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Sample records for soluble tumour haemolytic

  1. [Pregnancy-induced haemolytic anaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiozova, J; Masseva, A; Ivanov, St; Marinov, B; Kulinska, R; Boiadjiev, D; Jordanova, D

    2014-01-01

    This is the clinical case of a primiparous eight month pregnant female, presenting with symptoms of pregnancy-induced acute haemolytic anaemia (haemolytic aneamia provoked by an immune mechanism, intra- and extra-erythrocyte defects, and HELLP syndrome were excluded). The anaemia progressed to become life-threatening for both the pregnant women and the foetus, which brought the following questions into consideration: diagnosis of anaemia during pregnancy; dosing of corticosteroid therapy; possibility of giving birth to a viable foetus and prognosis for next pregnancies. Owing to the inter-disciplinary efforts, the life and health of this pregnant woman were preserved, but the foetus was lost.

  2. Haemolytic glycoglycerolipids from Gymnodinium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, C C; Bodennec, G; Gentien, P

    1998-03-01

    Glycoglycerolipids derived from microalgae can be a source of biologically active substances including toxins. Such glycolipids were analysed in two isolates of toxic marine dinoflagellates from European waters. The lipids of Gymnodinium mikimotoi contained 17% of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyl diacylglycerol (DGDG), while in Gymnodinium sp. the proportion was 35%. MGDG and DGDG from both species were haemolytic. The major unsaturated fatty acid in both algal glycolipids was 18:5 omega 3.

  3. Auto-immune Haemolytic Anaemia and Paroxys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    who presented with an acute auto-immune haemolytic anaemia. In addition to a persistently positive Coombs test, with specific red cell auto-antibodies, the acidified serum test and the sucrose haemolysis test were repeatedly positive. CASE REPORT. A 24-year-old Indian woman was admitted to hospital in. July 1969.

  4. Serial measurement of the circulating levels of tumour necrosis factor and its soluble receptors 1 and 2 for monitoring leprosy patients during multidrug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Dias Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is an infectious and contagious spectral disease accompanied by a series of immunological events triggered by the host response to the aetiologic agent, Mycobacterium leprae . The induction and maintenance of the immune/inflammatory response in leprosy are linked to multiple cell interactions and soluble factors, primarily through the action of cytokines. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the serum levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α and its soluble receptors (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 in leprosy patients at different stages of multidrug treatment (MDT in comparison with non-infected individuals and to determine their role as putative biomarkers of the severity of leprosy or the treatment response. ELISA was used to measure the levels of these molecules in 30 healthy controls and 37 leprosy patients at the time of diagnosis and during and after MDT. Our results showed increases in the serum levels of TNF-α and sTNF-R2 in infected individuals in comparison with controls. The levels of TNF-α, but not sTNF-R2, decreased with treatment. The current results corroborate previous reports of elevated serum levels of TNF-α in leprosy and suggest a role for sTNF-R2 in the control of this cytokine during MDT.

  5. Antibodies to actin in autoimmune haemolytic anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritzmann Mathias

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA, autoreactive antibodies directed against red blood cells are up-regulated, leading to erythrocyte death. Mycoplasma suis infections in pigs induce AIHA of both the warm and cold types. The aim of this study was to identify the target autoantigens of warm autoreactive IgG antibodies. Sera from experimentally M. suis-infected pigs were screened for autoreactivity. Results Actin-reactive antibodies were found in the sera of 95% of all animals tested. The reactivity was species-specific, i.e. reactivity with porcine actin was significantly higher than with rabbit actin. Sera of animals previously immunised with the M. suis adhesion protein MSG1 showed reactivity with actin prior to infection with M. suis indicating that molecular mimicry is involved in the specific autoreactive mechanism. A potentially cross-reactive epitope was detected. Conclusions This is the first report of autoreactive anti-actin antibodies involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.

  6. Ocular involvement in paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Veit; Menke, Marcel N; Landau, Klara; Laube, Guido F; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency and severity of ocular involvement in paediatric patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). The study was designed as an institutional, retrospective, observational case series. Charts for all 87 paediatric patients with HUS treated at the University Children's Hospital Zurich between 1995 and 2007 were reviewed. Patients with ocular involvement were identified and clinical findings presented. Three of 69 examined patients with HUS showed ocular involvement. Ophthalmic findings in two children were consistent with bilateral Purtscher retinopathy, showing multiple haemorrhages, exudations and superficial retinal whitening. The third child presented with bilateral isolated central intraretinal haemorrhages as a milder form of ocular involvement. In one of the children with Purtscher retinopathy, laser photocoagulation was required for bilateral rubeosis irides and development of disc neovascularization. Longterm outcomes in the two severely affected children showed decreased visual acuity caused by partial atrophy of the optic nerves. In the milder case visual acuity was not impaired at any time. A minority of paediatric patients with HUS developed ocular involvement. Acute ocular findings varied in severity from isolated intraretinal haemorrhages to Purtscher-like retinopathy with retinal ischaemia. Longterm complications included the development of neovascularizations and consecutive optic nerve atrophy. Although ocular involvement in HUS seems to be rare, physicians should be aware of this complication because of its possible vision-endangering consequences. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  7. Prognosis in canine idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Canine idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (iIMHA) is one of the most frequently occurring immune-mediated diseases in dogs. A gel-based Coombs' test was shown to perform equally well as a classical Coombs' test. Since the gel-based Coombs' test can be commercially produced and is easy and

  8. Isolation and characterisation of photoactive haemolytic toxin from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We found that cell-free methanol extract from H. circularisquama caused haemolysis of rabbit erythrocytes and showed cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells and on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, the haemolytic activity and cytotoxic effects of the extract were completely ...

  9. Haemolytic anaemia as a complication to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Harbo, Thomas; Christiansen, Ingelise

    performed before and two weeks after infusion of IVIg. Following treatment blood haemoglobin declined from 8.6±0.8 to 8.1±1.3mmol/l, p... naive patients are susceptible to develop haemolysis. Haemolytic anaemia is a severe side effect that seems to be more frequent after immunoglobulin infusions than previously recognized....

  10. [Acute oliguric renal failure and haemolytic anaemia following infectious mononucleosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkovic, Natasa; Jørgensen, Kit Riegels; Rosenbæk, Jeppe Bakkestrøm; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard

    2015-11-09

    A 19-year-old man was admitted to hospital due to fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain and faint. He was pale and icteric, awake with sufficient respiration and circulation. He had infectious mononucleosis complicated with acute oliguric renal failure and severe haemolytic anaemia with a positive Coombs test. He had a cold agglutinin syndrome. The treatment comprised intermittent haemodialysis, plasmapheresis and heating. He recovered completely after two months.

  11. CLINICAL PROFILE AND COMMON CAUSES OF HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, NORTHERN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jog Antony

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Haemolytic anaemia is a well-recognised clinical problem. This study looks into the clinical profile of haemolytic anaemia and also attempts to find out the common underlying causative disease. It also tries to group the patients according to the clinical manifestations and underlying causes. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a hospital-based observational study conducted in a tertiary care centre in Northern Kerala. Forty-four adult patients with clinical manifestations and laboratory evidence of haemolytic anaemia were identified and studied for a period of one year. RESULTS Maximum number of cases were seen in the age group of 20-40 years. The overall male-female ratio was 1.1:1. The most common presenting symptoms were features of anaemia like breathlessness, easy fatigability, headache and tiredness. Family history of anaemia was present in 34.1%. The most common signs observed were pallor and jaundice. The most common causes were autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and sickle cell anaemia. CONCLUSION Haemolytic anaemia mostly affects individuals in their 3rd and 4th decade. There is no significant difference in gender distribution of haemolytic anaemia. Haemolytic anaemia most commonly presents with symptoms of anaemia and jaundice. Commonest causes of haemolytic anaemia are autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and sickle cell anaemia.

  12. TUMOUR VACCINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Ernst; Kircheis, Ralf; Crommelin, D.; Van Slooten, Maaike; Storm, Gert

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a tumour vaccine with a tumour antigen base. In addition to a source of tumour antigens, the vaccine contains a release system for the delayed release of the active agent IFN- gamma , the active dose of IFN- gamma being 50 ng to 5 mu g. The IFN- gamma is released over a

  13. Intracellular haemolytic agents of Heterocapsa circularisquama exhibit toxic effects on H. circularisquama cells themselves and suppress both cell-mediated haemolytic activity and toxicity to rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Cho, Kichul; Yasutomi, Masumi; Ueno, Mikinori; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Basti, Leila; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Takeshita, Satoshi; Kim, Daekyung; Oda, Tatsuya

    2016-10-01

    A harmful dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama, is highly toxic to shellfish and the zooplankton rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. A previous study found that H. circularisquama has both light-dependent and -independent haemolytic agents, which might be responsible for its toxicity. Detailed analysis of the haemolytic activity of H. circularisquama suggested that light-independent haemolytic activity was mediated mainly through intact cells, whereas light-dependent haemolytic activity was mediated by intracellular agents which can be discharged from ruptured cells. Because H. circularisquama showed similar toxicity to rotifers regardless of the light conditions, and because ultrasonic ruptured H. circularisquama cells showed no significant toxicity to rotifers, it was suggested that live cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity is a major factor responsible for the observed toxicity to rotifers. Interestingly, the ultrasonic-ruptured cells of H. circularisquama suppressed their own lethal effect on the rotifers. Analysis of samples of the cell contents (supernatant) and cell fragments (precipitate) prepared from the ruptured H. circularisquama cells indicated that the cell contents contain inhibitors for the light-independent cell-mediated haemolytic activity, toxins affecting H. circularisquama cells themselves, as well as light-dependent haemolytic agents. Ethanol extract prepared from H. circularisquama, which is supposed to contain a porphyrin derivative that displays photosensitising haemolytic activity, showed potent toxicity to Chattonella marina, Chattonella antiqua, and Karenia mikimotoi, as well as to H. circularisquama at the concentration range at which no significant toxicity to rotifers was observed. Analysis on a column of Sephadex LH-20 revealed that light-dependent haemolytic activity and inhibitory activity on cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity existed in two separate fractions (f-2 and f-3), suggesting that both

  14. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing haemolytic anaemia: An EU regulatory perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, A.; Jacobsen, Helene; Healy, E.

    2006-01-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is often induced following prolonged exposure to chemical substances. Currently, under EU Council Directive 67/548/EEC, substances which induce such effects are classified as dangerous and assigned the risk phrase R48 'Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure......! Whilst the general classification criteria for this endpoint are outlined in Annex VI of this Directive, they do not provide specific information to assess haemolytic anaemia. This review produced by the EU Working Group on Haemolytic Anaemia provides a toxicological assessment of haemolytic anaemia...... and proposes criteria that can be used in the assessment for classification of substances which induce such effects. An overview of the primary and secondary effects of haemolytic anaemia which can occur in rodent repeated dose toxicity studies is given. A detailed analysis of the toxicological significance...

  15. Thermal stability and haemolytic effects of depolymerized guar gum derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Majid; Zahoor, Tahir; Akhtar, Saeed; Ismail, Amir; Hameed, Aneela

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of current study was to purify and partially depolymerize guar gum by β-mannanase, HCl, Ba(OH) 2 actions and subjected to inspect compositional, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and haemolytic activity. Chemical composition revealed mannose and galactose ratio remained un-altered even after process of purification and hydrolysis. TGA thermograms affirmed initial and final decomposition temperature in various zones. Major decomposition stages apparently revealed partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) exhibited better heat stable properties having more zones of degradation than crude one. Furthermore, all guar fractions (2.5-250 mg/mL) were subjected to haemolysis to evaluate toxic effects during process of hydrolysis. The crude and hydrolyzed guar galactomannans exhibited minor haemolytic activity (1.9 ± 0.03-7.24 ± 0.02%) when compared to 0.1% Triton-X 100 (100% haemolysis) showing no toxic effects to human RBC's. Conclusively, hydrolyzed guar-galactomannans are safe and can be used in food products with improved heat stability.

  16. Excessive apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts in a patient with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia with reticulocytopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Loosdrecht, AA; Blom, NR; Smit, JW; De Wolf, JTM; Vellenga, E

    We report a patient with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) with reticulocytopenia, who showed excessive apoptosis of erythroblasts. Ultrastructural analysis of bone marrow cells showed that 50% of erythroblasts had characteristic features of apoptosis, which was confirmed by staining with

  17. CLINICAL PROFILE AND COMMON CAUSES OF HAEMOLYTIC ANAEMIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, NORTHERN KERALA

    OpenAIRE

    Jog Antony; Reeta J; Sreelakshmi S; Rohit Mathew4; Adarsh Surendran

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Haemolytic anaemia is a well-recognised clinical problem. This study looks into the clinical profile of haemolytic anaemia and also attempts to find out the common underlying causative disease. It also tries to group the patients according to the clinical manifestations and underlying causes. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a hospital-based observational study conducted in a tertiary care centre in Northern Kerala. Forty-four adult patients with clinical manifestati...

  18. Haemolytic effect of saponin extract from Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) on human erythrocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oboh, G.

    2001-09-01

    Leaves of Veronia amygdalina were extracted using ethanol and aqueous extraction respectively. The physico-chemical analysis of the extracts revealed that both extracts had darkish brown colour, sweetish bitter taste, pungent smell, positive froth and haemolytic test, this indicated the presence of saponin in both extracts. The result of the haemolytic assay revealed that blood group-O had the highest susceptibility to the saponin-induced haemolysis, while blood group-A had the least susceptibility to haemolysis among the blood groups tested. Genotype-AA had the highest resistant to haemolysis by Vernonia amygdalina saponin induced haemolysis, while genotype-SS had the least resistant to haemolysis among the genotype tested. Furthermore the ethanol extract had a higher haemolytic activity than the aqueous extract on the various human erythrocyte analysed. This study revealed that Vernonia amygdalina had haemolytic substance, this substance had a high haemolytic effect on blood group-O and genotype-SS. The active haemolytic substance in both extracts was identified to be saponin. (author)

  19. Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome associated with a hybrid complement gene.

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    Julian P Venables

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sequence analysis of the regulators of complement activation (RCA cluster of genes at chromosome position 1q32 shows evidence of several large genomic duplications. These duplications have resulted in a high degree of sequence identity between the gene for factor H (CFH and the genes for the five factor H-related proteins (CFHL1-5; aliases CFHR1-5. CFH mutations have been described in association with atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS. The majority of the mutations are missense changes that cluster in the C-terminal region and impair the ability of factor H to regulate surface-bound C3b. Some have arisen as a result of gene conversion between CFH and CFHL1. In this study we tested the hypothesis that nonallelic homologous recombination between low-copy repeats in the RCA cluster could result in the formation of a hybrid CFH/CFHL1 gene that predisposes to the development of aHUS. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a family with many cases of aHUS that segregate with the RCA cluster we used cDNA analysis, gene sequencing, and Southern blotting to show that affected individuals carry a heterozygous CFH/CFHL1 hybrid gene in which exons 1-21 are derived from CFH and exons 22/23 from CFHL1. This hybrid encodes a protein product identical to a functionally significant CFH mutant (c.3572C>T, S1191L and c.3590T>C, V1197A that has been previously described in association with aHUS. CONCLUSIONS: CFH mutation screening is recommended in all aHUS patients prior to renal transplantation because of the high risk of disease recurrence post-transplant in those known to have a CFH mutation. Because of our finding it will be necessary to implement additional screening strategies that will detect a hybrid CFH/CFHL1 gene.

  20. Haemolytic activity of uranium compounds haemolysis by thermochemical derivatives of ammonium uranate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, W.I.; Tucker, A.D.; Adams, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    A study has been made of the haemolytic action on human erythrocytes by ammonium uranate (AU) and various thermochemical products of AU. These products were obtained by heating AU in hydrogen at 5 0 C min -1 to various temperatures. Haemolysis has been interpreted in terms of a diffusion model which for each product yields a single parameter Ksub(N), the haemolytic activity factor. The magnitude of Ksub(N) is a convenient measure of the ability of a powder to damage erythrocytes. The haemolytic activity of certain thermochemical derivatives indicates an exceptionally high potential for damage to erythrocytes. Infrared and thermoanalytical measurements have shown that the high activity of these products derives principally from a self-reduction reaction, induced by heating AU to 400-420 0 C in hydrogen. (author)

  1. Synthesis, cytotoxicity and haemolytic activity of Pulsatilla saponin A, D derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Duan, Huaqing; Wang, Minglei; Han, Li; Liu, Yanli; Zhu, Yongming; Yang, Shilin

    2015-06-15

    The strong haemolytic activity of Pulsatilla saponin A (PSA), D (PSD) hampered their clinical development of antitumor agents. In order to solve this problem, C-28 position modification derivatives of PSA/PSD were synthesized. The cytotoxicity and haemolytic activity of these compounds were evaluated. Structure-activity relationship and structure-toxicity relationship had been observed. The mice acute toxicity of compound 11 was reduced greatly than that of PSA. This study indicates that compound 11 may represent an interesting class of potent antitumor agents from triterpenoid saponins avoiding the haemolysis problem. The present study has important significance for the development of antitumor saponins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gastric Calcifying Fibrous Tumour

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    Tan Attila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours; however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases.

  3. Effect of subclinical mastitis caused by ss-haemolytic streptococci on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mastitis is a major constraint to milk production in camels. We conducted a survey in Marsabit and Isiolo counties of Kenya to quantify losses in milk yield associated with subclinical mastitis caused by ß-haemolytic Streptococci in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Four hundred and twenty (420) pair wise ...

  4. Changes in circulating inflammatory markers following febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions to leucoreduced red cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, R; Sandhu, N; Heegaard, N H H

    2018-01-01

    It would be desirable to be able to distinguish fever as a result of febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTR) from other febrile conditions. To further characterize the inflammatory feature of FNHTR, we measured a large panel of inflammatory markers in pre- and posttransfusion plasma...

  5. High intravascular tissue factor expression in dogs with idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Brinkhof, B.; Teske, E.; Rothuizen, J.; Dekker, A.; Penning, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    A high mortality occurs in dogs with idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA) during the first 2 weeks after the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory response and coagulation abnormalities in dogs with IMHA in relation to the prognosis and to establish the

  6. Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in neonates with haemolytic disease and immune thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Sovtić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intravenous immunoglobulin is a blood product made of human polyclonal immunoglobulin G. The mode of action of intravenous immunoglobulin is very complex. It is indicated in treatment of neonatal immune thrombocytopenia and haemolytic disease of the newborn. The aim of the study was to present our experience in the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in a group of term neonates. Methods. We analysed all relevant clinical and laboratory data of 23 neonates who recieved intravenous immunoglobulin during their hospitalization in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Mother and Child Health Care Institute over a five year period, from 2006. to 2010. Results. There were 11 patients with haemolytic disease of the newborn and 12 neonates with immune thrombocytopenia. All of them recieved 1-2 g/kg intravenous immunoglobulin in the course of their treatment. There was no adverse effects of intravenous immunoglobulin use. The use of intravenous immunoglobulin led to an increase in platelet number in thrombocytopenic patients, whereas in those with haemolytic disease serum bilirubin level decreased significantly, so that some patients whose bilirubin level was very close to the exchange transfusion criterion, avoided this procedure. Conclusion. The use of intravenous immunoglobulin was shown to be an effective treatment in reducing the need for exchange transfusion, duration of phototherapy and the length of hospital stay in neonates with haemolytic disease. When used in treatment of neonatal immune thrombocytopenia, it leads to an increase in the platelet number, thus decreasing the risk of serious complications of thrombocytopenia.

  7. Haemolytic Escherichia coli isolated from dogs with diarrhea have characteristics of both uropathogenic and necrotoxigenic strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starxix, M.; Johnson, J.R.; Stell, A.L.; Goot, van der J.A.; Hendriks, H.G.; Vorstenbosch, van C.; Dijk, van L.; Gaastra, W.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-four haemolytic Escherichia coli strains were isolated from dogs with diarrhea. The strains were serotyped and analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for genes encoding virulence factors associated with E. coli that cause diarrhea in animals. Adhesion antigen production was deduced from

  8. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing haemolytic anaemia: An EU regulatory perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Andre; Jacobsen, Helene; Healy, Edel; McMickan, Sinead; Istace, Fréderique; Blaude, Marie-Noëlle; Howden, Peter; Fleig, Helmut; Schulte, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is often induced following prolonged exposure to chemical substances. Currently, under EU Council Directive 67/548/EEC, substances which induce such effects are classified as dangerous and assigned the risk phrase R48 'Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.'

  9. Tumour sleuths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.; Springolo, E.; Conradie, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common disease in South Africa and its identification difficult. Methods for the diagnosis of this disease includes the production of hybridoma cell lines by inoculating laboratory mice with a purified human tumour-associated antigen or the antigen-containing surface membranes or the intact cells. In the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, high concentrations of serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) can be measured by means of radioimmunoassay techniques. The need for specific methods of diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma led to the investigation by the Isotope Production Centre at Pelindaba into the possibility of using radiolabelled monoclonal anti-AFP for diagnosis, and later, therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. The monoclonal antibodies can also be labelled with 131 I. Recently the Department of Nuclear Medicine of the University of the Witwatersrand is conducting diagnostic trials on patients who have given their informed consent, to assess the specificity of 131 I radiolabelled anti-AFP monoclonal antibodies to hepatocellular carcinoma cells in humans. Although the investigation is still in its infancy, monoclonal antibodies may prove to be successful non-invasive agents for detecting tumors in early stages

  10. Adnexal Tumours Of Skin

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    Parate Sanjay N

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A total 120 cases of epidermal appendage tumours of skin were analysed and classified according to the classification provided by WHO’. Epidermal appendage tumours accounted for 12.87% of all skin tumours, of which 29.17% were benign and 70.83% were malignant. Most of the tumours (75.83% were in the head and face region. The most common tumour was basal cell epithelioma (55%.

  11. Pegylated interferon de novo-induce autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in chronic hepatitis C patient

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Ashraf; Elbahrawy, Ashraf; Alfiomy, Mohamed; Abdellah, Mohamed; Shahat, Khaled; Salah, Mohamed; Mostafa, Sadek; Elwassief, Ahmed; Aboelfotoh, Attef; Abdelhafeez, Hafez; El-Sherif, Assem

    2011-01-01

    A 55-year-old Egyptian woman with chronic hepatitis C undergoing treatment with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) alfa-2a plus ribavirin was referred to our hospital on November 2010 with prolonged easy fatigability and an attack of syncope; she had no prior history of autoimmune disorders or allergy. Laboratory investigations documented the presence of Peg-IFN induced autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and autoimmune thyroiditis. Intravenous γ globulin (IVGG) failed to correct the autoimmune process...

  12. Determination of haemolytic and non haemolytic genes profiles of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food samples by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Nisreen; Ahemd, Asmat; Abdullah, Aminah

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Bacillus cereus and detection of enterotoxigenic genes in food samples by utilizing a Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR). In this study the providence of B. cereus was carried out to food samples. The B. cereus isolates were investigated for enterotoxigenic gene. The cooked seafood, and raw milk samples were purchased from several restaurants and market in the area of (Bangi, Kajang, Serdang and UKM) Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 60 samples have been analyzed. B. cereus contamination has been formed between 1.4×105 - 3×105 cfu/mL of cooked seafood and raw milk samples. Five colonies have been detected as B. cereus using biochemical test. All B. cereus isolates named BC1 to BC27, were characterized for haemolytic enterotoxin (HBL) complex encoding genes (hblA), non-haemolytic enterotoxin encoding gene (NheA). 10 isolates have been reported to be positive towards hblA and 12 isolates were positive towards NheA. The presence of B. cereus and their enterotoxigenic genes in cooked seafood and raw milk from to food samples obtained may pose a potential risk for public health.

  13. Beta-haemolytic streptococci in farmed Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, from Sullana-Piura, Peru

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    Yessica Ortega A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This investigation aimed to study the presence of Streptococcus spp. in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus from fish farm located in Sullana-Piura, Peru. Materials and methods. 150 fish with clinical signs of streptococcal disease were sampled, and the bacterium isolation was performed on blood agar, correlated to histopathological lesions description and molecular confirmation by real-time PCR. Results. The necropsy revealed exophthalmia, hyphema, congestion and/or haemorrhagic meninges, ascites, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and diffuse haemorrhagic zones throughout the body. 102 isolated positives (54 tilapias to Streptococcus spp. were identified in the microbiological analysis (prevalence of 26%, the brain was the organ with the highest percentage of this bacteria (34.31%, and 19 isolates were beta-haemolytic (18.63% with prevalence of 10.12%. Fish beta-haemolytic streptococci presented epicarditis, perisplenitis and chronic meningitis, panophthalmitis, coagulative necrosis of skeletal muscle and granulomas formation. In the confirmatory test by real-time PCR, any positive tilapia to S. iniae was obtained. The results were analysed using a stochastic simulation of beta distribution using @Risk program uncertainty, reporting an average prevalence of 0.66% in sick tilapias. Conclusions. The analysed fishes were positive to bacteria of the genus Streptococcus, which confirms its presence in the fish farm. However, 19 isolates were beta-haemolytic, and the presence of S. iniae was not positive to the limit prevalence of 2.7% in real-time PCR.

  14. of brain tumours

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    outline of the important clinical issues related to brain tumours and psychiatry. ... Left-sided, frontal tumours also seem to be associated with higher rates of depression, while those in the frontal lobe of the right .... Oxford: Blackwell Science,.

  15. Immunity to tumour antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Ali, Selman A; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Mian, Shahid; Ahmad, Murrium; Miles, Amanda; Rees, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, a large number of human tumour antigens have been identified. These antigens are classified as tumour-specific shared antigens, tissue-specific differentiation antigens, overexpressed antigens, tumour antigens resulting from mutations, viral antigens and fusion proteins. Antigens recognised by effectors of immune system are potential targets for antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy. However, most tumour antigens are self-proteins and are generally of low immunogenicity and the immune response elicited towards these tumour antigens is not always effective. Strategies to induce and enhance the tumour antigen-specific response are needed. This review will summarise the approaches to discovery of tumour antigens, the current status of tumour antigens, and their potential application to cancer treatment.

  16. Plutonium solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdomnech, I.; Bruno, J.

    1991-02-01

    Thermochemical data has been selected for plutonium oxide, hydroxide, carbonate and phosphate equilibria. Equilibrium constants have been evaluated in the temperature range 0 to 300 degrees C at a pressure of 1 bar to T≤100 degrees C and at the steam saturated pressure at higher temperatures. Measured solubilities of plutonium that are reported in the literature for laboratory experiments have been collected. Solubility data on oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and phosphates have been selected. No solubility data were found at temperatures higher than 60 degrees C. The literature solubility data have been compared with plutonium solubilities calculated with the EQ3/6 geochemical modelling programs, using the selected thermodynamic data for plutonium. (authors)

  17. Ibrutinib Is Effective in the Treatment of Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia in Mantle Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliénor Galinier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL is a rare but life-threatening complication. To date, there are no relevant data for treatment of AIHA in MCL. Ibrutinib, which has been approved for relapse/refractory MCL, is an immunomodulatory drug inhibiting Th2 activation and consequently the production of autoantibodies. We report a case of MCL with AIHA in which this form of anaemia was not controlled with the usual chemotherapy. Ibrutinib was used when MCL with AIHA relapsed, and it allowed rapid remission of AIHA and rapid discontinuation of steroid therapy.

  18. Immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia : possible association with Ancylostoma caninum infection in three dogs : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Lobetti

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA may be primary or secondary. In primary IMHA, no underlying cause can be found, whereas secondary IMHA is triggered by an underlying cause, such as neoplasia, infectious diseases, or drugs. This paper describes 3 dogs with typical signs of IMHA that was possibly associated with the intestinal parasite Ancylostoma caninum. As intestinal helminths can be difficult to diagnose on faecal examination, it would be pertinent to performmultiple faecal examinations on any animal that has IMHA with no apparent underlying cause, as part of the therapy.

  19. Increased β-haemolytic group A streptococcal M6 serotype and streptodornase B-specific cellular immune responses in Swedish narcolepsy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, A; Poiret, T; Svahn, B-M; Valentini, D; Khademi, M; Kockum, I; Lima, I; Arnheim-Dahlström, L; Lamb, F; Fink, K; Meng, Q; Kumar, A; Rane, L; Olsson, T; Maeurer, M

    2015-09-01

    Type 1 narcolepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy associated with the HLA allele DQB1*06:02. Genetic predisposition along with external triggering factors may drive autoimmune responses, ultimately leading to the selective loss of hypocretin-positive neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate potential aetiological factors in Swedish cases of postvaccination (Pandemrix) narcolepsy defined by interferon-gamma (IFNγ) production from immune cells in response to molecularly defined targets. Cellular reactivity defined by IFNγ production was examined in blood from 38 (HLA-DQB1*06:02(+) ) Pandemrix-vaccinated narcolepsy cases and 76 (23 HLA-DQB1*06:02(+) and 53 HLA-DQB1*06:02(-) ) control subjects, matched for age, sex and exposure, using a variety of different antigens: β-haemolytic group A streptococcal (GAS) antigens (M5, M6 and streptodornase B), influenza (the pandemic A/H1N1/California/7/09 NYMC X-179A and A/H1N1/California/7/09 NYMC X-181 vaccine antigens, previous Flu-A and -B vaccine targets, A/H1N1/Brisbane/59/2007, A/H1N1/Solomon Islands/3/2006, A/H3N2/Uruguay/716/2007, A/H3N2/Wisconsin/67/2005, A/H5N1/Vietnam/1203/2004 and B/Malaysia/2506/2004), noninfluenza viral targets (CMVpp65, EBNA-1 and EBNA-3) and auto-antigens (hypocretin peptide, Tribbles homolog 2 peptide cocktail and extract from rat hypothalamus tissue). IFN-γ production was significantly increased in whole blood from narcolepsy cases in response to streptococcus serotype M6 (P = 0.0065) and streptodornase B protein (P = 0.0050). T-cell recognition of M6 and streptodornase B was confirmed at the single-cell level by intracellular cytokine (IL-2, IFNγ, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and IL-17) production after stimulation with synthetic M6 or streptodornase B peptides. Significantly, higher (P = 0.02) titres of serum antistreptolysin O were observed in narcolepsy cases, compared to vaccinated controls. β-haemolytic GAS may be

  20. Structure determination and analysis of a haemolytic gingipain adhesin domain from Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, N.; Yun, P.; Nadkarni, M.A.; Ghadikolaee, N.B.; Nguyen, K.A.; Lee, M.; Hunter, N.; Collyer, C.A. (Sydney)

    2010-08-27

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is an obligately anaerobic bacterium recognized as an aetiological agent of adult periodontitis. P. gingivalis produces cysteine proteinases, the gingipains. The crystal structure of a domain within the haemagglutinin region of the lysine gingipain (Kgp) is reported here. The domain was named K2 as it is the second of three homologous structural modules in Kgp. The K2 domain structure is a 'jelly-roll' fold with two anti-parallel {beta}-sheets. This fold topology is shared with adhesive domains from functionally diverse receptors such as MAM domains, ephrin receptor ligand binding domains and a number of carbohydrate binding modules. Possible functions of K2 were investigated. K2 induced haemolysis of erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner that was augmented by the blocking of anion transport. Further, cysteine-activated arginine gingipain RgpB, which degrades glycophorin A, sensitized erythrocytes to the haemolytic effect of K2. Cleaved K2, similar to that found in extracted Kgp, lacks the haemolytic activity indicating that autolysis of Kgp may be a staged process which is artificially enhanced by extraction of the protein. The data indicate a functional role for K2 in the integrated capacity conferred by Kgp to enable the porphyrin auxotroph P. gingivalis to capture essential haem from erythrocytes.

  1. Red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in children with hereditary haemolytic anaemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidas, S; Zannos-Mariolea, L; Matsaniotis, N

    1975-12-01

    The role of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in increasing the availability of haemoglobin oxygen in neonatal jaundice and hereditary haemolytic anaemias was investigated. Measurements of 2,3-DPG were carried out on 58 normal children and six normal adults, 18 full-term newborns with neonatal jaundice and 57 cases (51 children and six adults) with hereditary haemolytic anaemias. In normal children and adults, with a mean haemoglobin of 12.69 g/dl, mean 2,3-DPG was 14.90 mumol/g Hb. In jaundiced newborns with a mean haemoglobin of 16.04 g/dl mean 2,3-DPG levels were 14.51 mumol/g Hb, i.e. normal. 2,3-DPG levels were increased in patients with beta-thalassaemia major, alpha-thalassaemia, sickle-cell disease, favism, hereditary spherocytosis and in heterozygotes for beta-thalassaemia with increased haemoglobin F. In heterozygotes for beta-thalassaemia with increased haemoglobin A2 only and in sickle cell trait 2,3-DPG levels were normal.

  2. Unclassified haemolytic anaemia with splenomegaly and erythrocyte cation abnormalities - a disease of the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.F.; Bournier, O.; Renoux, M.; Charron, D.; Boivin, P.

    1976-01-01

    An unclassified case of haemolytic anaemia with voluminous splenomegaly is reported. This anaemia was normocytic without any specific morphologic aspect of red blood cells (RBC); Coombs test was negative; the osmotic fragility was normal; the increased autohaemolysis was not affected by the presence of glucose; Hb studies were normal; no RBC enzyme deficiency was found; RBC lipids and membrane proteins were normal; there was a marked reduction in RBC survival with exclusive splenic uptake of erythrocytes. Before splenectomy, RBC cations and water content were abnormal: 1) the RBC water was decreased moderately; 2) the RBC sodium was about twice the normal mean with an increased 22 Na turn-over; 3) the RBC potassium was markedly reduced and 42 K influx was twice the normal mean; 4) the RBC calcium content was increased. Splenectomy was followed by rapid disappearance of haemolysis and RBC water and cation disturbances. Because of this extremely rapid disappearance after splenectomy the authors suggest this case of haemolytic anaemia could be a primary disease of the spleen. (author)

  3. Imaging of sacral tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, S.; Ollivier, L.; Brisse, H.; Neuenschwander, S.; Leclere, J.; Vanel, D.; Missenard, G.; Pinieux, G. de

    2008-01-01

    All components of the sacrum (bone, cartilage, bone marrow, meninges, nerves, notochord remnants, etc.) can give rise to benign or malignant tumours. Bone metastases and intraosseous sites of haematological malignancies, lymphoma and multiple myeloma are the most frequent aetiologies, while primary bone tumours and meningeal or nerve tumours are less common. Some histological types have a predilection for the sacrum, especially chordoma and giant cell tumour. Clinical signs are usually minor, and sacral tumours are often discovered in the context of nerve root or pelvic organ compression. The roles of conventional radiology, CT and MRI are described and compared with the histological features of the main tumours. The impact of imaging on treatment decisions and follow-up is also reviewed. (orig.)

  4. Imaging of sacral tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, S.; Ollivier, L.; Brisse, H.; Neuenschwander, S. [Institut Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Leclere, J. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif (France); Vanel, D. [The Rizzoli Institute, Department of Radiology, Bologna (Italy); Missenard, G. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Comite de pathologie tumorale de l' appareil locomoteur, Villejuif (France); Pinieux, G. de [CHRU de Tours, Department of Pathology, Hopital Trousseau, Tours (France)

    2008-04-15

    All components of the sacrum (bone, cartilage, bone marrow, meninges, nerves, notochord remnants, etc.) can give rise to benign or malignant tumours. Bone metastases and intraosseous sites of haematological malignancies, lymphoma and multiple myeloma are the most frequent aetiologies, while primary bone tumours and meningeal or nerve tumours are less common. Some histological types have a predilection for the sacrum, especially chordoma and giant cell tumour. Clinical signs are usually minor, and sacral tumours are often discovered in the context of nerve root or pelvic organ compression. The roles of conventional radiology, CT and MRI are described and compared with the histological features of the main tumours. The impact of imaging on treatment decisions and follow-up is also reviewed. (orig.)

  5. Good agreement of conventional and gel-based direct agglutination test in immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Teske, E.; van Leeuwen, M.W.; Day, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare a gel-based test with the traditional direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA). Methods Canine (n = 247) and feline (n = 74) blood samples were submitted for DAT testing to two

  6. A phase III randomized trial comparing glucocorticoid monotherapy versus glucocorticoid and rituximab in patients with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgens, Henrik Sverre; Frederiksen, Henrik; Hasselbalch, Hans C

    2013-01-01

    The impact of first-line treatment with the anti-CD 20 chimeric monoclonal antibody rituximab in patients with warm-antibody reactive autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (WAIHA) is unknown. We report the first randomized study of 64 patients with newly diagnosed WAIHA who received prednisolone and ritu...

  7. Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wilms' tumour or nephroblastoma is a cancer of the kidney that ... It may be noticed by parents or it may be an incidental finding ... patients. It may lead to iron deficiency anaemia. Rarely Wilms' tumour may present with acquired von Willebrand's ... the best treatment approach. ... with multimodality therapy in paediatric.

  8. An improved haemolytic plaque assay for the detection of cells secreting antibody to bacterial antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Heilmann, C

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of conjugate polysaccharide vaccines for human use have stimulated interest in the use of assays detecting antibody-secreting cells (AbSC) with specificity for bacterial antigens. Here we present improved haemolytic plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays detecting Ab......SC with specificity for tetanus and diphtheria toxoid as well as for Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides. These assays were found to be less time consuming, more economical and yielded 1.9-3.4-fold higher plaque numbers than traditional Jerne-type PFC assays. In the case of anti......-polysaccharide antibodies aggregation of secreted monomeric antibody (IgG) is critical for plaque formation and increases the avidity of binding to target cells....

  9. A rare case of haemolytic disease of newborn with Bombay phenotype mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamee Shastry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a rare case of severe hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN with Bombay phenotype mother. A retrospective study of a case with severe haemolytic disease of newborn with Bombay phenotype mother was done. Blood grouping, antibody screening, and lectin study was done on the blood sample of the baby and mother to confirm the diagnosis. Hematological and biochemical parameters were obtained from the hospital laboratory information system for the analysis. Blood group of the baby was A positive, direct antiglobulin test was negative. Blood group of the mother was confirmed to be Bombay phenotype, Hematological parameters showed all the signs of ongoing hemolysis and the bilirubin level was in the zone of exchange transfusion. Due to the unavailability of this rare phenotype blood unit, baby was managed conservatively. Anticipating the fetal anemia and HDN with mothers having Bombay phenotype and prior notification to the transfusion services will be of great help in optimizing the neonatal care and outcome.

  10. Pegylated interferon de novo-induce autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in chronic hepatitis C patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ashraf; Elbahrawy, Ashraf; Alfiomy, Mohamed; Abdellah, Mohamed; Shahat, Khaled; Salah, Mohamed; Mostafa, Sadek; Elwassief, Ahmed; Aboelfotoh, Attef; Abdelhafeez, Hafez; El-Sherif, Assem

    2011-08-11

    A 55-year-old Egyptian woman with chronic hepatitis C undergoing treatment with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) alfa-2a plus ribavirin was referred to our hospital on November 2010 with prolonged easy fatigability and an attack of syncope; she had no prior history of autoimmune disorders or allergy. Laboratory investigations documented the presence of Peg-IFN induced autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and autoimmune thyroiditis. Intravenous γ globulin (IVGG) failed to correct the autoimmune process; on the other hand steroid therapy dramatically corrected both haematological and thyroid values, and step down the immune process. Our report indicated that Peg-IFN de novo-induce autoimmune haemolysis, documenting a previous report. IVGG failed to step down the immune process in our case.

  11. Electrochemotherapy of tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sersa, G.; Cemazar, M.; Rudolf, Z.; Miklavcic, D.

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemotherapy consists of chemotherapy followed by local application of electric pulses to the tumour to increase drug delivery into cells. Drug uptake can be increased by electroporation for only those drugs whose transport through the plasma membrane is impeded. Among many drugs that have been tested so far, only bleomycin and cisplatin found their way from preclinical testing to clinical trials. In vitro studies demonstrated several fold increase of their cytotoxicity after electroporation of cells. In vivo, electroporation of tumours after local or systemic administration of either of the drugs, i.e. electrochemotherapy, proved to be an effective antitumour treatment. In preclinical studies on several tumour models, electrochemotherapy either with bleomycin or cisplatin was elaborated and parameters for effective local tumour control were determined. In veterinary medicine, electrochemotherapy also proved to be effective in the treatment of primary tumours in cats, dogs and horses. In human clinical studies, electrochemotherapy was performed on the patients with progressive disease and accessible tumour nodules of different malignancies. All clinical studies demonstrated that electrochemotherapy is an effective treatment for local tumour control in cancer patients. (author)

  12. Tumour-induced osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minisola, Salvatore; Peacock, Munro; Fukumoto, Seijii; Cipriani, Cristiana; Pepe, Jessica; Tella, Sri Harsha; Collins, Michael T

    2017-07-13

    Tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO), also known as oncogenic osteomalacia, is a rare paraneoplastic disorder caused by tumours that secrete fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Owing to the role of FGF23 in renal phosphate handling and vitamin D synthesis, TIO is characterized by decreased renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate, by hypophosphataemia and by low levels of active vitamin D. Chronic hypophosphataemia ultimately results in osteomalacia (that is, inadequate bone mineralization). The diagnosis of TIO is usually suspected when serum phosphate levels are chronically low in the setting of bone pain, fragility fractures and muscle weakness. Locating the offending tumour can be very difficult, as the tumour is often very small and can be anywhere in the body. Surgical removal of the tumour is the only definitive treatment. When the tumour cannot be located or when complete resection is not possible, medical treatment with phosphate salts or active vitamin D is necessary. One of the most promising emerging treatments for unresectable tumours that cause TIO is the anti-FGF23 monoclonal antibody KRN23. The recent identification of a fusion of fibronectin and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) as a molecular driver in some tumours not only sheds light on the pathophysiology of TIO but also opens the door to a better understanding of the transcription, translocation, post-translational modification and secretion of FGF23, as well as suggesting approaches to targeted therapy. Further study will reveal if the FGFR1 pathway is also involved in tumours that do not harbour the translocation.

  13. Malignant thyroid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, W.; Reiners, C.

    1987-01-01

    The subjects dealt with at the symposium cover all topical aspects of pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy, and aftercare of the malignant thyroid tumours. A survey of the histological classification of the thyroid tumours and a review of the latest findings concerning the radiocarcinogenesis are followed by a detailed discussion of the most significant tumours. There are also papers dealing with controversial aspects of the histological classification, the value of diagnostic methods, radicality of the therapy, or after care. For five conference papers, separate records are available in the database. (orig./ECB) With 59 figs.; 57 tabs [de

  14. Acetyltransferases and tumour suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, A C; Vousden, Karen H

    2000-01-01

    The acetyltransferase p300 was first identified associated with the adenoviral transforming protein E1A, suggesting a potential role for p300 in the regulation of cell proliferation. Direct evidence demonstrating a role for p300 in human tumours was lacking until the recentl publication by Gayther et al, which strongly supports a role for p300 as a tumour suppressor. The authors identify truncating mutations associated with the loss or mutation of the second allele in both tumour samples and cell lines, suggesting that loss of p300 may play a role in the development of a subset of human cancers

  15. Targeting radiation to tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; Greater Glasgow Health Board, Glasgow

    1994-01-01

    Biologically targeted radiotherapy entails the preferential delivery of radiation to solid tumours or individual tumour cells by means of tumour-seeking delivery vehicles to which radionuclides can be conjugated. Monoclonal antibodies have attracted attention for some years as potentially selective targeting agents, but advances in tumour and molecular biology are now providing a much wider choice of molecular species. General radiobiological principles may be derived which are applicable to most forms of targeted radiotherapy. These principles provide guidelines for the appropriate choice of radionuclide in specific treatment situations and its optimal combination with other treatment modalities. In future, the availability of gene targeting agents will focus attention on the use of Auger electron emitters whose high potency and short range selectivity makes them attractive choices for specific killing of cancer cells whose genetic peculiarities are known. (author)

  16. [Gastric mesenchymal tumours (GIST)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivach, Arrigo; Fezzi, Margherita; Sartori, Alberto; Belgrano, Manuel; Rimondini, Alessandra; Cuttin-Zernich, Roberto; Covab, Maria Assunta; Bonifacio, Daniela; Buri, Luigi; Pagani, Carlo; Zanconati, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) has increased in recent years. A number of authors have attempted to define the actual nature of these tumours. Immunohistochemistry highlighting the positivity of tyrosine-kinase (CD117/c-Kit) has revealed the difference between gastrointestinal stromal tumours and other mesenchymal tumours and, therefore, the possibility of medical rather than surgical therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients affected by primary gastric GIST, who underwent surgery in recent years with subsequent follow-up. Gastroscopy and gastrointestinal tract radiography were used not only to obtain the diagnosis but also to establish the size, density, contours, ulceration, regional lymphadenopathy, mesenteric infiltration and the presence of metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of endoscopy and radiology in this pathology and the advantages and limitations of each individual technique.

  17. Rapid identification of pneumococci, enterococci, beta-haemolytic streptococci and S. aureus from positive blood cultures enabling early reports

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Marie C.; Karlsson, Ewa; Woksepp, Hanna; Frolander, Kerstin; Mårtensson, Agneta; Rashed, Foad; Annika, Wistedt; Schön, Thomas; Serrander, Lena

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic tests in order to introduce a diagnostic strategy to identify the most common gram-positive bacteria (pneumococci, enterococci, β-haemolytic streptococci and S. aureus) found in blood cultures within 6 hours after signalling growth. METHODS: The tube coagulase test was optimized and several latex agglutination tests were compared and evaluated before a validation period of 11 months was performed on consecutive positive blood cultur...

  18. Prevalence of Group A beta-haemolytic Streptococcus isolated from children with acute pharyngotonsillitis in Aden, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba-Saddik, I A; Munibari, A A; Alhilali, A M; Ismail, S M; Murshed, F M; Coulter, J B S; Cuevas, L E; Hart, C A; Brabin, B J; Parry, C M

    2014-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of Group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus (GAS) and non-GAS infections among children with acute pharyngotonsillitis in Aden, Yemen, to evaluate the value of a rapid diagnostic test and the McIsaac score for patient management in this setting and to determine the occurrence of emm genotypes among a subset of GAS isolated from children with acute pharyngotonsillitis and a history of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) or rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus infections in school-aged children with acute pharyngotonsillitis in Aden, Yemen, were diagnosed by a rapid GAS antigen detection test (RADT) and/or GAS culture from a throat swab. The RADT value and the McIsaac screening score for patient management were evaluated. The emm genotype of a subset of GAS isolates was determined. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus pharyngotonsillitis was diagnosed in 287/691 (41.5%; 95% CI 37.8-45.3) children. Group B, Group C and Group G beta-haemolytic streptococci were isolated from 4.3% children. The RADT had a sensitivity of 238/258 (92.2%) and specificity of 404/423 (95.5%) against GAS culture. A McIsaac score of ≥4 had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 82% for confirmed GAS infection. The emm genotypes in 21 GAS isolates from children with pharyngitis and a history of ARF and confirmed RHD were emm87 (11), emm12 (6), emm28 (3) and emm5 (1). This study demonstrates a very high prevalence of GAS infections in Yemeni children and the value of the RADT and the McIsaac score in this setting. More extensive emm genotyping is necessary to understand the local epidemiology of circulating strains. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comparative analysis of internalisation, haemolytic, cytotoxic and antibacterial effect of membrane-active cationic peptides: aspects of experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváti, Kata; Bacsa, Bernadett; Mlinkó, Tamás; Szabó, Nóra; Hudecz, Ferenc; Zsila, Ferenc; Bősze, Szilvia

    2017-06-01

    Cationic peptides proved fundamental importance as pharmaceutical agents and/or drug carrier moieties functioning in cellular processes. The comparison of the in vitro activity of these peptides is an experimental challenge and a combination of different methods, such as cytotoxicity, internalisation rate, haemolytic and antibacterial effect, is necessary. At the same time, several issues need to be addressed as the assay conditions have a great influence on the measured biological effects and the experimental setup needs to be optimised. Therefore, critical comparison of results from different assays using representative examples of cell penetrating and antimicrobial peptides was performed and optimal test conditions were suggested. Our main goal was to identify carrier peptides for drug delivery systems of antimicrobial drug candidates. Based on the results of internalisation, haemolytic, cytotoxic and antibacterial activity assays, a classification of cationic peptides is advocated. We found eight promising carrier peptides with good penetration ability of which Penetratin, Tat, Buforin and Dhvar4 peptides showed low adverse haemolytic effect. Penetratin, Transportan, Dhvar4 and the hybrid CM15 peptide had the most potent antibacterial activity on Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC lower than 1.2 μM) and Transportan was effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well. The most selective peptide was the Penetratin, where the effective antimicrobial concentration on pneumococcus was more than 250 times lower than the HC 50 value. Therefore, these peptides and their analogues will be further investigated as drug delivery systems for antimicrobial agents.

  20. A haemolytic syndrome associated with the complete absence of red cell membrane protein 4.2 in two Tunisian siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, A; Pothier, B; Marechal, J; Ducluzeau, M T; Morle, L; Alloisio, N; Feo, C; Ben Abdeladhim, A; Fattoum, S; Delaunay, J

    1990-07-01

    We report on the complete absence of protein 4.2 in two Tunisian siblings. The propositus presented with a haemolytic anaemia that evolved in an intermittent fashion until she was cured by splenectomy. Her red cells had a normal morphology, as well as normal deformability upon osmotic gradient ektacytometry. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis failed to reveal any protein 4.2. Using anti-protein 4.2 polyclonal antibodies. Western blots were also unable to detect protein 4.2. Preparation of inside out vesicles resulted in no detectable loss of ankyrin. The propositus's sister presented with a haemolytic anaemia but had not undergone splenectomy; she showed the same biochemical features. The two cases presented of missing protein 4.2 are the first ones to be described outside the Japanese population. Considered as homozygotes for some defect that must alter the protein 4.2 gene itself, they exemplify a unique syndrome pertaining neither to elliptocytosis nor to spherocytosis, at least not closely. The parents, who are first cousins and whom we regarded as heterozygotes, were clinically and morphologically normal; they had a normal content of protein 4.2. Therefore, the 4.2 (-) haemolytic anaemia appears as entirely recessive.

  1. Association between group A beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruins, M J; Damoiseaux, R A M J; Ruijs, G J H M

    2009-08-01

    Guidelines for the management of vaginal discharge mention Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae as causes and do not recommend full microbiological culture. The role of non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci in vaginal cultures is unclear, except for group A streptococci that are known to cause vulvovaginitis in children. In a case-control study, we investigated the association between non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women. Cases were women with recurrent vaginal discharge from whom a sample was cultured. Controls were asymptomatic women who consented to submitting a vaginal swab. Group A streptococci were isolated from 49 (4.9%) of 1,010 cases and not from the 206 controls (P < 0.01). Isolation rates of group C, F and G streptococci were low and did not differ statistically between cases and controls. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci are associated with vaginal discharge in adult women. The other non-group B streptococci require more study. For the adequate management of vaginal discharge, culturing is necessary if initial treatment fails. Guidelines should be amended according to these results.

  2. Experimental tumour treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report of 1984 is the seventh in a series and presents that year's results of continuous studies in the domain of experimental tumour radiotherapy. In the year under review, more personnel has been available for the studies, and the scientific programmes for the assessment of acute and chronic side effects of radiotherapies have been extended. New models have been developed, among them a first system based on animal experiments, for quantifying the mucositis of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, a limiting condition in the radiotherapy of head and throat tumours. Another significant advancement is a model for quantification of chronical damage to the ureter, which still is a serious problem in the radiotherapy of gynaecological tumours. The 1984 experimental tumour studies have been mainly devoted to the repopulation and split-dose recovery in various tumours, concentrating on dose fractionation as one of the major problems studies. Particular interest has been attached to the processes involved in treatments over several weeks with a daily effective dose of 2 Gy. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Patterns in early diffusion-weighted MRI in children with haemolytic uraemic syndrome and CNS involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnerstag, Frank; Ding, Xiaoqi; Bueltmann, Eva; Zajaczek, Jan; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Pape, Lars; Das, Anibh Martin; Ehrich, Jochen; Hartmann, Hans; Luecke, Thomas; Hoy, Ludwig

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in children with diarrhoea associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome (D+HUS) and cerebral involvement was evaluated retrospectively. DWI within 24 h of onset of neurological symptoms. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured in grey/white matter and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. DWI was abnormal in all. Abnormal ADC was detected in the supratentorial white matter (6/12) and cortex (1/12), the basal ganglia (5/12), the thalami (4/12), and the cerebellum (1/12). ADC was reduced in 5/12, increased in 4/12, and both in 3/12. Mean serum sodium was lower in patients with DWI abnormalities affecting the white matter (6/12), than in those with basal ganglia/thalamic involvement (6/12). Neurological outcome was normal in 4/11 and abnormal in 7/11, and 1 patient died, outcome did not correlate to either localisation or type of DWI abnormality. In D+HUS with neurological symptoms, early DWI may reveal abnormal ADC not only in the basal ganglia/thalami, but also in the white matter/cortex. Besides thrombotic microangiopathy, toxic effects of shiga toxin, azotaemia and hyponatraemia / hypoosmolality may be involved in cerebral involvement in children with D+HUS. Findings on early MRI seem not to predict clinical course or outcome. (orig.)

  4. Haemolytic anaemia and acute pancreatitis associated with zinc toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, R; Adam, F

    2013-01-05

    We describe a case of zinc toxicity in a 14-month-old, female, neutered, Cavalier King Charles spaniel with a 48-hour history of haematochezia, icterus and collapse. Regenerative anaemia with a packed-cell volume of 7 per cent was seen. Prior to referral, radiography had revealed a gastric, metallic foreign body which was removed at exploratory laparotomy. On presentation, the dog was comatose, hypothermic and bradycardic - resuscitation was performed successfully, but the dog then displayed marked abdominal pain. The dog died 12 hours after presentation. At postmortem examination, the animal showed severe icterus. Both kidneys were diffusely dark red; the pancreas was diffusely pale and nodular. Histopathological examination revealed evidence of intravascular haemolysis with blood vessel lumens containing haemoglobin. The renal tubules also contained large amounts of intraluminal haemoglobin with haemoglobin crystals scattered throughout the cortex and medulla. The pancreas exhibited multifocal coagulative necrosis, surrounded by a neutrophil-dominated inflammatory infiltrate. Zinc levels were markedly increased above the normal reference range in both liver and kidney. This report describes the clinical and pathological findings of a case of acute zinc toxicity in a dog following ingestion of a metallic object which resulted in marked haemolytic anaemia and acute pancreatitis.

  5. Intrauterine intravascular transfusion for fetal haemolytic anaemia: the Western Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, J P; Phillips, J M; Stock, R

    1992-11-16

    To report the first four years' clinical experience with fetal intravascular blood transfusion for the treatment of fetal haemolytic anaemia in Western Australia. King Edward Memorial Hospital, Perth, which is the sole tertiary level perinatal centre in Western Australia with a referral base of approximately 25,000 pregnancies each year. Transfusion was by injection of packed cells from Rh-negative donors into the fetal umbilical vein near the site of insertion into the placenta. Fetal haemoglobin levels were measured before and after each transfusion. In most cases, the fetus was paralysed by intramuscular tubocurarine. Sixty intravenous transfusions were performed in 20 pregnancies. At the time of the initial transfusion, the mean haemoglobin level was 5.8 g/dL (range, 2.5-8.5 g/dL) and six fetuses had signs of hydrops. The case survival rate was 80% and the procedure survival rate was 93%. Three of the deaths occurred in the first five cases. Caesarean section was performed during two of the procedures, one because of bleeding from the cord puncture site and one because of tamponade of the umbilical vessels. Fetal intravascular transfusion is a highly effective treatment for fetal alloimmunisation and allows pregnancies to continue to term and to be delivered vaginally. However, the procedure may be difficult and requires a team approach with ready access to fetal monitoring and emergency caesarean section. Our results suggest that increasing experience of the team is a major factor in improved outcome.

  6. Patterns in early diffusion-weighted MRI in children with haemolytic uraemic syndrome and CNS involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnerstag, Frank; Ding, Xiaoqi; Bueltmann, Eva; Zajaczek, Jan; Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); Pape, Lars; Das, Anibh Martin; Ehrich, Jochen; Hartmann, Hans [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover (Germany); Luecke, Thomas [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover (Germany); University of Bochum, Department of Neuropediatrics, Pediatric Hospital, Bochum (Germany); Hoy, Ludwig [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Biometrics, Hannover (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in children with diarrhoea associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome (D+HUS) and cerebral involvement was evaluated retrospectively. DWI within 24 h of onset of neurological symptoms. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured in grey/white matter and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. DWI was abnormal in all. Abnormal ADC was detected in the supratentorial white matter (6/12) and cortex (1/12), the basal ganglia (5/12), the thalami (4/12), and the cerebellum (1/12). ADC was reduced in 5/12, increased in 4/12, and both in 3/12. Mean serum sodium was lower in patients with DWI abnormalities affecting the white matter (6/12), than in those with basal ganglia/thalamic involvement (6/12). Neurological outcome was normal in 4/11 and abnormal in 7/11, and 1 patient died, outcome did not correlate to either localisation or type of DWI abnormality. In D+HUS with neurological symptoms, early DWI may reveal abnormal ADC not only in the basal ganglia/thalami, but also in the white matter/cortex. Besides thrombotic microangiopathy, toxic effects of shiga toxin, azotaemia and hyponatraemia / hypoosmolality may be involved in cerebral involvement in children with D+HUS. Findings on early MRI seem not to predict clinical course or outcome. (orig.)

  7. Prevalence, species differentiation, haemolytic activity, and antibiotic susceptibility of aeromonads in untreated well water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of untreated water for drinking and other activities have been associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections in humans due to Aeromonas species. In the present study aeromonads were isolated from 48.7% of 1,000 water samples obtained from wells and other miscellaneous sources. Aeromonas species were detected in 45% of samples tested in spring, 34.5% in summer, 48% in autumn and 60% of samples tested in winter. Speciation of 382 strains resulted in 225 (59% being A. hydrophila, 103 (27% A. caviae, 42 (11% A. sobria and 11 (3% atypical aeromonads. Of 171 Aeromonas strains tested for their haemolytic activity, 53%, 49%, 40% and 37% were positive in this assay using human, horse, sheep and camel erythrocytes respectively. The results obtained indicate that potentially enteropathogenic Aeromonas species are commonly present in untreated drinking water obtained from wells in Libya (this may also apply to other neighbouring countries which may pose a health problem to users of such water supplies. In addition, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin are suitable drugs that can be used in the treatment of Aeromonas-associated infections, particularly in the immunocompromised, resulting from contact with untreated sources of water.

  8. Diffusion-weighted imaging of the kidneys in haemolytic uraemic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Jochen; Wenzel, Ulrich; Galler, Stephanie; Schoennagel, Bjoern P.; Bannas, Peter; Yamamura, Jin; Groth, Michael; Adam, Gerhard; Busch, Jasmin D.; Tozakidou, Magdalini; Petersen, Kay U.; Joekel, Michaela; Habermann, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the kidneys of patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and Doppler ultrasound (US) compared with healthy controls. Fifteen patients (mean age 33.3 years; three male; 12 female) with diarrhoea-positive HUS and 15 healthy volunteers were prospectively evaluated with DWI and Doppler US. A total apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC TOT ), and ADCs predominantly reflecting microperfusion (ADC LOW ) and diffusion (ADC HIGH ) were calculated. Doppler US evaluated renal vascularity and flow. When compared with controls, kidneys affected by HUS showed reduced cortical ADC values (ADC TOT 1.79±0.22 vs. 2.04±0.1x10 -3 mm 2 /s, P 0.001), resulting in either low corticomedullary differences (11/15 patients) or an inverted corticomedullary pattern (4/15 patients). Reduction of cortical ADC values was associated with a decrease of cortical vascularity on Doppler US (ADC TOT , P<0.001; ADC LOW , P 0.047). Kidneys with complete absence of the cortical vasculature on Doppler US (four patients) also demonstrated limited diffusion (ADC HIGH , P 0.002). Low glomerular filtration rate, requirement for haemodialysis during hospitalization, and longer duration of haemodialysis were associated with decreased cortical diffusivity (ADC TOT: P 0.04, 0.007, and <0.001, respectively). DWI shows qualitative and quantitative abnormalities in kidneys affected by HUS, thereby extending the non-invasive assessment of renal parenchymal damage. (orig.)

  9. A case of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia after 39 cycles of nivolumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Hira; Daboul, Nour; Albrethsen, Mary; Fazal, Salman

    2018-04-18

    With growing use of nivolumab, rare but serious side effects have surfaced in some patients. We present a case of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia that developed after 39 cycles of nivolumab. A 78-year-old man with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma, refractory to multiple lines of chemotherapy was switched to nivolumab. After around 2 years of stable course on nivolumab, he developed transfusion-dependent anaemia with haemoglobin of 8.6 g/dL. Nivolumab was held immediately. Bone marrow biopsy findings were inconclusive of myelodysplastic syndrome. Further testing was suggestive of haemolysis with haptoglobin <10 mg/dL, elevated reticulocyte count and identification of immunoglobulin G antibody. Haemoglobin improved significantly with initiation of 1 mg/kg prednisone in addition to rituximab weekly × four doses. The development of transfusion-dependent anaemia with the exposure to cytotoxic chemotherapy usually raises the question for myelodysplastic syndrome. In contradiction, our patient was diagnosed to have a haematological autoimmune complication related to immunotherapy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Genetically modified tumour vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, Suppl. 1 (2005), S7 ISSN 1214-021X. [Cells VI - Biological Days /18./. 24.10.2005-26.10.2005, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : tumour vaccines * HPV16 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  11. Putting tumours in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, M J; Radisky, D

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumour growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets.

  12. Diffusion-weighted imaging of the kidneys in haemolytic uraemic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Jochen [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Wenzel, Ulrich [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, III. Department of Internal Medicine, Hamburg (Germany); Galler, Stephanie; Schoennagel, Bjoern P.; Bannas, Peter; Yamamura, Jin; Groth, Michael; Adam, Gerhard [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hamburg (Germany); Busch, Jasmin D.; Tozakidou, Magdalini [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Petersen, Kay U. [University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Section for Addiction Research and Therapy, Tuebingen (Germany); Joekel, Michaela [Siemens AG Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Habermann, Christian R. [Katholisches Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    To evaluate the kidneys of patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and Doppler ultrasound (US) compared with healthy controls. Fifteen patients (mean age 33.3 years; three male; 12 female) with diarrhoea-positive HUS and 15 healthy volunteers were prospectively evaluated with DWI and Doppler US. A total apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC{sub TOT}), and ADCs predominantly reflecting microperfusion (ADC{sub LOW}) and diffusion (ADC{sub HIGH}) were calculated. Doppler US evaluated renal vascularity and flow. When compared with controls, kidneys affected by HUS showed reduced cortical ADC values (ADC{sub TOT} 1.79±0.22 vs. 2.04±0.1x10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, P 0.001), resulting in either low corticomedullary differences (11/15 patients) or an inverted corticomedullary pattern (4/15 patients). Reduction of cortical ADC values was associated with a decrease of cortical vascularity on Doppler US (ADC{sub TOT}, P<0.001; ADC{sub LOW}, P 0.047). Kidneys with complete absence of the cortical vasculature on Doppler US (four patients) also demonstrated limited diffusion (ADC{sub HIGH}, P 0.002). Low glomerular filtration rate, requirement for haemodialysis during hospitalization, and longer duration of haemodialysis were associated with decreased cortical diffusivity (ADC{sub TOT:} P 0.04, 0.007, and <0.001, respectively). DWI shows qualitative and quantitative abnormalities in kidneys affected by HUS, thereby extending the non-invasive assessment of renal parenchymal damage. (orig.)

  13. Haemolytic activity of soil from areas of varying podoconiosis endemicity in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Le Blond

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis, non-filarial elephantiasis, is a non-infectious disease found in tropical regions such as Ethiopia, localized in highland areas with volcanic soils cultivated by barefoot subsistence farmers. It is thought that soil particles can pass through the soles of the feet and taken up by the lymphatic system, leading to the characteristic chronic oedema of the lower legs that becomes disfiguring and disabling over time.The close association of the disease with volcanic soils led us to investigate the characteristics of soil samples in an endemic area in Ethiopia to identify the potential causal constituents. We used the in vitro haemolysis assay and compared haemolytic activity (HA with soil samples collected in a non-endemic region of the same area in Ethiopia. We included soil samples that had been previously characterized, in addition we present other data describing the characteristics of the soil and include pure phase mineral standards as comparisons.The bulk chemical composition of the soils were statistically significantly different between the podoconiosis-endemic and non-endemic areas, with the exception of CaO and Cr. Likewise, the soil mineralogy was statistically significant for iron oxide, feldspars, mica and chlorite. Smectite and kaolinite clays were widely present and elicited a strong HA, as did quartz, in comparison to other mineral phases tested, although no strong difference was found in HA between soils from the two areas. The relationship was further investigated with principle component analysis (PCA, which showed that a combination of an increase in Y, Zr and Al2O3, and a concurrent increase Fe2O3, TiO2, MnO and Ba in the soils increased HA.The mineralogy and chemistry of the soils influenced the HA, although the interplay between the components is complex. Further research should consider the variable biopersistance, hygroscopicity and hardness of the minerals and further characterize the nano-scale particles.

  14. Haemolytic activity of soil from areas of varying podoconiosis endemicity in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blond, Jennifer S.; Baxter, Peter J.; Bello, Dhimiter; Raftis, Jennifer; Molla, Yordanos B.; Cuadros, Javier; Davey, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis, non-filarial elephantiasis, is a non-infectious disease found in tropical regions such as Ethiopia, localized in highland areas with volcanic soils cultivated by barefoot subsistence farmers. It is thought that soil particles can pass through the soles of the feet and taken up by the lymphatic system, leading to the characteristic chronic oedema of the lower legs that becomes disfiguring and disabling over time. Methods The close association of the disease with volcanic soils led us to investigate the characteristics of soil samples in an endemic area in Ethiopia to identify the potential causal constituents. We used the in vitro haemolysis assay and compared haemolytic activity (HA) with soil samples collected in a non-endemic region of the same area in Ethiopia. We included soil samples that had been previously characterized, in addition we present other data describing the characteristics of the soil and include pure phase mineral standards as comparisons. Results The bulk chemical composition of the soils were statistically significantly different between the podoconiosis-endemic and non-endemic areas, with the exception of CaO and Cr. Likewise, the soil mineralogy was statistically significant for iron oxide, feldspars, mica and chlorite. Smectite and kaolinite clays were widely present and elicited a strong HA, as did quartz, in comparison to other mineral phases tested, although no strong difference was found in HA between soils from the two areas. The relationship was further investigated with principle component analysis (PCA), which showed that a combination of an increase in Y, Zr and Al2O3, and a concurrent increase Fe2O3, TiO2, MnO and Ba in the soils increased HA. Conclusion The mineralogy and chemistry of the soils influenced the HA, although the interplay between the components is complex. Further research should consider the variable biopersistance, hygroscopicity and hardness of the minerals and further characterize the

  15. Elephant trunk in a small-calibre true lumen for chronic aortic dissection: cause of haemolytic anaemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Haruna; Kitamura, Tadashi; Horai, Tetsuya; Shibata, Ko; Miyaji, Kagami

    2014-12-01

    The elephant trunk technique for aortic dissection is useful for reducing false lumen pressure; however, a folded vascular prosthesis inside the aorta can cause haemolysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an elephant trunk in a small-calibre lumen can cause haemolysis. Inpatient and outpatient records were retrospectively reviewed. Two cases of haemolytic anaemia after aortic surgery using the elephant trunk technique were identified from 2011 to 2013. A 64-year-old man, who underwent graft replacement of the ascending aorta for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection, presented with enlargement of the chronic dissection of the descending aorta and moderate aortic regurgitation. A two-stage surgery was scheduled. Total arch replacement with an elephant trunk in the true lumen and concomitant aortic valve replacement were performed. Postoperatively, he developed severe haemolytic anaemia because of the folded elephant trunk. The anaemia improved after the second surgery, including graft replacement of the descending aorta. Similarly, a 61-year-old man, who underwent total arch replacement for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection, presented with enlargement of the chronic dissection of the descending aorta. Graft replacement of the descending aorta with an elephant trunk inserted into the true lumen was performed. The patient postoperatively developed haemolytic anaemia because of the folded elephant trunk, which improved after additional stent grafting into the elephant trunk. A folded elephant trunk in a small-calibre lumen can cause haemolysis. Therefore, inserting an elephant trunk in a small-calibre true lumen during surgery for chronic aortic dissection should be avoided. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  16. Vaginal isolation of beta-haemolytic Streptococcus from bitches with and without neonatal deaths in the litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, A E; Stornelli, M C; Jurado, S B; Giacoboni, G; Sguazza, G H; de la Sota, R L; Stornelli, M A

    2018-02-18

    The aim of the study was to identify beta-haemolytic streptococci in the vagina of bitches who had delivered healthy litters and bitches who had delivered litters in which neonatal deaths occurred. Fifty-one bitches divided into two groups were used. Group 1 (G1) included 28 bitches that had delivered healthy litters and group 2 (G2) included 23 bitches that had delivered puppies who died in the neonatal period. Two vaginal samples were taken, one in proestrus and the other at the end of gestation (EG). Beta-haemolytic Streptococcus (BS) was isolated from 16 bitches (57%) in G1 and from 21 bitches (91%) in G2. The bacteriological cultures, serological tests (Streptex ® ) and PCR assay allowed identification of Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae in G1 and G2. Ultramicroscopic studies allowed the observation of M Protein and capsules in strains of S. dysgalactiae and S. canis in G1 and G2. The S. canis strains isolated from G2 showed thicker capsules than S. canis strains isolated from G1 (234 ± 24.2 vs 151.23 ± 28.93 nm; p  .70). All strains of beta-haemolytic Streptococcus isolated were penicillin sensitive. Penicillin was administered from EG to 5 days post-partum in 10 G2 females with isolation of BS (G2A). Saline solution was administered in eleven G2 females with isolation of BS (G2B). Ninety per cent of the puppies survived in G2A and 25% survived in G2B. Our results suggest BS is involved in canine neonatal deaths. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Haemorrhagic pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, C.M.; Philippine General Hospital, Manila; Guo, W.Y.; Sami, M.; Hindmarsch, T.; Ericson, K.; Hulting, A.L.; Wersaell, J.

    1994-01-01

    In a group of 69 patients with pituitary tumours, 12 were found to have evidence of intratumoral haemorrhage on MRI, characterized by high signal intensity on short TR/TE sequences. This was verified in all but 1 patient. The majority of the bleedings occurred in macroadenomas. Five (42%) were prolactinomas and 4 (33%) were non-functioning adenomas. There were 2 GH- and 1 ACTH-secreting tumours. All 5 patients with prolactinomas were on bromocriptine medication. Two of the patients had a clinical picture of pituitary apoplexy. The haemorrhage was not large enough to prompt surgery in any of the patients. However, surgical verification of the diagnosis was obtained in 5 cases, while 6 patients were examined with follow-up MRI. (orig.)

  18. Tumours following retinoblastoma radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollot, J.-P.

    1978-01-01

    Radioinduced tumours in young patients irradiated in childhood for retinoblastoma take on a particularly deadly aspect. The onset of this true clinical entity characterized by a long post-irradiation latency period induced by a dose above 6000 rads is a real tragedy. The vast majority of patients then enter into a long martyrdom ending in death. The only cure is surgical, but seldom possible. Treatment is limited to palliative radiotherapy, effective for a while, and chemiotherapy as a last resort but often difficult to prescribe. Prevention alone is the answer. The quality and reliability of the radiotherapeutic treatment depend not only on the personal talent of the radiotherapist but above all on the standard of the equipment. A strong reduction in the doses employed as well as recent technological progress improving the material, its precision and reproducibility appear already to have lowered the frequency curve of these fatal radioinduced tumours [fr

  19. Skull base tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Servico de Radiologia, Rua Professor Lima Basto, 1093 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)], E-mail: borgesalexandra@clix.pt

    2008-06-15

    With the advances of cross-sectional imaging radiologists gained an increasing responsibility in the management of patients with skull base pathology. As this anatomic area is hidden to clinical exam, surgeons and radiation oncologists have to rely on imaging studies to plan the most adequate treatment. To fulfil these endeavour radiologists need to be knowledgeable about skull base anatomy, about the main treatment options available, their indications and contra-indications and needs to be aware of the wide gamut of pathologies seen in this anatomic region. This article will provide a radiologists' friendly approach to the central skull base and will review the most common central skull base tumours and tumours intrinsic to the bony skull base.

  20. Skull base tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    With the advances of cross-sectional imaging radiologists gained an increasing responsibility in the management of patients with skull base pathology. As this anatomic area is hidden to clinical exam, surgeons and radiation oncologists have to rely on imaging studies to plan the most adequate treatment. To fulfil these endeavour radiologists need to be knowledgeable about skull base anatomy, about the main treatment options available, their indications and contra-indications and needs to be aware of the wide gamut of pathologies seen in this anatomic region. This article will provide a radiologists' friendly approach to the central skull base and will review the most common central skull base tumours and tumours intrinsic to the bony skull base

  1. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

  2. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  3. The use of the rapid osmotic fragility test as an additional test to diagnose canine immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paes, Geert; Paepe, Dominique; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diagnosing canine immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA) is often challenging because all currently available tests have their limitations. Dogs with IMHA often have an increased erythrocyte osmotic fragility (OF), a characteristic that is sometimes used in the diagnosis of IMHA...... hyperlipemic dogs (group 3), 10 dogs with lymphoma (group 4), 8 dogs with an infection (group 5) and 13 healthy dogs (group 6) were included. In all dogs, blood smear examination, in-saline auto-agglutination test, Coombs' test, COFT and ROFT were performed. In the COFT, OF5, OF50 and OF90 were defined...

  4. Imaging brain tumour microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Markus; Englund, Elisabet; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; van Westen, Danielle; Sundgren, Pia C

    2018-05-08

    Imaging is an indispensable tool for brain tumour diagnosis, surgical planning, and follow-up. Definite diagnosis, however, often demands histopathological analysis of microscopic features of tissue samples, which have to be obtained by invasive means. A non-invasive alternative may be to probe corresponding microscopic tissue characteristics by MRI, or so called 'microstructure imaging'. The promise of microstructure imaging is one of 'virtual biopsy' with the goal to offset the need for invasive procedures in favour of imaging that can guide pre-surgical planning and can be repeated longitudinally to monitor and predict treatment response. The exploration of such methods is motivated by the striking link between parameters from MRI and tumour histology, for example the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient and cellularity. Recent microstructure imaging techniques probe even more subtle and specific features, providing parameters associated to cell shape, size, permeability, and volume distributions. However, the range of scenarios in which these techniques provide reliable imaging biomarkers that can be used to test medical hypotheses or support clinical decisions is yet unknown. Accurate microstructure imaging may moreover require acquisitions that go beyond conventional data acquisition strategies. This review covers a wide range of candidate microstructure imaging methods based on diffusion MRI and relaxometry, and explores advantages, challenges, and potential pitfalls in brain tumour microstructure imaging. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. [Adrenal tumours in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos-Moreno, G A; Pozo-Román, J; Argente, J

    2013-09-01

    This special article aims to summarise the current knowledge regarding the two groups of tumours with their origin in the adrenal gland: 1) adrenocortical tumours, derived from the cortex of the adrenal gland and 2) phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, neuroendocrine tumours derived from nodes of neural crest derived cells symmetrically distributed at both sides of the entire spine (paragangliomas [PG]). These PGs can be functioning tumors that secrete catecholamines, which confers their typical dark colour after staining with chromium salts (chromaffin tumors). Among these, the term phaeochromocytoma (PC) is restricted to those PGs derived from the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla (intra-adrenal PGs), whereas the term PG is used for those sympathetic or parasympathetic ones in an extra-adrenal location. We analyse the state of the art of their pathogenic and genetic bases, as well as their clinical signs and symptoms, the tests currently available for performing their diagnosis (biochemical, hormonal, imaging and molecular studies) and management (surgery, pre- and post-surgical medical treatment), considering the current and developing strategies in chemo- and radiotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Erythromycin-resistant genes in group A β-haemolytic Streptococci in Chengdu, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The management of Group A β-haemolytic Streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes or GAS infection include the use of penicillins, cephalosporins or macrolides for treatment. A general increase in macrolides resistance in GAS has been observed in recent years. Differences in rates of resistance to these agents have existed according to geographical location and investigators. Aims: To investigate the antibiotic pattern and erythromycin-resistant genes of GAS isolates associated with acute tonsillitis and scarlet fever in Chengdu, southwestern China. Settings and Design: To assess the macrolide resistance, phenotype, and genotypic characterization of GAS isolated from throat swabs of children suffering from different acute tonsillitis or scarlet fever between 2004 and 2011 in the city of Chengdu, located in the southwestern region of China. Materials and Methods: Minimal inhibitory concentration with seven antibiotics was performed on 127 GAS isolates. Resistance phenotypes of erythromycin-resistant GAS isolates were determined by the double-disk test. Their macrolide-resistant genes (mefA, ermB and ermTR were amplified by PCR. Results: A total of 98.4% (125/127 of the isolates exhibited resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin G and cefotaxime. Moreover, 113 ermB-positive isolates demonstrating the cMLS phenotype of erythromycin resistance were predominant (90.4% and these isolates showed high-level resistance to both erythromycin and clindamycin (MIC 90 > 256 μg/ml; 12 (9.6% isolates demonstrating the MLS phenotype of erythromycin resistance carried the mefA gene, which showed low-level resistance to both erythromycin (MIC 90 = 8 μg/ml and clindamycin (MIC 90 = 0.5 μg/ml; and none of the isolates exhibited the M phenotype. Conclusions: The main phenotype is cMLS, and the ermB gene code is the main resistance mechanism against macrolides in GAS. Penicillin is the most beneficial

  7. Long-term health-related quality of life and psychological adjustment in children after haemolytic-uraemic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Helene; Buder, Kathrin; Landolt, Markus A; Neuhaus, Thomas J; Laube, Guido F; Spartà, Giuseppina

    2017-05-01

    In children after haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS), little is known about long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological adjustment as defined by behavioural problems, depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Sixty-two paediatric patients with a history of HUS were included in this study. Medical data of the acute HUS episode were retrieved retrospectively from hospital records. Data on the clinical course at study investigation were assessed by clinical examination and laboratory evaluation. HRQoL and psychological adjustment data were measured by standardised, parent- and self-reported questionnaires. Haemolytic-uraemic syndrome was diagnosed at a mean of 6.5 years before the initiation of the study (standard deviation 2.9, range 0.1-15.7) years. Among the preschool children, parents reported that their child was less lively and energetic (HRQoL emotional dimension), while no increased behavioural problems were reported. In the school-age children, self- and proxy-reported HRQoL was well within or even above the norms, while increased total behavioural problems were found. The school-age children reported no increased depression scores. Also none of the children met the criteria for full or partial HUS-associated posttraumatic stress disorder. Healthcare providers should be particularly alert to behavioural problems in school-age children with a history of HUS and to lower HRQoL in preschool children.

  8. Vaginal haemangioendothelioma: an unusual tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Vaginal tumours are uncommon and this is a particularly rare case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma in a 38-year-old woman. Initial presentation consisted of symptoms similar to uterovaginal prolapse with "something coming down". Examination under anaesthesia demonstrated a necrotic anterior vaginal wall tumour. Histology of the lesion revealed a haemangioendothelioma which had some features of haemangiopericytoma. While the natural history of vaginal haemangioendothelioma is uncertain, as a group, they have a propensity for local recurrence. To our knowledge this is the third reported case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma. Management of this tumour is challenging given the paucity of literature on this tumour. There is a need to add rare tumours to our "knowledge bank" to guide management of these unusual tumours.

  9. Primary bone tumours in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Cohen, D.H.; Padovani, J.; Tamaela, L.; Azouz, M.; Bale, P.; Martin, H.C.; Nayanar, V.V.; Arico, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ten cases of primary bone tumours in infants (1 osteosarcoma, 3 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 chondroblastoma and 5 angiomastosis) are reported. All cases of angiomatosis showed characteristic radiographic findings. In all the other tumours the X-ray appearances were different from those usually seen in older children and adolescents. In the auhtors' opinion the precise diagnosis of malignant bone tumours in infancy is very difficult as no characteristic X-ray features are present in this age period.

  10. Radiological diagnosis of liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstedt, C.

    1987-01-01

    Sixty patients treated with an intra-arterial cytostatic drug for metastases from colo-rectal carcinoma were evaluated with angiography to determine prognostic parameters. The extent of tumour in the liver and an unchanged or diminished tumour volume following treatment, as demonstrated with angiography, were associated with significant prolongation of survival. Patients who developed occlusion of the hepatic artery or of branches of the portal vein, also survived longer. 189 patients examined with angiography, 161 with computed tomography (CT), 95 with computed tomographic arteriography (CTA) and 71 with ultrasound (US) were subjected to liver evaluation at laparotomy consisting of inspection and palpation. The result of this surgical liver evaluation was for the purpose of the study regarded as completely accurate and was used to assess the accuracy of the different radiological methods. The location of tumour in the liver lobes or segments was analysed, with a separate evaluation of the right and left liver lobes. The rate of detection of individual tumour nodules was also determined. Angiography detected 55% of liver areas affected by tumour and 47% of individual tumour nodules. CT detected 83% of liver lobes or segments containing tumour, and 70% of the tumour nodules. US detected 69% of the portions of liver holding tumour, and also 69% of the tumour nodules. CTA detected 85% of tumours areas and 74% of separate tumour nodules. Some lesions detected with CT were not seen with CTA and vice versa. More false-positive results were recorded with CTA than with CT using intravenous contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  11. Neurohypophysis granular cell tumours. Upon neurohypophysis rare tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrande, G.; Kujas, M.; Gancel, A.; Turpin, G.; Bruckert, E.; Kuhn, J.M.; Luton, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Granular cell tumours of neurohypophysis are rare. These tumours are more often encountered as incidental autopsy findings seen in up to 17 % of unselected adult autopsy cases. There are few reports of para-sellar granular cell tumours large enough to cause symptoms. We present three cases of neurohypophysis granular cell tumour and a review of the literature. In one patient, the asymptomatic granular cell tumour was incidentally discovered at surgical removal of a corticotrophic micro-adenoma. The remaining 2 patients had a symptomatic tumour which caused neurological symptoms such as visual disturbance and headaches and endocrine disorders such as hypopituitarism or hyper-prolactinaemia. In these 2 cases, computerized tomography showed a well-circumscribed, contrast-enhanced, intra-sellar and supra-sellar mass. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an isointense gadolinium-enhanced mass in T1-weighted-images. Trans-sphenoidal partial resection was performed and histology was interpreted as a granular cell tumour. The immunohistochemical study was positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GEAP) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) in 1 of the 2 tumours and positive for S100 protein and vimentin in both tumours but negative for CD68. The histogenesis of neurohypophysis granular cell tumours is still controversial but ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies support the theory that may arise from pituicytes, the glial cells of neurohypophysis. Management of these benign, slow growing, tumours is based mainly on neurosurgical resection. Data from the literature do not support a beneficial effect of post operative radiation therapy on postoperative recurrences. (authors). 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Management of parapharyngeal space tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.; Waqar-Uddin; Khan, M.S.; Khawar, A.; Bangush, W.; Aslam, J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the role of clinical features, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and computed tomography (CT) scan in diagnosing Para pharyngeal space (PPS) tumours and treatment options. Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: From July 2000 to July 2002 at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. Patients and Methods: Patients diagnosed as having PPS tumours were studied. The medical record of patients was reviewed for their age, gender, clinical features, investigations (FNAC and CT scan) and treatment. The mean age, percentage of different clinical features and the sensitivity and specificity of FNAC was determined. Results: The mean age of patients presenting with PPS tumours was 33.6 years. The most common clinical features were neck mass (93%) and bulge in lateral pharyngeal wall (80%). The CT scan showed exact location and extent of tumour in 11 out of 15 cases. The sensitivity and specificity of FNAC was 70% and 85% respectively. The most common tumours were neurogenic tumours and salivary gland tumours. Surgery was performed in all except 2 patients with lymphoma in whom radiation and chemotherapy was recommended. Conclusion: This study indicates that PPS tumours are usually benign neurosurgeon and salivary gland tumours presenting with neck mass and bulge in or oropharynx. FNAC and CT scan are important in diagnostic work up and treatment planning. Surgery has the best results in most cases. (author)

  13. Askin Tumour: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Carolina; Ramirez, Sandra Milena; Quesada, Diana Constanza; Unigarro Luz Adriana

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report a case of a 19 year-old woman with a final diagnosis of an extra skeletal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor/Ewing sarcoma of the chest, also known as Askin tumour. The histologic features and the immunohistochemical profile were consistent with this aggressive malignancy of the chest wall that affects young people. Because the low incidence of this entity, as well as the clear radiological findings, we considered it interesting to describe this documented case and undertake a review of the literature.

  14. Tumour cell–derived extracellular vesicles interact with mesenchymal stem cells to modulate the microenvironment and enhance cholangiocarcinoma growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Haga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs to tumour growth and stroma formation are poorly understood. Tumour cells can transfer genetic information and modulate cell signalling in other cells through the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs. We examined the contribution of EV-mediated inter-cellular signalling between bone marrow MSCs and tumour cells in human cholangiocarcinoma, highly desmoplastic cancers that are characterized by tumour cells closely intertwined within a dense fibrous stroma. Exposure of MSCs to tumour cell–derived EVs enhanced MSC migratory capability and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin mRNA, in addition to mRNA expression and release of CXCL-1, CCL2 and IL-6. Conditioned media from MSCs exposed to tumour cell–derived EVs increased STAT-3 phosphorylation and proliferation in tumour cells. These effects were completely blocked by anti-IL-6R antibody. In conclusion, tumour cell–derived EVs can contribute to the generation of tumour stroma through fibroblastic differentiation of MSCs, and can also selectively modulate the cellular release of soluble factors such as IL-6 by MSCs that can, in turn, alter tumour cell proliferation. Thus, malignant cells can “educate” MSCs to induce local microenvironmental changes that enhance tumour cell growth.

  15. Gastric neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, David A; Donohoe, Claire L; Fitzgerald, Louise; Muldoon, Cian; Hayes, Brian; O'Toole, Dermot; Reynolds, John V

    2012-01-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are increasingly recognised, and management decisions may be difficult due to an incomplete understanding of aetiology, natural history and optimum therapy. This article presents a current understanding based on recent advances in epidemiology, classification, molecular profiling, and treatment. Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Gastric NETs may be divided into three clinical prognostic groups: type I is associated with autoimmune atrophic gastritis and hypergastrinaemia, type II is associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and type III lesions are gastrin-independent, have the greatest metastatic potential and poorest prognosis. There has been an increased frequency of gastric NETs reported. Management approaches have evolved in parallel with advances in endoscopic staging and surgery, as well as improved understanding of the biology and natural history of NETs. Gastric NETs present a spectrum of activity from indolent tumours to metastatic malignancy. Treatment decisions for patients must be individualised and are best managed by a multidisciplinary team approach. The current evidence base is limited to small series and efforts to treat patients within clinical networks of expertise are warranted. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Radiotherapy in ocular tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Ocular tumours at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay, form about 0.14% of all the proved cancer cases. In case of unilateral retinoblastoma with the other eye being not non-seeing for any reason, enucleation is advised, as the diagnosis may sometimes be in doubt. If after enucleation, optic nerve and/or peribulbar tissues are found to be involved, post-operative irradiation is given to the whole orbit. In bilateral retinoblastoma the more affected eye is enucleated and an attempt is made to preserve vision in the other eye. A tumour dose of 3500 to 4000 rad in about 4 weeks is given with a cobalt beam using a direct anterior field. A cataract that may develop has to be taken care of. Lateral and/or medial fields are used with deep X-rays. In certain cases, an implant of cobalt-60 or gold-198 grain is done. For carcinoma of conjuctiva, small lesions or early lesions are excised and a beta radiation dose of 2000 rad weekly for about 4 to 5 weeks is given; larger lesions require enucleation or exenteration followed by irradiation with super-voltage radiation. Post-irradiation sarcomas may develop many years later. Irradiation is repeated for recurrences. (M.G.B.)

  17. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  18. Cutaneous Alternaria infectoria infection in a dog in association with therapeutic immunosuppression for the management of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dedola, C.; Stuart, A.P.G.; Ridyard, A.E.; Else, R.W.; Van den Broek, T.; Choi, J.S.; de Hoog, G.S.; Thoday, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    A 4-year-old, ovariohysterectomized, English springer spaniel on immunosuppressive therapy was re-examined for the review of its immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia and the recent development of skin lesions. For the 3 months since hospital discharge, the dog had been receiving 1.3 mg/kg prednisolone

  19. Carcinoid Tumour of the Ovary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A case of bilateral carcinoid tumour of the ovary, with benign cystic teratoma in one ovary, in a 38 year old woman is presented. She had total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy, infracolic omentectomy and appendectomy. There was no macroscopic tumour in the vermiform appendix and the ...

  20. [Neonatal tumours and congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbel Tornero, O; Ortega García, J A; Ferrís i Tortajada, J; García Castell, J; Donat i Colomer, J; Soldin, O P; Fuster Soler, J L

    2008-06-01

    The association between pediatric cancer and congenital abnormalities is well known but, there is no exclusive data on the neonatal period and the underlying etiopathogenic mechanisms are unknown. First, to analyze the frequency of neonatal tumours associated with congenital abnormalities; and second, to comment on the likely etiopathogenic hypotheses of a relationship between neonatal tumours and congenital abnormalities. Historical series of neonatal tumours from La Fe University Children's Hospital in Valencia (Spain), from January 1990 to December 1999. Histological varieties of neonatal tumours and associated congenital abnormalities were described. A systematic review of the last 25 years was carried out using Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science and Embase. The search profile used was the combination of "neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms" and "congenital malformations/birth defects". 72 neonatal tumours were identified (2.8% of all pediatric cancers diagnosed in our hospital) and in 15 cases (20.8%) there was some associated malformation, disease or syndrome. The association between congenital abnormalities and neonatal tumours were: a) angiomas in three patients: two patients with congenital heart disease with a choanal stenosis, laryngomalacia; b) neuroblastomas in two patients: horseshoe kidney with vertebral anomalies and other with congenital heart disease; c) teratomas in two patients: one with cleft palate with vertebral anomalies and other with metatarsal varus; d) one tumour of the central nervous system with Bochdaleck hernia; e) heart tumours in four patients with tuberous sclerosis; f) acute leukaemia in one patient with Down syndrome and congenital heart disease; g) kidney tumour in one case with triventricular hydrocephaly, and h) adrenocortical tumour: hemihypertrophy. The publications included the tumours diagnosed in different pediatric periods and without unified criteria to classify the congenital abnormalities. Little data

  1. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Eirik; Søvik, Åste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Øyvind S.; Rune Olsen, Dag

    2006-10-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO2-related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO2-related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure (fields

  2. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinen, Eirik; Soevik, Aste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Oeyvind S; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2006-01-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO 2 -related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO 2 -related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO 2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO 2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure

  3. Improving tumour response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, S.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation oncology is in the middle of the most exciting developments in its 100-year history. Progress in treatment planning and delivery, in medical imaging and in basic cancer and normal tissue biology is likely to change the indication for radiotherapy as well as the way it is prescribed and delivered. Technological and conceptual advances, in particular the development of the multi-leaf collimator and the concept of inverse treatment planning, have led to the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with its capability to plan and deliver non-uniform dose distributions in the clinic. This has forced us to re-think radiation oncology: refining the indication for radiotherapy, optimizing the prescription of dose distributions and considering how, based on clinical evidence, radiation can best be combined with other treatment modalities, surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy and biologically targeted therapies. The attraction of radiation therapy as an element of multi-modality cancer therapy is that it induces DNA damage that can be modulated in space and time. Progress in basic cancer biology, genomics and proteomics, as well as biological imaging provides novel avenues for individualization of cancer therapy and for biological optimization of radiotherapy. In improving cancer care, it is the therapeutic ratio, rather than tumour control per se, that must be optimised. Interestingly, the two main avenues for improving the effectiveness of radiotherapy currently being actively pursued in the clinic generally aim at different sides of the therapeutic ratio: 3D conformal radiotherapy and IMRT predominantly aim to reduce normal-tissue side effects - and by doing this, open the way for dose escalation that may lead to increased tumour control rates - whereas combined radio-chemotherapy aims to improve tumour response - while keeping the fingers crossed that this will not increase normal-tissue complications to the same extent. In parallel with these

  4. Single-stranded DNA aptamer targeting and neutralization of anti-D alloantibody: a potential therapeutic strategy for haemolytic diseases caused by Rhesus alloantibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinze; Wu, Fan; Wang, Manni; Zhuang, Naibao; Zhou, Huayou; Xu, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Rhesus (Rh) D antigen is the most important antigen in the Rh blood group system because of its strong immunogenicity. When RhD-negative individuals are exposed to RhD-positive blood, they may produce anti-D alloantibody, potentially resulting in delayed haemolytic transfusion reactions and Rh haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn, which are difficult to treat. Inhibition of the binding of anti-D antibody with RhD antigens on the surface of red blood cells may effectively prevent immune haemolytic diseases. In this study, single-stranded (ss) DNA aptamers, specifically binding to anti-D antibodies, were selected via systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) technology. After 14 rounds of selection, the purified ssDNA was sequenced using a Personal Genome Machine system. Haemagglutination inhibition assays were performed to screen aptamers for biological activity in terms of blocking antigen-antibody reactions: the affinity and specificity of the aptamers were also determined. In addition to high specificity, the aptamers which were selected showed high affinity for anti-D antibodies with dissociation constant (K d ) values ranging from 51.46±14.90 to 543.30±92.59 nM. By the combined use of specific ssDNA aptamer 7 and auxiliary ssDNA aptamer 2, anti-D could be effectively neutralised at low concentrations of the aptamers. Our results demonstrate that ssDNA aptamers may be a novel, promising strategy for the treatment of delayed haemolytic transfusion reactions and Rh haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn.

  5. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osifo, B.

    1999-02-01

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  6. Good agreement of conventional and gel-based direct agglutination test in immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piek Christine J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare a gel-based test with the traditional direct agglutination test (DAT for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA. Methods Canine (n = 247 and feline (n = 74 blood samples were submitted for DAT testing to two laboratories. A subset of canine samples was categorized as having idiopathic IMHA, secondary IMHA, or no IMHA. Results The kappa values for agreement between the tests were in one laboratory 0.86 for canine and 0.58 for feline samples, and in the other 0.48 for canine samples. The lower agreement in the second laboratory was caused by a high number of positive canine DATs for which the gel test was negative. This group included significantly more dogs with secondary IMHA. Conclusions The gel test might be used as a screening test for idiopathic IMHA and is less often positive in secondary IMHA than the DAT.

  7. Combined Acute Haemolytic and Secondary Angle Closure Glaucoma following Spontaneous Intraocular Haemorrhages in a Patient on Warfarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Andreatta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To report the first described case of combined haemolytic and acute angle closure glaucoma secondary to spontaneous intraocular haemorrhages in a patient on excessive anticoagulation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature presenting with raised intraocular pressure due to both mechanisms. Case Description: A 90-year-old woman presented with acute pain and reduction in vision in the left eye. Her intraocular pressure (IOP was 55 mm Hg. There were red tinted blood cells in the anterior chamber giving it a reddish hue. The patient was known to have advanced wet macular degeneration. She was taking oral warfarin for atrial fibrillation. Her international normalised ratio (INR was 7.7. B-scan ultrasound of posterior segment showed vitreous and suprachoroidal haemorrhages. An ultrabiomicroscopic examination confirmed open angles. A diagnosis of haemolytic glaucoma secondary to intraocular haemorrhages was made. The IOP was controlled medically. Warfarin was withdrawn and oral vitamin K therapy was initiated leading to a rapid INR reduction. Three days later, her anterior chamber became progressively shallower causing a secondary acute angle closure which was managed medically. After 2 months, the left IOP was well-controlled without any medications and the eye was not inflamed. Her vision in that eye remained perception of light. Conclusion: Patients with suprachoroidal haemorrhages should be closely monitored as they might subsequently develop acute angle closure despite an initially open angle and well-controlled INR and IOP. Excessive anticoagulation needs to be prevented to minimise the risk of sight-threatening complications.

  8. VIP secreting tumours in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.P.; Slavotinek, J.P.; Dorney, S.F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) secreting neural crest tumours are an uncommon but important treatable cause of intractable childhood diarrhoea. The radiological appearances of two cases are presented with a review of radiological findings in childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours. Twenty eight cases of childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours were reviewed. Nineteen (68%) were ganglioneuroblastomas and nine (32%) were ganglioneuromas. The majority of tumours (66%) were in a paravertebral location in the abdomen indicating that a search for such a tumour should be initiated at this site. Eighteen of the twenty eight cases reviewed discussed relevant radiological investigations. Calcification was detected in 50% of abdominal radiographs. Gut dilatation was often a prominent feature. A mass was detected in 5 of 5 cases where ultrasound findings were reported, and seven of seven cases with CT findings reported. Prior to the availability of CT and ultrasound the most useful investigation was IVU which demonstrated evidence of a mass in 5 of 9 cases. The presence of paravertebral calcification and gut dilatation on the plain radiograph of a child with intractable diarrhoea suggests the presence of a VIP secreting neural crest tumour. If an abdominal tumour is not found in the appropriate clinical setting and VIP levels are elevated, a widespread search of the paravertebral region is indicated. (orig.)

  9. Neptunium (IV) oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    The equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate in nitric/oxalic acid solutions was determined at 22 0 C, 45 0 C, and 60 0 C. The concentrations of nitric/oxalic acid solutions represented a wide range of free oxalate ion concentration. A mathematical solubility model was developed which is based on the formation of the known complexes of neptunium (IV) oxalate. the solubility model uses a simplified concentration parameter which is proportional to the free oxalate ion concentration. The solubility model can be used to estimate the equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate over a wide range of oxalic and nitric acid concentrations at each temperature

  10. Angiogenesis mediated by soluble forms of E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alisa E.; Halloran, Margaret M.; Haskell, Catherine J.; Shah, Manisha R.; Polverini, Peter J.

    1995-08-01

    ENDOTHELIAL adhesion molecules facilitate the entry of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. This in turn promotes neovascularization, a process central to the progression of rheumatoid arthritis, tumour growth and wound repair1. Here we test the hypothesis that soluble endothelial adhesion molecules promote angiogenesis2á¤-4. Human recombinant soluble E-selectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 induced chemotaxis of human endothelial cells in vitro and were angiogenic in rat cornea. Soluble E-selectin acted on endothelial cells in part through a sialyl Lewis-X-dependent mechanism, while soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 acted on endothelial cells in part through a very late antigen (VLA)-4 dependent mechanism. The chemotactic activity of rheumatoid synovial fluid for endothelial cells, and also its angiogenic activity, were blocked by antibodies to either soluble E-selectin or soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. These results suggest a novel function for soluble endothelial adhesion molecules as mediators of angiogenesis.

  11. Primary vertebral tumours in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Masel, J.; Diard, F.; Ferrari-Ciboldi, F.; Le Dosseur, P.; Labatut, J.

    1984-03-01

    20 cases of primary benign and malignant bone tumours in children were reported. The most common tumours were Ewing's sarcoma, aneurismal bone cyst, benign osteoblastoma and osteoid osteoma. Some rare primary bone tumours in children (osteochondroma, chondroblastoma 6F, primary lymphoma of bone and neurofibromatosis with unusual cervical spinal changes) were also reported. The authors believe that radiographic findings together with clinical history and clinical examination may yield a high percentage of accurate diagnoses. Although microscopy is essential in the final diagnosis, the microscopic report should be also accepted with caution.

  12. Cystic tumours of the pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Univ. (Japan); Ohtomo, K. [Univ. of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    In this pictorial essay we present the typical appearances of cystic pancreatic tumours, the wide spectrum of their features, and differential features among cystic pancreatic masses with an emphasis on CT. Pseudocysts are the most common cystic lesion in the pancreas and can be induced by pancreatitis, trauma or surgery. Pseudocysts appear as a round cystic mass with a definite wall. However, they can mimic cystic tumours associated with internal septation and/or necrotic mass of various shapes. Conversely, cystic tumours can appear as a simple cyst lacking any thickening of wall, septation or mural nodule. Pancreatic carcinoma not infrequently induces secondary cysts upstream of the obstructed pancreatic duct. The cysts are pseudocysts or retention cysts in nature. When cysts are formed in the pancreatic parenchyma or adjacent to pancreatic carcinoma they may mimic cystic tumour. (orig./VHE)

  13. Cystic tumours of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itai, Y.; Ohtomo, K.

    1996-01-01

    In this pictorial essay we present the typical appearances of cystic pancreatic tumours, the wide spectrum of their features, and differential features among cystic pancreatic masses with an emphasis on CT. Pseudocysts are the most common cystic lesion in the pancreas and can be induced by pancreatitis, trauma or surgery. Pseudocysts appear as a round cystic mass with a definite wall. However, they can mimic cystic tumours associated with internal septation and/or necrotic mass of various shapes. Conversely, cystic tumours can appear as a simple cyst lacking any thickening of wall, septation or mural nodule. Pancreatic carcinoma not infrequently induces secondary cysts upstream of the obstructed pancreatic duct. The cysts are pseudocysts or retention cysts in nature. When cysts are formed in the pancreatic parenchyma or adjacent to pancreatic carcinoma they may mimic cystic tumour. (orig./VHE)

  14. Imaging oxygenation of human tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhani, Anwar R.; Krohn, Kenneth A.; Lewis, Jason S.; Alber, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Tumour hypoxia represents a significant challenge to the curability of human tumours leading to treatment resistance and enhanced tumour progression. Tumour hypoxia can be detected by non-invasive and invasive techniques but the inter-relationships between these remains largely undefined. 18 F-MISO and Cu-ATSM-PET, and BOLD-MRI are the lead contenders for human application based on their non-invasive nature, ease of use and robustness, measurement of hypoxia status, validity, ability to demonstrate heterogeneity and general availability, these techniques are the primary focus of this review. We discuss where developments are required for hypoxia imaging to become clinically useful and explore potential new uses for hypoxia imaging techniques including biological conformal radiotherapy. (orig.)

  15. Tumour markers in urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, L.; Fornara, P.; Fabricius, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The same applies essentially also for the bladder carcinomas: There is no reliable marker for these cancers which would be useful for clinical purposes. TPA has proven to be too non-specific in malignoma-detection and therefore hardly facilitates clinical decision-making in individual cases. The CEA is not sensitive enough to be recommendable for routine application. However, in advanced stages a CEA examination may be useful if applied within the scope of therapeutic efforts made to evaluate efficacy. In cases of carcinomas of the prostate the sour prostate-specific phosphatase (SPP) and, more recently, especially the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have proven in follow-up and therapy monitoring, whereby the PSA is superior to the SPP. Nevertheless, both these markers should be employed in therapy monitoring because differences in behaviour will be observed when the desired treatment effect is only achieved in one of the two markers producing tumour cell clonuses. Both markers, but especially the PSA, are quite reliably in agreement with the result of the introduced chemo-/hormone therapy, whereby an increase may be a sure indicator of relapse several months previous to clinical symptoms, imaging procedures, so-called routine laboratory results and subjective complaints. However, none of the 2 markers is appropriate for the purposes of screening or early diagnosis of carcinomas of the prostate. (orig.) [de

  16. Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour: Imaging features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, V. Anik; Hirsch, Michelle S.; Silverman, Stuart G.

    2012-01-01

    Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour is a rare, recently described neoplasm with a distinctive histological appearance. Although reported in the pathology literature, to our knowledge, no prior reports have described its imaging appearance. We describe the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features of an incidentally detected renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour that appeared as a well-marginated, solid T2-hypointense enhancing mass, in a 50-year-old woman. It is indistinguishable from a variety of benign and malignant renal neoplasms. PMID:23093565

  17. Paediatric laryngeal granular cell tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Ayuba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumour (GCT affecting the larynx is not common, especially in children. Most cases are apt to be confused with respiratory papilloma and may even be mistaken for a malignant neoplasia. We present a case of laryngeal GCT in a 12-year-old child to emphasize that the tumour should be regarded in the differential of growths affecting the larynx in children.

  18. Surgical approach to pineal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, F; Broggi, G; Fornari, M; Franzini, A; Solero, C L; Allegranza, A

    1989-01-01

    During a period of 10 years (1977-1986) 40 cases of tumour of the pineal region have been treated at the Istituto Neurologico "C. Besta"-of Milan. Out of these 40 cases, 27 (67.5%) were in the paediatric (10-15 years) or juvenile (15-20 years) age at the time of operation. Since 1983 a specific diagnostic and therapeutic protocol has been adopted and thereafter direct surgical removal of the tumour was performed only when the neuroradiological investigations were highly suggestive of a benign extrinsic lesion. Sixteen cases in this series underwent direct surgical removal; in the remaining 24 cases stereotactic biopsy of the tumour was performed in the first instance. On the basis of the histological diagnosis obtained by this procedure surgical excision of the tumour (9 cases) or radiotherapy (15 cases) was then performed. 25 cases underwent surgical removal of the lesion. In all the cases the infratentorial supracerebellar approach as introduced by Krause and then modified by Stein was adopted. On analysis of the data of this series it was observed that in 25% of the cases completely benign resectable tumours were found; in 25% of the cases astrocytoma (grade I-II) which could be treated at least by partial removal were present; in 30% of the cases radiosensitive lesions were encountered. In the remaining 20% of the cases highly malignant tumours were found which should be treated only by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.

  19. MRI characteristics of midbrain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.; Wang, C.C.; Wang, J.

    1999-01-01

    We diagnosed 60 cases of midbrain tumours by MRI between 1993 to 1997. There were 39 males and 21 females, aged 2-64 years, mean 25.6 years. We found 38 patients with true intramedullary midbrain tumours, 11 predominantly in the tectum, 20 in the tegmentum and 7 with a downward extension to the pons; there were 7 within the cerebral aqueduct. There were 22 patients with infiltrating midbrain tumours extending from adjacent structures, 11 cases each from the thalamus and pineal region. All patients received surgical treatment. Gross total resection was achieved in 42 cases, subtotal (> 75 %) resection in 18. Pathological diagnoses included 16 low-grade and 15 high-grade astrocytomas; 5 oligodendroastrocytomas; 2 ependymomas; 11 glioblastomas; and 11 pineal parenchymal or germ-cell tumours. Midbrain tumours are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, with wide variation in clinical and MRI features, related to the site and type of tumour. MRI not only allows precise analysis of their growth pattern, but also can lead to a correct preoperative diagnosis in the majority of cases. (orig.) (orig.)

  20. Tumour imaging by the detection of fibrin clots in tumour stroma using an anti-fibrin Fab fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obonai, Toshifumi; Fuchigami, Hirobumi; Furuya, Fumiaki; Kozuka, Naoyuki; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of early and aggressive types of cancer is important for providing effective cancer therapy. Cancer-induced fibrin clots exist only within lesions. Previously, we developed a monoclonal antibody (clone 102-10) that recognizes insoluble fibrin but not fibrinogen or soluble fibrin and confirmed that fibrin clots form continuously in various cancers. Here, we describe the development of a Fab fragment probe of clone 102-10 for tumour imaging. The distribution of 102-10 Fab was investigated in genetically engineered mice bearing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and its effect on blood coagulation was examined. Immunohistochemical and ex vivo imaging revealed that 102-10 Fab was distributed selectively in fibrin clots in PDAC tumours 3 h after injection and that it disappeared from the body after 24 h. 102-10 Fab had no influence on blood coagulation or fibrinolysis. Tumour imaging using anti-fibrin Fab may provide a safe and effective method for the diagnosis of invasive cancers by detecting fibrin clots in tumour stroma. PMID:27009516

  1. Computed tomography evaluation of mast cell tumours; Avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada dos mastocitomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorigados, Carla Aparecida Batista; Matera, Julia Maria; Macedo, Thais; Pinto, Ana Carolina Brandao Fonseca, E-mail: clorigados@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Cirurgia

    2012-07-01

    The mast cell tumours are common tumours of the canine skin. Computed tomography (CT) has assumed an important role in tumours evaluation and staging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of CT as a method of assessing characteristics of mast cell tumors. Ten dogs with mast cell tumor were evaluated. CT was performed before and after the intravenous injection of hydro soluble ionic iodine. Attenuation, contrast enhancement, cleavage with adjacent tissues and the unidimensional measurement of each lesion was determined in it maximum diameter, in transversal plane. Concerning the attenuation characteristic, 50% were homogeneous and 50% heterogeneous. The contrast enhancement was homogeneous in 50% of cases, heterogeneous in 40% and peripheral in 10%. Fifty percent of the tumours showed loss of plane of cleavage and 30% partial loss. This information can help in directing the patients that will be undergoing chemotherapy or surgery. (author)

  2. The Askin tumour. Neuroactodermic tumour of the thoracic wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez, P.; Nicolas, A. I.; Vivas, I.; Damaso Aquerreta, J.; Martinez-Cuesta, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Askin tumours is an extremely rare and malignant process in the thoracic pulmonary region during infancy and youth. The differential diagnosis has to be considered with other thoracic wall tumours that are more common in pediatrics like the undifferentiated neuroblastoma, the embionic rabdomiosarcoma, the Ewing sarcoma and the linfoma. A retrospective examination was carried out on 473 thoracic wall tumours from 1994 to 1997 at our centre, resulting in 4 patients with an anatomopathologically tested Askin tumour (ages from 13-21). All the cases were studied using simple radiography and CT. In two cases MRI was also used. The most common clinical manifestation was a palpable painful mass in the thoracic wall. In the simple radiograph the main finding was a large mass of extrapleural soft material, with costal destruction ( n=3) and a pleural effusion (n=2). In the CT study the mass was heterogeneous, with internal calcifications in one case. CT and MRI showed invasion in the mediastinum (n=1), medular channel (n=1) and phrenic and sulphrenic extension (n=1). The Askin tumour should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic wall masses in infant-youth ages. There are no specific morphological characteristics. Both CT and MRI are useful for the diagnosis, staging and follow up. (Author) 11 refs

  3. Childhood Adrenocortical Tumours: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques-Pereira Rosana

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood adrenocortical tumour (ACT is not a common disease, but in southern Brazil the prevalence is 15 times higher than in other parts of the world. One hundred and thirty-seven patients have been identified and followed by our group over the past four decades. Affected children are predominantly girls, with a female-to-male ratio of 3.5:1 in patients below 4 years of age. Virilization alone (51.6% or mixed with Cushing's syndrome (42.0% was the predominant clinical picture observed in these patients. Tumours are unilateral, affecting both glands equally. TP53 R337H germline mutations underlie most childhood ACTs in southern Brazil. Epidemiological data from our casuistic studies revealed that this mutation has ~10% penetrance for ACT. Surgery is the definitive treatment, and a complete resection should always be attempted. Although adjuvant chemotherapy has shown some encouraging results, its influence on overall outcome is small. The survival rate is directly correlated to tumour size; patients with small, completely excised tumours have survival rates close to 90%, whereas in those patients with inoperable tumours and/or metastatic disease it is less than 10%. In the group of patients with large, excisable tumours, half of them have an intermediate outcome. Recent molecular biology techniques and genomic approaches may help us to better understand the pathogenesis of ACT, the risk of developing a tumour when TP53 R337H is present, and to predict its outcome. An ongoing pilot study consisting of close monitoring of healthy carriers of the TP53 R337H mutation - siblings and first-degree relatives of known affected cases - aims at the early detection of ACTs and an improvement of the cure rate.

  4. Early findings in outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome among young children caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Romania, January to February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, Emilie; Zaharia, Alina; Zota, Lavinia Cipriana; Severi, Ettore; Mårdh, Otilia; Usein, Codruta; Bălgrădean, Mihaela; Espinosa, Laura; Jansa, Josep; Scavia, Gaia; Rafila, Alexandru; Serban, Amalia; Pistol, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    As at 29 February 2016, 15 cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome with onset between 25 January and 22 February were reported among children between five and 38 months in Romania, and three of them died. Cases were mostly from southern Romania. Six cases tested positive for Escherichia coli O26 by serology. Fruits, vegetables, meat and dairy products were among the possible common food exposures. Investigations are ongoing in Romania to control the outbreak.

  5. The effect of Atorvastatin therapy tumour necrosis factor- and vascular adhesion molecules in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with no prior history of coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Charlton-Menys, V.; Bao, W.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Colhoun, H.M.; Betteridge, D.J.; Durrington, P.; Hitman, G.; Neil, H.A.W.; Livingstone, S.J.; Fuller, J.H.; DeMicco, D.A.; Preston, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of atorvastatin (and placebo) on tumour necrosis factor (TNF)a, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in patients with type 2 diabetes without prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) and investigated whether

  6. Imaging in unilateral Wilms tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisse, Herve J.; Smets, Anne M.; Kaste, Sue C.; Owens, Catherine M.

    2008-01-01

    Wilms tumour is one of the most common malignancies in children, with an excellent prognosis after therapy. There is a very diverse approach to treatment according to geographical location. This variation in therapeutic attitude toward Wilms tumour, particularly between the United States and Europe, has consequences for the choice of imaging modality at diagnosis. In Europe, the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) treatment protocol is based on chemotherapy followed by surgery. Imaging (US, CT and MRI), clinical history and examination will help predict whether the findings are consistent with Wilms tumour. Furthermore, in the UK preoperative image-guided biopsy is advised to help identify the small group of patients who, despite typical imaging features of Wilms tumour, have other types of neoplasia that require alternative management. In the United States, the National Wilms Tumor Study (NWTS) advises surgery prior to chemo- and radiotherapy. Hence imaging must provide detailed anatomical information for surgical planning. This article discusses the role of imaging at diagnosis and the relative strengths and weaknesses of the available radiological techniques. We also focus on imaging the lung for metastatic disease and the consequences (to the patient's ultimate outcome) of CT-diagnosed small pulmonary nodules and discuss the radiological diagnosis and consequences of tumour rupture present at diagnosis. (orig.)

  7. Tocopherol in irradiation of temporary hypoxic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaagerud, A.; Lund, N.; Peterson, H.I.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of tocopherol on the effect of local irradiation under induced ischaemia by temporary tourniquet of two rat tumours transplanted intramuscularly into one hindleg was evaluated. An impaired retardation of growth rate occurred in tumours irradiated under ischaemia. This effect was eliminated by pretreatment of animals with tocopherol. In separate experiments the method of inducing ischaemia was investigated by MDO-electrode measurements of tumour tissue oxygen pressure. A significant tumour hypoxia was found under tourniquet of the tumour-bearing leg of the animals. Pretreatment with tocopherol did not influence the tumour pO 2 . (Auth.)

  8. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  9. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-02-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown.

  10. Impact of Pentoxifylline and Vitamin E on Ribavirin-Induced Haemolytic Anaemia in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients: An Egyptian Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Assem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. We evaluate the impact of combined pentoxifylline and high-dose vitamins E to standard antiviral treatment on RBV-induced haemolytic anaemia. Patients and Methods. Selected 200 naïve chronic HCV patients, were randomized to receive either the standard antiviral therapy (peginterferon α-2b and RBV plus pentoxifylline (800 mg and high-dose vitamin E (1000 iu daily (combined group or received standard antiviral therapy plus placebo only (control group. They were followed up during treatment course and for 6 months posttreatment to assess the occurrence of anaemia and virological response, respectively. Results. RBV dose modification due to anaemia were significantly less in combined group (8.5 versus 21.5%. P<.05.Withdrawal, secondary to sever anemia (Hb<8.5 gm%, was recorded only in 6 (28.6% patients of the control group. Both (ETR and (SVR were significantly higher in combined group than control group by both intention-to-treat analysis (71 versus 56%, P<.05 and 66 versus 49%, P<.05 and per-protocol analysis (85.5 versus 70.9%, P<.05 and 79.5 versus 62%, P<.05. Conclusion. Pentoxifylline and vitamin E can ameliorate RBV-associated haemolysis; improve compliance and virologic clearance when combined with the standard antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  11. A multi-centre retrospective study of rituximab use in the treatment of relapsed or resistant warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maung, Su W

    2013-10-01

    This retrospective analysis assessed the response, safety and duration of response to standard dose rituximab 375 mg\\/m(2) weekly for four weeks as therapy for patients with primary or secondary warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (WAIHA), who had failed initial treatment. Thirty-four patients received rituximab for WAIHA in seven centres in the Republic of Ireland. The overall response rate was 70·6% (24\\/34) with 26·5% (9\\/34) achieving a complete response (CR). The time to response was 1 month post-initiation of rituximab in 87·5% (21\\/24) and 3 months in 12·5% (3\\/24) of patients. The median duration of follow-up was 36 months (range 6-90 months). Of the patients who responded, 50% (12\\/24) relapsed during follow up with a median time to next treatment of 16·5 months (range 6-60 months). Three patients were re-treated with rituximab 375 mg\\/m2 weekly for four weeks at relapse and responded. There was a single episode of neutropenic sepsis. Rituximab is an effective and safe treatment for WAIHA but a significant number of patients will relapse in the first two years post treatment. Re-treatment was effective in a small number of patients, suggesting that intermittent pulse treatment or maintenance treatment may improve long-term response.

  12. Putting tumours in context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumor growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets. Under normal conditions, ORGANS are made up of TISSUES that exchange information with other cell types via cell-cell contact, cytokines and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM). The ECM, which is produced by collaboration between STROMAL fibroblasts and EPITHELIAL cells, provides structural scaffolding for cells, as well as contextual information. The endothelial vasculature provides nutrients and oxygen, and cells of the immune system combat pathogens and remove apoptotic cells. Epithelial cells associate into intact, polarized sheets. These tissues communicate through a complex network of interactions: physically, through direct contact or through the intervening ECM, and biochemically, through both soluble and insoluble signalling molecules. In combination, these interactions provide the information that is necessary to maintain cellular differentiation and to create complex tissue structures. Occasionally, the intercellular signals that define the normal context become disrupted. Alterations in epithelial tissues can lead to movement of epithelial sheets and proliferation - for example, after activation of mesenchymal fibroblasts due to wounding.Normally, these conditions are temporary and reversible, but when inflammation is sustained, an escalating feedback loop ensues.Under persistent inflammatory conditions, continual upregulation of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by stromal fibroblasts can disrupt the ECM, and invading immune cells can overproduce factors that promote abnormal proliferation. As this process

  13. Tumour markers in gynaecological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adewole, I.F.

    1999-02-01

    Gynaecological cancers are fairly common in developing countries and represent about 26 % f all cancers. Application of cervical cytology screening nationally has made cervical cancer one of the most preventable malignant diseases thus eliminating the challenges of advanced cancer management. Tumour markers has played a most crucial role in this respect

  14. Mohs micrographic surgery of rare cutaneous tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flohil, S.C.; Lee, C.B. van; Beisenherz, J.; Mureau, M.A.M.; Overbeek, L.I.H.; Nijsten, T.; Bos, R.R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recurrence rates after Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) for rare cutaneous tumours are poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the recurrence rate after MMS for rare cutaneous tumours at a university centre. METHODS & MATERIALS: Retrospective review of all rare cutaneous tumours treated

  15. Immunosuppressive mediators of oral squamous cell carcinoma in tumour samples and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Andréia Souza; Arantes, Diego Antonio Costa; Bernardes, Vanessa Fátima; Jaeger, Filipe; Silva, Janine Mayra; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Aguiar, Maria Cássia Ferreira; Batista, Aline Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the salivary concentrations of IL-10, TGF-β1 and soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to those in healthy individuals (control group), and to correlate the expression of these mediators in saliva with that in the tumour microenvironment. Neoplastic tissue and saliva samples from patients with OSCC (n=22) were analysed by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. We detected high expression of IL-10 and HLA-G in the tumour microenvironment when compared to healthy oral mucosa samples. Determination of IL-10 salivary concentration enabled us to distinguish patients with OSCC from healthy individuals (P=0.038), which showed correlation with tissue expression of this cytokine. HLA-G salivary release was similar in both groups (P=0.17) and no correlation with tumour expression was observed. TGF-β1 expression was low or absent in tumours, and salivary concentration was similar between groups. Our results suggest that of the three markers analysed, IL-10 is a potential salivary biomarker. Furthermore, the elevated expression of HLA-G and IL-10 in tumour sites could favour the escape of tumour cells from immune defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome treated with the complement inhibitor eculizumab: the experience of the Australian compassionate access cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, A; Hughes, P; Szer, J; Tuckfield, A; Van Eps, C; Cambell, S B; Hawley, C; Burke, J; Kausman, J; Hewitt, I; Parnham, A; Ford, S; Isbel, N

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to report the clinical characteristics and outcomes of Australian patients treated with eculizumab for atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS). A retrospective cohort study was undertaken of all patients in Australia treated with eculizumab provided in a compassionate access programme for a clinical diagnosis of aHUS using prospectively collected clinical data. A total of 10 patients with a median age of 23.5 years (interquartile range (IQR) 24.83 years) received compassionate access eculizumab for aHUS in Australia. Eight patients were female, and three had a family history of aHUS. Three received eculizumab for an initial acute aHUS presentation, three for relapsing and refractory acute aHUS, two for de novo aHUS post-renal transplantation, and one each for aHUS recurrence post-transplantation and facilitation of transplantation with a history of aHUS. The median duration of eculizumab therapy has been 911.5 days (IQR 569 days) with a cumulative exposure of 9184 days. At baseline all patients had renal and extra-renal aHUS involvement, with up to three non-renal organs affected. All but one patient, who died from uncontrollable gastrointestinal aHUS manifestations, have continued. The nine continuing patients achieved remission of aHUS. Two of the four patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) at eculizumab commencement subsequently ceased RRT. Clinical events occurring in this cohort while on eculizumab treatment included neutropenia (two), posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (one), cardiomyopathy (one), pulmonary embolus (one), antibody-mediated rejection resulting in renal graft failure (one), iron deficiency (one), gastrointestinal haemorrhage (one) and death (one). Eculizumab has been an effective therapy for aHUS in this cohort, including when other therapies have failed. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  17. Dehydration upon admission is a risk factor for incomplete recovery of renal function in children with haemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, José M; Kohout, Isolda; Cuestas, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is the most common cause of acute renal failure and the second leading cause of chronic renal failure in children. The factors that affect incomplete renal function recovery prior to hospital admission are poorly understood. To analyse the risk factors that determine incomplete recovery of renal function prior to hospitalisation in children with HUS. A retrospective case-control study. age, sex, duration of diarrhoea, bloody stools, vomiting, fever, dehydration, previous use of antibiotics, and incomplete recovery of renal function (proteinuria, hypertension, reduced creatinine clearance, and chronic renal failure during follow-up). Patients of both sexes under 15 years of age were included. Of 36 patients, 23 were males (65.3%; 95%CI: 45.8 to 80.9), with an average age of 2.5 ± 1.4 years. Twenty-one patients required dialysis (58%; 95% CI: 40.8 to 75.8), and 13 (36.1%; 95% CI: 19.0 to 53.1) did not recover renal function. In the bivariate model, the only significant risk factor was dehydration (defined as weight loss >5%) [(OR: 5.3; 95% CI: 1.4 to 12.3; P=.0220]. In the multivariate analysis (Cox multiple regression), only dehydration was marginally significant (HR: 95.823; 95% CI: 93.175 to 109.948; P=.085). Our data suggest that dehydration prior to admission may be a factor that increases the risk of incomplete recovery of renal function during long-term follow-up in children who develop HUS D+. Consequently, in patients with diarrhoea who are at risk of HUS, dehydration should be strongly avoided during outpatient care to preserve long-term renal function. These results must be confirmed by larger prospective studies.

  18. End-stage kidney disease due to haemolytic uraemic syndrome – outcomes in 241 consecutive ANZDATA registry cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Wen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving renal replacement therapy for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD secondary to haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS. Methods The study included all patients with ESKD who commenced renal replacement therapy in Australia and New Zealand between 15/5/1963 and 31/12/2010, using data from the ANZDATA Registry. HUS ESKD patients were compared with matched controls with an alternative primary renal disease using propensity scores based on age, gender and treatment era. Results Of the 58422 patients included in the study, 241 (0.4% had ESKD secondary to HUS. HUS ESKD was independently associated with younger age, female gender and European race. Compared with matched controls, HUS ESKD was not associated with mortality on renal replacement therapy (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% CI 0.87-1.50, p = 0.34 or dialysis (HR 1.34, 95% CI 0.93-1.93, p = 0.12, but did independently predict recovery of renal function (HR 54.01, 95% CI 1.45-11.1, p = 0.008. 130 (54% HUS patients received 166 renal allografts. Overall renal allograft survival rates were significantly lower for patients with HUS ESKD at 1 year (73% vs 91%, 5 years (62% vs 85% and 10 years (49% vs 73%. HUS ESKD was an independent predictor of renal allograft failure (HR 2.59, 95% CI 1.70-3.95, p  Conclusions HUS is an uncommon cause of ESKD, which is associated with comparable patient survival on dialysis, an increased probability of renal function recovery, comparable patient survival post-renal transplant and a heightened risk of renal transplant graft failure compared with matched ESKD controls.

  19. Investigation of presence of α haemolytic streptococci, enterococci and streptococci-like bacteria in different materials originating from pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojković Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to establish the presence and prevalence of streptococci, enterococci and streptococci-like bacteria in various materials originating from healthy, slaughtered and dead pigs belonging to different categories from several farms and slaughterhouses in the Republic of Serbia. The total number of investigated samples comprised 226 swabs of tonsils and noses from clinically healthy breeders, swabs of tonsils from piglets 5-20 days old, parts of nasopharyngeal tonsils from breeders slaughtered in a slaughterhouse, parts of nasopharyngeal tonsils from piglets slaughtered in a slaughterhouse, swabs of slaughtered pig carcasses from a slaughterhouse, swabs from knives for evisceration in a slaughterhouse, as well as swabs of lungs, abdominal cavity and organs from piglets which died suddenly. The standard microbiological methods were used for investigations of the presence of the listed microorganisms. Commercial biochemical tests were used for the identification of the isolated bacteria and specific sera for capsular antigenes were used for serological determination of the isolated S. suis strains. It was established that the great majority of the isolated strains belonged to the genus Streptococcus (36 (75%, and the minority of the strains belonged to the following genera: Enterococcus (6 (10.4%, Aerococcus (3 (6.2%, Lactococcus (2 (4.2% and Globicatella (2 (4.2%. The great majority of Streptococcus species belonged to S. suis. The presence of other á haemolytic streptococci was established in the swabs of nasopharyngeal tonsils: Streptococcus sanguinis (13.8%, Streptococcus salivarius (5.6%, Streptococcus mitis (5.6%, Streptococcus parasanguinis (2.7% and Streptococcus oralis (2.7%. Also, S. bovis was isolated in a smaller percentage (5.6%. The greatest number of isolated bacteria from the genus Enterococcus belonged to Enterococcus faecalis (80%, while the minority of isolated strains belonged to Enterococcus

  20. Total {sup 18}F-dopa PET tumour uptake reflects metabolic endocrine tumour activity in patients with a carcinoid tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebrich, Helle-Brit; Walenkamp, Annemiek M.; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Medical Oncology, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Johan R. de; Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Brouwers, Adrienne H. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Kema, Ido P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Sluiter, Wim; Links, Thera P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Endocrinology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine ({sup 18}F-dopa) has an excellent sensitivity to detect carcinoid tumour lesions. {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake and the levels of biochemical tumour markers are mediated by tumour endocrine metabolic activity. We evaluated whether total {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake on PET, defined as whole-body metabolic tumour burden (WBMTB), reflects tumour load per patient, as measured with tumour markers. Seventy-seven consecutive carcinoid patients who underwent an {sup 18}F-dopa PET scan in two previously published studies were analysed. For all tumour lesions mean standardised uptake values (SUVs) at 40% of the maximal SUV and tumour volume on {sup 18}F-dopa PET were determined and multiplied to calculate a metabolic burden per lesion. WBMTB was the sum of the metabolic burden of all individual lesions per patient. The 24-h urinary serotonin, urine and plasma 5-hydroxindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), catecholamines (nor)epinephrine, dopamine and their metabolites, measured in urine and plasma, and serum chromogranin A served as tumour markers. All but 1 were evaluable for WBMTB; 74 patients had metastatic disease. {sup 18}F-dopa PET detected 979 lesions. SUV{sub max} on {sup 18}F-dopa PET varied up to 29-fold between individual lesions within the same patients. WBMTB correlated with urinary serotonin (r = 0.51) and urinary and plasma 5-HIAA (r = 0.78 and 0.66). WBMTB also correlated with urinary norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and plasma dopamine, but not with serum chromogranin A. Tumour load per patient measured with {sup 18}F-dopa PET correlates with tumour markers of the serotonin and catecholamine pathway in urine and plasma in carcinoid patients, reflecting metabolic tumour activity. (orig.)

  1. Tumours of the fetal body: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avni, Fred E.; Massez, Anne; Cassart, Marie [University Clinics of Brussels - Erasme Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-11-15

    Tumours of the fetal body are rare, but lesions have been reported in all spaces, especially in the mediastinum, the pericardial space, the adrenals, the kidney, and the liver. Lymphangioma and teratoma are the commonest histological types encountered, followed by cardiac rhabdomyoma. Adrenal neuroblastoma is the commonest malignant tumour. Imaging plays an essential role in the detection and work-up of these tumours. In addition to assisting clinicians it also helps in counselling parents. Most tumours are detected by antenatal US, but fetal MRI is increasingly used as it brings significant additional information in terms of tumour extent, composition and complications. (orig.)

  2. MRI of primary meningeal tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, H.K.; Na, D.G.; Byun, H.S.; Han, B.K.; Kim, S.S.; Kim, I.O.; Shin, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Childhood meningeal tumours are uncommon and mostly meningiomas. We reviewed the histological and radiological findings in meningeal tumours in six children aged 12 years or less (four benign meningiomas, one malignant meningioma and one haemangiopericytoma). Compared to the adult counterpart, childhood meningiomas showed atypical features: cysts, haemorrhage, aggressiveness and unusual location. MRI features varied according to the site of the tumour, histology, haemorrhage, and presence of intra- or peritumoral cysts. Diagnosis of the extra-axial tumour was relatively easy in two patients with meningiomas, one malignant meningioma and one haemangiopericytoma. MRI findings strongly suggested an intra-axial tumour in two patients with benign meningiomas, because of severe adjacent edema. Awareness of the variable findings of childhood meningiomas and similar tumours may help in differentiation from brain tumours. (orig.)

  3. Primary bone tumours of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Azouz, E.M.; Campbell, J.; Marton, D.; Morris, L.; Padovani, J.; Sprague, P.; Beluffi, G.; Berzero, G.F.; Cherubino, P.; Adelaide Children's Hospital; Hospital for Children, Perth; Montreal Children's Hospital, Quebec; Saint Justine Hospital, Montreal, Quebec; Children's Hospital, Denver, CO; Hopital des Enfants, 13 - Marseille; Pavia Univ.; Pavia Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-one primary bone tumours of the hand in children from 8 paediatric hospitals are reported. Osteochondromas and enchondromas were not included. Our material consisted of 16 patients with common tumours (3 Ewing's sarcoma, 5 aneurysmal bone cyst, 6 osteoid osteoma and 2 epithelioma) and 5 patients with uncommon tumours (osteoma, simple bone cyst, haemangiopericytoma, capillary angiomatous tumour and benign ossifying fibroma or osteoblastoma). The X-ray diagnosis of the common tumours should have high concordance with histology, whereas that of uncommon tumours in much more difficult and uncertain. The characteristic features of Ewing's sarcoma are stressed as all our children with this tumour had a delayed diagnosis and a fatal outcome. Differential diagnosis with other short tubular bone lesions of the hand - specifically osteomyelitis - is discussed and the posibilities of microscopic diagnosis are stressed. (orig.)

  4. Radiodiagnosis of tumours of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Yu.N.; Antonovich, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    Systematic description of X-ray picture of tumours of gastrointestinal tract organs is given. The possibilities of contemporary methods of X-ray examination in their revealing are shown. Clinical and X-ray trend of tumour diagnosis is underlined. The basic and accessory symptoms are analyzed from which X-ray semiotics of tumours is turned out. The expressiveness of X-ray symptoms is shown in relation to morphological forms and localization of the tumours. Much attention is given to radiodiagnosis of early tumours of stomach. Differential diagnosis of tumours with non-tumoural diseases is given. X-ray semiotics of lesions of gastrointestinal tract organs in malignant diseases of blood system is presented [ru

  5. Teratoid Wilms tumour with chemotherapy resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Gahine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of Teratoid Wilms tumour (a rare histologic variant in a 4 year old male who presented with an abdominal lump. Wilms Tumour with paracaval lymphadenopathy and tumour thrombi in right renal vein and inferior vena cava was made radiologically. FNAC report was suggestive of Wilms tumour and patient was subjected to 6 cycles of chemotherapy with not much reduction in size. Post nephrectomy histological diagnosis of Teratoid Wilms tumour was established. Resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy is thought to be due to presence of well differentiated histologic appearance. Teratoid Wilms tumour is usually not an aggressive neoplasm and prognosis is comparatively neoplasm and prognosis is comparatively good if the tumour is excised completely thus surgery being the best treatment.

  6. CNS embryonal tumours: WHO 2016 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, J C; Hawkins, C; Pietsch, T; Jacques, T S

    2018-02-01

    Embryonal tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) present a significant clinical challenge. Many of these neoplasms affect young children, have a very high mortality and therapeutic strategies are often aggressive with poor long-term outcomes. There is a great need to accurately diagnose embryonal tumours, predict their outcome and adapt therapy to the individual patient's risk. For the first time in 2016, the WHO classification took into account molecular characteristics for the diagnosis of CNS tumours. This integration of histological features with genetic information has significantly changed the diagnostic work-up and reporting of tumours of the CNS. However, this remains challenging in embryonal tumours due to their previously unaccounted tumour heterogeneity. We describe the recent revisions made to the 4th edition of the WHO classification of CNS tumours and review the main changes, while highlighting some of the more common diagnostic testing strategies. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.

  7. Mixed micelles of 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid and selected hydrophobic bile acids: interaction parameter, partition coefficient of nitrazepam and mixed micelles haemolytic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poša, Mihalj; Tepavčević, Vesna

    2011-09-01

    The formation of mixed micelles built of 7,12-dioxolithocholic and the following hydrophobic bile acids was examined by conductometric method: cholic (C), deoxycholic (D), chenodeoxycholic (CD), 12-oxolithocholic (12-oxoL), 7-oxolithocholic (7-oxoL), ursodeoxycholic (UD) and hiodeoxycholic (HD). Interaction parameter (β) in the studied binary mixed micelles had negative value, suggesting synergism between micelle building units. Based on β value, the hydrophobic bile acids formed two groups: group I (C, D and CD) and group II (12-oxoL, 7-oxoL, UD and HD). Bile acids from group II had more negative β values than bile acids from group I. Also, bile acids from group II formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds in aggregates with both smaller (2) and higher (4) aggregation numbers, according to the analysis of their stereochemical (conformational) structures and possible structures of mixed micelles built of these bile acids and 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid. Haemolytic potential and partition coefficient of nitrazepam were higher in mixed micelles built of the more hydrophobic bile acids (C, D, CD) and 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid than in micelles built only of 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid. On the other hand, these mixed micelles still had lower values of haemolytic potential than micelles built of C, D or CD. The mixed micelles that included bile acids: 12-oxoL, 7-oxoL, UD or HD did not significantly differ from the micelles of 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid, observing the values of their haemolytic potential. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David

    2012-01-31

    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  9. [Awake craniotomy for brain tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Peter; Metcalf, Kerstin; Vigren, Patrick; Lindehammar, Hans; Nilsson, Malin; Boström, Sverre

    2016-10-11

    Awake craniotomy for brain tumours  Awake neurosurgery is a useful method in lesions near eloquent brain areas, particularly low-grade gliomas.The aim is to maximise tumour resection and preserve neurological function. We performed 40 primary awake surgeries and 8 residual surgeries. Patients were operated awake throughout the procedure or with a laryngeal mask and general anaesthesia during the opening stage and then awake during intracerebral surgery. Language and motor function were mapped with direct cortical stimulation, motor evoked potential and standardised neurological testing. Radiologically, complete resection was achieved in 18 out of 40 patients in the primary surgeries. Full neurological recovery at three months was observed in 29 patients. Of the 11 patients with persisting neurological deficits at three months, symptoms were present preoperatively in 9 patients. We conclude that awake surgery, combined with intraoperative neurophysiological methods, is a safe method to improve treatment for low-grade gliomas.

  10. The effect of glycine replacement with flexible ω-amino acids on the antimicrobial and haemolytic activity of an amphipathic cyclic heptapeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddo, Alberto; Nyberg, Nils; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2015-01-01

    residue with a variety of flexible residues (i.e. ω-amino and α,ω-diamino acids). The resulting library has been tested for antimicrobial activity against a wide range of clinically relevant pathogens as well as for toxicity to red blood cells. Circular dichroism and molecular modelling have been used...... to study changes in conformation. Increments as high as 16-fold in antimicrobial activity (as effective as lipidation) and >2-fold in haemolytic EC50 values were observed. Interestingly, secondary structures can be stabilized by increasing, rather than decreasing, ring flexibility....

  11. Anemia hemolítica autoinmune postinfección por virus de la hepatitis A. Informe de caso; Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated to hepatitis A. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lucía Sossa Melo, MD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La anemia hemolítica autoinmune se asocia con una variedad de virus hepatotrópicos, en particular citomegalovirus (CMV, virus del Epstein-Barr y de la hepatitis B. No es frecuente dentro de la historia natural de la hepatitis A, la aparición de anemia hemolítica, y cuando se presenta, generalmente se asocia a deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino sin hemólisis previa, con astenia e ictericia de dos meses de evolución y hepatomegalia 14 cm por debajo del reborde costal derecho. Los hallazgos en los exámenes de laboratorios mostraron anemia hemolítica con Coombs directo positivo, anticuerpos tipo inmunoglobulina M contra el virus de la hepatitis A positivos, niveles de bilirrubinas 20 veces y aminotrasferasas cuatro veces por arriba del rango normal; con estos datos el paciente fue diagnosticado como hepatitis A complicada con anemia hemolítica y probable hepatitis autoinmune asociada, por lo que se inició manejo con corticoides, alcanzándose mejoría clínica. Resaltamos la importancia de descartar la infección por el virus de la hepatitis A como posible etiología de anemia hemolítica autoinmune.______________________________________________________________________ Acute auto inmune haemolytic anaemia is associated with a variety of hepatotropic viruses, in particular cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus and hepatitis B. The typical course of hepatitis A is rarely complicated with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Wepresent the case of a man without previous haemolysis, he had been unwell for two months with fatigue and jaundice, the liver edge was palpable and tender 14 cm below the costal margin. Clinical chemistry showed haemolytic anaemia with positive direct coombs test, immunoglobulin M antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected, the total bilirrubin concentration 20 times the upper and transaminase 4 times upper limit for normal levels; with this

  12. Reconstructive options in pelvic tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayilvahanan N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic tumours present a complex problem. It is difficult to choose between limb salvage and hemipelvectomy. Method: Forty three patients of tumours of pelvis underwent limb salvage resection with reconstruction in 32 patients. The majority were chondrosarcomas (20 cases followed by Ewing sarcoma. Stage II B was the most common stage in malignant lesions and all the seven benign lesions were aggressive (B3. Surgical margins achieved were wide in 31 and marginal in 12 cases. Ilium was involved in 51% of cases and periacetabular involvement was seen in 12 patients. The resections done were mostly of types I &II of Enneking′s classification of pelvic resection. Arthrodesis was attempted in 24 patients. Customized Saddle prosthesis was used in seven patients and no reconstruction in 12 patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to all high-grade malignant tumours, combined with radiotherapy in 7 patients. Results: With a mean follow up of 48.5 months and one patient lost to follow up, the recurrence rate among the evaluated cases was 16.6%. Oncologically, 30 patients were continuously disease free with 7 local recurrences and 4 deaths due to disseminated disease and 2 patients died of other causes. During the initial years, satisfactory functional results were achieved with prosthetic replacement. Long-term functional result of 36 patients who were alive at the time of latest follow up was satisfactory in 75% who underwent arthrodesis and in those where no reconstruction was used. We also describe a method of new classification of pelvic resections that clarifies certain shortcomings of the previous systems of classification. Conclusion: Selection of a procedure depends largely on the patient factors, the tumour grade, the resultant defect and the tissue factors. Resection with proper margins gives better functional and oncological results

  13. Low tumour cell content in a lung tumour bank: implications for molecular characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Felicia; Duhig, Edwina E; Clarke, Belinda E; McCaul, Elizabeth; Passmore, Linda; Courtney, Deborah; Windsor, Morgan; Naidoo, Rishendren; Franz, Louise; Parsonson, Kylie; Yang, Ian A; Bowman, Rayleen V; Fong, Kwun M

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer encompasses multiple malignant epithelial tumour types, each with specific targetable, potentially actionable mutations, such that precision management mandates accurate tumour typing. Molecular characterisation studies require high tumour cell content and low necrosis content, yet lung cancers are frequently a heterogeneous mixture of tumour and stromal cells. We hypothesised that there may be systematic differences in tumour cell content according to histological subtype, and that this may have implications for tumour banks as a resource for comprehensive molecular characterisation studies in lung cancer. To investigate this, we estimated tumour cell and necrosis content of 4267 samples resected from 752 primary lung tumour specimens contributed to a lung tissue bank. We found that banked lung cancer samples had low tumour cell content (33%) generally, although it was higher in carcinoids (77.5%) than other lung cancer subtypes. Tumour cells comprise a variable and often small component of banked resected tumour samples, and are accompanied by stromal reaction, inflammation, fibrosis, and normal structures. This has implications for the adequacy of unselected tumour bank samples for diagnostic and molecular investigations, and further research is needed to determine whether tumour cell content has a significant impact on analytical results in studies using tissue from tumour bank resources. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Allograft in bone tumour surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, S.

    1999-01-01

    In the last twenty years, there has been a vast improvement in the prognosis of primary malignant tumours of bone. This is due to many factors including early detection, staging and classification of tumours as a result of better staining and imaging techniques, better surgical technology, e.g. endoprosthesis and most importantly adjuvant treatment with cytotoxic drugs. As a result of long term survival, amputation of limb has more or less been replaced by limb salvage surgery. This procedure consists of two parts. Primary objective is of course complete removal of the tumour by adequate soft tissue cover and secondarily by reconstruction of the locomotor system, If possible with retention of the function of the limb. These procedures include endo-prosthetic replacement or arthroplasty and arthrodesis using autologus grafts, allograft or combination. With the development of bone banks and assured safety of preserved bones, reconstructive limb salvage surgery using massive allograft is gradually replacing prosthetic implants. The advantages include replacement of articular surfaces, incorporation of the graft to the host bone, attachment of bone tissue and increased probably permanent survival. Allograft can be used for intercalary replacement, osteo-articular arthroplasty arthrodesis or filling large cavities. Inherent complication of massive allograft are disease transmission, infection, delayed and non-union, pathological fractures, mechanical failure and joint destruction. Several limb salvage procedures using allografts have been carried out in our institution with one failure due to infection. Paucity of available allograft has restricted more such procedures to be carried out

  15. Radiopharmaceutical therapy of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, P.; Franceschi, G.; Frattarelli, M.; Casi, M.; Santimaria, M.; Cremonini, A.M.; Guiducci, G.; Riva, N.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The loco-regional radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of high-grade malignant glioma may represent a further favourable therapeutic approach, able to ameliorate the ominous prognosis of these diseases. The anti-tenascin monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are directly injected in the tumoral bed after the operation. In the first pilot study, 81 glioblastoma patients received the MAbs (BC2 and BC4) labelled with 131 I (mean dose 2035 MBq). The toxicity was absent. The median survival was prolonged up to 25 months and the response rate (PR + CR + NED: no evidence of disease in cases with minimal lesions after customary treatments) was 44%. More recently, 90 Y instead of 131 I was employed. The benzyl-DTPA chelator was utilized for 90 Y conjugation. A phase I study was performed in 20 glioblastoma patients, who previously received all conventional regimens, but with progressive tumour. They were intralesionally given escalating 90 Y doses (185, 370, 555, 740, 925 MBq), 4 cases were included in each incremental level. No change in haematology, liver and renal parameters were encountered. The brain MTD was 925 MBq. The radiopharmaceutical remained in high amount only in the neoplastic area and did not diffuse in normal brain region nor in normal organs. The radiation dose to the tumour was, on average, 0.54 Gy per MBq of 90 Y administered (about 4 times higher in comparison to 131 I). Now a phase II study has been initiated. 30 evaluable patients (23 glioblastoma and 7 anaplastic astrocytoma; 8 newly diagnosed and 22 recurrent tumours) who have been already treated with surgery and radiotherapy, underwent loco-regional RIT, by administering a mean 90 Y dose of 740 MBq; in many cases multiple cycles were given. The median survival of patients who had the antibody infusion when their tumour burden was reduced was 28 months. The objective response consisted of 8 PD, 5 SD, 11 PR, 1 CR and 4 NED. The global response rate (PR + CR + NED) was 53.3% (47.8% in glioblastoma and 75.7% in

  16. Soluble CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger J

    2012-01-01

    CD163 is an endocytic receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes and is expressed solely on macrophages and monocytes. As a result of ectodomain shedding, the extracellular portion of CD163 circulates in blood as a soluble protein (sCD163) at 0.7-3.9 mg/l in healthy individuals. The function o...

  17. Solubility Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tantra, Ratna; Bolea, Eduardo; Bouwmeester, H.; Rey-Castro, Carlos; David, C.A.A.; Dogné, Jean Michel; Laborda, Francisco; Laloy, Julie; Robinson, Kenneth N.; Undas, A.K.; Zande, van der M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of different methods that can potentially be used to determine the solubility of nanomaterials. In general, the methods presented can be broadly divided into four categories: separation methods, methods to quantify free ions, methods to quantify total dissolved

  18. Delineating residues for haemolytic activities of snake venom cardiotoxin 1 from Naja naja as probed by molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro validations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Biswajit; Sivaraman, Thirunavukkarasu

    2017-02-01

    Cardiotoxins (CTXs) are single polypeptide chain consisting of 59-62 amino acids with four disulfide bridges and globular proteins of simple β-sheet folds. The CTXs are one of principal toxic components causing haemolysis and damaging various cells and belong to three-finger toxin (TFT) superfamily of snake venoms. However, there is no natural or synthetic small molecular inhibitor to the protein toxins to date. In the present study, modes of interaction of cardiotoxin 1 (CTX1) from Indian cobra (Naja naja) with heterogeneous erythrocyte membrane (EM) model system have been extensively examined by using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in near physiological conditions and comprehensive analyses of the MD data revealed two distinct principal regions ('head groove' and 'loop groove') of the protein toxin for establishing structural interactions with the EM system. Moreover, combined analyses of data from high-throughput virtual screening of NCI small molecular database, in vitro haemolytic assays for top-hits of the chemical compounds against crude venom of Naja naja and as well CTXs purified from the venom and pharmacokinetic examinations on the chemical compounds retarding haemolytic activities of CTXs suggested that Etidronic acid and Zoledronic acid are promising prototypic chemical inhibitors to CTXs of snake venoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Screening and identification of RhD antigen mimic epitopes from a phage display random peptide library for the serodiagnosis of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Song, Jingjing; Zhou, Shuimei; Fu, Yourong; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Shen, Changxin

    2018-01-16

    Identification of RhD antigen epitopes is a key component in understanding the pathogenesis of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn. Research has indicated that phage display libraries are useful tools for identifying novel mimic epitopes (mimotopes) which may help to determine antigen specificity. We selected the mimotopes of blood group RhD antigen by affinity panning a phage display library using monoclonal anti-D. After three rounds of biopanning, positive phage clones were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then sent for sequencing and peptides synthesis. Next, competitive ELISA and erythrocyte haemagglutination inhibition tests were carried out to confirm the inhibitory activity of the synthetic peptide. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the synthetic peptide, a diagnostic ELISA was examined. Fourteen of 35 phage clones that were chosen randomly from the titering plate were considered to be positive. Following DNA sequencing and translation, 11 phage clones were found to represent the same peptide - RMKMLMMLMRRK (P4) - whereas each of the other three clones represented a unique peptide. Through the competitive ELISA and erythrocyte haemagglutination inhibition tests, the peptide (P4) was verified to have the ability to mimic the RhD antigen. The diagnostic ELISA for P4 proved to be sensitive (82.61%) and specific (88.57%). This study reveals that the P4 peptide can mimic RhD antigen and paves the way for the development of promising targeted diagnostic and therapeutic platforms for haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn.

  20. Malignant tumours of the kidney: imaging strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, Anne M.; Kraker, Jan de

    2010-01-01

    Primitive malignant renal tumours comprise 6% of all childhood cancers. Wilms tumour (WT) or nephroblastoma is the most frequent type accounting for more than 90%. Imaging alone cannot differentiate between these tumours with certainty but it plays an important role in screening, diagnostic workup, assessment of therapy response, preoperative evaluation and follow-up. The outcome of WT after therapy is excellent with an overall survival around 90%. In tumours such as those where the outcome is extremely good, focus can be shifted to a risk-based stratification to maintain excellent outcome in children with low risk tumours while improving quality of life and decreasing toxicity and costs. This review will discuss the imaging issues for WT from the European perspective and briefly discuss the characteristics of other malignant renal tumours occurring in children and new imaging techniques with potential in this matter. (orig.)

  1. Tumour regrowth after irradiation. An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, H; Matsuzawa, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer

    1979-03-01

    Structural changes in irradiated tumours and their regrowth were studied in a rat hepatoma, AH109A, using histological and transparent-chamber techniques. The development of the tumour was examined by means of vascular morphometry as observed in the chamber. Schematically, the tumour tissue was divided into four isocentric layers according to vascular morphology and measurements of vessel volume, surface area, and length per mm/sup 3/ of tissue. The vascularity was greatest in the outermost region, decreased towards the inner parts and reached an absence of vascularity at the central necrosis. The tumours were gamma- or X-irradiated with various doses. The inside hypoxic region was destroyed completely after 300 rad, and regrowths started exclusively from the outermost area of the tumour where enhancement of the effect of radiation by oxygen was thought to be greatest. Possible mechanisms of tumour regrowth are discussed.

  2. Imaging of solid kidney tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugosson, C.; Nyman, R.; Jacobsson, B.; Jorulf, H.; Sackey, K.; McDonald, P.

    1995-01-01

    Eighteen children aged 6 months to 12 years with 20 solid renal tumours; 13 Wilms' tumours (WT), 2 clear cell sarcomas of the kidney, 1 malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney and 2 cases of bilateral nephroblastomatosis with Wilms' tumour underwent evaluation with US, CT and MR imaging. Contrast-enhanced CT and non-enhanced MR were equally accurate in determining the size and origin of the tumour but were unreliable in separation of stages I, II and III. US could only accurately assess the size of the tumours. MR characteristics varied somewhat between WTs and non-WTs but contrast-enhanced MR imaging might be useful for separation of WTs from nephroblastomatosis. (orig.)

  3. An unusual presentation of a glomus tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, N

    2011-02-01

    Glomus tumours are benign, soft tissue tumours, usually of fingertips. Classically they present with severe pain, temperature sensitivity and localised tenderness. The diagnosis is often delayed due to sometimes non-specific symptoms and rarity of the disorder. While usually a clinical diagnosis, imaging may be necessary for diagnosis and localisation. We present a case of glomus tumour of the fingertip with an unusual history.

  4. Surgical management of epithelial parotid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaid, M.A.; Yusuf, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinicopathological presentation and treatment options in epithelial parotid tumours with emphasis on surgery. Subjects and Methods: Epithelial parotid tumours diagnosed and operated by an ENT surgeon and a general surgeon in 10 years during their posting in different teaching hospitals were included in the study. Clinical presentation, preoperative investigations, operative procedure, histopathology report, postoperative complications and further management were recorded. The data was collected and reviewed from the records of all the patients maintained by the authors. Results: Fifty-two patients presented with parotid tumour. Average age was 38 years. Commonest presentation was painless lump over the parotid region (85%), pain (15%), facial palsy, and enlarged neck nodes. Majority of tumours were benign, only two were recurrent. Parotid pleomorphic Adenoma (PPA) was the commonest benign tumour, others being Warthin's tumour and monomorphic adenoma. Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the commonest malignant tumour 29% followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Others were carcinoma in PPA squamous cell carcinoma, malignant mixed tumour, malignant Iymphoepithelioma and undifferentiated carcinoma. Superficial parotidectomy (SP) was the commonest operation performed in 69%. Other procedures were total conservative parotidectomy in 11%, total radical surgery in 9% and enucleation in only one patient earliest in the series. Neck node dissection was done in 2 patients. Except for one child, rest of the 13 patients received postoperative radiotherapy and one patient of Iymphoepithelioma received chemotherapy in addition. Commonest postoperative complication was temporary facial weakness in 35% (18/52). Permanent facial palsy occurred in 08 patients. Of these 07 had a malignant process and only one patient had excision biopsy. Conclusion: Benign and malignant epithelial parotid tumours can be diagnosed by there clinical presentation . supplemented with

  5. Comparison of metastatic disease after local tumour treatment with radiotherapy or surgery in various tumour models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiter, J. de; Cramer, S.J.; Lelieveld, P.; Putten, L.M. van

    1982-01-01

    Spontaneous metastases in lymph nodes and/or the lung were obtained after tumour cell inoculation of four mouse tumours and one rat tumour into the foot-pads of syngeneic animals or their F 1 hybrids. Following local radiotherapy with doses of 45-80 Gy, significantly more mice died with metastases than following local amputation of the tumour-bearing foot when the 2661 carcinoma was involved. No significant difference was observed after these treatments for the other tumours. The enhancement of metastatic growth after local radiotherapy in the 2661 carcinoma seems not to be due to incomplete killing of tumour cells in the foot. The presence of irradiated normal structures and tumour tissue after radiotherapy promoted the outgrowth of 2661 carcinoma cells which were outside the radiation field at the time of treatment. Evidently, even under similar experimental conditions, radiotherapy may enhance the growth of metastases from some tumours and not from others. (author)

  6. Nuclear medicine in childhood tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagel, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In recent years the contribution of nuclear medicine has been of increasing interest to paediatric oncology, in particular in imaging for diagnosis, staging and follow-up, in quantitative function analysis of organs at risk during oncological therapy, as well as in radionuclide therapy. For tumour imaging a great number of tumour-seeking radiopharmaceuticals are available, exploiting various metabolic and biological properties of individual tumours; several of these agents can also be applied for radionuclide therapy. More recent tracers allow the characterization of tumours, highlighting features like hormone receptors, hypoxia, MDR and apoptosis. New techniques in paediatric oncology include PET and probe-guided surgery. As a functional modality, nuclear medicine is well suited to monitor the function of organs at risk during treatment in paediatric oncology, in particular cardiac, pulmonary, renal and salivary gland function. A summary of applications and major Indications will be presented. Osteosarcoma: In differentiated osteosarcoma bone scintigraphy/SPECT using 99m Tc-diphosphonate may, as a result of Its targeting the tumour-produced osteoid, visualize not only the primary bone tumour and skeletal metastases, but also the extraosseous metastases. For preoperative therapy nd palliation of metastases beta-emitting bone-seeking agents, such as 89 Sr-chloride, 186 Re-HEDP and 153 Sm-EDTMP, are available. Lymphoma: 67 Ga-citrate has been used for decades in the detection, staging and follow up of lymphoma, as well as for early recognition of response to therapy. 201 TI-chloride scintigraphy/SPECT and PET using 18 F-deoxyglucose can also be used for this purpose. 99m Tc- sestamibi and 99m Tc-tetrofosmin are associated with p-glycoprotein, playing a role in multidrug resistance. In adults with recurrent non Hodgkin lymphoma treatment with 131 l- or 90 Y labelled anti-CD20 antibodies is highly effective. Thyroid carcinoma. 201 TI-chloride scintigraphy

  7. Tumours of the pineal region in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, H.D.; Schulte, F.J.; Winkler, D.; Mueller, D.

    1988-01-01

    36 patients with tumours in the pineal region were treated between 1980 and 1986, 19 of whom were under 20 years of age. Diagnosis was based on cranial CT, supplemented to by MRI as from 1986. Preoperative angiography was peformed on all patients to demonstrate tumour vascularization and type of vascular supply. Stereotactic biopsies were complemented by intraoperative ventriculography. Stereotactic biopsy only was performed in 13 patients out of the total group to verify tumour histology. 23 patients were directly operated on primarily. 3 of these died postoperative. In cases of germ-cell tumours and pineal blastomas the total brain and the vertebral canal were irradiated. (orig./MG) [de

  8. 131I-MIBG and neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva Gonzalez, Juan Perfecto; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Joaquin Jorge; Calderon Marin, Carlos Fabian

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours are neoplasms that arise from various tissues closely linked to the neural crest by their common embryological origin. These tumours have the ability to synthesize neurotransmitter peptides and hormones, as well as to store catecholamines. Some of these tumours express somatostatin receptors at their membranes, what have allowed nuclear medicine to be involved in their diagnosis, treatment and monitoring. Since they arise from different and varied types of tissues, these tumours have a wide range of signs and symptoms different for every one of them. These signs and symptoms mainly depend on their biochemical characteristics, given by the substances they secrete, as well as by their location, and consequently, they also depend on the place where the tumour appears, its local infiltration, and potential long-distance metastasis resulting from the tumour). Neuroendocrine tumours are diagnosed by means of nuclear medicine images, which are obtained by using different techniques and radiopharmaceuticals such as 99 mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA(V)), 99 mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI), metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) labelled with 131 I or 123 I ( 131 I-MIBG or 123 I -MIBG), 111 In-labelled octreotide, positron emission tomography, using 68 Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues and carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibodies. Nuclear medicine uses mainly somatostatin analogues labelled with 90 Y or 177 Lu for the treatment of these tumours. This paper is aimed at showing our experience in the use of 131 I-MIBG for the diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine tumours.(author)

  9. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodei, L.; Giammarile, F.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours are considered relatively rare tumours that have the characteristic property of secreting bioactive substances, such as amines and hormones. They constitute a heterogeneous group, characterized by good prognosis, but important disparities of the evolutionary potential. In the aggressive forms, the therapeutic strategies are limited. The metabolic or internal radiotherapy, using radiolabelled peptides, which can act at the same time on the primary tumour and its metastases, constitutes a tempting therapeutic alternative, currently in evolution. The prospects are related to the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, with the use of other peptide analogues whose applications will overflow the framework of the neuro-endocrine tumours. (authors)

  10. Computed tomography in malignant primary bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersjes, W.; Harder, T.; Haeffner, P.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of computed tomography is examined in malignant primary bone tumours using a strongly defined examination group of 13 Patients (six Ewing's-sarcomas, five osteosarcomas, one chondrosarcoma and one spindle-shaped cell sarcoma). Computed tomography is judged superior compared to plain radiographs in recognition of bone marrow infiltration and presentation of parosteal tumour parts as well as in analysis of tissue components of tumours, CT is especially suitable for therapy planning and evaluating response to therapy. CT does not provide sufficient diagnostic information to determine dignity and exact diagnosis of bone tumours. (orig.) [de

  11. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  12. Treatment Of Brain Tumours In Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancokova, T.

    2007-01-01

    Children tumours are the second most common oncologic diseases in childhood (20 %) with highest incidence of mortality in children oncology. Brain tumours form a heterogenous group of tumours with their classification,diagnostic criteria and therapeutic modalities. General principles of treatment involve neurosurgery, which is a prognostic factor, its radicality depends on localization. Radiotherapy has limitations in children until 3 years for possible late effects. Chemotherapy is effective in tumours with high growing rate. These days challenge is to improve therapeutic outcomes and minimalize toxicity of therapy. (author)

  13. Diagnostic utility of Wilms′ tumour-1 protein (WT-1 immunostaining in paediatric renal tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Goyal

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: WT1 helps to differentiate Wilms′ tumour from other paediatric renal tumours. It may help in differentiating the two subgroups of Wilms′ tumour which have distinct molecular pathogenesis and biological behaviour, however, further prospective studies are required for validation of this hypothesis.

  14. Granular cell tumour of the neurohypophysis: a rare sellar tumour with specific radiological and operative features.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aquilina, K

    2012-02-03

    Symptomatic granular cell tumours of the neurohypophysis are rare sellar lesions. Preoperative prediction of the diagnosis on the basis of radiological appearance is useful as these tumours carry specific surgical difficulties. This is possible when the tumour arises from the pituitary stalk, rostral to a normal pituitary gland. This has not been emphasized previously.

  15. Uranyl Oxalate Solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leturcq, G.; Costenoble, S.; Grandjean, S. [CEA Marcoule DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LCA - BP17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    The solubility of uranyl oxalate was determined at ambient temperature by precipitation in oxalic-nitric solutions, using an initial uranyl concentration of 0.1 mol/L. Oxalic concentration varied from 0.075 to 0.3 mol/L while nitric concentration ranged between 0.75 and 3 mol/L. Dissolution tests, using complementary oxalic-nitric media, were carried out for 550 hours in order to study the kinetic to reach thermodynamic equilibrium. Similar solubility values were reached by dissolution and precipitation. Using the results, it was possible to draw the solubility surface versus oxalic and nitric concentrations and to determine both the apparent solubility constant of UO{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 3H{sub 2}O (Ks) and the apparent formation constant of the first uranyl-oxalate complex UO{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} (log {beta}1), for ionic strengths varying between 1 and 3 mol/L. Ks and log {beta}1 values were found to vary from 1.9 10{sup -8} to 9.2 10{sup -9} and from 5.95 to 6.06, respectively, when ionic strength varied from 1 to 3 mol/L. A second model may fit our data obtained at an ionic strength of 3 mol/L suggesting as reported by Moskvin et al. (1959) that no complexes are formed for [H{sup +}] at 3 M. The Ks value would then be 1.3 10{sup -8}. (authors)

  16. Malignant tumours of the vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsen, E.

    1983-01-01

    The thesis analyses 317 patients with vulvar malignancies treated at the University Hospital, Lund, during 1960-1979. The three most common histological types of malignancy have been analysed. The oncological clinic in Lund has since the 1960's used a surgical technique where the primary tumour and the regional lymph nodes are operated on in two separate surgical seances. The vulvectomy is performed with tarm knife technique, and the wound is left open. The 5-year crude survival rate for the entire patient material treated with curative intention was over 60 %, which agrees well with reports from other centres. Our surgical approach using two separate seances has, however, much lower rates of postoperative complications and mortality than the rates in other reports. The overall most important prognostic factors for the patients with invasive vulvar malignancies are the presence of lymphatic metastases at the time of surgery, and the surgical radicality of the primary surgery. The treatment at most stages of tumour development and most histological types should include total vulvectomy preoperative irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymphadenectomy. Only local extirpation and hemivulvectomy are, however, indicated for small microinvasively growing squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Samll invasive onesided squamous cell carcinoma is best treated with ipsilateral surgery combined with preoperative irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes. Patients with metastases in the inguinal lymph nodes should receive additional irradiation of the inguinal and pelvic lymph node stations. (Author)

  17. Argon solubility in liquid steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R; Dankert, O; Van Veen, A; Kamperman, AA

    2000-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to establish the solubility of argon in liquid interstitial-free steel. The solubility appears to be lower than 0.1 at ppb, The results are in line with argon solubilities reported in the literature on liquid iron. Semiempirical theories and calculations based on the

  18. Hemolytische ziekte van de pasgeborene en irregulaire- bloedgroepantagonisme in Nederland: Prevalentie en morbiditeit [Haemolytic disease of the newborn and irregular blood group antagonism in the Netherlands: Prevalence and morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A. van; Hirasing, R.A.; Overbeeke, M.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To inventory prevalence and morbidity of haemolytic disease of newborn caused by irregular anti-erythrocyte antibodies other than antirhesus-D. Design. Prospective registration study. Method. All paediatricians (n = 380) in general hospitals and contact persons (n = 79) in university

  19. REPORT OF SEVEN CASES OF METASTATIC TUMOURS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major Adebayo

    Metastatic lesions may mimic odontogenic infections and other disease conditions in the oral cavity in presentation leading to late diagnosis by the unwary clinician. In Nigeria, reports on jaw tumours from metastasis elsewhere are quite scarce. This report presents a series of histologically verified metastatic tumours to the ...

  20. Second primary tumours in oral cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.; de Bree, R.

    2010-01-01

    Second primary tumours in patients treated for oral cancer occur at a rate of 3% to 7% per year. The majority of these tumours show up at least six months after the detection of the primary and are often located in the upper aerodigestive tract. Cessation of smoking habits may reduce the risk of the

  1. Tumour cell expansion in bladder epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.J. Rebel (Annemarie)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractBladder cancer is common in western society. The major problem of patients with superficial bladder cancer is the high recurrence rate and multifocality of these tumours. In 70 % of the patients superficial bladder cancer recurs after local resection of the tumour within 15 years. The

  2. Tumour screening by means of tomography methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederich, S.

    2005-01-01

    Tomography methods such as computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), and sonography/ultrasound examinations make it possible to detect small asymptomatic tumours, thus potentially preventing their manifestation at an advanced stage and improving survival prospects for the patients concerned. There are data available on various common tumours which show that modern tomography methods are capable of detecting not only small asymptomatic tumours but also their benign precursors (e.g. polyps of the large intestine). This has been demonstrated for lung cancer, colon cancer and breast cancer. However, it has not been possible to date to show for any tomography method or any type of tumour that the systematic use of such diagnostic procedures does anything to lower the mortality rate for that tumour. For other types of tumour (pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer, ovary cancer) the above named methods are either not sufficiently sensitive or the body of data that has accumulated on their respective use is too small to judge the benefit of tomography screenings. Current technical developments make it appear probable that for many types of cancer the reliability with which small tumours can be detected will improve in future. Studies aimed at clarifying the potential of screenings for reducing mortality rates are already underway for lung cancer and would be worthwhile performing for other tumour types

  3. MHC class II molecules and tumour immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oven, I.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Tumour immunotherapy attempts to use the specificity and capability of the immune system to kill malignant cells with a minimum damage to normal tissue. Increasing knowledge of the identity of tumour antigens should help us design more effective therapeutic vaccines. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that MHC class II molecules and CD4+ T cells play important roles in generating and maintaining antitumour immune responses in animal models. These data suggest that it may be necessary to involve both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for more effective antitumour therapy. Novel strategies have been developed for enhancing T cell responses against cancer by prolonging antigen presentation of dendritic cells to T cells, by the inclusion of MHC class II-restricted tumour antigens and by genetically modifying tumour cells to present antigen to T lymphocytes directly. Conclusions. Vaccines against cancers aim to induce tumour-specific effector T cells that can reduce tumour mass and induce development of tumour-specific T cell memory, that can control tumour relapse. (author)

  4. CASE REPORT Paraspinal primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    could be confirmed on the lateral lumbar spine X-ray. The T11 inter- pedicular distance was ... Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Limpopo, Medunsa Campus. CASE REPORT. 18. SA JOURNAL OF ... tumours from neural crest origin.1-4,6 PNET and ES are classified together into the Ewing family of tumours ...

  5. Neurofibromatosis type 1: brain stem tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilaniuk, L.T.; Molloy, P.T.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Phillips, P.C.; Vaughan, S.N.; Liu, G.T.; Sutton, L.N.; Needle, M.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the clinical and imaging findings of brain stem tumours in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The NF1 patients imaged between January 1984 and January 1996 were reviewed and 25 patients were identified with a brain stem tumour. Clinical, radiographical and pathological results were obtained by review of records and images. Brain stem tumour identification occurred much later than the clinical diagnosis of NF1. Medullary enlargement was most frequent (68 %), followed by pontine (52 %) and midbrain enlargement (44 %). Patients were further subdivided into those with diffuse (12 patients) and those with focal (13 patients) tumours. Treatment for hydrocephalus was required in 67 % of the first group and only 15 % of the second group. Surgery was performed in four patients and revealed fibrillary astrocytomas, one of which progressed to an anaplastic astrocytoma. In 40 % of patients both brain stem and optic pathway tumours were present. The biological behaviour of brain stem tumours in NF1 is unknown. Diffuse tumours in the patients with NF1 appear to have a much more favourable prognosis than patients with similar tumours without neurofibromatosis type 1. (orig.). With 7 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Occurrence studies of intracranial tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjavaara, S.

    2011-07-01

    Intracranial tumours are a histopathologically heterogeneous group of tumours. This thesis focused on three types of intracranial tumours; gliomas, meningiomas and vestibular schwannomas (VS). The main objectives of the dissertation were to estimate the occurrence of intracranial tumours by different subtypes, and to assess the validity and completeness of the cancer registry data. The specific aims of the publications were to evaluate the validity of reported incidence rates of meningioma cases, to describe the trends of VS incidence in four Nordic countries, and to define the anatomic distribution of gliomas and to investigate their location in relation to mobile phone use. Completeness of meningioma registration was examined by comparing five separate sources of information, and by defining the frequencies of cases reported to the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR). Incidence trends of VS were assessed in the four Nordic countries over a twenty-one-year period (1987 - 2007) using cancer registry data. The anatomic site of gliomas was evaluated using both crude locations in the cerebral lobes and, in more detail, a three-dimensional (3D) distribution in the brain. In addition, a study on specific locations of gliomas in relation to the typical position of mobile phones was conducted using two separate approaches: a case-case and a case-specular analysis. The thesis was based on four sets of materials. Data from the international Interphone study were used for the studies on gliomas, while the two other studies were register-based. The dataset for meningiomas included meningioma cases from the FCR and four clinical data sources in Tampere University Hospital (neurosurgical clinic, pathology database, hospital discharge register and autopsy register). The data on VS were obtained from the national cancer registries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The coverage of meningiomas was not comprehensive in any of the data sources. The completeness of FCR was

  7. Parotid gland tumours: a six years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    To find out the different types of Parotid tumours in out setup and their prevalence in different age groups. All patients admitted with Parotid swellings, irrespective of age and sex. The detailed data of the patients was collected and analyzed. A total of 27 patients, 15 males and 12 females, with ages ranging from 15 to 65 years were included in the study. Most of the patients were in the 31-50 years of age group. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest benign tumour with an incidence of 66.6%, while Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma with an incidence of 11.11% was the most common malignant tumour. Parotid gland is the principal site of salivary gland tumours. Males are affected more and Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign and Mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most common malignant tumour. (author)

  8. Molecular pathology of bone tumours: diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Florian; Niblett, Angela J; Mangham, D Chas

    2014-03-01

    Alongside histomorphology and immunohistochemistry, molecular pathology is now established as one of the cornerstones in the tissue diagnosis of bone tumours. We describe the principal molecular pathological techniques employed, and each of the bone tumour entities where their identified characteristic molecular pathological changes can be detected to support and confirm the suspected histological diagnosis. Tumours discussed include fibrous dysplasia, classical and subtype osteosarcomas, central and surface cartilaginous tumours, Ewing's sarcoma, vascular tumours, aneurysmal bone cyst, chordoma, myoepithelioma, and angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma. This is a rapidly evolving field with discoveries occurring every few months, and some of the newer entities (the Ewing's-like sarcomas), which are principally identified by their molecular pathology characteristics, are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Musculoskeletal desmoid tumours: Diagnostic imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Daniel; Perera, Warren; Schlicht, Stephen; Choong, Peter; Slavin, John; Pianta, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to discuss the role medical imaging has on diagnosis of musculoskeletal desmoid tumours and to describe their radiological appearances on various imaging modalities. Imaging of histologically proven cases of desmoid tumours at St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne were obtained via picture archiving communication system (PACS) and then assessed by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Suitable imagings were obtained from PACS. All imaging chosen was de-identified. Desmoid tumours can occur in many areas of the body. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of these tumours and magnetic resonance imaging has been the gold standard for imaging and is the most accurate in terms of assessing tumour margins and involvement of surrounding structure.

  10. Cooperative tumour cell membrane targeted phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heegon; Lee, Junsung; Oh, Chanhee; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-06-01

    The targeted delivery of therapeutics using antibodies or nanomaterials has improved the precision and safety of cancer therapy. However, the paucity and heterogeneity of identified molecular targets within tumours have resulted in poor and uneven distribution of targeted agents, thus compromising treatment outcomes. Here, we construct a cooperative targeting system in which synthetic and biological nanocomponents participate together in the tumour cell membrane-selective localization of synthetic receptor-lipid conjugates (SR-lipids) to amplify the subsequent targeting of therapeutics. The SR-lipids are first delivered selectively to tumour cell membranes in the perivascular region using fusogenic liposomes. By hitchhiking with extracellular vesicles secreted by the cells, the SR-lipids are transferred to neighbouring cells and further spread throughout the tumour tissues where the molecular targets are limited. We show that this tumour cell membrane-targeted delivery of SR-lipids leads to uniform distribution and enhanced phototherapeutic efficacy of the targeted photosensitizer.

  11. Tumour location within the breast: Does tumour site have prognostic ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Seth; Hueman, Matthew T; Costantino, Nick; Shriver, Craig D; Ellsworth, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    Tumour location within the breast varies with the highest frequency in the upper outer quadrant (UOQ) and lowest frequency in the lower inner quadrant (LIQ). Whether tumour location is prognostic is unclear. To determine whether tumour location is prognostic, associations between tumour site and clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated. All patients enrolled in the Clinical Breast Care Project whose tumour site-UOQ, upper inner quadrant (UIQ), central, LIQ, lower outer quadrant (LOQ)-was determined by a single, dedicated breast pathologist were included in this study. Patients with multicentric disease (n = 122) or tumours spanning multiple quadrants (n = 381) were excluded from further analysis. Clinicopathological characteristics were analysed using chi-square tests for univariate analysis with multivariate analysis performed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple logistic regression. Significance was defined as P location, 30 had bilateral disease. Tumour location in the UOQ (51.5%) was significantly higher than in the UIQ (15.6%), LOQ (14.2%), central (10.6%), or LIQ (8.1%). Tumours in the central quadrant were significantly more likely to have higher tumour stage (P = 0.003) and size (P location as a prognostic factor revealed that although tumours in the central region are associated with less favourable outcome, these associations are not independent of location but rather driven by larger tumour size. Tumours in the central region are more difficult to detect mammographically, resulting in larger tumour size at diagnosis and thus less favourable prognosis. Together, these data demonstrate that tumour location is not an independent prognostic factor.

  12. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  13. Tumour-induced osteomalacia’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Javier; Michel Ortega, Rosa; Celzo, Florence; Donthireddy, Vijayalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    A 60-year-old man presented 2 years before his diagnosis with long-standing muscle cramping, progressive generalised weakness and chronic hip pain. The patient was found to have bilateral femoral neck pathologic fractures therefore, underwent reamed intramedullary nailing of both femurs. Laboratory studies showed hypophosphataemia. Bone marrow biopsy was negative for malignancy. Positron emission tomography demonstrated fludeoxyglucose uptake only in the posterior neck. Bone scan showed innumerable foci of increased activity throughout the skeleton consistent with pseudofractures seen in osteomalacia. Fine needle aspiration from the mass in the neck revealed a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour of mixed connective tissue type. Resection of the mass in the neck resulted in resolution of generalised complaints with no evidence of recurrence with a follow-up of 12 months. PMID:22736784

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and group A beta-haemolytic streptococci in 2002-2003. Results of the multinational GRASP Surveillance Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekmann, Susan E; Heilmann, Kris P; Richter, Sandra S

    2005-01-01

    A multinational surveillance study, GRASP, was conducted between November 2002 and April 2003 with the aim of assessing rates of antimicrobial resistance among 2656 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2486 isolates of group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, 1358 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae...... and 1047 of Moraxella catarrhalis from 20 countries in Europe, eastern Asia and southern Africa. Conspicuous differences between various countries were noted in the S. pneumoniae resistance rates observed for penicillin (0-79.2%) and erythromycin (4-66%), along with other antimicrobials. The percentage...... of MDR strains was above 25% in 8 of the 20 countries studied. Group A streptococcal macrolide resistance rates ranged from 0% to 35% by country, while rates of beta-lactamase production ranged from 0% to 39% for H. influenzae and 80-100% for M. catarrhalis. Antibiotic resistance in S. pneumoniae remains...

  15. MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, H.; Kurisu, K.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Phase congruency map driven brain tumour segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Tünde; Brady, Michael; Berényi, Ervin

    2015-03-01

    Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) systems are already of proven value in healthcare, especially for surgical planning, nevertheless much remains to be done. Gliomas are the most common brain tumours (70%) in adults, with a survival time of just 2-3 months if detected at WHO grades III or higher. Such tumours are extremely variable, necessitating multi-modal Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). The use of Gadolinium-based contrast agents is only relevant at later stages of the disease where it highlights the enhancing rim of the tumour. Currently, there is no single accepted method that can be used as a reference. There are three main challenges with such images: to decide whether there is tumour present and is so localize it; to construct a mask that separates healthy and diseased tissue; and to differentiate between the tumour core and the surrounding oedema. This paper presents two contributions. First, we develop tumour seed selection based on multiscale multi-modal texture feature vectors. Second, we develop a method based on a local phase congruency based feature map to drive level-set segmentation. The segmentations achieved with our method are more accurate than previously presented methods, particularly for challenging low grade tumours.

  17. MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, C.L. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.bent@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Sahdev, A.; Rockall, A.G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom); Singh, N. [Department of Pathology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom); Sohaib, S.A. [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Reznek, R.H. [Cancer Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    This review was performed to describe the range of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of borderline ovarian tumours. The MRI findings in 26 patients with 31 borderline ovarian tumours (mean age: 40.1 years, range: 14-85 years) were retrospectively reviewed. For each tumour, site, size, MRI characteristics, and enhancement following gadolinium administration were recorded. There were 20 serous and 11 mucinous borderline ovarian subtypes. Nine of 26 patients demonstrated bilateral disease on MRI; synchronous contralateral ovarian disease included three benign, five serous borderline, and one serous invasive tumour. A history of a metachronous mucinous borderline tumour was identified in one patient. MRI appearances were classified into four morphological categories: group 1 (6/31, 19%), unilocular cysts; group 2 (6/31, 19%), minimally septate cysts with papillary projections; group 3 (14/31, 45%), markedly septate lesions with plaque-like excrescences; and group 4 (5/31, 16%), predominantly solid with exophytic papillary projections, all of serous subtype. There was a significant difference in mean volume between serous (841.5 cm{sup 3}) and mucinous (6358.2 cm{sup 3}) subtypes (p = 0.009). All tumours demonstrated at least one MRI feature suggestive of malignancy. The present review demonstrates the variable MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours along with imaging features suggestive of tumour subtype. In patients in whom the clinical features are suggestive of a borderline ovarian tumour (young age and normal or minimally elevated CA125), the ability to predict a borderline disease using morphological features observed on MRI would be extremely helpful in surgical planning, with the potential to offer fertility or ovary-preserving surgery. Future studies are required to further this aim.

  18. Radiopharmaceuticals as probes to characterize tumour tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Israt S.; Arshad, Mubarik A.; Nguyen, Quang-De; Aboagye, Eric O.

    2015-01-01

    Tumour cells exhibit several properties that allow them to grow and divide. A number of these properties are detectable by nuclear imaging methods. We discuss crucial tumour properties that can be described by current radioprobe technologies, further discuss areas of emerging radioprobe development, and finally articulate need areas that our field should aspire to develop. The review focuses largely on positron emission tomography and draws upon the seminal 'Hallmarks of Cancer' review article by Hanahan and Weinberg in 2011 placing into context the present and future roles of radiotracer imaging in characterizing tumours. (orig.)

  19. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  20. Interleukin 21 controls tumour growth and tumour immunosurveillance in colitis-associated tumorigenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Dominik; Martin, Maria; Schiechl, Gabriela; Kesselring, Rebecca; Schlitt, Hans Jürgen; Geissler, Edward K; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan

    2011-12-01

    Colitis-associated tumorigenesis is a balance between proliferation of tumour cells and tumour immunosurveillance. The role of T-helper-cell-derived cytokines in tumour growth is not fully understood. In this study the authors investigated the influence of interleukin (IL) 21 on intestinal tumorigenesis. Chronic colitis was induced in IL-21(-/-) and littermate control wild-type mice with three cycles of 1.5% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) over 7 days followed by 7 days of drinking water. Mice received an azoxymethane injection on day 0 of DSS-colitis to induce tumorigenesis. Immunohistochemistry was performed on inflamed and tumour-bearing areas of colons. Cytokine expression of isolated colonic CD4 T cells was determined by ELISA. Cytotoxic capacity of isolated colonic CD8 T cells targeting tumour cells was evaluated by flow cytometry and quantitative cytotoxicity assay. Apoptosis of tumour cells was determined by TUNEL assay of colonic sections. Increasing expression of IL-21 was observed in chronic colitis, which showed functional importance, since IL-21 deficiency prevented chronic DSS-colitis development. Further, in the absence of IL-21, significantly fewer tumour nodules were detected, despite a similar extent of intestinal inflammation. In wild-type mice, 8.6±1.9 tumour nodules were found compared with 1.0±1.2 in IL-21-deficient mice. In tumour-bearing IL-21-deficient mice, intestinal inflammation was restored and partly dependent on interferon (IFN)-γ, whereas the inflammation in wild-type mice showed high IL-17A concentrations. In these rare tumours in IL-21-deficient mice, tumour cell proliferation (Ki-67) was decreased, while cell apoptosis was increased, compared with wild-type mice. Increased IFNγ expression in tumour-bearing IL-21-deficient mice led to increased tumour immunosurveillance mediated by cytotoxic CD8CD103 T cells targeting E-cadherin(+) colonic tumour cells and therefore limited tumour growth. These results indicate that IL-21

  1. A forgotten facial nerve tumour: granular cell tumour of the parotid and its implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerut, B; Vosbeck, J; Linder, T E

    2011-04-01

    We present a rare case of a facial nerve granular cell tumour in the right parotid gland, in a 10-year-old boy. A parotid or neurogenic tumour was suspected, based on magnetic resonance imaging. Intra-operatively, strong adhesions to surrounding structures were found, and a midfacial nerve branch had to be sacrificed for complete tumour removal. Recent reports verify that granular cell tumours arise from Schwann cells of peripheral nerve branches. The rarity of this tumour within the parotid gland, its origin from peripheral nerves, its sometimes misleading imaging characteristics, and its rare presentation with facial weakness and pain all have considerable implications on the surgical strategy and pre-operative counselling. Fine needle aspiration cytology may confirm the neurogenic origin of this lesion. When resecting the tumour, the surgeon must anticipate strong adherence to the facial nerve and be prepared to graft, or sacrifice, certain branches of this nerve.

  2. Radiological diagnosis of malignant tumours in patients with renal transplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaijmakers, P A.M.; Rosenbusch, G; Hoitsma, A J; Boetes, C; Strijk, S P; Koene, R A.P.

    1984-12-01

    17 of 400 patients with a total of 537 renal transplantations developed a malignant tumour (4,2%). 3 patients had a tumour of the skin or lips, 5 a solid lymphoma, 2 a hepatocellular carcinoma and 7 each another tumour. The radiologic findings of the patients are described. The problems around the diagnostics of malignant tumours in patients with renal transplantations are discussed.

  3. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney: radiologic-pathological correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chea, Y W; Agrawal, Rashi; Poh, Angeline C C

    2008-06-01

    A primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney is a rare malignancy. We report the computed tomographic features and the histopathological correlation of such a tumour occurring in a middle-aged man. Although the radiological appearance has significant overlap with other renal tumours, this tumour should be included in the differential diagnosis of a large renal mass in younger patients.

  4. Testicular tumours in prepubertal children: About eight cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: In prepubertal children, most testicular tumours are benign. If tumour markers were negative testis-preserving surgery can be proposed, complete excision of the tumour should be ascertained. In the case of testicular teratoma, the possibility of contralateral tumour should be considered in the follow-up.

  5. Primary malignant bone tumour in a tropical African University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone tumours are relatively rare tumours as compared with all other tumours. The relative frequency has not been well documented in this environment. The aim of the study was to define the frequency of primary malignant bone tumours in an African University teaching hospital in Ibadan. The medical records of 114 ...

  6. Childhood vascular Tumours in Benin City, Nigeria | Igbe | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vasoformative tumours are one of the commonest tumours in childhood. The patterns of these tumours in Benin City, however, are not known. Objective: To determine the incidence and morphological patterns of childhood vascular tumours as seen in the Department of Pathology University of Benin Teaching ...

  7. Ovarian yolk sac tumour in a girl - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Charu; Shah, Hemanshi; Sisodiya Shenoy, Neha; Makhija, Deepa; Waghmare, Mukta

    2017-01-01

    Yolk sac tumours are rare ovarian malignancies accounting for less than 1% of malignant ovarian germ cell tumours. They are mostly seen in adolescents and young women and are usually unilateral making fertility preservation imperative. Raised alpha-feto protein level is the hallmark of this tumour. We describe stage III yolk sac tumour in a girl child.

  8. Neonatal testicular tumour presenting as an acute scrotum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile granulosa cell tumour (JGCT) is a rare benign stromal cell tumour of the testis accounting for approximately 1% of all paediatric testicular tumours. Presenting primarily as a painless testicular mass, the tumour may be associated with undescended testis, hydrocele or testicular torsion. Abnormal karyotype has also ...

  9. Neonatal testicular tumour presenting as an acute scrotum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neonatal testicular tumour presenting as an acute scrotum. Joyce M. Muhlschlegel, Alice L. Mears and Rowena J. Hitchcock. Juvenile granulosa cell tumour (JGCT) is a rare benign stromal cell tumour of the testis accounting for approximately 1% of all paediatric testicular tumours. Presenting primarily as a painless ...

  10. Pancreatic pseudopapillary tumour: A rare misdiagnosed entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affirul, C A; Qisti, F N; Zamri, Z; Azlanuddin, A; Hairol, A O; Razman, J

    2014-01-01

    Solid pseudo papillary pancreatic tumour is a rare entity. The atypical presentation causes a delayed or misdiagnosis of these pathology. It commonly affects the female population in the 2nd and 3rd decade of life. The presentation varies from non-specific abdominal pain to incidental findings in asymptomatic patients. It is a low-grade premalignant condition that is curable by excision of the tumour. This paper presents a 17-year-old girl with intra-abdominal mass diagnosed with solid pseudo papillary tumour that underwent Whipple's procedure. We discuss the presentations, diagnosis and pathology findings of this rare pathology. The diagnosis remains an enigma in view of the nature and location of the tumour. Resection is still the best choice remains for this condition. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The hypoxic tumour cell in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.; Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H., Neuherberg/Muenchen

    1976-01-01

    In most tumours there is a disproportion between the tumour cells and vascular connective tissue. A lack of oxygen depending on extent and duration, leads to changes of the metabolism and of the proliferative properties of the cells, to an increase of radiation resistance and to a reduction of the ability to recover from radiation injuries. Finally with longer duration, hypoxy leads to cell killing. As a result of irradiation, a reoxygenation of a part of the previous hypoxic tumour cell occurs more or less quickly. The time and topographic changes of these factors are involved in a complex manner in the radiotherapy of malignant tumours and essentially share the responsibility regarding the curative success of radiotherapy. (orig./LH) [de

  12. Simulating tumour removal in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetzky, A; Rudolph, M

    2001-12-01

    In this article the software system ROBO-SIM is described. ROBO-SIM is a planning and simulation tool for minimally invasive neurosurgery. Different to the most other simulation tools, ROBO-SIM is able to use actual patient's datasets for simulation. Same as in real neurosurgery a planning step, which provides more functionality as up-to-date planning systems on the market, is performed before undergoing the simulated operation. The planning steps include the definition of the trepanation point for entry into the skull and the target point within the depth of the brain, checking the surgical track and doing virtual trepanations (virtual craniotomy). For use with an intra-operative active manipulator, which is guided by the surgeon during real surgery (robotic surgery), go- and non-go-areas can be defined. During operation, the robot restricts the surgeon from leaving these go-areas. After planning, an additional simulation system, which is understood as an extension to the planning step, is used to simulate whole surgical interventions directly on the patient's anatomy basing on the planning data and by using the same instruments as for the real intervention. First tests with ROBO-SIM are performed on a phantom developed for this purpose and on actual patient's datasets with ventricular tumours.

  13. Angiographic appearances of rare renal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Taenzer, V.

    1980-01-01

    Oncocytomas, called oxyphil proximal tubular adenomas in the Anglo Saxon literature, and benign hypernephromas are non-malignant, usually symptomless, rare tumours belonging to the renal adenomas. Oncocytomas have angiographic appearances sufficiently uniform to permit a tentative diagnosis. Histologically benign hypernephromas do not possess characteristic angiographic appearances and, in the presence of tumour in the renal vein or necrotic avascular areas, must be regarded as potentially malignant. (orig.) [de

  14. Aqp 9 and Brain Tumour Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guri Fossdal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated the aquaporins (aqp 1, 4, and 9 in the pathogenesis of malignant brain tumours, suggesting that they contribute to motility, invasiveness, and oedema formation and facilitate metabolism in tumour cells under hypoxic conditions. We have studied the expression of aqp1, 4, and 9 in biopsies from glioblastomas, isolated tumour stem cells grown in a tumoursphere assay and analyzed the progenitor and differentiated cells from these cultures. We have compared these to the situation in normal rat brain, its stem cells, and differentiated cells derived thereof. In short, qPCR in tumour tissue showed presence of aqp1, 4, and 9. In the tumour progenitor population, aqp9 was markedly more highly expressed, whilst in tumour-derived differentiated cells, aqp4 was downregulated. However, immunostaining did not reveal increased protein expression of aqp9 in the tumourspheres containing progenitor cells; in contrast, its expression (both mRNA and protein was high in differentiated cultures. We, therefore, propose that aquaporin 9 may have a central role in the tumorigenesis of glioblastoma.

  15. Modelling of tumour repopulation after chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcu, Loredana; Bezak, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Full text: While repopulation is a clinically observed phe nomenon after radiotherapy, repopulation of tumour cells between cycles of chemotherapy is usually a neglected factor in cancer treatment. As the effect of both radiotherapy and chemotherapy on tumour cells is the same (attack on cancer cells), the response of the tumour to injury and cell loss from the two treatment methods should be similar, including repopulation. Cell recruitment is known to be a possible mechanism responsible for tumour regrowth after radio therapy. The literature data regarding mechanisms of repopulation after chemotherapy is very limited. The current paper employs a Monte Carlo modelling approach to implement the pharmacokinetics of a widely used drug (cisplatin) into a previously developed vit1ual head and neck tumour and to study the effect of cisplatin on tumour regres sion and regrowth during treatment. The mechanism of cell recruitment was modelled by releasing various percentages (5-50%) of quiescent cells into the mitotic cycle after each chemotherapy cell kill. The onset of repopulation was also simulated, with both immediate onset and late onset of cell recruitment. Repopulation during chemotherapy, if occu ring, is a highly potent phenomenon, similar to drug resis tance, therefore it should not be neglected during treatment.

  16. Water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were based on, for example, LC. Koontz et al. showed results of total folate concentrations measured by microbiological assay in a variety of foods. Samples were submitted in a routine manner to experienced laboratories that regularly perform folate analysis fee-for-service basis in the United States. Each laboratory reported the use of a microbiological method similar to the AOAC Official Method for the determination of folic acid. Striking was, the use of 3 different pH extraction conditions by 4 laboratories. Only one laboratory reported using a tri-enzyme extraction. Results were evaluated. Results for folic acid fortified foods had considerably lower between-laboratory variation, 9-11%, versus >45% for other foods. Mean total folate ranged from 14 to 279 microg/100 g for a mixed vegetable reference material, from 5 to 70 microg/100 g for strawberries, and from 28 to 81 microg/100 g for wholemeal flour. One should realize a large variation in results, which might be caused by slight modifications in the microbiological analysis of total folate in foods or the analysis in various (unfortified) food matrixes. Furthermore, optimal

  17. Perfusion imaging of parotid gland tumours: usefulness of arterial spin labeling for differentiating Warthin's tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Haruo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Kajita, Kimihiro [Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu (Japan); Okuaki, Tomoyuki [Philips Healthcare, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    To assess prospectively the efficacy of arterial spin labelling (ASL) against conventional and diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging for differentiating parotid gland tumours. We included 10 pleomorphic adenomas, 12 Warthin's tumours, and nine malignant tumours of the parotid glands. Only tumours larger than 10 mm were included in this study. All parotid gland tumours underwent T1-weighted, T2-weighted, DW, and ASL imaging. Tumour-to-parotid gland signal intensity ratios (SIRs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of solid components were correlated with these pathologies. SIRs on T2-weighted images and ADCs were higher in pleomorphic adenomas than in Warthin's tumours (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.01). SIRs on ASL were higher in Warthin's tumours than in pleomorphic adenomas (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.05). Az value of SIRs on ASL for differentiating Warthin's tumours from the other pathologies was 0.982. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of SIRs on ASL for the diagnosis of Warthin's tumours at an optimal SIR threshold of over 8.70 were 91.7 %, 94.7 %, and 93.5 %, respectively. ASL with SIR measurements could non-invasively evaluate tumour blood flow of parotid gland tumours and differentiate Warthin's tumours from pleomorphic adenomas and malignant tumours. (orig.)

  18. Primary pleuro-pulmonary malignant germ cell tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaideeswar P

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lungs and pleura are rare sites for malignant germ-cell tumours. Two cases, pure yolk-sac tumour and yolk sac-sac tumour/embryonal carcinoma are described in young males who presented with rapid progression of respiratory symptoms. The malignant mixed germ cell tumour occurred in the right lung, while the yolk-sac tumour had a pseudomesotheliomatous growth pattern suggesting a pleural origin. Alpha-foetoprotein was immunohistochemically demonstrated in both.

  19. Alteration of protein expression pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from soluble to cell-associated isoform during tumourigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cressey, Ratchada; Wattananupong, Onusa; Lertprasertsuke, Nirush; Vinitketkumnuen, Usanee

    2005-01-01

    colorectal and 1,251 ± 568 pg/ml in lung) than a healthy volunteer group (543 ± 344 pg/ml). No correlation between the level of circulating VEGF and the pathologic features of tumours was observed. Our findings indicate that the expression patterns of VEGF isoforms are altered during tumourigenesis as certain isoform overexpression in tumour tissues correlated with tumour progression indicating their important role in tumour development. However, measurement of VEGF in the circulation as a prognostic marker needs to be carefully evaluated as the cell-associated isoform (VEGF 189 ), but not the soluble isoform (VEGF 121 and VEGF 165 ) appears to play important role in tumour progression

  20. Students’ misconceptions on solubility equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiowati, H.; Utomo, S. B.; Ashadi

    2018-05-01

    This study investigated the students’ misconceptions of the solubility equilibrium. The participants of the study consisted of 164 students who were in the science class of second year high school. Instrument used is two-tier diagnostic test consisting of 15 items. Responses were marked and coded into four categories: understanding, misconception, understand little without misconception, and not understanding. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 45 students according to their written responses which reflected different perspectives, to obtain a more elaborated source of data. Data collected from multiple methods were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Based on the data analysis showed that the students misconceptions in all areas in solubility equilibrium. They had more misconceptions such as in the relation of solubility and solubility product, common-ion effect and pH in solubility, and precipitation concept.

  1. On the americium oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakolupin, S.A.; Korablin, Eh.V.

    1977-01-01

    The americium oxalate solubility at different nitric (0.0-1 M) and oxalic (0.0-0.4 M) acid concentrations was investigated in the temperature range from 14 to 60 deg C. The dependence of americium oxalate solubility on the oxalic acid concentration was determined. Increasing oxalic acid concentration was found to reduce the americium oxalate solubility. The dependence of americium oxalate solubility on the oxalic acid concentration was noted to be a minimum at low acidity (0.1-0.3 M nitric acid). This is most likely due to Am(C 2 O 4 ) + , Am(C 2 O 4 ) 2 - and Am(C 2 O 4 ) 3 3- complex ion formation which have different unstability constants. On the basis of the data obtained, a preliminary estimate was carried out for the product of americium oxalate solubility in nitric acid medium (10 -29 -10 -31 ) and of the one in water (6.4x10 -20 )

  2. Tumour nuclear oestrogen receptor beta 1 correlates inversely with parathyroid tumour weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Felix; Rosin, Gustaf; Nilsson, Inga-Lena; Juhlin, C Christofer; Pernow, Ylva; Norenstedt, Sophie; Dinets, Andrii; Larsson, Catharina; Hartman, Johan; Höög, Anders

    2015-03-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrinopathy, frequently caused by a parathyroid adenoma, rarely by a parathyroid carcinoma that lacks effective oncological treatment. As the majority of cases are present in postmenopausal women, oestrogen signalling has been implicated in the tumourigenesis. Oestrogen receptor beta 1 (ERB1) and ERB2 have been recently identified in parathyroid adenomas, the former inducing genes coupled to tumour apoptosis. We applied immunohistochemistry and slide digitalisation to quantify nuclear ERB1 and ERB2 in 172 parathyroid adenomas, atypical adenomas and carcinomas, and ten normal parathyroid glands. All the normal parathyroid glands expressed ERB1 and ERB2. The majority of tumours expressed ERB1 (70.6%) at varying intensities, and ERB2 (96.5%) at strong intensities. Parathyroid carcinomas expressed ERB1 in three out of six cases and ERB2 in five out of six cases. The intensity of tumour nuclear ERB1 staining significantly correlated inversely with tumour weight (P=0.011), and patients whose tumours were classified as ERB1-negative had significantly greater tumour weight as well as higher serum calcium (P=0.002) and parathyroid hormone levels (P=0.003). Additionally, tumour nuclear ERB1 was not expressed differentially with respect to sex or age of the patient. Levels of tumour nuclear ERB2 did not correlate with clinical characteristics. In conclusion, decreased ERB1 immunoreactivity is associated with increased tumour weight in parathyroid adenomas. Given the previously reported correlation with tumour-suppressive signalling, selective oestrogen receptor modulation (SERMs) may play a role in the treatment of parathyroid carcinomas. Future studies of SERMs and oestrogen treatment in PHPT should consider tumour weight as a potential factor in pharmacological responsiveness. © 2015 The authors.

  3. Experimental study of the anti-tumour activity and pharmacokinetics of arctigenin and its valine ester derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Enbo; Song, Xingzhuo; Han, Mei; Yang, Limin; Zhao, Yan; Li, Wei; Han, Jiahong; Tu, Shumei

    2018-01-01

    Arctigenin (ARG) is a functional active component that has important physiological and pharmacological activities. The anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory activities of ARG show good potential for application and development, but this material has the defect of low water solubility. In this experiment, the valine derivative of ARG (ARG-V) was designed and synthesized to overcome this disadvantage. The ARG amino acid, EDCI and DMAP were raw materials in the addition reaction, with a molar ratio ...

  4. Actividad hemolítica de la ortovainillina y la isovainillina sobre eritrocitos humanos Haemolytic activity of orthovanillin and isovanillin on human erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamirka Alonso Geli

    2005-04-01

    erythrocytes. The cytotoxic activity of these compounds on normal erythrocytes and SS was determined at molar ratios 1:1, l:4, 1:8 and 1:10 by spectrophotometry, measuring the absorbance at a wave longitude l=545 nm of the free haemoglobin in the supernatant, after incubating the solution of erythrocytes with the compounds. The percentage of haemolysis was determined and the results showed that the average percentage of haemolysis calculated was under 1 %. No statistically significant differences were found among the means for molar ratio in a same class of erythrocytes (p = 0,05. There was not a dependence between the concentration and the haemolytic activity. The means between both types of erythrocytes were compared for all the molar ratios and there were no statistically significant differences. The results of previous papers on the haemolytic activity of vanillin were compared with that of its structural isomers, and it was observed that isovanillin and orthovanillin produced percentages of haemolysis lower than the ones caused by vanillin. The low haemolytic activity of these aromatic aldehydes potentiates their antipolimerizing activity.

  5. EVALUATION OF BRAIN TUMOURS USING COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vinod Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The brain is basically formed by the neurons and the supporting cells. Tumours arising of neurons are almost impossible because the neurons never divide. Tumours arising from the supporting cells are almost frequently seen. The tumour characteristics depend upon the cell of origin. The brain is covered by meninges and the vascular tissue supplies the essential nutrients to all these components of the brain. Unfortunately, the brain is placed in a rigid box called as neurocranium. According to Monro–Kellie principle, if any of the one component increases in a rigid box, the other components will be compensated. So in a limited space if any of the catastrophes occur i.e. space occupying lesions, then the other components will be compensated and as a result the effects will be seen in a very small amount of time. A sincere effort has been put in this study to understand and evaluate the Brain Tumours using a CT scan. This study is intended to be useful to the diagnosing radiologists, internal medicine practitioners and general practitioners and surgeons. METHODS The aim of the study is to evaluate the brain tumours using CT and to confirm the diagnosis by sending to the Histopathology Department. The study is a cross-sectional study and is done in the Department of Radiology, Fathima Medical College, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh. The study was done from December 2014 to May 2016. The study was done using thirty cases who were believed to have brain tumour and were studied in the Department of Radiology after initial clinical evaluation. First, the plain CT was done and was checked for the location, size, characteristics of the lesion and the surrounding characteristics were observed. RESULT In the present study, the most common of all tumours were those of the neuroepithelial groups. Next in frequency were the tumours of meninges of all intracranial tumours. This was followed by tumours of cranial nerves, metastatic tumour, one lymphoma case

  6. Synchronous and Metachronous Malignant Tumours expect the un-expected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdi, I.; Shah, A.H.; Moona, M.S.; Verma, K.; Abussa, A.; Elramih, R.; El-Hashmi, H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate occurrence of synchronous and metachronous malignant tumours, to find tumour types, age group, and relationship to treatment received. Methods: Previously diagnosed first primary tumour cases experiencing a synchronous or metachronous tumour, seen at AOI from February 2003 to August 2009 (78 months) were included. The cases were analyzed for morphology/histology of first primary tumour, age and gender of patient, treatment received for first tumour, time interval between the first and second primary tumour, morphology/histology of second tumour, and the treatment conferred for second tumour. Results: The second synchronous and metachronous tumours were 46/4025 (1.14%), in 18 males and 28 females (M:F 1:1.6). The age range was 16-75 years (median 43 years). The follow up time was 24-150 months. The time to second primary tumour was 2-132 months. The first primary tumours were breast, ovary, GIT and urinary bladder. The patients received surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy alone or as multi-modality treatment for the first tumours. The frequent second tumours were breast, ovary and Gastro Intestinal tumours. Conclusion: It is imperative that patients with a primary malignant tumour should be thoroughly, closely, and regularly followed. Genetic counseling, risk estimation, cancer screening and hemo prevention must be emphasized. Every subsequent occurring tumour should be biopsied. The effect of first tumour on the second or vice versa are still not fully understood and need exploration. The second primary tumour is usually more aggressive, treatment resistant, and metastasizes early requiring a more aggressive treatment strategy. (author)

  7. Comparison of tumour age response to radiation for cells derived from tissue culture or solid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keng, P.C.; Siemann, D.W.; Rochester Univ., NY; Rochester Univ., NY; Wheeler, K.T.

    1984-01-01

    Direct comparison of the cell age response of 9L and KHT tumour cells derived either from tissue culture or solid tumours was achieved. Cells from dissociated KHT and 9L tumours (the latter implanted either subcutaneously or intracerebrally) and cells from tissue culture were separated into homogenous sized populations by centrifugal elutriation. In both tumour models these homogeneous sized populations correspond to populations enriched at different stages of the cell cycle. The survival of these elutriated cell populations was measured after a single dose of Cs-137 gamma rays. For cells isolated from 9L solid tumours, there was little variation in radiosensitivity throughout the cell cycle; however, a very small but significant increase in resistance was found in late G 1 cells. This lack of a large variation in radiosensitivity through the cell cycle for 9L cells from solid tumours also was seen in 9L cells growing in monolayer tissue culture. When similar experiments were performed using the KHT sarcoma tumour model, the results showed that KHT cells in vitro exhibited a fairly conventional increase in radioresistance in both mid G 1 and late S. However, the cell age response of KHT cells from solid tumours was different; particularly in the late S and G 2 + M phases. (author)

  8. Tumours and tumour-like conditions of the jaw seen in Zaria, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) ameloblastomas; 33 (23.4%) fibrous dysplasia; 31 (22.0%) cemento-osseous dysplasia; 9 (6.4%) myxomas; 8 (5.7%) ameloblastic fibroma; and 3 (2.1%) adenomatoid odontogenic tumours; and 9 (6.4%) unclassified tumours. The benign ...

  9. Haematogenous tumour growth in the inferior vena cava in a patient with a nonseminomatous testicular tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, S J; Koops, H Schraffordt; Sleijfer, D T; Freling, N M; Molenaar, W M

    1991-01-01

    The case history is reported of a patient with an invasion of the inferior vena cava by metastases of a non-seminomatous testicular tumour. He was treated with combination chemotherapy, followed by laparotomy and resection of residual tumour tissue. Fourteen months after this operation he is in good

  10. Tumour resistance to cisplatin: a modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcu, L; Bezak, E; Olver, I; Doorn, T van

    2005-01-01

    Although chemotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of haematological tumours, in many common solid tumours the success has been limited. Some of the reasons for the limitations are: the timing of drug delivery, resistance to the drug, repopulation between cycles of chemotherapy and the lack of complete understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a specific agent. Cisplatin is among the most effective cytotoxic agents used in head and neck cancer treatments. When modelling cisplatin as a single agent, the properties of cisplatin only have to be taken into account, reducing the number of assumptions that are considered in the generalized chemotherapy models. The aim of the present paper is to model the biological effect of cisplatin and to simulate the consequence of cisplatin resistance on tumour control. The 'treated' tumour is a squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, previously grown by computer-based Monte Carlo techniques. The model maintained the biological constitution of a tumour through the generation of stem cells, proliferating cells and non-proliferating cells. Cell kinetic parameters (mean cell cycle time, cell loss factor, thymidine labelling index) were also consistent with the literature. A sensitivity study on the contribution of various mechanisms leading to drug resistance is undertaken. To quantify the extent of drug resistance, the cisplatin resistance factor (CRF) is defined as the ratio between the number of surviving cells of the resistant population and the number of surviving cells of the sensitive population, determined after the same treatment time. It is shown that there is a supra-linear dependence of CRF on the percentage of cisplatin-DNA adducts formed, and a sigmoid-like dependence between CRF and the percentage of cells killed in resistant tumours. Drug resistance is shown to be a cumulative process which eventually can overcome tumour regression leading to treatment failure

  11. Tumour resistance to cisplatin: a modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcu, L [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, SA 5000 (Australia); Bezak, E [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, SA 5000 (Australia); Olver, I [Faculty of Medicine, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, SA 5000 (Australia); Doorn, T van [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, SA 5000 (Australia)

    2005-01-07

    Although chemotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of haematological tumours, in many common solid tumours the success has been limited. Some of the reasons for the limitations are: the timing of drug delivery, resistance to the drug, repopulation between cycles of chemotherapy and the lack of complete understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a specific agent. Cisplatin is among the most effective cytotoxic agents used in head and neck cancer treatments. When modelling cisplatin as a single agent, the properties of cisplatin only have to be taken into account, reducing the number of assumptions that are considered in the generalized chemotherapy models. The aim of the present paper is to model the biological effect of cisplatin and to simulate the consequence of cisplatin resistance on tumour control. The 'treated' tumour is a squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, previously grown by computer-based Monte Carlo techniques. The model maintained the biological constitution of a tumour through the generation of stem cells, proliferating cells and non-proliferating cells. Cell kinetic parameters (mean cell cycle time, cell loss factor, thymidine labelling index) were also consistent with the literature. A sensitivity study on the contribution of various mechanisms leading to drug resistance is undertaken. To quantify the extent of drug resistance, the cisplatin resistance factor (CRF) is defined as the ratio between the number of surviving cells of the resistant population and the number of surviving cells of the sensitive population, determined after the same treatment time. It is shown that there is a supra-linear dependence of CRF on the percentage of cisplatin-DNA adducts formed, and a sigmoid-like dependence between CRF and the percentage of cells killed in resistant tumours. Drug resistance is shown to be a cumulative process which eventually can overcome tumour regression leading to treatment failure.

  12. Uranium solubility and solubility controls in selected Needle's Eye groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W.E.; Hooker, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The solubility control of uranium in selected groundwater samples from the cliff and sediments at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site is investigated using the speciation code PHREEQE and the CHEMVAL thermodynamic database (release 3). Alkali-earth bearing uranyl carbonate secondary minerals are likely to exert influence on the solubility . Other candidates are UO 2 and arsenates, depending on the prevailing redox conditions. In the absence of literature data, solubility products for important arsenates have been estimated from analogy with other arsenates and phosphates. Phosphates themselves are unlikely to exert control owing to their comparatively high solubilities. The influence of seawater flooding into the sediments is also discussed. The importance of uranyl arsenates in the retardation of uranium in shallow sediments has been demonstrated in theory, but there are some significant gaps in the thermodynamic databases used. (author)

  13. Noble gases solubility in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovetto, Rosa; Fernandez Prini, Roberto.

    1980-07-01

    The available experimental data of solubility of noble gases in water for temperatures smaller than 330 0 C have been critically surveyed. Due to the unique structure of the solvent, the solubility of noble gases in water decreases with temperature passing through a temperature of minimum solubility which is different for each gas, and then increases at higher temperatures. As aresult of the analysis of the experimental data and of the features of the solute-solvent interaction, a generalized equation is proposed which enables thecalculation of Henry's coefficient at different temperatures for all noble gases. (author) [es

  14. Positron emission tomography (PET) and pancreatic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montravers, F.; Kerrou, K.; Grahek, D.; Gutman, F.; Beco, V. de; Talbot, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    Neoplasms of the pancreas may originate front both exocrine and endocrine cells but in 90% of the cases, they correspond to ductal adenocarcinomas. For adenocarcinomas, the major indication of FDG-PET corresponds to the pre-operative staging because unexpected distant metastases can be detected by FDG-PET in about 20 to 40% of the cases, which results in avoidance of unnecessary surgical procedures. FDG PET is also useful in evaluation of the treatment effect, monitoring after the operation and detection of recurrent pancreatic cancers. For the characterisation of the pancreatic tumour, the performance of FDG-PET is sometimes limited due to poor cellularity, hyperglycemia or inflammatory processes. especially for large tumours and is indicated only in cases of doubtful results of CT or MRI. For endocrine pancreatic tumours, FDG-PET is useful only in case of poorly-differentiated and aggressive tumours. F-DOPA PET can he useful, complementary to pentetreotide scintigraphy, in well-differentiated endocrine tumours. (authors)

  15. Augmented reality in bone tumour resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. K.; Gupta, S.; Yoon, C.; Han, I.; Kim, H-S.; Choi, H.; Hong, J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated the accuracy of augmented reality (AR)-based navigation assistance through simulation of bone tumours in a pig femur model. Methods We developed an AR-based navigation system for bone tumour resection, which could be used on a tablet PC. To simulate a bone tumour in the pig femur, a cortical window was made in the diaphysis and bone cement was inserted. A total of 133 pig femurs were used and tumour resection was simulated with AR-assisted resection (164 resection in 82 femurs, half by an orthropaedic oncology expert and half by an orthopaedic resident) and resection with the conventional method (82 resection in 41 femurs). In the conventional group, resection was performed after measuring the distance from the edge of the condyle to the expected resection margin with a ruler as per routine clinical practice. Results The mean error of 164 resections in 82 femurs in the AR group was 1.71 mm (0 to 6). The mean error of 82 resections in 41 femurs in the conventional resection group was 2.64 mm (0 to 11) (p Augmented reality in bone tumour resection: An experimental study. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:137–143. PMID:28258117

  16. The CT diagnose of pleural metastasis tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liqun; Han Kaibin; Pan Heng; Huang Xiaoru; Zhou Bingcao; Huang Yuehua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the CT characteristic of pleural metastasis tumour,enhance the diagnostic level of pleural metastasis tumour. Methods: Review 30 cases which have been performed CT scan in our hospital during March 2002 to June 2003, which have been approved to pleural metastasis tumour by pathology and clinic. Make use of GE Hispeed.zx/i spiral CT,10mm thickness,10mm increment, l.5 pitch, some of them use 10mm or high resolution mode. All cases have been performed normal scan, 25 cases with contrast scan. Results: The CT representation of pleural metastasis tumour are encapsulated pleural effusion with irregular pleural thickening(56.6%), nodular pleural thickening(46.6%), pleural masses (13.3%), pneumothorax (3.3%), etc. Encapsulated pleural effusion and nodular pleural thickening are 76.6%, use contrast mode to scan pleural pathological changes enhance upon middle level, CT value increment > 20HU, there are 66.6% cases with other chest metastasis symptom, 73.3% primary lesion are pulmonary cancer, and 20% no primary lesion are found. Conclusion: Combine primary lesion history and other chest metastasis symptom, Spiral CT examination can differentiate most of pleural metastasis tumour, but it is difficult to differentiate the cases between with a little pleural effusion or light band pleural thickening and reactive alteration. (authors)

  17. [Surgical Management of Peritoneal Surface Malignancy with Respect to Tumour Type, Tumour Stage and Individual Tumour Biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckert, S; Struller, F; Grischke, E-M; Glatzle, J; Zieker, D; Königsrainer, A; Königsrainer, I

    2016-08-01

    Peritoneal tumour dissemination is still considered as a terminal disease. For the last two decades, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with intraoperative hyperthermic chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been popularised by Paul Sugarbaker almost doubling survival in selected patients compared with systemic chemotherapy alone. Nowadays, this particular treatment protocol is available in comprehensive cancer centres with reasonable mortality and morbidity. However, patient selection is still challenging. In general, CRS and HIPEC is indicated in primary peritoneal tumours such as mesothelioma and pseudomyxoma peritonei as well as in peritoneal metastases derived from gastrointestinal malignancies and ovarian cancers. Since systemic tumour spread is uncommon in patients with peritoneal metastases, peritoneal tumour dissemination was defined as localised disease within the "compartment abdomen". However, CRS and HIPEC are only beneficial as long as complete cytoreduction is achieved (CC-0 or CC-1). Histopathological parameters, the Sugarbaker peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI) and general condition of the patient have been established as patient selection criteria. In primary peritoneal cancers, individual tumour biology is the predominant criterium for patient selection as opposed to intraabdominal tumour load in peritoneal metastases derived from gastrointestinal cancers. In gastric cancer, CRS and HIPEC should be restricted to synchronous limited disease because of its biological aggressiveness. In patients with free floating cancer cells without macroscopic signs of peritoneal spread, however, CRS and HIPEC following preoperative "neoadjuvant" chemotherapy preserves chances for cure. So far, there is no general recommendation for CRS and HIPEC by clinical practice guidelines. In the recent S3 guideline for treatment of colorectal cancer, however, CRS and HIPEC have been included as possible treatment options. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Tumour Microenvironments Induce Expression of Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) and Concomitant Activation of Gelatinolytic Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Synnøve; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Latysheva, Nadezhda; Pirila, Emma; Steigen, Sonja E.; Hanes, Robert; Salo, Tuula; Winberg, Jan-Olof; Uhlin-Hansen, Lars; Svineng, Gunbjørg

    2014-01-01

    Background The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is associated with poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and increased expression of uPAR is often found at the invasive tumour front. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the role of uPAR in invasion and metastasis of OSCC, and the effects of various tumour microenvironments in these processes. Furthermore, we wanted to study whether the cells’ expression level of uPAR affected the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes. Methods The Plaur gene was both overexpressed and knocked-down in the murine OSCC cell line AT84. Tongue and skin tumours were established in syngeneic mice, and cells were also studied in an ex vivo leiomyoma invasion model. Soluble factors derived from leiomyoma tissue, as well as purified extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, were assessed for their ability to affect uPAR expression, glycosylation and cleavage. Activity of gelatinolytic enzymes in the tissues were assessed by in situ zymography. Results We found that increased levels of uPAR did not induce tumour invasion or metastasis. However, cells expressing low endogenous levels of uPAR in vitro up-regulated uPAR expression both in tongue, skin and leiomyoma tissue. Various ECM proteins had no effect on uPAR expression, while soluble factors originating from the leiomyoma tissue increased both the expression and glycosylation of uPAR, and possibly also affected the proteolytic processing of uPAR. Tumours with high levels of uPAR, as well as cells invading leiomyoma tissue with up-regulated uPAR expression, all displayed enhanced activity of gelatinolytic enzymes. Conclusions Although high levels of uPAR are not sufficient to induce invasion and metastasis, the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes was increased. Furthermore, several tumour microenvironments have the capacity to induce up-regulation of uPAR expression, and soluble factors in the tumour microenvironment may have an important role in the

  19. Tumour microenvironments induce expression of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR and concomitant activation of gelatinolytic enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synnøve Magnussen

    Full Text Available The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR is associated with poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and increased expression of uPAR is often found at the invasive tumour front. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the role of uPAR in invasion and metastasis of OSCC, and the effects of various tumour microenvironments in these processes. Furthermore, we wanted to study whether the cells' expression level of uPAR affected the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes.The Plaur gene was both overexpressed and knocked-down in the murine OSCC cell line AT84. Tongue and skin tumours were established in syngeneic mice, and cells were also studied in an ex vivo leiomyoma invasion model. Soluble factors derived from leiomyoma tissue, as well as purified extracellular matrix (ECM proteins, were assessed for their ability to affect uPAR expression, glycosylation and cleavage. Activity of gelatinolytic enzymes in the tissues were assessed by in situ zymography.We found that increased levels of uPAR did not induce tumour invasion or metastasis. However, cells expressing low endogenous levels of uPAR in vitro up-regulated uPAR expression both in tongue, skin and leiomyoma tissue. Various ECM proteins had no effect on uPAR expression, while soluble factors originating from the leiomyoma tissue increased both the expression and glycosylation of uPAR, and possibly also affected the proteolytic processing of uPAR. Tumours with high levels of uPAR, as well as cells invading leiomyoma tissue with up-regulated uPAR expression, all displayed enhanced activity of gelatinolytic enzymes.Although high levels of uPAR are not sufficient to induce invasion and metastasis, the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes was increased. Furthermore, several tumour microenvironments have the capacity to induce up-regulation of uPAR expression, and soluble factors in the tumour microenvironment may have an important role in the regulation of posttranslational

  20. Clonal structure in Ichthyobacterium seriolicida, the causative agent of bacterial haemolytic jaundice in yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata, inferred from molecular epidemiological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, T; Fukuda, Y; Sakai, T; Tanimoto, N; Nakanishi, M; Nakamura, Y; Takano, T; Nakayasu, C

    2017-08-01

    Bacterial haemolytic jaundice caused by Ichthyobacterium seriolicida has been responsible for mortality in farmed yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata, in western Japan since the 1980s. In this study, polymorphic analysis of I. seriolicida was performed using three molecular methods: amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Twenty-eight isolates were analysed using AFLP, while 31 isolates were examined by MLST and MLVA. No polymorphisms were identified by AFLP analysis using EcoRI and MseI, or by MLST of internal fragments of eight housekeeping genes. However, MLVA revealed variation in repeat numbers of three elements, allowing separation of the isolates into 16 sequence types. The unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages cluster analysis of the MLVA data identified four major clusters, and all isolates belonged to clonal complexes. It is likely that I. seriolicida populations share a common ancestor, which may be a recently introduced strain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Low occurrence of 'non-haemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus' misidentified as Haemophilus influenzae in cystic fibrosis respiratory specimens, and frequent recurrence of persistent H. influenzae clones despite antimicrobial treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger, Mette G; Ridderberg, Winnie; Olesen, Hanne V; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2012-12-01

    Non-influenzae commensal Haemophilus species of low pathogenicity may be difficult to discriminate from Haemophilus influenzae. We investigated the level of misidentifications in respiratory specimens from cystic fibrosis patients and evaluated the colonisation dynamics of genuine H. influenzae isolates. One hundred and ninety-two presumptive H. influenzae isolates were re-examined by assessment of marker genes sodC and fucK, and isolates with aberrant genotypes were subjected to multilocus sequence typing. Misidentifications (3%) were mainly caused by failure to identify porphyrin-synthesising strains, and only a single strain (0.5%) could be classified as 'non-haemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus'. Sequential isolates of confirmed H. influenzae isolates from individual patients were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Despite the routine prescription of antimicrobial therapy, the majority of H. influenzae isolates were identical with at least one of the strains cultured from the two preceding positive samples from the same patient. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. MRI of intracranial germ cell tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, M.; Uozumi, T.; Kiya, K.; Mukada, K.; Arita, K.; Kurisu, K.; Sugiyama, K.; Onda, J.; Satoh, H.; Ikawa, F.; Migita, K.

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed MRI findings in proven intracranial germ cell tumours in 22 cases, 12 of whom received Gd-DTPA. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensity of the tumour parenchyma was moderately low in 19 cases and isointense in 3; on T2-weighted images, it was high in all cases. Regions of different intensity thought to be cysts were found in 17 (77 %): 7 of 12 patients with germinoma (58 %) and in all other cases. Of the 13 patients with pineal lesions T1-weighted sagittal images showed the aqueduct to be obstructed in 5, stenotic in 7 and normal in 1. Strong contrast enhancement was observed in all 12 cases. Of the 14 patients with suprasellar lesions, 5 were found to have an intrasellar extension, and in 3 of these, the normal pituitary gland, which could be distinguished from the tumour, was displaced anteriorly. Ten patients (45 %) had multiple lesions. (orig.)

  3. Imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, S.; Tam, K.F.; Kam, C.K.; Lui, C.Y.; Siu, C.W.; Lam, H.S.; Mak, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) represents the most common kind of mesenchymal tumour that arises from the alimentary tract. GIST is currently defined as a gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal tumour containing spindle cells (or less commonly epithelioid cells or rarely both) and showing CD117 (c-kit protein) positivity. Targeted molecular therapy of non-resectable GIST using imatinib, a specific tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor, represents a real milestone in the management of solid malignancy. Imaging studies, both anatomical and functional, are playing an increasingly important role in management of patients with GIST. This review illustrates the radiological appearance of GISTs and the site-specific roles of each imaging tool. Clinical features and radiological differential diagnosis of GIST are also discussed

  4. Tumour-specific radiosensitizers for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denekamp, J.

    1977-01-01

    Recently Adams and coworkers at the Gray Laboratory have developed a new class of radiosensitizers which act specifically on hypoxic cells by abolishing the protection afforded by low oxygen concentrations. Since most experimental tumours contain a high proportion of oxygen-deprived cells, and most normal tissues are well oxygenated, these drugs are tumour specific radiosensitizers. Based on the hypothesis that sensitization increases with increasing electron affinity, the two nitroimidazoles, metronidazole (Flagyl) and Ro-07/0582 were identified as potent radiosensitizers with low toxicity. These drugs are effective only in the absence of oxygen, and only if the drug is present at the time of irradiation. The degree of sensitization increases with drug concentration rapidly over the range 0.1 to 1.0mg/g body weight for Ro-07-0582, and more gradually for Flagyl. Tumour studies have been performed on at least 12 different experimental tumours, using a variety of end points. Significant sensitization has been observed in every tumour studied, often corresponding to a dose reduction factor of 2.0 for high but non-toxic drug doses. Fractionated studies have also been performed on a few tumour lines. In most cases a useful therapeutic advantage was observed, although the sensitization was smaller. Ro-07-0582 used with X-rays gives a therapeutic gain comparable with that from cyclotron-produced fast neutrons. Neutrons used together with Ro-07-0582 are even more effective. In addition to the radiosensitization there is a specific cytotoxicity to hypoxic cells after prolonged exposure to Ro-07-0582. This cytotoxicity can be greatly enhanced in vitro by moderate hyperthermia. Flagyl and Ro-07-0582 have been used clinically as radiosensitizers, with promising early results. The clinical application is limited to certain dose fractionation patterns because of neurotoxicity. (author)

  5. Differential diagnosis of benign intrahepatic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.; Herter, M.; Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg

    1983-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of benign intrahepatic tumours can be very difficult despite numerous non-invasive diagnostic approaches, as is evident from two case reports presented here. The problem appears particularly intricate if two or more masses or space-occupying growths are present at the same time, the diagnostic aspects being different. In the first case, echinococcus alveolaris occurred simultaneously with a cavernous haemangioma and a focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). In the second case, FNH as a pendulating tumour was combined with a second focus in the superior part of the liver. These two examples are used as basis for discussing various diagnostic approaches, such as sonography, computed tomography and scintiscanning. (orig.) [de

  6. Differential diagnosis of benign intrahepatic tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.; Herter, M.

    1983-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of benign intrahepatic tumours can be very difficult despite numerous non-invasive diagnostic approaches, as is evident from two case reports presented here. The problem appears particularly intricate if two or more masses or space-occupying growths are present at the same time, the diagnostic aspects being different. In the first case, echinococcus alveolaris occurred simultaneously with a cavernous haemangioma and a focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). In the second case, FNH as a pendulating tumour was combined with a second focus in the superior part of the liver. These two examples are used as basis for discussing various diagnostic approaches, such as sonography, computed tomography and scintiscanning.

  7. How to express tumours using membrane systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel A. Gutiérrez-Naranjo; Mario J. Pérez-Jiménez; Agustín Riscos-Nú(n)ez; Francisco J. Romero-Campero

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the potential usefulness of membrane systems as tools for modelling tumours. The approach is followed both from a macroscopic and a microscopic point of view. In the first case, one considers the tumour as a growing mass of cells,focusing on its external shape. In the second case, one descends to the microscopic level, studying molecular signalling pathways that are crucial to determine if a cell is cancerous or not. In each of these approaches we work with appropriate variants of membrane systems.

  8. Lymphatic vessels assessment in feline mammary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarli, Giuseppe; Sassi, Francesco; Brunetti, Barbara; Rizzo, Antonio; Diracca, Laura; Benazzi, Cinzia

    2007-01-01

    The lymphatic vessels play a crucial role in a variety of human cancers since tumour cell lymphatic invasion significantly influences prognosis. It is not known if pre-existing lymphatics are enough for tumour dissemination or de novo development is necessary. VEGFR-3 is an angiogenetic mediator for both lymphatic and blood vessels during embryonic development, and only for lymphatics after birth. VEGF is a mediator of both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, regulates the growth of lymphatics in various experimental models, and is produced in many solid tumours. CD44 mediates hyaluronic acid (HA)-dependent cell adhesion: besides promoting invasion, this interaction also supports neoangiogenesis that indirectly stimulates tumour cell proliferation. The expression of VEGF-C (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor – C), its receptor VEGFR-3 and CD44, were studied on feline mammary samples to assess the importance of lymphangiogenesis and lymphangiotrophism in neoplasia. Samples were taken from six normal mammary glands (NMG), ten benign (BT) and 32 malignant (MT) tumours. Immunohistochemical laminin/VEGFR-3 double stain, VEGF-C and CD44 stains were applied to 4 μm-thick sections, and their expression evaluated in intratumoral/extratumoral and intramammary/extramammary fields. All groups revealed a higher number of lymphatics in the extratumoral/extramammary areas. VEGF-C expression in the epithelium paralleled the number of positive vessels in the NMG, BT and MT, whereas VEGF-C higher expression was noted in the intratumoral fields only in infiltrating MT. CD44 score was lower in extratumoral than intratumoral fields in tumours and showed a significant increase in extramammary/extratumoral fields from NMG to MT. Pearson test showed a significant and inversely proportional correlation between CD44 expression and the number of lymphatic vessels with VEGFR-3 in malignant infiltrating tumours. The number of both VEGFR-3 positive and negative lymphatics in the extratumoral

  9. Angiofibroma, a rare cardiac tumour in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Gayen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Angiofibromas, located in any other sites than nasopharynx are unusual. Cardiac angiofibromas are a very rare cardiac tumours in comparison to rhabdomyomas which are the commonest in the children. We report a right ventricular tumour in a10 year old girl which was excised under cardiopulmonary bypass successfully and diagnosed as angiofibroma on histopathology. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2012, Vol-8, No-4, 51-54 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i4.8702  

  10. Labelled antibiotics as tumour-localizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.; McCready, V.R.

    1976-01-01

    The published results of clinical and experimental studies of labelled bleomycins and tetracyclines are reviewed. None of the labelled antibiotics yet studied show anything approaching absolute tumour specificity. Clinical trials suggest that 57 Co-bleomycin is superior to either 111 In- or 99 Tcsup(m)-bleomycin and that it may possess some advantages over 67 Ga-citrate in respect of lower uptake in the abdomen and, possibly, lower uptakes in benign and inflammatory lesions. Radioiodine-labelled or 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled tetracyclines appear to be of little value in tumour localization. (author)

  11. High dose radiotherapy for pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    The results of treatment of 120 pituitary tumours are presented. Based on this experience operable chromophobe adenomas are now treated with 5,000 rads in 4 weeks and inoperable ones receive an additional central dose to 7,500 rads. Pituitary Cushing's tumours are given 10,000 rads in 5 weeks using small fields and acromegalics 5,000 rads to the whole sella and 7,500 to its lower half. The absence of complications at these dose levels is attributed to the use of small fields and the precise application of treatment

  12. High dose radiotherapy for pituitary tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, K.W. (Queensland Radium Inst., Herston (Australia))

    1981-11-01

    The results of treatment of 120 pituitary tumours are presented. Based on this experience operable chromophobe adenomas are now treated with 5,000 rads in 4 weeks and inoperable ones receive an additional central dose to 7,500 rads. Pituitary Cushing's tumours are given 10,000 rads in 5 weeks using small fields and acromegalics 5,000 rads to the whole sella and 7,500 to its lower half. The absence of complications at these dose levels is attributed to the use of small fields and the precise application of treatment.

  13. Recent advances and opportunities in proteomic analyses of tumour heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Nicholas W; Conrads, Thomas P

    2018-04-01

    Solid tumour malignancies comprise a highly variable admixture of tumour and non-tumour cellular populations, forming a complex cellular ecosystem and tumour microenvironment. This tumour heterogeneity is not incidental, and is known to correlate with poor patient prognosis for many cancer types. Indeed, non-malignant cell populations, such as vascular endothelial and immune cells, are known to play key roles supporting and, in some cases, driving aggressive tumour biology, and represent targets of emerging therapeutics, such as antiangiogenesis and immune checkpoint inhibitors. The biochemical interplay between these cellular populations and how they contribute to molecular tumour heterogeneity remains enigmatic, particularly from the perspective of the tumour proteome. This review focuses on recent advances in proteomic methods, namely imaging mass spectrometry, single-cell proteomic techniques, and preanalytical sample processing, that are uniquely positioned to enable detailed analysis of discrete cellular populations within tumours to improve our understanding of tumour proteomic heterogeneity. This review further emphasizes the opportunity afforded by the application of these techniques to the analysis of tumour heterogeneity in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival tumour tissues, as these represent an invaluable resource for retrospective analyses that is now routinely accessible, owing to recent technological and methodological advances in tumour tissue proteomics. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Response and recovery kinetics of a solid tumour after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, R.; Hopkins, H.A.; Ritenour, E.R.; Looney, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of local tumour radiation over the dose range 7.5-30 Gy on the growth and cell kinetics of rat hepatoma H-4-II-E have been investigated. A plot of growth delays against log surviving fraction was linear below a fraction of 0.03, but failed to extrapolate to the origin. Following a single dose of 15 Gy to the tumour, DNA-precursor incorporation, labelling and mitotic indices were depressed for 7 days. Tumour cellularity, measured as DNA/g tumour was reduced and the rate of increase of total clonogenic cells slower than after complete tumour recovery. From Day 7 to Day 9 all indices of proliferation recovered to about control levels, clonogenic cell numbers increased more rapidly and tumour cellularity was restored. Repopulation of the tumour therefore appeared to take place mainly after Day 7. Incorporation of [ 3 H]-TdR into tumour DNA reached twice the control values on Day 9. The rate of tumour growth accelerated after the initial decrease, and maximum tumour growth rate was also twice the control values on Day 13. Accelerated growth rates in irradiated tumours, above those of control tumours, occurred 10-16 days after treatment. The effectiveness of sequential therapy may therefore be improved if given during this period of accelerated tumour growth. (author)

  15. Radiation-induced brain tumours: potential late complications of radiation therapy for brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, S.; Morioka, T.; Inamura, T.; Takeshita, I.; Fukui, M.; Sasaki, M.; Nakamura, K.; Wakisaka, S.

    1998-01-01

    The development of neoplasms subsequent to therapeutic cranial irradiation is a rare but serious and potentially fatal complication. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical and pathological aspects of 11 patients who underwent cranial irradiation (range, 24-110 cGy) to treat their primary disease and thereafter developed secondary tumours within a span of 13 years. All tumours arose within the previous radiation fields, and satisfied the widely used criteria for the definition of radiation-induced neoplasms. There was no sex predominance (M: 5, F: 6) and the patients tended to be young at irradiation (1.3 - 42 years; median age: 22 years). The median latency period before the detection of the secondary tumour was 14.5 years (range: 6.5 - 24 years). Meningiomas developed in 5 patients, sarcomas in 4, and malignant gliomas in 2. A pre-operative diagnosis of a secondary tumour was correctly obtained in 10 patients based on the neuro-imaging as well as nuclear medicine findings. All patients underwent a surgical removal of the secondary tumour, 3 underwent additional chemotherapy, and one received stereotactic secondary irradiation therapy. During a median of 2 years of follow-up review after the diagnosis of a secondary tumour, 3 patients died related to the secondary tumours (2 sarcomas, 1 glioblastoma), one died of a recurrent primary glioma, while the remaining 7 have been alive for from 10 months to 12 years after being treated for the secondary tumours (median: 3 years). Based on these data, the clinicopathological characteristics and possible role of treatment for secondary tumours are briefly discussed. (author)

  16. N-succinyl-chitosan as a drug carrier: water-insoluble and water-soluble conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshinori; Onishi, Hiraku; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2004-02-01

    N-succinyl-chitosan (Suc-Chi) has favourable properties as a drug carrier such as biocompatibility, low toxicity and long-term retention in the body. It was long retained in the systemic circulation after intravenous administration, and the plasma half-lives of Suc-Chi (MW: 3.4 x 10(5); succinylation degree: 0.81 mol/sugar unit; deacetylation degree: 1.0 mol/sugar unit) were ca. 100.3h in normal mice and 43 h in Sarcoma 180-bearing mice. The biodistribution of Suc-Chi into other tissues was trace apart from the prostate and lymph nodes. The maximum tolerable dose for the intraperitoneal injection of Suc-Chi to mice was greater than 2 g/kg. The water-insoluble and water-soluble conjugates could be prepared using a water-soluble carbodiimide and mitomycin C (MMC) or using an activated ester of glutaric MMC. In vitro release characteristics of these conjugates showed similar patterns, i.e. a pH-dependent manner, except that water-insoluble conjugates showed a slightly slower release of MMC than water-soluble ones. The conjugates of MMC with Suc-Chi showed good antitumour activities against various tumours such as murine leukaemias (L1210 and P388), B16 melanoma, Sarcoma 180 solid tumour, a murine liver metastatic tumour (M5076) and a murine hepatic cell carcinoma (MH134). This review summarizes the utilization of Suc-Chi as a drug carrier for macromolecular conjugates of MMC and the therapeutic efficacy of the conjugates against various tumours.

  17. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-01

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO 2 partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility products

  18. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-26

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility

  19. Radiolabelled aptamers for tumour imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.; Missailidis, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The growth in biotechnology has led to new techniques for the design, selection and production of ligands capable of molecular recognition. One promising approach is the production of specific receptor binding molecules based on specific nucleic acid sequences that are capable of recognising a wide array of target molecules. These oligonuclide ligands are known as aptamers. The technology that allows production of aptamer molecules is known as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). We have used combinatorial chemistry techniques coupled with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to rapidly select aptamers from degenerate libraries that bind with high affinity and specificity to the protein core of the MUC1 antigen, a tumour marker previously extensively used in tumour imaging and therapy. MUC1 is widely expressed by normal glandular epithelial cells, however this expression is dramatically increased when the cells become malignant. This has been well documented for breast and ovarian cancer, as well as some lung, pancreatic and prostate cancers. Recently it has also been shown that MUC1 is a valuable marker for bladder and has been used for the imaging and targeted therapy of bladder cancer. The aptamer selection process was performed on affinity chromatography matrices. After ten rounds of selection and amplification, aptamers were cloned and sequenced. Post SELEX amino modifications have been used to confer nuclease resistance and coupling potential. The aptamers bound to MUC1 antigen with a Kd of 5nm and high specificity, demonstrated by fluorescent microscopy on MUC1-expressing tumour cells. Using peptide coupling reactions, we have successfully attached chelators for Tc-99m radiolabelling. Two of the constructs tested were based on mono-aptamer chelator complexes, one with commercially available MAG3 and one with a novel designed cyclen-based chelator. The other two constructs were based on the use of multi-aptamer complexes

  20. Interobserver delineation variation in lung tumour stereotacticbody radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, G. F.; Nygaard, D. E.; Hollensen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    the interobserver delineation variation for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of peripheral lung tumours using a cross-sectional study design. Methods 22 consecutive patients with 26 tumours were included. Positron emission tomography/CT scans were acquired for planning of SBRT. Three oncologists and three......-sectional analysis of delineation variation for peripheral lung tumours referred for SBRT, establishing the evidence that interobserver variation is very small for these tumours....

  1. Supratentorial tumours. Part II: tumors of neurolglial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sage, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Tumors arising from neuroglial cells are the most common primary brain tumours, representing approximately 45% of all tumours. A simplified classification of these tumours is given, based on the degree of anaplasia. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging appearance of such lesions is presented and the relevance of these techniques in the detection and differential diagnosis of neuroglial cells tumours is discussed. 39 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs

  2. Prognostic value of plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in Danish patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (REOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begum, Farah Diba; Høgdall, Estrid V S; Riisbo, Rikke

    2006-01-01

    The level of the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is elevated in tumour tissue from several types of cancer. This is the first study aiming to predict the prognosis for survival by the use of a pre-chemotherapeutic plasma suPAR value in 71 patients with recurrent epithelial...

  3. Thyroid tumours following fractionated irradiation in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vathaire, F. de; Grimaud, E.; Diallo, I.; Shamsaldin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a cohort study designed to evaluate the long term risk of thyroid tumours after fractioned high doses of external beam radiotherapy received by the thyroid are reported. In this cohort study, doses have been estimated for each child. (author)

  4. Standard effective doses for proliferative tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.C.; Hoban, P.

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the treatment schedules used clinically for highly proliferative tumours, particularly with reference to the effects of fraction size, fraction number and treatment duration. The linear quadratic model (with time component) is used here to compare non-standard treatment regimens (e.g. accelerated and hyperfractionated schedules), currently the focus of randomized trials, with each other and some common 'standard regimens'. To ensure easy interpretation of results, two parameters known as proliferative standard effective dose one (PSED 1 ) and proliferative standard effective dose two (PSED 2 ) have been calculated for each regimen. Graphs of PSED 1 and PSED 2 versus potential doubling time (T p ) have been generated for a range of fractionation regimens which are currently under trial in various randomized studies. From these graphs it can be seen that the highly accelerated schedules (such as CHART) only show advantages for tumours with very short potential doubling times. Calculations for most of the schedules considered showed at least equivalent tumour control expected for the trial schedule compared with the control arm used and these values agree quite well with clinical results. These calculations are in good agreement with clinical results available at present. The greater the PSED 1 or PSED 2 for the schedule considered the greater the tumour control, which can be expected. However, as has been seen with clinical trials, this higher cell kill also results in higher acute effects which have proved too great for some accelerated schedules to continue. (author)

  5. Unsuccessful mitosis in multicellular tumour spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Annie; Couvet, Morgane; Coll, Jean-Luc

    2017-04-25

    Multicellular spheroids are very attractive models in oncology because they mimic the 3D organization of the tumour cells with their microenvironment. We show here using 3 different cell types (mammary TSA/pc, embryonic kidney Hek293 and cervical cancer HeLa), that when the cells are growing as spheroids the frequency of binucleated cells is augmented as occurs in some human tumours.We therefore describe mitosis in multicellular spheroids by following mitotic markers and by time-lapse experiments. Chromosomes alignment appears to be correct on the metaphasic plate and the passenger complex is well localized on centromere. Moreover aurora kinases are fully active and histone H3 is phosphorylated on Ser 10. Consequently, the mitotic spindle checkpoint is satisfied and, anaphase proceeds as illustrated by the transfer of survivin on the spindle and by the segregation of the two lots of chromosomes. However, the segregation plane is not well defined and oscillations of the dividing cells are observed. Finally, cytokinesis fails and the absence of separation of the two daughter cells gives rise to binucleated cells.Division orientation is specified during interphase and persists throughout mitosis. Our data indicate that the cancer cells, in multicellular spheroids, lose their ability to regulate their orientation, a feature commonly encountered in tumours.Moreover, multicellular spheroid expansion is still sensitive to mitotic drugs as pactlitaxel and aurora kinase inhibitors. The spheroids thus represent a highly relevant model for studying drug efficiency in tumours.

  6. Total hip arthroplasty for giant cell tumour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni S

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A 32 month follow up of an uncommon case of a Giant Cell Tumour affecting the proximal end of femur is presented. Following a wide excision, the hip was reconstructed using Charnley type of low friction total hip arthroplasty. At a 32 month review, there was no recurrence and the function was good.

  7. Malignant Appendage Tumours in Zaria | Samaila | Sudanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Eccrine sweat gland origin. Conclusion: Malignant appendage tumours showed a higher frequency in middle aged men in this review. A good knowledge and understanding of the pathology, high index of suspicion and immunohistochemical studies should help in making diagnosis. Surgical intervention with wide margin ...

  8. Spermatogenesis and testicular tumours in ageing dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M. A.; de rooij, D. G.; Teerds, K. J.; van de Gaag, I.; van Sluijs, F. J.

    2001-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were to quantify the changes in canine spermatogenesis that occur during ageing and to study the prevalence of testicular tumours and their effects on spermatogenesis in dogs. Testes from 74 dogs of various breeds without clinically detected testicular disease and from

  9. Intestinal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour | Ntloko | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions. Surgery with tumour-free resection margins is the gold standard of care of adult and paediatric I-IMFTs. Heightened recognition of I-IMFT, albeit rare, as a cause of intestinal obstruction, including intussusception, is necessary for preoperative suspicion of I-IMFT. SAJS, VOL 49, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2011 ...

  10. pituitary tumours, epidemiology, pathogenesis and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management of pituitary tumours has advanced considerably over the last decade. A variety of novel dopamine agonists has revolutionised the management of prolactinomas, while the availability of effective somatostatin analogues has raised the possibility of primary medical treatment of acromegaly. Furthermore, the ...

  11. The negative brain scintiscan in brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalke, K.G.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of 53 histologically verified and two histologically unidentified brain tumours, the author examined the reasons for these wrongly negative scintiscans. EEGs and angiographies carried out at about the same time were taken into account and compared with the scintigraphic findings. (orig.) [de

  12. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Franzese, Ciro; Navarria, Pierina; Scorsetti, Marta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Grimaldi, Marco [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Simonelli, Matteo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Medical Oncology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Bello, Lorenzo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Neurosurgery, Rozzano, MI (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)

  13. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  14. Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Coupland, Sarah E; Briscoe, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    of the lacrimal gland, displacement of the eyeball, reduced eye motility and diplopia. Pain and symptoms of short duration before the first ophthalmic consultation are characteristic of malignant tumours. The histological diagnosis determines the subsequent treatment regimen and provides important clues regarding...

  15. Tumour microembolism presenting as "primary pulmonary hypertension"

    OpenAIRE

    Hibbert, M.; Braude, S.

    1997-01-01

    Pulmonary tumour microembolism is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension. A case of rapidly progressive pulmonary hypertension in a patient with a past history of breast carcinoma is presented. Despite active consideration and investigation for malignancy as a cause, correct diagnosis was only made at necropsy. 




  16. Multiple familial trichoepithelioma: a rare cutaneous tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arfan-ul-Bari; Simeen-ber-Rehman

    2004-01-01

    Multiple familial trichoepithelioma (MFT) is a rare autosomal dominant skin disease that presents as many small tumours predominantly on the face. We report a case of multiple familial trichoepithelioma occurring in three members of a family. They were diagnosed simultaneously. Only one was treated with medium depth chemical peeling with partial response. (author)

  17. Maxillary brown tumour: unusual presentation of parathyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of a maxillary brown tumour caused by primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) secondary to parathyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old man presented with a large swelling in the right maxilla, which caused right-sided nasal obstruction, intermittent bleeding and diplopia. A computed tomography scan demonstrated ...

  18. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour presenting as gastroduodenal intussusception.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, Mark H

    2012-08-01

    Gastroduodenal intussusception secondary to gastrointestinal stromal tumour is a very rare cause for intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis of this condition can be challenging, as symptoms are often non-specific and intermittent. This article reports a case where the diagnosis was made preoperatively with abdominal imaging and was treated by a combination of endoscopic reduction and laparoscopic resection.

  19. Analysis of clonogenic human brain tumour cells: preliminary results of tumour sensitivity testing with BCNU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblum, M L; Dougherty, D A; Deen, D F; Hoshino, T; Wilson, C B [California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Dept. of Neurology

    1980-04-01

    Biopsies from 6 patients with glioblastoma multiforme were disaggregated and single cells were treated in vitro with various concentrations of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso urea (BCNU) and plated for cell survival. One patient's cells were sensitive to BCNU in vitro; after a single dose of BCNU her brain scan reverted to normal and she was clinically well. Five tumours demonstrated resistance in vitro. Three of these tumours progressed during the first course of chemotherapy with a nitrosourea and the patients died at 21/2, 4 and 81/2 months after operation. Two patients who showed dramatic responses to radiation therapy were considered unchanged after the first course of nitrosourea therapy (although one demonstrated tumour enlargement on brain scan). The correlation of in vitro testing of tumour cell sensitivity with actual patient response is encouraging enough to warrant further work to determine whether such tests should weigh in decisions on patient therapy.

  20. Anti-tumour action of 64Cu-bleomycin on Ehrlich ascites tumour cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Hirotoshi; Kawai, Kenichi; Akaboshi, Mitsuhiko

    1979-01-01

    The anti-tumor action of the complex of Bleomycin (BLM) with high specific-radioactivity 64 Cu on Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) was studied in vivo. The 64 Cu-BLM was administered into intraperitoneal cavity of mice from 1 to 4 days after inoculation of EAT cells. The effect of 64 Cu-BLM to suppress the tumour growth as demonstrated by prolonging life span was observed. The amounts of 64 Cu-BLM (800 μCi-8 mg/Kg) were administered at 4, 8 and 16 times separately. Then, the shorter the time interval and the less the amounts of drugs at a time, the higher the suppressing effect for the tumour growth was. It was confirmed that anti-tumour action of 64 Cu-BLM was in all the cases higher than that of BLM alone. (author)

  1. Tumour and tumour-like lesions of the patella - a multicentre experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.; James, S.L.; Davies, A.M.; Kroon, H.M.; Woertler, K.; Anderson, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-nine cases of lesions presenting in the patella were identified after review of the databases of four European bone tumour registries. Of the 59 cases, 46% were non neoplastic, 39% were benign and 15% were malignant. The commonest benign neoplasm was giant cell tumour (GCT) (11 cases). Younger patients were more likely to have a benign neoplasm. Lesions in patients less than 40 years of age included giant cell tumour, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), osteomyelitis, osteoid osteoma and solitary bone cyst. In patients older than 40 years, the following were common lesions: intra-osseous gout, metastasis and intra-osseous ganglion. Expansion of the patella with thinning of cortex was seen more commonly in GCT and brown tumour in hyperparathyroidism. There was associated soft tissue extension in gout and malignant lesions. (orig.)

  2. Tumour and tumour-like lesions of the patella - a multicentre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.; James, S.L.; Davies, A.M. [The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Kroon, H.M. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, C-2-S, P. O Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Woertler, K. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Anderson, S.E. [Knochentumor- Referenzzentrum der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft fuer Pathologie, Basel (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    Fifty-nine cases of lesions presenting in the patella were identified after review of the databases of four European bone tumour registries. Of the 59 cases, 46% were non neoplastic, 39% were benign and 15% were malignant. The commonest benign neoplasm was giant cell tumour (GCT) (11 cases). Younger patients were more likely to have a benign neoplasm. Lesions in patients less than 40 years of age included giant cell tumour, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), osteomyelitis, osteoid osteoma and solitary bone cyst. In patients older than 40 years, the following were common lesions: intra-osseous gout, metastasis and intra-osseous ganglion. Expansion of the patella with thinning of cortex was seen more commonly in GCT and brown tumour in hyperparathyroidism. There was associated soft tissue extension in gout and malignant lesions. (orig.)

  3. Germ cell tumours in neonates and infants: a distinct subgroup?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, I.M.; Schepens, M.T.M.; Looijenga, L.H.J.; Strong, L.C.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Human germ cell tumours (GCTs) constitute a heterogeneous group of tumours that can be classified into four major subgroups. One of these subgroups encompasses (immature) teratomas and yolk sac tumours of patients under the age of 5 years. In this paper we review the various clinical, histological

  4. [Biotherapy of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Knigge, U.

    2008-01-01

    Biotherapy of hormonal symptoms and tumour growth is a mainstay in the therapy of metastatic neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Symptomatic relief can be achieved by somatostatin analogues and interferon, either alone or in combination. The effect on tumour growth...

  5. Tumours and cancers in Graeco-Roman times | Retief | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Hippocratic literature tumours were mainly classified as karkin6mata, phumata, and oidemata. Phumata included a large variety of tumours, inflammatory and neoplastic in origin, and mostly benign (in modern terms), while oidemata were soft, painless tumours and even included generalised oedema (dropsy). Although ...

  6. Tumours and cancers in Graeco-Roman times | Retief | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Hippocratic literature tumours were mainly classified as karkinômata, phumata and oidêmata. Phumata included a large variety of tumours, inflammatory and neoplastic in origin, and mostly benign (in modern terms), whilst oidêmata were soft, painless tumours and even included generalised oedema (dropsy). Although ...

  7. Primary Malignant Bone Tumours at the University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Primary malignant bone tumours include malignancies arising primarily from bone tissue. This is opposed to secondary bone tumours in which case the neoplastic elements arise primarily from other sites within the body and secondarily spread to bone. Primary malignant bone tumours are generally ...

  8. Histopathological review of breast tumours in children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of all tumours followed by tubular adenoma (n = 11; 8.2%) and adenosis (n = 10; 7.4%). No case of malignancy was recorded in this study. Conclusion: Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumour in children and adolescents in our environment. Key words: Adolescents, breast tumours, childhood, fi broadenoma ...

  9. Primary Central Nervous System Tumours in Children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary CNS tumours are the commonest childhood solid tumours in most developed countries, accounting for 25-30% of cases. In our environment they occur less frequently. These tumours are nonetheless the cause of significant morbidity and mortality in the paediatric age group worldwide. However paediatric CNS ...

  10. Central nervous system tumours in children in Ibadan, Nigeria: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CNS) tumours are uncommon in black children, these neoplasms are the fourth most common paediatric tumours in Ibadan. Our centre is the major referral centre for CNS tumours in Nigeria. The last major study of paediatric CNS neoplasms from ...

  11. Malignant insulinoma: The problems of tumour localization and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant insulinomas of the pancreas are rare tumours, accounting for 10% of ... Histological examination showed a R-cell malignant tumour of the pancreas with ... Associated vaso-. SA MEDICAL JOURNAL VOLUME 63 23 APRIL 1983 ... 52 cases of pancreatic endocrine malignant tumours, which have similar behaviour.

  12. Malignant Giant Cell Tumour of Bone with Axillary Metastasis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-06-06

    Jun 6, 2002 ... SUMMARY. Giant Cell Tumour of bone is a typically benign and solitary tumour. However, multiple lesions have been described and 5-10% of lesions may be malignant. We present a case of a malignant giant cell tumour of the distal radius with metastasis to the ipsilateral axilla (an uncommon location).

  13. Regional tumour glutamine supply affects chromatin and cell identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Jonas W; Helin, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Limited perfusion of solid tumours produces a nutrient-deprived tumour core microenvironment. Low glutamine levels in the tumour core are now shown to lead to reduced levels of α-ketoglutarate and decreased histone demethylase activity, thereby promoting a less differentiated and more therapy-res...

  14. Fas Ligand Expression in Lynch Syndrome-Associated Colorectal Tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, Jan J.; de Jong, Steven; Boersma-van Eck, Wietske; Zwart, Nynke; Hollema, Harry; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.

    Fas Ligand (FasL) expression by cancer cells may contribute to tumour immune escape via the Fas counterattack against tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Whether this plays a role in colorectal carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome was examined studying FasL expression, tumour cell apoptosis and

  15. Relevance of high-dose chemotherapy in solid tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, P; de Vries, EGE; Mulder, NH; van der Graaf, WTA

    Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of solid tumours. Based on a steep dose-response relationship for especially alkylating agents on tumour cell survival, high-dose chemotherapy was considered of interest for the treatment of solid tumours. Results of phase 1 and 2 studies with

  16. Hepatic Metastases of Granulosa Cell Tumour of the Ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Rodríguez García

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of metastatic granulosa cell tumour of the ovary is reported. Investigations revealed a secondary tumour in segment VI and VII of the liver. Right hepatic resection was performed. Microscopic findings revealed a tumour with histological features identical to that removed eleven years before.

  17. Malignant Renal Tumours in Adults in Nnamdi Azikiwe University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is however the urological tumour with the highest mortality/ incidence ratio. OBJECTIVE: To review the frequency, mode of presentation and histological pattern of patients with malignant renal tumours in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital. METHOD: A 7 year retrospective review of all our renal tumour folders in ...

  18. Bilateral ovarian tumour in a young girl | Govindarajan | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilateral ovarian tumour in a girl presents the dilemma of conservative versus aggressive approach towards these tumours. When faced with suspicious tumour and complete replacement of the ovaries bilaterally, bilateral oophorectomy is a viable option, though the certain possibility of infertility and lifelong hormonal ...

  19. Gene transfer preferentially selects MHC class I positive tumour cells and enhances tumour immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Ulrich T; Schildhauer, Ines; Barroso, Margarita Céspedes; Kofler, David M; Gerner, Franz M; Mysliwietz, Josef; Buening, Hildegard; Hallek, Michael; King, Susan B S

    2006-05-01

    The modulated expression of MHC class I on tumour tissue is well documented. Although the effect of MHC class I expression on the tumorigenicity and immunogenicity of MHC class I negative tumour cell lines has been rigorously studied, less is known about the validity of gene transfer and selection in cell lines with a mixed MHC class I phenotype. To address this issue we identified a C26 cell subline that consists of distinct populations of MHC class I (H-2D/K) positive and negative cells. Transient transfection experiments using liposome-based transfer showed a lower transgene expression in MHC class I negative cells. In addition, MHC class I negative cells were more sensitive to antibiotic selection. This led to the generation of fully MHC class I positive cell lines. In contrast to C26 cells, all transfectants were rejected in vivo and induced protection against the parental tumour cells in rechallenge experiments. Tumour cell specificity of the immune response was demonstrated in in vitro cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity assays. Transfectants expressing CD40 ligand and hygromycin phosphotransferase were not more immunogenic than cells expressing hygromycin resistance alone. We suggest that the MHC class I positive phenotype of the C26 transfectants had a bearing on their immunogenicity, because selected MHC class I positive cells were more immunogenic than parental C26 cells and could induce specific anti-tumour immune responses. These data demonstrate that the generation of tumour cell transfectants can lead to the selection of subpopulations that show an altered phenotype compared to the parental cell line and display altered immunogenicity independent of selection marker genes or other immune modulatory genes. Our results show the importance of monitoring gene transfer in the whole tumour cell population, especially for the evaluation of in vivo therapies targeted to heterogeneous tumour cell populations.

  20. Renal space-occupying solid growth of uncertain tumour status in metastasising tumour of the testicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhard, K.; Sarmiento-Garcia, G.; Worlicek, H.; Krankenhaus Martha-Maria, Nuernberg

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of a particular case of 'atypical' hypernephroma the main differential diagnosis of solid renal masses are described with reference to the basis disease: testicle tumour causing metastasis. The problems of determining the dignity of the disease by methods of sonography, pyelogram and CT are pointed out as well as the differences between those characteristics of the said tumour revealed by X-ray diagnosis and the known characteristics of substantial kidney deformations as described in medical literature. (orig.) [de

  1. Prophylactic Anticonvulsants in patients with brain tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, P.A.; Weaver, S.; Fulton, D.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants in brain tumour patients (without prior seizures) reduced seizure frequency. We stopped accrual at 100 patients on the basis of the interim analysis. One hundred newly diagnosed brain tumour patients received anticonvulsants (AC Group) or not (No AC Group) in this prospective randomized unblinded study. Sixty patients had metastatic, and 40 had primary brain tumours. Forty-six (46%) patients were randomized to the AC Group and 54 (54%) to the No AC Group. Median follow-up was 5.44 months (range 0.13 -30.1 months). Seizures occurred in 26 (26%) patients, eleven in the AC Group and 15 in the No AC Group. Seizure-free survivals were not different; at three months 87% of the AC Group and 90% of the No AC Group were seizure-free (log rank test, p=0.98). Seventy patients died (unrelated to seizures) and survival rates were equivalent in both groups (median survival = 6.8 months versus 5.6 months, respectively; log rank test, p=0.50). We then terminated accrual at 100 patients because seizure and survival rates were much lower than expected; we would need ≥900 patients to have a suitably powered study. These data should be used by individuals contemplating a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants are effective in subsets of brain tumour patients (e.g. only anaplastic astrocytomas). When taken together with the results of a similar randomized trial, prophylactic anticonvulsants are unlikely to be effective or useful in brain tumour patients who have not had a seizure. (author)

  2. Prophylactic Anticonvulsants in patients with brain tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, P.A. [Depts. of Oncology and Clinical Neurosciences, Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Weaver, S. [Depts. of Neurology and Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York (United States); Fulton, D. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute and Dept. of Medicine/Neurology, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    We conducted a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants in brain tumour patients (without prior seizures) reduced seizure frequency. We stopped accrual at 100 patients on the basis of the interim analysis. One hundred newly diagnosed brain tumour patients received anticonvulsants (AC Group) or not (No AC Group) in this prospective randomized unblinded study. Sixty patients had metastatic, and 40 had primary brain tumours. Forty-six (46%) patients were randomized to the AC Group and 54 (54%) to the No AC Group. Median follow-up was 5.44 months (range 0.13 -30.1 months). Seizures occurred in 26 (26%) patients, eleven in the AC Group and 15 in the No AC Group. Seizure-free survivals were not different; at three months 87% of the AC Group and 90% of the No AC Group were seizure-free (log rank test, p=0.98). Seventy patients died (unrelated to seizures) and survival rates were equivalent in both groups (median survival = 6.8 months versus 5.6 months, respectively; log rank test, p=0.50). We then terminated accrual at 100 patients because seizure and survival rates were much lower than expected; we would need {>=}900 patients to have a suitably powered study. These data should be used by individuals contemplating a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants are effective in subsets of brain tumour patients (e.g. only anaplastic astrocytomas). When taken together with the results of a similar randomized trial, prophylactic anticonvulsants are unlikely to be effective or useful in brain tumour patients who have not had a seizure. (author)

  3. Value of skeletal scintiscanning in cases of primary bone tumours and tumourous alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolowski, U.

    1982-01-01

    In the course of an investigation on the storage behaviour of primary bone tumours and tumourous bone alterations the skeletal scintigrams of a total of 26 patients were evaluated. Bone scintiscanning was done according to current practice after injection of an average amount of 10mCi sup(99m)Tc-MDP, followed by a semiquantitative evaluation. In all cases of malignant bone tumours there was fond to be increased storage of radionuclide; with benign bone alterations this was so in 70 per cent of cases. To differentiate between benign and malignant tumours respectively inflammatory bone diseases was not as a rule possible; however, the investigation yielded additional information completing the X-ray findings essentially. Thus very high storage of radioactivity was established for all osteosarcomas, whereas benign bone growths exhibited more circumscribed accumulations of activity. Skeletal scintiscanning for diagnostical purposes is particularly informative as to the early detection of bone foci evading X-ray diagnosis, more accurate delimitation of tumourous processes, and course control of tumours tending to degenerate. (orig./MG) [de

  4. On nitrogen solubility in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalajda, Yu.A.; Katkov, Yu.D.; Kuznetsov, V.A.; Lastovtsev, A.Yu.; Lastochkin, A.P.; Susoev, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the results of experimental investigations on nitrogen solubility in water under 0-15 MPa pressure, at the temperature of 100-340 deg C and nitrogen concentration of 0-5000 n.ml. N 2 /kg H 2 O. Empiric equations are derived and a diagram of nitrogen solubility in water is developed on the basis of the experimental data, as well as critically evaluated published data. The investigation results can be used in analyzing water-gas regime of a primary heat carrier in stream-generating plants with water-water reactors

  5. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented

  6. Thorium oxalate solubility and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.; Hall, R.

    1981-10-01

    Thorium was used as a stand-in for studying the solubility and precipitation of neptunium and plutonium oxalates. Thorium oxalate solubility was determined over a range of 0.001 to 10.0 in the concentration parameter [H 2 C 2 O 4 ]/[HNO 3 ] 2 . Morphology of thorium oxide made from the oxalate precipitates was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The different morphologies found for oxalate-lean and oxalate-rich precipitations were in agreement with predictions based on precipitation theory

  7. Solubility database for TILA-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, U.; Carlsson, T. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Kulmala, S.; Hakanen, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry; Ahonen, L. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-11-01

    The safety assessment of spent fuel disposal requires solubility values for several elements estimated in Finnish disposal conditions. In Finland four sites (Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara) are investigated for the disposal of spent fuel. Haestholmen and OLkiluoto are onshore sites, while Kivetty and Romuvaara are inland sites. Based on groundwater analysis and classification according to salinity at the planned disposal depth mainly fresh groundwater is encountered at Kivetty and Romuvaara, while brackish and saline water-types are met at Haestholmen and Olkiluoto. Very saline, almost brine-type water ({approx}70 g/l) has been found in the deepest parts of the investigated bedrock at one of the sites (Olkiluoto). The reference waters and conditions were chosen according to the water-types. The considered reference conditions incorporated both the near- and far-field, and both oxidizing and reducing conditions were considered. In the reference conditions, the changes in solubilities were also estimated as caused by possible variations in the pH, carbonate content and redox conditions. Uranium, which is the main component of spent fuel is dealt with in a separate report presenting the solubility of uranium and spent fuel dissolution. In this work the solubilities of all the other elements of concern (Am, Cu, Nb, Np, Pa, Pd, Pu, Ra, Se, Sn, Tc, Zr, Cm, Ni, Sr, Th, C, Cl, Cs, Fe, Ho, I, and Sm) in the safety assessment are considered. Some discussion on the corrosion of the spent fuel canister is also presented. For the estimation of solubilities of the elements in question, literature data was collected that mainly comprised experimentally measured concentrations. The sources used were spent fuel experiments, concentrations measured in solubility measurements, natural concentrations and concentrations from natural analogue sites (especially Palmottu and Hyrkkoelae in Finland) as well as the concentrations measured at the Finnish investigation sites

  8. Solubility database for TILA-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, U.; Carlsson, T.; Kulmala, S.; Hakanen, M.

    1998-11-01

    The safety assessment of spent fuel disposal requires solubility values for several elements estimated in Finnish disposal conditions. In Finland four sites (Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara) are investigated for the disposal of spent fuel. Haestholmen and OLkiluoto are onshore sites, while Kivetty and Romuvaara are inland sites. Based on groundwater analysis and classification according to salinity at the planned disposal depth mainly fresh groundwater is encountered at Kivetty and Romuvaara, while brackish and saline water-types are met at Haestholmen and Olkiluoto. Very saline, almost brine-type water (∼70 g/l) has been found in the deepest parts of the investigated bedrock at one of the sites (Olkiluoto). The reference waters and conditions were chosen according to the water-types. The considered reference conditions incorporated both the near- and far-field, and both oxidizing and reducing conditions were considered. In the reference conditions, the changes in solubilities were also estimated as caused by possible variations in the pH, carbonate content and redox conditions. Uranium, which is the main component of spent fuel is dealt with in a separate report presenting the solubility of uranium and spent fuel dissolution. In this work the solubilities of all the other elements of concern (Am, Cu, Nb, Np, Pa, Pd, Pu, Ra, Se, Sn, Tc, Zr, Cm, Ni, Sr, Th, C, Cl, Cs, Fe, Ho, I, and Sm) in the safety assessment are considered. Some discussion on the corrosion of the spent fuel canister is also presented. For the estimation of solubilities of the elements in question, literature data was collected that mainly comprised experimentally measured concentrations. The sources used were spent fuel experiments, concentrations measured in solubility measurements, natural concentrations and concentrations from natural analogue sites (especially Palmottu and Hyrkkoelae in Finland) as well as the concentrations measured at the Finnish investigation sites. The

  9. Intracapillary HbO2 saturations in murine tumours and human tumour xenografts measured by cryospectrophotometry: relationship to tumour volume, tumour pH and fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofstad, E K; Fenton, B M; Sutherland, R M

    1988-05-01

    Frequency distributions for intracapillary HbO2 saturation were determined for two murine tumour lines (KHT, RIF-1) and two human ovarian carcinoma xenograft lines (MLS, OWI) using a cryospectrophotometric method. The aim was to search for possible relationships between HbO2 saturation status and tumour volume, tumour pH and fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells. Tumour pH was measured by 31P NMR spectroscopy. Hypoxic fractions were determined from cell survival curves for tumours irradiated in vivo and assayed in vitro. Tumours in the volume range 100-4000 mm3 were studied and the majority of the vessels were found to have HbO2 saturations below 10%. The volume-dependence of the HbO2 frequency distributions differed significantly among the four tumour lines; HbO2 saturation status decreased with increasing tumour volume for the KHT, RIF-1 and MLS lines and was independent of tumour volume for the OWI line. The data indicated that the rate of decrease in HbO2 saturation status during tumour growth was related to the rate of development of necrosis. The volume-dependence of tumour pH was very similar to that of the HbO2 saturation status for all tumour lines. Significant correlations were therefore found between HbO2 saturation status and tumour pH, both within tumour lines and across the four tumour lines, reflecting that the volume-dependence of both parameters probably was a compulsory consequence of reduced oxygen supply conditions during tumour growth. Hypoxic fraction increased during tumour growth for the KHT, RIF-1 and MLS lines and was volume-independent for the OWI line, suggesting a relationship between HbO2 saturation status and hypoxic fraction within tumour lines. However, there was no correlation between these two parameters across the four tumour lines, indicating that the hypoxic fraction of a tumour is not determined only by the oxygen supply conditions; other parameters may also be important, e.g. oxygen diffusivity, rate of oxygen

  10. Nuclear medicine procedures to diagnose endocrine pancreatic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bares, R.; Besenfelder, H.; Eschmann, S.M.; Pfannenberg, C.

    2003-01-01

    The typical clinical features of endocrine pancreatic tumours are either symptoms caused by excessive hormone production or progressive tumour growth. In several prospective studies it has been shown that somatostatin receptor scintigraphy is the most accurate imaging technique currently available to detect endocrine pancreatic tumours. Therefore it should be used whenever curative surgical treatment appears to be feasible. Furthermore it should be applied if a radionuclide treatment of inoperable tumours is considered. In this situation scintigraphy with 123 I-mIBG might be useful, too. Future developments include the use of PET with labelled somatostatin analogues or DOPA derivatives as well as image fusion techniques to optimize preoperative tumour localization. (orig.) [de

  11. Insulin resistance in vascular endothelial cells promotes intestinal tumour formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, X; Häring, M-F; Rathjen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    in vascular endothelial cells. Strikingly, these mice had 42% more intestinal tumours than controls, no change in tumour angiogenesis, but increased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in primary culture of tumour endothelial cells. Insulin decreased VCAM-1 expression and leukocyte...... adhesion in quiescent tumour endothelial cells with intact insulin receptors and partly prevented increases in VCAM-1 and leukocyte adhesion after treatment with tumour necrosis factor-α. Knockout of insulin receptors in endothelial cells also increased leukocyte adhesion in mesenteric venules...

  12. 2-d spectroscopic imaging of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, N.J.; Brotchie, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This poster illustrates the use of two-dimensional spectroscopic imaging (2-D SI) in the characterisation of brain tumours, and the monitoring of subsequent treatment. After conventional contrast-enhanced MR imaging of patients with known or suspected brain tumours, 2-D SI is performed at a single axial level. The level is chosen to include the maximum volume of abnormal enhancement, or, in non-enhancing lesions. The most extensive T2 signal abnormality. Two different MR systems have been used (Marconi Edge and GE Signa LX); at each site, a PRESS localisation sequence is employed with TE 128-144 ms. Automated software is used to generate spectral arrays, metabolite maps, and metabolite ratio maps from the spectroscopic data. Colour overlays of the maps onto anatomical images are produced using manufacturer software or the Medex imaging data analysis package. High grade gliomas showed choline levels higher than those in apparently normal brain, with decreases in NAA and creatine. Some lesions showed spectral abnormality extending into otherwise normal appearing brain. This was also seen in a case of CNS lymphoma. Lowgrade lesions showed choline levels similar to normal brain, but with decreased NAA. Only a small number of metastases have been studied, but to date no metastasis has shown spectral abnormality beyond the margins suggested by conventional imaging. Follow-up studies generally show spectral heterogeneity. Regions with choline levels higher than those in normal-appearing brain are considered to represent recurrent high-grade tumour. Some regions show choline to be the dominant metabolite, but its level is not greater than that seen in normal brain. These regions are considered suspicious for residual / recurrent tumour when the choline / creatine ratio exceeds 2 (lower ratios may represent treatment effect). 2-D SI improves the initial assessment of brain tumours, and has potential for influencing the radiotherapy treatment strategy. 2-D SI also

  13. Oxidative stress specifically downregulates survivin to promote breast tumour formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, S; Tran, L; Urman, R; Braga, M; Parveen, M; Li, S A; Chaudhuri, G; Singh, R

    2013-03-05

    Breast cancer, a heterogeneous disease has been broadly classified into oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) or oestrogen receptor negative (ER-) tumour types. Each of these tumours is dependent on specific signalling pathways for their progression. While high levels of survivin, an anti-apoptotic protein, increases aggressive behaviour in ER- breast tumours, oxidative stress (OS) promotes the progression of ER+ breast tumours. Mechanisms and molecular targets by which OS promotes tumourigenesis remain poorly understood. DETA-NONOate, a nitric oxide (NO)-donor induces OS in breast cancer cell lines by early re-localisation and downregulation of cellular survivin. Using in vivo models of HMLE(HRAS) xenografts and E2-induced breast tumours in ACI rats, we demonstrate that high OS downregulates survivin during initiation of tumourigenesis. Overexpression of survivin in HMLE(HRAS) cells led to a significant delay in tumour initiation and tumour volume in nude mice. This inverse relationship between survivin and OS was also observed in ER+ human breast tumours. We also demonstrate an upregulation of NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX1) and its activating protein p67, which are novel markers of OS in E2-induced tumours in ACI rats and as well as in ER+ human breast tumours. Our data, therefore, suggest that downregulation of survivin could be an important early event by which OS initiates breast tumour formation.

  14. Some aspects of the endocrine tumours of the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassolas, G.

    1996-01-01

    Endocrine tumours of digestive tract (GEP) synthesize many hormonal products which are responsible for clinical expression in relation with their nature, amount and biological activity, some of these tumours being non-functioning or silent. Moreover these tumours have some characteristics related to neuroendocrine differentiation, which provide tumour markers in addition to hormonal markers, such as chromogranin. A which is of special interest in non-functioning tumours. Pancreatic tumours are the most frequently recognized tumours in systematic screening procedures performed in MEN 1 patients. They are multi-secreting and multifocal, and they exhibit a loss of heterozygosity in the 11q13 locus. Growth factors such as IGF-1 and PDGF and their specific receptors are expressed in GEP tumours but their role in tumour growth remains to be determined. Somatostatin receptors are present on most endocrine digestive tumours, conditioning the therapeutic effects of somatostatin analogues that reduce hormonal tumoral production and alleviate the related symptoms. In addition, in vivo visualization of somatostatin receptor positive tumours by scintigraphy using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues is of clinical interest. (author)

  15. Perinatal tumours: the contribution of radiology to management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie; Twomey, Eilish [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2008-06-15

    A formal classification does not exist and they are probably best classified by their location. Overall the most common neoplasms are - Extracranial teratoma - Neuroblastoma - Soft-tissue tumours - Brain tumours - Leukaemia - Renal tumours - Liver tumours - Retinoblastoma. The prognosis is generally poor, although there are some exceptions such as congenital neuroblastoma and hepatoblastoma. These tumours have a tendency to regress and have a benign clinical course despite a clear malignant histological picture. Other tumours, though histologically benign, may be fatal because of their size and location. Large benign masses may cause airway or cardiovascular compromise and death. Others may cause significant mass effect preventing normal organ development. As normal embryonic cells have a high mitotic rate it is not surprising that perinatal tumours may have a rapid growth rate and become enormous in size. (orig.)

  16. Pathology of Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Female Genital Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Brooke E; Kelly, Paul; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2017-09-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours are uncommon or rare at all sites in the female genital tract. The 2014 World Health Organisation (WHO) Classification of neuroendocrine tumours of the endometrium, cervix, vagina and vulva has been updated with adoption of the terms low-grade neuroendocrine tumour and high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. In the endometrium and cervix, high-grade neoplasms are much more prevalent than low-grade and are more common in the cervix than the corpus. In the ovary, low-grade tumours are more common than high-grade carcinomas and the term carcinoid tumour is still used in WHO 2014. The term ovarian small-cell carcinoma of pulmonary type is included in WHO 2014 for a tumour which in other organs is termed high small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Neuroendocrine tumours at various sites within the female genital tract often occur in association with other neoplasms and more uncommonly in pure form.

  17. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  18. Solubility of Nd in brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili, F.I.; Symeopoulos, V.; Chen, J.F.; Choppin, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The solubility of Nd(III) has been measured at 23±3 C in a synthetic brine at pcH 6.4, 8.4, 10.4 and 12.4. The brine consisted predominantly of (Na+K)Cl and MgCl 2 with an ionic strength of 7.8 M (9.4 m) a solid compound of Nd(III) at each pcH was assigned from X-ray diffraction patterns. The log values of the experimental solubilities decrease fomr -3 at pcH 6.4 to -5.8 at pcH 8.4; at pcH 10.4 and 12.4 the solubility was below the detection limit of -7.5. The experimental solubility does not follow closely the variation with pcH estimated from modeling of the species in solution in equilibrium with the Nd solid using S.I.T. (orig.)

  19. COX-2, VEGF and tumour angiogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, D P

    2009-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a protective effective of regular NSAID use against developing cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2, a target of NSAIDs, is upregulated in many cancers and has been associated with increased VEGF production and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is the formation of new vessels from existing vasculature and as an essential process for tumour development represents an important therapeutic target. Following an extensive review of the literature this article details the current knowledge on the role of COX-2 in tumorigenesis focusing on its relationship to angiogenesis and VEGF production by tumour cells. While COX-2 is clearly detrimental to prognosis and NSAIDs have a beneficial effect, the possibility of COX-2 independent effects being partly or wholly responsible for this benefit cannot be excluded.

  20. Tumour Debulking for Esophageal Cancer - Thermal Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fleischer

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer usually is discovered at a late stage and curative therapy seldom is possible. The prognosis is poor and most therapy is palliative. Endoscopic therapy commonly is employed; two common treatments involve thermal modalities. The Nd:YAG laser has been employed for 10 years and is effective in relieving obstruction in approximately 90% of cases. Re-ohstruction usually occurs in two to three months and repeat treatment may be necessary. Limitations to laser use include the fact that equipment is expensive and there are technical restrictions. An alternative thermal modality is the bipolar coagulation tumour probe which employs bipolar electrocoagulation. It is less expensive and, if the tumour is circumferential, tends to be easier to use. (It should not be used if the cancer is noncircumferential. The advantages and limitations of each modality are addressed.

  1. Special radiation therapy for malignent tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, G.; Bohndorf, W.; Franke, H.D.; Haas, R.; Halama, J.; Hess, F.; Kaercher, K.H.; Gauwerky, F.; Hellriegel, W.

    1980-01-01

    In the section on 'Special radiotherapy of malignant tumours', tumours of various parts of the body are treated in 11 chapters, whereby partly different authors have made even further subdivisions. The following chapters are dealt with: Skin (including lips and anal region) with separate treatment of melanomes, head region (with finer subdivision of eye, orbita, eye lid; ear, auditory meatus and parotis; oropharynx; nasopharynx; nasal cavities and paranasal sinus), neck region (subdivided into larynx and hypopharynx and glands), thorax (split into lungs, mediastinum and oesophagus), digestive organs (summarized together stomach and small intestine, colon and rectum, liver, gall and pancreas), male sex organs (subdivided into testicles, prostate and spermatocyst, penis and urethra), female sex organs (separately treated corpus uteri, collum uteri, vagina, vulva, urethra and ovary), female and male mamma, urinary organs (kidneys and ureter as well as bladder), sarcoma of moving and supporting organs and finally the nervous system. (MG) [de

  2. Synchronous colonic tumours of dual pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S; Selvachandran, S N; Cade, D

    2001-05-01

    Synchronous colonic tumours of dual pathology are extremely rare. A review of the literature revealed that few cases have been reported to date. Because of their rarity and lack of specific symptoms, preoperative diagnosis is not easy and there is no protocol as yet for the ideal management of these cases. We present such a case which was treated by a combination of surgery and chemotherapy.

  3. Robotic versus laparoscopic resection of liver tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Eren; Akyildiz, Hizir Yakup; Aucejo, Federico; Gunasekaran, Ganesh; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Fung, John

    2010-01-01

    Background There are scant data in the literature regarding the role of robotic liver surgery. The aim of the present study was to develop techniques for robotic liver tumour resection and to draw a comparison with laparoscopic resection. Methods Over a 1-year period, nine patients underwent robotic resection of peripherally located malignant lesions measuring <5 cm. These patients were compared prospectively with 23 patients who underwent laparoscopic resection of similar tumours at the same institution. Statistical analyses were performed using Student's t-test, χ2-test and Kaplan–Meier survival. All data are expressed as mean ± SEM. Results The groups were similar with regards to age, gender and tumour type (P = NS). Tumour size was similar in both groups (robotic −3.2 ± 1.3 cm vs. laparoscopic −2.9 ± 1.3 cm, P = 0.6). Skin-to-skin operative time was 259 ± 28 min in the robotic vs. 234 ± 17 min in the laparoscopic group (P = 0.4). There was no difference between the two groups regarding estimated blood loss (EBL) and resection margin status. Conversion to an open operation was only necessary in one patient in the robotic group. Complications were observed in one patient in the robotic and four patients in the laparoscopic groups. The patients were followed up for a mean of 14 months and disease-free survival (DFS) was equivalent in both groups (P = 0.6). Conclusion The results of this initial study suggest that, for selected liver lesions, a robotic approach provides similar peri-operative outcomes compared with laparoscopic liver resection (LLR). PMID:20887327

  4. Targeting Tumour Vasculature as a Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Honstvet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling blood flow and capillary growth in tumours has been the focus of several research groups with the aim of generating theoretical models that can be used to predict biological behaviour within these systems. Since dysfunctional angiogenesis is seen in a wide range of pathological conditions ranging from cardiovascular, to arthritis, to diabetes, it is easy to see how these models may have a far-reaching influence on future therapeutic strategies.

  5. Characterization of tumour virus proteins, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, T.

    1977-01-01

    The structural protein in murine tumour virus P30 has been measured by radioiummunoassay. The titer of each serum was determined by using as antigen the purified Rauscher viral protein labeled with 125 iodine. Standard competition curve was constructed in order to determine the equivalent of protein to inhibit the precipitation reaction under limited antibody concentration. Competition by purified Kirsten virus suspension normal rat kidney cells, transformed-productive and transformed non-productive cells were measured in homologous and heterologous systems [pt

  6. Benign Fibrous Tumour of the Parotid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Sreetharan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 44-year-old man with left parotid enlargement that was initially diagnosed as cementifying fibroma is presented. The lesion was found in the deep lobe of the parotid gland and was successfully removed. Postoperatively, the patient recovered well with intact facial nerve function and remained asymptomatic after 1 year. Subsequent histology revealed the mass to be a benign fibrous tumour. The diagnosis and management of this rare entity are discussed.

  7. Tc(V)-DMS tumour imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, K.; Yomoda, I.; Yokoyama, A.; Endo, K.; Torizuka, K.

    1986-01-01

    The data obtained by the authors provide good evidence of Tc(V)-DMS as a stable, large-molecular-size Tc-complex or polynuclear Tc-complex, comparable to Tc-cit and Ga-cit. A role for this polynuclear configuration in the generation of Tc-species with affinity for neoplastic cells was demonstrated using the dilution method as a promoter of Tc(V)-DMS dissociation. The concurrent Ehrlich ascites tumour cell uptake studies with TLC analysis revealed the chromatographically detected changes well traced by the biological cell utilization. The biological implications of dilution as one of the factors regulating radiopharmaceutical delivery to the tumour cell tissue were better demonstrated in the biodistribution studies carried out with Erhlich ascites-bearing mice. If, on the basis of the present data, the authors may take their postulate one step further, a more dissociated Tc-species, defined speculatively as TcO/sub 4//sup 3-/, might constitute an active Tc- species within the cell interacting with some tumour-specific substance or site. Research to find evidence of its presence is currently in progress

  8. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Ayuko; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Shen, Tang-Long; Rodrigues, Goncalo; Hashimoto, Ayako; Tesic Mark, Milica; Molina, Henrik; Kohsaka, Shinji; Di Giannatale, Angela; Ceder, Sophia; Singh, Swarnima; Williams, Caitlin; Soplop, Nadine; Uryu, Kunihiro; Pharmer, Lindsay; King, Tari; Bojmar, Linda; Davies, Alexander E; Ararso, Yonathan; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Haiying; Hernandez, Jonathan; Weiss, Joshua M; Dumont-Cole, Vanessa D; Kramer, Kimberly; Wexler, Leonard H; Narendran, Aru; Schwartz, Gary K; Healey, John H; Sandstrom, Per; Labori, Knut Jørgen; Kure, Elin H; Grandgenett, Paul M; Hollingsworth, Michael A; de Sousa, Maria; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Jain, Maneesh; Mallya, Kavita; Batra, Surinder K; Jarnagin, William R; Brady, Mary S; Fodstad, Oystein; Muller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Minn, Andy J; Bissell, Mina J; Garcia, Benjamin A; Kang, Yibin; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K; Ghajar, Cyrus M; Matei, Irina; Peinado, Hector; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Lyden, David

    2015-11-19

    Ever since Stephen Paget's 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer's greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins α6β4 and α6β1 were associated with lung metastasis, while exosomal integrin αvβ5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins α6β4 and αvβ5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. Finally, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis.

  9. Tumour imaging with non specific substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, W.B. van der.

    1978-01-01

    A short introduction concerning tumour imaging in nuclear medicine is given as well as the formulation of the problem treated in this thesis. In a literature review the most important tumour imaging radiopharmaceuticals used until now are described together with their clinical significance in the diagnosis of malignancy. The mechanism of uptake and subcellular distribution of most of the radiopharmaceuticals reviewed are discussed in chapter three with special reference to gallium-citrate. An ionic model to explain the distribution patterns of a number of these tumour imaging radiopharmaceuticals in normal and pathological tissues has been proposed. Evidence for the validity of this model is presented with specific reference to the ionic state of the reagents concerned. EXperimental evidence to support the proposed model is presented, with reference to the biologic behaviour of the radiopharmaceuticals in normal and pathological tissues. A limited number of selected case reports demonstrate how the results of the earlier described investigations can be applied to explain phenomena observed in clinical studies with ionic substances. The results obtained are discussed and the validity of the data with respect to the proposed model has been investigated. (Auth.)

  10. Diagnostic value of quantitative scintiscanning in tumours and tumour-like lesions of the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Orlewicz, C.

    1986-01-01

    Following administration of 99mTc phosphate compounds quantitative scintiscanning and, in particular, the 'region of interest' technique were used in 277 patients investigated for tumours and tumour-like lesions of the extremities. The following results were obtained: 1) In primary malignant bone tumours of the extremities tracer accumulation is increased by a factor of more than 2.5 as compared to that observed in normal bone tissue (the only exception here being plasmacytoma and histiocytoma). 2) In metastatic and benign bone tumours this tendency towards increased tracer accumulation generally is less pronounced so that the values calculated here remained below a factor of 2.5. 3) The accumulation behaviour of tumour-like bone changes of the extremities did not follow a uniform pattern. 4) As a general rule, the values measured in the region of the vertebral column were increased by a factor of less than 2.5. Quantitative scintiscanning, even though being a step towards a more sophisticated radiopharmaceutical method of examination, may occasionally not provide all the information required to establish a firm diagnosis or to evaluate the severity of a disease. One important domaine of this technique is the medical surveillance of patients, both before and after treatment. (TRV) [de

  11. Evaluating the agreement between tumour volumetry and the estimated volumes of tumour lesions using an algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubender, Ruediger P. [German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology (IBE), Munich (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Lynghjem, Julia; D' Anastasi, Melvin; Graser, Anno [University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Heinemann, Volker; Modest, Dominik P. [University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Department of Medical Oncology, Munich (Germany); Mansmann, Ulrich R. [University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology (IBE), Munich (Germany); Sartorius, Ute; Schlichting, Michael [Merck KGaA, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    To evaluate the agreement between tumour volume derived from semiautomated volumetry (SaV) and tumor volume defined by spherical volume using longest lesion diameter (LD) according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) or ellipsoid volume using LD and longest orthogonal diameter (LOD) according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Twenty patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from the CIOX trial were included. A total of 151 target lesions were defined by baseline computed tomography and followed until disease progression. All assessments were performed by a single reader. A variance component model was used to compare the three volume versions. There was a significant difference between the SaV and RECIST-based tumour volumes. The same model showed no significant difference between the SaV and WHO-based volumes. Scatter plots showed that the RECIST-based volumes overestimate lesion volume. The agreement between the SaV and WHO-based relative changes in tumour volume, evaluated by intraclass correlation, showed nearly perfect agreement. Estimating the volume of metastatic lesions using both the LD and LOD (WHO) is more accurate than those based on LD only (RECIST), which overestimates lesion volume. The good agreement between the SaV and WHO-based relative changes in tumour volume enables a reasonable approximation of three-dimensional tumour burden. (orig.)

  12. The PDGF-BB-SOX7 axis-modulated IL-33 in pericytes and stromal cells promotes metastasis through tumour-associated macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yunlong; Andersson, Patrik; Hosaka, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    Signalling molecules and pathways that mediate crosstalk between various tumour cellular compartments in cancer metastasis remain largely unknown. We report a mechanism of the interaction between perivascular cells and tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) in promoting metastasis through the IL-33......-ST2-dependent pathway in xenograft mouse models of cancer. IL-33 is the highest upregulated gene through activation of SOX7 transcription factor in PDGF-BB-stimulated pericytes. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments validate that IL-33 promotes metastasis through recruitment of TAMs. Pharmacological...... inhibition of the IL-33-ST2 signalling by a soluble ST2 significantly inhibits TAMs and metastasis. Genetic deletion of host IL-33 in mice also blocks PDGF-BB-induced TAM recruitment and metastasis. These findings shed light on the role of tumour stroma in promoting metastasis and have therapeutic...

  13. Solubility of sparingly soluble drug derivatives of anthranilic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domańska, Urszula; Pobudkowska, Aneta; Pelczarska, Aleksandra

    2011-03-24

    This work is a continuation of our systematic study of the solubility of pharmaceuticals (Pharms). All substances here are derivatives of anthranilic acid, and have an anti-inflammatory direction of action (niflumic acid, flufenamic acid, and diclofenac sodium). The basic thermal properties of pure Pharms, i.e., melting and glass-transition temperatures as well as the enthalpy of melting, have been measured with the differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Molar volumes have been calculated with the Barton group contribution method. The equilibrium mole fraction solubilities of three pharmaceuticals were measured in a range of temperatures from 285 to 355 K in three important solvents for Pharm investigations: water, ethanol, and 1-octanol using a dynamic method and spectroscopic UV-vis method. The experimental solubility data have been correlated by means of the commonly known G(E) equation: the NRTL, with the assumption that the systems studied here have revealed simple eutectic mixtures. pK(a) precise measurement values have been investigated with the Bates-Schwarzenbach spectrophotometric method. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Discrimination of paediatric brain tumours using apparent diffusion coefficient histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, Jonathan G.; Clark, Christopher A.; Saunders, Dawn E.

    2012-01-01

    To determine if histograms of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) can be used to differentiate paediatric brain tumours. Imaging of histologically confirmed tumours with pre-operative ADC maps were reviewed (54 cases, 32 male, mean age 6.1 years; range 0.1-15.8 years) comprising 6 groups. Whole tumour ADC histograms were calculated; normalised for volume. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to differentiate tumour types using histogram metrics, initially for all groups and then for specific subsets. All 6 groups (5 dysembryoplastic neuroectodermal tumours, 22 primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET), 5 ependymomas, 7 choroid plexus papillomas, 4 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours (ATRT) and 9 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA)) were compared. 74% (40/54) were correctly classified using logistic regression of ADC histogram parameters. In the analysis of posterior fossa tumours, 80% of ependymomas, 100% of astrocytomas and 94% of PNET-medulloblastoma were classified correctly. All PNETs were discriminated from ATRTs (22 PNET and 4 supratentorial ATRTs) (100%). ADC histograms are useful in differentiating paediatric brain tumours, in particular, the common posterior fossa tumours of childhood. PNETs were differentiated from supratentorial ATRTs, in all cases, which has important implications in terms of clinical management. (orig.)

  15. A reproducible brain tumour model established from human glioblastoma biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jian; Chekenya, Martha; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Enger, Per Ø; Miletic, Hrvoje; Sakariassen, Per Ø; Huszthy, Peter C; Jacobsen, Hege; Brekkå, Narve; Li, Xingang; Zhao, Peng; Mørk, Sverre

    2009-01-01

    Establishing clinically relevant animal models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a challenge, and many commonly used cell line-based models do not recapitulate the invasive growth patterns of patient GBMs. Previously, we have reported the formation of highly invasive tumour xenografts in nude rats from human GBMs. However, implementing tumour models based on primary tissue requires that these models can be sufficiently standardised with consistently high take rates. In this work, we collected data on growth kinetics from a material of 29 biopsies xenografted in nude rats, and characterised this model with an emphasis on neuropathological and radiological features. The tumour take rate for xenografted GBM biopsies were 96% and remained close to 100% at subsequent passages in vivo, whereas only one of four lower grade tumours engrafted. Average time from transplantation to the onset of symptoms was 125 days ± 11.5 SEM. Histologically, the primary xenografts recapitulated the invasive features of the parent tumours while endothelial cell proliferations and necrosis were mostly absent. After 4-5 in vivo passages, the tumours became more vascular with necrotic areas, but also appeared more circumscribed. MRI typically revealed changes related to tumour growth, several months prior to the onset of symptoms. In vivo passaging of patient GBM biopsies produced tumours representative of the patient tumours, with high take rates and a reproducible disease course. The model provides combinations of angiogenic and invasive phenotypes and represents a good alternative to in vitro propagated cell lines for dissecting mechanisms of brain tumour progression

  16. Ovarian tumours in children : A review of 18 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelouhab Ammor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : To review the experience of Children′s Hospital of Rabat in managing ovarian tumours in children. Materials and Methods: There were 18 patients between 2 and 15 years of age who presented with an ovarian tumour at Children′s Hospital of Rabat between January 2000 and December 2008. Data collected from the hospital medical records included age at diagnosis, patient′s history, presenting complaints, radiological examination, tumour markers, management, operative procedure, histopathological examination and outcome of the patients. Results : The most common presenting complaint was abdominal pain in 10 (55% patient. 77% of ovarian tumours were germ cell tumours; 71% of these were teratomas which were benign in 66% of cases. Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was the most common surgical procedure performed in 15 patients (83% through laparotomy. Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy was carried out in 2 (11% patients with benign cystic teratoma. Of the 7 (39% patients with malignant tumours, three received postoperative chemotherapy. Outcome was good in most cases. There were no cases of resistance to treatment, or death. Conclusion : Early diagnosis of ovarian tumours in children and adolescents is important. Since most of these tumours are benign, surgical treatment should be conservative to minimise the risk of subsequent infertility, while the treatment of malignant tumours should include complete staging, resection of the tumour, postoperative chemotherapy when indicated, to give the patient a chance for future childbearing.

  17. A database survey of equine tumours in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, E J; Tremaine, W H; Pearson, G R; Mair, T S

    2016-05-01

    Survey data on equine tumours are sparse compared with other species and may have changed over time. To describe the most frequently diagnosed equine tumours recorded by a diagnostic pathology laboratory over 29 years, to identify background factors associated with tumour type, and to identify any changes in the tumours diagnosed or the background of cases submitted during the study period. Observational; cross-sectional analysis of records of a diagnostic pathology laboratory. The records of all neoplastic equine histology submissions to the University of Bristol (January 1982-December 2010) were accessed from a database, and a list of diagnoses compiled. The 6 most commonly diagnosed tumour types were analysed using logistic regression to identify background factors associated with tumour type. The overall population of equine tumour submissions and the relative frequency of diagnosis of the most common tumour types were compared between decades. There were 964 cases included. The most frequently diagnosed tumours were: sarcoid (24% cases), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (19%), lymphoma (14%), melanoma (6%), gonadal stromal tumour (6%) and mast cell tumour (MCT) (4%). With sarcoid, Thoroughbred/Thoroughbred cross and gelding as reference categories: increasing age was significantly associated with the odds of each of the other tumour types, mares were at reduced risk of SCC, Arab/Arab cross had a higher risk of MCT, Cob/Cob cross had an increased risk of SCC and MCT, and ponies had an increased risk of melanoma. The mean age of submissions increased in each successive decade and the breed composition became broader. Sarcoids and lymphoma formed a smaller proportion of diagnoses in later decades. The types of tumours submitted to this laboratory have changed over the last 3 decades. Current data inform clinicians and researchers and further studies are warranted to follow trends. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Anti-tumour therapeutic efficacy of OX40L in murine tumour model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Selman A; Ahmad, Murrium; Lynam, June; McLean, Cornelia S; Entwisle, Claire; Loudon, Peter; Choolun, Esther; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Li, Geng; Mian, Shahid; Rees, Robert C

    2004-09-09

    OX40 ligand (OX40L), a member of TNF superfamily, is a co-stimulatory molecule involved in T cell activation. Systemic administration of mOX40L fusion protein significantly inhibited the growth of experimental lung metastasis and subcutaneous (s.c.) established colon (CT26) and breast (4T1) carcinomas. Vaccination with OX40L was significantly enhanced by combination treatment with intra-tumour injection of a disabled infectious single cycle-herpes simplex virus (DISC-HSV) vector encoding murine granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (mGM-CSF). Tumour rejection in response to OX40L therapy required functional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and correlated with splenocyte cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) activity against the AH-1 gp70 peptide of the tumour associated antigen expressed by CT26 cells. These results demonstrate the potential role of the OX40L in cancer immunotherapy.

  19. Near-field solubility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomason, H.P.; Williams, S.J.

    1992-02-01

    Experimental determinations of the solubilities of americium, plutonium, neptunium, protactinium, thorium, radium, lead, tin, palladium and zirconium are reported. These elements have radioactive isotopes of concern in assessments of radioactive waste disposal. All measurements were made under the highly alkaline conditions typical of the near field of a radioactive waste repository which uses cementitious materials for many of the immobilisation matrices, the backfill and the engineered structures. Low redox potentials, typical of those resulting from the corrosion of iron and steel, were simulated for those elements having more than one accessible oxidation state. The dissolved concentrations of the elements were defined using ultrafiltration. In addition, the corrosion of iron and stainless steel was shown to generate low redox potentials in solution and the solubility of iron(II) at high pH was measured and found to be sufficient for it to act as a redox buffer with respect to neptunium and plutonium. (author)

  20. Implementation of a cost-effective strategy to prevent neonatal early-onset group B haemolytic streptococcus disease in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkman, Diny G E; Rijnders, Marlies E B; Wouters, Maurice G A J; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske; van der Ploeg, Cpb Kitty; de Groot, Christianne J M; Fleuren, Margot A H

    2013-07-30

    Early-onset Group B haemolytic streptococcus infection (EOGBS) is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the first week of life. Primary prevention of EOGBS is possible with intra-partum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP.) Different prevention strategies are used internationally based on identifying pregnant women at risk, either by screening for GBS colonisation and/or by identifying risk factors for EOGBS in pregnancy or labour. A theoretical cost-effectiveness study has shown that a strategy with IAP based on five risk factors (risk-based strategy) or based on a positive screening test in combination with one or more risk factors (combination strategy) was the most cost-effective approach in the Netherlands. IAP for all pregnant women with a positive culture in pregnancy (screening strategy) and treatment in line with the current Dutch guideline (IAP after establishing a positive culture in case of pre-labour rupture of membranes or preterm birth and immediate IAP in case of intra-partum fever, previous sibling with EOGBS or GBS bacteriuria), were not cost-effective. Cost-effectiveness was based on the assumption of 100% adherence to each strategy. However, adherence in daily practice will be lower and therefore have an effect on cost-effectiveness. The aims are to: a.) implement the current Dutch guideline, the risk-based strategy and the combination strategy in three pilot regions and b.) study the effects of these strategies in daily practice. Regions where all the care providers in maternity care implement the allocated strategy will be randomised. Before the introduction of the strategy, there will be a pre-test (use of the current guideline) involving 105 pregnant women per region. This will be followed by a post-test (use of the allocated strategy) involving 315 women per region. The outcome measures are: 1.) adherence to the specific prevention strategy and the determinants of adherence among care providers and pregnant women, 2.) outcomes

  1. Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R)-dependent pathways control tumour growth and tumour response to chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Soraya I de; Andrade, Luciana NS; Onuchic, Ana C; Nonogaki, Sueli; Fernandes, Patrícia D; Pinheiro, Mônica C; Rohde, Ciro BS; Chammas, Roger; Jancar, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages induces a suppressor phenotype. Previous data from our group suggested that this occurs via Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R)-mediated pathways. In the present study, we investigated the impact of apoptotic cell inoculation or induction by a chemotherapeutic agent (dacarbazine, DTIC) on tumour growth, microenvironmental parameters and survival, and the effect of treatment with a PAF-R antagonist (WEB2170). These studies were performed in murine tumours: Ehrlich Ascitis Tumour (EAT) and B16F10 melanoma. Tumour growth was assessed by direct counting of EAT cells in the ascitis or by measuring the volume of the solid tumour. Parameters of the tumour microenvironment, such as the frequency of cells expressing cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), caspase-3 and galectin-3, and microvascular density, were determined by immunohistochemistry. Levels of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined by ELISA, and levels of nitric oxide (NO) by Griess reaction. PAF-R expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Inoculation of apoptotic cells before EAT implantation stimulated tumour growth. This effect was reversed by in vivo pre-treatment with WEB2170. This treatment also reduced tumour growth and modified the microenvironment by reducing PGE2, VEGF and NO production. In B16F10 melanoma, WEB2170 alone or in association with DTIC significantly reduced tumour volume. Survival of the tumour-bearing mice was not affected by WEB2170 treatment but was significantly improved by the combination of DTIC with WEB2170. Tumour microenvironment elements were among the targets of the combination therapy since the relative frequency of COX-2 and galectin-3 positive cells and the microvascular density within the tumour mass were significantly reduced by treatment with WEB2170 or DTIC alone or in combination. Antibodies to PAF-R stained the cells from inside the tumour, but not the

  2. The Solubility Parameters of Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The Hildebrand’s solubility parameters have been calculated for 18 ionic liquids from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. Retention data were used for the calculation. The solubility parameters are helpful for the prediction of the solubility in the binary solvent mixtures. From the solubility parameters, the standard enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated. PMID:20559495

  3. The Solubility Parameters of Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Marciniak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hildebrand’s solubility parameters have been calculated for 18 ionic liquids from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. Retention data were used for the calculation. The solubility parameters are helpful for the prediction of the solubility in the binary solvent mixtures. From the solubility parameters, the standard enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated.

  4. Solubility of Carbon in Nanocrystalline -Iron

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Kirchner; Bernd Kieback

    2012-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for nanocrystalline interstitial alloys is presented. The equilibrium solid solubility of carbon in -iron is calculated for given grain size. Inside the strained nanograins local variation of the carbon content is predicted. Due to the nonlinear relation between strain and solubility, the averaged solubility in the grain interior increases with decreasing grain size. The majority of the global solubility enhancement is due to grain boundary enrichment however. Therefor...

  5. Fatty degeneration in a Wilms' tumour after chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanes, A.C.; Beese, R.C.; McHugh, K.; Ramsay, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of extensive fatty change in a Wilms' tumour after chemotherapy demonstrated on CT associated with an increase in tumour volume, in a 10-month-old girl with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Changes in tumour characteristics after chemotherapy on imaging usually reflect necrosis, haemorrhage and calcification. Assessment of response to therapy is dependent on a documented reduction in tumour volume. In this case, CT showed an increase in tumour size with development of an extensive fatty component following treatment. Subsequent histological examination on the nephrectomy specimen confirmed an extensive fatty component with no evidence of residual blastema. The development of such an extensive fatty component is very unusual. In this case such fatty change was an indicator of tumour sensitivity and response to treatment. (orig.)

  6. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour of the Maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Sahai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old man was diagnosed with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla. He was treated with total maxillectomy. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a close resection margin. The tumour was of high grade with an MIB-1 labelling index of almost 60%. At six weeks following the surgery, he developed local tumour relapse. The patient succumbed to the disease at five months from the time of diagnosis. The present report underlines the locally aggressive nature of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla which necessitates an early therapeutic intervention. A complete resection with clear margins is the most important prognostic factor for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in the head and neck region. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered to improve the local control. Future research may demarcate the role of targeted therapy for patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour.

  7. The protein histidine phosphatase LHPP is a tumour suppressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindupur, Sravanth K; Colombi, Marco; Fuhs, Stephen R; Matter, Matthias S; Guri, Yakir; Adam, Kevin; Cornu, Marion; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Betz, Charles; Liko, Dritan; Quagliata, Luca; Moes, Suzette; Jenoe, Paul; Terracciano, Luigi M; Heim, Markus H; Hunter, Tony; Hall, Michael N

    2018-03-29

    Histidine phosphorylation, the so-called hidden phosphoproteome, is a poorly characterized post-translational modification of proteins. Here we describe a role of histidine phosphorylation in tumorigenesis. Proteomic analysis of 12 tumours from an mTOR-driven hepatocellular carcinoma mouse model revealed that NME1 and NME2, the only known mammalian histidine kinases, were upregulated. Conversely, expression of the putative histidine phosphatase LHPP was downregulated specifically in the tumours. We demonstrate that LHPP is indeed a protein histidine phosphatase. Consistent with these observations, global histidine phosphorylation was significantly upregulated in the liver tumours. Sustained, hepatic expression of LHPP in the hepatocellular carcinoma mouse model reduced tumour burden and prevented the loss of liver function. Finally, in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, low expression of LHPP correlated with increased tumour severity and reduced overall survival. Thus, LHPP is a protein histidine phosphatase and tumour suppressor, suggesting that deregulated histidine phosphorylation is oncogenic.

  8. Syndromes and constitutional chromosomal abnormalities associated with Wilms tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R H; Stiller, C A; Walker, L; Rahman, N

    2006-01-01

    Wilms tumour has been reported in association with over 50 different clinical conditions and several abnormal constitutional karyotypes. Conclusive evidence of an increased risk of Wilms tumour exists for only a minority of these conditions, including WT1 associated syndromes, familial Wilms tumour, and certain overgrowth conditions such as Beckwith‐Wiedemann syndrome. In many reported conditions the rare co‐occurrence of Wilms tumour is probably due to chance. However, for several conditions the available evidence cannot either confirm or exclude an increased risk, usually because of the rarity of the syndrome. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that an increased risk of Wilms tumour occurs only in a subset of individuals for some syndromes. The complex clinical and molecular heterogeneity of disorders associated with Wilms tumour, together with the apparent absence of functional links between most of the known predisposition genes, suggests that abrogation of a variety of pathways can promote Wilms tumorigenesis. PMID:16690728

  9. Delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in tumour cell-derived microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ke; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Huafeng; Xu, Pingwei; Liu, Jing; Ma, Jingwei; Lv, Meng; Li, Dapeng; Katirai, Foad; Shen, Guan-Xin; Zhang, Guimei; Feng, Zuo-Hua; Ye, Duyun; Huang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Cellular microparticles are vesicular plasma membrane fragments with a diameter of 100-1,000 nanometres that are shed by cells in response to various physiological and artificial stimuli. Here we demonstrate that tumour cell-derived microparticles can be used as vectors to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs. We show that tumour cells incubated with chemotherapeutic drugs package these drugs into microparticles, which can be collected and used to effectively kill tumour cells in murine tumour models without typical side effects. We describe several mechanisms involved in this process, including uptake of drug-containing microparticles by tumour cells, synthesis of additional drug-packaging microparticles by these cells that contribute to the cytotoxic effect and the inhibition of drug efflux from tumour cells. This study highlights a novel drug delivery strategy with potential clinical application.

  10. Imaging and compartmental classification of solid pelvic tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugosson, C.; Nyman, R.; Jacobsson, B.; Jorulf, H.; McDonald, P.; Sackey, K.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-five children aged from 1 day to 16 years (median 5 years) with solid pelvic tumours were investigated with US, CT and MR. All three methods gave similar estimates of tumour size. For defining location of the tumours, the pelvis was divided into three midline compartments (anterior, middle and posterior) and a right and left lateral compartment. CT and MR were accurate and equally reliable in determining the tumour location, US was less accurate. Evaluation of confinement to organ of origin was uncertain, regardless of imaging modality. Tissue characteristics with CT and MR did not contribute to the differentiation of the various tumour types, and contrast medium enhancement did not improve the discrimination. Compartmental localization was equally well assessed by CT and MR and, together with sex, was found to correlate with the tumour type. (orig.). With 7 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Tumour-induced osteomalacia: An emergent paraneoplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Guillermo; Varsavsky, Mariela

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes are distant manifestations of some tumours. An uncommon but increasingly reported form is tumour-induced osteomalacia, a hypophosphatemic disorder associated to fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) secretion by tumours. The main biochemical manifestations of this disorder include hypophosphatemia, inappropriately low or normal tubular reabsorption of phosphate, low serum calcitriol levels, increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels, and elevated or normal serum FGF-23 levels. These tumours, usually small, benign, slow growing and difficult to discover, are mainly localized in soft tissues of the limbs. Histologically, phosphaturic mesenchymal tumours of the mixed connective tissue type are most common. Various imaging techniques have been suggested with variable results. Treatment of choice is total surgical resection of the tumour. Medical treatment includes oral phosphorus and calcitriol supplements, octreotide, cinacalcet, and monoclonal antibodies. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G for distinguishing malignant ascites from benign ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Juan; Chang, Yan-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yan

    2017-11-01

    The overexpression of soluble human leukocyte antigen-G is associated with malignant tumours. The purpose of our study was to detect soluble human leukocyte antigen-G concentrations in ascites and to evaluate the value of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G for the diagnosis of malignant ascites. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect soluble human leukocyte antigen-G levels in 64 patients with malignant ascites and 30 patients with benign ascites. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G for the detection of malignant ascites. Ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G levels were significantly higher in the malignant ascites group than in the benign ascites group (20.718 ± 3.215 versus 12.467 ± 3.678 µg/L, t = 7.425, p human leukocyte antigen-G was 0.957 (95% confidence interval, 0.872-0.992). At a cut-off value of 19.60 µg/L, the sensitivity and specificity of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G were 87.5% (95% confidence interval, 71.0%-96.5%) and 100% (95% confidence interval, 88.4%-100%), respectively. With respect to area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity and specificity, ascitic carcinoembryonic antigen (0.810, 68.75% and 83.33%, respectively) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (0.710, 65.63% and 70%, respectively) significantly differed (all p human leukocyte antigen-G was 75%, which was higher than the corresponding rates for ascitic carcinoembryonic antigen (31.25%) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (6.25%; both p human leukocyte antigen-G exhibited good performance for diagnosing malignant ascites, and particularly those that were cytology-negative and biopsy-positive.

  13. Malignant tumours of the oral cavity and oropharynx: staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssefzadeh, S.; Pamberger, P.; Baumgartner, W.; Burian, M.; Becherer, A.; Wachter, S.

    1999-01-01

    Staging of malignant tumours of the oral cavity and the oropharynx not only requires far more than a basic knowledge of anatomy and the usual pathways of spread, but also a broad understanding of the diagnostic benefits of current imaging modalities. As radiology should never try to replace histology, the main aim should be precise prediction of tumour margins and differention of tumour from edema and posttherapeutic changes. Only then will imaging studies have a significant clinical impact. (orig.) [de

  14. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour of breast

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhwan, S M; Kenneth, V K T; Seoparjoo, A; Zin, A A M

    2013-01-01

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma belongs to the Ewing's family of tumours. Primary tumours arising from breast are very rare. There are only a few case reports published on primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma and PNET arising from breast. We present an extremely rare case of an inoperable primary Ewing's sarcoma arising from left breast with contralateral breast, lymphatic and lung metastasis.

  15. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour of breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhwan, S M; Kenneth, V K T; Seoparjoo, A; Zin, A A M

    2013-06-21

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma belongs to the Ewing's family of tumours. Primary tumours arising from breast are very rare. There are only a few case reports published on primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma and PNET arising from breast. We present an extremely rare case of an inoperable primary Ewing's sarcoma arising from left breast with contralateral breast, lymphatic and lung metastasis.

  16. 3D Multiscale Modelling of Angiogenesis and Vascular Tumour Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Perfahl, H.

    2012-11-01

    We present a three-dimensional, multiscale model of vascular tumour growth, which couples nutrient/growth factor transport, blood flow, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, movement of and interactions between normal and tumour cells, and nutrient-dependent cell cycle dynamics within each cell. We present computational simulations which show how a vascular network may evolve and interact with tumour and healthy cells. We also demonstrate how our model may be combined with experimental data, to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of a vascular tumour.

  17. Automatic tumour volume delineation in respiratory-gated PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubbi, Jayavardhana; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Kanakatte, Aparna; Mani, Nallasamy; Kron, Tomas; Binns, David; Srinivasan, Bala

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a state-of-the-art functional imaging technique used in the accurate detection of cancer. The main problem with the tumours present in the lungs is that they are non-stationary during each respiratory cycle. Tumours in the lungs can get displaced up to 2.5 cm during respiration. Accurate detection of the tumour enables avoiding the addition of extra margin around the tumour that is usually used during radiotherapy treatment planning. This paper presents a novel method to detect and track tumour in respiratory-gated PET images. The approach followed to achieve this task is to automatically delineate the tumour from the first frame using support vector machines. The resulting volume and position information from the first frame is used in tracking its motion in the subsequent frames with the help of level set (LS) deformable model. An excellent accuracy of 97% is obtained using wavelets and support vector machines. The volume calculated as a result of the machine learning (ML) stage is used as a constraint for deformable models and the tumour is tracked in the remaining seven phases of the respiratory cycle. As a result, the complete information about tumour movement during each respiratory cycle is available in relatively short time. The combination of the LS and ML approach accurately delineated the tumour volume from all frames, thereby providing a scope of using PET images towards planning an accurate and effective radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer.

  18. 3D Multiscale Modelling of Angiogenesis and Vascular Tumour Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Perfahl, H.; Byrne, H. M.; Chen, T.; Estrella, V.; Alarcó n, T.; Lapin, A.; Gatenby, R. A.; Gillies, R. J.; Lloyd, M. C.; Maini, P. K.; Reuss, M.; Owen, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional, multiscale model of vascular tumour growth, which couples nutrient/growth factor transport, blood flow, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, movement of and interactions between normal and tumour cells, and nutrient-dependent cell cycle dynamics within each cell. We present computational simulations which show how a vascular network may evolve and interact with tumour and healthy cells. We also demonstrate how our model may be combined with experimental data, to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of a vascular tumour.

  19. Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumour: Anaplastic Variant with Omental Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anuradha C.K.; Monappa, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumour (JGCT) of ovary represents a small fraction of all primary ovarian malignancies. It is a subtype of granulosa cell tumour that is almost always found during the first three decades of life. Histologically, it differs from the typical adult type of granulosa cell tumour. It accounts for 5-15% of all granulosa cell tumours, majority being unilateral. Herein, we describe an unusual histopathological variant of JGCT with numerous large cystic spaces, anaplasia and focal syncytiotrophoblast like giant cells. PMID:27042471

  20. Life history, immunity, Peto's paradox and tumours in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Erritzøe, J; Soler, J J

    2017-05-01

    Cancer and tumours may evolve in response to life-history trade-offs between growth and duration of development on one hand, and between growth and maintenance of immune function on the other. Here, we tested whether (i) bird species with slow developmental rates for their body size experience low incidence of tumours because slow development allows for detection of rapid proliferation of cell lineages. We also test whether (ii) species with stronger immune response during development are more efficient at detecting tumour cells and hence suffer lower incidence of tumours. Finally, we tested Peto's paradox, that there is a positive relationship between tumour incidence and body mass. We used information on developmental rates and body mass from the literature and of tumour incidence (8468 birds) and size of the bursa of Fabricius for 7659 birds brought to a taxidermist in Denmark. We found evidence of the expected negative relationship between incidence of tumours and developmental rates and immunity after controlling for the positive association between tumour incidence and body size. These results suggest that evolution has modified the incidence of tumours in response to life history and that Peto's paradox may be explained by covariation between body mass, developmental rates and immunity. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  2. Tumours of the head and neck induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daal, W.A.J. van.

    1979-01-01

    Reference is made to the cases of two patients who between 20 and 45 years after irradiation for tuberculous lymphomas in the neck developed malignant and benign tumours in the skin, the thyroid and the larynx-hypopharynx. The literature on induction of tumours by ionizing radiation is reviewed. So far, only one patient has been described in whome tumours in three organs may have been induced by irradiation. In the course of the examination of patients who have been irradiated for benign conditions, the possibility of tumours developing in several organs should be kept in mind. (Auth.)

  3. The feasibility of a brain tumour website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, K; Jakobsen, J; Juhler, M

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with a high-grade glioma (HGG) and their caregivers have imminent and changing informational and supportive care needs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of a Danish brain tumour website (BTW) in patients with HGG and their caregivers. We...... one overarching theme 'challenges and barriers'. Being newly diagnosed, patients described a chaotic and overwhelming life situation and had difficulties in identifying with their new and changed role. When using the BTW, some patients and caregivers experienced technological challenges, while...

  4. Bone tumours in children and juveniles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, P.

    1978-01-01

    The auther stresses the importance 1) of clinical data (e.g. age of the patient, localisation of the lesion, type and duration of the symptoms), 2) of radiographic findings and 3) of anatomicopathological changes which must all be taken into account especially in the judgment of bone tumours. Radiographic examination is of importance here also as a morphological method as it gives a picture of the 'mosaic' of a bone change. Biopsy material alone may contain only isolated parts with ambiguous histological findings, so that the true nature of the bone lesion can only be recognized by comparsion with the X-ray findings. (orig.) [de

  5. Impact of F DOPA-PET on therapeutic decision in endocrine tumours: digestive tumours, medullary thyroid cancer or pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montravers, F.; Grahek, D.; Kerrou, K.; Gutman, F.; Beco, V. de; Nataf, V.; Balard, M.; Talbot, J.N.

    2006-01-01

    FDOPA-PET has been proposed for a decade in oncology, in particular in endocrine tumours. To the best of our knowledge, only one impact rate has been reported: 31% in 17 patients with digestive carcinoid tumours. We did a questionnaire survey to evaluate this impact reported by the referring clinician in 87 patients who had FDOPA PET due to digestive carcinoid tumour or another type of digestive endocrine tumour or a medullary thyroid cancer or a pheochromocytoma. The response rate to the survey was 87%. The overall impact of FDOPA PET on patient's management was 36%. Its value was greater for digestive carcinoid tumour and for medullary thyroid cancer; the number of patients with pheochromocytoma is still limited. In the other digestive endocrine tumours, a change in patient management was less frequent and FDOPA PET should be performed when the other examinations are inconclusive. (author)

  6. Gene expression of circulating tumour cells and its correlation with tumour stage in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bölke E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BC represents one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths worldwide. New tools for diagnostic staging and therapeutic monitoring are needed to improve individualized therapies and improve clinical outcome. The analyses of circulating tumour cells may provide important prognostic information in the clinical setting. Materials and methods Circulating tumour cells (CTC of 63 BC patients were isolated from peripheral blood (PB through immunomagnetic separation. Subsequently, RT-PCR or mPCR for the genes ga733.2, muc-1, c-erbB2, mgb-1, spdef and c-erbB2 were performed. Subsequently, expression data were correlated with the tumour stages. Fourteen healthy individuals served as controls. Results Significant correlations with tumour stages were found in single gene analyses of ga733.2, muc-1 and in multi-gene analyses of ga733.2/muc-1/mgb1/spdef. Furthermore, a significant correlation of Ca 15-3 and all studied genes was also observed. Conclusion Herein, we demonstrated a positive correlation of a gene signature consisting of ga733.2, muc-1, mgb1 and spdef and advanced stages of BC. Moreover, all studied genes and gene patterns revealed a significant correlation with Ca 15-3 positive cases.

  7. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney with vena caval and atrial tumour thrombus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Poh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumour is an extremely rare malignancy. Case presentation A 21-year-old woman presented with microscopic haematuria, a palpable right loin mass, dyspnoea, dizziness and fatigue. Initial ultrasound scan of the kidneys revealed an 11 cm right renal mass with venous extension into the inferior vena cava. Computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen revealed an extension of the large renal mass into the right renal vein, inferior vena cava and up to the right atrium. A small paracaval lymph node was noted and three small metastatic nodules were identified within the lung parenchyma. The patient underwent a radical nephrectomy and inferior vena caval tumour (level IV thrombectomy with cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Immunohistochemical staining of the specimen showed a highly specific cluster of differentiation (CD 99, thus confirming the diagnosis of a primitive neuroectodermal tumour. Conclusion It is important that a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumour be considered, particularly in young patients with a renal mass and extensive thrombus.

  8. HAEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF THE NEWBORN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Addington Children's Hospital, Durban. In 1951, the Director of the ... 10 assess, since the number of cases diagnosed in these districts is ... Rhesus antibodies develop admission to hospital is advised in the 38th ... laboratory the newborn infant is subjected to a careful ..... is now gross mental defect and blindness. A happy.

  9. [Transitional tumours of urinary bladder (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumonier, R

    1979-01-01

    An overall survey of the transitional epithelium of the bladder and its carcinomas. This study is based upon the recent literature, in particular the considerable contribution of scanner electron microscopy. a) The transitional epithelium has the reputation of having a simple structure and even behaviour. In fact, it is complex with highly specialised surface cells. It has marked powers of regeneration after aggressions of various types. b) Tumours of the transitional epithelium are defined in relation to rupture of the basal lamina. Invasive carcinomas are classified according to their histological stage of penetration, their pure or partially metaplasic type and their degree defined according to the criteria of Broders. There exists a correlation between these three types of evaluation. Non-invasive carcinomas are either papillary--putting into question the reality of benign bladder papilloma--or flat mucosal and then often associated closely or at a distance with an invasive carcinoma. c) Abnormal regeneration, dysplasia or hyperplasia as a result of aggressions of different types or developing in isolation represent a high risk histologically, implying the need for careful follow-up and surveillance. d) Histopathological study of urothelial or transitional tumours is simple in operative specimens but difficult in biopsies. It requires close cooperation between surgeons and pathologists to ensure correct orientation of the fragments.

  10. Osteopenia in children surviving brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitton, A.C.; Eves, M. [Children' s Hospital at Chedoke-McMaster, Room 3N27B, Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Hay, J. [Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario (Canada); Gill, G.J.; Webber, C.E. [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University (Canada); Simpson, T. [Hamilton Regional Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Barr, R.D. [Children' s Hospital at Chedoke-McMaster, Room 3N27B, Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    Osteopenia has been reported in children surviving acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, apparently as a consequence of therapy. It has been suggested that cranial irradiation may play a crucial role in this disorder. To explore that possibility, survivors of brain tumours in childhood, all of whom had received radiotherapy, were examined for evidence of bone mineral loss. 19 children were assessed, on average at 7 years after treatment. Measurements of growth velocities, plain radiography of the skeleton, bone densitometry, health-related quality of life and physical activity were undertaken. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency had been detected in 6 children and 5 had received GH replacement, for a minimum of more than 3 years. 9 children were radiographically osteopenic (including the 5 who had received GH). Z scores for bone mineral density (BMD) were negative in the majority of children. Health-related quality of life was less and pain more frequent in those with low BMD scores. Pain was correlated negatively with both free-time activity and seasonal activity (P<0.01). Osteopenia is a common sequel of therapy in children with brain tumours. Those with osteopenia have more pain and more compromised, health-related quality of life than those who are not osteopenic, and pain significantly limits physical activity. The pathogenesis of osteopenia in these children is still uncertain, but is likely to be multifactorial. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. MRI of intracranial germ-cell tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, L.; Korogi, Y.; Sugahara, T.; Ikushima, I.; Shigematsu, Y.; Okuda, T.; Takahashi, M.; Kochi, M.; Ushio, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. Our aim was to review the MRI appearances of primary intracranial germ-cell tumours (GCT). We reviewed the MRI studies of 32 patients: 19 with germinomas, five with teratomas, one with an embryonal carcinoma, five with mixed and two with malignant nongerminomatous GCT. Eleven were in the pineal region, 12 suprasellar, five in the both sites, two in the basal ganglia and two in the corpus callosum. Contrast-enhanced images were available for 27 patients. The solid parts of GCT were nearly isointense with grey matter on both T1- and T2-weighted images. In seven patients with nongerminomatous GCT high-signal components were found on T1-weighted images, representing haemorrhage, high-protein fluid or fat. Cystic components were detected in 17 of 27 patients; eight germinomas and all nine nongerminomatous GCT had cysts. The solid components of germinomas enhanced homogeneously in eight cases and heterogeneously in 10, while all nongerminomatous GCT showed heterogeneous enhancement. MRI features tumours can facilitate correct diagnosis of GCT, including histological subtypes. (orig.)

  12. Carcinogenicity/tumour promotion by NDL PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrenk, D. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) belong to the group of persistent environmental pollutants exhibiting neurotoxic, teratogenic and tumour-promoting effects in experimental animal models. PCB congeners can be divided into 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners on the basis of their ability to act as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Like the most toxic dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 'dioxinlike' PCBs bind to the AhR and show characteristic effects on the expression of AhR-regulated genes including the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1. On the other hand, 'non-dioxinlike' PCB congeners have a lower or no binding affinity to the AhR, but exhibit a 'phenobarbital-type' induction of CYP 2B1/2 activity. A carcinogenic potential of PCBs has been demonstrated with technical mixtures such as Aroclors or Clophens. In these studies the liver and the thyroid gland were found to be the principal target organs of PCB-mediated carcinogenesis in rodents. No studies have been published, however, on the carcinogenicity of individual congeners. In two-stage initiation-promotion protocols in rats, both technical mixtures and individual 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners were reported to act as liver tumour promoters.

  13. Computer assisted diagnosis of benign bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samardziski, M.; Zafiroski, G.; Janevska, V.; Miladinova, D.; Popeska, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to determine the correlation between computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) of benign bone tumours (BBT) and their histological type. Patients and method. Altogether 120 patients were included in two groups. The retrospective group comprised 68 patients in whom the histological type of BBT was known prior to computer analysis. The prospective group comprised 52 patients in whom the histological type of BBT was unknown prior to computer analysis. Computer program was efficient and easy to use. Results. Average percent of histological type confirmed with CAD in the retrospective and prospective groups was 72.06% and 76.92%, respectively. Histological confirmation of CAD in specific BBT was 91.42% for enchondroma, 96.15% for osteoid-osteoma, and 98.08% for osteochondroma. Significantly lower percentage of CAD confirmation of fibroma, chondromixoid fibroma, osteoclastoma, desmoplastic fibroma and osteobalstoma due to their adverse biological character or complex anatomic localization is understandable. Conclusions. The results speak in favour of the assumption that computer assisted diagnosis of bone tumours program may improve the diagnostic accuracy of the examiner. (author)

  14. Alterations of monocarboxylate transporter densities during hypoxia in brain and breast tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chang; Edin, Nina F Jeppesen; Lauritzen, Knut H

    2012-01-01

    Tumour cells are characterized by aerobic glycolysis, which provides biomass for tumour proliferation and leads to extracellular acidification through efflux of lactate via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Deficient and spasm-prone tumour vasculature causes variable hypoxia, which favours...

  15. Predictive model for functional consequences of oral cavity tumour resections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, M.J.A.; Hageman, T.A.G.; Hageman, Tijmen Antoon Geert; Smeele, L.E.; Balm, Alfonsus Jacobus Maria; Balm, A.J.M.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Lemke, H.U.

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of functional consequences after treatment of large oral cavity tumours is mainly based on the size and location of the tumour. However, patient specific factors play an important role in the functional outcome, making the current predictions unreliable and subjective. An objective

  16. A short history of neuroendocrine tumours and their peptide hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Herder, Wouter W; Rehfeld, Jens F; Kidd, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas started in 1870, when Rudolf Heidenhain discovered the neuroendocrine cells, which can lead to the development of these tumours. Siegfried Oberndorfer was the first to introduce the term carcinoid in 1907. The panc...

  17. Clinicopathological features of liver tumours: a ten-year study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahir, S.T.; Aalipour, E.

    2015-01-01

    Various diseases affect the liver, among them, malignant and benign tumours with hepatic nodules are the most important. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological findings related to hepatic tumours and nodules. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out during November 2014 to August 2015 by reviewing the hospital medical records of 164 registered patients with liver biopsies referred to Shahid Sadoughi educational General Hospital, Yazd, Iran, between 2004 and 2014. The samples were selected through the census method. Age, gender, clinical symptoms, initial clinical diagnosis, pathology reports and ultrasound results were considered as variables. Data were analysed by using SPSS-17. Results: There were 87 (53%) men and 77 (47%) women. The mean ages of presentation for malignant and benign tumours were 57.9 ±17.2 and 44.9±19.4 years, respectively. Seventy benign tumours and 147 malignant tumours were recorded. The most frequent chief complaint was abdominal pain (54.9%) in both malignant (56.50%) and benign tumours (41.20%). Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hemangioma were the most prevalent malignant and benign hepatic tumours, respectively. In our study, correlation between pathology reports and primary diagnoses was 40.9%, and a significant relationship was found between sonography and pathological findings (p=0.038). Conclusions: We found that only when primary clinical diagnosis and sonography were in favour of malignancy, they were correlated with pathology results. Clinicopathological assessments can help physicians in their diagnosis in order to facilitate the management of hepatic tumours. (author)

  18. Fancf-deficient mice are prone to develop ovarian tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, S.T.; van der Vrugt, H.J.; Visser, J.A.; Delzenne-Goette, E.; van der Wal, A.; Berns, M.A.D.; van de Ven, M.; Oostra, A.B.; de Vries, S.; Kramer, P.; Arwert, F.; van de Valk, M; de Winter, J.P.; te Riele, H.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare recessive disorder marked by developmental abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and a high risk for the development of leukaemia and solid tumours. The inactivation of FA genes, in particular FANCF, has also been documented in sporadic tumours in non-FA patients. To

  19. Incidence of Brain Tumours at an Academic Centre in Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the incidence of brain tumours at King AbdulAziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, over eight year period. Design: Retrospective study. Sitting: King Abdul Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah Saudi Arabia. Subjects: Patients with intracranial tumours. Results: The overall average ...

  20. Anthropogenic selection enhances cancer evolution in Tasmanian devil tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Swift, Kate; Hodson, Pamela; Hua, Bobby; Pyecroft, Stephen; Taylor, Robyn; Hamede, Rodrigo; Jones, Menna; Belov, Katherine; Madsen, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    The Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) provides a unique opportunity to elucidate the long-term effects of natural and anthropogenic selection on cancer evolution. Since first observed in 1996, this transmissible cancer has caused local population declines by >90%. So far, four chromosomal DFTD variants (strains) have been described and karyotypic analyses of 253 tumours showed higher levels of tetraploidy in the oldest strain. We propose that increased ploidy in the oldest strain may have evolved in response to effects of genomic decay observed in asexually reproducing organisms. In this study, we focus on the evolutionary response of DFTD to a disease suppression trial. Tumours collected from devils subjected to the removal programme showed accelerated temporal evolution of tetraploidy compared with tumours from other populations where no increase in tetraploid tumours were observed. As ploidy significantly reduces tumour growth rate, we suggest that the disease suppression trial resulted in selection favouring slower growing tumours mediated by an increased level of tetraploidy. Our study reveals that DFTD has the capacity to rapidly respond to novel selective regimes and that disease eradication may result in novel tumour adaptations, which may further imperil the long-term survival of the world's largest carnivorous marsupial.

  1. Surgical Considerations in the Management of Tumours of the Nose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Tumours of the nose and paranasal sinuses in sub-Saharan Africa are generally characterised by late presentation posing management challenges to the otorhinolaryngologists in the sub-region. OBJECTIVES: To appraise surgical considerations in the management of tumours of the nose and paranasal ...

  2. GRANULAR CELL TUMOUR OF THE LARYNX – A CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... cell tumour involving the right vocal cord diagnosed after direct laryngoscopy and biopsy. She was treated ... She had no associated weight loss, dysphagia, odynophagia or dyspnoea. She occasionally took ... A provisional diagnosis of a right vocal cord tumour was made and patient worked up for direct.

  3. Breast tumours of adolescents in an African population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umanah Ivy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumours of the breast are uncommon in childhood and adolescence. Patients in this age group often require a different approach to diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this study is to highlight the clinicopathologic features of breast tumours in adolescents in a Nigerian city. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four breast tumour materials from patients aged 10-19 years were analyzed over a 10-year period at the Department of Pathology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH, Benin City, Edo State, Benin City, Nigeria. Results: A majority of the breast tumours were benign. Fibroadenoma was the most common tumour with 46 cases (54.8%, followed by fibrocystic changes with 15 cases (17%. Malignancy was extremely rare in this group, with only one case (1.2% of an invasive ductal carcinoma. Histologically, most tumours were indistinguishable from the adult types. Conclusion: Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumour in adolescents in Benin City, Nigeria. Breast cancer and male breast tumours are rare in this age group. Routine complete physical examination of children and adolescents should include breast examination.

  4. The potential role of podoplanin in tumour invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicki, A; Christofori, G

    2006-01-01

    Podoplanin is a small mucin-like transmembrane protein, widely expressed in various specialised cell types throughout the body. Here, we revisit the mechanism of podoplanin-mediated tumour invasion. We compare molecular pathways leading to single and collective cell invasion and discuss novel distinct concepts of tumour cell invasion. PMID:17179989

  5. Childhood vascular Tumours in Benin City, Nigeria | Igbe | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Biomedical Sciences ... The patterns of these tumours in Benin City, however, are not known. ... This comprised 71 benign cases (56 haemangiomas, 15 lymphangiomas), 7 tumours of intermediate grade (5 haemangioendodethelioma and 2 haemangiopericytoma) and 4 malignant cases (Kaposi sarcoma).

  6. RESEARCH Osteosarcoma presentation stages at a tumour unit in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant primary bone tumour in children and ... in treatment, the diagnosis must be made prior to progression beyond localised .... Typical radiographic findings of an aggressive bone-forming tumour ... however, can often be overlooked or mistaken for benign lesions.12. Table 1. Patient ...

  7. Relationship between tumour size and response to neoadjuvant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-16

    Mar 16, 2018 ... Introduction. Efforts to improve response of breast tumours to chemotherapy and maximize the benefit-to-adverse events ratio of chemotherapy include molecular subtyping to classify tumours, combined and cyclical use of chemotherapy and surgical de-bulking to stimulate proliferation. Molecular ...

  8. Tumour therapy with radionuclides: assessment of progress and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Joergen; Forssell Aronsson, Eva; Hietala, Sven-Ola; Stigbrand, Torgny; Tennvall, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy is a promising modality for treatment of tumours of haematopoietic origin while the success for treatment of solid tumours so far has been limited. The authors consider radionuclide therapy mainly as a method to eradicate disseminated tumour cells and small metastases while bulky tumours and large metastases have to be treated surgically or by external radiation therapy. The promising therapeutic results for haematological tumours give hope that radionuclide therapy will have a breakthrough also for treatment of disseminated cells from solid tumours. New knowledge related to this is continuously emerging since new molecular target structures are being characterised and the knowledge on pharmacokinetics and cellular processing of different types of targeting agents increases. There is also improved understanding of the factors of importance for the choice of appropriate radionuclides with respect to their decay properties and the therapeutic applications. Furthermore, new methods to modify the uptake of radionuclides in tumour cells and normal tissues are emerging. However, we still need improvements regarding dosimetry and treatment planning as well as an increased knowledge about the tolerance doses for normal tissues and the radiobiological effects on tumour cells. This is especially important in targeted radionuclide therapy where the dose rates often are lower than 1 Gy/h

  9. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF TUMOUR MARKERS: A REvIEw

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... for use in treatment monitoring of colorectal, hepatocellular, prostatic, ovarian and pancreatic carcinomas ... for cancer in the clinical setting (1,3-6). Primary ... presentation is one of the determinants of prognosis in cancer. If a tumour marker concentration is related to the tumour size then it may be useful for.

  10. Neurohypophysis granular cell tumours. Upon neurohypophysis rare tumours; Les tumeurs a cellules granuleuses. Des tumeurs rares de la neurohypophyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrande, G.; Kujas, M.; Gancel, A.; Turpin, G.; Bruckert, E.; Kuhn, J.M.; Luton, J.P. [Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France)

    1995-10-01

    Granular cell tumours of neurohypophysis are rare. These tumours are more often encountered as incidental autopsy findings seen in up to 17 % of unselected adult autopsy cases. There are few reports of para-sellar granular cell tumours large enough to cause symptoms. We present three cases of neurohypophysis granular cell tumour and a review of the literature. In one patient, the asymptomatic granular cell tumour was incidentally discovered at surgical removal of a corticotrophic micro-adenoma. The remaining 2 patients had a symptomatic tumour which caused neurological symptoms such as visual disturbance and headaches and endocrine disorders such as hypopituitarism or hyper-prolactinaemia. In these 2 cases, computerized tomography showed a well-circumscribed, contrast-enhanced, intra-sellar and supra-sellar mass. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an isointense gadolinium-enhanced mass in T1-weighted-images. Trans-sphenoidal partial resection was performed and histology was interpreted as a granular cell tumour. The immunohistochemical study was positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GEAP) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) in 1 of the 2 tumours and positive for S100 protein and vimentin in both tumours but negative for CD68. The histogenesis of neurohypophysis granular cell tumours is still controversial but ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies support the theory that may arise from pituicytes, the glial cells of neurohypophysis. Management of these benign, slow growing, tumours is based mainly on neurosurgical resection. Data from the literature do not support a beneficial effect of post operative radiation therapy on postoperative recurrences. (authors). 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Genomic instability: potential contributions to tumour and normal tissue response, and second tumours, after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, Jolyon H.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Induced genomic instability generally refers to a type of damage which is transmissible down cell generations, and which results in a persistently enhanced frequency of de novo mutations, chromosomal abnormalities or lethality in a significant fraction of the descendant cell population. The potential contribution of induced genomic instability to tumour and normal tissue response, and second tumours, after radiotherapy, is explored. Results: The phenomenon of spontaneous genomic instability is well known in some rare genetic diseases (e.g. Gorlin's syndrome), and there is evidence in such cases that it can lead to a greater propensity for carcinogenesis (with shortened latency) which is enhanced after irradiation. It is unclear what role induced genomic instability plays in the response of normal individuals, but persistent chromosomal instability has been detected in vivo in lymphocytes and keratinocytes from irradiated normal individuals. Such induced genomic instability might play some role in tumour response in a subset of tumours with specific defects in damage response genes, but again its contribution to radiocurability in the majority of cancer patients is unclear. In normal tissues, genomic instability induced in wild-type cells leading to delayed cell death might contribute to more severe or prolonged early reactions as a consequence of increased cell loss, a longer time required for recovery, and greater residual injury. In tumours, induced genomic instability reflected in delayed reductions in clonogenic capacity might contribute to the radiosensitivity of primary tumours, and also to a lower incidence, longer latency and slower growth rate of recurrences and metastases. Conclusions: The evidence which is reviewed shows that there is little information at present to support these propositions, but what exists is consistent with their expectations. Also, it is not yet clear to what extent mutations associated with genomic instability

  12. Giant Cell Tumour of the Distal Ulna: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Jaya Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Giant-cell tumour (GCT of bone, a primary yet locally aggressive benign tumour, commonly affects patients between the ages of 20 and 40 years, with the peak incidence occurring in the third decade. Women are affected slightly more than men. The distal end of the ulna is an extremely uncommon site for primary bone tumours in general and giant cell tumours in particular. Wide resection of the distal ulna is the recommended treatment for GCT in such locations. Radio-ulna convergence and dorsal displacement of the ulna stump are known complications following ulna resection proximal to the insertion of the pronator quadratus. This leads to reduction in grip power and forearm rotatory motion. Stabilization of the ulna stump with extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU tendon after wide resection of the tumour has been described in the literature. We report a case of GCT of distal end of ulna treated with wide resection and stabilization with ECU tendon.

  13. Monoclonal antibodies for radioimmunodetection of tumours and for targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, R.W.; Embleton, M.J.; Pimm, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody 791T/36 prepared against human osteogenic sarcoma has been used to detect primary and metastatic colorectal carcinomas by external imaging of patients following injection of 131 I-labelled antibody. In 10 of 11 patients radiolabelled 791T/36 antibody localized in tumours, the tumour/non tumour ratio of radioactivity ranging from 1.5:1 to 8.1. 791T/36 antibody was also evaluated for its potential for targeting anti-tumour agents including cytotoxic drugs (Vindesine) and immunomodulating agents (interferon). Vindesine-791T/36 conjugates were preferentially cytotoxic in vitro for target cells expressing the 791T/36 anti-body defined antigen. Also interferon conjugated to 791T/36 antibody, like free interferon activated peripheral blood natural killer cell activity. These in vitro tests together with related studies on antibody localization in vivo indicate the potential of monoclonal antibody targeting of anti-tumour agents

  14. Endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy for odontogenic cysts and tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tsugihama; Otori, Nobuyoshi; Asaka, Daiya; Okushi, Tetsushi; Haruna, Shin-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Odontogenic maxillary cysts and tumours originate from the tooth root and have traditionally been treated through an intraoral approach. Here, we report the efficacy and utility of endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy (EMMM) for the treatment of odontogenic maxillary cysts and a tumour. We undertook EMMM under general anaesthesia in six patients: four had radicular cysts, one had a dentigerous cyst, and one had a keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The cysts and tumours were completely excised and the inferior turbinate and nasolacrimal duct were preserved in all patients. There were no peri- or postoperative complications, and no incidences of recurrence. Endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy appears to be an effective and safe technique for treating odontogenic cysts and tumours.

  15. Tumour model with intrusive morphology, progressive phenotypical heterogeneity and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon; Alqahtani, Rubayyi T.

    2018-03-01

    The model of a tumour, taking into account invasive morphology, progressive phenotypical heterogeneity and also memory, is developed and analyzed in this paper. Three models are investigated: first we consider the model describing the proliferation concentrates in proximity of tumour boundaries, in which the oxygen levels are pronounced. Then we consider the model where the oxygen around the tumour is considered to be unchanged by the vascular system. Finally, we investigate the model of growth of tumours using the concept of non-local operators with the Mittag-Leffler kernel. We provide the numerical solution using the extended 3/8 Simpson method for the new trends of fractional integration for the proliferation concentrates in the proximity of the tumour model. Then we provide the exact solutions of the Gompertz model with three different fractional differentiations involving power law, exponential decay law and the Mittag-Leffler law.

  16. Approaches to the management of antenatally diagnosed congenital tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahony, Rhona; McParland, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Congenital fetal tumours are rare, but current imaging modalities including US and MRI facilitate antenatal diagnosis and investigation, allowing a presumptive diagnosis and management strategy. Although the prevalence of fetal tumours is difficult to ascertain, an incidence of 7.2 per 100,000 live births has previously been reported, with the incidence of neonatal malignancy estimated at 36.5 per million births. Teratomas and neuroblastomas are the most common solid tumours described. Tumours may be very large or associated with severe hydrops leading to significant dystocia with the potential for difficult vaginal or caesarean delivery. Once the diagnosis of a fetal tumour is made, optimal management incorporates a multidisciplinary approach including obstetrician, neonatologist, paediatric surgeon and paediatric oncologist so that counselling is appropriate and a clear management plan is in place for parents. (orig.)

  17. Approaches to the management of antenatally diagnosed congenital tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, Rhona; McParland, Peter [National Maternity Hospital, Department of Fetal and Maternal Medicine, Dublin (Ireland)

    2009-11-15

    Congenital fetal tumours are rare, but current imaging modalities including US and MRI facilitate antenatal diagnosis and investigation, allowing a presumptive diagnosis and management strategy. Although the prevalence of fetal tumours is difficult to ascertain, an incidence of 7.2 per 100,000 live births has previously been reported, with the incidence of neonatal malignancy estimated at 36.5 per million births. Teratomas and neuroblastomas are the most common solid tumours described. Tumours may be very large or associated with severe hydrops leading to significant dystocia with the potential for difficult vaginal or caesarean delivery. Once the diagnosis of a fetal tumour is made, optimal management incorporates a multidisciplinary approach including obstetrician, neonatologist, paediatric surgeon and paediatric oncologist so that counselling is appropriate and a clear management plan is in place for parents. (orig.)

  18. A pictorial review of imaging of abdominal tumours in adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasalkar, Darshana D.; Chu, Winnie C.W.; Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Li, Chi Kong; Hui, Sze Ki; Ling, Siu Cheung

    2010-01-01

    Neoplastic abdominal tumours, particularly those originating from embryonal tissue (such as hepatoblastoma and nephroblastoma) and neural crest cells (such as neuroblastoma), are well-documented in young children. Neoplasms of adulthood, most commonly carcinoma of different visceral organs, are also well-documented. Abdominal tumours in adolescence constitute a distinct pathological group. The radiological features of some of these tumours have been described only in isolated reports. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to review the imaging findings of various kinds of abdominal tumours in adolescent patients (with an age range of 10-16 years) who presented to the Children Cancer Center of our institution in the past 15 years. Some tumours, though rare, have characteristic imaging appearances (especially in CT) that enable an accurate diagnosis before definite histological confirmation. (orig.)

  19. Irradiation-induced tumours of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aanesen, J P; Olofsson, J [Linkoepings Hoegskola (Sweden)

    1979-09-01

    Though irradiation-induced tumours are uncommon, they represent a well defined entity. At this Hospital, 14 irradiation-induced head and neck tumours were encountered in 11 patients over a 10-year period. The irradiation had been given for tuberculous lymphadenitis in 6 of the patients, for lupus vulgaris in one, and thyrotoxicosis in another; the other 3 patients had received radiotherapy for malignant tumours. The interval between the treatment and the diagnosis of the tumour disease ranged from 9 to 48 years (mean 32). Three of the patients had multiple tumours. In view of the risk of cancer-albeit a small one-associated with radiological diagnosis and radiotherapy, these should be performed only on strict indications, expecially in young patients.

  20. Immunisation of colorectal cancer patients with autologous tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Alice; Stenholm, Anna Catharina Olsen; Kronborg, O

    1998-01-01

    Patients with colorectal cancer were entered into a clinical phase I trial of immunotherapy with an autologous tumour cell/bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine. We attempted to describe the possible effects and side effects of the immunisation, and further to investigate whether expression...... of immune-response-related surface molecules on the tumour cells in the vaccine correlated with survival. The first and second vaccine comprised of 107 irradiated tumour cells mixed with BCG, the third of irradiated tumour cells only. Thirty-nine patients were considered, but only 6 patients fulfilled...... the criteria for inclusion. No serious side effects were observed. With three years of observation time, two patients are healthy, while the rest have had recurrence, and two of them have died. In all vaccines, all tumour cells expressed HLA class I, some expressed HLA class II and none expressed CD80...

  1. A pictorial review of imaging of abdominal tumours in adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasalkar, Darshana D.; Chu, Winnie C.W. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Li, Chi Kong [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Hui, Sze Ki [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hong Kong (China); Ling, Siu Cheung [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-09-15

    Neoplastic abdominal tumours, particularly those originating from embryonal tissue (such as hepatoblastoma and nephroblastoma) and neural crest cells (such as neuroblastoma), are well-documented in young children. Neoplasms of adulthood, most commonly carcinoma of different visceral organs, are also well-documented. Abdominal tumours in adolescence constitute a distinct pathological group. The radiological features of some of these tumours have been described only in isolated reports. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to review the imaging findings of various kinds of abdominal tumours in adolescent patients (with an age range of 10-16 years) who presented to the Children Cancer Center of our institution in the past 15 years. Some tumours, though rare, have characteristic imaging appearances (especially in CT) that enable an accurate diagnosis before definite histological confirmation. (orig.)

  2. Radiation-induced malignant tumours: a specific cytogenetic profile?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveinc, L.; Gaboriaux, G.; Dutrillaux, A. M.; Dutrillaux, B.; Chauveinc, L.; Ricoul, M.; Sabatier, L.; Dutrillaux, B.

    1997-01-01

    To date, there is no criterion enabling to determine the spontaneous or radio-induced origin of malignant tumour occurring in a previously irradiated patient. Biological studies are rare. The cytogenetic data which could be found in the literature for eleven radio-induced tumours suggest that aneuploidies and polyclonality are frequent events. We studied, by R-Banding cytogenetic technique, five patients with short-term cultures (3 cases), short and long-term cultures (1 case) and xeno-grafting on nude pattern a high rate of balanced translocations, numerous random break points and a polyclonal evolution (10 clones). All other tumours, including the xeno-grafting sarcoma, had a monoclonal profile with complex karyotypes, hypo-diploid formulas and many deletions. These results show that the mechanism of radiation-induced tumours frequently involves chromosomes losses and deletions. The most likely explanation is that these alterations unmask radiation induced recessive mutations of tumour suppressor genes. (authors)

  3. Detection and cellular localisation of the synthetic soluble macromolecular drug carrier pHPMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissel, Maria; Peschke, Peter; Strunz, Anke M.; Kuehnlein, Rainer; Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, E0505, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Subr, Vladimir; Ulbrich, Karel [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Prague (Czech Republic); Friedrich, Eckhard [Division of Biology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Synthetic macromolecules such as copolymers of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (pHPMA) are potential carriers for the delivery of drugs owing to their ability to passively accumulate in solid tumours [enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect]. To gain further knowledge about the biodistribution and the cellular localisation, poly(HPMA) was prepared for labelling by introducing biotin molecules. Biotinylated pHPMA (5 mol%) was intravenously injected into tumour-bearing rats and the accumulation of biotin-pHPMA was visualised using a streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase technique at day 7 post injection. In spite of the high solubility of pHPMA copolymers and the lack of attachment to cell structures, the biotinylated polymer could be easily detected in tissues fixed in 10% paraformaldehyde-phosphate buffer at 4 C for 48 h. While biotin-pHPMA could be detected intracytoplasmically in liver and spleen, a predominantly interstitial localisation was observed within the anaplastic prostate carcinoma (Dunning R3327-AT1). How biotin as a label influences the biodistribution of poly(HPMA) was assessed by scintigraphy, autoradiography and histology comparing homopolymer poly(HPMA) with biotin-pHPMA. The organ distribution patterns of the two polymers correlated well, except with respect to kidney. It is assumed that the accumulation of biotin-pHPMA in the distal tubuli is due to a biotin transporter in the brush border membrane. The technique presented is useful for a more comprehensive understanding of the biodistribution of soluble macromolecules. (orig.)

  4. Detection and cellular localisation of the synthetic soluble macromolecular drug carrier pHPMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissel, Maria; Peschke, Peter; Strunz, Anke M.; Kuehnlein, Rainer; Debus, Juergen; Subr, Vladimir; Ulbrich, Karel; Friedrich, Eckhard

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic macromolecules such as copolymers of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (pHPMA) are potential carriers for the delivery of drugs owing to their ability to passively accumulate in solid tumours [enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect]. To gain further knowledge about the biodistribution and the cellular localisation, poly(HPMA) was prepared for labelling by introducing biotin molecules. Biotinylated pHPMA (5 mol%) was intravenously injected into tumour-bearing rats and the accumulation of biotin-pHPMA was visualised using a streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase technique at day 7 post injection. In spite of the high solubility of pHPMA copolymers and the lack of attachment to cell structures, the biotinylated polymer could be easily detected in tissues fixed in 10% paraformaldehyde-phosphate buffer at 4 C for 48 h. While biotin-pHPMA could be detected intracytoplasmically in liver and spleen, a predominantly interstitial localisation was observed within the anaplastic prostate carcinoma (Dunning R3327-AT1). How biotin as a label influences the biodistribution of poly(HPMA) was assessed by scintigraphy, autoradiography and histology comparing homopolymer poly(HPMA) with biotin-pHPMA. The organ distribution patterns of the two polymers correlated well, except with respect to kidney. It is assumed that the accumulation of biotin-pHPMA in the distal tubuli is due to a biotin transporter in the brush border membrane. The technique presented is useful for a more comprehensive understanding of the biodistribution of soluble macromolecules. (orig.)

  5. A reproducible brain tumour model established from human glioblastoma biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing clinically relevant animal models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM remains a challenge, and many commonly used cell line-based models do not recapitulate the invasive growth patterns of patient GBMs. Previously, we have reported the formation of highly invasive tumour xenografts in nude rats from human GBMs. However, implementing tumour models based on primary tissue requires that these models can be sufficiently standardised with consistently high take rates. Methods In this work, we collected data on growth kinetics from a material of 29 biopsies xenografted in nude rats, and characterised this model with an emphasis on neuropathological and radiological features. Results The tumour take rate for xenografted GBM biopsies were 96% and remained close to 100% at subsequent passages in vivo, whereas only one of four lower grade tumours engrafted. Average time from transplantation to the onset of symptoms was 125 days ± 11.5 SEM. Histologically, the primary xenografts recapitulated the invasive features of the parent tumours while endothelial cell proliferations and necrosis were mostly absent. After 4-5 in vivo passages, the tumours became more vascular with necrotic areas, but also appeared more circumscribed. MRI typically revealed changes related to tumour growth, several months prior to the onset of symptoms. Conclusions In vivo passaging of patient GBM biopsies produced tumours representative of the patient tumours, with high take rates and a reproducible disease course. The model provides combinations of angiogenic and invasive phenotypes and represents a good alternative to in vitro propagated cell lines for dissecting mechanisms of brain tumour progression.

  6. Anti-tumour immune effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum to CT26 tumour-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingtao; Wang, Chunfeng; Ye, Liping; Yang, Wentao; Huang, Haibin; Meng, Fei; Shi, Shaohua; Ding, Zhuang

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer that shows a high mortality and increasing incidence. There are numerous successful treatment options for CRC, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy; however, their side effects and limitations are considerable. Probiotics may be an effective strategy for preventing and inhibiting tumour growth through stimulation of host innate and adaptive immunity. We investigated and compared potential anti-tumour immune responses induced by two isolated Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum A and Lactobacillus rhamnosus b, by pre-inoculating mice with lactobacilli for 14 days. Subsequently, subcutaneous and orthotopic intestinal tumours were generated in the pre-inoculated mice using CT26 murine adenocarcinoma cells and were assessed for response against the tumour. Our results indicated that oral administration with L. plantarum inhibited CT26 cell growth in BALB/c mice and prolonged the survival time of tumour-bearing mice compared with mice administered L. rhamnosus. L. plantarum produced protective immunity against the challenge with CT26 cells by increasing the effector functions of CD8+ and natural killer (NK) cell infiltration into tumour tissue, up-regulation of IFN-gamma (but not IL-4 or IL-17) production, and promotion of Th1-type CD4+ T differentiation. Consequently, our results suggest that L. plantarum can enhance the anti-tumour immune response and delay tumour formation.

  7. Id1 suppresses anti-tumour immune responses and promotes tumour progression by impairing myeloid cell maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaspyridonos, Marianna; Matei, Irina; Huang, Yujie; do Rosario Andre, Maria; Brazier-Mitouart, Helene; Waite, Janelle C; Chan, April S; Kalter, Julie; Ramos, Ilyssa; Wu, Qi; Williams, Caitlin; Wolchok, Jedd D; Chapman, Paul B; Peinado, Hector; Anandasabapathy, Niroshana; Ocean, Allyson J; Kaplan, Rosandra N; Greenfield, Jeffrey P; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Skokos, Dimitris; Lyden, David

    2015-04-29

    A central mechanism of tumour progression and metastasis involves the generation of an immunosuppressive 'macroenvironment' mediated in part through tumour-secreted factors. Here we demonstrate that upregulation of the Inhibitor of Differentiation 1 (Id1), in response to tumour-derived factors, such as TGFβ, is responsible for the switch from dendritic cell (DC) differentiation to myeloid-derived suppressor cell expansion during tumour progression. Genetic inactivation of Id1 largely corrects the myeloid imbalance, whereas Id1 overexpression in the absence of tumour-derived factors re-creates it. Id1 overexpression leads to systemic immunosuppression by downregulation of key molecules involved in DC differentiation and suppression of CD8 T-cell proliferation, thus promoting primary tumour growth and metastatic progression. Furthermore, advanced melanoma patients have increased plasma TGFβ levels and express higher levels of ID1 in myeloid peripheral blood cells. This study reveals a critical role for Id1 in suppressing the anti-tumour immune response during tumour progression and metastasis.

  8. Tumour metastasis as an adaptation of tumour cells to fulfil their phosphorus requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Carla C C R; Caramujo, Maria José

    2012-05-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is a vital component of nucleotides, membrane phospholipids, and phosphorylated intermediates in cellular signalling. The Growth Rate Hypothesis (GRH) states that fast growing organisms should be richer in phosphorus (relatively low C:P and N:P cell content) than slow developing organisms as a result of high ribosome biogenesis. Cells that proliferate rapidly, such as cancer cells, require a high amount of ribosomes and other P-rich RNA components that are necessary to manufacture proteins. The GRH hypothesis may be applied to cancer predicting that tumour cells are richer in phosphorus than the surrounding tissue, and that they resort to metastasis in order to meet their nutrient demands. Considering that the cells most P-deprived should be located in the inner parts of the tumour we propose that changes in the membrane of these cells favour the detachment of the more peripheral cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Skull base tumours part I: Imaging technique, anatomy and anterior skull base tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Advances in cross-sectional imaging, surgical technique and adjuvant treatment have largely contributed to ameliorate the prognosis, lessen the morbidity and mortality of patients with skull base tumours and to the growing medical investment in the management of these patients. Because clinical assessment of the skull base is limited, cross-sectional imaging became indispensable in the diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of patients with suspected skull base pathology and the radiologist is increasingly responsible for the fate of these patients. This review will focus on the advances in imaging technique; contribution to patient's management and on the imaging features of the most common tumours affecting the anterior skull base. Emphasis is given to a systematic approach to skull base pathology based upon an anatomic division taking into account the major tissue constituents in each skull base compartment. The most relevant information that should be conveyed to surgeons and radiation oncologists involved in patient's management will be discussed

  10. Perioperative management of patients with pituitary tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of pituitary tumours can be very challenging for the anaesthesiologist. These patients require a thorough pre-operative assessment in view of underlying endocrine disturbances, which could cause anatomic and physiological disturbances. This needs to be optimized prior to surgery and the anaesthetic technique planned accordingly. The main intraoperative problems that could be encountered by the anaesthesiologist are airway problems, haemodynamic disturbances and potential for bleeding during surgery. The postoperative concerns are related to the endocrine system and fluid and water balance and this needs to be monitored closely and managed appropriately. The advent of minimally invasive surgery along with neuroimaging has considerably decreased perioperative morbidity and mortality following pituitary surgery. A team approach and close coordination between the endocrinologist, neurosurgeon and anaesthesiologist is imperative for a favourable outcome in patients undergoing pituitary surgery.

  11. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Applications of accelerators to tumour therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    The first lecture is devoted to an historical review of the developments of the teletherapy techniques which make use of hadron beams and are collectively called “hadrontherapy”. The main emphasis is on the use of protons and light ions, but also neutrons, pions and antiprotons are considered. The second lecture reviews the rationale behind the use of carbon ions in the treatment of radioresistant tumours and the results obtained both with proton and carbon ion beams on the 60 000 patients treated worldwide. The numbers of patients who would profit from hadrontherapy are presented together with the current landscape of running and planned hospital based centres. The main technical challenges set by this therapeutic modality are discussed in the third lecture together with the approaches either adopted or suggested to face them. The challenges are the treatment of moving organs, the development of new tools for Quality Assurance, the design of rotating gantries for carbon ions. The last discussed issue con...

  13. Prophylactic antibiotic regimens in tumour surgery (PARITY)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Mørk; Hettwer, Werner H; Grum-Schwensen, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    -day regimen of post-operative antibiotics, in comparison to a 24-hour regimen, decreases surgical site infections in patients undergoing endoprosthetic reconstruction for lower extremity primary bone tumours. METHODS: We performed a pilot international multi-centre RCT. We used central randomisation...... to conceal treatment allocation and sham antibiotics to blind participants, surgeons, and data collectors. We determined feasibility by measuring patient enrolment, completeness of follow-up, and protocol deviations for the antibiotic regimens. RESULTS: We screened 96 patients and enrolled 60 participants......% at one year (the remainder with partial data or pending queries). In total, 18 participants missed at least one dose of antibiotics or placebo post-operatively, but 93% of all post-operative doses were administered per protocol. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to conduct a definitive multi-centre RCT of post...

  14. Nanosuspension Technology for Solubilizing Poorly Soluble Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Deoli Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    Poor water solubility for many drugs and drug candidates remains a major obstacle to their development and clinical application. It is estimated that around 40% of drugs in the pipeline cannot be delivered through the preferred route or in some cases, at all owing to poor water solubility. Conventional formulations to improve solubility suffer from low bioavailability and poor pharmacokinetics, with some carriers rendering systemic toxicities (e.g. Cremophor1 EL). To date, nanoscale systems f...

  15. Soluble theory with massive ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the unitarity of asymptotically free, higher-derivative theories, like certain models of quantum gravity, I study a prototype in two space-time dimensions. The prototype is a kind of higher-derivative nonlinear sigma model; it is asymptotically free, exhibits dimensional transmutation, and is soluble in a large-N expansion. The S-matrix elements, constructed from the analytic continuation of the Euclidean Green's functions, conserve probability to approx.O(N -1 ), but violate unitarity at approx.O(N -2 ). The model demonstrates that in higher-derivative theories unitarity, or the lack thereof, cannot be decided without explicit control over the infrared limit. Even so, the results suggest that there may exist some (rather special) asymptotically free, higher-derivative theories which are unitary

  16. Issues concerning the determination of solubility products of sparingly soluble crystalline solids. Solubility of HfO2(cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Kitamura, Akira; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sasaki, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Taishi

    2016-01-01

    Solubility studies were conducted with HfO 2 (cr) solid as a function HCl and ionic strength ranging from 2.0 to 0.004 mol kg -1 . These studies involved (1) using two different amounts of the solid phase, (2) acid washing the bulk solid phase, (3) preheating the solid phase to 1400 C, and (4) heating amorphous HfO 2 (am) suspensions to 90 C to ascertain whether the HfO 2 (am) converts to HfO 2 (cr) and to determine the solubility from the oversaturation direction. Based on the results of these treatments it is concluded that the HfO 2 (cr) contains a small fraction of less crystalline, but not amorphous, material [HfO 2 (lcr)] and this, rather than the HfO 2 (cr), is the solubility-controlling phase in the range of experimental variables investigated in this study. The solubility data are interpreted using both the Pitzer and SIT models and they provide log 10 K 0 values of -(59.75±0.35) and -(59.48±0.41), respectively, for the solubility product of HfO 2 (lcr)[HfO 2 (lcr) + 2H 2 O ↔ Hf 4+ + 4OH - ]. The log 10 of the solubility product of HfO 2 (cr) is estimated to be < -63. The observation of a small fraction of less crystalline higher solubility material is consistent with the general picture that mineral surfaces are often structurally and/or compositionally imperfect leading to a higher solubility than the bulk crystalline solid. This study stresses the urgent need, during interpretation of solubility data, of taking precautions to make certain that the observed solubility behavior for sparingly-soluble solids is assigned to the proper solid phase.

  17. Issues concerning the determination of solubility products of sparingly soluble crystalline solids. Solubility of HfO{sub 2}(cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Dhanpat [Rai Enviro-Chem, LLC, Yachats, OR (United States); Kitamura, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Rosso, Kevin M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Sasaki, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Taishi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Solubility studies were conducted with HfO{sub 2}(cr) solid as a function HCl and ionic strength ranging from 2.0 to 0.004 mol kg{sup -1}. These studies involved (1) using two different amounts of the solid phase, (2) acid washing the bulk solid phase, (3) preheating the solid phase to 1400 C, and (4) heating amorphous HfO{sub 2}(am) suspensions to 90 C to ascertain whether the HfO{sub 2}(am) converts to HfO{sub 2}(cr) and to determine the solubility from the oversaturation direction. Based on the results of these treatments it is concluded that the HfO{sub 2}(cr) contains a small fraction of less crystalline, but not amorphous, material [HfO{sub 2}(lcr)] and this, rather than the HfO{sub 2}(cr), is the solubility-controlling phase in the range of experimental variables investigated in this study. The solubility data are interpreted using both the Pitzer and SIT models and they provide log{sub 10} K{sup 0} values of -(59.75±0.35) and -(59.48±0.41), respectively, for the solubility product of HfO{sub 2}(lcr)[HfO{sub 2}(lcr) + 2H{sub 2}O ↔ Hf{sup 4+} + 4OH{sup -}]. The log{sub 10} of the solubility product of HfO{sub 2}(cr) is estimated to be < -63. The observation of a small fraction of less crystalline higher solubility material is consistent with the general picture that mineral surfaces are often structurally and/or compositionally imperfect leading to a higher solubility than the bulk crystalline solid. This study stresses the urgent need, during interpretation of solubility data, of taking precautions to make certain that the observed solubility behavior for sparingly-soluble solids is assigned to the proper solid phase.

  18. Inflammatory reactions in placental blood of Plasmodium falciparum-infected women and high concentrations of soluble E-selectin and a circulating P. falciparum protein in the cord sera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Rasheed, F N; Bulmer, J N

    1998-01-01

    concentrations measured in the placenta. Markers of inflammatory reactions: IL-10, sIL-2R, sIL-4R, and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor I (sTNF-RI) were found in high concentrations in the placenta, indicating that inflammatory reactions take place in the placenta which has been regarded...... as an immunoprivileged site. Concentrations of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), potential adhesion receptors for malaria parasites, were associated with an active P. falciparum infection in the placenta although the associations did not reach...

  19. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) of the kidney: a rare renal tumour in adolescents with seemingly characteristic radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Winnie C.; Reznikov, Boris; Lee, Edward Y.; Grant, Ronald M.; Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Babyn, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) constitute a family of neoplasms of presumed neuroectodermal origin that predominantly present as bone or soft-tissue masses in adolescents and young adults. PNET arising in the kidney is rare. To describe the radiological features in three patients with primary renal PNET. The radiological features of primary renal PNET in three adolescent patients (age 10, 14 and 16 years) are described. Tumour thrombus extending into the renal vein and inferior vena cava was noted in all three patients. In addition, further tumour extension into the atrium was seen in two patients with extension into a pulmonary artery in one patient. Neural foraminal and intraspinal extension close to the origin of the tumour was identified in two patients. Liver, bone and lung metastases were identified. While rare, one should consider the diagnosis of PNET when encountering a renal mass with aggressive features such as inferior vena cava tumour thrombus, direct intraspinal invasion and distant metastasis. (orig.)

  20. Retrograde curves of solidus and solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, M.V.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation was concerned with the constitutional diagrams of the eutectic type with ''retrograde solidus'' and ''retrograde solubility curve'' which must be considered as diagrams with degenerate monotectic transformation. The solidus and the solubility curves form a retrograde curve with a common retrograde point representing the solubility maximum. The two branches of the Aetrograde curve can be described with the aid of two similar equations. Presented are corresponding equations for the Cd-Zn system and shown is the possibility of predicting the run of the solubility curve

  1. Solubility limits of importance to leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogard, A.; Bentley, G.; Bryant, E.; Duffy, C.; Grisham, J.; Norris, E.; Orth, C.; Thomas, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solubilities of some radionuclides, especially rare earths and actinides, may be an important and controlling factor in leaching of waste forms. These solubilities should be measured accurately as a function of pH and not as a part of a multicomponent system. Individual solubilities should be measured as a function of temperature to determine if a kinetic effect is being observed in the data. A negative temperature coefficient of solubility for actinides and rare earths in water would have important consequences for nuclear reactor safety and for the management of nuclear wastes

  2. Anti-tumour activity in RAS-driven tumours by blocking AKT and MEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolcher, Anthony W.; Khan, Khurum; Ong, Michael; Banerji, Udai; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Gandara, David R.; Patnaik, Amita; Baird, Richard D.; Olmos, David; Garrett, Christopher R.; Skolnik, Jeffrey M.; Rubin, Eric H.; Smith, Paul D.; Huang, Pearl; Learoyd, Maria; Shannon, Keith A.; Morosky, Anne; Tetteh, Ernestina; Jou, Ying-Ming; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos P.; Moreno, Victor; Kaiser, Brianne; Yap, Timothy A.; Yan, Li; de Bono, Johann S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose KRAS is the most commonly mutated oncogene in human tumours. KRAS-mutant cells may exhibit resistance to the allosteric MEK1/2 inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244; ARRY-142886) and allosteric AKT inhibitors (such as MK-2206), the combination of which may overcome resistance to both monotherapies. Experimental Design We conducted a dose/schedule-finding study evaluating MK-2206 and selumetinib in patients with advanced treatment-refractory solid tumours. Recommended dosing schedules were defined as MK-2206 135 mg weekly and selumetinib 100 mg once-daily. Results Grade 3 rash was the most common dose-limiting toxicity (DLT); other DLTs included grade 4 lipase increase, grade 3 stomatitis, diarrhoea, and fatigue, and grade 3 and grade 2 retinal pigment epithelium detachment. There were no meaningful pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. Clinical anti-tumour activity included RECIST 1.0-confirmed partial responses in non-small cell lung cancer and low-grade ovarian carcinoma. Conclusion Responses in KRAS-mutant cancers were generally durable. Clinical co-targeting of MEK and AKT signalling may be an important therapeutic strategy in KRAS-driven human malignancies (Trial NCT number NCT01021748). PMID:25516890

  3. Nuclear expression of Snail1 in borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours is associated with tumour progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuhkanen, Hanna; Soini, Ylermi; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Anttila, Maarit; Sironen, Reijo; Hämäläinen, Kirsi; Kukkonen, Laura; Virtanen, Ismo; Mannermaa, Arto

    2009-01-01

    Transcription factor Snail1 has a central role in induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aim of the present study was to elucidate the expression of Snail1 protein during epithelial ovarian tumourigenesis and to study the association of Snail1 expression with clinicopathological factors and prognosis. Epithelial and stromal fibroblast-like fusiform cells of 14 normal ovarian samples, 21 benign, 24 borderline and 74 malignant epithelial ovarian tumours were studied for Snail1 protein using immunohistochemistry. Nuclei of surface peritoneal cells of normal ovaries (n = 14) were regarded as negative for Snail1. Nuclear expression of Snail1 protein in epithelial ovarian tumours was increased during tumour progression from precursor lesions into carcinomas both in epithelial (p = 0.006) and stromal cells (p = 0.007). Nuclei of benign tumours (n = 21) were negative for Snail1. In borderline tumours (n = 24) occasional positive epithelial cells were found in 2 (8%) samples and in 3 (13%) samples stromal cells were focally positive for Snail1. In carcinomas (n = 74) focal Snail1 staining in epithelial cells was present in 17 (23%) tumours, and in stromal cells in 18 (24%) tumours. Nuclear expression of Snail1 in epithelial or stromal cells was not associated with clinicopathological factors or prognosis. Nuclear Snail1 expression seems to be related to tumour progression, and expression in borderline tumours indicates a role for Snail1 in early epithelial ovarian tumour development. Snail1 also appears to function more generally in tissue remodelling as positive staining was demonstrated in stromal cells

  4. Utility of Phox2b immunohistochemical stain in neural crest tumours and non-neural crest tumours in paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Mikako; Matsuno, Ryosuke; Tran, Henry; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluated the utility of Phox2b in paediatric tumours. Previously, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was the most widely utilised sympathoadrenal marker specific for neural crest tumours with neuronal/neuroendocrine differentiation. However, its sensitivity is insufficient. Recently Phox2b has emerged as another specific marker for this entity. Phox2b immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on 159 paediatric tumours, including (group 1) 65 neural crest tumours with neuronal differentiation [peripheral neuroblastic tumours (pNT)]: 15 neuroblastoma undifferentiated (NB-UD), 10 NB poorly differentiated (NB-PD), 10 NB differentiating (NB-D), 10 ganglioneuroblastoma intermixed (GNBi), 10 GNB nodular (GNBn) and 10 ganglioneuroma (GN); (group 2) 23 neural crest tumours with neuroendocrine differentiation [pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PCC/PG)]; (group 3) 27 other neural crest tumours including one composite rhabdomyosarcoma/neuroblastoma; and (group 4) 44 non-neural crest tumours. TH IHC was performed on groups 1, 2 and 3. Phox2b was expressed diffusely in pNT (n = 65 of 65), strongly in NB-UD and NB-PD and with less intensity in NB-D, GNB and GN. Diffuse TH was seen in all NB-PD, NB-D, GNB and GN, but nine of 15 NB-UD and a nodule in GNBn did not express TH (n = 55 of 65). PCC/PG expressed diffuse Phox2b (n = 23 of 23) and diffuse TH, except for one tumour (n = 22 of 23). In composite rhabdomyosarcoma, TH was expressed only in neuroblastic cells and Phox2b was diffusely positive in neuroblastic cells and focally in rhabdomyosarcoma. All other tumours were negative for Phox2b (n = none of 44). Phox2b was a specific and sensitive marker for pNT and PCC/PG, especially useful for identifying NB-UD often lacking TH. Our study also presented a composite rhabdomyosarcoma/neuroblastoma of neural crest origin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. MRI of intraspinal nerve sheath tumours presenting with sciatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loke, T.K.L.; Chan, C.S.; Ma, H.T.G.; Ward, S.C.; Metreweli, C.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of 14 intraspinal nerve sheath tumours (NST) presenting with sciatica were reviewed. The group comprised seven schwannomas, six neurofibromas and one perineuroma. The tumours were either iso- or hypointense with respect to spinal cord on T1-weighted (T1W) images; almost all tumours were hyperintense compared with spinal cord on T2-weighted (T2W) images. The tumours were all detectable on unenhanced T1 W images. Nine NST were scanned following Gadolinium-Diethylenetriamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) injection and all showed intense enhancement. This aids differentiation from sequestrated disc fragments. Tumours were more likely to show homogeneous enhancement unless they were recurrent tumours. Rim enhancement occurs more commonly in schwannomas and this can be used to differentiate these from neurofibromas. It is estimated that on unenhanced images, schwannomas cannot be distinguished from neurofibromas. Four tumours occurred at T1 1-T12. There was poor correlation of the site of the lesion with the clinical findings. It is recommended that the MRI studies in patients with sciatica should include the lower thoracic region especially if no protruded disc was found in the lumbar region. 15 refs., 4 figs

  6. MRI of intraspinal nerve sheath tumours presenting with sciatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loke, T.K.L.; Chan, C.S. [United Christian Hospital (Hong Kong). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Ma, H.T.G. [St Teresa`s Hospital, Kowloon (Hong Kong). MRI and CT scanning Dept.; Ward, S.C.; Metreweli, C. [Prince of wales Hospital, New Territories (Hong Kong). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1995-08-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of 14 intraspinal nerve sheath tumours (NST) presenting with sciatica were reviewed. The group comprised seven schwannomas, six neurofibromas and one perineuroma. The tumours were either iso- or hypointense with respect to spinal cord on T1-weighted (T1W) images; almost all tumours were hyperintense compared with spinal cord on T2-weighted (T2W) images. The tumours were all detectable on unenhanced T1 W images. Nine NST were scanned following Gadolinium-Diethylenetriamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) injection and all showed intense enhancement. This aids differentiation from sequestrated disc fragments. Tumours were more likely to show homogeneous enhancement unless they were recurrent tumours. Rim enhancement occurs more commonly in schwannomas and this can be used to differentiate these from neurofibromas. It is estimated that on unenhanced images, schwannomas cannot be distinguished from neurofibromas. Four tumours occurred at T1 1-T12. There was poor correlation of the site of the lesion with the clinical findings. It is recommended that the MRI studies in patients with sciatica should include the lower thoracic region especially if no protruded disc was found in the lumbar region. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Royal Society Scientific Meeting: Extracellular vesicles in the tumour microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Ryan Charles; Elmusrati, Areeg A; Lambert, Daniel; Carter, David Raul Francisco

    2018-01-05

    Cancer cells do not grow as an isolated homogeneous mass; tumours are, in fact, complex and heterogeneous collections of cancer and surrounding stromal cells, collectively termed the tumour microenvironment. The interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment has emerged as a key concept in the regulation of cancer progression. Understanding the intercellular dialogue in the tumour microenvironment is therefore an important goal. One aspect of this dialogue that has not been appreciated until recently is the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are small vesicles released by cells under both normal and pathological conditions; they can transfer biological molecules between cells leading to changes in phenotype. EVs have emerged as important regulators of biological processes and can be dysregulated in diseases such as cancer; rapidly growing interest in their biology and therapeutic potential led to the Royal Society hosting a Scientific Meeting to explore the roles of EVs in the tumour microenvironment. This cross-disciplinary meeting explored examples of how aberrant crosstalk between tumour and stromal cells can promote cancer progression, and how such signalling can be targeted for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic benefit. In this review, and the special edition of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B that follows, we will provide an overview of the content and outcomes of this exciting meeting.This article is part of the discussion meeting issue 'Extracellular vesicles and the tumour microenvironment'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect of expo...... significant associations and exposure-response patterns between long-term residential radon exposure radon in a general population and risk of primary brain tumours, adding new knowledge to this field. This finding could be chance and needs to be challenged in future studies.......Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect...... of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced...

  9. SPECTRUM OF NEUROENDOCRINE TUMOURS- A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupuleti Prathima

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Neuroendocrine tumours occur at various sites in the human body. They are considered as one of the close differentials for many tumours. Various benign and malignant tumours undergo neuroendocrine differentiation. Its incidence is slightly increasing due to advanced imaging modalities. Although rare, they can be seen in breast, gallbladder and skin. The aim of the study is to study the spectrum of neuroendocrine tumours from various sites, their clinical presentation, histomorphological features with immunohistochemistry and review of literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study for a period of 3 years (June 2013-June 2016. Surgical resection specimens were included in the study. Out of the total specimens received, 24 cases were of neuroendocrine tumours. Differential diagnosis of small round cell tumours also was considered and a panel of immunohistochemical markers were included to rule out them. Biopsy specimens were excluded from the study. RESULTS Out of the 24 cases, 18 cases were benign lesions. 6 cases were malignant lesions. Female preponderance was noted. Peak incidence was seen in 20-30 years of age group. CONCLUSION Neuroendocrine tumours can occur anywhere in the body and it should be considered in one of the differential diagnosis. Diagnosis must be accurately made.

  10. Review article: Pathogenesis and management of gastric carcinoid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, M D; Pritchard, D M

    2006-11-01

    Gastric carcinoid tumours are rare, but are increasing in incidence. To discuss tumour pathogenesis and outline current approaches to patient management. Review of published articles following a Pubmed search. Although interest in gastric carcinoids has increased since it was recognized that they are associated with achlorhydria, to date there is no definite evidence that humans taking long-term acid suppressing medication are at increased risk. Type I tumours are associated with autoimmune atrophic gastritis and hypergastrinaemia, type II are associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 and hypergastrinaemia and sporadic type III carcinoids are gastrin-independent and carry the worst prognosis. Careful investigation of these patients is required, particularly to identify the tumour type, the source of hypergastrinaemia and the presence of metastases. Treatment can be directed at the source of hypergastrinaemia if type I or II tumours are still gastrin responsive and not growing autonomously. Type III tumours should be treated surgically. Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoids have led to recent improvements in investigation and management. Challenges remain in identifying the genetic and environmental factors, in addition to hypergastrinaemia, that are responsible for tumour development in susceptible patients.

  11. Advanced soft computing diagnosis method for tumour grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, E I; Spyridonos, P P; Stylios, C D; Ravazoula, P; Groumpos, P P; Nikiforidis, G N

    2006-01-01

    To develop an advanced diagnostic method for urinary bladder tumour grading. A novel soft computing modelling methodology based on the augmentation of fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) with the unsupervised active Hebbian learning (AHL) algorithm is applied. One hundred and twenty-eight cases of urinary bladder cancer were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Histopathology, University Hospital of Patras, Greece. All tumours had been characterized according to the classical World Health Organization (WHO) grading system. To design the FCM model for tumour grading, three experts histopathologists defined the main histopathological features (concepts) and their impact on grade characterization. The resulted FCM model consisted of nine concepts. Eight concepts represented the main histopathological features for tumour grading. The ninth concept represented the tumour grade. To increase the classification ability of the FCM model, the AHL algorithm was applied to adjust the weights of the FCM. The proposed FCM grading model achieved a classification accuracy of 72.5%, 74.42% and 95.55% for tumours of grades I, II and III, respectively. An advanced computerized method to support tumour grade diagnosis decision was proposed and developed. The novelty of the method is based on employing the soft computing method of FCMs to represent specialized knowledge on histopathology and on augmenting FCMs ability using an unsupervised learning algorithm, the AHL. The proposed method performs with reasonably high accuracy compared to other existing methods and at the same time meets the physicians' requirements for transparency and explicability.

  12. [Gender differences in the use of tumour markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Campoy, E E; Mérida-De la Torre, F J; Martos-Crespo, F; Plebani, M

    2015-01-01

    Gender is one of the factors that can influence the use of health resources. The use of tumour markers is widespread, due to the importance of these in monitoring cancer development. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of gender on the use of tumour markers, and to investigate whether there are differences in their use. A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study, with a 2-year follow-up, was conducted in the catchment area of the University Hospital of Padua. An analysis was performed on 23,059 analytical requests for tumour markers. A descriptive and frequency analysis was performed on all variables. The statistical analysis was performed using Chi squared, Student t and Mann-Whitney U to test for significance. The number of requests for women (1.5) was lower than men (1.6). In patients with tumour pathology, the number of requests was higher than in patients without tumour disease. In the analysis by disease and gender, the difference remained significant. As regards the number of tumour markers per request, the difference between genders was also significant: 2.13 in males versus 2.85 in women. Similar results were obtained when requests for tumour markers linked to gender-related diseases were eliminated. There are differences in the use of tumour markers by gender with the number of requests for male patients being higher than for females. However, the number of tumour markers per request is greater in women than in men. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Facial Nerve Morbidity Following Surgery for Benign Parotid Tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musani, M. A.; Suhail, Z.; Zafar, A.; Malik, S.; Mirza, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and severity of facial nerve dysfunction following surgery for benign parotid gland tumours. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, Karachi Medical and Dental College and Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and Ziauddin University Hospital, from 1990 to 2010. Methodology: Data was collected of all patients who were surgically managed for benign parotid tumours from 1990 to 2010. Data was reviewed for presentation of tumour, age and gender of the patient, site of tumour, nature and morphology of the tumour, primary or recurrent, surgical procedure adopted and the complications of the surgery especially the facial nerve dysfunction, its severity, complete or partial paresis and transient or permanent and time of recovery. Results were described as frequency percentages. Results: Out of 235 patients, 159 (67.65%) were female and 76 (32.35%) were male. Age ranged from 18 to 70 years. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common tumour (n=194, 82.6%), followed by Warthin's tumour. Superficial parotidectomy was done in 188 cases and extended parotidectomy in 47 cases. In the immediate postoperative period facial nerve function was normal in 169 (72%) patients and nerve dysfunction was observed in 66 (28%) patients. Complete paresis involving all the branches of facial nerve was seen in 25 (10.6%) patients and 41 (17.4%) patients were having incomplete dysfunction. Of these, 62 (26.3%) recovered and 04 (1.7%) had permanent facial nerve dysfunction. Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve was involved in 57 (86.3%) cases. Conclusion: The frequency of temporary and permanent facial nerve dysfunction was 26.3% and 1.7% respectively in 235 consecutive parotidectomies for benign parotid gland tumours. Higher frequency of facial nerve dysfunction was found in recurrent and deep lobe tumours. (author)

  14. Single-hit mechanism of tumour cell killing by radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J D

    2003-02-01

    To review the relative importance of the single-hit mechanism of radiation killing for tumour response to 1.8-2.0 Gy day(-1) fractions and to low dose-rate brachytherapy. Tumour cell killing by ionizing radiation is well described by the linear-quadratic equation that contains two independent components distinguished by dose kinetics. Analyses of tumour cell survival curves that contain six or more dose points usually provide good estimates of the alpha- and beta-inactivation coefficients. Superior estimates of tumour cell intrinsic radiosensitivity are obtained when synchronized populations are employed. The characteristics of single-hit inactivation of tumour cells are reviewed and compared with the characteristics of beta-inactivation. Potential molecular targets associated with single-hit inactivation are discussed along with strategies for potentiating cell killing by this mechanism. The single-hit mechanism of tumour cell killing shows no dependence on dose-rate and, consequently, no evidence of sublethal damage repair. It is uniquely potentiated by high linear-energy-transfer radiation, exhibits a smaller oxygen enhancement ratio and exhibits a larger indirect effect by hydroxyl radicals than the beta-mechanism. alpha-inactivation coefficients vary slightly throughout interphase but mitotic cells exhibit extremely high alpha-coefficients in the range of those observed for lymphocytes and some repair-deficient cells. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that chromatin in compacted form could be a radiation-hypersensitive target associated with single-hit radiation killing. Analyses of tumour cell survival curves demonstrate that it is the single-hit mechanism (alpha) that determines the majority of cell killing after doses of 2Gy and that this mechanism is highly variable between tumour cell lines. The characteristics of single-hit inactivation are qualitatively and quantitatively distinct from those of beta-inactivation. Compacted chromatin in tumour cells

  15. Gelatinase B/MMP-9 in Tumour Pathogenesis and Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, Antonietta Rosella; Mackay, Andrew Reay, E-mail: andrewreay.mackay@univaq.it [Department of Applied Clinical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito 2, L’Aquila 67100 (Italy)

    2014-01-27

    Since its original identification as a leukocyte gelatinase/type V collagenase and tumour type IV collagenase, gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is now recognised as playing a central role in many aspects of tumour progression. In this review, we relate current concepts concerning the many ways in which gelatinase B/MMP-9 influences tumour biology. Following a brief outline of the gelatinase B/MMP-9 gene and protein, we analyse the role(s) of gelatinase B/MMP-9 in different phases of the tumorigenic process, and compare the importance of gelatinase B/MMP-9 source in the carcinogenic process. What becomes apparent is the importance of inflammatory cell-derived gelatinase B/MMP-9 in tumour promotion, early progression and triggering of the “angiogenic switch”, the integral relationship between inflammatory, stromal and tumour components with respect to gelatinase B/MMP-9 production and activation, and the fundamental role for gelatinase B/MMP-9 in the formation and maintenance of tumour stem cell and metastatic niches. It is also apparent that gelatinase B/MMP-9 plays important tumour suppressing functions, producing endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, promoting inflammatory anti-tumour activity, and inducing apoptosis. The fundamental roles of gelatinase B/MMP-9 in cancer biology underpins the need for specific therapeutic inhibitors of gelatinase B/MMP-9 function, the use of which must take into account and substitute for tumour-suppressing gelatinase B/MMP-9 activity and also limit inhibition of physiological gelatinase B/MMP-9 function.

  16. Tirapazamine causes vascular dysfunction in HCT-116 tumour xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huxham, Lynsey A.; Kyle, Alastair H.; Baker, Jennifer H.E.; McNicol, Krista L.; Minchinton, Andrew I.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tirapazamine is a hypoxic cytotoxin currently undergoing Phase II/III clinical evaluation in combination with radiation and chemotherapeutics for the treatment of non-hematological cancers. Tissue penetration studies using multicellular models have suggested that tirapazamine exposure may be limited to cells close to blood vessels. However, animal studies show tirapazamine enhances the anti-tumour activity of radiation and chemotherapy and clinical studies with tirapazamine, so far, are promising. To investigate this apparent paradox we examined the microregional effects of tirapazamine in vivo by mapping drug effects with respect to the position of blood vessels in tumour cryosections. Patients and methods: Tirapazamine was administered i.p. to mice bearing HCT-116 tumours, which were excised at various times after treatment. Images of multiple-stained cryosections were overlaid to provide microregional information on the relative position of proliferating cells, hypoxia, perfusion and vasculature. Results: We observed extensive and permanent vascular dysfunction in a large proportion of tumours from mice treated with tirapazamine. In the affected tumours, blood flow ceased in the centrally located tumour vessels, leaving a rim of functional vessels around the periphery of the tumour. This vascular dysfunction commenced within 24 h after tirapazamine administration and the areas affected appeared to be replaced by necrosis over the following 24-48 h. Conclusions: Because the majority of hypoxic cells are located in the center of tumours we propose that the activity of tirapazamine in vivo may be related to its effects on tumour vasculature and that its activity against hypoxic cells located distal to functional blood vessels may not be as important as previously believed

  17. Tumour response and morphological changes of acoustic neurinomas after radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentino, V.; Raimondi, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-seven of the 1560 patients treated by radiosurgery during the period 1984-1993 had acoustic neurinomas. Four cases were excluded from this study because they had a follow-up of less than 2 years. There were 24 neurinomas treated in 23 patients as one patient had a bilateral tumour. Seven patients underwent radiosurgery for a recurrent tumour (already operated on once or twice), while it was the first treatment for 16 patients. The tumour volume ranged from 1.99 cm 3 to 18.30 cm 3 , and the patient follow-up was from 2 to 8 years. To determine the target on CT/NMR for linear accelerator stereotactic irradiation, the Greitz-Bergstroem non-invasive head fixation device was used. It was again adopted for subsequent serial imaging, and for repeat radiosurgery when necessary. The total peripheral tumour dose ranged from 12 to 45 Gy. In 9 patients there was a reduction in tumour volume varying from 39 to 100% , while 14 of the neurinomas appeared stable after an average follow-up of 3 years. In one patient there was an increase in size of the tumour. Variable morphological changes were present in 66% of the neurinomas treated. Radiosurgery is indicated as an alternative to microsurgery for inoperab1e patients and for those who refuse surgery, for recurrent tumours, and as a post-operative complementary treatment for partially removed tumours. A gradual approach to radiosurgery, depending on tumour response, allows a greater efficacy with minimal risk. In the present series no complications were observed. Hearing was preserved at almost the same level as that prior to radiosurgery in all patients. (author)

  18. Multiphase modelling of vascular tumour growth in two spatial dimensions

    KAUST Repository

    Hubbard, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a continuum mathematical model of vascular tumour growth which is based on a multiphase framework in which the tissue is decomposed into four distinct phases and the principles of conservation of mass and momentum are applied to the normal/healthy cells, tumour cells, blood vessels and extracellular material. The inclusion of a diffusible nutrient, supplied by the blood vessels, allows the vasculature to have a nonlocal influence on the other phases. Two-dimensional computational simulations are carried out on unstructured, triangular meshes to allow a natural treatment of irregular geometries, and the tumour boundary is captured as a diffuse interface on this mesh, thereby obviating the need to explicitly track the (potentially highly irregular and ill-defined) tumour boundary. A hybrid finite volume/finite element algorithm is used to discretise the continuum model: the application of a conservative, upwind, finite volume scheme to the hyperbolic mass balance equations and a finite element scheme with a stable element pair to the generalised Stokes equations derived from momentum balance, leads to a robust algorithm which does not use any form of artificial stabilisation. The use of a matrix-free Newton iteration with a finite element scheme for the nutrient reaction-diffusion equations allows full nonlinearity in the source terms of the mathematical model.Numerical simulations reveal that this four-phase model reproduces the characteristic pattern of tumour growth in which a necrotic core forms behind an expanding rim of well-vascularised proliferating tumour cells. The simulations consistently predict linear tumour growth rates. The dependence of both the speed with which the tumour grows and the irregularity of the invading tumour front on the model parameters is investigated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Determination of tumour hypoxia with the PET tracer [18F]EF3: improvement of the tumour-to-background ratio in a mouse tumour model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, Nicolas; Bol, Anne; Bast, Marc de; Labar, Daniel; Lee, John; Mahy, Pierre; Gregoire, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    The 2-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)-N-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)acetamide (EF3) is a 2-nitroimidazole derivative which undergoes bioreductive activation under hypoxic conditions. Using the PET tracer [ 18 F]EF3 in mice, tumour-to-muscle ratios ranging from 1.3 to 3.5 were observed. This study investigated the impact of various interventions aimed at increasing [ 18 F]EF3 elimination, thus potentially increasing the tumour-to-noise ratio in mice, by increasing the renal filtration rate (spironolactone, furosemide), decreasing tubular re-absorption (metronidazole, ornidazole, amino acid solution) or stimulating gastro-intestinal elimination (phenobarbital). C3H mice were injected i.v. with an average of 12.95 MBq of [ 18 F]EF3. Drugs were injected i.v. 15 min before the tracer or daily 4 days prior to the experiment (phenobarbital). Anaesthetised mice were imaged from 30 to 300 min with a dedicated animal PET (Mosaic, Philips). Regions of interest were delineated around the tumour, bladder, heart, liver and leg muscle. Radioactivity was expressed as a percentage of injected activity per gram of tissue. Ornidazole decreased the urinary excretion and increased the liver uptake of [ 18 F]EF3, but without causing any changes in the other organs. Phenobarbital significantly increased the liver concentration and decreased radioactivity in blood and muscle without affecting the tracer uptake in tumour. Consequently, a small but non-significant increase in tumour-to-noise ratio was observed. Although some effects were observed with other drugs, they did not modify the tumour-to-noise ratio. Only phenobarbital induced a trend toward an increased tumour-to-noise ratio that could possibly be tested in the clinical situation. (orig.)

  20. Determination of tumour hypoxia with the PET tracer [{sup 18}F]EF3: improvement of the tumour-to-background ratio in a mouse tumour model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Nicolas; Bol, Anne; Bast, Marc de; Labar, Daniel; Lee, John; Mahy, Pierre; Gregoire, Vincent [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Center for Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy, Brussels (Belgium)

    2007-09-15

    The 2-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)-N-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)acetamide (EF3) is a 2-nitroimidazole derivative which undergoes bioreductive activation under hypoxic conditions. Using the PET tracer [{sup 18}F]EF3 in mice, tumour-to-muscle ratios ranging from 1.3 to 3.5 were observed. This study investigated the impact of various interventions aimed at increasing [{sup 18}F]EF3 elimination, thus potentially increasing the tumour-to-noise ratio in mice, by increasing the renal filtration rate (spironolactone, furosemide), decreasing tubular re-absorption (metronidazole, ornidazole, amino acid solution) or stimulating gastro-intestinal elimination (phenobarbital). C3H mice were injected i.v. with an average of 12.95 MBq of [{sup 18}F]EF3. Drugs were injected i.v. 15 min before the tracer or daily 4 days prior to the experiment (phenobarbital). Anaesthetised mice were imaged from 30 to 300 min with a dedicated animal PET (Mosaic, Philips). Regions of interest were delineated around the tumour, bladder, heart, liver and leg muscle. Radioactivity was expressed as a percentage of injected activity per gram of tissue. Ornidazole decreased the urinary excretion and increased the liver uptake of [{sup 18}F]EF3, but without causing any changes in the other organs. Phenobarbital significantly increased the liver concentration and decreased radioactivity in blood and muscle without affecting the tracer uptake in tumour. Consequently, a small but non-significant increase in tumour-to-noise ratio was observed. Although some effects were observed with other drugs, they did not modify the tumour-to-noise ratio. Only phenobarbital induced a trend toward an increased tumour-to-noise ratio that could possibly be tested in the clinical situation. (orig.)

  1. [Occurrence of associated tumours in chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerafin, László; Jakó, János; Varju, Lóránt

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is one of the most common hematologic malignancy. The aim of the authors was to investigate the characteristics of malignancies associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in patients diagnozed between 2000 and 2015. Data of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who had other associated tumours were analysed using the Leukemia/Lymphoma Registry of the Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, Hungary and patient records. Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2015, 526 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia were diagnosed. 95 patients of the 526 patients (18.06%) were diagnosed as having associated other tumours. In 48/95 patients (50.5%) the first diagnosed tumour was chronic lymphocytic leukemia, in 23/95 patients (24.2%) the first recognized malignancy was the associated tumour, whereas in 24/95 patients (25.3%) synchron tumours were diagnosed. The number of patients with more than one associated tumour was 10/95 (10.5%). The total number of tumours was 107. The incidence of chronic lymphoid leukemia increased in the period between 2000 and 2015 as compared to the period between 1983 and 1999 (3.19 vs 5.65/100 000 person/year). The occurrence of associated malignancies increased as well (8.06% vs 18.06%). In addition to the most common tumours (colorectal, breast, lung, prostate), skin squamous cell carcinoma (17/95 patients; 17.9%) and melanoma (6/95 patients; 6.3%) also frequently occurred. The second malignancies were most frequently discovered after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and synchron tumours accounting for 78.5% (84/107) of all associated tumours. The incidence of second malignancies decreased 10 years after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The possible reasons for the high frequency of other tumours associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia are elderly age of patients, immunsuppressed state and, presumably, chemotherapy of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. During the follow up

  2. Oral Squamomelanocytic Tumour in a Dog: a Unique Biphasic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, L V; Avallone, G; Benazzi, C; Sarli, G; Porcellato, I; Brachelente, C; Brunetti, B

    2016-01-01

    In human medicine, squamomelanocytic tumour is a malignant cutaneous neoplasm composed of closely intermingled neoplastic squamous cells and melanocytes. A multinodular gingival tumour in a 16-year-old, mixed breed neutered female dog was examined microscopically. Two populations of neoplastic cells, melanocytic and squamous epithelial cells were intermingled. The melanocytic cells were melan-A positive and cytokeratin AE1-AE3 negative and the squamous component was cytokeratin AE1-AE3 positive and melan-A negative. Bovine papillomavirus was not identified by immunohistochemistry or polymerase chain reaction. A diagnosis of squamomelanocytic tumour was made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Primary brain tumours, meningiomas and brain metastases in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheecke, Magali; Halaska, Michael J; Lok, Christianne A

    2014-01-01

    to obtain better insight into outcome and possibilities of treatment in pregnancy. METHODS: We collected all intracranial tumours (primary brain tumour, cerebral metastasis, or meningioma) diagnosed during pregnancy, registered prospectively and retrospectively by international collaboration since 1973......, respectively. Eight patients (30%) underwent brain surgery, seven patients (26%) had radiotherapy and in three patients (11%) chemotherapy was administered during gestation. Two patients died during pregnancy and four pregnancies were terminated. In 16 (59%) patients elective caesarean section was performed...... were reassuring. CONCLUSION: Adherence to standard protocol for the treatment of brain tumours during pregnancy appears to allow a term delivery and a higher probability of a vaginal delivery....

  4. Results of irradiating brain tumours (1959-1969)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zu Eulenburg, G

    1973-01-01

    The results of the radiation treatment of brain tumours were evaluated for 78 patients. The calculated average survival times, as well as the shape of survival curves show, as compared to numerous other authors, that there is no great deviation for any tumour group. The interpretation of the ratio of an amnesis to survival time shows that with fast growing brain tumours as with glioblastoma, the success of radiotherapy is very small. Radiotherapy was well successful in almost all cases of patients with a longer than average anamnesis.

  5. Synchronous Epithelioid Stromal Tumour and Lipoma in the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Al-Brahim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An 82-year-old man presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A polypoid lesion of the distal stomach with focal ulceration was seen at endoscopy. This was treated by a partial gastrectomy. The resected stomach contained two separate tumours near the pylorus: a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST and an adjacent lipoma. The literature includes case reports of synchronously occurring GIST and adenocarcinoma, GIST and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and GIST and carcinoid tumour. Herein is the first case report of two distinct mesenchymal tumors coexisting in the stomach.

  6. The role of computed tomography in tumours of the larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, C.A.; Chapman, P.; Counter, R.T.; Grundy, A.

    1980-01-01

    A clinical study of computed tomography (CT) was undertaken in 35 patients with tumours involving the larynx. Twenty-seven had primary laryngeal neoplasms, five had tumours arising in adjacent structures but invading the larynx and three who had undergone total laryngectomy were investigated for possible recurrence. The findings were compared with conventional radiological methods and clinical assessment. Confirmation was obtained from laryngectomy specimens in four patients and at autopsy in one. CT provided additional pre-operative information on 14 occasions. This included better delineation of submucosal tumour extent, invasion of the pre-epiglottic space and cartilage displacement or invasion. (author)

  7. Determination of soluble protein contents from RVNRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Manshol Wan Zin; Nurulhuda Othman

    1996-01-01

    This project was carried out to determine the soluble protein contents on RVNRL film vulcanisates, with respect to the RVNRL storage time, gamma irradiation dose absorbed by the latex and the effect of different leaching time and leaching conditions. These three factors are important in the hope to determine the best possible mean of minimizing the soluble protein contents in products made from RVNRL. Within the nine months storage period employed in the study, the results show that, the longer the storage period the less the soluble protein extracted from the film samples. Gamma irradiation dose absorbed by the samples, between 5.3 kGy to 25.2 kGy seems to influence the soluble protein contents of the RVNRL films vulcanisates. The higher the dose the more was the soluble protein extracted from the film samples. At an absorbed dose of 5.3 kGy and 25.2 kGy, the soluble contents were 0. 198 mg/ml and 0.247 mg/ml respectively. At a fixed leaching temperature, the soluble proteins increases with leaching time and at a fixed leaching time, the soluble proteins increases with leaching temperature. ne highest extractable protein contents was determined at a leaching time of 10 minutes and leaching temperature of 90'C The protein analysis were done by using Modified Lowry Method

  8. Solubility Study of Curatives in Various Rubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, R.; Talma, Auke; Datta, Rabin; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The previous works on solubility of curatives in rubbers were mainly carried out in natural rubber. Not too much information available on dissimilar rubbers and this is important because most of the compounds today are blends of dissimilar rubbers. Although solubility can be expected to certain

  9. Solubility Products of M(II) - Carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, Rolf; Berner, Urs

    1999-01-01

    Many solubility data for M(II) carbonates commonly compiled in tables are contradictory and sometimes obviously wrong. The quality of such data has been evaluated based on the original publications and reliable solubility constants have been selected for the carbonates of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb with the help of cross-comparisons. (author)

  10. Hansen Solubility Parameters for Octahedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    1997, 80, 386-&. 5. Hansen, C. M. The three-dimensional solubility parameter -- key to paint component affinities I. J. Paint Technol. 1967, 39, 104...Chai, J.; Zhang, Q. X.; Han, D. X.; Niu, L. Synthesis and Application of Widely Soluble Graphene Sheets. Langmuir 2010, 26, 12314-12320. 12. Hansen, C

  11. A Colorful Solubility Exercise for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugrue, Christopher R.; Mentzen, Hans H., II; Linton, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    A discovery chemistry laboratory has been developed for the introductory organic chemistry student to investigate the concepts of polarity, miscibility, solubility, and density. The simple procedure takes advantage of the solubility of two colored dyes in a series of solvents or solvent mixtures, and the diffusion of colors can be easily…

  12. Narrative skills of children treated for brain tumours: The impact of tumour and treatment related variables on microstructure and macrostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docking, Kimberley; Munro, Natalie; Marshall, Tara; Togher, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The narrative skills of children with brain tumours were examined. Influence of tumour location, radiotherapy, time post-treatment and presence of hydrocephalus was also investigated, as well as associations between narrative and language abilities. Seventeen children (aged 5;6-14;11) treated for brain tumour and their matched controls completed a narrative assessment and comprehensive language testing. Audio recorded narratives were analysed for microstructure and macrostructure elements. Between-group comparisons were conducted. Narrative elements were explored in association with tumour and treatment-related variables. Correlation analysis examined relationships between narrative scores and language test performance. While significant differences were not found between two groups of children across narrative elements, sub-group comparisons revealed marginal differences in macrostructure related to tumour location and hydrocephalus. Children treated with methods other than radiotherapy showed a significant increase in number of mazes in their narratives compared to children who received radiotherapy. Strong positive correlations also existed between narrative elements and language performance. Preliminary findings highlight the importance of investigating narrative abilities as part of a comprehensive language assessment. Macrostructure should be routinely examined where children are diagnosed with either posterior fossa tumour or hydrocephalus or have undergone surgery and/or chemotherapy for brain tumour.

  13. Somatostatin receptor imaging in intracranial tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Scheidhauer, K.; Voth, E.; Schicha, H.; Luyken, C.; Hildebrandt, G.; Klug, N.

    1998-01-01

    The somatostatin analogue [ 111 In-DTPA-d-Phe 1 ]-octreotide ( 111 In-octreotide) allows scintigraphic visualization of somatostatin receptor-expressing tissue. While it is well known that a large variety of tissues express somatostatin receptors and 111 In-octreotide scintigraphy has a clearly defined role in various neuroendocrine diseases, the clinical value of 111 In-octreotide scintigraphy in brain tumours is still under clinical investigation. In 124 patients with 141 brain lesions (63 meningiomas, 24 pituitary adenomas, 10 gliomas WHO class I and II, 12 gliomas WHO class III and IV, 11 neurinomas and 2 neurofibromas, 7 metastases and 12 other varieties: three non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas, two epidermoids, one abscess, one angioleiomyoma, one chordoma, one haemangiopericytoma, one osteosarcoma, one plasmacytoma and one pseudocyst), 111 In-octreotide scintigraphy was performed 4-6 and 24 h after i.v. injection of 110-220 MBq 111 In-octreotide. Planar images of the head in four views with a 128 x 128 matrix and single-photon emission tomographic images (64 x 64 matrix) were acquired, and lesions were graded according to qualitative tracer uptake. Fifty-nine of the 63 meningiomas showed moderate to intense tracer uptake. Nine of 24 pituitary adenomas were visible; the remaining 15 did not show any tracer uptake. None of the class I and II gliomas with an intact blood-brain barrier were detected whereas 11/12 class III and IV gliomas showed 111 In-octreotide uptake. None of the neurinomas or neurofibromas were positive. Five of seven metastases were classified as positive, as were the osteosarcoma, two of three non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas, one abscess, one angioleiomyoma, one chordoma and one haemangiopericytoma. The other varieties (one non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma, two epidermoids, one plasmacytoma and one pseudocyst) did not show 111 In-octreotide uptake. The results demonstrate that a large variety of intracranial lesions express somatostatin receptors and

  14. Somatostatin receptor imaging in intracranial tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.; Scheidhauer, K.; Voth, E.; Schicha, H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Koeln (Germany); Luyken, C.; Hildebrandt, G.; Klug, N. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kolen (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    The somatostatin analogue [{sup 111}In-DTPA-d-Phe{sup 1}]-octreotide ({sup 111}In-octreotide) allows scintigraphic visualization of somatostatin receptor-expressing tissue. While it is well known that a large variety of tissues express somatostatin receptors and {sup 111}In-octreotide scintigraphy has a clearly defined role in various neuroendocrine diseases, the clinical value of {sup 111}In-octreotide scintigraphy in brain tumours is still under clinical investigation. In 124 patients with 141 brain lesions (63 meningiomas, 24 pituitary adenomas, 10 gliomas WHO class I and II, 12 gliomas WHO class III and IV, 11 neurinomas and 2 neurofibromas, 7 metastases and 12 other varieties: three non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas, two epidermoids, one abscess, one angioleiomyoma, one chordoma, one haemangiopericytoma, one osteosarcoma, one plasmacytoma and one pseudocyst), {sup 111}In-octreotide scintigraphy was performed 4-6 and 24 h after i.v. injection of 110-220 MBq {sup 111}In-octreotide. Planar images of the head in four views with a 128 x 128 matrix and single-photon emission tomographic images (64 x 64 matrix) were acquired, and lesions were graded according to qualitative tracer uptake. Fifty-nine of the 63 meningiomas showed moderate to intense tracer uptake. Nine of 24 pituitary adenomas were visible; the remaining 15 did not show any tracer uptake. None of the class I and II gliomas with an intact blood-brain barrier were detected whereas 11/12 class III and IV gliomas showed {sup 111}In-octreotide uptake. None of the neurinomas or neurofibromas were positive. Five of seven metastases were classified as positive, as were the osteosarcoma, two of three non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas, one abscess, one angioleiomyoma, one chordoma and one haemangiopericytoma. The other varieties (one non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma, two epidermoids, one plasmacytoma and one pseudocyst) did not show {sup 111}In-octreotide uptake. The results demonstrate that a large variety of intracranial

  15. A fatal pseudo-tumour: disseminated basidiobolomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemelman Willem A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basidiobolomycosis is a rare disease caused by the fungus Basidiobolus ranarum, member of the class Zygomycetes, order Entomophthorales, found worldwide. Usually basidiobolomycosis is a subcutaneous infection but rarely gastrointestinal manifestations have been described; 13 adults and 10 children and a few retroperitoneal or pulmonary cases. In gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis the colon is most frequently involved, usually presenting with subacute mild abdominal pain. In contrast to children only very few described adult patients had hepatic masses. Definitive diagnosis requires culture, serological testing can be helpful. The fungal morphology and the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon are characteristic histological features. There are no prominent risk factors. Usually surgery and prolonged antifungal therapy are required. Case presentation A 61 year old man presented with progressive left abdominal pain and constipation since a few months. Colonoscopy showed an obstructing tumour in the descending colon, and a hemicolectomy was performed. Histology showed inflammation, possibly caused by a fungal or parasitic infection, without definite identification of an organism. A few weeks postoperatively a CT scan made because of abdominal discomfort, revealed a livermass (6 cm. Treatment with metronidazole, directed against an amoebic liver abscess, was unsuccessful. He developed a marked eosinophilia (27.7%. A liver biopsy was performed and the patient was referred to a university hospital. A repeated CT scan showed a livermass of 9 cm diameter. Review of colon and liver biopsy samples showed extensive necrosis and histiocytes, multinucleated giant cells and numerous eosinophils. Grocott stained sections contained unusually large hyphae surrounded by strongly eosinophilic material in haematoxylin and eosin stained sections (Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. A presumptive diagnosis of Basidiobolus spp. infection was made and treated

  16. Expression of HSP27, HSP72 and MRP proteins in in vitro co-culture of colon tumour cell spheroids with normal cells after incubation with rhTGF- beta1 and/or CPT-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Roman; Jakubowicz-Gil, Joanna; Kandefer-Szerszen, Martyna

    2009-12-01

    We studied the expression of inducible heat shock protein (HSP27, HSP72) and multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) in co-cultures of human colon carcinoma cell spheroids obtained from different grades of tumour with normal human colon epithelium, myofibroblast and endothelial cell monolayers. We also measured the influence of recombinant human transforming growth factor beta1 (rhTGF-beta1) and camptothecin (CPT-11), added as single agents or in combination, on the levels of the HSPs, MRP, interleukin (IL)-6 and nitric oxide (NO). An immunoblotting analysis with densitometry showed that rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11 increased HSP27, HSP72 and MRP expression in tumour cells and myofibroblasts, as well as in co-cultures compared with appropriate controls. By contrast, in colonic epithelium, inhibition of HSPs and MRP was comparable with that of the control. In endothelial cells, HSP72 was undetectable. Direct interaction of colon tumour spheroids with normal myofibroblasts caused a significant, tumour-grade dependent increase in IL-6 production. Production of IL-6 was significantly lowered by rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11. Tumour cell spheroids cultivated alone produced larger amounts of NO than normal cells. In co-culture, the level of the radical decreased compared with the sum of NO produced by the monocultures of the two types of cells. rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11 decreased NO production both in tumour and normal cell monocultures and their co-cultures. In conclusion, direct interactions between tumour and normal cells influence the expression of HSP27, HSP72 and MRP, and alter IL-6 and NO production. rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11 may potentate resistance to chemotherapy by increasing HSP and MRP expression but, on the other hand, they may limit tumour cell spread by decreasing the level of some soluble mediators of inflammation (IL-6 and NO).

  17. Indomethacin solubility estimation in 1,4-dioxane + water mixtures by the extended hildebrand solubility approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller A Ruidiaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Extended Hildebrand Solubility Approach (EHSA was successfully applied to evaluate the solubility of Indomethacin in 1,4-dioxane + water mixtures at 298.15 K. An acceptable correlation-performance of EHSA was found by using a regular polynomial model in order four of the W interaction parameter vs. solubility parameter of the mixtures (overall deviation was 8.9%. Although the mean deviation obtained was similar to that obtained directly by means of an empiric regression of the experimental solubility vs. mixtures solubility parameters, the advantages of EHSA are evident because it requires physicochemical properties easily available for drugs.

  18. Results of primary and postoperative radiotherapy of malignant tumours of the larynx and posterior pharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppele, G.

    1980-01-01

    In a study on the epidemiology of laryngeal and pharyngeal tumours, a coincidence was found between established alcohol abuse and tumours of the two organs. The results of surgery followed by gammatron radiotherapy (laryngeal tumours) or betatron therapy (pharyngeal tumours) are prescuted and discussed. (APR) [de

  19. Multiphase modelling of vascular tumour growth in two spatial dimensions

    KAUST Repository

    Hubbard, M.E.; Byrne, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    the (potentially highly irregular and ill-defined) tumour boundary. A hybrid finite volume/finite element algorithm is used to discretise the continuum model: the application of a conservative, upwind, finite volume scheme to the hyperbolic mass balance equations

  20. Bone marrow oedema associated with benign and malignant bone tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steven.james@roh.nhs.uk; Panicek, D.M. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Davies, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Bone marrow oedema is associated with a wide variety of pathological processes including both benign and malignant bone tumours. This imaging finding in relation to intraosseous tumours can aid in providing a more focused differential diagnosis. In this review, we will discuss the MR imaging of bone marrow oedema surrounding intraosseous neoplasms. The different pulse sequences used in differentiating underlying tumour from surrounding oedema are discussed along with the role of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Benign lesions commonly associated with bone marrow oedema include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma and Langerhan's cell histiocytosis. Metastases and malignant primary bone tumours such as osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma may also be surrounded by bone marrow oedema. The imaging findings of these conditions are reviewed and illustrated. Finally, the importance of bone marrow oedema in assessment of post chemotherapeutic response is addressed.

  1. Non-pituitary origin sellar tumours mimicking pituitary macroadenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abele, T.A., E-mail: travaus@gmail.com [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States); Yetkin, Z.F.; Raisanen, J.M.; Mickey, B.E.; Mendelsohn, D.B. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Although the large majority of sellar tumours are pituitary adenomas, several other pituitary and non-pituitary origin tumours arise in the sellar and parasellar regions. Given their location, non-adenomatous lesions frequently mimic pituitary macroadenomas and can pose a diagnostic challenge for the radiologist. Distinguishing rare sellar lesions from the common macroadenoma helps to direct the correct surgical approach and reduce the risk of incomplete resection and/or complications such as cerebrospinal fluid leak with the potential for meningitis. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging features of non-pituitary-origin sellar tumours, focusing on characteristics that may distinguish them from pituitary macroadenomas. Lesions include meningioma, metastatic disease, epidermoid cyst, germinoma, chondrosarcoma, giant cell tumour, and giant aneurysm.

  2. Inhibition of platelet-tumour cell interaction with ibrutinib reduces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BTK) inhibitor, ibrutinib, in tumour cell-platelet crosstalk in lung cancer. Methods: Human lung cancer cells A549 were treated with ibrutinib or DMSO. mRNA expression was assessed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain ...

  3. Malignant melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy affecting the occipital squama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patankar T

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the occipital squama, which underwent malignant transformation in a nine-month-old infant is reported and pertinent literature reviewed.

  4. Differential Equations Related to the Williams-Bjerknes Tumour Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bjerknes tumour model for a cancer which spreads through an epithelial basal layer modeled on ⊂ 2. The solution of this problem is a family =(()), where each () could be considered as an approximation to the probability that the ...

  5. Chemical Meningitis with Intracranial Tumours | De Klerk | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two patients with intracranial epidermoid tumours who had a chemical meningitis as part of their clinical course, are described. The importance of recognising this as a presenting complaint is stressed. The pathogenesis and treatment are discussed.

  6. Selection of viable cell subpopulations from murine tumours using FACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, D.J.; Durand, R.E.; Olive, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors developed a technique which enables isolation of viable tumour cells subpopulation as a function of their distance from the blood supply. The basis for this separation procedure is that the fluorochrome, Hoechst 33342, as a result of its high avidity for cellular DNA, exhibits a marked diffusion/consumption gradient when it has to pass through several cell layers. As a result intravenous injection of Hoechst 33342 into tumour bearing animals, results in a heterogeneous straining pattern within the tumour with cells close to blood vessels being brightly fluorescent while those more distant are less intensely stained. Since these differences in staining intensity persist after tumour disaggregation, cells can be sorted into subpopulations on the basis of their fluorescence intensity using a fluorescence activated cell sorter. This technique offers the unique possibility of identifying the location of those cell subpopulations resistant to treatment with either radiation or chemotherapeutic drugs

  7. Multicentre study of Wilm's tumours treated by different therapeutic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National Wilm's Tumour Study (NWTS) group and the. International ... improvement in the survival of children with cancer in ... at diagnosis, sex, incidence, presenting symptoms, pre- ... localized in the left kidney in 22 (55%) patients, the right.

  8. A deadly combination of AIDS, TB and cardiac tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahasrabudhe, Tushar Ramesh

    2013-05-22

    Immunocompromised status in AIDS makes differential diagnosis of any symptom very difficult for a clinician. Sharp clinical judgement and plenty of investigations may be needed to reach the diagnosis, as in this case. We hereby present a case of AIDS and active tuberculosis (TB) under treatment. The patient developed acute onset multifocal neurological symptoms following an episode of fever and diarrhoea. The MRI scan revealed numerous large cerebral infarcts. On investigations to evaluate brain infarcts, we made a diagnosis of left atrial cardiac tumour. Association of cardiac tumours with AIDS has only been rarely reported. It is uncertain if these can be opportunistic tumours in AIDS. The patient successfully came out of this deadly combination of diseases, viz AIDS, TB and large brain infarcts due to atrial tumour; with almost complete recovery.

  9. Analysis of the fluctuations of the tumour/host interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotti, Edoardo; Vyshemirsky, Vladislav; Stella, Sabrina; Dogo, Federico; Chignola, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    In a recent analysis of metabolic scaling in solid tumours we found a scaling law that interpolates between the power laws μ ∝ V and μ ∝V 2 / 3, where μ is the metabolic rate expressed as the glucose absorption rate and V is the tumour volume. The scaling law fits quite well both in vitro and in vivo data, however we also observed marked fluctuations that are associated with the specific biological properties of individual tumours. Here we analyse these fluctuations, in an attempt to find the population-wide distribution of an important parameter (A) which expresses the total extent of the interface between the solid tumour and the non-cancerous environment. Heuristic considerations suggest that the values of the A parameter follow a lognormal distribution, and, allowing for the large uncertainties of the experimental data, our statistical analysis confirms this.

  10. DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capper, David; Jones, David T.W.; Sill, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging - with substantial inter-observer variabil......Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging - with substantial inter......-observer variability in the histopathological diagnosis of many tumour types. Here we present a comprehensive approach for the DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours across all entities and age groups, and demonstrate its application in a routine diagnostic setting. We show...

  11. Accounting for treatment delays when treating highly proliferative tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.; Metcalfe, P.; Hoban, P.

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the possibility of increasing the dose per fraction or increasing the number of fractions to account for treatment delays occurring during radiotherapy treatments for highly proliferative tumours. The linear quadratic model with time was used to determine the difference in biological effective dose (BED) for the original schedule and the schedule including a treatment delay. Tables of extra fractions and extra dose per fraction required to account for a number of possible delays have been determined. It has been shown that for tumours with very short potential doubling times it is best to deliver the extra dose as an increase in dose per fraction rather than an increase in the number of fractions, while for tumours with moderately short potential doubling times (above 7 days) the reverse is true. The equivalent uninterrupted schedules, which would have delivered the same effects to the tumour, have also been determined. (author)

  12. Radiation-induced bone tumours in the guinea-pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A remarkably high proportion of guinea-pigs given localized irradiations of 20 Gy x-rays developed bone tumours, 46% of all irradiated with 20 Gy and 86% of those that survived at least a year. Untreated controls were not included in the present experiment, but the authors refer to an earlier experiment using guinea-pigs from the same colony where no bone tumour occurred in 69 unirradiated animals followed for their natural life span i.e. up to 87 months. It is concluded that the author's strain of guinea-pig (details given in a previous paper, Int. J. Radiol. Biol., 40, 265) is particularly prone to radiation-induced bone tumours. Their possible value for investigating processes associated with radiation induction of bone tumours is further enhanced by their relatively large size and long life span (up to 7 years). (U.K.)

  13. 4. Primary Malignant Bone Tumours at the University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    1Orthopaedic Unit Department of Surgery, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. 2Department of ... primary malignant bone tumours at UTH and the hospital ..... unavailable resources. ... bone tumors in Mexico City: retrospective.

  14. Giant growth-hormone secreting pituitary tumour with etracranial extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ip Taipang; Chan Fuluk; Kung Annie Waichee; Lam Karen Siuling [Univ. of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong). Depts. of Medicine and Diagnostic Radiology

    1996-02-01

    A 19 year old female patient with typical features of acromegaly was found to have an extensive pituitary tumour with suprasellar, lateral and inferior extensions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also showed a portion of the tumour extending from the right cavernous sinus through the foramen ovale to become extracranial. Serum growth hormone (GH) was 52.6 mU/L basally and remained elevated after oral glucose, confirming the diagnosis of acromegaly. Treatment with the long-acting somatostatin analogue, octreotide, for 6 months led to a 30% reduction in tumour volume of the intracranial portion but no effect on the extracranial and sphenoidal extensions. She was subsequently treated with trans-sphenoidal surgery followed by external irradiation. The possibility of perineural spread of the tumour was considered. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  15. Giant growth-hormone secreting pituitary tumour with etracranial extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip Taipang; Chan Fuluk; Kung Annie Waichee; Lam Karen Siuling

    1996-01-01

    A 19 year old female patient with typical features of acromegaly was found to have an extensive pituitary tumour with suprasellar, lateral and inferior extensions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also showed a portion of the tumour extending from the right cavernous sinus through the foramen ovale to become extracranial. Serum growth hormone (GH) was 52.6 mU/L basally and remained elevated after oral glucose, confirming the diagnosis of acromegaly. Treatment with the long-acting somatostatin analogue, octreotide, for 6 months led to a 30% reduction in tumour volume of the intracranial portion but no effect on the extracranial and sphenoidal extensions. She was subsequently treated with trans-sphenoidal surgery followed by external irradiation. The possibility of perineural spread of the tumour was considered. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  16. Carcinoid heart disease secondary to ovarian tumour: a logical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... Case Study: Carcinoid heart disease secondary to ovarian tumour: a logical sequence of management? 224. 2013 ... management priorities need to be different. .... and right heart failure.1 Carcinoid crisis can be precipitated.

  17. Epidemiology of childhood cancer and the SACCSG tumour regis try

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (biochemistry, cell biology, immunology and genetics); (ii) the tissular or organ level ... geographical distribution, sex and ethnicity. It provides .... developed countries, in South Africa brain tumours ... substantial underreporting, the difference.

  18. Isolation and identification of marine fish tumour (odontoma associated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify fish tumour associated bacteria. Methods: The marine fish Sphyraena jello with odontoma was collected from in Tamil Nadu (Southeast India, and tumour associated bacteria were isolated. Then the isolated bacteria were identified based on molecular characters. Results: A total of 4 different bacterial species were isolated from tumour tissue. The bacterial species were Bacillus sp., Pontibacter sp., Burkholderia sp. and Macrococcus sp., and the sequences were submitted in DNA Data Bank of Japan with accession numbers of AB859240, AB859241, AB859242 and AB859243 respectively. Conclusions: Four different bacterial species were isolated from Sphyraena jello, but the role of bacteria within tumour needs to be further investigated.

  19. Quantitation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in human brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S; Bock, E; Warecka, K

    1980-01-01

    The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA) content of 58 human brain tumours was determined by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis, using monospecific antibody against GFA. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, spongioblastomas, ependymomas and medulloblastomas contained relatively high...

  20. Neutron therapy for malignant tumours of the salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, W.; Orr, J.A.; Arnott, S.J.; Jack, W.J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A group of 28 patients with malignant tumours of the salivary glands have been treated by d(15)+Be neutron irradiation. Nineteen patients had inoperable cancers. Three had gross recurrent cancer and three had measurable residual cancer after surgery. Three patients were treated post-operatively for microscopic residual disease. Seven different histological types of tumour were included. Six out of 8 patients with adenoid cystic carcinomas have lasting local tumour control. 54% of the gross tumours were locally controlled. All three of those classified as microscopic residual disease have no evidence of local recurrence. 11/14 cancers given 16.0 Gy or more in 20 fractions in 4 weeks were controlled compared with only 1/8 given a lower dose. 12/19 cancers less than 10.0 cm maximum diameter were controlled. The radiation-related morbidity was similar to that observed after photon therapy. (Auth.)

  1. Extinction rates in tumour public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlee, Philip; Altrock, Philipp M

    2017-09-01

    Cancer evolution and progression are shaped by cellular interactions and Darwinian selection. Evolutionary game theory incorporates both of these principles, and has been proposed as a framework to understand tumour cell population dynamics. A cornerstone of evolutionary dynamics is the replicator equation, which describes changes in the relative abundance of different cell types, and is able to predict evolutionary equilibria. Typically, the replicator equation focuses on differences in relative fitness. We here show that this framework might not be sufficient under all circumstances, as it neglects important aspects of population growth. Standard replicator dynamics might miss critical differences in the time it takes to reach an equilibrium, as this time also depends on cellular turnover in growing but bounded populations. As the system reaches a stable manifold, the time to reach equilibrium depends on cellular death and birth rates. These rates shape the time scales, in particular, in coevolutionary dynamics of growth factor producers and free-riders. Replicator dynamics might be an appropriate framework only when birth and death rates are of similar magnitude. Otherwise, population growth effects cannot be neglected when predicting the time to reach an equilibrium, and cell-type-specific rates have to be accounted for explicitly. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Converting dose distributions into tumour control probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahum, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    The endpoints in radiotherapy that are truly of relevance are not dose distributions but the probability of local control, sometimes known as the Tumour Control Probability (TCP) and the Probability of Normal Tissue Complications (NTCP). A model for the estimation of TCP based on simple radiobiological considerations is described. It is shown that incorporation of inter-patient heterogeneity into the radiosensitivity parameter a through s a can result in a clinically realistic slope for the dose-response curve. The model is applied to inhomogeneous target dose distributions in order to demonstrate the relationship between dose uniformity and s a . The consequences of varying clonogenic density are also explored. Finally the model is applied to the target-volume DVHs for patients in a clinical trial of conformal pelvic radiotherapy; the effect of dose inhomogeneities on distributions of TCP are shown as well as the potential benefits of customizing the target dose according to normal-tissue DVHs. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs

  3. Converting dose distributions into tumour control probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahum, A E [The Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Joint Dept. of Physics

    1996-08-01

    The endpoints in radiotherapy that are truly of relevance are not dose distributions but the probability of local control, sometimes known as the Tumour Control Probability (TCP) and the Probability of Normal Tissue Complications (NTCP). A model for the estimation of TCP based on simple radiobiological considerations is described. It is shown that incorporation of inter-patient heterogeneity into the radiosensitivity parameter a through s{sub a} can result in a clinically realistic slope for the dose-response curve. The model is applied to inhomogeneous target dose distributions in order to demonstrate the relationship between dose uniformity and s{sub a}. The consequences of varying clonogenic density are also explored. Finally the model is applied to the target-volume DVHs for patients in a clinical trial of conformal pelvic radiotherapy; the effect of dose inhomogeneities on distributions of TCP are shown as well as the potential benefits of customizing the target dose according to normal-tissue DVHs. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs.

  4. CT-stereotactic interstitial Curie-therapy using iodine-125 seeds in inoperable brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundinger, F.

    1985-01-01

    Iodine-125 seeds are a new radio-drug featuring favourable physical, biological and radiation protection characteristics and available for interstitial (local) irradiation (Curie-therapy) of non-resectable brain tumours as such (cerebral tumours) or of tumours of the interior of the neuro-cranium (extracerebral tumours). Emitters are inserted right into the tumour or tumour recurrence by means of computerized-tomography stereotaxy either permanently or temporarily with dose release being largely restricted to the tumour and the surrounding brain tissue being spared. (orig.) [de

  5. An experimental study of tumour size and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.A.; Denekamp, J.

    1989-01-01

    When designing experimental studies of tumours, it is considered important to control all variables that might alter the radiosensitivity and hence influence the variability of the data. One such variable is tumour size. We have studied the regrowth delay of a mammary carcinoma treated at 2-10 mm mean diameter (a 125-fold change of volume) with X-rays alone or X-rays plus misonidazole (MISO). The data were analysed to give dose-response curves, using four endpoints. Regrowth to a fixed size (4.5 mm larger than treatment size), or by a fixed increment (4 times the original volume) was expressed either as absolute delay, or as specific growth delay to allow for the changes in volume doubling time as the tumour grows. The method of analysis made no difference to the measured sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) for MISO. The SER was dose-dependent, being higher doses, but was not different in tumours of 2 or 10 mm diameter. However, when comparing response to X-rays alone, the method of analysis made a very big difference to the conclusions. Regrowth to R + 4.5 mm showed no change in radiosensitivity with tumour size, but regrowth to 4 times the original volume (the most logical endpoint) indicated that large tumours were more sensitive than small. We conclude that regrowth delay may be an inappropriate method for comparing absolute sensitivities of tumours of different sizes. However, for studying the effectiveness of a radiomodifier the constraints of tumour size at irradiation seem to be less severe than previously believed. (author). 8 refs.; 8 figs

  6. Flow cytometric applications to tumour biology: prospects and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.; Johnson, T.S.; Tokita, N.; Gillette, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review of cytometry instrumentation and its potential applications in tumour biology is presented. DNA distribution measurements of cells from spontaneous dog tumours and cultured cells after exposure to X-rays, alpha particles or adriamycin are shown. The data show that DNA fluorescence measurements have application in the study of cell kinetics after either radiation or drug treatment. Extensive and careful experimentation is needed, however, to utilize the sophisticated developments in flow cytometry instrumentation. (author)

  7. Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human thyroid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klagge, A; Krause, K; Schierle, K; Steinert, F; Dralle, H; Fuhrer, D

    2010-04-01

    Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are expressed in various endocrine tumours. The expression of SSTR at the tumour cell surface confers the possibility for diagnostic imaging and therapy of tumours using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues. The majority of currently available somatostatin analogues show a higher binding affinity for the SSTR2 subtype. To date, the precise expression pattern of the SSTR subtypes 1-5 in thyroid epithelial tumours remains to be determined. We investigated the mRNA expression of SSTR1-5 in benign and malignant epithelial thyroid tumours [20 cold thyroid nodules (CTNs), 20 toxic thyroid nodules (TTNs), 20 papillary, 20 follicular, and 5 anaplastic carcinomas (PTCs, FTCs, ATCs, respectively)] and compared them to normal surrounding thyroid tissues. Four out of five SSTR subtypes were detected in malignant thyroid tumours, benign neoplasia, and normal surrounding tissue with a predominant expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5, and a weak expression of SSTR1 and SSTR3. Weak SSTR4 mRNA expression was detected in some PTCs. Compared to normal thyroid tissue, SSTR2 was significantly upregulated in PTC and ATC. In addition significant upregulation of SSTR3 was found in PTC. SSTR5 mRNA expression was increased in PTC and FTC and significantly decreased in CTN and TTN compared to normal thyroid tissue. SSTR2 is the predominant subtype in thyroid epithelial tumours with a high expression pattern, in particular, in PTC . Perspectively, the expression of distinct SSTR in thyroid epithelial tumours might represent a promising avenue for diagnostics and therapy of advanced thyroid cancer with somatostatin analogues. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  8. A 22-year Northern Irish experience of carotid body tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Stephen; O'Donnell, Mark; Harkin, Denis; Loughrey, Maurice; Lee, Bernard; Blair, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Carotid body tumours (CBTs) are rare vascular neoplasms originating in paraganglionic cells of the carotid bifurcation. The aim of this study was to review all patients diagnosed with CBTs in Northern Ireland. A retrospective review was performed of all patients who had CBTs treated at our institutions between 1987 and 2009. Patient demographics, clinical symptomatology, investigative modality, therapeutic intervention, pathological analysis and long-term outcomes were assessed. Twenty-nine patients were identified with 33 CBTs and three glomus intravagale tumours (GITs). Six patients had bilateral CBTs (21%), one of whom had a synchronous GIT. Twenty-six patients underwent a total of 30 operative procedures for the resection of 28 CBTs and 3 GITs. Conventional operative treatment included subadventitial tumour excision. A vascular shunt facilitated arterial reconstruction following the removal of seven (23%) tumours and on six of these occasions (19%) continuity was restored with an interposition vein graft. For access the external carotid artery was ligated during the removal of four tumours (13%). Two tumours were considered malignant. No peri-operative mortalities were recorded. Immediate complications included peri-operative stroke secondary to an occluded vein graft (n=1), requirement of tracheostomy (n=2), emergency haematoma drainage (n=2) and transient cranial nerve damage (n=8). Late complications included pseudoaneurysm of vein graft with subsequent stoke (n=1), permanent cranial nerve damage (n=9), Horner's syndrome (n=1) and an asymptomatic vein graft occlusion (n=1). One patient had tumour recurrence two years post-operatively and died due to pulmonary metastases. Two other patients died of unrelated causes. All other patients remain well with no evidence of tumour recurrence at mean followup of 1801 days (range 159-9208 days). Our long-term experience is comparable with other reported case series where surgical intervention conferred a long

  9. Characterisation of musculoskeletal tumours by multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patni, Ruchi S.; Gogoi, Nripen [Assam Medical College, Department of Radio-diagnosis, Dibrugarh, Assam (India); Boruah, Deb K. [Assam Medical College, Department of Radio-diagnosis, Dibrugarh, Assam (India); M-Lane, RCC-4, Assam Medical College Campus, Dibrugarh, Assam (India); Sanyal, Shantiranjan [Airedale General Hospital, Consultant Radiologist, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Gogoi, Bidyut B. [NEIGHRMS, Department of Pathology, Shillong, Meghalaya (India); Patni, Maninder [Geetanjali Medical College, Department of Anesthesiology, Udaipur, Rajasthan (India); Khandelia, Rosy [Assam Medical College, Department of Pathology, Dibrugarh, Assam (India)

    2017-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of multi-voxel proton MR spectroscopy in differentiating benign and malignant musculoskeletal tumours in a more objective way and to correlate the MRS data parameters with histopathology. A hospital-based prospective study was carried out comprising 42 patients who underwent MRI examinations from 1 July 2013 to 30 June 2014. After routine sequences, single-slice multi-voxel proton MR spectroscopy was included at TE-135 using the PRESS sequence. The voxel with the maximum choline/Cr ratio was used for analysis of data in 32 patients. The strength of association between the MR spectroscopy findings and the nature of tumour and histopathological grading were assessed. Of the 42 patients, the MR spectra were not of diagnostic quality in 10. In the remaining 32 patients, 12 (37.5%) had benign and 20 (62.5%) malignant tumours. The mean choline/Cr ratio was 6.97 ± 5.95 (SD) for benign tumours and 25.39 ± 17.72 (SD) for malignant tumours. In our study statistical significance was noted between the choline/Cr ratio and the histological nature of musculoskeletal tumours (p = 0.002) assessed by unpaired t-test. The choline/Cr ratio and histological grading were also found to be significant (p = 0.001) when assessed by one-way ANOVA test. Multi-voxel MR spectroscopy showed a higher choline/Cr ratio in malignant musculoskeletal tumours than in benign ones (p = 0.002). The choline/Cr ratio and histological grading of musculoskeletal tumours also showed statistical significance (p = 0.001). (orig.)

  10. Radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolyszewski, J.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the principles of radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system, according to the experience of the Institute of Oncology in Krakow. The text was designed primarily for the radiotherapists involved in the treatment of tumours of the central nervous system, and may be used as an auxiliary textbook for those preparing for the examination in radiotherapy. (author)

  11. Preoperative embolization of hypervascular head and neck tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A. K.; Purkayastha, S.; Bodhey, N. K.; Kapilamoorthy, T. R.; Kesavadas, C.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The embolization of vascular tumours of the head and neck has become an important adjunct to the surgical treatment of these tumours. A vascular tumour in the head and neck region in a surgically treatable patient may be a candidate for embolization. Palliative embolization may be the sole treatment for high risk patients. Reducing intraoperative bleeding may shorten surgery time thus decreasing morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of embolization as an adjunct to surgery or as a curative measure in the management of hypervascular head and neck tumours. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 46 consecutive patients 27 men and 16 women; mean age, 37.8 years) with 48 hypervascular head and neck tumours that had undergone preoperative transarterial, direct puncture or combined mode of embolization. Diagnosis of tumours was made on the basis of findings of imaging studies. The 46 patients underwent embolization either through transarterial route, by direct puncture technique or both direct puncture and arterial route. The devascularization reached 90-95% with the use of NBCA. The amount of devascularization reached by transarterial particle embolization is a little lesser. One patient (carotid body tumour) developed mild unilateral seventh, ninth and 10th cranial nerve palsy after transarterial embolization, transient hemiparesis was seen in another patient (nasopharyngeal angiofibroma). Both patients improved completely with steroids and had no deficit on follow up. One patient developed delayed glue migration into the middle cerebral artery territory 6 h after the procedure with no reported increase in size of the lesion in the following 5 years. Preoperative embolization of hypervascular tumour of head and neck region appears to be safe and improves the chance of complete removal during surgery with minimal blood loss

  12. Pleural Mesothelioma Surveillance: Validity of Cases from a Tumour Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Labrèche

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pleural mesothelioma is a rare tumour associated with exposure to asbestos fibres. Fewer than than one-quarter of cases registered in the Quebec Tumour Registry (QTR have been compensated as work-related. While establishing a surveillance system, this led to questioning as to whether there has been over-registration of cases that are not authentic pleural mesotheliomas in the QTR.

  13. Scintigraphic assessment of vascularity and blood-tissue barrier of human brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Front, D.

    1978-01-01

    Assessment of vascularity and blood-tissue barrier was performed by sequential scintigraphy in 43 patients with brain tumours. The blood-tumour barrier was evaluated by use of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, and vascularity using sup(99m)Tc-labelled red blood cells. Three groups of tumours were found: tumours with low vascularity and permeable barrier, tumours with high vascularity and permeable barrier, and tumours with low vascularity and relatively impermeable barrier. The first group indicates that when vessels are permeable, there may be a rapid penetration of large amounts of pertechnetate into the tumour even when vascularity is not increased. In the other two groups penetration of pertechnetate into the tumour is affected by vascularity, as it determines the total area where passage of the radiopharmaceutical takes place. It is suggested that the permeability of the blood-tumour barrier and the amount of vascularity may have an effect on the success of chemotherapy in brain tumours. (author)

  14. Serum Soluble Corin is Decreased in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Fangfang; Shi, Jijun; Han, Xiujie; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Yan; Zhi, Zhongwen; Zhang, Fuding; Shen, Yun; Ma, Juanjuan; Song, Yulin; Hu, Weidong

    2015-07-01

    Soluble corin was decreased in coronary heart disease. Given the connections between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, circulating corin might be a candidate marker of stroke risk. However, the association between circulating corin and stroke has not yet been studied in humans. Here, we aimed to examine the association in patients wtith stroke and community-based healthy controls. Four hundred eighty-one patients with ischemic stroke, 116 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, and 2498 healthy controls were studied. Serum soluble corin and some conventional risk factors of stroke were examined. Because circulating corin was reported to be varied between men and women, the association between serum soluble corin and stroke was evaluated in men and women, respectively. Patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke had a significantly lower level of serum soluble corin than healthy controls in men and women (all P values, stroke than men in the highest quartile. Women in the lowest quartile of serum soluble corin were also more likely to have ischemic (OR, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-5.44) and hemorrhagic (OR, 8.54; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-31.02) stroke than women in the highest quartile. ORs of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were significantly increased with the decreasing levels of serum soluble corin in men and women (all P values for trend, stroke compared with healthy controls. Our findings raise the possibility that serum soluble corin may have a pathogenic role in stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Adaptation to statins restricts human tumour growth in Nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follet, Julie; Rémy, Lionel; Hesry, Vincent; Simon, Brigitte; Gillet, Danièle; Auvray, Pierrick; Corcos, Laurent; Le Jossic-Corcos, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Statins have long been used as anti-hypercholesterolemia drugs, but numerous lines of evidence suggest that they may also bear anti-tumour potential. We have recently demonstrated that it was possible to isolate cancer cells adapted to growth in the continuous presence of lovastatin. These cells grew more slowly than the statin-sensitive cells of origin. In the present study, we compared the ability of both statin-sensitive and statin-resistant cells to give rise to tumours in Nude mice. HGT-1 human gastric cancer cells and L50 statin-resistant derivatives were injected subcutaneously into Nude mice and tumour growth was recorded. At the end of the experiment, tumours were recovered and marker proteins were analyzed by western blotting, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. L50 tumours grew more slowly, showed a strong decrease in cyclin B1, over-expressed collagen IV, and had reduced laminin 332, VEGF and CD34 levels, which, collectively, may have restricted cell division, cell adhesion and neoangiogenesis. Taken together, these results showed that statin-resistant cells developed into smaller tumours than statin-sensitive cells. This may be reflective of the cancer restricting activity of statins in humans, as suggested from several retrospective studies with subjects undergoing statin therapy for several years

  16. Pituitary tumour causing gigantism. Morphology and in vitro hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anniko, M; Ritzén, E M

    1986-01-01

    True gigantism with overproduction of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) was diagnosed in a 13-year-old boy. The clinical history indicated that the tumour had caused an oversecretion of GH since the age of 4-5 years. At diagnosis, the sella turcica was markedly enlarged. No infiltrative growth was noted at surgery. Endocrine investigations showed elevated GH and PRL secretion. Light and electron microscopy of tumour tissue revealed densely packed pleomorphic cells of both GH and PRL type. In addition, oncocyte-like cells were observed. Organ culture of pieces of tumour tissue demonstrated continued secretion of GH and PRL into the medium for more than 5 days in vitro. Addition of bromocriptine to the medium caused a rapid decline in PRL secretion while GH secretion remained the same. X-ray irradiation in vitro also caused a decrease in PRL secretion. These effects of bromocriptine and X-ray on hormone secretion in vitro mirrored the corresponding effect of treatment, when the patient showed signs of tumour recurrence after pituitary surgery. It is concluded that also in childhood, the in vitro response of tumour tissue to various treatments may be explored as a possible way to predict the efficacy of pharmacological or irradiation treatment of pituitary tumours.

  17. Apparent diffusion coefficient correlation with oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Okazumi, Shinichi; Hayano, Kohichi; Satoh, Asami; Saitoh, Hiroshige; Shimada, Hideaki; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Matsubara, Hisahiro [Chiba University, Department of Frontier Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Kazama, Toshiki [Chiba University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we hypothesised that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values might be correlated with the collagen content and tumour angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between ADC values of ESCC before treatment and oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis. Seventeen patients with ESCC were enrolled. The ADC values were calculated from the DWI score. Seventeen patients who had undergone oesophagectomy were analysed for tumour stroma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34. Tissue collagen was stained with azocarmine and aniline blue to quantitatively analyse the extracellular matrix in cancer stroma. Tissues were stained with VEGF and CD34 to analyse the angiogenesis. The ADC values decreased with stromal collagen growth. We found a negative correlation between the tumour ADC and the amount of stromal collagen (r = -0.729, P = 0.001), i.e. the ADC values decreased with growth of VEGF. We also found a negative correlation between the ADC of the tumours and the amount of VEGF (r = 0.538, P = 0.026). Our results indicated that the ADC value may be a novel prognostic factor and contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. circle Magnetic resonance apparent diffusion coefficient values inversely indicate tumour stromal collagen circle There is also negative correlation between ADCs and vascular endothelial growth factor circle ADC values may contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. (orig.)

  18. Quantifying heterogeneity in human tumours using MRI and PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Marie-Claude; O'Connor, James P B; Boellaard, Ronald; Thacker, Neil A; Jackson, Alan

    2012-03-01

    Most tumours, even those of the same histological type and grade, demonstrate considerable biological heterogeneity. Variations in genomic subtype, growth factor expression and local microenvironmental factors can result in regional variations within individual tumours. For example, localised variations in tumour cell proliferation, cell death, metabolic activity and vascular structure will be accompanied by variations in oxygenation status, pH and drug delivery that may directly affect therapeutic response. Documenting and quantifying regional heterogeneity within the tumour requires histological or imaging techniques. There is increasing evidence that quantitative imaging biomarkers can be used in vivo to provide important, reproducible and repeatable estimates of tumoural heterogeneity. In this article we review the imaging methods available to provide appropriate biomarkers of tumour structure and function. We also discuss the significant technical issues involved in the quantitative estimation of heterogeneity and the range of descriptive metrics that can be derived. Finally, we have reviewed the existing clinical evidence that heterogeneity metrics provide additional useful information in drug discovery and development and in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Emotional and personality changes following brain tumour resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lisanne M; Drummond, Katharine J; Andrewes, David G

    2016-07-01

    Psychological distress has a high prevalence in brain tumour patients, and understanding the emotional and personality changes that may follow neurosurgery is important for clinical management of these patients. We aimed to characterise these emotional and personality changes using subjective, observer-rated and clinical measures. We examined subjective changes in emotional experience and observer-rated changes to personality disturbances following neurosurgery for brain tumours (n=44), compared to a control group that had undergone spinal surgery (n=26). Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a Subjective Emotional Change Questionnaire. Observers who knew the patients well also completed the Iowa Rating Scale of Personality Change. Compared to controls, patients with tumours reported significantly more changes to their subjective experience of emotions following neurosurgery, particularly anger, disgust and sadness. For the observer-ratings, tumour patients were described as having significant changes in the personality disturbances of irritability, impulsivity, moodiness, inflexibility, and being easily overwhelmed. Anxiety and depression were not significantly different between groups. Neurosurgical resection of a brain tumour is a major life event that changes patients' subjective experiences of different emotions, and leads to observer-rated changes in personality. In this study, these changes were not accompanied by increases in anxiety or depression. We conclude with a discussion of biological and psychosocial mechanisms that can impact emotional functioning and personality in patients with brain tumours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: correlation between MSCT features and pathological classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yanji; Dong, Zhi; Li, Zi-Ping; Feng, Shi-Ting [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Chen, Jie [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Gastroenterology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Chan, Tao; Chen, Minhu [Union Hospital, Hong Kong, Medical Imaging Department, Shatin, N.T. (China); Lin, Yuan [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Pathology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2014-11-15

    We aimed to evaluate the multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) features of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (P-NENs) and analyse the correlation between the MSCT features and pathological classification of P-NENs. Forty-one patients, preoperatively investigated by MSCT and subsequently operated on with a histological diagnosis of P-NENs, were included. Various MSCT features of the primary tumour, lymph node, and distant metastasis were analysed. The relationship between MSCT features and pathologic classification of P-NENs was analysed with univariate and multivariate models. Contrast-enhanced images showed significant differences among the three grades of tumours in the absolute enhancement (P = 0.013) and relative enhancement (P = 0.025) at the arterial phase. Univariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences among the tumours of different grades (based on World Health Organization [WHO] 2010 classification) in tumour size (P = 0.001), tumour contour (P < 0.001), cystic necrosis (P = 0.001), tumour boundary (P = 0.003), dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (P = 0.001), peripancreatic tissue or vascular invasion (P < 0.001), lymphadenopathy (P = 0.011), and distant metastasis (P = 0.012). Multivariate analysis suggested that only peripancreatic tissue or vascular invasion (HR 3.934, 95 % CI, 0.426-7.442, P = 0.028) was significantly associated with WHO 2010 pathological classification. MSCT is helpful in evaluating the pathological classification of P-NENs. (orig.)