 values are reported, which can be used for temperature calibration. For example, we find the value 0.02952 K-1 for 30% (w/w PVP-concentration and K30 polymer length. In general, aqueous PVP solutions were found to be suitable to produce easily applicable and reliable Dapp-phantoms.

  17. Impact of seasonality on the nutrient concentrations in Gautami-Godavari Estuarine Mangrove Complex, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Karuna; Priya, Namrata; Ramanathan, A L

    2018-04-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of dissolved nutrients were studied along Gautami-Godavari mangrove ecosystem to delineate their sources and fate. Average values of nitrate (NO 3 - ), dissolved silica (DSi) and phosphate (PO 4 3- ) is 2.09 mg/l, 12.7 mg/l and 0.16 mg/l in wet season and 0.47 mg/l, 6.96 mg/l and 0.29 mg/l in dry season respectively. In wet season river discharge has significant influence on NO 3 - and DSi. In dry season, NO 3 - and PO 4 3- are controlled by groundwater discharge, benthic exchange and various in situ processes owing to sediment redox condition. Mixing model shows net addition of phosphate in Coringa mangroves (95%) and Lower estuary (13%) and net removal of nitrate (24.79%) in Coringa mangrove and in estuary (58.9%). Thus present mangrove acts as net source for phosphate and net sink for nitrate and DSi. Nutrient ratio shows seasonal switching between potential Phosphorus and Nitrogen limitation in wet and dry season respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of colour changes during storage of elderberry juice concentrate solutions using the optimization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowiak-Tomczak, Dorota; Czapski, Janusz; Młynarczyk, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    Elderberries are a source of dietary supplements and bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins. These dyes are used in food technology. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in colour parameters, anthocyanin contents and sensory attributes in solutions of elderberry juice concentrates during storage in a model system and to determine predictability of sensory attributes of colour in solutions based on regression equations using the response surface methodology. The experiment was carried out according to the 3-level factorial design for three factors. Independent variables included pH, storage time and temperature. Dependent variables were assumed to be the components and colour parameters in the CIE L*a*b* system, pigment contents and sensory attributes. Changes in colour components X, Y, Z and colour parameters L*, a*, b*, C* and h* were most dependent on pH values. Colour lightness L* and tone h* increased with an increase in experimental factors, while the share of the red colour a* and colour saturation C* decreased. The greatest effect on the anthocyanin concentration was recorded for storage time. Sensory attributes deteriorated during storage. The highest correlation coefficients were found between the value of colour tone h* and anthocyanin contents in relation to the assessment of the naturalness and desirability of colour. A high goodness-of-fit of the model to data and high values of R2 for regression equations were obtained for all responses. The response surface method facilitates optimization of experimental factor values in order to obtain a specific attribute of the product, but not in all cases of the experiment. Within the tested range of factors, it is possible to predict changes in anthocyanin content and the sensory attributes of elderberry juice concentrate solutions as food dye, on the basis of the lack of a fit test. The highest stability of dyes and colour of elderberry solutions was found in the samples at pH 3.0, which confirms

  19. Simultaneous determination of nitric acid and uranium concentrations in aqueous solution from measurements of electrical conductivity, density, and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.B.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants handle aqueous solutions of nitric acid and uranium in large quantities. Automatic control of process operations requires reliable measurements of these solutes concentration, but this is difficult to directly measure. Physical properties such as solution density and electrical conductivity vary with solute concentration and temperature. Conductivity, density and temperature can be measured accurately with relatively simple and inexpensive devices. These properties can be used to determine solute concentrations will good correlations. This paper provides the appropriate correlations for solutions containing 2 to 6 Molar (M) nitric acid and 0 to 300 g/L uranium metal at temperatures from 25--90 degrees C. The equations are most accurate below 5 M nitric acid, due to a broad maximum in the conductivity curve at 6 M. 12 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Concentrations of some macro and micro plant nutrient of cultivated soils in Central and Eastern Blacksea Region and their mapping by inverse distance weighted (IDW method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arif Özyazıcı

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine plant nutrients content and to in terms of soil variables their soil database and generate maps of their distribution on agricultural land in Central and Eastern Black Sea Region using geographical information system (GIS. In this research, total 3400 soil samples (0-20 cm depth were taken at 2.5 x 2.5 km grid points representing agricultural soils. Total nitrogen, extractable calcium, magnesium, sodium, boron, iron, copper, zinc and manganese contents were analysed in collected soil samples. Analysis results of these samples were classified and evaluated for deficiency, sufficiency or excess with respect to plant nutrients. Afterwards, in terms of GIS, a soil database and maps for current status of the study area were created by using inverse distance weighted (IDW interpolation method. According to this research results, it was determined sufficient plant nutrient elements in terms of total nitrogen, extractable iron, copper and manganese in arable soils of Central and Eastern Blacksea Region while, extractable calcium, magnesium, sodium were found good and moderate level in 66.88%, 81.44% and 64.56% of total soil samples, respectively. In addition, insufficient boron and zinc concentration were found in 34.35% and 51.36% of soil samples, respectively.

  1. Hydraulic conductivity in response to exchangeable sodium percentage and solution salt concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luiz de Aguiar Paes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic conductivity is determined in laboratory assays to estimate the flow of water in saturated soils. However, the results of this analysis, when using distilled or deionized water, may not correspond to field conditions in soils with high concentrations of soluble salts. This study therefore set out to determine the hydraulic conductivity in laboratory conditions using solutions of different electrical conductivities in six soils representative of the State of Pernambuco, with the exchangeable sodium percentage adjusted in the range of 5-30%. The results showed an increase in hydraulic conductivity with both decreasing exchangeable sodium percentage and increasing electrical conductivity in the solution. The response to the treatments was more pronounced in soils with higher proportion of more active clays. Determination of hydraulic conductivity in laboratory is routinely performed with deionized or distilled water. However, in salt affected soils, these determinations should be carried out using solutions of electrical conductivity different from 0 dS m-1, with values close to those determined in the saturation extracts.

  2. Method development for the enantiomeric purity determination of low concentrations of adrenaline in local anaesthetic solutions by capillary electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sänger-Van De Griend, Cari E.; Ek, Anders G.; Widahl-Näsman, Monica E.; Andersson, E. K Margareta

    2006-01-01

    L-Adrenaline is often included in local anaesthetic (LA) solutions for injection to improve the quality of the anaesthetic block. The concentration of the LA is between 2.5 and 20 mg/ml and the concentration of adrenaline is typically ≤0.1% of the LA concentration. In order to follow the

  3. STUDY OF CHEMICAL INTERACTION OF MAGNESIA CEMENT WITH HIGH CONCENTRATION MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEREVIANKO V. N.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. In activating MgO by electrolyte salts, as a result of formation of non water-resist magnesium silicate hydrate are obtained the durable cement stone having the low water-resist. I. P. Vyrodov considers [9; 5], that magnesia cement curing in mixing with sufficiently concentrated (C > 20 % solutions MgCl2 is caused with the crystallization of oxyhydrochloride composition: 3MgO∙MgCl2∙11Н2О, 5MgO∙MgCl2∙13Н2О and 7MgO∙MgCl2∙15Н2О. In the lower concentration parts of MgCl2 solution is formed a transitional compound of Mg[(OHnCl2-n] with isomorphous Mg(OH2 structure. At very low Cl concentration only Mg(OH2 is practically formed. Purpose. The Formation of water-resist magnesium silicate hydrates for obtaining of fast curing and solid structure of the magnesia stone. Conclusion. The dependence of the formation of the magnesia stone from the ratio (MgO/MgCl2 of the magnesia cement (MgO and the magnesium chloride solution (MgCl2 of different density has been identified in order to obtain the best content for oxyhydrochloride 3MgO•MgCl2•11Н2О, 5MgO•MgCl2•13Н2О and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2. In putting into the system MgO∙–∙H2О of the silicic acid or fine ground quartz grains with size of less than 20 – 30 microns, over 1 month for the magnesium silicate hydrates formation is needed, where from 2 to 5 % of the total number of newgrowths are created. The study is proved by the expert opinion, that magnesium silicate hydrates do not have binding properties, unlike calcium silicate hydrates, and the main role in the system curing is played with the Mg(OH2 gel recrystallization, which provides the acceptable stone strength (R ≈ 30MPa in a few years. It has been also established, that in mixing of cement with low concentration MgO solutions of less than 1,5 mol/l (or 13% 1,1g/sm3, the final product in the stone structure is Mg(OH2. With increasing the sealer (MgCl2 solution there is formed by turn in

  4. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Concentration and Uptake of Macro Nutrients by Corn in a Cd-contaminated Calcareous Soil under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahrzad karami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd are found naturally in soils, but their amount can be changed by human activities. The study of the uptake and accumulation of heavy metals by plants is done in order to prevent their threats on human and animal’s health.Cadmium is a toxic element for living organisms. Cadmium competes with many of nutrients to be absorbed by the plant and interferes with their biological roles. Water stress affects the cell structure and the food is diverted from its normal metabolic pathway. It also reduces the availability and uptake of nutrients by the plant. One reason for the reduction of plant growth under drought stress is the accumulation of ethylene in plants. There are ways to mitigate the negative effects of drought stress that one of which is the use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria(PGPRs to increasing the availability of nutrients. Soil beneficial bacteria play an important role in the biological cycles and have been used to increase plant health and soil fertility over the past few decades.The aim of this study was to investigate theeffect of PGPRson the concentration and uptake of macro nutrients by corn in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil under drought stress. Materials and Methods: A greenhouse factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments were two levels of bacteria (with and without bacteria, four levels of Cd (5, 10, 20, and 40 mg kg-1, and three levels of drought stress (without stress, 80, and 65% of field capacity. The pots were filled with 3 kg of treated soil. Cd was treated as its sulfate salt in amounts of 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg kg-1. The soil was mixed uniformly with 150 mg N kg-1 as urea, 20 mg P kg-1 as Ca (H2PO42, 5 mg Fe kg-1 as Fe-EDDHA and 10, 10 and 2.5 mg Zn, Mn and Cu kg-1, respectively as their sulfate salt in order to meet plant needs for these nutrients. Six seeds of Zea mays (var. HIDO were planted at

  5. Concentration Dependences of the Surface Tension and Density of Solutions of Acetone-Ethanol-Water Systems at 293 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashev, R. Kh.; Dzhambulatov, R. S.; Mezhidov, V. Kh.; Elimkhanov, D. Z.

    2018-05-01

    Concentration dependences of the surface tension and density of solutions of three-component acetone-ethanol-water systems and the bounding binary systems at 273 K are studied. The molar volume, adsorption, and composition of surface layers are calculated. Experimental data and calculations show that three-component solutions are close to ideal ones. The surface tensions of these solutions are calculated using semi-empirical and theoretical equations. Theoretical equations qualitatively convey the concentration dependence of surface tension. A semi-empirical method based on the Köhler equation allows us to predict the concentration dependence of surface tension within the experimental error.

  6. Absolute nutrient concentration measurements in cell culture media: 1H q-NMR spectra and data to compare the efficiency of pH-controlled protein precipitation versus CPMG or post-processing filtering approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Goldoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The NMR spectra and data reported in this article refer to the research article titled “A simple and accurate protocol for absolute polar metabolite quantification in cell cultures using q-NMR” [1]. We provide the 1H q-NMR spectra of cell culture media (DMEM after removal of serum proteins, which show the different efficiency of various precipitating solvents, the solvent/DMEM ratios, and pH of the solution. We compare the data of the absolute nutrient concentrations, measured by PULCON external standard method, before and after precipitation of serum proteins and those obtained using CPMG (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence or applying post-processing filtering algorithms to remove, from the 1H q-NMR spectra, the proteins signal contribution. For each of these approaches, the percent error in the absolute value of every measurement for all the nutrients is also plotted as accuracy assessment. Keywords: 1H NMR, pH-controlled serum removal, PULCON, Accuracy, CPMG, Deconvolution

  7. Aggregation in concentrated protein solutions: Insights from rheology, neutron scattering and molecular simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Maria Monica

    Aggregation of therapeutic proteins is currently one of the major challenges in the bio-pharmaceutical industry, because aggregates could induce immunogenic responses and compromise the quality of the product. Current scientific efforts, both in industry and academia, are focused on developing rational approaches to screen different drug candidates and predict their stability under different conditions. Moreover, aggregation is promoted in highly concentrated protein solutions, which are typically required for subcutaneous injection. In order to gain further understanding about the mechanisms that lead to aggregation, an approach that combined rheology, neutron scattering, and molecular simulations was undertaken. Two model systems were studied in this work: Bovine Serum Albumin in surfactant-free Phosphate Buffered Saline at pH = 7.4 at concentrations from 11 mg/mL up to ˜519 mg/mL, and a monoclonal antibody in 20 mM Histidine/Histidine Hydrochloride at pH = 6.0 with 60 mg/mL trehalose and 0.2 mg/mL polysorbate-80 at concentrations from 53 mg/mL up to ˜220 mg/mL. The antibody used here has three mutations in the CH2 domain, which result in lower stability upon incubation at 40 °C with respect to the wild-type protein, based on size-exclusion chromatography assays. This temperature is below 49 °C, where unfolding of the least stable, CH2 domain occurs, according to differential scanning calorimetry. This dissertation focuses on identifying the role of aggregation on the viscosity of protein solutions. The protein solutions of this work show an increase in the low shear viscosity in the absence of surfactants, because proteins adsorb at the air/water interface forming a viscoelastic film that affects the measured rheology. Stable surfactant-laden protein solutions behave as simple Newtonian fluids. However, the surfactant-laden antibody solution also shows an increase in the low shear viscosity from bulk aggregation, after prolonged incubation at 40 °C. Small

  8. Attractive interactions between reverse aggregates and phase separation in concentrated malonamide extractant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlinger, C.; Belloni, L.; Zemb, T.; Madic, C.

    1999-01-01

    Using small angle X-ray scattering, conductivity, and phase behavior determination, the authors show that concentrated solutions of malonamide extractants, dimethyldibutyltetradecylmalonamide (DMDBTDMA), are organized in reverse oligomeric aggregates which have many features in common with reverse micelles. The aggregation numbers of these reverse globular aggregates as well as their interaction potential are determined from absolute scattering curves. An attractive interaction is responsible for the demixing of the oil phase when in equilibrium with excess oil. Prediction of conductivity as well as the formation conditions for the third phase is possible using standard liquid theory applied to the extractant aggregates. The interactions, modeled with the sticky sphere model proposed by Baster, are shown to be due to steric interactions resulting from the hydrophobic tails of the extractant molecule and van der Waals forces between the highly polarizable water core of the reverse micelles. The attractive interaction in the oil phase, equilibrated with water, is determined as a function of temperature, extractant molecule concentration, and proton and neodynium(III) cation concentration. It is shown that van der Waals interactions, with an effective Hamaker constant of 3kT, quantitatively explain the behavior of DMDBTDMA in n-dodecane in terms of scattering as well as phase stability limits

  9. Dependence of aggregation behavior on concentration in triblock copolymer solutions: The effect of chain architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xiang-Gang; Zhang, Xue-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Using the self-consistent field lattice technique, the effects of concentration and hydrophobic middle block length (where the chain length remains constant) on aggregation behavior are studied in amphiphilic symmetric triblock copolymer solutions. The heat capacity peak for the unimer-micelle transition and the distribution peaks for the different degrees of aggregation for micelles and small aggregates (submicelles) are calculated. Analysis of the conducted computer simulations shows that the transition broadness dependence on concentration is determined by the hydrophobic middle block length, and this dependence is distinctly different when the length of the hydrophobic middle block changes. Different size for small aggregates simultaneously appear in the transition region. As temperature decreases, the number of different size small aggregates for the large hydrophobic middle block length first ascends and then descends in aggregation degree order. These results indicate that any transition broadness change with concentration is related to the mechanism of fragmentation and fusion. These results are helpful for interpreting the aggregation process of amphiphilic copolymers at equilibrium

  10. The influence of change of concentration of sum of nutrient elements on uptake 137Cs from inert substrate to the lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipbekov, O.A.; Dlimbetova, G.K.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation ecology has become the science of applied character after the numbers of great accidents at the nuclear fuel cycle enterprises (United Kingdom, 1957; Russia,1957; Ukraine, 1986). The success of the fight on the consequences liquidations of the uncontrolled fallen artificial radionuclides on the agricultural fields depends a lot on the correct use of accumulated division products in the soil-plant system in the field migration appropriateness. The considerable lowering of radionuclides uptake into the plants from the soil can be achieved by increase of disability of products fastening of soil division. At the same time the addition of the stuff with high sorption and fixing characteristics into the soil, as a rule, gives a considerable effect only in the first period of their use. Later the fixed isotopes can come into ion-exchange process again after the achievement of the balance condition with the soil-absorbing complex, i.e. pass in the more mobile forms. Entering of mineral fertilizers into the soil often leads to the contradictory results, so the search in this direction is going on. The given information emphasizes the actuality of the further studying the methods of regulation of long living radionuclides availability from the soil to the plants with the help of the nutrient mineral elements. The aim of the present work is the study of the influence of concentration of sum of basic nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt, molybdenum, boron) on the uptake of 137 Cs from the inert substrate to the Lettuce plants. The vegetation experiments were carried out in one liter polyethylene vascular. One liter of milled quartz sand (size of the fractions was 0.5-1.0 mm) was put into each vascular specially cleaned from admixtures. The nutrient elements were added according to Rinkis. The results of the carried out researches have shown that the decrease of the concentration of sum of macro

  11. Export of nutrients and major ionic solutes from a rain forest catchment in the Central Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesack, Lance F. W.

    1993-03-01

    The relative roles of base flow runoff versus storm flow runoff versus subsurface outflow in controlling total export of solutes from a 23.4-ha catchment of undisturbed rain forest in the central Amazon Basin were evaluated from water and solute flux measurements performed over a 1 year period. Solutes exported via 173 storms during the study were estimated from stream water samples collected during base flow conditions and during eight storms, and by utilizing a hydrograph separation technique in combination with a mixing model to partition storm flow from base flow fluxes. Solutes exported by subsurface outflow were estimated from groundwater samples from three nests of piezometers installed into the streambed, and concurrent measurements of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head gradients. Base flow discharge represented 92% of water outflow from the basin and was the dominant pathway of solute export. Although storm flow discharge represented only 5% of total water outflow, storm flow solute fluxes represented up to 25% of the total annual export flux, though for many solutes the portion was less. Subsurface outflow represented only 2.5% of total water outflow, and subsurface solute fluxes never represented more than 5% of the total annual export flux. Measurement errors were relatively high for storm flow and subsurface outflow fluxes, but cumulative measurement errors associated with the total solute fluxes exported from the catchment, in most cases, ranged from only ±7% to 14% because base flow fluxes were measured relatively well. The export fluxes of most solutes are substantially less than previously reported for comparable small catchments in the Amazon basin, and these differences cannot be reconciled by the fact that storm flow and subsurface outflows were not appropriately measured in previous studies.

  12. Evaluation of elemental profiling methods, including laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), for the differentiation of Cannabis plant material grown in different nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deftar, Moteaa M; Robertson, James; Foster, Simon; Lennard, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging atomic emission based solid sampling technique that has many potential forensic applications. In this study, the analytical performance of LIBS, as well as that of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF), was evaluated for the ability to conduct elemental analyses on Cannabis plant material, with a specific investigation of the possible links between hydroponic nutrients and elemental profiles from associated plant material. No such study has been previously published in the literature. Good correlation among the four techniques was observed when the concentrations or peak areas of the elements of interest were monitored. For Cannabis samples collected at the same growth time, the elemental profiles could be related to the use of particular commercial nutrients. In addition, the study demonstrated that ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS and LIBS are suitable techniques for the comparison of Cannabis samples from different sources, with high discriminating powers being achieved. On the other hand, μXRF method was not suitable for the discrimination of Cannabis samples originating from different growth nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and plant density in aeroponic production of seed potato under tropical conditions (winter/spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Humberto Calori

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The recent introduction in Brazil of production of quality seed potatoes in hydroponic systems, such as aeroponics, demands studies on the nutritional and crop management. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and plant density on the seed potato minitubers production in aeroponics system. The Agata and Asterix cultivars were produced in a greenhouse under tropical conditions (winter/spring. The experimental design was a randomized block in a split-split plot design. The plot consisted of 4 electrical conductivities of the nutrient solution (1.0; 2.0; 3.0; and 4.0 dS∙m−1; the subplot, of 4 plant densities (25; 44; 66; and 100 plants∙m−2; and the subsubplot, of the 2 potato cultivars (Ágata and Asterix, totaling 4 blocks. The 2.2 and 2.1 dS∙m−1 electrical conductivities yielded the highest productivity of seed potato minitubers, for Ágata and Asterix cultivars, respectively, regardless of plant density. For both cultivars, the highest yield was observed for the 100 plants∙m−2 density.

  14. Determination of solute organic concentration in contaminated soils using a chemical-equilibrium soil column system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Jesper; Kjeldsen, Peter; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    using two soils with different content of organic carbon (f(oc) of 1.5 and 6.5%, respectively). A quadruple blind test of the ER-V system using glass beads in stead of soil showed an acceptable recovery (65-85%) of all of the 11 VOCs tested. Only for the most volatile compound (heptane, K-H similar...... to 80) an unacceptable recovery was found (9%). The contact time needed for obtaining chemical equilibrium was tested in the ER-H system by performing five test with different duration (1, 2, 4, 7 and 19 days) using the low organic carbon soil. Seven days of contact time appeared sufficient...... for determination of solute concentration in a contaminated soil were developed; (1) a chemical Equilibrium and Recirculation column test for Volatile organic chemicals (ER-V) and (2) a chemical Equilibrium and Recirculation column test for Hydrophobic organic chemicals (ER-H). The two test systems were evaluated...

  15. Concentration in the European electricity industry: The internal market as solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanico, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the present competitive and regulatory framework of the European electricity sector and the results achieved with the liberalisation process. Considering the reactions of incumbents to the liberalisation, the focus in this work is mainly on the problem of market concentration in the sector. The new trends toward the creation of 'national champions' as well as recent mergers between gas suppliers and electricity producers raise serious concerns about abuses of market power and risk of future collusion. In particular, the strategic linkage of existing markets and the expansion into new ones are analyzed in the light of the multimarket contact theory. Considering investment in interconnection among Member States, the internal market issue is investigated as a solution to the 'risks' coming from liberalisation

  16. Concentration in the European electricity industry: The internal market as solution?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanico, Fabio [Department of Economics, Luiss Guido Carli University, 1, Via O. Tommasini, 00162 Roma (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    This article offers an analysis of the present competitive and regulatory framework of the European electricity sector and the results achieved with the liberalisation process. Considering the reactions of incumbents to the liberalisation, the focus in this work is mainly on the problem of market concentration in the sector. The new trends toward the creation of 'national champions' as well as recent mergers between gas suppliers and electricity producers raise serious concerns about abuses of market power and risk of future collusion. In particular, the strategic linkage of existing markets and the expansion into new ones are analyzed in the light of the multimarket contact theory. Considering investment in interconnection among Member States, the internal market issue is investigated as a solution to the 'risks' coming from liberalisation. (author)

  17. Structure Manipulation of Carbon Aerogels by Managing Solution Concentration of Precursor and Its Application for CO2 Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping He

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of carbon aerogels were synthesized by polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde, and their structure was adjusted by managing solution concentration of precursors. Carbon aerogels were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, N2 adsorption/desorption and scanning electron microscope (SEM technologies. It was found that the pore structure and morphology of carbon aerogels can be efficiently manipulated by managing solution concentration. The relative micropore volume of carbon aerogels, defined by Vmicro/Vtol, first increased and then decreased with the increase of solution concentration, leading to the same trend of CO2 adsorption capacity. Specifically, the CA-45 (the solution concentration of precursors is 45 wt% sample had the highest CO2 adsorption capacity (83.71 cm3/g and the highest selectivity of CO2/N2 (53 at 1 bar and 0 °C.

  18. Alkali solution extraction of rice residue protein isolates: Influence of alkali concentration on protein functional, structural properties and lysinoalanine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Furong; Ding, Wenhui; Qu, Wenjuan; Oladejo, Ayobami Olayemi; Xiong, Feng; Zhang, Weiwei; He, Ronghai; Ma, Haile

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the nutrient property and safety of the rice residue protein isolates (RRPI) product (extracted by different alkali concentrations) by exploring the protein functional, structural properties and lysinoalanine (LAL) formation. The results showed that with the rising of alkali concentration from 0.03M to 0.15M, the solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties of RRPI increased at first and then descended. When the alkali concentration was greater than 0.03M, the RRPI surface hydrophobicity decreased and the content of thiol and disulfide bond, Lys and Cys significantly reduced. By the analysis of HPLC, the content of LAL rose up from 276.08 to 15,198.07mg/kg and decreased to 1340.98mg/kg crude protein when the alkali concentration increased from 0.03 to 0.09M and until to 0.15M. These results indicated that RRPI alkaline extraction concentration above 0.03M may cause severe nutrient or safety problems of protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The present state of research on the vitrification of concentrated solutions of fission products (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonniaud, R.; Sombret, C.

    1961-01-01

    The present report gives the actual point of studies on vitrification of concentrated solutions of fission products. An active cell, giving glasses in crucibles, permitted to study various glass compositions. The leaching rate from the glass raises 1 to 2 10 -7 g of glass/cm 2 /day. Activity loss by volatility during vitrification remains weak and often below 0.1 per cent of total activity. Off gas cleaning is made easier by presence of filter which is compound of granules including iron oxide. After saturation the content of this filter can be melt. Moreover different processes are in experimentation for a more important production. Daily 72 liters of solution containing tracer activity are treated in a continuous calcination and vitrification plant. The loss in 106 Ru is still important and a modification of installation has been necessary. A pot vitrification plant is in study. In order to reduce cost of processing the possibility to pour glass after melting is actuality in study. A production set of very active glass is also in project. (authors) [fr

  20. Practical Considerations for Determination of Glass Transition Temperature of a Maximally Freeze Concentrated Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansare, Swapnil K; Patel, Sajal Manubhai

    2016-08-01

    Glass transition temperature is a unique thermal characteristic of amorphous systems and is associated with changes in physical properties such as heat capacity, viscosity, electrical resistance, and molecular mobility. Glass transition temperature for amorphous solids is referred as (T g), whereas for maximally freeze concentrated solution, the notation is (T g'). This article is focused on the factors affecting determination of T g' for application to lyophilization process design and frozen storage stability. Also, this review provides a perspective on use of various types of solutes in protein formulation and their effect on T g'. Although various analytical techniques are used for determination of T g' based on the changes in physical properties associated with glass transition, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the most commonly used technique. In this article, an overview of DSC technique is provided along with brief discussion on the alternate analytical techniques for T g' determination. Additionally, challenges associated with T g' determination, using DSC for protein formulations, are discussed. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical industry perspective on determination of T g' for protein formulations as it relates to design and development of lyophilization process and/or for frozen storage; however, a comprehensive review of glass transition temperature (T g, T g'), in general, is outside the scope of this work.

  1. Experiments on the incorporation of concentrated solutions of fission products in glasses and micas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonniaud, R.; Cohen, P.; Sombret, C.

    1958-01-01

    1) The plants designed for extracting the plutonium of the G1, G2, G3 reactors fuel rods will produce extremely concentrated solutions of fission products. 2) Let us consider a synthetic solution of the 'G2' type: (2N NO 3 H - 2,25 meq/cm 3 AI +++ - 5.10 -3 134 Cs - 137 Cs tracer). We made various glasses and micas by adding and mixing the necessary adjuvants and baking (900 to 1400 deg. C) in a graphite crucible. 3) The products obtained had either the shape of a cylindrical pellet or were reduced into a fine powder. They were mixed with 300 cm 3 of synthetic sea water during variable periods of time in order to study leaching of the activity. 4) Experiments were first carried on caesium because of its solubility. 5) Fabrication of micas on a large scale sets many technological problems more difficult to solve (1400 deg. C) than in the case of glasses (1000 deg. C). A comparative study on both micas and glasses showed that leaching of activity was more important in the micas. (author) [fr

  2. Effect of Na2CO3 degumming concentration on LiBr-formic acid-silk fibroin solution properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt-acid system has been proved to be of high efficiency for silk fibroin dissolution. Using salt-acid system to dissolve silk, native silk fibrils can be preserved in the regenerated solution. Increasing experiments indicate that acquirement of silk fibrils in solution is strongly associated with the degumming process. In this study, the effect of sodium carbonate degumming concentration on solution properties based on lithium bromide-formic acid dissolution system was systematically investigated. Results showed that the morphology transformation of silk fibroin in solution from nanospheres to nanofibrils is determined by sodium carbonate concentration during the degumming process. Solutions containing different silk fibroin structure exhibited different rheological behaviors and different electrospinnability, leading to different electrospun nanofibre properties. The results have guiding significance for preparation and application of silk fibroin solutions.

  3. Análise sensorial, teores de nitrato e de nutrientes de alface cultivada em hidroponia sob águas salinas Sensory analysis, nitrate and nutrient concentration of lettuce grown in hydroponics under saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Paulus

    2012-03-01

    nutrients and nitrate and perform sensory analysis of lettuce in hydroponic system under saline water. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse from December, 2007 to January, 2008, in Piracicaba. The experimental design was randomized blocks and factorial scheme (five salinity levels obtained with the addition of NaCl that resulted in different electrical conductivities of the water (dS m-1: 0.42, 1.53, 3.52, 5.55, 7.43 and two cultivas of lettuce (Veronica and Pira Roxa. The evaluations were: sensory analysis applying hedonic scale and through this, which sample presented the best and the least taste, the purchase intent and consumption, nitrate, absorption of nutrients by leaves and determination of nutrients in the nutrient solution. For the attribute of cultivars, Veronica received the highest marks in salt level 1.53 and 5.55 dS m-1. For cultivar Pira Roxa was awarded the best grade for lettuce grown in non-saline water. For other attributes there was no significant difference in levels of salinity. To purchase intention, it was found that cv. Verônica and Pira Roxa had good market acceptance. The lowest levels of nitrate (1960 mg kg-1 and 2620 mg kg-1 fresh weight of Verônica and Pira Roxa, respectively, were related to the electrical conductivity of 0.42 dS m-1, increasing water salinity to 7.43 dS m-1, the leaf content of nitrate increased to 2500 mg kg-1 and 3420 mg kg-1 for the cultivars Verônica and Pira Roxa. As the time of exposure to salt in a hydroponic system was short, around 25 days, there were no symptoms of nutrient deficiency and whole lettuce was classified as suitable for human consumption.

  4. Concentration dependence of the partial volume, viscosity, and electric conductivity of solutions of lithium salts in aliphatic alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseeva, O.V.; Golubev, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    Concentration dependence of partial volumes, electric conductivity and viscosity of lithium nitrate and chloride solutions in methanol, propanol, isopropanol, butanol, isobutanol, pentanol and isopentanol at 298.15 K were studied by the methods of densimetry, conductometry and viscosimetry. Structural specific features of the solutions studied are discussed on the basis of the calculated volumetric characteristics of the substance dissolved and solvent [ru

  5. Concentrated aqueous sodium chloride solution in clays at thermodynamic conditions of hydraulic fracturing: Insight from molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Martin; Lísal, Martin

    2018-06-01

    To address a high salinity of flow-back water during hydraulic fracturing, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and study the thermodynamics, structure, and diffusion of concentrated aqueous salt solution in clay nanopores. The concentrated solution results from the dissolution of a cubic NaCl nanocrystal, immersed in an aqueous NaCl solution of varying salt concentration and confined in clay pores of a width comparable to the crystal size. The size of the nanocrystal equals to about 18 Å which is above a critical nucleus size. We consider a typical shale gas reservoir condition of 365 K and 275 bar, and we represent the clay pores as pyrophyllite and Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) slits. We employ the Extended Simple Point Charge (SPC/E) model for water, Joung-Cheatham model for ions, and CLAYFF for the slit walls. We impose the pressure in the normal direction and the resulting slit width varies from about 20 to 25 Å when the salt concentration in the surrounding solution increased from zero to an oversaturated value. By varying the salt concentration, we observe two scenarios. First, the crystal dissolves and its dissolution time increases with increasing salt concentration. We describe the dissolution process in terms of the number of ions in the crystal, and the crystal size and shape. Second, when the salt concentration reaches a system solubility limit, the crystal grows and attains a new equilibrium size; the crystal comes into equilibrium with the surrounding saturated solution. After crystal dissolution, we carry out canonical MD simulations for the concentrated solution. We evaluate the hydration energy, density profiles, orientation distributions, hydrogen-bond network, radial distribution functions, and in-plane diffusion of water and ions to provide insight into the microscopic behaviour of the concentrated aqueous sodium chloride solution in interlayer galleries of the slightly hydrophobic pyrophyllite and hydrophilic Na-MMT pores.

  6. Separation of copper flotation concentrates into density fractions by means of polytungstate aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luszczkiewicz Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and laboratory flotation copper concentrates were subjected to separation into density fractions by means of heavy liquids in the form of sodium polytungstate aqueous solutions. For two samples, three densities factions were created, however in different density ranges. The density fractions were analyzed to establish the content of copper, lead, silver and organic carbon. The size of particles in both samples was similar (90-95% −0.071 mm. It was found that the lightest density fractions −2.45 and −2.0 g/cm3 still contained sulfide minerals scattered in the organic carbon bearing particles. Removal of the lightest density fraction (−2.0 g/cm3 from the industrial concentrate samples led to considerable reduction of organic carbon (92% and increasing its quality from 13 to 28% Cu. The mineralogical analysis of the heavy liquid separation products showed that most sulfide minerals were evenly dissemination in the heaviest density fractions with the recovery of 95-98%. The lightest density fraction of −2.0 g/cm3, being the richest in organic carbon, contained approximately 3% of unliberated sulfide minerals.

  7. [Influence of an infusion of 5- or 20% glucose solution on blood glucose and inorganic phosphate concentrations in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaek, T A A; Failing, K; Wehrend, A; Klymiuk, M C

    2011-01-01

    The study was performed to evaluate the influence of an intravenous infusion of 5% and 20% dextrose solution on the plasma concentration of glucose and inorganic phosphate in healthy, dairy cows. Ten healthy, lactating, nonpregnant 3 to 6 year-old Holstein-Friesian cows were included in this investigation. The daily milk yield was 20.3±2.7 liters. Blood plasma concentrations of inorganic phosphate and glucose were determined before, during, immediately and 60 minutes after infusion of 0.9% physiological saline, 5% or 20% dextrose solution. A statistically significant influence of dextrose infusion on blood glucose concentration was observed. After 20% dextrose infusion (200 g dextrose) the blood glucose concentration increased by approximately 13.26 mmol/l. The administration of 5% dextrose solution (50 g dextrose) yielded an increase of blood glucose concentration by 3.31 mmol/l. There was no significant correlation between plasma inorganic phosphate concentrations and infusion of 0.9% saline, 5% or 20% dextrose solution. Intravenous administration of 1000 ml of 5% or 20% dextrose solution does not induce a lasting plasma phosphate reduction and is suitable for elevating the blood glucose concentration.

  8. Fluid motion and solute distribution around sinking aggregates I : Small-scale fluxes and heterogeneity of nutrients in the pelagic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Ploug, H.; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2001-01-01

    in the ambient water. We described the fluid flow and solute distribution around a sinking aggregate by solving the Navier- Stokes' equations and the advection-diffusion equations numerically. The model is valid for Reynolds numbers characteristic of marine snow, up to Re = 20. The model demonstrates...... in its wake, where solute concentration is either elevated (leaking substances) or depressed (consumed substances) relative to ambient concentration. Such plumes may impact the nutrition of osmotrophs. For example, based on published solubilization rates of aggregates we describe the amino acid plume...

  9. A different interpretation of Einstein's viscosity equation provides accurate representations of the behavior of hydrophilic solutes to high concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavitsas, Andreas A

    2012-08-23

    Viscosities of aqueous solutions of many highly soluble hydrophilic solutes with hydroxyl and amino groups are examined with a focus on improving the concentration range over which Einstein's relationship between solution viscosity and solute volume, V, is applicable accurately. V is the hydrodynamic effective volume of the solute, including any water strongly bound to it and acting as a single entity with it. The widespread practice is to relate the relative viscosity of solute to solvent, η/η(0), to V/V(tot), where V(tot) is the total volume of the solution. For solutions that are not infinitely dilute, it is shown that the volume ratio must be expressed as V/V(0), where V(0) = V(tot) - V. V(0) is the volume of water not bound to the solute, the "free" water solvent. At infinite dilution, V/V(0) = V/V(tot). For the solutions examined, the proportionality constant between the relative viscosity and volume ratio is shown to be 2.9, rather than the 2.5 commonly used. To understand the phenomena relating to viscosity, the hydrodynamic effective volume of water is important. It is estimated to be between 54 and 85 cm(3). With the above interpretations of Einstein's equation, which are consistent with his stated reasoning, the relation between the viscosity and volume ratio remains accurate to much higher concentrations than those attainable with any of the other relations examined that express the volume ratio as V/V(tot).

  10. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Craine; Andrew J. Elmore; Marcos P. M. Aidar; Mercedes Bustamante; Todd E. Dawson; Erik A. Hobbie; Ansgar Kahmen; Michelle C. Mack; Kendra K. McLauchlan; Anders Michelsen; Gabriela Nardoto; Linda H. Pardo; Josep Penuelas; Peter B. Reich; Edward A.G. Schuur; William D. Stock; Pamela H. Templer; Ross A. Virginia; Jeffrey M. Welker; Ian J. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios, foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11 000 plants worldwide. Global-scale comparisons of other components of the N cycle...

  11. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craine, J M; Elmore, A J; Aidar, M P M

    2009-01-01

    Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios (d15N), foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11 00...

  12. Circulating fat-soluble vitamin concentrations and nutrient composition of aquatic prey eaten by American oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Norton, Terry M.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Winn, Brad; Spinks, Mark D.; Glatt, Batsheva A.; Mazzaro, Lisa; Jodice, Patrick G.R.; Chen, Tai C.; Dierenfeld, Ellen S.

    2014-01-01

    The American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus palliatus) is currently listed as a species of high concern by the United States Shorebird Conservation Plan. Because nutritional status directly impacts overall health and reproduction of individuals and populations, adequate management of a wildlife population requires intimate knowledge of a species' diet and nutrient requirements. Fat-soluble vitamin concentrations in blood plasma obtained from American oystercatchers and proximate, vitamin, and mineral composition of various oystercatcher prey species were determined as baseline data to assess nutritional status and nutrient supply. Bird and prey species samples were collected from the Cape Romain region, South Carolina, USA, and the Altamaha River delta islands, Georgia, USA, where breeding populations appear relatively stable in recent years. Vitamin A levels in blood samples were higher than ranges reported as normal for domestic avian species, and vitamin D concentrations were lower than anticipated based on values observed in poultry. Vitamin E levels were within ranges previously reported for avian groups with broadly similar feeding niches such as herons, gulls, and terns (eg, aquatic/estuarine/marine). Prey species (oysters, mussels, clams, blood arks [Anadara ovalis], whelks [Busycon carica], false angel wings [Petricola pholadiformis]) were similar in water content to vertebrate prey, moderate to high in protein, and moderate to low in crude fat. Ash and macronutrient concentrations in prey species were high compared with requirements of carnivores or avian species. Prey items analyzed appear to meet nutritional requirements for oystercatchers, as estimated by extrapolation from domestic carnivores and poultry species; excesses, imbalances, and toxicities—particularly of minerals and fat-soluble vitamins—may warrant further investigation.

  13. Concentrations and loads of nutrients in the tributaries of the Lake Okeechobee watershed, south-central Florida, water years 2004-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael J.; Wood, Molly S.

    2011-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee in south-central Florida is the second largest freshwater lake in the contiguous United States. Excessive phosphorus loading, harmful high and low water levels, and rapid expansion of non-native vegetation have threatened the health of the lake in recent decades. A study was conducted to monitor discharge and nutrient concentrations from selected tributaries into Lake Okeechobee and to evaluate nutrient loads. The data analysis was performed at 16 monitoring stations from December 2003 to September 2008. Annual and seasonal discharge measured at monitoring stations is affected by rainfall. Hurricanes affected three wet years (2004, 2005, and the latter part of 2008) and resulted in substantially greater discharge than the drought years of 2006, 2007, and the early part of 2008. Rainfall supplies about 50 percent of the water to Lake Okeechobee, discharge from the Kissimmee River supplies about 25 percent, and discharge from tributaries and groundwater seepage along the lake perimeter collectively provide the remaining 25 percent. Annually, tributary discharge from basins located on the west side of the Kissimmee River is about 5 to 6 times greater than that from basins located on the east side. For the purposes of this study, the basins on the east side of the Kissimmee River are called "priority basins" because of elevated phosphorus concentrations, while those on the west side are called "nonpriority" basins. Total annual discharge in the non-priority basins ranged from 245,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) in 2007 to 1,322,000 acre-ft in 2005, while annual discharge from the priority basins ranged from 41,000 acre-ft in 2007 to 219,000 acre-ft in 2005. Mean total phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.10 to 0.54 milligrams per liter (mg/L) at the 16 tributaries during 2004–2008. Mean concentrations were significantly higher at priority basin sites than at non-priority basin sites, particularly at Arbuckle Creek and C 41A Canal. Concentrations of organic

  14. Determination of the free ion concentration of trace metals in soil solution using a soil column Donnan membrane technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weng, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the free metal ion is difficult, especially for trace metals present in very small concentrations (less than micromolar) in natural systems. The recently developed Donnan membrane technique can measure the concentrations in solution in the presence of inorganic and organic

  15. Recovery of Nutrients from Biogas Digestate with Biochar and Clinoptilolite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocatürk, Nazli Pelin

    in recovery of nutrients whose natural reserves are being depleted such as phosphorus and potassium. In this thesis I propose the use of sorbents i.e. biochar and clinoptilolite to concentrate nutrients and subsequently the application of digestate-enriched biochar and clinoptilolite as fertiliser. Therefore...... the overall objective of this thesis is to investigate the use of clinoptilolite and biochar to recover plant nutrients from the liquid fraction of digestate resulting from anaerobic digestion of animal manure and investigate the plant-availability of the recovered form of nutrients. In Chapter 1 (General...... of nutrients on sorbent) but decreasing efficiencies of clinoptilolite to remove nutrients from the liquid fraction of digestate. In Chapter 3, I studied the chemical activation of biochar by treating the biochar with deionised water, hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions...

  16. The influence of plutonium concentration and solution flow rate on the effective capacity of macroporous anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Gallegos, T.D.

    1987-07-01

    The principal aqueous process used to recover and purify plutonium at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility is anion exchange in nitric acid. Previous studies with gel-type anion exchange resin have shown an inverse relationship between plutonium concentration in the feed solution and the optimum flow rate for this process. Because gel-type resin has been replaced with macroporous resin at Los Alamos, the relationship between plutonium concentration and solution flow rate was reexamined with the selected Lewatit MP-500-FK resin using solutions of plutonium in nitric acid and in nitric acid with high levels of added nitrate salts. Our results with this resin differ significantly from previous data obtained with gel-type resin. Flow-rate variation from 10 to 80 liters per hour had essentially no effect on the measured quantities of plutonium sorbed by the macroporous resin. However, the effect of plutonium concentration in the feed solutions was pronounced, as feed solutions that contained the highest concentrations of plutonium also produced the highest resin loadings. The most notable effect of high concentrations of dissolved nitrate salts in these solutions was an increased resin capacity for plutonium at low flow rates. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was cotton seed meal levels in the concentrate; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg. Bulls received urea-lime treated rice straw ad libitum and were supplemented with 10 g of concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source and level of cotton seed meal did not have significant effects on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein synthesis or feed intake. Animals which received CC showed significantly higher BUN concentration, ruminal propionic acid and butyric acid proportions, while dry matter, organic matter digestibility, populations of total viable bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were lower than those in the CR3:1 treatment. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was higher in HCM than LCM treatments, while the concentration of butyric acid was higher in LCM than HCM treatments. The population of proteolytic bacteria with the LCM treatments was higher than the HCM treatments; however other bacteria groups were similar among the different levels of cotton seed meal. Bulls which received LCM had higher protein digestibility than those receiving HCM. Therefore, using high levels of cassava chip and cotton seed meal might positively impact on energy and nitrogen balance for the microbial population in the rumen of the young dairy bull.

  18. Absorption capacity and viscosity for CO_2 capture process using high concentrated PZ-DEAE aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Dong; Wang, LeMeng; Mi, ChenLu; Zhang, Pan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Absorption of CO_2 in high concentrated DEAE-PZ aqueous solutions were measured. • Viscosities of CO_2-unloaded and CO_2-loaded DEAE-PZ aqueous solutions were measured. • Weiland equation was used to calculate the viscosities. • Effects of temperature, concentration and CO_2 loading on viscosity were demonstrated. - Abstract: The absorption capacity of CO_2 in piperazine (PZ) promoted 2-diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) aqueous solution was measured. The viscosities of both CO_2-unloaded and CO_2-loaded PZ-DEAE aqueous solutions were measured and then modelled. The temperatures ranged from 303.2 K to 323.2 K. The mass fraction of PZ and DEAE respectively ranged from 0 to 0.075 and 0.3 to 0.5. The temperature and concentration dependences of absorption capacity were determined. The effects of temperature, mass fraction and CO_2 loading on viscosities are demonstrated.

  19. Comparison of two organic fertilizers along with Zn and B elements on concentration, uptake of nutrients and some growth parameters in millet (Panicum miliaceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nezhad hoseini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of two organic fertilizers along with zinc and boron elements on some growth parameters, concentration and uptake of nutrients in millet (Panicum miliaceum L. by using factorial based on randomized completely block design with three replications in Qaen region, Iran. The main treatments were municipal solid waste compost and cow manure (each at 0 and 25 t.ha-1 and sub treatments were elements of Zn (0, 50 kg.ha-1 and B (0, 10 kg.ha-1 using their respective ZnSO4 and H3BO3 salts. Results showed that treatments interaction had significant effects on total dry matter yield, number of tillers per plant and plant height of Millet. The highest total dry matter production was achieved by interaction of cow manure along with Zn and B elements. Concentrations of N, Fe, Zn, B and Cu in plant were increased significantly by treatments interaction effects compared to control. Interaction effect of organic fertilizers with B (in the absence of Zn enhanced plant B concentration significantly, whereas, interaction of organic fertilizers with Zn (in the absence of B decreased B concentration in plant. The highest plant uptake of N, P, K, Zn, and B was observed in plots with cow manure and Zn and B elements.

  20. The rheology of oxide dispersions and the role of concentrated electrolyte solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, Simon; Tindley, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Stability control of particulate dispersions is critical to a wide range of industrial processes. In the UK nuclear industry, significant volumes of waste materials arising from the corrosion products of Magnox fuel rods currently require treatment and storage. The majority of this waste is present as aqueous dispersions of oxide particulates. Treatment of these dispersions will require a variety of unit operations including mobilisation, transport and solid- liquid separation. Typically these processes must operate across a narrow optimal range of pH and the dispersions are, almost without exception, found in complex electrolyte conditions of high overall concentration. Knowledge of the behaviour of oxides in various electrolyte conditions and over a large pH range is essential for the efficient design and control of any waste processing approach. The transport properties of particle dispersions are characterised by the rheological properties. It is well known that particle dispersion rheology is strongly influenced by particle-particle interaction forces, and that particle-particle interactions are strongly influenced by adsorbed ions on the particle surfaces. Here we correlate measurements of the shear yield stress and the particle zeta potentials to provide insight as to the role of ions in moderating particle interactions. The zeta potential of model TiO 2 suspensions were determined (Colloidal Dynamics Zeta Probe) over a range of pH for a series of alkali metal halides and quaternary ammonium halides at a range of solution concentrations (0.001 M - 1 M). The results show some surprising co-ion effects at high electrolyte concentrations (>0.5 M) and indicate that even ions generally considered to be indifferent induce a shift in iso-electric point (i.e.p.) which is inferred as being due to specific adsorption of ions. The shear yield stress values of concentrated titania dispersions were measured using a Bohlin C-VOR stress controlled rheometer. The shear

  1. Differential Concentrations of some Nutrient Element in Forage of Corn (Zea mays L. as Affected by Organic Fertilizers and Soil Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Najafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction is one of the most important limiting factor for normal crop growth, because it reduces absorption by the plant. Application of organic fertilizers in agricultural soils can reduce the detrimental effects of soil compaction on plant growth and also supply some nutrients to plant. Thus, a factorial experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications and 14 treatments to evaluate the effects of organic fertilizers in mitigating soil compaction. The first factor in this study was the source and amount of organic fertilizer at seven levels (control, farmyard manure, sewage sludge compost and municipal solid waste compost and each of organic fertilizers at two levels of 15 and 30 g/kg of soil. The second factor was soil compaction at two levels (bulk density of 1.2 and 1.7 g/cm3. To perform this experiment, 10 kg of dry soil was poured into special PVC pots and then seeds of single cross 704 corn were planted. At the end of the growth period, the corn shoot was harvested and concentrations of phosphorus (P, potassium (K, sodium (Na, iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb were determined by dry ashing method. The results showed that concentrations of Cd and Pb in the shoot, related to the different treatments, were negligible. Concentrations of P, K, Fe, Mn and Zn in the corn shoot were increased significantly by application of farmyard manure, sewage sludge compost and municipal solid waste compost at both levels of soil compaction. However, Na concentration of shoot did not change significantly. Soil compaction significantly reduced P, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations of corn shoot, but it affected concentrations of Na and K significantly. Application of organic fertilizers and increasing their levels reduced the negative effects of soil compaction on nutrients uptake by corn plant. This study showed that to improve forage corn nutrition, application of 15 or 30 g of farmyard

  2. Dependence of the degree of antibacterial and antiphage action of ozone on cell and phage particle concentrations in nutrient media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grits, N.V.; Fomichev, A.Iu.

    1985-05-01

    The work was aimed at studying the inactivating effect of ozone on Escherichia coli K-12 AB1157, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Erwinia herbicola EH103 and their phages T4, SM and I4. The degree of bacterial and phage inactivation was found to increase with a decrease in their initial concentration during the treatment. The effect depends on differences in the quantity of ozone per cell or per phage particle in the reaction medium. This conclusion is based on the fact that, irrespective of the suspension density, the amount of surviving bacteria and phages plotted versus O3 concentration and recalculated per one bacterial cell or phage particle is described graphically by one and the same curve typical of a strain under study. This technique for assessing the sensitivity of microbiological objects to ozone can be used in order to compare experimental data obtained in different laboratories.

  3. Sustrates and nutrient solutions for obtaining pipper seedlings and its influences on the production in crops protected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairely Sarduy Díaz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the productive success in the production of the pepper (Capsicum annum L. in protected crop is necessary to guarantee the quality of the seedlings. For that the objective of this investigation was to evaluate mixtures with crowd + coconut fiber and worm humus as substrates and three nutritious solutions for the production of seedlings of pepper and its later influence on the production. In the nursery phase an assay in a design totally randomized was used in factorial arrangement 32, being the factors, substrate and nutritious solution where variables of growth and development were evaluated, in 25 seedlings for treatment. In the experiment in field phase was given pursuit to the plants coming from the nine treatments of the nursery phase in a design at random blocks with four replicas, where components of the yield were evaluated in 10 plants by parcel and the yield in the total parcel. The data were processed by means of a variance analysis using the statistical package SPSS version 15. The employment of worm humus with the nutritious solution B and the humus with the crowd and coconut plus the application of the nutritious solutions A and B allows obtaining pepper seedlings with the established quality. These combinations stand out in the production phase for the percentage of flourishing plants, mass of the fruits and the yield, for that the employment of these substrates, constitute new alternatives for this technology.

  4. Use of flow-normalization to evaluate nutrient concentration and flux changes in Lake Champlain tributaries, 1990-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura; Hirsch, Robert M.; Archfield, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated 20 years of total phosphorus (P) and total nitrogen (N) concentration data for 18 Lake Champlain tributaries using a new statistical method based on weighted regressions to estimate daily concentration and flux histories based on discharge, season, and trend as explanatory variables. The use of all the streamflow discharge values for a given date in the record, in a process called "flow-normalization," removed the year-to-year variation due to streamflow and generated a smooth time series from which trends were calculated. This approach to data analysis can be of great value to evaluations of the success of restoration efforts because it filters out the large random fluctuations in the flux that are due to the temporal variability in streamflow. Results for the full 20 years of record showed a mixture of upward and downward trends for concentrations and yields of P and N. When the record was broken into two 10-year periods, for many tributaries, the more recent period showed a reversal in N from upward to downward trends and a similar reversal or reduction in magnitude of upward trends for P. Some measures of P and N concentrations and yields appear to be related to intensity of agricultural activities, point-source loads of P, or population density. Total flow-normalized P flux aggregated from the monitored tributaries showed a decrease of 30 metric tons per year from 1991 to 2009, which is about 15% of the targeted reduction established by the operational management plan for the Lake Champlain Basin.

  5. Administration of platelet concentrates suspended in bicarbonated Ringer's solution in children who had platelet transfusion reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, J; Yanagisawa, R; Ono, T; Tatsuzawa, Y; Tokutake, Y; Kubota, N; Hidaka, E; Sakashita, K; Kojima, S; Shimodaira, S; Nakamura, T

    2018-02-01

    Adverse reactions to platelet transfusions are a problem. Children with primary haematological and malignant diseases may experience allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs) to platelet concentrates (PCs), which can be prevented by giving washed PCs. A new platelet additive solution, using bicarbonated Ringer's solution and acid-citrate-dextrose formula A (BRS-A), may be better for platelet washing and storage, but clinical data are scarce. A retrospective cohort study for consecutive cases was performed between 2013 and 2017. For 24 months, we transfused washed PCs containing BRS-A to children with primary haematological and malignant diseases and previous adverse reactions. Patients transfused with conventional PCs (containing residual plasma) were assigned as controls, and results were compared in terms of frequency of ATRs, corrected count increment (CCI) and occurrence of bleeding. We also studied children transfused with PCs washed by a different system as historical controls. Thirty-two patients received 377 conventional PC transfusions. ATRs occurred in 12 (37·5%) patients from transfused with 18 (4·8%) bags. Thirteen patients, who experienced reactions to regular PCs in plasma, then received 119 transfusion bags of washed PCs containing BRS-A, and none had ATRs to washed PCs containing BRS-A. Before study period, six patients transfused 137 classical washed PCs with different platelet additive solution, under same indication, ATRs occurred in one (16·7%) patient from transfused with one (0·7%) bags. CCIs (24 h) in were lower with classical washed PCs (1·26 ± 0·54) compared to regular PCs in plasma (2·07 ± 0·76) (P < 0·001), but there was no difference between washed PCs containing BRS-A (2·14 ± 0·77) and regular PCs (2·21 ± 0·79) (P = 0·769), and we saw no post-transfusion bleeding. Washed PCs containing BRS-A appear to prevent ATRs without loss of transfusion efficacy in children with primary haematological and malignant

  6. Uncertainty of solute flux estimation in ungauged small streams: potential implications for input-output nutrient mass balances at stream reach scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butturini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Input-output mass balances within stream reaches provide in situ estimates of stream nutrient retention/release under a wide spectrum of hydrological conditions. Providing good estimates of the mass balances for nutrients depends on precise hydrological monitoring and good chemical characterisation of stream water at the input and output ends of the stream reach. There is a need to optimise the hydrological monitoring and the frequencies of water sampling to yield precise annual mass balances, so as to avoid undue cost - high resolution monitoring and subsequent chemical analysis can be labour intensive and costly. In this paper, simulation exercises were performed using a data set created to represent the instantaneous discharge and solute dynamics at the input and output ends of a model stream reach during a one year period. At the output end, stream discharge and water chemistry were monitored continuously, while the input end was assumed to be ungauged; water sampling frequency was changed arbitrarily. Instantaneous discharge at the ungauged sampling point was estimated with an empirical power model linking the discharge to the catchment area (Hooper, 1986. The model thus substitutes for the additional gauge station. Simulations showed that 10 days was the longest chemical sampling interval which could provide reach annual mass balances of acceptable precision. Presently, the relationship between discharge and catchment area is usually assumed to be linear but simulations indicate that small departures from the linearity of this relationship could cause dramatic changes in the mass balance estimations.

  7. In-core LOCA-s: analytical solution for the delayed mixing model for moderator poison concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firla, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Solutions to dynamic moderator poison concentration model with delayed mixing under single pressure tube / calandria tube rupture scenario are discussed. Such a model is described by a delay differential equation, and for such equations the standard ways of solution are not directly applicable. In the paper an exact, direct time-domain analytical solution to the delayed mixing model is presented and discussed. The obtained solution has a 'marching' form and is easy to calculate numerically. Results of the numerical calculations based on the analytical solution indicate that for the expected range of mixing times the existing uniform mixing model is a good representation of the moderator poison mixing process for single PT/CT breaks. However, for postulated multi-pipe breaks ( which is very unlikely to occur ) the uniform mixing model is not adequate any more; at the same time an 'approximate' solution based on Laplace transform significantly overpredicts the rate of poison concentration decrease, resulting in excessive increase in the moderator dilution factor. In this situation the true, analytical solution must be used. The analytical solution presented in the paper may also serve as a bench-mark test for the accuracy of the existing poison mixing models. Moreover, because of the existing oscillatory tendency of the solution, special care must be taken in using delay differential models in other applications. (author). 3 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs

  8. Evolution of ion damage at 773K in Ni- containing concentrated solid-solution alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shi; He, Mo-Rigen; Jin, Ke; Bei, Hongbin; Robertson, Ian M.

    2018-04-01

    Quantitative analysis of the impact of the compositional complexity in a series of Ni-containing concentrated solid-solution alloys, Ni, NiCo, NiFe, NiCoCr, NiCoFeCr, NiCoFeCrMn and NiCoFeCrPd, on the evolution of defects produced by 1 MeV Kr ion irradiation at 773 K is reported. The dynamics of the evolution of the damage structure during irradiation to a dose of 2 displacements per atom were observed directly by performing the ion irradiations in electron transparent foils in a transmission electron microscope coupled to an ion accelerator. The defect evolution was assessed through measurement of the defect density, defect size and fraction of perfect and Frank loops. These three parameters were dependent on the alloying element as well as the number of elements. The population of loops was sensitive to the ion dose and alloy composition as faulted Frank loops were observed to unfault to perfect loops with increasing ion dose. These dependences are explained in terms of the influence of each element on the lifetime of the displacement cascade as well as on defect formation and migration energies.

  9. Radiation-induced segregation on defect clusters in single-phase concentrated solid-solution alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chenyang; Yang, Taini; Jin, Ke; Gao, Ning; Xiu, Pengyuan; Zhang, Yanwen; Gao, Fei; Bei, Hongbin; Weber, William J.; Sun, Kai; Dong, Yan; Wang, Lumin

    2017-01-01

    A group of single-phase concentrated solid-solution alloys (SP-CSAs), including NiFe, NiCoFe, NiCoFeCr, as well as a high entropy alloy NiCoFeCrMn, was irradiated with 3 MeV Ni"2"+ ions at 773 K to a fluence of 5 × 10"1"6 ions/cm"2 for the study of radiation response with increasing compositional complexity. Advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to characterize the dislocation loop distribution and radiation-induced segregation (RIS) on defect clusters in the SP-CSAs. The results show that a higher fraction of faulted loops exists in the more compositionally complex alloys, which indicate that increasing compositional complexity can extend the incubation period and delay loop growth. The RIS behaviors of each element in the SP-CSAs were observed as follows: Ni and Co tend to enrich, but Cr, Fe and Mn prefer to deplete near the defect clusters. RIS level can be significantly suppressed by increasing compositional complexity due to the sluggish atom diffusion. According to molecular static (MS) simulations, “disk” like segregations may form near the faulted dislocation loops in the SP-CSAs. Segregated elements tend to distribute around the whole faulted loop as a disk rather than only around the edge of the loop.

  10. G eobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan; Call, Douglas; Wang, Aijie; Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Summary: An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G.sulfurreducensPCA and Geobacter metallireducensGS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290±29Am-3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189±44Am-3) or the type strains (<70Am-3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50mM PBS and 650mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158±4Am-3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50mM PBS (220±4Am-3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147±19Am-3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  11. G eobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan

    2014-07-16

    © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Summary: An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G.sulfurreducensPCA and Geobacter metallireducensGS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290±29Am-3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189±44Am-3) or the type strains (<70Am-3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50mM PBS and 650mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158±4Am-3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50mM PBS (220±4Am-3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147±19Am-3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  12. Influence of Poultry Manure Rates and Spacing on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Concentration , Uptake and Proximate Composition of Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehizogie Joyce FALODUN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant spacing determines to a greater extent crop performance in terms of growth and yield. The production of crop with organic fertilizer also plays a vital role in organic agriculture. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of spacing and poultry manure on the growth, yield and quality of onion. Three spacing regimes were carried out consisting of (15cm x 15 cm , 20 cm x 20 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm and four levels of poultry manure at ( 0, 5, 10 and 15 t /ha . The effects of spacing and poultry manure were evaluated for 2 years based on plant growth, yield, nutrient concentration, uptake and proximate composition of onion plant. Leaf thickness, bulb and shoot fresh weights were significantly increased by the wider spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm, compared with the narrower spacing of 15cm x 15 cm in both seasons. However, highest total dry yield (1.82 and 1.58 t /ha, shoot yield (2.31 and 1.32 t /ha and total fresh yield (13.69 and 12.55 t/ha were obtained with the spacing of 20cm x 20 cm in both years. Similarly, application of poultry manure increased leaf thickness, bulb and shoot fresh weights and yields compared with the control. Generally, using 10 t/ha poultry manure has a superior effect on proximate composition and most of growth parameters and yield components achieved the highest nutrient concentrations and uptake on most of the macro and micronutrients in leaves and bulbs as compared with the control in both years.

  13. Effect of uranyl nitrate and free acid concentration in feed solution of gelation on UO2 kernel quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masduki, B.; Wardaya; Widarmoko, A.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation on the effect of uranium and free nitric acid concentration of uranyl nitrate as feed of gelation process on quality of UO 2 kernel was done.The investigation is to look for some concentration of uranyl nitrate solutions those are optimum as feed for preparation of gelled UO 3 . Uranyl nitrate solution of various concentration of uranium (450; 500; 550; 600; 650; 700 g/l) and free nitric acid of (0.9; 1.0; 1.1 N) was made into feed solutions by adding urea and HMTA with mole ratio of urea/uranium and HMTA/uranium 2.1 and 2.0. The feed solutions were changed into spherical gelled UO 3 by dropping was done to get the optimum concentrations of uranyl nitrate solutions. The gelled UO 3 was soaked and washed with 2.5% ammonia solution for 17 hours, dried at 70 o C, calcined at 350 o C for 3 hours then reduced at 850 o C for 3 hours. At every step of the steps process the colour and percentage of well product of gelled UO 3 were noticed. The density and O/U ratio of end product (UO 2 kernel) was determined, the percentage of well product of all steps process was also determined. The three factor were used to chose the optimum concentration of uranyl nitrate solution. From this investigation it was concluded that the optimum concentration of uranyl nitrate was 600 g/l uranium with free nitric acid 0,9 - 1,0 N, the percentage of well product was 97% density of 6.12 - 4.8 g/cc and O/U ratio of 2.15 - 2.06. (author)

  14. [Analyze nanofiltration separation rule of chlorogenic acid from low concentration ethanol by Donnan effect and solution-diffusion effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cun-Yu; Liu, Li-Cheng; Jin, Li-Yang; Li, Hong-Yang; Peng, Guo-Ping

    2017-07-01

    To separate chlorogenic acid from low concentration ethanol and explore the influence of Donnan effect and solution-diffusion effect on the nanofiltration separation rule. The experiment showed that solution pH and ethanol volume percent had influences on the separation of chlorogenic acid. Within the pH values from 3 to 7 for chlorogenic acid in 30% ethanol, the rejection rate of chlorogenic acid was changed by 70.27%. Through the response surface method for quadratic regression model, an interaction had been found in molecule weight cut-off, pH and ethanol volume percent. In fixed nanofiltration apparatus, the existence states of chlorogenic acid determinedits separation rules. With the increase of ethanol concentration, the free form chlorogenic acid was easily adsorbed, dissolved on membrane surface and then caused high transmittance due to the solution-diffusion effect. However, at the same time, due to the double effects of Donnan effect and solution-diffusion effect, the ionic state of chlorogenic acid was hard to be adsorbed in membrane surface and thus caused high rejection rate. The combination of Box-Behnken design and response surface analysis can well optimize the concentrate process by nanofiltration, and the results showed that nanofiltration had several big advantages over the traditional vacuum concentrate technology, meanwhile, and solved the problems of low efficiency and serious component lossesin the Chinese medicines separation process for low concentration organic solvent-water solution. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Predicting the activity coefficients of free-solvent for concentrated globular protein solutions using independently determined physical parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin W McBride

    Full Text Available The activity coefficient is largely considered an empirical parameter that was traditionally introduced to correct the non-ideality observed in thermodynamic systems such as osmotic pressure. Here, the activity coefficient of free-solvent is related to physically realistic parameters and a mathematical expression is developed to directly predict the activity coefficients of free-solvent, for aqueous protein solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. The model is based on the free-solvent model, which has previously been shown to provide excellent prediction of the osmotic pressure of concentrated and crowded globular proteins in aqueous solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. Thus, this model uses only the independently determined, physically realizable quantities: mole fraction, solvent accessible surface area, and ion binding, in its prediction. Predictions are presented for the activity coefficients of free-solvent for near-saturated protein solutions containing either bovine serum albumin or hemoglobin. As a verification step, the predictability of the model for the activity coefficient of sucrose solutions was evaluated. The predicted activity coefficients of free-solvent are compared to the calculated activity coefficients of free-solvent based on osmotic pressure data. It is observed that the predicted activity coefficients are increasingly dependent on the solute-solvent parameters as the protein concentration increases to near-saturation concentrations.

  16. Thermodynamics of curium(III) in concentrated electrolyte solutions: formation of sulfate complexes in NaCl/Na2SO4 solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviet, P.; Fanghaenel, T.; Klenze, R.; Kim, J.I.

    1996-01-01

    The formation of sulfate complexes of Curium in aqueous solutions is studied by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) at 25 C. The species Cm 3+ , Cm(SO 4 ) - , Cm(SO 4 ) - 2 and Cm(SO 4 ) 3- 3 are quantified spectroscopically in the trace concentration range by peak deconvolution of fluorescence emission spectra. The complex formation equilibria are measured in NaCl/ Na 2 SO 4 solutions of constant ionic strength (3 molal) as a function of the sulfate concentration. The stability constants of Cm(SO 4 ) + and Cm(SO 4 ) - 2 are determined to be log β 1 = 0.93±0.08 and log β 2 = 0.61±0.08, respectively. The complex Cm(SO 4 ) 3- 3 is found to be stable only at very high sulfate concentrations (above 1 molal) and therefore not considered for further evaluation. (orig.)

  17. Artocarpin Induces Apoptosis in Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma HSC-1 Cells and Its Cytotoxic Activity Is Dependent on Protein-Nutrient Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chu-Sung Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artocarpin, a natural prenylated flavonoid, has been shown to have various biological properties. However, its effects on human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC have not been previously investigated. We set out to determine whether artocarpin has cytotoxic effects on SCC cells and whether its pharmacological activity is dependent on protein-nutrient concentration. Our results showed that treatment of HSC-1 cells (a human cutaneous SCC cell line with artocarpin decreased cell viability and induced cell apoptosis by increasing caspase 3/7 activity. These effects were more pronounced at low fetal bovine serum (FBS concentrations. Artocarpin induced an increase in the level of phospho-p38 and a decrease in the levels of phospho-ERK, phospho-JNK, phospho-Akt, phospho-mTOR, and phospho-S6K. High FBS concentrations in the culture media inhibited and delayed the uptake of artocarpin from the extracellular compartment (culture media into the intracellular compartment, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. In conclusion, artocarpin induces apoptosis in HSC-1 cells through modulation of MAPK and Akt/mTOR pathways. Binding of artocarpin to proteins in the FBS may inhibit cellular uptake and reduce the cytotoxic activity of artocarpin on HSC-1 cells. Therefore, artocarpin may have potential use in the future as a form of treatment for cutaneous SCC.

  18. δ- and δ'-shock wave types of singular solutions of systems of conservation laws and transport and concentration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelkovich, V M

    2008-01-01

    This is a survey of some results and problems connected with the theory of generalized solutions of quasi-linear conservation law systems which can admit delta-shaped singularities. They are the so-called δ-shock wave type solutions and the recently introduced δ (n) -shock wave type solutions, n=1,2,..., which cannot be included in the classical Lax-Glimm theory. The case of δ- and δ'-shock waves is analyzed in detail. A specific analytical technique is developed to deal with such solutions. In order to define them, some special integral identities are introduced which extend the concept of weak solution, and the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are derived. Solutions of Cauchy problems are constructed for some typical systems of conservation laws. Also investigated are multidimensional systems of conservation laws (in particular, zero-pressure gas dynamics systems) which admit δ-shock wave type solutions. A geometric aspect of such solutions is considered: they are connected with transport and concentration processes, and the balance laws of transport of 'volume' and 'area' to δ- and δ'-shock fronts are derived for them. For a 'zero-pressure gas dynamics' system these laws are the mass and momentum transport laws. An algebraic aspect of these solutions is also considered: flux-functions are constructed for them which, being non-linear, are nevertheless uniquely defined Schwartz distributions. Thus, a singular solution of the Cauchy problem generates algebraic relations between its components (distributions).

  19. Triton X-100 as a complete liquid scintillation cocktail for counting aqueous solutions and ionic nutrient salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    Triton X-100, used alone, was found to act as a complete liquid scintillation cocktail. Triton X-100 acted as a scintillator and the effect was not due to Cerenkov radiation. A variety of other commercially available surfactants also acted as scintillators, but with different levels of efficiency. Triton X-100/water combinations were suitable for counting aqueous solutions of 33 P and 86 Rb and the count rate was stable over extended periods of time. Triton X-100/toluene combinations also yielded high counting efficiencies. Triton X-100 was more sensitive to quenching than standard cocktails containing fluors. (author)

  20. Behaviour of symmetric solutions of a nonlinear elliptic field equation in the semi-classical limit: Concentration around a circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa D'Aprile

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the existence of concentrated solutions of the nonlinear field equation $$ -h^{2}Delta v+V(xv-h^{p}Delta_{p}v+ W'(v=0,, $$ where $v:{mathbb R}^{N}o{mathbb R}^{N+1}$, $Ngeq 3$, $p>N$, the potential $V$ is positive and radial, and $W$ is an appropriate singular function satisfying a suitable symmetric property. Provided that $h$ is sufficiently small, we are able to find solutions with a certain spherical symmetry which exhibit a concentration behaviour near a circle centered at zero as $ho 0^{+}$. Such solutions are obtained as critical points for the associated energy functional; the proofs of the results are variational and the arguments rely on topological tools. Furthermore a penalization-type method is developed for the identification of the desired solutions.

  1. Trends in nutrient concentrations, loads, and yields in streams in the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Santa Ana Basins, California, 1975-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Charles R.; Kent, Robert; Seleh, Dina K.; Knifong, Donna L.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Orlando, James L.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive database was assembled for the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Santa Ana Basins in California on nutrient concentrations, flows, and point and nonpoint sources of nutrients for 1975-2004. Most of the data on nutrient concentrations (nitrate, ammonia, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus) were from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System database (35.2 percent), the California Department of Water Resources (21.9 percent), the University of California at Davis (21.6 percent), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's STOrage and RETrieval database (20.0 percent). Point-source discharges accounted for less than 1 percent of river flows in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, but accounted for close to 80 percent of the nonstorm flow in the Santa Ana River. Point sources accounted for 4 and 7 percent of the total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads, respectively, in the Sacramento River at Freeport for 1985-2004. Point sources accounted for 8 and 17 percent of the total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads, respectively, in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis for 1985-2004. The volume of wastewater discharged into the Santa Ana River increased almost three-fold over the study period. However, due to improvements in wastewater treatment, the total nitrogen load to the Santa Ana River from point sources in 2004 was approximately the same as in 1975 and the total phosphorus load in 2004 was less than in 1975. Nonpoint sources of nutrients estimated in this study included atmospheric deposition, fertilizer application, manure production, and tile drainage. The estimated dry deposition of nitrogen exceeded wet deposition in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys and in the basin area of the Santa Ana Basin, with ratios of dry to wet deposition of 1.7, 2.8, and 9.8, respectively. Fertilizer application increased appreciably from 1987 to 2004 in all three California basins, although manure production increased in the

  2. Doses de boro no desenvolvimento de copo-de-leite em solução nutritiva Boron doses in the development of calla lily in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Rodrigues de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O boro desempenha funções importantes em processos biológicos das plantas, como a síntese e estruturação da parede celular, lignificação, metabolismo e transporte de carboidratos, além de participar da divisão e diferenciação celular em tecidos meristemáticos. No entanto, as necessidades nutricionais para o cultivo de copo-de-leite, especialmente de boro, ainda são pouco conhecidas. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de boro no crescimento e desenvolvimento, teor e acúmulo desse nutriente em plantas de copo-de-leite cultivadas em solução nutritiva. Mudas micropropagadas foram submetidas aos tratamentos com as doses de 0,05; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00 e 2,00 mg L-1 de boro em solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon diluída a 30% de sua força iônica. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições. As plantas não manifestaram sintomas visuais de deficiência ou de toxidez de boro, no entanto, o sistema radicular das plantas cultivadas na dose de 0,05 mg L-1 de boro apresentou-se com o crescimento reduzido. A melhor dose para o desenvolvimento adequado de plantas de copo-de-leite em solução nutritiva é de 1,20 mg L-1 de boro.Boron has essential functions in plant biological processes such as cell wall synthesis and structuralization, lignification, carbohydrates metabolism and transport. This element also acts in cell division and differentiation in meristematic tissues. However, the nutritional needs for calla lily cultivation, and especially boron needs, are still poorly known. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different boron doses on growth and development, content and accumulation of boron in calla lily plants grown in a nutrient solution. Micropropagated seedlings were submitted to treatments with the doses 0.05; 0.25; 0.50; 0.75; 1.00 and 2.00 mg L-1 boron in Hoagland & Arnon nutrient solution diluted to 30% of its ionic force. The

  3. Densidade de plantio na produtividade e nos teores de nutrientes nas folhas e frutos da bananeira cv. Thap Maeo Plants density on yield and nutrients concentration in leaves and fruits of banana cv. Thap Maeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adônis Moreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da densidade de plantio na produtividade, tempo de colheita e teores dos nutrientes nas folhas e nos frutos de bananeira cv. Thap Maeo (AAB cultivada em Manaus (AM. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos fatores: três densidades de plantio (1.111; 1.667 e 3.333 plantas ha-1 e duas épocas de colheita (primeiro e segundo ciclos. Os resultados do primeiro e segundo ciclos mostraram incremento significativo da produtividade, com aumento da densidade de plantio. O tempo médio para colheita dos cachos foi menor na densidade de 1.111 plantas ha-1 (1º ciclo, 338 e 2º ciclo, 401 dias. Na média das densidades e independentemente do ciclo, os teores de macronutrientes nos frutos apresentaram a ordem de: K>N>P>Mg>Ca=S, enquanto a dos micronutrientes foi: 1º ciclo - Cl>Fe>Mn=B>Zn>Cu e 2º ciclo - Cl>Fe>Zn>B=Mn>Cu.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of plants density on yield, period of harvest and nutrients concentration in leaves and fruits of banana cv. Thap Maeo (AAB, cultivated in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. The experiment was conduced in a randomized blocks, with three replicates. Treatments were comprised of planting density (1,111; 1,667 and 3,333 plants ha-1, and two cycles of harvest (sub treatments. The results obtained from 1st cycle and 2nd cycle showed significant increase in the yield per unit area as the employed plant density increased. The shortest average period to harvest banana bunches (1st cycle, 338 days and 2nd cycle, 401 days was observed for the lower density (1,111 plants ha-1. Pooled data of density and cycles showed that exportation of macronutrients through the fruits was, in order: K>N>P>Mg>Ca=S, while in micronutrients was: 1st cycle - Cl>Fe>Mn=B>Zn>Cu, and 2nd cycle - Cl>Fe>Zn>B=Mn>Cu.

  4. The effective concentration of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum infusion as root canal irrigant solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Pangabdian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smear layer is a debris consisting of organic and inorganic particles of calcified tissue, necrotic tissue, pulp tissue, and dentinoblast and microorganism processes that can close the entrance to the dentin tubuli. Smear layer, will not only inhibit the penetration of disinfection materials and sealers to the dentin tubuli, but will also reduce the attachment of root canal filling material so that root canal irrigation solution is needed to dissolve the smear layer. Red betel leaf (Piper crocatum infusion, on the other hand, contains saponin characterized as “surfactants” which can dissolve smear layer. Nevertheless, the effective concentration of the red betel leaf infusion has still not been known clearly. Purpose: This study is aimed to determine the effective concentration of the red betel leaf infusion for cleaning root canal walls from smear layer. Methods: Fiveteen extracted human teeth with straight single roots were randomized into 5 groups (n=3. The specimens were then shaped by using rotary instruments up to a size of 25/.07. During instrumentation, each canal was irrigated with 10, 20, 30 and, 40% red betel leaf infusion for treatment groups, while another was irrigated with aquadest for the control group. Root canal cleanliness was observed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results: There were significant differences among treatment groups (p<0.05, except in the treatment groups irrigated with red betel leaf infusion with concentrations of 30% and 40% (p>0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that red betel leaf infusion with a concentration of 30% is effective for cleaning the root canal walls from the smear layer.Latar belakang: Smear layer adalah suatu debris yang mengandung partikel organik dan anorganik dari jaringan terkalsifikasi, jaringan nekrotik, proses dentinoblas, jaringan pulpa dan mikroorganisme yang dapat menutup jalan masuk ke tubuli dentin. Smear layer akan menghalangi penetrasi dari bahan

  5. Optimum Concentration of Caudal Ropivacaine & Clonidine - A Satisfactory Analgesic Solution for Paediatric Infraumbilical Surgery Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhamurthy, Girish Chikkanayakanahalli; Patel, Muralidhara Danappa; Menezes, Yvonne; Gurushanth, Kavyashree Nagenahalli

    2016-04-01

    Ropivacaine is amide local anaesthetic pure S(-)enantiomer of bupivacaine. Its duration of analgesia is similar to that of Bupivacaine (in equivalent doses) but the motor block is slower in onset, less intense, shorter in duration for a given level of sensory block with lesser cardiac side effects but addition of an adjuvant like clonidine which is an imidazoline derivative has been studied for its sedative, anxiolytic and analgesic properties. This study was aimed to show the optimum concentrations of Ropivacaine and Clonidine to maximize analgesia without side effects by evaluating its safety and efficacy. Sixty children aged 2-10 years of ASA grade 1, scheduled to undergo infraumbilical surgeries were randomly allocated to Group A & Group B of 30 each. Group A received 0.2% Ropivacaine with normal saline and Group B received 0.2% Ropivacaine and preservative free Clonidine 1μg/kg, the total volume of solution being 1ml/kg haemodynamic changes were monitored intraoperatively and haemodynamic parameters along with motor blockade, pain score and sedation score were assessed postoperatively. Done with unpaired student t and Mann-Whitney test. The groups were comparable regarding demographic characterstics. The mean duration of analgesia was prolonged in group B (12+2.22 hours) than in group A (6.53+1.16 hours) with p-value <0.001 leading to less rescue analgesia in former group. None of the children in the groups had a pain score of ≥ 4 at the end of 2 hours. A 6.6% and 60% of group A children had score of ≥ 4 at the end of 4(th) & 6(th) hour respectively. None in Group B had a score of ≥ 4. At the end of 8(th) hour, only 6.6% of the children in Group B had a pain score of ≥ 4 whereas it was 33.33% in Group A which is statistically significant. No bradycardia or hypotension and no significant sedation. Combination of Ropivacaine and Clonidine in the concentration used (0.2% ropivacaine and 1μg/kg of clonidine) can be optimal for postoperative analgesia in

  6. Towards an understanding of induced-charge electrokinetics at large applied voltages in concentrated solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazant, Martin Z; Kilic, Mustafa Sabri; Storey, Brian D; Ajdari, Armand

    2009-11-30

    The venerable theory of electrokinetic phenomena rests on the hypothesis of a dilute solution of point-like ions in quasi-equilibrium with a weakly charged surface, whose potential relative to the bulk is of order the thermal voltage (kT/e approximately 25 mV at room temperature). In nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena, such as AC or induced-charge electro-osmosis (ACEO, ICEO) and induced-charge electrophoresis (ICEP), several V approximately 100 kT/e are applied to polarizable surfaces in microscopic geometries, and the resulting electric fields and induced surface charges are large enough to violate the assumptions of the classical theory. In this article, we review the experimental and theoretical literatures, highlight discrepancies between theory and experiment, introduce possible modifications of the theory, and analyze their consequences. We argue that, in response to a large applied voltage, the "compact layer" and "shear plane" effectively advance into the liquid, due to the crowding of counterions. Using simple continuum models, we predict two general trends at large voltages: (i) ionic crowding against a blocking surface expands the diffuse double layer and thus decreases its differential capacitance, and (ii) a charge-induced viscosity increase near the surface reduces the electro-osmotic mobility; each trend is enhanced by dielectric saturation. The first effect is able to predict high-frequency flow reversal in ACEO pumps, while the second may explain the decay of ICEO flow with increasing salt concentration. Through several colloidal examples, such as ICEP of an uncharged metal sphere in an asymmetric electrolyte, we show that nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena are generally ion-specific. Similar theoretical issues arise in nanofluidics (due to confinement) and ionic liquids (due to the lack of solvent), so the paper concludes with a general framework of modified electrokinetic equations for finite-sized ions.

  7. Modeling reactive geochemical transport of concentrated aqueous solutions in variably saturated media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Zheng, Zuoping; Wan, Jiamin

    2004-01-28

    Concentrated aqueous solutions (CAS) have unique thermodynamic and physical properties. Chemical components in CAS are incompletely dissociated, especially those containing divalent or polyvalent ions. The problem is further complicated by the interaction between CAS flow processes and the naturally heterogeneous sediments. As the CAS migrates through the porous media, the composition may be altered subject to fluid-rock interactions. To effectively model reactive transport of CAS, we must take into account ion-interaction. A combination of the Pitzer ion-interaction and the ion-association model would be an appropriate way to deal with multiple-component systems if the Pitzer' parameters and thermodynamic data of dissolved components and the related minerals are available. To quantify the complicated coupling of CAS flow and transport, as well as the involved chemical reactions in natural and engineered systems, we have substantially extended an existing reactive biogeochemical transport code, BIO-CORE{sup 2D}{copyright}, by incorporating a comprehensive Pitzer ion-interaction model. In the present paper, the model, and two test cases against measured data were briefly introduced. Finally we present an application to simulate a laboratory column experiment studying the leakage of the high alkaline waste fluid stored in Hanford (a site of the U.S. Department of Energy, located in Washington State, USA). With the Pitzer ion-interaction ionic activity model, our simulation captures measured pH evolution. The simulation indicates that all the reactions controlling the pH evolution, including cation exchanges, mineral precipitation and dissolution, are coupled.

  8. Different nonideality relationships, different databases and their effects on modeling precipitation from concentrated solutions using numerical speciation codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.F.; Ebinger, M.H.

    1996-08-01

    Four simple precipitation problems are solved to examine the use of numerical equilibrium codes. The study emphasizes concentrated solutions, assumes both ideal and nonideal solutions, and employs different databases and different activity-coefficient relationships. The study uses the EQ3/6 numerical speciation codes. The results show satisfactory material balances and agreement between solubility products calculated from free-energy relationships and those calculated from concentrations and activity coefficients. Precipitates show slightly higher solubilities when the solutions are regarded as nonideal than when considered ideal, agreeing with theory. When a substance may precipitate from a solution dilute in the precipitating substance, a code may or may not predict precipitation, depending on the database or activity-coefficient relationship used. In a problem involving a two-component precipitation, there are only small differences in the precipitate mass and composition between the ideal and nonideal solution calculations. Analysis of this result indicates that this may be a frequent occurrence. An analytical approach is derived for judging whether this phenomenon will occur in any real or postulated precipitation situation. The discussion looks at applications of this approach. In the solutes remaining after the precipitations, there seems to be little consistency in the calculated concentrations and activity coefficients. They do not appear to depend in any coherent manner on the database or activity-coefficient relationship used. These results reinforce warnings in the literature about perfunctory or mechanical use of numerical speciation codes.

  9. Application of a Weighted Regression Model for Reporting Nutrient and Sediment Concentrations, Fluxes, and Trends in Concentration and Flux for the Chesapeake Bay Nontidal Water-Quality Monitoring Network, Results Through Water Year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanat, Jeffrey G.; Moyer, Douglas L.; Blomquist, Joel D.; Hyer, Kenneth E.; Langland, Michael J.

    2016-01-13

    In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, estimated fluxes of nutrients and sediment from the bay’s nontidal tributaries into the estuary are the foundation of decision making to meet reductions prescribed by the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) and are often the basis for refining scientific understanding of the watershed-scale processes that influence the delivery of these constituents to the bay. Two regression-based flux and trend estimation models, ESTIMATOR and Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS), were compared using data from 80 watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Nontidal Water-Quality Monitoring Network (CBNTN). The watersheds range in size from 62 to 70,189 square kilometers and record lengths range from 6 to 28 years. ESTIMATOR is a constant-parameter model that estimates trends only in concentration; WRTDS uses variable parameters estimated with weighted regression, and estimates trends in both concentration and flux. WRTDS had greater explanatory power than ESTIMATOR, with the greatest degree of improvement evident for records longer than 25 years (30 stations; improvement in median model R2= 0.06 for total nitrogen, 0.08 for total phosphorus, and 0.05 for sediment) and the least degree of improvement for records of less than 10 years, for which the two models performed nearly equally. Flux bias statistics were comparable or lower (more favorable) for WRTDS for any record length; for 30 stations with records longer than 25 years, the greatest degree of improvement was evident for sediment (decrease of 0.17 in median statistic) and total phosphorus (decrease of 0.05). The overall between-station pattern in concentration trend direction and magnitude for all constituents was roughly similar for both models. A detailed case study revealed that trends in concentration estimated by WRTDS can operationally be viewed as a less-constrained equivalent to trends in concentration estimated by ESTIMATOR. Estimates of annual mean flow

  10. Fissile materials in solution concentration measured by active neutron interrogation; Mesure de concentration en matiere fissile dans les liquides par interrogation neutronique active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Passard, Ch.; Cloue, J.; Bignan, G.

    1993-12-31

    The use of the active neutron interrogation to measure the concentration of plutonium contained in flow solutions is particularly interesting for fuel reprocessing plants. Indeed, this method gives a signal which is in a direct relation with the fissile materials concentration. Moreover, it is less sensitive to the gamma dose rate than the other nondestructive methods. Two measure methods have been evolved in CEA. Their principles are given into details in this work. The first one consists to detect fission delayed neutrons induced by a {sup 252} Cf source. In the second one fission prompt neutrons induced by a neutron generator of 14 MeV are detected. (O.M.). 6 refs.

  11. Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Rhodamine 800 Aqueous Solution and Dye-Doped Polymer Thin-Film: Concentration and Solvent Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Khai Q.; Dang, Ngo Hai

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates solvent and concentration effects on photoluminescence (PL) or fluorescence properties of Rhodamine 800 (Rho800) dyes formed in aqueous solution and polymer thin-film. Various commonly used organic solvents including ethanol, methanol and cyclopentanol were studied at a constant dye concentration. There were small changes in the PL spectra for the different solvents in terms of PL intensity and peak wavelength. The highest PL intensity was observed for cyclopentanol and the lowest for ethanol. The longest peak wavelength was found in cyclopentanol (716 nm) and the shortest in methanol (708 nm). Dissolving the dye powder in the methanol solvent and varying the dye concentration in aqueous solution from the high concentrated solution to highly dilute states, the wavelength tunability was observed between about 700 nm in the dilute state and 730 nm at high concentration. Such a large shift may be attributed to the formation of dye aggregates. Rho800 dye-doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer thin-film was further investigated. The PL intensity of the dye in the form of thin-film is lower than that of the aqueous solution form whereas the peak wavelength is redshifted due to the presence of PVA. This paper, to our best knowledge, reports the first study of spectroscopic properties of Rho800 dyes in various forms and provides useful guidelines for production of controllable organic luminescence sources.

  12. Enthalpies of solution of methylcalix[4]resorcinarene in non-aqueous solvents as a function of concentration and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros, Diana C. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica de Soluciones, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Martinez, Fleming [Grupo de Investigaciones Farmaceutico-Fisicoquimicas, Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Vargas, Edgar F., E-mail: edvargas@uniandes.edu.co [Laboratorio de Termodinamica de Soluciones, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

    2012-11-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solution enthalpies of methylcalix[4]resorcinarene in alcohols have been measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solution enthalpies of methylcalix[4]resorcinarene in alcohols are endothermic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enthalpies of transference are interpreted in terms of proton donor capacity of alcohols. - Abstract: Enthalpies of solution of 2,8,14,20-tetramethyl-4,6,10,12,16,18,22,24-octahydroxyresorci[4]arene in methanol, ethanol and propanol as a function of molal concentration at (288.15, 298.15 and 308.15) K were measured calorimetrically. The enthalpies of solvation were estimated. Using propanol as the referent solvent, transfer properties to other alcohols were also calculated. In addition, temperature dependence of the enthalpy of solution at infinite dilution was also obtained. The data were interpreted in terms of solute-solvent interactions.

  13. Influence of Monomer Concentration on the Morphologies and Electrochemical Properties of PEDOT, PANI, and PPy Prepared from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Kulandaivalu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyhiophene (PEDOT, polyaniline (PANI, and polypyrrole (PPy were prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO substrate via potentiostatic from aqueous solutions containing monomer and lithium perchlorate. The concentration of monomers was varied between 1 and 10 mM. The effects of monomer concentration on the polymers formation were investigated and compared by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, cyclic voltammetry (CV, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements. FTIR and Raman spectra showed no changes in the peaks upon the increment of the concentration. Based on the SEM images, the increment in monomer concentration gives significant effect on morphologies and eventually affects the electrochemical properties. PEDOT electrodeposited from 10 mM solution showed excellent electrochemical properties with the highest specific capacitance value of 12.8 mF/cm2.

  14. The Influence of Gamma Irradiation on the Bacterial Growth and the Concentration of Macro nutrient Plant Elements (N,P,K) in The Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazid, M.; Zainul Kamal; Elin Nuraini

    2002-01-01

    The investigation of the gamma irradiation influence for bacterial growth and macro-nutrient plant element in the sludge has been done. The objective of the research is to study the gamma irradiation influence on bacterial growth and macro-nutrient plant element concentration; after that, can be determine the effective dose for killing pathogenic bacteria, while the other kind of bacteria such as the decomposer has been survived. The sludge samples was collected from the vicinity of Surabaya such as Sukolilo for sewage, PT SIER Rungkut for industrial and Dr. Sutomo hospital waste sludge. The irradiation of the sludge has been done at P3TIR-BATAN by Co-60 irradiator and the dose variation are 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. Microbiological observation was done after irradiation at FMIPA-UNAIR laboratory and the analysis of N,P,K elements by using fast neutron activation analysis. The observation involving total bacterial and one kind of pathogenic microbial which is Salmonella, from this observation can be deduced that population of total bacteria in the sludge is in the range at 1.0 x 10 7 to 3.7 x 10 8 . For every 5 kGy increment could be able to decrease total bacterial growth about 10 times, and at 25 kGy the total bacterial growth can be suppressed. The higher population of Salmonella can be found in the hospital sludge is in range of 3.0 to 3.5 x 10 5 , in the sewage sludge is 1.4 to 1.6 x 10 4 and industry is 1.0 to 1.4 x 10 3 . For the Salmonella disinfection need the 15 to 20 kGy radiation dose. From the calculation results can be known that the nitrogen content in the sludge is in the range at 1.393 ± 0.692 to 3.147 ± 0.697 % , the phosphor 3.714 ± 0.892 to 8.120 ± 1.034 % and the potassium 1.999 ± 0.523 to 4.52 ± 0.599 %. The variation of the irradiation dose 10 - 25 kGy does not have any significant influence for the macro-nutrient plant (N,P,K) content in the sludge from the industrial, the sewage or the hospital waste water treatment. (author)

  15. Two-dimensional analytical solutions for chemical transport in aquifers. Part 1. Simplified solutions for sources with constant concentration. Part 2. Exact solutions for sources with constant flux rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, C.; Javandel, I.

    1996-05-01

    Analytical solutions are developed for modeling solute transport in a vertical section of a homogeneous aquifer. Part 1 of the series presents a simplified analytical solution for cases in which a constant-concentration source is located at the top (or the bottom) of the aquifer. The following transport mechanisms have been considered: advection (in the horizontal direction), transverse dispersion (in the vertical direction), adsorption, and biodegradation. In the simplified solution, however, longitudinal dispersion is assumed to be relatively insignificant with respect to advection, and has been neglected. Example calculations are given to show the movement of the contamination front, the development of concentration profiles, the mass transfer rate, and an application to determine the vertical dispersivity. The analytical solution developed in this study can be a useful tool in designing an appropriate monitoring system and an effective groundwater remediation method

  16. Rice grown in nutrient solution with doses of manganese and silicon Arroz cultivado em solução nutritiva com doses de manganês e silício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Zanão Júnior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although silicon is not recognized as a nutrient, it may benefit rice plants and may alleviate the Mn toxicity in some plant species. The dry matter yield (root, leaf, sheaths and leaf blade and plant architecture (angle of leaf insertion and leaf arc were evaluated in rice plants grown in nutrient solutions with three Mn doses, with and without Si addition. The treatments were arranged in a 2 x 3 factorial [with and without (2 mmol L-1 Si; three Mn doses (0.5; 2.5 and 10 µmol L-1], in a randomized block design with 4 replications. The experimental unit was a 4 L plastic vase with 4 rice (Metica-1 cultivar plants. Thirty nine days after keeping the seedlings in the nutrient solution the plant dry matter yield was determined; the angle of leaf insertion in the sheath and the leaf arc were measured; and the Si and Mn concentrations in roots, sheaths and leaves were determined. The analysis of variance (F test at 5 and 1 % levels and the regression analysis (for testing plant response to Mn with the Si treatments were performed. The Si added to the nutrient solution increased the dry matter yield of roots, sheaths and leaf blades and also decreased the angle of leaf blade insertion into the sheath and the foliar arc in the rice plant. Additionally, it ameliorated the rice plant architecture which allowed an increase in the dry matter yield. Similarly, the addition of Mn to the solution improved the architecture of the rice plants with gain in dry matter yield. As Si was added to the nutrient solution, the concentration of Mn in leaves decreased and in roots increased thus alleviating the toxic effects of Mn on the plants.O silício destaca-se por exercer vários benefícios para a cultura do arroz, apesar de não ser considerado um nutriente. Um desses benefícios é que ele pode amenizar a toxidez causada por Mn em algumas espécies de plantas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produção de matéria seca (raízes, bainhas e limbo foliar e

  17. Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

    2011-12-01

    The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar.

  18. Modelling LiBr-H2O solution concentration/crystallization of low thermal-powered absorption air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, M.O.

    2000-01-01

    A computer model is developed to predict the concentration of lithium bromide - water (LiBr-H 2 O) solution for used in low thermal energy-driven absorption air conditioning plants design. The computer program is capable to alert the users from undesirable solidification or crystallization zones. Good agreements between simulated concentration and experimental data from standard chart/table have been obtained. (Author)

  19. Seasonal dynamics of nitrate and ammonium ion concentrations in soil solutions collected using MacroRhizon suction cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabala, Cezary; Karczewska, Anna; Gałka, Bernard; Cuske, Mateusz; Sowiński, Józef

    2017-07-01

    The aims of the study were to analyse the concentration of nitrate and ammonium ions in soil solutions obtained using MacroRhizon miniaturized composite suction cups under field conditions and to determine potential nitrogen leaching from soil fertilized with three types of fertilizers (standard urea, slow-release urea, and ammonium nitrate) at the doses of 90 and 180 kg ha -1 , applied once or divided into two rates. During a 3-year growing experiment with sugar sorghum, the concentration of nitrate and ammonium ions in soil solutions was the highest with standard urea fertilization and the lowest in variants fertilized with slow-release urea for most of the months of the growing season. Higher concentrations of both nitrogen forms were noted at the fertilizer dose of 180 kg ha -1 . One-time fertilization, at both doses, resulted in higher nitrate concentrations in June and July, while dividing the dose into two rates resulted in higher nitrate concentrations between August and November. The highest potential for nitrate leaching during the growing season was in July. The tests confirmed that the miniaturized suction cups MacroRhizon are highly useful for routine monitoring the concentration of nitrate and ammonium ions in soil solutions under field conditions.

  20. Genetically Modified Organisms and the Future Global Nutrient Supply: Part of the Solution or a New Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Peter W B

    2016-01-01

    For almost a generation now, scientists and policy makers have enthusiastically advanced genetically modified (GM) crops as a solution to both global food security and, specifically, the micronutrient needs of the hidden hungry. While genetic modification offers the prospect of overcoming technological barriers to food security, the gap between the vision and reality remains large. This chapter examines the impact of GM crops at three levels. Undoubtedly, at the micro level, bio-fortification offers a real opportunity to enhance the availability of micronutrients. However, the inexorable 'research sieve' ruthlessly culls most technical candidates in the agri-food system. GM bio-fortified foods, such as Golden RiceTM, remain only a promise. At the meso level, GM crops have generated benefits for both producers and consumers who have adopted GM crops, but given that the technology has been differentially applied to maize, the average diet for the food insecure has become somewhat less balanced. Finally, while GM crops have increased yields and the global food supply, these have come at the cost of more complex and costly trade and market systems, which impair access and availability. In essence, while biotechnology offers some tantalizing technological prospects, the difficulties of getting the corresponding benefits to the most needy have dampened some of the enthusiasm. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Trends in soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations across European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camino-Serrano, Marta; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Vicca, Sara; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Jonard, Mathieu; Ciais, Philippe; Guenet, Bertrand; Gielen, Bert; Peñuelas, Josep; Sardans, Jordi; Waldner, Peter; Sawicka, Kasia

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters is connected to DOC in soil solution through hydrological pathways. Therefore, it is expected that long-term dynamics of DOC in surface waters reflect DOC trends in soil solution. However, a multitude of site studies have failed so far to establish

  2. Trends in soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations across European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camino-Serrano, M.; Graf Pannatier, E.; Vicca, S.; Luyssaert, S.; Jonard, M.; Ciais, P.; Guenet, B.; Gielen, B.; Peñuelas, J.; Sardans, J.; Waldner, P.; Etzold, S.; Cecchini, G.; Clarke, N.; Galić, Z.; Gandois, L.; Hansen, K.; Johnson, J.; Klinck, U.; Lachmanová, Z.; Lindroos, A.J.; Meesenburg, H.; Nieminen, T.M.; Sanders, T.G.M.; Sawicka, K.; Seidling, W.; Thimonier, A.; Vanguelova, E.; Verstraeten, A.; Vesterdal, L.; Janssens, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters is connected to DOC in soil solution through hydrological pathways. Therefore, it is expected that long-term dynamics of DOC in surface waters reflect DOC trends in soil solution. However, a multitude of site studies have failed so far to establish

  3. Structure and Supersaturation of Highly Concentrated Solutions of Buckyball in 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fileti, E. E.; Chaban, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Solubilization of fullerenes is of high interest because of their wide usage in both fundamental research and numerous applications. This paper reports molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of saturated and supersaturated solutions of C-60 in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [C4C1IM......-long real-time dynamics. The ion-molecular structure patterns in saturated and supersaturated solutions are distinguished in terms of radial distribution functions and cluster analysis of the solute particles. The cation separated solute pair is found to be a common structure in both saturated......][BF4], room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL). The simulations cover a wide range of temperatures between 280 and 500 K at ambient pressure. Unlike in simpler solvents, C-60 in [C4C1IM][BF4] forms highly supersaturated solutions, whose internal arrangement remains unaltered during nearly a microsecond...

  4. Onset of local ordering in some copper-based alloys: critical solute concentration vis-a-vis various solutionhardening parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad Zakria; Noshi, Mozina; Bashir, Farooq

    2008-12-01

    The mode of planar distribution of solute atoms in Cu single crystals alloyed with 0.5 to 8.0 at.%Ge has been investigated via the temperature dependence of the critical resolved shear stress of these alloys. It is found that there exists a critical solute concentration c m ≈ 5 at.%Ge below which the distribution of solute atoms in the crystal is random, and above which some local ordering occurs. This together with such data available in the literature for Cu-Zn, Cu-Al and Cu-Mn alloys, i.e. c m ≈7 at. %Zn, 7 at.%Al and 1 at.%Mn, when examined as a function of the size-misfit factor δ = (1/ b)(d b/d c)of a given binary alloy system, shows that the value of c m strongly depends on δ; the smaller the magnitude of δ, the greater the value of c m and vice versa. Also, the value of c m is found to correlate well with the electron-to-atom ratio ( e/a)of the Cu-Zn, Cu-Al, Cu-Ge and Cu-Mn alloys with the solute concentration c = c m . However, no systematic correlation exists between the critical solute concentration c m for the onset of local ordering and the modulus-mismatch parameter η = (1/ G)(d G/d c).

  5. Effects of limited concentrate feeding on growth and blood and serum variables, and on nutrient digestibility and gene expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohakare, J D; van de Sand, H; Gerlach, K; Hosseini, A; Mielenz, M; Sauerwein, H; Pries, M; Südekum, K-H

    2012-02-01

    This study elucidated the effects of limited concentrate feeding on growth, nutrient digestibility, blood profile and gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in the liver of dairy calves. The study utilized 36 German Holstein dairy calves (5-7 days of age) divided into two groups of 18 calves each for 150 days. Control group calves received 2 kg/(calf × day) of concentrate, whereas calves in the restricted group received only 1 kg/(calf × day). Good quality forage (mixture of maize and grass silages) was available for ad libitum consumption to both groups. The intake of milk replacer before weaning, and of concentrate were recorded daily per calf; however, the consumption of forages was quantified as daily average of the group. Body weights (BW) were recorded at start and on days 35, 70, 112 and 150. Blood and serum samples and spot urinary and faecal samples were also collected at similar time points. On days 70 and 150, liver biopsies were collected from seven animals in each group. The BW was not different between the groups at all times. Total BW gain in the control group was 124 kg as opposed to 111 kg in restricted group that led to average BW gain of 827 g/day and 739 g/day in respective groups, and the differences were significant (p = 0.018). As planned, the control group had higher concentrate and lower forage intake than the restricted group. The blood haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum variables (glucose, total protein, albumin and urea) were within the normal range in both groups, but serum glucose was higher (p < 0.05) in control than in restricted group at 70 days. There was no difference between groups in organic matter (OM) digestibility which declined (p < 0.001) with increasing age in both groups. Microbial crude protein (MCP) synthesis estimated from urinary allantoin excretion increased (p < 0.001) in both groups with increasing age but was not different between groups. The mRNA expressions for the gluconeogenic enzymes, cytosolic and

  6. Can we predict uranium bioavailability based on soil parameters? Part 1: effect of soil parameters on soil solution uranium concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, H; Van Hees, M; Wouters, K; Wannijn, J

    2007-01-01

    Present study aims to quantify the influence of soil parameters on soil solution uranium concentration for (238)U spiked soils. Eighteen soils collected under pasture were selected such that they covered a wide range for those parameters hypothesised as being potentially important in determining U sorption. Maximum soil solution uranium concentrations were observed at alkaline pH, high inorganic carbon content and low cation exchange capacity, organic matter content, clay content, amorphous Fe and phosphate levels. Except for the significant correlation between the solid-liquid distribution coefficients (K(d), L kg(-1)) and the organic matter content (R(2)=0.70) and amorphous Fe content (R(2)=0.63), there was no single soil parameter significantly explaining the soil solution uranium concentration (which varied 100-fold). Above pH=6, log(K(d)) was linearly related with pH [log(K(d))=-1.18 pH+10.8, R(2)=0.65]. Multiple linear regression analysis did result in improved predictions of the soil solution uranium concentration but the model was complex.

  7. Can we predict uranium bioavailability based on soil parameters? Part 1: Effect of soil parameters on soil solution uranium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.; Hees, M. van; Wouters, K.; Wannijn, J.

    2007-01-01

    Present study aims to quantify the influence of soil parameters on soil solution uranium concentration for 238 U spiked soils. Eighteen soils collected under pasture were selected such that they covered a wide range for those parameters hypothesised as being potentially important in determining U sorption. Maximum soil solution uranium concentrations were observed at alkaline pH, high inorganic carbon content and low cation exchange capacity, organic matter content, clay content, amorphous Fe and phosphate levels. Except for the significant correlation between the solid-liquid distribution coefficients (K d , L kg -1 ) and the organic matter content (R 2 = 0.70) and amorphous Fe content (R 2 = 0.63), there was no single soil parameter significantly explaining the soil solution uranium concentration (which varied 100-fold). Above pH = 6, log(K d ) was linearly related with pH [log(K d ) = - 1.18 pH + 10.8, R 2 = 0.65]. Multiple linear regression analysis did result in improved predictions of the soil solution uranium concentration but the model was complex. - Uranium solubility in soil can be predicted from organic matter or amorphous iron content and pH or with complex multilinear models considering several soil parameters

  8. Conformational Analysis of Proteins in Highly Concentrated Solutions by Dialysis-Coupled Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houde, Damian; Esmail Nazari, Zeinab; Bou-Assaf, George M

    2016-01-01

    When highly concentrated, an antibody solution can exhibit unusual behaviors, which can lead to unwanted properties, such as increased levels of protein aggregation and unusually high viscosity. Molecular modeling, along with many indirect biophysical measurements, has suggested that the cause fo...... in industry. Graphical Abstract ᅟ....

  9. Closed-Cycle Nutrient Supply For Hydroponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.

    1991-01-01

    Hydroponic system controls composition and feed rate of nutrient solution and recovers and recycles excess solution. Uses air pressure on bladders to transfer aqueous nutrient solution. Measures and adjusts composition of solution before it goes to hydroponic chamber. Eventually returns excess solution to one of tanks. Designed to operate in microgravity, also adaptable to hydroponic plant-growing systems on Earth.

  10. Effect of solution concentration on sealing treatment of Mg-Al hydrotalcite film on AZ91D Mg alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangsheng Dong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerium-based sealing treatment was developed for Mg-Al hydrotalcite film on AZ91D Mg alloy, and the influence of cerium salt solution was investigated to modify the surface integrity and corrosion resistance. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements were carried out to analyze the surface morphology and phase composition. The corrosion resistance of Mg-Al hydrotalcite film after sealing treatment was evaluated by the polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS tests. The results showed that lower concentration of Ce-containing solution was beneficial to seal the micro-cracks on Mg-Al hydrotalcite film, and improve the surface integrity and corrosion resistance; higher concentration of Ce-containing solution could seal fewer micro-cracks, and the corrosion resistance was decreased owing to the disintegration of Mg-Al hydrotalcite film.

  11. Effects of dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio on nutrient digestibility and enteric methane production in growing goats ( and Sika deer (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjun Na

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of forage-to-concentrate (F:C ratio on the nutrient digestibility and enteric methane (CH4 emission in growing goats and Sika deer. Methods Three male growing goats (body weight [BW] = 19.0±0.7 kg and three male growing deer (BW = 19.3±1.2 kg were respectively allotted to a 3×3 Latin square design with an adaptation period of 7 d and a data collection period of 3 d. Respiration-metabolism chambers were used for measuring the enteric CH4 emission. Treatments of low (25:75, moderate (50:50, and high (73:27 F:C ratios were given to both goats and Sika deer. Results Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility decreased linearly with increasing F:C ratio in both goats and Sika deer. In both goats and Sika deer, the CH4 emissions expressed as g/d, g/kg BW0.75, % of gross energy intake, g/kg DM intake (DMI, and g/kg OM intake (OMI decreased linearly as the F:C ratio increased, however, the CH4 emissions expressed as g/kg digested DMI and OMI were not affected by the F:C ratio. Eight equations were derived for predicting the enteric CH4 emission from goats and Sika deer. For goat, equation 1 was found to be of the highest accuracy: CH4 (g/d = 3.36+4.71×DMI (kg/d−0.0036×neutral detergent fiber concentrate (NDFC, g/kg+0.01563×dry matter digestibility (DMD, g/kg−0.0108×neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD, g/kg. For Sika deer, equation 5 was found to be of the highest accuracy: CH4 (g/d = 66.3+27.7×DMI (kg/d−5.91×NDFC (g/kg−7.11× DMD (g/kg+0.0809×NDFD (g/kg. Conclusion Digested nutrient intake could be considered when determining the CH4 generation factor in goats and Sika deer. Finally, the enteric CH4 prediction mod