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Sample records for soluble decoy receptor

  1. Delayed toxicity associated with soluble anthrax toxin receptor decoy-Ig fusion protein treatment.

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    Diane Thomas

    Full Text Available Soluble receptor decoy inhibitors, including receptor-immunogloubulin (Ig fusion proteins, have shown promise as candidate anthrax toxin therapeutics. These agents act by binding to the receptor-interaction site on the protective antigen (PA toxin subunit, thereby blocking toxin binding to cell surface receptors. Here we have made the surprising observation that co-administration of receptor decoy-Ig fusion proteins significantly delayed, but did not protect, rats challenged with anthrax lethal toxin. The delayed toxicity was associated with the in vivo assembly of a long-lived complex comprised of anthrax lethal toxin and the receptor decoy-Ig inhibitor. Intoxication in this system presumably results from the slow dissociation of the toxin complex from the inhibitor following their prolonged circulation. We conclude that while receptor decoy-Ig proteins represent promising candidates for the early treatment of B. anthracis infection, they may not be suitable for therapeutic use at later stages when fatal levels of toxin have already accumulated in the bloodstream.

  2. The combination of decoy receptor 3 and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 for the diagnosis of nosocomial bacterial meningitis.

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    Liu, Yong-Juan; Shao, Li-Hua; Zhang, Jian; Fu, Shan-Ji; Wang, Gang; Chen, Feng-Zhe; Zheng, Feng; Ma, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hai-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Meng; Ma, Li-Xian

    2015-03-23

    Early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment can significantly reduce mortality of nosocomial bacterial meningitis. However, it is a challenge for clinicians to make an accurate and rapid diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. This study aimed at determining whether combined biomarkers can provide a useful tool for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. A retrospective study was carried out. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The patients with bacterial meningitis had significantly elevated levels of the above mentioned biomarkers. The two biomarkers were all risk factors with bacterial meningitis. The biomarkers were constructed into a "bioscore". The discriminative performance of the bioscore was better than that of each biomarker, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.842 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.770-0.914; pbacterial meningitis. The combined strategy is of interest and the validation of that improvement needs further studies.

  3. A soluble granulocyte colony stimulating factor decoy receptor as a novel tool to increase hematopoietic cell homing and reconstitution in mice.

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    Fortin, Audrey; Benabdallah, Basma; Palacio, Lina; Carbonneau, Cynthia L; Le, Oanh N; Haddad, Elie; Beauséjour, Christian M

    2013-03-15

    The relative ineffectiveness of hematopoietic stem cells in reaching the bone marrow upon transplantation combined with the limited number of these cells available is a major reason for graft failure and delayed hematopoietic recovery. Hence, the development of strategies that could enhance homing is of high interest. Here, we provide evidence that homing is severely impaired postexposure to ionizing radiation (IR) in mice, an effect we found was time dependent and could be partially rescued using mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy. In an attempt to further increase homing, we took advantage of our observation that the granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a cytokine known to induce cell mobilization, is increased in the marrow of mice shortly after their exposure to IR. As such, we developed a truncated, yet functional, soluble G-CSF receptor (solG-CSFR), which we hypothesized could act as a decoy and foster homing. Using MSCs or conditioned media as delivery vehicles, we show that an engineered solG-CSFR has the potential to increase homing and hematopoietic reconstitution in mice. Altogether, our results provide novel findings at the interplay of IR and stromal cell therapy and present the regulation of endogenous G-CSF as an innovative proof-of-concept strategy to manipulate hematopoietic cell homing.

  4. Evolutionary analysis of functional divergence among chemokine receptors, decoy receptors and viral receptors

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    Hiromi eDaiyasu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemokine receptors (CKRs function in the inflammatory response and in vertebrate homeostasis. Decoy and viral receptors are two types of CKR homologues with modified functions from those of the typical CKRs. The decoy receptors are able to bind ligands without signaling. On the other hand, the viral receptors show constitutive signaling without ligands. We examined the sites related to the functional difference. At first, the decoy and viral receptors were each classified into five groups, based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis. A multiple amino acid sequence alignment between each group and the CKRs was then constructed. The difference in the amino acid composition between the group and the CKRs was evaluated as the Kullback-Leibler (KL information value at each alignment site. The KL information value is considered to reflect the difference in the functional constraints at the site. The sites with the top 5% of KL information values were selected and mapped on the structure of a CKR. The comparisons with decoy receptor groups revealed that the detected sites were biased on the intracellular side. In contrast, the sites detected from the comparisons with viral receptor groups were found on both the extracellular and intracellular sides. More sites were found in the ligand-binding pocket in the analyses of the viral receptor groups, as compared to the decoy receptor groups. Some of the detected sites were located in the GPCR motifs. For example, the DRY motif of the decoy receptors was often degraded, although the motif of the viral receptors was basically conserved. The observations for the viral receptor groups suggested that the constraints in the pocket region are loose and that the sites on the intracellular side are different from those for the decoy receptors, which may be related to the constitutive signaling activity of the viral receptors.

  5. TRAIL Death Receptor-4, Decoy Receptor-1 and Decoy Receptor-2 Expression on CD8+ T Cells Correlate with the Disease Severity in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Bisgin Atil

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorder. Although the pathogenesis of disease is unclear, it is well known that T cells play a major role in both development and perpetuation of RA through activating macrophages and B cells. Since the lack of TNF-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL expression resulted in defective thymocyte apoptosis leading to an autoimmune disease, we explored evidence for alterations in TRAIL/TRAIL receptor expression on peripheral T lymphocytes in the molecular mechanism of RA development. Methods The expression of TRAIL/TRAIL receptors on T cells in 20 RA patients and 12 control individuals were analyzed using flow cytometry. The correlation of TRAIL and its receptor expression profile was compared with clinical RA parameters (RA activity scored as per DAS28 using Spearman Rho Analysis. Results While no change was detected in the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ T cells between controls and RA patient groups, upregulation of TRAIL and its receptors (both death and decoy was detected on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in RA patients compared to control individuals. Death Receptor-4 (DR4 and the decoy receptors DcR1 and DcR2 on CD8+ T cells, but not on CD4+ T cells, were positively correlated with patients' DAS scores. Conclusions Our data suggest that TRAIL/TRAIL receptor expression profiles on T cells might be important in revelation of RA pathogenesis.

  6. Human Milk Contains Novel Glycans That Are Potential Decoy Receptors for Neonatal Rotaviruses*

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    Yu, Ying; Lasanajak, Yi; Song, Xuezheng; Hu, Liya; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mickum, Megan L.; Ashline, David J.; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram; Estes, Mary K.; Reinhold, Vernon N.; Cummings, Richard D.; Smith, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Human milk contains a rich set of soluble, reducing glycans whose functions and bioactivities are not well understood. Because human milk glycans (HMGs) have been implicated as receptors for various pathogens, we explored the functional glycome of human milk using shotgun glycomics. The free glycans from pooled milk samples of donors with mixed Lewis and Secretor phenotypes were labeled with a fluorescent tag and separated via multidimensional HPLC to generate a tagged glycan library containing 247 HMG targets that were printed to generate the HMG shotgun glycan microarray (SGM). To investigate the potential role of HMGs as decoy receptors for rotavirus (RV), a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children, we interrogated the HMG SGM with recombinant forms of VP8* domains of the RV outer capsid spike protein VP4 from human neonatal strains N155(G10P[11]) and RV3(G3P[6]) and a bovine strain, B223(G10P[11]). Glycans that were bound by RV attachment proteins were selected for detailed structural analyses using metadata-assisted glycan sequencing, which compiles data on each glycan based on its binding by antibodies and lectins before and after exo- and endo-glycosidase digestion of the SGM, coupled with independent MSn analyses. These complementary structural approaches resulted in the identification of 32 glycans based on RV VP8* binding, many of which are novel HMGs, whose detailed structural assignments by MSn are described in a companion report. Although sialic acid has been thought to be important as a surface receptor for RVs, our studies indicated that sialic acid is not required for binding of glycans to individual VP8* domains. Remarkably, each VP8* recognized specific glycan determinants within a unique subset of related glycan structures where specificity differences arise from subtle differences in glycan structures. PMID:25048705

  7. Dual GPCR and GAG mimicry by the M3 chemokine decoy receptor

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    Alexander-Brett, Jennifer M.; Fremont, Daved H. (WU-MED)

    2008-09-23

    Viruses have evolved a myriad of evasion strategies focused on undermining chemokine-mediated immune surveillance, exemplified by the mouse {gamma}-herpesvirus 68 M3 decoy receptor. Crystal structures of M3 in complex with C chemokine ligand 1/lymphotactin and CC chemokine ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 reveal that invariant chemokine features associated with G protein-coupled receptor binding are primarily recognized by the decoy C-terminal domain, whereas the N-terminal domain (NTD) reconfigures to engage divergent basic residue clusters on the surface of chemokines. Favorable electrostatic forces dramatically enhance the association kinetics of chemokine binding by M3, with a primary role ascribed to acidic NTD regions that effectively mimic glycosaminoglycan interactions. Thus, M3 employs two distinct mechanisms of chemical imitation to potently sequester chemokines, thereby inhibiting chemokine receptor binding events as well as the formation of chemotactic gradients necessary for directed leukocyte trafficking.

  8. Statins stimulate the production of a soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end products

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    Quade-Lyssy, Patricia; Kanarek, Anna Maria; Baiersdörfer, Markus; Postina, Rolf; Kojro, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial effects of statin therapy in the reduction of cardiovascular pathogenesis, atherosclerosis, and diabetic complications are well known. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays an important role in the progression of these diseases. In contrast, soluble forms of RAGE act as decoys for RAGE ligands and may prevent the development of RAGE-mediated disorders. Soluble forms of RAGE are either produced by alternative splicing [endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE)] ...

  9. Decoy Receptor 3 Improves Survival in Experimental Sepsis by Suppressing the Inflammatory Response and Lymphocyte Apoptosis.

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    DongYu Liang

    Full Text Available Unbalanced inflammatory response and lymphocyte apoptosis is associated with high mortality in septic patients. Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic factor. Recently, DcR3 expression was found to be increased in septic patients. This study evaluated the therapeutic effect and mechanisms of DcR3 on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP-induced sepsis in mice.C57BL/6 mice were subjected to CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis. DcR3 Fc was intravenously injected 30 min before and 6 h after CLP. Bacterial clearance, cytokine production, histology, lymphocyte apoptosis and survival were evaluated. Furthermore, we investigated the systemic effects of DcR3 in in vitro lymphocyte apoptosis regulation.Our results demonstrated that DcR3 protein treatments significantly improved survival in septic mice (p <0.05. Treatment with DcR3 protein significantly reduced the inflammatory response and decreased lymphocyte apoptosis in the thymus and spleen. Histopathological findings of the lung and liver showed milder impairment after DcR3 administration. In vitro experiments showed that DcR3 Fc inhibited Fas-FasL mediated lymphocyte apoptosis.Treatment with the DcR3 protein protects mice from sepsis by suppressing the inflammatory response and lymphocyte apoptosis. DcR3 protein may be useful in treatment of sepsis.

  10. Predictive value of decoy receptor 3 in postoperative nosocomial bacterial meningitis.

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    Liu, Yong-Juan; Shao, Li-Hua; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hai-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Meng; Ma, Li-Xian

    2014-11-03

    Nosocomial bacterial meningitis requires timely treatment, but what is difficult is the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) levels in the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from non-bacterial meningitis. A total of 123 patients were recruited in this study, among them 80 patients being with bacterial meningitis and 43 patients with non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed by bacterial culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the level of DcR3 in CSF. CSF levels of DcR3 were statistically significant between patients with bacterial meningitis and those with non-bacterial meningitis (pbacterial meningitis received antibiotic>24 h before CSF sampling, which was much higher than that of non-bacterial meningitis. CSF leucocyte count yielded the highest diagnostic value, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of 0.928, followed by DcR3. At a critical value of 0.201 ng/mL for DcR3, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.75% and 81.40% respectively. DcR3 in CSF may be a valuable predictor for differentiating patients with bacterial meningitis from those with non-bacterial meningitis. Further studies are needed for the validation of this study.

  11. Reduction of decoy receptor 3 enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in pancreatic cancer.

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    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available Most human pancreatic cancer cells are resistant to tumor necrosis factor (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. However, the mechanisms by which pancreatic cancer cells utilize their extracellular molecules to counteract the proapoptotic signaling mediated by the TNF family are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that DcR3, a secreted decoy receptor that malignant pancreatic cancer cells express at a high level, acts as an extracellular antiapoptotic molecule by binding to TRAIL and counteracting its death-promoting function. The reduction of DcR3 with siRNA unmasked TRAIL and greatly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Gemcitabine, a first-line drug for pancreatic cancer, also reduced the level of DcR3. The addition of DcR3 siRNA further enhanced gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Notably, our in vivo study demonstrated that the therapeutic effect of gemcitabine could be enhanced via further reduction of DcR3, suggesting that downregulation of DcR3 in tumor cells could tip the balance of pancreatic cells towards apoptosis and potentially serve as a new strategy for pancreatic cancer therapy.

  12. Interaction between geriatric nutritional risk index and decoy receptor 3 predicts mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients.

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    Tsai, Ming-Tsun; Hu, Fen-Hsiang; Lien, Tse-Jen; Chen, Ping-Jen; Huang, Tung-Po; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2014-01-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is common and associated with poor outcome in hemodialysis patients. In hemodialysis patients, geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) and decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) have been shown as the nutritional and inflammatory markers, respectively. The present study aimed to assess the predictive ability of GNRI and DcR3 for PEW status and long-term outcomes in chronic hemodialysis patients. A prospective cohort of 318 hemodialysis patients was conducted with a median follow-up of 54 months. Malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) was used as the reference standard for the presence of PEW. Endpoints were cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Baseline GNRI had a strong negative correlation with DcR3 and MIS score. For patients with age risk factors, GNRI together with DcR3 further significantly improved the predictability for overall mortality (c statistic, 0.823). Low GNRI and high DcR3 were the alternatives for identifying hemodialysis patients at risk of PEW and overall mortality. Further studies are needed to verify whether timely recognition of hemodialysis patients with a high malnutrition-inflammation risk could reduce their mortality by appropriate interventional strategies.

  13. Soluble Extracellular Domain of Death Receptor 5 Inhibits TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis by Disrupting Receptor-Receptor Interactions.

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    Vunnam, Nagamani; Lo, Chih Hung; Grant, Benjamin D; Thomas, David D; Sachs, Jonathan N

    2017-09-15

    Dysregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor signaling is a key feature of various inflammatory disorders. Current treatments for TNF-related diseases function either by sequestering ligand or blocking ligand-receptor interactions, which can cause dangerous side effects by inhibiting the receptors that are not involved in the disease condition. Thus, alternate strategies that target receptor-receptor interactions are needed. We hypothesized that the soluble extracellular domain (ECD) of long isoform of death receptor 5 (DR5) could block endogenous receptor assembly, mimicking the biological effect of decoy receptors that lack the death domain to trigger apoptosis. Using live-cell fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies, we demonstrated that soluble ECD disrupts endogenous DR5-DR5 interactions. Cell viability assays were used to demonstrate the complete inhibition of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis by the ECD, although TRAIL is still able to bind to the receptor. Importantly, we used mutagenesis to prove that the inhibition of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by the ECD predominantly comes from the disruption of DR5 oligomerization and not ligand sequestration. Inhibition of death receptor activation should have important therapeutic applications in diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. More generally, this approach should be generalized to enable the inhibition of other TNF receptor signaling mechanisms that are associated in a wide range of clinical conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Soluble cytokine receptors in biological therapy.

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    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Crespo, Fabian A; Sun, Xichun

    2002-08-01

    Due to their fundamental involvement in the pathogenesis of many diseases, cytokines constitute key targets for biotherapeutic approaches. The discovery that soluble forms of cytokine receptors are involved in the endogenous regulation of cytokine activity has prompted substantial interest in their potential application as immunotherapeutic agents. As such, soluble cytokine receptors have many advantages, including specificity, low immunogenicity and high affinity. Potential disadvantages, such as low avidity and short in vivo half-lifes, have been addressed by the use of genetically-designed receptors, hybrid proteins or chemical modifications. The ability of many soluble cytokine receptors to inhibit the binding and biological activity of their ligands makes them very specific cytokine antagonists. Several pharmaceutical companies have generated a number of therapeutic agents based on soluble cytokine receptors and many of them are undergoing clinical trials. The most advanced in terms of clinical development is etanercept (Enbrel, Immunex), a fusion protein between soluble TNF receptor Type II and the Fc region of human IgG1. This TNF-alpha; antagonist was the first soluble cytokine receptor to receive approval for use in humans. In general, most agents based on soluble cytokine receptors have been safe, well-tolerated and have shown only minor side effects in the majority of patients. Soluble cytokine receptors constitute a new generation of therapeutic agents with tremendous potential for applications in a wide variety of human diseases. Two current areas of research are the identification of their most promising applications and characterisation of their long-term effects.

  15. Structural basis of GM-CSF and IL-2 sequestration by the viral decoy receptor GIF

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    Felix, Jan; Kandiah, Eaazhisai; De Munck, Steven; Bloch, Yehudi; Van Zundert, Gydo C P; Pauwels, Kris; Dansercoer, Ann; Novanska, Katka; Read, Randy J.; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Vergauwen, Bjorn; Verstraete, Kenneth; Gutsche, Irina; Savvides, Savvas N.

    2016-01-01

    Subversion of the host immune system by viruses is often mediated by molecular decoys that sequester host proteins pivotal to mounting effective immune responses. The widespread mammalian pathogen parapox Orf virus deploys GIF, a member of the poxvirus immune evasion superfamily, to antagonize

  16. Surface TRAIL decoy receptor-4 expression is correlated with TRAIL resistance in MCF7 breast cancer cells

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    Aydin Cigdem

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Despite this promising feature, TRAIL resistance observed in cancer cells seriously challenged the use of TRAIL as a death ligand in gene therapy. The current dispute concerns whether or not TRAIL receptor expression pattern is the primary determinant of TRAIL sensitivity in cancer cells. This study investigates TRAIL receptor expression pattern and its connection to TRAIL resistance in breast cancer cells. In addition, a DcR2 siRNA approach and a complementary gene therapy modality involving IKK inhibition (AdIKKβKA were also tested to verify if these approaches could sensitize MCF7 breast cancer cells to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL (Ad5hTRAIL. Methods TRAIL sensitivity assays were conducted using Molecular Probe's Live/Dead Cellular Viability/Cytotoxicity Kit following the infection of breast cancer cells with Ad5hTRAIL. The molecular mechanism of TRAIL induced cell death under the setting of IKK inhibition was revealed by Annexin V binding. Novel quantitative Real Time RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis were performed to disclose TRAIL receptor composition in breast cancer cells. Results MCF7 but not MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells displayed strong resistance to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL. Only the combinatorial use of Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA infection sensitized MCF7 breast cancer cells to TRAIL induced cell death. Moreover, novel quantitative Real Time RT-PCR assays suggested that while the level of TRAIL Decoy Receptor-4 (TRAIL-R4 expression was the highest in MCF7 cells, it was the lowest TRAIL receptor expressed in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, conventional flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that TRAIL resistant MCF7 cells exhibited substantial levels of TRAIL-R4 expression but not TRAIL decoy receptor-3 (TRAIL-R3 on surface. On the contrary, TRAIL sensitive MDA-MB-231 cells

  17. Are Toll-Like Receptors and Decoy Receptors Involved in the Immunopathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Lupus-Like Syndromes?

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    Giuliana Guggino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus our attention on the role of two families of receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLR and decoy receptors (DcR involved in the generation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and lupus-like syndromes in human and mouse models. To date, these molecules were described in several autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, antiphospholipids syndrome, bowel inflammation, and SLE. Here, we summarize the findings of recent investigations on TLR and DcR and their role in the immunopathogenesis of the SLE.

  18. The relationship of plasma decoy receptor 3 and coronary collateral circulation in patients with coronary artery disease.

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    Yan, Youyou; Song, Dandan; Liu, Lulu; Meng, Xiuping; Qi, Chao; Wang, Junnan

    2017-11-15

    Previously, decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) was found to be a potential angiogenetic factor, while the relationship of DcR3 with coronary collateral circulation formation has not been investigated. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether plasma decoy receptor 3 levels was associated with CCC formation and evaluate its predictive power for CCC status in patients with coronary artery disease. Among patients who underwent coronary angiography with coronary artery disease and had a stenosis of ≥90% were included in our study. Collateral degree was graded according to Rentrope Cohen classification. Patients with grade 2 or 3 collateral degree were enrolled in good CCC group and patients with grade 0 or 1 collateral degree were enrolled in poor CCC group. Plasma DcR3 level was significantly higher in good CCC group (328.00±230.82 vs 194.84±130.63ng/l, p<0.01) and positively correlated with Rentrope grade (p<0.01). In addition, plasma DcR3 was also positively correlated with VEGF-A. Both ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve) and multinomial logistical regression analysis showed that plasma DcR3 displayed potent predictive power for CCC status. Higher plasma DcR3 level was related to better CCC formation and displayed potent predictive power for CCC status. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Over-expression of the decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from silicosis patients

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    Otsuki, T; Tomokuni, A; Sakaguchi, H; Aikoh, T; Matsuki, T; Isozaki, Y; Hyodoh, F; Ueki, H; Kusaka, M; Kita, S; Ueki, A

    2000-01-01

    Dysregulation of apoptosis, particularly in the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) pathway, is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recently, a soluble decoy receptor, termed decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), that binds FasL and inhibits FasL-induced apoptosis, has been identified. Silicosis is clinically characterized not only by respiratory disorders but by immunological abnormalities. We have found that serum soluble Fas (sFas) levels are elevated in silicosis patients and that sFas message is dominantly expressed in PBMC derived from these patients. This study examined DcR3 gene expression in PBMC derived from patients with silicosis, SLE, or progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), and compared it with that in healthy volunteers (HV). The relative expression level of the DcR3 gene was examined in PBMC derived from 37 patients with silicosis without clinical symptoms of autoimmune disease, nine patients with SLE, 12 patients with PSS, and 28 HV using the semiquantitative multiplex-reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (MP-RT-PCR). The correlation between the relative expression level of the DcR3 gene and multiple clinical parameters for respiratory disorders and immunological abnormalities in individuals with silicosis was analysed. The DcR3 gene was significantly over-expressed in cases of silicosis or SLE when compared with HV. In addition, the DcR3 relative expression level was positively correlated with the serum sFas level in silicosis patients. It is unclear, however, whether over-expression of the DcR3 gene in silicosis is caused by chronic silica exposure, merely accompanies the alteration in Fas-related molecules, or precedes the clinical onset of autoimmune abnormalities. It will be necessary to study these patients further, establish an in vitro model of human T cells exposed recurrently to silica compounds, and resolve whether the increase in DcR3 mRNA expression is a cause or consequence

  20. Novel VEGF decoy receptor fusion protein conbercept targeting multiple VEGF isoforms provide remarkable anti-angiogenesis effect in vivo.

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    Qin Wang

    Full Text Available VEGF family factors are known to be the principal stimulators of abnormal angiogenesis, which play a fundamental role in tumor and various ocular diseases. Inhibition of VEGF is widely applied in antiangiogenic therapy. Conbercept is a novel decoy receptor protein constructed by fusing VEGF receptor 1 and VEGF receptor 2 extracellular domains with the Fc region of human immunoglobulin. In this study, we systematically evaluated the binding affinity of conbercept with VEGF isoforms and PlGF by using anti-VEGF antibody (Avastin as reference. BIACORE and ELISA assay results indicated that conbercept could bind different VEGF-A isoforms with higher affinity than reference. Furthermore, conbercept could also bind VEGF-B and PlGF, whereas Avastin showed no binding. Oxygen-induced retinopathy model showed that conbercept could inhibit the formation of neovasularizations. In tumor-bearing nude mice, conbercept could also suppress tumor growth very effectively in vivo. Overall, our study have demonstrated that conbercept could bind with high affinity to multiple VEGF isoforms and consequently provide remarkable anti-angiogenic effect, suggesting the possibility to treat angiogenesis-related diseases such as cancer and wet AMD etc.

  1. Soluble interleukin 2 receptor in atopic eczema.

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    Colver, G. B.; Symons, J. A.; Duff, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor concentrations are related to disease activity in atopic eczema. DESIGN--Single cohort longitudinal study with controls. SETTING--Outpatient and general medicine departments in secondary referral centre. PATIENTS--Of 15 patients aged 17-57 with severe atopic eczema, all with acute exacerbations of disease, 13 were admitted to hospital and two treated as outpatients until the skin lesions had resolved or greatly improved. Nineteen controls gave single blood samples. INTERVENTIONS--Daily skin dressing with betamethasone valerate (0.025%) and ichthammol paste and tubular dressings. END POINT--Resolution of or considerable improvement in skin lesions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to measure serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor concentrations in blood samples taken on admission, at intervals subsequently, and on discharge. Clinical scores of disease activity were also made. Median concentrations on admission were significantly higher (770 U/ml) in the patients than the controls (300 U/ml). Concentrations fell significantly during treatment. In 25 assessments made at different times in 13 patients serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor concentration correlated significantly (R = 0.73) with clinical disease activity. CONCLUSIONS--Cellular immunopathogenic mechanisms contribute to atopic eczema. Immune activation can be measured in atopic eczema by measurements of soluble interleukin 2 receptor, and this should facilitate assessment of response to treatment. PMID:2568868

  2. Soluble interleukin 2 receptor in atopic eczema.

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    Colver, G. B.; Symons, J A; Duff, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor concentrations are related to disease activity in atopic eczema. DESIGN--Single cohort longitudinal study with controls. SETTING--Outpatient and general medicine departments in secondary referral centre. PATIENTS--Of 15 patients aged 17-57 with severe atopic eczema, all with acute exacerbations of disease, 13 were admitted to hospital and two treated as outpatients until the skin lesions had resolved or greatly improved. Nin...

  3. Decoy receptor 3 suppresses FasL-induced apoptosis via ERK1/2 activation in pancreatic cancer cells

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    Zhang, Yi; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Xin; Song, Shiduo; Zhang, Lifeng; Zhu, Dongming [Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Wang, Zhenxin [Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Chen, Xiaochen [Department of Pathology, The Obstetrics & Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200090 (China); Zhou, Jian, E-mail: zhoujian20150602@126.com [Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2015-08-07

    Resistance to Fas Ligand (FasL) mediated apoptosis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is reported to interact with FasL and is overexpressed in some malignant tumors. We sought to investigate the role of DcR3 in resistance to FasL in pancreatic cancer. We compared expression of apoptosis related genes between FasL-resistant SW1990 and FasL-sensitive Patu8988 pancreatic cell lines by microarray analysis. We explored the impact of siRNA knockdown of, or exogenous supplementation with, DcR3 on FasL-induced cell growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cell lines and expression of proteins involved in apoptotic signaling. We assessed the level of DcR3 protein and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in tumor and non-tumor tissue samples of 66 patients with pancreatic carcinoma. RNAi knockdown of DcR3 expression in SW1990 cells reduced resistance to FasL-induced apoptosis, and supplementation of Patu8988 with rDcR3 had the opposite effect. RNAi knockdown of DcR3 in SW1990 cells elevated expression of caspase 3, 8 and 9, and reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation (P < 0.05), but did not alter phosphorylated-Akt expression. 47 tumor tissue specimens, but only 15 matched non-tumor specimens stained for DcR3 (χ{sup 2} = 31.1447, P < 0.001). The proliferation index of DcR3 positive specimens (14.26  ±  2.67%) was significantly higher than that of DcR3 negative specimens (43.58  ±  7.88%, P < 0.01). DcR3 expression positively correlated with p-ERK1/2 expression in pancreatic cancer tissues (r = 0.607, P < 0.001). DcR3 enhances ERK1/2 phosphorylation and opposes FasL signaling in pancreatic cancer cells. - Highlights: • We investigated the role of DcR3 in FasL resistance in pancreatic cancer. • Knockdown of DcR3 in SW1990 cells reduced resistance to FasL-induced apoptosis. • DcR3 knockdown also elevated caspase expression, and reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. • Tumor and non-tumor tissues were collected from 66 pancreatic carcinoma patients

  4. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

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    Calogero Caruso

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  5. Plasma Soluble (Prorenin Receptor Reflects Renal Damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naro Ohashi

    Full Text Available (Prorenin receptor [(PRR], a specific receptor for renin and prorenin, was identified as a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS. (PRR is cleaved by furin, and soluble (PRR [s(PRR] is secreted into the extracellular space. Previous reports have indicated that plasma s(PRR levels show a significant positive relationship with urinary protein levels, which represent renal damage. However, it is not fully known whether plasma s(PRR reflects renal damage.We recruited 25 patients who were admitted to our hospital to undergo heminephrectomy. Plasma s(PRR levels were examined from blood samples drawn before nephrectomy. The extent of renal damage was evaluated by the levels of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Immunohistochemical analysis of intrarenal (PRR and cell surface markers (cluster of differentiation [CD]3, CD19, and CD68 was performed on samples taken from the removed kidney. Moreover, double staining of (PRR and cell surface markers was also performed.There were significant positive relationships between plasma s(PRR and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in all the patients and those not receiving RAS blocker therapy. Significant positive relationships were found between plasma s(PRR levels and the extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis after adjustment for age, sex, body weight, blood pressure, and plasma angiotensin II, in all the patients and those not receiving RAS blockers. Moreover, (PRR expression was elevated in infiltrated mononuclear cells but not connecting tubules or collecting ducts and vessels. Infiltrated cells positive for (PRR consisted of CD3 and CD68 but not CD19.These data suggest that plasma s(PRR levels may reflect (PRR expression levels in infiltrated mononuclear cells, which can be a surrogate marker of renal damage.

  6. Hydrocarbon molar water solubility predicts NMDA vs. GABAA receptor modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Robert J; Pham, Trung L

    2014-11-19

    Many anesthetics modulate 3-transmembrane (such as NMDA) and 4-transmembrane (such as GABAA) receptors. Clinical and experimental anesthetics exhibiting receptor family specificity often have low water solubility. We hypothesized that the molar water solubility of a hydrocarbon could be used to predict receptor modulation in vitro. GABAA (α1β2γ2s) or NMDA (NR1/NR2A) receptors were expressed in oocytes and studied using standard two-electrode voltage clamp techniques. Hydrocarbons from 14 different organic functional groups were studied at saturated concentrations, and compounds within each group differed only by the carbon number at the ω-position or within a saturated ring. An effect on GABAA or NMDA receptors was defined as a 10% or greater reversible current change from baseline that was statistically different from zero. Hydrocarbon moieties potentiated GABAA and inhibited NMDA receptor currents with at least some members from each functional group modulating both receptor types. A water solubility cut-off for NMDA receptors occurred at 1.1 mM with a 95% CI = 0.45 to 2.8 mM. NMDA receptor cut-off effects were not well correlated with hydrocarbon chain length or molecular volume. No cut-off was observed for GABAA receptors within the solubility range of hydrocarbons studied. Hydrocarbon modulation of NMDA receptor function exhibits a molar water solubility cut-off. Differences between unrelated receptor cut-off values suggest that the number, affinity, or efficacy of protein-hydrocarbon interactions at these sites likely differ.

  7. Soluble and cell surface receptors for tumor necrosis factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallach, D; Engelmann, H; Nophar, Y

    1991-01-01

    . The intracellular domains of the two receptors differ in structure, suggesting that they mediate different activities. Their extracellular domains, however, are structurally related. Both contain cysteine-rich repeats which are homologous to repeated structures found in the extracellular domains of the nerve growth...... in certain pathological situations. Release of the soluble receptors from the cells seems to occur by proteolytic cleavage of the cell surface forms and appears to be a way of down-regulating the cell response to TNF. Because of their ability to bind TNF, the soluble receptors exert an inhibitory effect...

  8. Differential effects of decoy receptor- and antibody-mediated tumour necrosis factor blockage on FoxP3 expression in responsive arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryder, L Rebekka; Ryder, Lars P; Bartels, Else M

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to clarify if anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) drugs have effect on expression of three splice forms of FoxP3 mRNA in blood CD4+ T cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients compared with healthy controls. Forty-five rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with anti-TNF therapy were...... in Etanercept responders. These changes were not observed in responsive patients treated with the antibody therapies. Our data suggest that TNF decoy receptor and anti-TNF antibodies differ in their effect on FoxP3 expression in responsive patients. As Etanercept binds both TNF-α and Lymphotoxin-α (LT...... 12 weeks treatment with TNF receptor 2 fusion protein (Etanercept), but not following treatment with anti-TNF antibodies (Adalimumab or Infliximab). A partial normalization of the CTLA-4/FoxP3fl ratio and a correlation between clinical improvement and change in FoxP3 mRNA expression were also seen...

  9. The Atypical Receptor CCRL2 (C-C Chemokine Receptor-Like 2) Does Not Act As a Decoy Receptor in Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Chiara; Gagliostro, Vincenzo; Bosisio, Daniela; Del Prete, Annalisa; Tiberio, Laura; Thelen, Marcus; Sozzani, Silvano

    2017-01-01

    C-C chemokine receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) is a non-signaling seven-transmembrane domain (7-TMD) receptor related to the atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR) family. ACKRs bind chemokines but do not activate G protein-dependent signaling or cell functions. ACKRs were shown to regulate immune functions in vivo by their ability to scavenge chemokines from the local environment. This study was performed to investigate whether CCRL2 shares two of the main characteristics of ACKRs, namely the ability to internalize and scavenge the ligands. Cell membrane analysis of CCRL2-transfected cells revealed a weak, constitutive, ligand-independent internalization, and recycling of CCRL2, with a kinetics that was slower than those observed with ACKR3, a prototypic ACKR, or other chemotactic signaling receptors [i.e., chemokine-like receptor 1 and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2]. Intracellularly, CCRL2 colocalized with early endosome antigen 1-positive and Rab5-positive vesicles and with recycling compartments mainly characterized by Rab11-positive vesicles. CCRL2-transfected cells and activated mouse blood endothelial cells, that endogenously express CCRL2, were used to investigate the scavenging ability of CCRL2. These experiments confirmed the ability of CCRL2 to bind chemerin, the only recognized ligand, but excluded the ability of CCRL2 to perform scavenging. Collectively, these results identify unique functional properties for this member of the non-signaling 7-TMD receptor family.

  10. Pharmacokinetic parameters and biodistribution of soluble cytokine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C A; Beckmann, M P; Mohler, K; Maliszewski, C R; Fanslow, W C; Lynch, D H

    1993-01-01

    The potential use of soluble cytokine receptors as therapeutics in disease states when excessive or prolonged cytokine expression leads to pathogenesis is just beginning (Van Brunt, 1989). The inhibitory effects of soluble receptors have been found to be highly potent and specific for their respective cytokines (Maliszewski and Fanslow, 1990; Maliszewski et al., 1990). Recent in vivo data have shown that exogenously administered soluble receptors can function as cytokine antagonists and suppress autoimmune inflammatory responses (Jacobs et al., 1991a), allograft rejection, and alloreactivity (Fanslow et al., 1990b). The proposed frequency of administration and dosage of a therapeutic agent is dependent on the half-life of the agent and the route of administration. The elimination or half-life of a drug usually depends on its physiochemical properties (molecular size, glycosylation, isoelectric point, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties) (DiPalma and DiGregorio, 1990; Katzung, 1984). The half-life will also depend on the mechanism of clearance for that specific receptor. Once pharmacokinetic data are available for soluble receptors, the therapeutic potential of these molecules can be better evaluated. Only limited pharmacokinetic data are currently available for soluble cytokine receptors (Jacobs et al., 1991b). For sIL-1R, the majority of an intravenously administered dose was cleared in the second elimination phase, with a reasonably long half-life (6.3 hr), such that the entire dose was not eliminated until 35 hr. If administration is by subcutaneous injection, the half-life was even more prolonged. One explanation for the prolonged half-life is the minimal distribution to liver and kidneys and thus low levels of clearance by these organs. In contrast, elimination of intravenously administered sIL-4R was relatively rapid, with a short half-life (2.3 hr). This appeared mainly due to liver distribution and clearance, which has been the highest observed for any

  11. Tracking the decoy: Maximizing the decoy effect through sequential experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Emden, R. van; Iannuzzi, D.

    2016-01-01

    The decoy effect is one of the best known human biases violating rational choice theory. According to a large body of literature, people may be persuaded to switch from one offer to another by the presence of a third option (the decoy) that, rationally, should have no influence on the

  12. Tracking the decoy: maximizing the decoy effect through sequential experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; van Emden, R.; Iannuzzi, D.

    2016-01-01

    The decoy effect is one of the best known human biases violating rational choice theory. According to a large body of literature, people may be persuaded to switch from one offer to another by the presence of a third option (the decoy) that, rationally, should have no influence on the

  13. Involvement of the Soluble Urokinase Receptor in Chondrosarcoma Cell Mobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Bifulco; Immacolata Longanesi-Cattani; Maria Teresa Masucci; Annarosaria De Chiara; Flavio Fazioli; Gioconda Di Carluccio; Giuseppe Pirozzi; Michele Gallo; Antonello La Rocca; Gaetano Apice; Gaetano Rocco; Maria Vincenza Carriero

    2011-01-01

    High levels of urokinase receptor (uPAR) in tissue and serum of patients with chondrosarcoma correlate with poor prognosis. First, we analyzed the uPAR levels in tissues and plasma of five patients affected by chondrosarcoma. Interestingly, very high levels of uPAR and its soluble forms (SuPAR) were found on tumor cell surfaces and plasma, respectively, of two patients with lung metastases. Therefore, to investigate the role of SuPAR in chondrosaromas, we generated a primary cell culture...

  14. Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor member ST2 exhibits higher soluble levels in type 2 diabetes, especially when accompanied with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fousteris Evangelos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soluble ST2, a member of the of the Toll/IL-1 superfamily, is a novel biomarker with exceptional predictive value in heart failure and myocardial infarction- related mortality as well as in acute dyspneic states. Soluble ST2 is considered a decoy receptor of IL 33 that blocks the protective effects of the cytokine in atherosclerosis and cardiac remodeling. In the present study we investigated the differences in the levels of soluble ST2, BNP and hs-CRP between healthy controls and patients with type 2 diabetes with and without left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. A secondary aim was to investigate correlations between sST2 and other biomarkers of type 2 diabetes, such as HbA1c. Methods 158 volunteers were recruited and underwent a complete Doppler-echocardiographic evaluation of both systolic & diastolic cardiac function. All subjects with ejection fraction Results Patients with type 2 diabetes with (p Conclusions Patients with type 2 diabetes exhibit higher sST2 levels compared to healthy controls. The presence of LVDD in patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with even higher sST2 levels. A significant correlation between glycemic control and sST2 levels was also revealed.

  15. The serum concentration of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraura, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Minami, Takaomi; Takeshima, Taro; Shimooki, Osamu; Kajii, Eiji

    2017-03-01

    Kawasaki disease is a febrile disease of childhood that is associated with increased inflammatory cytokines and immunoregulatory abnormalities. While the serum concentrations of soluble IL-2 receptor can change under such pathologies, the relevance of the soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with Kawasaki disease has not been specified. We aimed to summarize the existing studies that reported the soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations in patients with Kawasaki disease. Original articles that were published up to July 2016 were collected using a PubMed/Medline-based search engine. A total of nine articles that reported the serum soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations in acute-phase Kawasaki disease were eligible. All of the articles described a high soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with Kawasaki disease relative to the level of controls or the reference range. Two of five articles on patients with coronary artery aneurysms described a significantly higher soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with coronary artery aneurysms than patients without. Two articles on patients with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy described a significant decrease of the soluble IL-2 receptor concentration after the therapy. Accordingly, the serum soluble IL-2 receptor can be a potent marker of disease activity and therapeutic effects in patients with Kawasaki disease; further studies are thus warranted for its use in the clinical setting.

  16. Effect of ranitidine on soluble interleukin 2 receptors and CD8 molecules in surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Mynster, T; Jensen, S

    1994-01-01

    The effect of perioperative immunomodulation with the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on postoperative changes in soluble interleukin (IL) 2 receptor and soluble CD8 levels was assessed in 24 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery. Eleven patients were randomized to receive...

  17. Plasma Soluble (Pro)renin Receptor Reflects Renal Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Naro; Isobe, Shinsuke; Ishigaki, Sayaka; Suzuki, Takahisa; Iwakura, Takamasa; Ono, Masafumi; Fujikura, Tomoyuki; Tsuji, Takayuki; Otsuka, Atsushi; Ishii, Yasuo; Furuse, Hiroshi; Kato, Akihiko; Ozono, Seiichiro; Yasuda, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Background (Pro)renin receptor [(P)RR], a specific receptor for renin and prorenin, was identified as a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). (P)RR is cleaved by furin, and soluble (P)RR [s(P)RR] is secreted into the extracellular space. Previous reports have indicated that plasma s(P)RR levels show a significant positive relationship with urinary protein levels, which represent renal damage. However, it is not fully known whether plasma s(P)RR reflects renal damage. Methods We recruited 25 patients who were admitted to our hospital to undergo heminephrectomy. Plasma s(P)RR levels were examined from blood samples drawn before nephrectomy. The extent of renal damage was evaluated by the levels of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Immunohistochemical analysis of intrarenal (P)RR and cell surface markers (cluster of differentiation [CD]3, CD19, and CD68) was performed on samples taken from the removed kidney. Moreover, double staining of (P)RR and cell surface markers was also performed. Results There were significant positive relationships between plasma s(P)RR and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in all the patients and those not receiving RAS blocker therapy. Significant positive relationships were found between plasma s(P)RR levels and the extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis after adjustment for age, sex, body weight, blood pressure, and plasma angiotensin II, in all the patients and those not receiving RAS blockers. Moreover, (P)RR expression was elevated in infiltrated mononuclear cells but not connecting tubules or collecting ducts and vessels. Infiltrated cells positive for (P)RR consisted of CD3 and CD68 but not CD19. Conclusions These data suggest that plasma s(P)RR levels may reflect (P)RR expression levels in infiltrated mononuclear cells, which can be a surrogate marker of renal damage. PMID:27228084

  18. CD14: a soluble pattern recognition receptor in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Karine; Donnet-Hughes, Anne

    2008-01-01

    An innate immune system capable of distinguishing among self, non-self, and danger is a prerequisite for health. Upon antigenic challenge, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family of proteins, enable this system to recognize and interact with a number of microbial components and endogenous host proteins. In the healthy host, such interactions culminate in tolerance to self-antigen, dietary antigen, and commensal microorganisms but in protection against pathogenic attack. This duality implies tightly regulated control mechanisms that are not expected of the inexperienced neonatal immune system. Indeed, the increased susceptibility of newborn infants to infection and to certain allergens suggests that the capacity to handle certain antigenic challenges is not inherent. The observation that breast-fed infants experience a lower incidence of infections, inflammation, and allergies than formula-fed infants suggests that exogenous factors in milk may play a regulatory role. There is increasing evidence to suggest that upon exposure to antigen, breast milk educates the neonatal immune system in the decision-making processes underlying the immune response to microbes. Breast milk contains a multitude of factors such as immunoglobulins, glycoproteins, glycolipids, and antimicrobial peptides that, qualitatively or quantitatively, may modulate how neonatal cells perceive and respond to microbial components. The specific role of several of these factors is highlighted in other chapters in this book. However, an emerging concept is that breast milk influences the neonatal immune system's perception of "danger." Here we discuss how CD14, a soluble PRR in milk, may contribute to this education.

  19. Genomewide linkage analysis of soluble transferrin receptor plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacha, Angel F; Souto, Joan C; Soria, José Manuel; Buil, Alfonso; Sardà, M Pilar; Lathrop, Mark; Blangero, John; Almasy, Laura; Fontcuberta, Jordi

    2006-01-01

    Genetic control of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels was demonstrated using family-based studies (GAIT, Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia project); moreover, a genetic relationship was observed between sTfR and the risk for thrombosis, suggesting that these phenotypes shared genetic determinants. We studied the regions that control sTfR. To assess such regions, a full genome scan was carried out using 604 highly polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid markers (resolution 7.3 cM) in 21 extended pedigrees (358 individuals). Then, a quantitative trait linkage analysis was performed using variance components methods. The genomewide scan linkage analysis showed two regions (quantitative trait locus or QTL) with significant limit of detection (LOD) scores (2q23.14, LOD score = 2.64, nominal p = 0.00024; 3q21.2, LOD score = 1.94, nominal p = 0.0014). There were no obvious candidate genes in these regions. In conclusion, this linkage analysis suggested the existence of a QTL in 2q23.14 that probably harbored a gene (or genes) controlling sTfR levels. Moreover, a second linkage signal was observed in 3q21.2; albeit the evidence for this second locus was lower. The next step will be to identify the gene(s) and its possible involvement in thrombosis and iron homeostasis.

  20. Involvement of the Soluble Urokinase Receptor in Chondrosarcoma Cell Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Bifulco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High levels of urokinase receptor (uPAR in tissue and serum of patients with chondrosarcoma correlate with poor prognosis. First, we analyzed the uPAR levels in tissues and plasma of five patients affected by chondrosarcoma. Interestingly, very high levels of uPAR and its soluble forms (SuPAR were found on tumor cell surfaces and plasma, respectively, of two patients with lung metastases. Therefore, to investigate the role of SuPAR in chondrosaromas, we generated a primary cell culture from a chondrosarcoma tissue overexpressing uPAR on cell surfaces. We found that chondrosarcoma-like primary culture cells release a large amount of SuPAR in the medium. In vitro, SuPAR elicits chondrosarcoma cell migration likely through its uPAR88-92 sequence, since the DII88-183 or DIIDIIR88-284 uPAR domains retain motogen effect whereas DI1-87 or DIII184-284 domains, both lacking the uPAR88-92 sequence, are ineffective. Chondrosarcoma cells cross matrigel in response to SuPAR, and their invasion capability is abrogated by RERF peptide which inhibits uPAR88-92 signalling. These findings assign a role to uPAR in mobilizing chondrosarcoma cells and suggest that RERF peptide may be regarded as a prototype to generate new therapeutics for the chondrosarcoma treatment.

  1. Role of formic receptors in soluble urokinase receptor-induced human vascular smooth muscle migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Enrico A; Fu, Yuyang; Davies, Mark G

    2015-05-15

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration in response to urokinase is dependent on binding of the urokinase molecule to the urokinase plasminogen receptor (uPAR) and cleavage of the receptor. The aim of this study was to examine the role of the soluble uPAR (suPAR) in VSMC migration. Human VSMCs were cultured in vitro. Linear wound and Boyden microchemotaxis assays of migration were performed in the presence of suPAR. Inhibitors to G-protein signaling and kinase activation were used to study these pathways. Assays were performed for mitogen-activated protein kinase and epidermal growth factor receptor activation. suPAR induced concentration-dependent migration of VSMC, which was G protein-dependent and was blocked by Gαi and Gβγ inhibitors. Removal of the full uPAR molecule by incubation of the cells with a phospholipase did not interfere with this response. suPAR induced ERK1/2, p38(MAPK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] activation in a Gαi/Gβγ-dependent manner, and interruption of these signaling pathways prevented suPAR-mediated migration. suPAR activity was independent of plasmin activity. suPAR did not activate epidermal growth factor receptor. Interruption of the low affinity N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe receptor (FPRL1) but not high affinity N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe receptor (FPR) prevented cell migration and activation in response to suPAR. suPAR increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and activity, and this was dependent on the low affinity N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe receptor (FPRL1) and ERK1/2. suPAR induces human smooth muscle cell activation and migration independent of the full uPAR through activation of the G protein-coupled receptor FPRL1, which is not linked to the plasminogen activation cascade. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Corneal avascularity is due to soluble VEGF receptor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Balamurali K; Nozaki, Miho; Singh, Nirbhai; Takeda, Atsunobu; Jani, Pooja D; Suthar, Tushar; Albuquerque, Romulo J C; Richter, Elizabeth; Sakurai, Eiji; Newcomb, Michael T; Kleinman, Mark E; Caldwell, Ruth B; Lin, Qing; Ogura, Yuichiro; Orecchia, Angela; Samuelson, Don A; Agnew, Dalen W; St Leger, Judy; Green, W Richard; Mahasreshti, Parameshwar J; Curiel, David T; Kwan, Donna; Marsh, Helene; Ikeda, Sakae; Leiper, Lucy J; Collinson, J Martin; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Khurana, Tejvir S; Shibuya, Masabumi; Baldwin, Megan E; Ferrara, Napoleone; Gerber, Hans-Peter; De Falco, Sandro; Witta, Jassir; Baffi, Judit Z; Raisler, Brian J; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2006-10-26

    Corneal avascularity-the absence of blood vessels in the cornea-is required for optical clarity and optimal vision, and has led to the cornea being widely used for validating pro- and anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategies for many disorders. But the molecular underpinnings of the avascular phenotype have until now remained obscure and are all the more remarkable given the presence in the cornea of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, a potent stimulator of angiogenesis, and the proximity of the cornea to vascularized tissues. Here we show that the cornea expresses soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1; also known as sflt-1) and that suppression of this endogenous VEGF-A trap by neutralizing antibodies, RNA interference or Cre-lox-mediated gene disruption abolishes corneal avascularity in mice. The spontaneously vascularized corneas of corn1 and Pax6+/- mice and Pax6+/- patients with aniridia are deficient in sflt-1, and recombinant sflt-1 administration restores corneal avascularity in corn1 and Pax6+/- mice. Manatees, the only known creatures uniformly to have vascularized corneas, do not express sflt-1, whereas the avascular corneas of dugongs, also members of the order Sirenia, elephants, the closest extant terrestrial phylogenetic relatives of manatees, and other marine mammals (dolphins and whales) contain sflt-1, indicating that it has a crucial, evolutionarily conserved role. The recognition that sflt-1 is essential for preserving the avascular ambit of the cornea can rationally guide its use as a platform for angiogenic modulators, supports its use in treating neovascular diseases, and might provide insight into the immunological privilege of the cornea.

  3. DECOY STATE QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellami Ali

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental weak + vacuum protocol has been demonstrated using commercial QKD system based on a standard bi-directional ‘Plug & Play’ set-up. By making simple modifications to a commercial quantum key distribution system, decoy state QKD allows us to achieve much better performance than QKD system without decoy state in terms of key generation rate and distance. We demonstrate an unconditionally secure key rate of 6.2931 x 10-4per pulse for a 25 km fiber length.

  4. Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (s-TREM-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (s-TREM-1) from endotracheal aspirates in critically ill patients: A potential marker of the dynamic inflammatory burden of the lower respiratory tract.

  5. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is associated with subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, T; Lyngbæk, S; Eugen-Olsen, J

    2011-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a plasma marker of low grade inflammation and has been associated with cardiovascular risk. We wanted to investigate whether suPAR was associated with markers of subclinical organ damage.......The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a plasma marker of low grade inflammation and has been associated with cardiovascular risk. We wanted to investigate whether suPAR was associated with markers of subclinical organ damage....

  6. Increased concentrations of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and soluble TNF receptors in biliary obstruction in mice; soluble TNF receptors as prognostic factors for mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, M. H.; Greve, J. W.; Gouma, D. J.; Buurman, W. A.

    1996-01-01

    Systemic tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is present in jaundiced mice. Two soluble TNF receptors, sTNFr-P55 and sTNFr-P75 are reported to play a part in the natural defence against TNF. This study investigated the properties of circulating TNF and sTNFr in jaundiced mice. The data show that TNF in

  7. Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor and Outcomes in Patients with Diabetes on Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, Christiane; Hayek, Salim S; Wei, Changli; Sever, Sanja; Genser, Bernd; Krane, Vera; Meinitzer, Andreas; März, Winfried; Wanner, Christoph; Reiser, Jochen

    2017-08-07

    Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is a novel biomarker strongly predictive of cardiovascular outcomes implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels, however, correlate with declining kidney function. It is unclear whether soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels remain associated with outcomes in patients with ESRD. We measured plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels in 1175 patients (mean age =66±8 years old, 54% men) with type 2 diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis participating in the German Diabetes and Dialysis Study followed for a median of 4 years for outcomes including all-cause death, cardiovascular events, and infection-related mortality. Survival analysis was performed using stepwise Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential confounders. Also, adjustments were made for inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and leukocyte count) and the oxidative stress marker asymmetric dimethyl arginine to investigate potential mediators of the relationship between soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and outcomes. Median soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels were 10,521 pg/ml (interquartile range, 9105-12,543 pg/ml). When stratified by tertiles, patients with soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor >11,633 pg/ml (third tertile) had adjusted 1.6-fold higher mortality (hazard ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.27 to 2.03) compared with those with low soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor to a risk factor model modestly improved risk discrimination for all-cause death (ΔC statistic, 0.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.00 to 0.03) and cardiovascular events (ΔC statistic, 0.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.00 to 0.05). The association of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels with outcomes persists in patients on hemodialysis

  8. Effect of ranitidine on soluble interleukin 2 receptors and CD8 molecules in surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Mynster, T; Jensen, S

    1994-01-01

    intravenous ranitidine 100 mg twice daily for 4 days from skin incision, followed by oral ranitidine 150 mg twice daily for a further 5 days; 13 control patients received no ranitidine. Routine blood analysis, clinical data, duration of surgery, anaesthesia, antibiotic prophylaxis and perioperative blood......The effect of perioperative immunomodulation with the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on postoperative changes in soluble interleukin (IL) 2 receptor and soluble CD8 levels was assessed in 24 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery. Eleven patients were randomized to receive...... developed postoperative infectious complications. No significant differences were shown in soluble CD8 concentration during the postoperative period. The postoperative change in soluble IL-2 receptor level may reflect lymphocyte activation status; ranitidine appears to promote activation of mainly CD4...

  9. Stabilization of the bioactivity of tumor necrosis factor by its soluble receptors

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    The receptors for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) exist in cell-associated as well as soluble forms, both binding specifically to TNF. Since the soluble forms of TNF receptors (sTNF-Rs) can compete with the cell- associated TNF receptors for TNF, it was suggested that they function as inhibitors of TNF activity; at high concentrations, the sTNF-Rs indeed inhibit TNF effects. However, we report here that in the presence of low concentrations of the sTNF-Rs, effects of TNF whose induction depend on...

  10. Soluble toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2) is increased in saliva of children with dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Alyssa; Blackburn, Corinne; Chin, Judith; Srinivasan, Mythily

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries is the most common microbial disease affecting mankind. Caries risk assessment methods, identification of biomarkers and vaccine development strategies are being emphasized to control the incidence of the largely preventable disease. Pattern recognition receptors such as the toll like receptors (TLR) have been implicated as modulators of host-microbial interactions. Soluble TLR-2 and its co-receptor, CD14 identified in saliva can bind the cell wall components of cario...

  11. Multiple Soluble TGF-β Receptors in Addition to Soluble Endoglin Are Elevated in Preeclamptic Serum and They Synergistically Inhibit TGF-β Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Chen, Qi; Zhao, Min; Walton, Kelly; Harrison, Craig; Nie, Guiying

    2017-08-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) can be classified into early-onset (34 weeks of gestation) subtypes. Soluble endoglin, an auxiliary receptor for transforming growth factor (TGF)-β ligands, is increased in PE circulation and believed to inhibit TGF-β action by sequestering the ligands. However, soluble endoglin, with a low affinity to TGF-β ligands, has been demonstrated to have little effect by itself on TGF-β action. We examined whether multiple soluble TGF-β receptors are elevated in PE circulation and whether they synergistically block TGF-β signaling. TGF-β receptors were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera collected from preeclamptic pregnancies and gestation-age-matched controls. TGF-β signaling was assessed using an in vitro bioassay and a tube formation assay. TGF-β type I, II, and III receptors were all identified in pregnant serum; all were substantially elevated in early-onset but not late-onset PE. Endoglin was increased in both subtypes. At the greatest concentrations detected in PE, none of these soluble TGF-β receptors alone, including endoglin, inhibited TGF-β signaling. However, when all four soluble receptors were present, signaling of both TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 was substantially reduced. Removal of any one of these soluble receptors alleviated TGF-β1 inhibition; however, removal of soluble TGFβRIII was necessary to relieve TGF-β2 inhibition. Multiple soluble TGF-β receptors are present in pregnant circulation and elevated in early-onset PE; they synergistically inhibit TGF-β signaling, which might be more likely to occur in early-onset than late-onset PE. Reducing soluble TGFβRIII, rather than endoglin, would be more effective in alleviating the inhibition of both TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 signaling in PE.

  12. Improvement in Aqueous Solubility of Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR) Agonists by Bending the Molecular Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Michiaki; Ichikawa, Yuki; Tomoshige, Shusuke; Makishima, Makoto; Muranaka, Atsuya; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takao; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru

    2016-08-05

    Aqueous solubility is a key requirement for many functional molecules, e. g., drug candidates. Decrease of the partition coefficient (log P) by chemical modification, i.e., introduction of hydrophilic group(s) into molecules, is a classical strategy for improving aqueous solubility. We have been investigating alternative strategies for improving the aqueous solubility of pharmaceutical compounds by disrupting intermolecular interactions. Here, we show that introducing a bend into the molecular structure of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists by changing the substitution pattern from para to meta or ortho dramatically enhances aqueous solubility by up to 890-fold. We found that meta analogs exhibit similar hydrophobicity to the parent para compound, and have lower melting points, supporting the idea that the increase of aqueous solubility was due to decreased intermolecular interactions in the solid state as a result of the structural changes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The significance of soluble transferrin receptors in diagnosing iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijanić Ivan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In recent years, determination of soluble transferrin receptor levels has been emerging as a test that can reliably indicate iron deficiency in various states, and that is non-invasive and easy to use. The aim of this study was: to determine reference values of soluble transferrin receptor concentrations in serums in our population, to examine the reliability of this method in the diagnosis of anemia due to iron deficiency and associated iron deficiency in anemia accompanying malignant hemopathies, and to identify possible limitations of the test in certain conditions.

  14. Soluble Transferrin Receptor - A Marker For Iron Deficiency; A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The serum transferrin are shed into the blood and its level has been found to correlate with the level of iron stores and thereby the degree of erythropoietic activity. The aim of this literature review is to explore the physical properties of the serum transferrin receptor and its usefulness in the detection of iron deficiency.

  15. The plasma level of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It binds to molecules released from apoptotic cells such as nucleosomes and DNA thereby, increasing the immunogenicity of macrophages through receptors for ... 24 h urine proteins, creatinine clearance, protein/creatinine ratio, C3, C4, Anti-nuclear antibody, Anti-double stranded DNA were conducted for all patients and ...

  16. The plasma level of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anna Nashaat Abou-Raya

    2015-07-23

    Jul 23, 2015 ... cells such as nucleosomes and DNA thereby, increasing the immunogenicity of macrophages through receptors for advanced ... creatinine, 24 h urine proteins, creatinine clearance, protein/creatinine ratio, C3, C4, Anti-nuclear antibody ... for a family of about 20 related calcium binding proteins that are only ...

  17. Evaluation of placental growth factor and soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 as predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with Type 1 diabetes with and without diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, S; Lajer, Maria Stenkil; Jorsal, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Placental growth factor is a vascular endothelial growth factor involved in angiogenesis, vascular inflammation and plaque formation. Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 is a decoy receptor for placental growth factor, reducing its activity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictive valu...... of placental growth factor and soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 in relation to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and decline in kidney function in Type 1 diabetes....

  18. The decoy Fcγ receptor encoded by the cytomegalovirus UL119-UL118 gene has differential affinity to IgG proteins expressing different GM allotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Janardan P; Namboodiri, Aryan M; Radwan, Faisal F; Nietert, Paul J

    2015-08-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that has been implicated in many diseases. However, there is significant divergence between HCMV seroprevalence and the prevalence of HCMV-associated diseases, implying the presence of host genetic factors that might modulate immunity to this virus. HCMV deploys many sophisticated strategies to evade host immunosurveillance. One strategy involves encoding for proteins that have functional properties of the Fcγ receptor (FcγR). The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether the UL119-UL118-encoded recombinant FcγR ectodomain binds differentially to genetically disparate IgG1 proteins. Results show that mean absorbance values for binding of HCMV UL119-UL118-encoded Fcγ receptor to the immunoglobulin GM (γ marker) 1,17-expressing IgG1 were significantly higher than to the IgG1 expressing the allelic GM 3 allotype (0.225 vs. 0.151; p=0.039). These findings suggest possible mechanisms underlying the maintenance of immunoglobulin GM gene polymorphism and its putative role in the etiology of HCMV-associated diseases. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor for Risk Prediction in Patients Admitted with Acute Chest Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Andersson, Charlotte; Marott, Jacob L

    2013-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) predict mortality in several clinical settings, but the long-term prognostic importance of suPAR in chest pain patients admitted on suspicion of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) is uncertain....

  20. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eman M. Sherif

    2014-07-10

    Jul 10, 2014 ... Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in type 1 diabetes Mellitus: Possible association with diabetic vascular complications. Eman M. Sherif, Abeer A. Abdelmaksoud *, Hanan M. Issa, Shadwa A. Mohamed. Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams ...

  1. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eman M. Sherif

    2014-07-10

    Jul 10, 2014 ... AGEs (RAGE) is a cell-bound receptor of the immunoglobu- lin superfamily, which may be activated by a variety of proin- flammatory ligands. AGEs bind to RAGE, thereby leading to activation of a range of inflammatory and fibrotic pathways causing tissue injury [2]. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE), arising.

  2. Interleukin-1 contributes to increased concentrations of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type I in sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poll, T.; Fischer, E.; Coyle, S. M.; van Zee, K. J.; Pribble, J. P.; Stiles, D. M.; Barie, P. S.; Buurman, W. A.; Moldawer, L. L.; Lowry, S. F.

    1995-01-01

    Studies were done in baboons and humans to assess the role of interleukin (IL)-1 on the release of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNFRs) during sepsis. In baboons, IL-1 alpha induced increased levels of sTNFR types I and II. Infusion of Escherichia coli into baboons also led to higher

  3. Soluble complement receptor 1 protects the peripheral nerve from early axon loss after injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaglia, Valeria; Wolterman, Ruud; de Kok, Maryla; Vigar, Miriam Ann; Wagenaar-Bos, Ineke; King, Rosalind Helen Mary; Morgan, Brian Paul; Baas, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Complement activation is a crucial early event in Wallerian degeneration. In this study we show that treatment of rats with soluble complement receptor 1 (sCR1), an inhibitor of all complement pathways, blocked both systemic and local complement activation after crush injury of the sciatic nerve.

  4. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Patients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Røge, Rasmus; Pristed, Sofie Gry

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of schizophrenia remains largely unknown but alterations in the immune system may be involved. In addition to the psychiatric symptoms, schizophrenia is also associated with up to 20 years reduction in life span. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (su...

  5. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in acute care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Ladelund, Steen; Haupt, Thomas Huneck

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an inflammatory biomarker associated with presence and progression of disease and with increased risk of mortality. We aimed to evaluate the unspecific biomarker suPAR as a prognostic marker in patients admitted to acute care...

  6. Detector decoy quantum key distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroder, Tobias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert [Quantum Information Theory Group, Institute of Theoretical Physics I, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 7/B2, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Curty, Marcos [ETSI Telecomunicacion, Department of Signal Theory and Communications, University of Vigo, Campus Universitario, E-36310 Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: tmoroder@iqc.ca

    2009-04-15

    Photon number resolving detectors can enhance the performance of many practical quantum cryptographic setups. In this paper, we employ a simple method to estimate the statistics provided by such a photon number resolving detector using only a threshold detector together with a variable attenuator. This idea is similar in spirit to that of the decoy state technique, and is especially suited to those scenarios where only a few parameters of the photon number statistics of the incoming signals have to be estimated. As an illustration of the potential applicability of the method in quantum communication protocols, we use it to prove security of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution scheme with an untrusted source without the need for a squash model and by solely using this extra idea. In this sense, this detector decoy method can be seen as a different conceptual approach to adapt a single-photon security proof to its physical, full optical implementation. We show that in this scenario, the legitimate users can now even discard the double click events from the raw key data without compromising the security of the scheme, and we present simulations on the performance of the BB84 and the 6-state quantum key distribution protocols.

  7. Soluble transferrin receptor and immature reticulocytes are not useful for distinguishing iron-deficiency anemia from heterozygous beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisélia Aparecida Freire Maia de Lima

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency and heterozygous beta-thalassemia are important causes of hypochromic-microcytic anemia. Two laboratory parameters are suggested for the differentiation of such anemia. High-fluorescence reticulocyte counts and soluble transferrin receptor levels were determined in iron-deficiency anemia patients (n = 49 and heterozygous beta-thalassemia patients (n = 43. There was no significant difference in high-fluorescence reticulocyte and soluble transferrin receptor values between the two groups, but a correlation was observed between high-fluorescence reticulocytes and soluble transferrin receptors in iron-deficiency anemia, probably due to increased receptor synthesis as a response to decreased iron content in erythrocytes.

  8. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor and soluble CD8 molecules in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, P B; Soscia, E; Iacovitti, B; Pellicano, M; D'Antonio, A; Provitera, V; Perrella, O

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and soluble CD8 (sCD8) molecules in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of 18 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) and of 16 with noninflammatory neurologic diseases (NIND). All MS patients suffered from an exacerbation of the relapsing-remitting form of the disease within one month before examination. The mean serum levels of sIL-2R and sCD8 in the MS patients were not significantly different from those of NIND patients. Only one patient with MS had detectable sIL-2R in the CSF. CSF sCD8 was detectable in 10 of 18 MS patients and in 1 of 16 NIND patients. Our data indicate that the CSF and serum sIL-2R concentrations do not correlate with the disease activity. Conversely, increased levels of sCD8 only in the CSF of MS patients support the hypothesis of an intrathecal activation of CD8+ cells in MS. We think that CSF sCD8 can be a useful marker for the presence of activated T cells in the central nervous system.

  9. Increased in vitro release of soluble interleukin 2 receptor by colonic lamina propria mononuclear cells in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, S; Raedler, A; Conn, A R; Rombeau, J L; MacDermott, R P

    1992-01-01

    Increased concentrations of the soluble form of the interleukin 2 receptor have been observed in the sera of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. In this study we have observed the spontaneous release of soluble interleukin 2 receptor by unstimulated, isolated normal and inflammatory bowel disease colonic lamina propria mononuclear cells. Lamina propria mononuclear cells from Crohn's disease patients (median = 204 U/ml (interquartile range 126-396, n 17) secreted significantly (p less than 0.01) more soluble interleukin 2 receptor than normal controls (median = 124.5 U/ml (108-131), n 12). No statistically significant differences were seen between ulcerative colitis (median = 135 U/ml (92-196), n 20) and normal controls. Moreover, significantly (p less than 0.01) increased amounts of soluble interleukin 2 receptor were secreted by colonic diverticulitis lamina propria mononuclear cells (median = 259 U/ml (149-282), n 15) which were used as disease specificity controls. Time course experiments showed that the majority of soluble interleukin 2 receptor was released by isolated lamina propria mononuclear cells in the first six days of culture. Upon stimulation with pokeweed mitogen, Crohn's disease (median = 2258 U/ml (1435-3584), n 14), normal control (median = 2622 U/ml (2030-3180), n 14) and diverticulitis lamina propria mononuclear cells (median = 2745 U/ml (1733-3192), n 10) reached similar maximal soluble interleukin 2 receptor secretion levels, while ulcerative colitis lamina propria mononuclear cells secreted significantly (p less than 0.005) less soluble interleukin 2 receptor (median = 912 U/ml (494-1259), n 17). These results suggest that enhanced shedding/secretion of soluble interleukin 2 receptor by intestinal lymphocytes may account in part for increased serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor concentrations during chronic intestinal inflammatory reactions. PMID:1541420

  10. Hyperinsulinemia is associated with increased soluble insulin receptors release from hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia eHiriart

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been generally assumed that insulin circulates freely in blood. However it can also interact with plasma proteins. Insulin receptors are located in the membrane of target cells and consist of an alpha and beta subunits with a tyrosine kinase cytoplasmic domain. The ectodomain, called soluble insulin receptor (SIR has been found elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus. We explored if insulin binds to SIRs in circulation under physiological conditions and hypothesize that this SIR may be released by hepatocytes in response to high insulin concentrations. The presence of SIR in rat and human plasmas and the culture medium of hepatocytes was explored using Western blot analysis. A purification protocol was performed to isolated SIR using affinity, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatographies. A modified reverse hemolytic plaque assay was used to measure SIR release from cultured hepatocytes. Incubation with 1 nmol l-1 insulin induces the release of the insulin receptor ectodomains from normal rat hepatocytes. This effect can be partially prevented by blocking protease activity. Furthermore, plasma levels of SIR were higher in a model of metabolic syndrome, where rats are hyperinsulinemic. We also found increased SIR levels in hyperinsulinemic humans. SIR may be an important regulator of the amount of free insulin in circulation. In hyperinsulinemia the amount of this soluble receptor increases, this could lead to higher amounts of insulin bound to this receptor, rather than free insulin, which is the biologically active form of the hormone. This observation could enlighten the mechanisms of insulin resistance.

  11. The location of olfactory receptors within olfactory epithelium is independent of odorant volatility and solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeFazio Anthony R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to study the pattern of olfactory receptor expression within the dorsal and ventral regions of the mouse olfactory epithelium. We hypothesized that olfactory receptors were distributed based on the chemical properties of their ligands: e.g. receptors for polar, hydrophilic and weakly volatile odorants would be present in the dorsal region of olfactory epithelium; while receptors for non-polar, more volatile odorants would be distributed to the ventral region. To test our hypothesis, we used micro-transplantation of cilia-enriched plasma membranes derived from dorsal or ventral regions of the olfactory epithelium into Xenopus oocytes for electrophysiological characterization against a panel of 100 odorants. Findings Odorants detected by ORs from the dorsal and ventral regions showed overlap in volatility and water solubility. We did not find evidence for a correlation between the solubility and volatility of odorants and the functional expression of olfactory receptors in the dorsal or ventral region of the olfactory epithelia. Conclusions No simple clustering or relationship between chemical properties of odorants could be associated with the different regions of the olfactory epithelium. These results suggest that the location of ORs within the epithelium is not organized based on the physico-chemical properties of their ligands.

  12. The soluble mannose receptor is released from the liver in cirrhotic patients, but is not associated with bacterial translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Tea L; Rødgaard-Hansen, Sidsel; Møller, Holger J; Mortensen, Christian; Karlsen, Stine; Nielsen, Dennis T; Frevert, Susanne; Clemmesen, Jens O; Møller, Søren; Jensen, Jørgen S; Bendtsen, Flemming; Grønbaek, Henning

    2017-04-01

    Intestinal bacterial translocation is involved in activation of liver macrophages in cirrhotic patients. Macrophages play a key role in liver inflammation and are involved in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis and complications. Bacterial translocation may be determined by presence of bacterial DNA and macrophage activation, by the soluble mannose receptor. We hypothesize that the soluble mannose receptor is released from hepatic macrophages in cirrhosis and associated with bacterial DNA, portal pressure and complications. We investigated 28 cirrhotic patients set for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion as a result of refractory ascites (n=17), acute (n=3), or recurrent variceal bleeding (n=8). We analysed plasma from the portal and hepatic veins for bacterial DNA and soluble mannose receptor with qPCR and ELISA. The median soluble mannose receptor level was elevated in the hepatic vein compared with the portal vein (0.57(interquartile range 0.31) vs 0.55(0.40) mg/L, P=.005). The soluble mannose receptor levels were similar in bacterial DNA-positive and -negative patients. The soluble mannose receptor level in the portal and hepatic veins correlated with the portal pressure prior to transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion (r=.52, Psoluble mannose receptor levels in patients with acute variceal bleeding compared to other indications (Psoluble mannose receptor excretion with a higher level in the hepatic than the portal vein, though with no associations to bacterial DNA. We observed associations between soluble mannose receptor levels and portal pressure and higher levels in patients with acute variceal bleeding indicating the soluble mannose receptor as a marker of complications of cirrhosis, but not bacterial translocation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Virus encoded MHC-like decoys diversify the inhibitory KIR repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Carrillo-Bustamante

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are circulating lymphocytes that play an important role in the control of viral infections and tumors. Their functions are regulated by several activating and inhibitory receptors. A subset of these receptors in human NK cells are the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs, which interact with the highly polymorphic MHC class I molecules. One important function of NK cells is to detect cells that have down-regulated MHC expression (missing-self. Because MHC molecules have non polymorphic regions, their expression could have been monitored with a limited set of monomorphic receptors. Surprisingly, the KIR family has a remarkable genetic diversity, the function of which remains poorly understood. The mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV is able to evade NK cell responses by coding "decoy" molecules that mimic MHC class I. This interaction was suggested to have driven the evolution of novel NK cell receptors. Inspired by the MCMV system, we develop an agent-based model of a host population infected with viruses that are able to evolve MHC down-regulation and decoy molecules. Our simulations show that specific recognition of MHC class I molecules by inhibitory KIRs provides excellent protection against viruses evolving decoys, and that the diversity of inhibitory KIRs will subsequently evolve as a result of the required discrimination between host MHC molecules and decoy molecules.

  14. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products and risk of liver cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Moy, Kristin A.; Jiao, Li; Freedman, Neal D.; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Sinha, Rashmi; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2013-01-01

    Binding of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) to their receptor (RAGE) increases oxidative stress and inflammation, and may be involved in liver injury and subsequent carcinogenesis. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) may neutralize the effects mediated by AGEs/RAGE complex. Epidemiologic studies examining sRAGE or AGEs in association with liver cancer are lacking. We examined the associations between prediagnostic serum concentrations of sRAGE or Nε-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML)-AGE and hepatocellular ...

  15. Chaperone-assisted thermostability engineering of a soluble T cell receptor using phage display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Kristin S; Kristinsson, Solveig G; Justesen, Sune

    2013-01-01

    We here report a novel phage display selection strategy enabling fast and easy selection of thermostabilized proteins. The approach is illustrated with stabilization of an aggregation-prone soluble single chain T cell receptor (scTCR) characteristic of the murine MOPC315 myeloma model. Random......-specific reactivity of the TCR. This FkpA-assisted thermostabilization strategy extends the utility of recombinant TCRs and furthermore, may be of general use for efficient evolution of proteins....

  16. Use of plasma C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, neutrophils,macrophage migration inhibitory factor, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in combination to diagnose infections: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Andersen, Ove; Kronborg, Gitte

    2007-01-01

    department and department of infectious diseases at a university hospital. A multiplex immunoassay measuring soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator (suPAR) and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (sTREM)-1 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was used in parallel...

  17. TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 1 is a Major Target of Soluble TWEAK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona Arana, José Antonio; Seher, Axel; Neumann, Manfred; Lang, Isabell; Siegmund, Daniela; Wajant, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), in contrast to membrane TWEAK and TNF, is only a weak activator of the classical NFκB pathway. We observed that soluble TWEAK was regularly more potent than TNF with respect to the induction of TNF receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), a NFκB-controlled signaling protein involved in the regulation of inflammatory signaling pathways. TNF-induced TRAF1 expression was efficiently blocked by inhibition of the classical NFκB pathway using the IKK2 inhibitor, TPCA1. In contrast, in some cell lines, TWEAK-induced TRAF1 production was only partly inhibited by TPCA1. The NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor MLN4924, however, which inhibits classical and alternative NFκB signaling, blocked TNF- and TWEAK-induced TRAF1 expression. This suggests that TRAF1 induction by soluble TWEAK is based on the cooperative activity of the two NFκB signaling pathways. We have previously shown that oligomerization of soluble TWEAK results in ligand complexes with membrane TWEAK-like activity. Oligomerization of soluble TWEAK showed no effect on the dose response of TRAF1 induction, but potentiated the ability of soluble TWEAK to trigger production of the classical NFκB-regulated cytokine IL8. Transfectants expressing soluble TWEAK and membrane TWEAK showed similar induction of TRAF1 while only the membrane TWEAK expressing cells robustly stimulated IL8 production. These data indicate that soluble TWEAK may efficiently induce a distinct subset of the membrane TWEAK-targeted genes and argue again for a crucial role of classical NFκB pathway-independent signaling in TWEAK-induced TRAF1 expression. Other TWEAK targets, which can be equally well induced by soluble and membrane TWEAK, remain to be identified and the relevance of the ability of soluble TWEAK to induce such a distinct subset of membrane TWEAK-targeted genes for TWEAK biology will have to be clarified in future studies. PMID:24600451

  18. Developmental variations in plasma leptin, leptin soluble receptor and their molar ratio in healthy infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami Mouhanad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptin and its soluble receptor (sOB-R are important to regulation of body composition but there are no data on the developmental variations in these plasma variables and their relationship with body composition measurements, Methods Weight, length, and body composition (bone, fat and lean mass by dual energy absorptiometry, and plasma variables were measured in healthy infants at 2, 4, 8 and 12 months. Results 15 whites and 29 African Americans (21 males and 23 females with mean birth weight 3357 +/- 45 (SEM g and gestation of 39.3 +/- 0.17 weeks were studied. The overall Z score for weight, length and weight for length during the study were 0.00 +/- 0.15, -0.08 +/- 0.11 and 0.12 +/- 0.14 respectively. With increasing age, plasma leptin (1.0 to 18.2, median 5.5 ng/mL and sOB-R:leptin molar ratio (10.1 to 247.4, median 59.9 were lowered (r = -0.47, p Conclusion In healthy growing infants, plasma leptin but not sOB-R decreases with age. Gender, race and anthropometric measurements are additional physiological determinants predictive of plasma leptin and the receptor:ligand ratio. However, body composition is the only variable that can predict plasma leptin and its soluble receptor and the receptor: ligand ratio; and body composition measurements eliminated the race and gender effect on these plasma variables.

  19. The effect of four weeks restricted diet on serum soluble leptin receptor levels and adipocyte leptin receptor density in normoweight rattus norvegicus strain Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Indra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the five possible mechanisms of leptin resistance in human obesity is the defect in the leptin receptor (Ob-R. Evidence has accumulated that leptin-binding activity in human serum is related to a soluble form of the leptin receptor, and restriction of energy intake resulted a decrease in circulating leptin levels. Aim of this study is to examine the difference of serum soluble leptin receptor level and leptin receptor density in rat adipose tissue of adventitial aorta after four weeks treated with different restricted diets. Soluble leptin receptor level was measured by ELISA and leptin receptor density by using immuno-histochemistry. The soluble leptin receptor in group treated with 40% of normal daily calori diet was found significantly lower than control (p = 0.02. There were no any significant differences among group treated with 40 % of normal daily calori diet, “1 day fast-1day eat”, and ”1day fast-2 days eat” groups, and among 1 day fast-1 day eat”, ”day fast - 2 days eat” and control groups as well. On the other hand, leptin receptor density in adipose tissues was higher in restricted diet group than control. Diet of 40 % normal daily calorie for 4 weeks decreased soluble leptin receptor level, but increased adipocyte leptin receptor density of the adipose tissue of rat adventitial aorta. These changes may be resulted from an up regulation mechanism in relation with homeostatic maintenance. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:145-50 Keywords: restricted diet, leptin receptor, soluble leptin receptor, adipocyte, obesity

  20. Increased in vitro release of soluble interleukin 2 receptor by colonic lamina propria mononuclear cells in inflammatory bowel disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, S; Raedler, A; Conn, A R; Rombeau, J. L.; MacDermott, R P

    1992-01-01

    Increased concentrations of the soluble form of the interleukin 2 receptor have been observed in the sera of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. In this study we have observed the spontaneous release of soluble interleukin 2 receptor by unstimulated, isolated normal and inflammatory bowel disease colonic lamina propria mononuclear cells. Lamina propria mononuclear cells from Crohn's disease patients (median = 204 U/ml (interquartile range 126-396, n 17) secreted significantly (p ...

  1. Identification of the hemoglobin scavenger receptor/CD163 as a natural soluble protein in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger Jon; Peterslund, Niels Anker; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov

    2002-01-01

    The hemoglobin scavenger receptor (HbSR/CD163) is an interleukin-6- and glucocorticoid-regulated macrophage/monocyte receptor for uptake of haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes. Moreover, there are strong indications that HbSR serves an anti-inflammatory function. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting...... enabled identification of a soluble plasma form of HbSR (sHbSR) having an electrophoretic mobility equal to that of recombinant HbSR consisting of the extracellular domain (scavenger receptor cysteine-rich 1-9). A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established and used to measure the s...... a level of sHbSR above the range of healthy persons. Patients with myelomonocytic leukemias and pneumonia/sepsis exhibited the highest levels (up to 67.3 mg/L). In conclusion, sHbSR is an abundant plasma protein potentially valuable in monitoring patients with infections and myelomonocytic leukemia....

  2. Neutrophil Fc gamma and complement receptors involved in binding soluble IgG immune complexes and in specific granule release induced by soluble IgG immune complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voice, J K; Lachmann, P J

    1997-10-01

    We examined the effect of soluble IgG immune complex (IC) characteristics on the binding of IC to human neutrophils and IC-induced specific granule release of neutrophils via Fc gamma receptors (CD16 and CD32) and complement receptors (CR1 and CR3). A set of soluble IgG IC varying in size, IgG subclass, antigen epitope density and complement (C) incorporation were formed between 5-iodo-4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenacetyl (NIP) coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and chimeric mouse-human anti-NIP monoclonal antibodies (mAb) of all four IgG subclasses. High and low epitope density IC of all four IgG subclasses induced specific granule release with C, but in the absence of C only IgG1 and IgG3 IC were functionally active. The Fc gamma and C receptors responsible for IgG IC-induced specific granule release and IC binding were determined using mAb specific for the ligand binding sites of CD16, CD32 and CR3, and recombinant soluble CR1. Each defined IC displayed a unique pattern of receptor preference, dependent upon subclass and antigenic epitope density. IC binding and IC-induced specific granule release was not mediated by the same receptor, or combination of receptors. High and low epitope density IgG3 IC binding and induction of specific granule release was mediated predominantly via CD16. Other IC subclasses bound differently, i.e. IgG1 IC used CD16 and CR3; IgG2 and IgG4 predominantly used complement receptors; but all three induced specific granule release via CD32. In vivo these results may translate into differential activation of neutrophils by soluble IC dependent upon their characteristics, leading to subtle nuances in the etiology, pathology and control of the immune response in IC-related diseases.

  3. Soluble ectodomain of neuroligin 1 decreases synaptic activity by activating metabotropic glutamate receptor 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørlund, Michelle D.; Carlsen, Eva Maria Meier; Kønig, Andreas Bay

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic cell adhesion molecules represent important targets for neuronal activity-dependent proteolysis. Postsynaptic neuroligins (NLs) form trans-synaptic complexes with presynaptic neurexins (NXs). Both NXs and NLs are cleaved from the cell surface by metalloproteases in an activity......-dependent manner, releasing a soluble extracellular fragment and membrane-tethered C-terminal fragment. The cleavage of NL1 depresses synaptic transmission, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) are located primarily at the periphery of presynaptic terminals......, where they inhibit the formation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and consequently suppress the release of glutamate and decrease synaptic transmission. In the present study, we found that the soluble ectodomain of NL1 binds to and activates mGluR2 in both neurons and heterologous cells...

  4. Neutrophil influx into an inflammatory site inhibited by a soluble homing receptor-IgG chimaera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S R; Fennie, C; Lasky, L A

    1991-01-10

    Neutrophil-mediated inflammation is involved in a number of human clinical manifestations, including the adult respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure and reperfusion injury. One way of inhibiting this type of inflammatory response would be to block competitively the adhesive interactions between neutrophils and the endothelium adjacent to the inflamed region. The lectin-containing murine adhesion molecule gp90MEL, the homing receptor, is found on all leukocytic cells, including neutrophils. MEL 14, a monoclonal antibody directed against this adhesion molecule, blocks lymphocyte traffic to lymph nodes and extravasation of neutrophils from blood to inflammatory sites. Here we show that administration to mice of a soluble immunoglobulin chimaera containing the murine homing receptor extracellular domain significantly decreases the number of neutrophils that migrate to the peritoneum in response to the inflammatory irritant thioglycollate. These results indicate that soluble forms of a single type of adhesion molecule, the homing receptor, could be clinically effective compounds for the inhibition of neutrophil-mediated inflammation.

  5. Improving decoy databases for protein folding algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Lindsey, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Copyright © 2014 ACM. Predicting protein structures and simulating protein folding are two of the most important problems in computational biology today. Simulation methods rely on a scoring function to distinguish the native structure (the most energetically stable) from non-native structures. Decoy databases are collections of non-native structures used to test and verify these functions. We present a method to evaluate and improve the quality of decoy databases by adding novel structures and removing redundant structures. We test our approach on 17 different decoy databases of varying size and type and show significant improvement across a variety of metrics. We also test our improved databases on a popular modern scoring function and show that they contain a greater number of native-like structures than the original databases, thereby producing a more rigorous database for testing scoring functions.

  6. Regulation of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) induced apoptosis by soluble TNF receptors in Helicobacter pylori infection

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, J; Goto, H; Arisawa, T; Niwa, Y; Hayakawa, T; Nakayama, A; Mori, N

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a predominant cytokine produced in the gastric mucosa of patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. TNF induces apoptosis in a variety of cells. The soluble TNF receptors (sTNF-Rs) can be divided into sTNF-RI and sTNF-RII, both of which inhibit TNF activity. However, their precise mechanisms remain unclear.
AIM—To investigate the role of sTNF-Rs in H pylori infection.
METHODS—In 40 patients, production of TNF and sTNF-Rs in gastric mucosa was measu...

  7. Low Levels of Serum Soluble Receptors for Advanced Glycation End Products, Biomarkers for Disease State: Myth or Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Kailash

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) interact with the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) on the membrane and induce deleterious effects via activation of nuclear factor kappa-B, and increased oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators. AGEs also combine with circulating soluble receptors (endogenous secretory RAGE [esRAGE] and soluble receptor for RAGE [sRAGE]) and sequester RAGE ligands and act as a cytoprotective agent. esRAGE is secreted from the cells and is a spliced variant of RAGE. The sRAGE...

  8. Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Product: A Biomarker for Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise J. N. Jensen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE and its ligands are linked to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD, and circulating soluble receptor of advanced glycation end products (sRAGE, reflecting the RAGE activity, is suggested as a potential biomarker. Elevated sRAGE levels are reported in relation to acute ischemia and this review focuses on the role of sRAGE as a biomarker for the acute coronary syndrome (ACS. The current studies demonstrated that sRAGE levels are elevated in relation to ACS, however during a very narrow time period, indicating that the time of sampling needs attention. Interestingly, activation of RAGE may influence the pathogenesis and reflection in sRAGE levels in acute and stable CAD differently.

  9. Circulating leptin, soluble leptin receptor, free leptin index, visfatin and selected leptin and leptin receptor gene polymorphisms in sporadic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Chrishani; Tennekoon, Kamani Hemamala; Karunanayake, Eric Hamilton; De Silva, Kanishka; Amarasinghe, Indrani; Wijayasiri, Ananda

    2017-04-29

    Leptin and visfatin are implicated in breast cancer risk but studies accounting for bioavailability of leptin are sparse. Reports on the association of leptin gene (LEP) and leptin receptor gene (LEPR) polymorphisms with breast cancer are also inconsistent. Only a very few studies have examined biochemical and genetic variables concomitantly in the same cohort. A matched pairs study was carried out to ascertain whether plasma leptin, soluble leptin receptor, free leptin index (leptin/soluble leptin receptor), serum visfatin and selected LEP and LEPR polymorphisms are risk factors for sporadic breast cancer. Newly diagnosed sporadic breast cancer patients (N=80) were matched for age, body mass index (BMI) and menopausal status with healthy controls. Plasma leptin, soluble leptin receptor and serum visfatin were measured by enzyme-immunoassay. LEP -2548 A/G and LEPR K109R, LEPR Q223R polymorphisms were determined by genotyping. Leptin (p=0.0234), leptin/BMI (p=0.0468), free leptin index (psoluble leptin receptor (psoluble leptin receptor, free leptin index and G109 (R109) allele of the LEPR gene K109R polymorphism are risk factors for breast cancer. When stratified by menopausal status free leptin index and soluble leptin receptor remained as risk factors irrespective of menopausal status while LEPR gene K109R A/G polymorphism remained as a risk factor only in the postmenopausal group.

  10. Directory of useful decoys, enhanced (DUD-E): better ligands and decoys for better benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysinger, Michael M; Carchia, Michael; Irwin, John J; Shoichet, Brian K

    2012-07-26

    A key metric to assess molecular docking remains ligand enrichment against challenging decoys. Whereas the directory of useful decoys (DUD) has been widely used, clear areas for optimization have emerged. Here we describe an improved benchmarking set that includes more diverse targets such as GPCRs and ion channels, totaling 102 proteins with 22886 clustered ligands drawn from ChEMBL, each with 50 property-matched decoys drawn from ZINC. To ensure chemotype diversity, we cluster each target's ligands by their Bemis-Murcko atomic frameworks. We add net charge to the matched physicochemical properties and include only the most dissimilar decoys, by topology, from the ligands. An online automated tool (http://decoys.docking.org) generates these improved matched decoys for user-supplied ligands. We test this data set by docking all 102 targets, using the results to improve the balance between ligand desolvation and electrostatics in DOCK 3.6. The complete DUD-E benchmarking set is freely available at http://dude.docking.org.

  11. Novel regulatory mechanisms for generation of the soluble leptin receptor: implications for leptin action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schaab

    Full Text Available The adipokine leptin realizes signal transduction via four different membrane-anchored leptin receptor (Ob-R isoforms in humans. However, the amount of functionally active Ob-R is affected by constitutive shedding of the extracellular domain via a so far unknown mechanism. The product of the cleavage process the so-called soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R is the main binding protein for leptin in human blood and modulates its bioavailability. sOb-R levels are differentially regulated in metabolic disorders like type 1 diabetes mellitus or obesity and can, therefore, enhance or reduce leptin sensitivity.To describe mechanisms of Ob-R cleavage and to investigate the functional significance of differential sOb-R levels we established a model of HEK293 cells transiently transfected with different human Ob-R isoforms. Using siRNA knockdown experiments we identified ADAM10 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 10 as a major protease for constitutive and activated Ob-R cleavage. Additionally, the induction of lipotoxicity and apoptosis led to enhanced shedding shown by increased levels of the soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R in cell supernatants. Conversely, high leptin concentrations and ER stress reduced sOb-R levels. Decreased amounts of sOb-R due to ER stress were accompanied by impaired leptin signaling and reduced leptin binding.Lipotoxicity and apoptosis increased Ob-R cleavage via ADAM10-dependent mechanisms. In contrast high leptin levels and ER stress led to reduced sOb-R levels. While increased sOb-R concentrations seem to directly block leptin action, reduced amounts of sOb-R may reflect decreased membrane expression of Ob-R. These findings could explain changes of leptin sensitivity which are associated with variations of serum sOb-R levels in metabolic diseases.

  12. Virus Encoded MHC-Like Decoys Diversify the Inhibitory KIR Repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Bustamante, Paola; Keşmir, Can; de Boer, Rob J.

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are circulating lymphocytes that play an important role in the control of viral infections and tumors. Their functions are regulated by several activating and inhibitory receptors. A subset of these receptors in human NK cells are the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), which interact with the highly polymorphic MHC class I molecules. One important function of NK cells is to detect cells that have down-regulated MHC expression (missing-self). Because MHC molecules have non polymorphic regions, their expression could have been monitored with a limited set of monomorphic receptors. Surprisingly, the KIR family has a remarkable genetic diversity, the function of which remains poorly understood. The mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is able to evade NK cell responses by coding “decoy” molecules that mimic MHC class I. This interaction was suggested to have driven the evolution of novel NK cell receptors. Inspired by the MCMV system, we develop an agent-based model of a host population infected with viruses that are able to evolve MHC down-regulation and decoy molecules. Our simulations show that specific recognition of MHC class I molecules by inhibitory KIRs provides excellent protection against viruses evolving decoys, and that the diversity of inhibitory KIRs will subsequently evolve as a result of the required discrimination between host MHC molecules and decoy molecules. PMID:24130473

  13. Soluble toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2) is increased in saliva of children with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Alyssa; Blackburn, Corinne; Chin, Judith; Srinivasan, Mythily

    2014-08-31

    Dental caries is the most common microbial disease affecting mankind. Caries risk assessment methods, identification of biomarkers and vaccine development strategies are being emphasized to control the incidence of the largely preventable disease. Pattern recognition receptors such as the toll like receptors (TLR) have been implicated as modulators of host-microbial interactions. Soluble TLR-2 and its co-receptor, CD14 identified in saliva can bind the cell wall components of cariogenic bacteria and modulate the disease process. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of salivary sTLR-2 and sCD14 as biomarkers of caries activity and indirect measures of the cariogenic bacterial burden. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from twenty caries free and twenty caries active children between the ages of 5 and 13 years. The concentration of sCD14 and sTLR-2 together with that of the cytokine IL-8 reported to be increased in dental caries was assessed by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. While the level of sCD14 and that of IL-8 was equivocal between the two groups, the sTLR-2 concentration in caries active saliva was significantly higher than that in caries free saliva. The sTLR-2 in saliva could serve as a potential biomarker for caries activity.

  14. Harnessing soluble NK cell killer receptors for the generation of novel cancer immune therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal I Arnon

    Full Text Available The natural cytotoxic receptors (NCRs are a unique set of activating proteins expressed mainly on the surface of natural killer (NK cells. The NCRs, which include three members; NKp46, NKp44 and NKp30, are critically involved in NK cytotoxicity against different targets, including a wide range of tumor cells derived from various origins. Even though the tumor ligands of the NCRs have not been identified yet, the selective manner by which these receptors target tumor cells may provide an excellent basis for the development of novel anti-tumor therapies. To test the potential use of the NCRs as anti-tumor agents, we generated soluble NCR-Ig fusion proteins in which the constant region of human IgG1 was fused to the extracellular portion of the receptor. We demonstrate, using two different human prostate cancer cell lines, that treatment with NKp30-Ig, dramatically inhibits tumor growth in vivo. Activated macrophages were shown to mediate an ADCC response against the NKp30-Ig coated prostate cell lines. Finally, the Ig fusion proteins were also demonstrated to discriminate between benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. This may provide a novel diagnostic modality in the difficult task of differentiating between these highly common pathological conditions.

  15. Soluble toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2) is increased in saliva of children with dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries is the most common microbial disease affecting mankind. Caries risk assessment methods, identification of biomarkers and vaccine development strategies are being emphasized to control the incidence of the largely preventable disease. Pattern recognition receptors such as the toll like receptors (TLR) have been implicated as modulators of host-microbial interactions. Soluble TLR-2 and its co-receptor, CD14 identified in saliva can bind the cell wall components of cariogenic bacteria and modulate the disease process. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of salivary sTLR-2 and sCD14 as biomarkers of caries activity and indirect measures of the cariogenic bacterial burden. Methods Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from twenty caries free and twenty caries active children between the ages of 5 and 13 years. The concentration of sCD14 and sTLR-2 together with that of the cytokine IL-8 reported to be increased in dental caries was assessed by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results While the level of sCD14 and that of IL-8 was equivocal between the two groups, the sTLR-2 concentration in caries active saliva was significantly higher than that in caries free saliva. Conclusions The sTLR-2 in saliva could serve as a potential biomarker for caries activity. PMID:25174416

  16. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is a marker of dysmetabolism in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Kofoed, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) reflects the immune and pro-inflammatory status of the HIV-infected patient. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses suPAR. Independent of the immune response to HAART, suPAR remains elevated in some HIV-infected......Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) reflects the immune and pro-inflammatory status of the HIV-infected patient. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses suPAR. Independent of the immune response to HAART, suPAR remains elevated in some HIV......-HDL-cholesterol and inversely with Rd, NOGM and limb fat (P

  17. Aptamer-Mediated Codelivery of Doxorubicin and NF-κB Decoy Enhances Chemosensitivity of Pancreatic Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Porciani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers able to bind efficiently cell-surface receptors differentially expressed in tumor and in healthy cells are emerging as powerful tools to perform targeted anticancer therapy. Here, we present a novel oligonucleotide chimera, composed by an RNA aptamer and a DNA decoy. Our assembly is able to (i target tumor cells via an antitransferrin receptor RNA aptamer and (ii perform selective codelivery of a chemotherapeutic drug (Doxorubicin and of an inhibitor of a cell-survival factor, the nuclear factor κB decoy oligonucleotide. Both payloads are released under conditions found in endolysosomal compartments (low pH and reductive environment. Targeting and cytotoxicity of the oligonucleotidic chimera were assessed by confocal microscopy, cell viability, and Western blot analysis. These data indicated that the nuclear factor κB decoy does inhibit nuclear factor κB activity and ultimately leads to an increased therapeutic efficacy of Doxorubicin selectively in tumor cells.

  18. Trans-signaling of interleukin-6 (IL-6) is mediated by the soluble IL-6 receptor, but not by soluble CD5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio-Siegmund, Samadhi; Deseke, Malte; Lickert, Annett; Garbers, Christoph

    2017-03-18

    IL-6 exerts its pleiotropic activities on its target cells via the IL-6 alpha-receptor (IL-6R), which is expressed on a limited number of cell types. IL-6 can further signal via soluble forms of its receptor (sIL-6R), a process that has been termed trans-signaling. Recently, CD5 was described as an alternative alpha-receptor for IL-6 on B cells leading to the phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT3 via the signal-transducing β-receptor gp130 in a Jak2-dependent manner. In this study, we sought to investigate whether IL-6 was also able to signal via soluble CD5 (sCD5) analogous to IL-6 trans-signaling. We show that IL-6 indeed binds to sCD5, but that this does not lead to the activation of signal transduction or cell proliferation. Furthermore, sCD5 did also not interfere with IL-6 classic signaling, suggesting that the affinity between the two proteins was too weak to provoke a biological effect. Thus, trans-signaling of IL-6 can only occur via sIL-6R, but not sCD5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of purified, soluble urokinase receptor on the plasminogen-prourokinase activation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Danø, K

    1996-01-01

    of the cascade system. This role of uPAR is generally assumed to be a positioning effect since uPAR-expressing cells exclusively stimulate the activation of cell surface-bound plasminogen (Ellis et al. (1993) Methods Enzymol. 223, 223-233). However, it was recently reported that a recombinant, soluble uPAR (su......The extracellular proteolytic pathway mediated by the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a cascade system, initiated by activation of the zymogen, pro-uPA. Pro-uPA as well as uPA binds to the cellular uPA receptor (uPAR) which has a central function in cell-dependent acceleration...

  20. Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor level at diagnosis predicts transformation in patients with follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umino, Kento; Fujiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Ito, Shoko; Mashima, Kiyomi; Minakata, Daisuke; Nakano, Hirofumi; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Kawasaki, Yasufumi; Sugimoto, Miyuki; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Hatano, Kaoru; Okazuka, Kiyoshi; Sato, Kazuya; Oh, Iekuni; Ohmine, Ken; Suzuki, Takahiro; Muroi, Kazuo; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated 121 patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) and analyzed the association between the soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) level at diagnosis and the cumulative incidence of transformation. By a receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we determined a cutoff value of sIL-2R for transformation at 4360 U/mL to classify patients into two groups. Patients in the high sIL-2R group showed a shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and shorter disease-specific survival (DSS) (p transformation in the high sIL-2R group was higher than that in the low sIL-2R group (40.9% vs. 7.3% at 5 years, p transformation (HR 7.42, 95% CI: 2.75-20.0, p transformation, PFS, and DSS in patients with FL.

  1. THE ROLE OF THE SOLUBLE TNF-ALPHA RECEPTORS IN TREATMENT OF JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Bzarova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of etanercept (soluble tumor necrosis factor alpha receptors efficacy and safety in treatment of 97 patients with early and late onset of juvenile idiopathic arthritis are demonstrated in this article. The observation period was 12 months. In 48 weeks of anti-TNF treatment the achievement of clinical remission, decrease and normalization of laboratory markers of disease activity, complete restoration of joints function and improvement of life quality was established in 100% of children with early onset and 71% of children with late onset of arthritis. The drug was withdrawn in 13 (14% patients: in 5 (6% due to inefficiency, in 3 (4% — due to development of side effects.

  2. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor forms in plasma as markers of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Fredrik J; Thurison, Tine; Ryndel, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: To test if circulating forms of the soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) are potential biomarkers of plaque vulnerability. DESIGN AND METHODS:: Plasma concentrations of suPAR(I-III), suPAR(II-III) and uPAR(I) were measured by time-resolved fluorescence...... immunoassays in Caucasian patients operated for symptomatic carotid atherosclerosis (n=255). Local suPAR release from plaques into the circulation was assessed in plasma passing retrogradely over the plaque in the carotid artery, collected during surgery (n=7). RESULTS:: The suPAR(I-III) (P=0.03) and su......PAR(II-III) (P=0.006) concentrations were higher after ischemic strokes and transient ischemic attacks, i.e., clinical subgroups associated with poorer prognosis and a less stable plaque phenotype, than after amaurosis fugax. Slightly elevated suPAR(I-III) levels were found in plasma from the carotid lesion...

  3. Three family members with elevated plasma cobalamin, transcobalamin and soluble transcobalamin receptor (sCD320)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Lücke, Elke; Arendt, Johan F B; Nissen, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma cobalamin is requested in order to diagnose cobalamin deficiency and low levels confirm a deficient state. Here, we present three family members with unexpected high levels of cobalamin. METHODS: We included a patient referred for cobalamin measurement due to neurological...... symptoms, her son and her daughter. Mother and son both suffered from myotonic dystrophy type II, while the daughter tested negative for this disease. Blood samples were analyzed for cobalamin, haptocorrin, transcobalamin, holoTC, and sCD320. We employed gel filtration and antibody precipitation...... transcobalamin and part of sCD320. CONCLUSIONS: The high cobalamin levels were mainly explained by high levels of holoTC, possibly caused by complex formation with its soluble receptor, sCD320. The family occurrence points to a genetic explanation....

  4. Decreased levels of soluble Toll-like Receptor 2 in patients with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Tehrani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, reports have indicated a role for the membrane form of Toll-like Receptor 2 (TLR2 in asthma pathogenesis. In this study we examined soluble TLR2 levels in serum and sputum of asthmatic and healthy subjects. Methods: Serum and sputum samples were obtained from 33 asthmatic and 19 healthy subjects. The asthmatics were classified into four groups according to the Global Initiative for Asthma. A sandwich ELISA was developed to measure soluble TLR2 (sTLR2 in serum and sputum. TLR2 mRNA expression was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR of all sputum samples. Results: The mean sTLR2 levels from serum and sputum of asthmatics were significantly lower than those from healthy subjects. Moreover, sTLR2 concentration decreased concomitantly with asthma severity. The differences observed, however, were not statistically significant. TLR2/GAPDH mRNA of sputum leukocytes was also significantly lower in asthmatics than in healthy subjects. Conclusion: This study demonstrated for the first time thatsTLR2 levels are lower in serum and sputum samples from asthmatic than from healthy subjects, and this could be an indicator of TLR2 expression. We also found that sTLR2 concentration in serum decreased concomitantly with an increase of asthma severity clinical score.

  5. Vacuolar Sorting Receptor-Mediated Trafficking of Soluble Vacuolar Proteins in Plant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyangju Kang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vacuoles are one of the most prominent organelles in plant cells, and they play various important roles, such as degradation of waste materials, storage of ions and metabolites, and maintaining turgor. During the past two decades, numerous advances have been made in understanding how proteins are specifically delivered to the vacuole. One of the most crucial steps in this process is specific sorting of soluble vacuolar proteins. Vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs, which are type I membrane proteins, are involved in the sorting and packaging of soluble vacuolar proteins into transport vesicles with the help of various accessory proteins. To date, large amounts of data have led to the development of two different models describing VSR-mediated vacuolar trafficking that are radically different in multiple ways, particularly regarding the location of cargo binding to, and release from, the VSR and the types of carriers utilized. In this review, we summarize current literature aimed at elucidating VSR-mediated vacuolar trafficking and compare the two models with respect to the sorting signals of vacuolar proteins, as well as the molecular machinery involved in VSR-mediated vacuolar trafficking and its action mechanisms.

  6. Proinflammatory Soluble Interleukin-15 Receptor Alpha Is Increased in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Machado Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an autoimmune and inflammatory disease in which many cytokines have been implicated. In particular, IL-15 is a cytokine involved in the inflammatory processes and bone loss. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence in synovial fluid of soluble IL-15Rα, a private receptor subunit for IL-15 which may act as an enhancer of IL-15-induced proinflammatory cytokines. Soluble IL-15Rα was quantified by a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in samples of synovial fluid from patients with RA and osteoarthritis (OA. The levels of IL-15Rα were significantly increased in RA patients compared to OA patients. Also, we studied the presence of membrane-bound IL-15 in cells from synovial fluids, another element necessary to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines through reverse signaling. Interestingly, we found high levels of IL-6 related to high levels of IL-15Rα in RA but not in OA. Thus, our results evidenced presence of IL-15Rα in synovial fluids and suggested that its pro-inflammatory effect could be related to induction of IL-6.

  7. Soluble Form of Canine Transferrin Receptor Inhibits Canine Parvovirus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiexia Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Soluble form of canine transferrin receptor inhibits canine parvovirus infection in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiexia; Pan, Sumin; Liang, Shuang; Zhong, Zhenyu; He, Ying; Lin, Hongyu; Li, Wenyan; Wang, Liyue; Li, Xiujin; Zhong, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR) was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR)) possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Diagnostic value of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells in paediatric sepsis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontrelli, Giuseppe; De Crescenzo, Franco; Buzzetti, Roberto; Calò Carducci, Francesca; Jenkner, Alessandro; Amodio, Donato; De Luca, Maia; Chiurchiù, Sara; Davies, Elin Haf; Simonetti, Alessandra; Ferretti, Elena; Della Corte, Martina; Gramatica, Luca; Livadiotti, Susanna; Rossi, Paolo

    2016-04-27

    Differential diagnosis between sepsis and non-infectious inflammatory disorders demands improved biomarkers. Soluble Triggering Receptor Expression on Myeloid cells (sTREM-1) is an activating receptor whose role has been studied throughout the last decade. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the accuracy of plasma sTREM-1 levels in the diagnosis of sepsis in children with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS). A literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and ISI Web of Knowledge databases was performed using specific search terms. Studies were included if they assessed the diagnostic accuracy of plasma sTREM-1 for sepsis in paediatric patients with SIRS. Data on sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, area under receiver operating characteristic curve were extracted. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using a checklist based on the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. Nine studies comprising 961 patients were included, four of which were in newborns, three in children and two in children with febrile neutropenia. Some data from single studies support a role of sTREM-1 as a diagnostic tool in pediatric sepsis, but cannot be considered conclusive, because a quantitative synthesis was not possible, due to heterogeneity in studies design. This systematic review suggests that available data are insufficient to support a role for sTREM in the diagnosis and follow-up of paediatric sepsis.

  10. The plasma level of soluble urokinase receptor is elevated in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia and predicts mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, p; Kronborg, Gitte; Nielsen, H

    2004-01-01

    This multicentre prospective study was conducted to investigate whether the level of the soluble form of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is elevated during pneumococcal bacteraemia and is of predictive value in the early stage of the disease. Plasma levels of suPAR were incr...

  11. Tracking of leptin, soluble leptin receptor, and the free leptin index during weight loss and regain in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens-Christian; Gamborg, Michael; Ward, Leigh C

    2011-01-01

    To investigate changes in leptin and soluble leptin receptor (SLR) concentrations, and in the free leptin index (FLI) during weight loss and subsequent weight regain; and to ascertain whether these indices remain stable in the rank of the distribution in repeated measures (tracking) during pertur...... perturbations of weight in obese children....

  12. Soluble urokinase receptor levels in plasma during 5 years of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Katzenstein, Terese L; Piironen, Timo

    2004-01-01

    active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Plasma suPAR decreased after introducing HAART, most pronounced during the first treatment year. The change in plasma suPAR was independent of changes in viral replication and CD4+ cells but it was strongly correlated with plasma levels of the soluble TNF receptor...

  13. Co-administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor with its soluble receptor protects against neuronal death and enhances neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozog, Mark A; Modha, Geetanjalee; Church, John; Reilly, Rayne; Naus, Christian C

    2008-03-07

    Attempts to promote neuronal survival and repair with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) have met with limited success. The variability of results obtained with CNTF may, in part, reflect the fact that some of the biological actions of the cytokine are mediated by a complex formed between CNTF and its specific receptor, CNTFRalpha, which exists in both membrane-bound and soluble forms. In this study, we compared the actions of CNTF alone and CNTF complexed with soluble CNTFRalpha (hereafter termed "Complex") on neuronal survival and growth. Although CNTF alone produced limited effects, Complex protected against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity via gap junction-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Further examination revealed that only Complex promoted neurite outgrowth. Differential gene expression analysis revealed that, compared with CNTF alone, Complex differentially regulates several neuroprotective and neurotrophic genes. Collectively, these findings indicate that CNTF exerts more robust effects on neuronal survival and growth when applied in combination with its soluble receptor.

  14. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) in scleroderma skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Klaus; Deleuran, Mette; Heickendorff, Lene

    1998-01-01

    In order to investigate whether soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) were present in scleroderma skin, and to compare their levels to concentrations measured in plasma and clinical parameters, we examined suction blister fluid and plasma...... from 13 patients with systemic sclerosis and 11 healthy volunteers. Suction blisters and biopsies were from the transition zone between normal skin and scleroderma, and uninvolved abdominal skin. The levels of sICAM-1 and sIL-2R were significantly increased in both plasma and suction blister fluid from...... systemic sclerosis patients compared with healthy volunteers. ICAM-1 was localized to vessels and perivascular mononuclear infiltrates by immunohistochemical methods. IL-2R was expressed by CD3-positive cells. The elevated levels of sICAM-1 and sIL-2R in suction blister fluid point towards activation...

  15. Human interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor and their soluble receptors in health and infectious diseases : in vivo and in vitro studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieling, J.T.M.

    1999-01-01

    CHAPTER 1 introduces IL-6, TNF, their soluble receptors, and their roles in immunomodulation and pathology, with the emphasis on infections.Assays for IL-6, TNF-a and the soluble TNF receptors p55 and p75 were available and reference concentrations in different human body fluids had been described.

  16. Soluble monosodium urate, but not its crystal, induces toll like receptor 4-dependent immune activation in renal mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Fu, Chensheng; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhu, Dingyu; Chen, Weijun; Lu, Yijun; Ye, Zhibin

    2015-08-01

    Uric acid has emerged as a novel and potential modifiable risk factor for the incidence and progression of kidney diseases, however, the deteriorate effect of uric acid on renal mesangial cells remains unclear. The present study is to examine the immune activation of soluble and crystal forms of uric acid in human mesangial cells. We stimulated primary human mesangial cells (HMCs) with increasing concentrations (from 50 to 200 μg/ml) of soluble monosodium urate (MSU) or MSU crystals. We examined interleukin (IL)-1β protein expression levels in cell culture by ELISA. The stimulated HMCs were further stimulated with soluble MSU or MSU crystals at 200 μg/ml with or without the pre-incubation of toll like receptor (TLR) 4 inhibitor TAK242 (1μM). TLR4, nod-like receptor protein (NLRP3, also known as NALP3), IL-1β, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and CD40 were examined by Realtime-PCR, Western blot and ELISA, respectively. We found that both soluble MSU and MSU crystals increased IL-1β protein expression levels in dose-dependent fashion. Soluble MSU significantly enhanced the expression of TLR4, NLRP3, IL-1β, HLA-DR and CD40 while MSU crystals only upregulated the expression of TLR4 and IL-1β. TLR4 inhibitor TAK242 significantly blocked the up-regulation of NLRP3, IL-1β, HLA-DR and CD40 induced by soluble MSU while no TAK242 suppression effect on MSU crystals induced IL-1β up-regulation was found. Our results suggested that soluble MSU, but not MSU crystals, induce NLRP3, IL-1β, HLA-DR and CD40 upregulation in a TLR4-dependent manner. These findings indicate that soluble MSU may play a pathological role in hyperuricemia induced renal mesangial injury. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Delaying-Type Responses for Use by Software Decoys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Julian, Donald

    2002-01-01

    .... Their limitations, though, are increasing the need for an intelligent response to an intrusion. In contrast, intelligent software decoys provide autonomous software-based responses to identified intrusions...

  18. Serum Soluble (Pro)Renin Receptor Levels in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Yoshifumi; Morimoto, Satoshi; Nakajima, Fumitaka; Ando, Takashi; Ichihara, Atsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] is cleaved by furin to generate soluble (P)RR [s(P)RR], which reflects the status of the tissue renin-angiotensin system. Hemodialysis patients have advanced atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between serum s(P)RR levels and background factors, including indices of atherosclerosis, in hemodialysis patients. Serum s(P)RR levels were measured in hemodialysis patients and clearance of s(P)RR through the membrane of the dialyzer was examined. Furthermore, relationships between serum s(P)RR levels and background factors were assessed. Serum s(P)RR levels were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients (30.4 ± 6.1 ng/ml, n = 258) than those in subjects with normal renal function (21.4 ± 6.2 ng/ml, n = 39, P ankle-brachial index (ABI) of hemodialysis patients when compared with subjects with normal renal function, although s(P)RR is dialyzed to some extent, but to a lesser extent than creatinine. High serum s(P)RR levels may be associated with atherosclerosis independent of other risk factors, suggesting that serum s(P)RR could be used as a marker for atherosclerotic conditions in hemodialysis patients.

  19. Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 as a Novel Marker for Abdominal Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaofei; Song, Yucheng; Zhang, Xuedong; Xue, Huanzhou

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the concentration and diagnostic significance of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) in acute abdominal conditions. Plasma specimens were obtained from 68 patients with abdominal sepsis, 60 patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and 60 healthy individuals. The sepsis group was divided into the survival and death groups according to the 28-d outcome. Plasma sTREM-1, procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cell (WBC) count were measured. A receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to compare the diagnostic values of sTREM-1, PCT, CRP, and WBC count. In addition, the correlation between plasma sTREM-1 and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score in the sepsis group was assessed by Spearman correlation analysis. The plasma concentration of sTREM-1 in the sepsis group was significantly higher than that in the SIRS and healthy groups (both p sepsis vs. SIRS showed that the area under the curve of sTREM-1 (0.82) was greater than that of PCT (0.77), CRP (0.72), and WBC count (0.70). Additionally, in the sepsis group, the plasma sTREM-1 concentration correlated positively with the APACHE II score (r = 0.41; p sepsis.

  20. Soluble (Prorenin Receptor and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Oxidative Stress in Brain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Takahashi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available (Prorenin receptor ((PRR is a multi-functional molecule that is related to both the renin-angiotensin system (RAS and vacuolar H+-ATPase (v-ATPase, an ATP-dependent multi-subunit proton pump. Soluble (PRR (s(PRR, which consists of the extracellular domain of (PRR, is present in blood and urine. Elevated plasma s(PRR concentrations are reported in patients with chronic kidney disease and pregnant women with hypertension or diabetes mellitus. In addition, we have shown that plasma s(PRR concentrations are elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Interestingly, the levels are elevated in parallel with the severity of OSAS, but are not related to the presence of hypertension or the status of the circulating RAS in OSAS. It is known that v-ATPase activity protects cells from endogenous oxidative stress, and loss of v-ATPase activity results in chronic oxidative stress. We hypothesize that hypoxia and subsequent oxidative stress, perhaps in the brain, may be one of the factors that elevate plasma s(PRR levels in OSAS.

  1. Association between high-dose erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, inflammatory biomarkers, and soluble erythropoietin receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inrig Jula K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-dose erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA for anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes and do not always improve erythropoiesis. We hypothesized that high-dose ESA requirement would be associated with elevated inflammatory biomarkers, decreased adipokines, and increased circulating, endogenous soluble erythropoietin receptors (sEpoR. Methods A cross-sectional cohort of anemic 32 CKD participants receiving ESA were enrolled at a single center and cytokine profiles, adipokines, and sEpoR were compared between participants stratified by ESA dose requirement (usual-dose darbepoetin-α ( Results Baseline characteristics were similar between groups; however, hemoglobin was lower among participants on high-dose (1.4 μg/kg/week vs usual-dose (0.5 μg/kg/week ESA. In adjusted analyses, high-dose ESA was associated with an increased odds for elevations in c-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (p s = 0.39, p = 0.03. In adjusted analyses, higher ESA dose (per μcg/kg/week was associated with a 53% greater odds of sEpoR being above the median (p Conclusion High-dose ESA requirement among anemic CKD participants was associated with elevated inflammatory biomarkers and higher levels of circulating sEpoR, an inhibitor of erythropoiesis. Further research confirming these findings is warranted. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00526747

  2. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor as a marker for use of antidepressants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Haastrup

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of depression. A few cross-sectional population-based studies have found that depression is associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activation receptor (suPAR is known to be a stable marker for inflammation. We investigated the bidirectional association between suPAR levels and use of antidepressants. METHODS: suPAR level was measured in 9305 blood donors and analysed in relation to 5-years follow-up data on purchase of antidepressants and hospital diagnoses of depression from a nationwide Danish register. RESULTS: For men and women without prior use of antidepressants we found a significantly higher risk for incident use of antidepressants with higher suPAR values. For men, the risk of first use of antidepressants increased by 72% from the 1st to the 4th quartile (HR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.11-2.69. For women, it increased by 108% from the 1st to the 4th quartile (HR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.45-2.98. Previous use of antidepressants was also significantly associated with higher suPAR levels (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: High suPAR levels are associated with an increased risk for both previous and future use of antidepressants in healthy men and women. High suPAR are also associated with increased risk for a hospital diagnosis of depression.

  3. The soluble transcobalamin receptor (sCD320) in relation to Alzheimer's disease and cognitive scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abuyaman, Omar; Combrinck, Marc; Smith, A David

    2017-01-01

    The soluble transcobalamin receptor (sCD320) is present in cerebrospinal fluid and correlates with the dementia-related biomarkers phospho-tau and total-tau. Here we present data on the relation of sCD320 to Alzheimer's disease and scores of cognitive tests. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid samples fro...... 42 pathologically-confirmed cases of Alzheimer's disease and 25 non-demented controls were analyzed for sCD320 employing an in-house ELISA. The participants' cognitive functions were tested using the Cambridge Cognition Examination (CAMCOG) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE......). There was no significant difference in the median CSF sCD320 concentration between patients and controls. The median (2.5-97.5 percentiles) sCD320 for all participants (n = 67) was 15 (3-29) pmol/L. We observed a non-linear correlation between sCD320 and cognitive scores. Spearman's correlation between sCD320 and total...... be employed as a biomarker for differentiating Alzheimer dementia patients from controls. Further studies are warranted to explore the non-linear correlations between sCD320 and scores of cognitive function....

  4. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Patients With Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Røge, Rasmus; Pristed, Sofie Gry; Viuff, Anne Grethe; Ullum, Henrik; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Werge, Thomas; Vang, Torkel

    2015-01-01

    Background: The etiology of schizophrenia remains largely unknown but alterations in the immune system may be involved. In addition to the psychiatric symptoms, schizophrenia is also associated with up to 20 years reduction in life span. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a protein that can be measured in blood samples and reflects the levels of inflammatory activity. It has been associated with mortality and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Methods: suPAR levels in patients with schizophrenia were compared to healthy controls from the Danish Blood Donor Study. SuPAR levels were dichotomized at >4.0 ng/ml, which is considered the threshold for low grade inflammation. A multiple logistic regression model was used and adjusted for age, sex, and current smoking. Results: In total we included 1009 subjects, 105 cases with schizophrenia (10.4%) and 904 controls (89.6%). The mean suPAR values were 4.01 ng/ml (SD = 1.43) for the cases vs 1.91 ng/ml (SD = 1.35) for the controls (P 4.0 ng/ml yielded: schizophrenia, OR: 46.15 95% CI 22.69–93.87, P schizophrenia had significantly higher suPAR levels than healthy controls. Further studies are warranted to clarify if elevated suPAR levels are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and/or the increased mortality found in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25154621

  5. Development of a quantitative bead capture assay for soluble IL-7 receptor alpha in human plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Faucher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IL-7 is an essential cytokine in T-cell development and homeostasis. It binds to the IL-7R receptor, a complex of the IL-7Ralpha (CD127 and common gamma (CD132 chains. There is significant interest in evaluating the expression of CD127 on human T-cells as it often decreased in medical conditions leading to lymphopenia. Previous reports showed the usefulness of CD127 as a prognostic marker in viral infections such as HIV, CMV, EBV and HCV. A soluble CD127 (sCD127 is released in plasma and may contribute to disease pathogenesis through its control on IL-7 activities. Measuring sCD127 is important to define its role and may complement existing markers used in lymphopenic disease management. We describe a new quantitative assay for the measurement of sCD127 in plasma and report sCD127 concentrations in healthy adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a quantitative bead-based sCD127 capture assay. Polyclonal CD127-specific antibodies were chosen for capture and a biotinylated monoclonal anti-CD127 antibody was selected for detection. The assay can detect native sCD127 and recombinant sCD127 which served as the calibrator. The analytical performance of the assay was characterized and the concentration and stability of plasma sCD127 in healthy adults was determined. The assay's range was 3.2-1000 ng/mL. The concentration of plasma sCD127 was 164+/-104 ng/mL with over a log variation between subjects. Individual sCD127 concentrations remained stable when measured serially during a period of up to one year. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report on the quantification of plasma sCD127 in a population of healthy adults. Soluble CD127 plasma concentrations remained stable over time in a given individual and sCD127 immunoreactivity was resistant to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. This quantitative sCD127 assay is a valuable tool for defining the potential role of sCD127 in lymphopenic diseases.

  6. Plasma soluble leptin receptor levels are associated with pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Tomoaki; Emoto, Masanori; Yamazaki, Yuko; Kurajoh, Masafumi; Motoyama, Koka; Mori, Katsuhito; Fukumoto, Shinya; Shioi, Atsushi; Shoji, Tetsuo; Inaba, Masaaki

    2018-01-01

    A soluble form of the leptin receptor (soluble Ob-R) in the circulation regulates leptin's bioactivity, and is inversely associated with body adiposity and circulating leptin levels. However, no study has examined the clinical impact of soluble Ob-R on glucose metabolism in diabetes. The present study aimed to investigate the association of plasma soluble Ob-R levels with insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 289 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were included in the present study. Fasting plasma soluble Ob-R levels and plasma leptin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function were estimated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function and fasting C-peptide index. The median plasma soluble Ob-R level and plasma leptin level were 3.4 ng/mL and 23.6 ng/mL, respectively. Plasma soluble Ob-R levels were negatively correlated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function and the C-peptide index, whereas plasma leptin levels were positively correlated with each index in univariate analyses. Multivariate analyses including plasma soluble Ob-R levels, plasma leptin levels and use of sulfonylureas, along with age, sex, body mass index and other covariates, showed that soluble Ob-R levels were independently and negatively associated with homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function and the C-peptide index, but not significantly associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Plasma soluble Ob-R levels are independently associated with pancreatic β-cell function, but not with insulin resistance, in patients with type 2 diabetes. The present study implicates the role of soluble Ob-R in pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian

  7. The immune marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is associated with new-onset diabetes in non-smoking women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S B; Andersen, O; Hansen, T W

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To explore the putative association of new-onset diabetes and the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), which is a new and stable plasma marker of immune function and low-grade inflammation. This association has been previously suggested by using the less sensitive...... individuals). The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor was measured by the ELISA method. To fulfil model assumptions, outcome analyses were stratified by age, and further by smoking, owing to the interaction between the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and smoking on new...

  8. Delay discounting of hypothetical monetary rewards with decoys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Benjamin P; Faulkner, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    The current research attempted to decrease individuals' rates of delay discounting by introducing decoys that are similar but inferior to delayed rewards. Two experiments in the current study compared patterns of delay discounting generated by repeated choices between two hypothetical monetary rewards in the absence or presence of a decoy. Binary questionnaires (i.e., decoy absent) included questions with two options: a smaller-sooner (SS) reward and a larger-later (LL) reward. Trinary questionnaires (i.e., decoy present) included questions with three options: an SS reward, an LL reward, and a decoy. If an option is at least as rewarding on every dimension of value as an alternative and the option is more rewarding than an alternative on at least one dimension, then the option is considered to dominate the alternative (Wedell, 1991). The first experiment assessed the influence of decoys dominated by LL rewards (LL(-) decoys), which were constructed to be similar (on the dimension of amount) but inferior (on the dimension of delay) to LL rewards. The second experiment examined the effects of counterbalancing the order of binary and trinary questionnaires. In the first experiment, participants discounted to a lesser degree when LL(-) decoys were present as compared to when they were absent. In the second experiment, participants only discounted to a lesser degree on trinary questionnaires with LL(-) decoys when they had not previously completed binary questionnaires. Patterns of discounting generated by binary questionnaires were similar to those generated by trinary questionnaires when decoys are present; however, the degree to which individuals discounted delayed rewards was affected by the number of and type of options that were available. The current results join previous evidence suggesting that rates of delay discounting are sensitive to a variety of contextual influences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum Concentrations of TNF α and Its Soluble Receptors in Patients with Adrenal Tumors Treated by Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Komorowski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The peripheral blood levels of TNF α and its soluble receptors were studied in 39 patients with malignant and benign adrenal tumors treated by adrenalectomy. The concentrations of TNF α were significantly elevated in patients with malignant tumors of the adrenal cortex and in patients with Conn's syndrome compared to control. In patients with non-functioning adenomas and pheochromocytomas, TNF α levels were similar to those detected in the control. In subjects with myelolipomas, the serum concentration of TNF α was lower compared to the control. After adrenalectomy, the levels of TNF α were decreased in patients with malignant tumors and in patients with Conn's syndrome, non-functioniong adenomas and pheochromocytomas compared to the concentration before surgery. The serum concentrations of soluble receptors of TNF α did not differ among different patient groups and compared to the control. After adrenalectomy, the blood concentrations of TNF α R1 and TNF α R2 were decreased in patients with Conn's syndrome. However, to confirm practicality of the evaluation of TNF α and its soluble receptors in differential diagnosis in patients with adrenal tumors, a larger study group is needed.

  10. The response of plasma interleukin-6 and its soluble receptors to exercise in the cold in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Stephen; Reid, Suzanne; Gray, Stuart; Nimmo, Myra

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we wished to determine whether the changes in metabolism observed during exercise in the cold are associated with changes in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and/or its soluble receptors. Eight healthy male participants performed 1 h of cycling exercise at 70% VO2max in a control (20 degrees C) and cold (0 degrees C) environment. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), and sgp130 were measured before exercise, at 30 and 60 min of exercise, and 60 min after exercise. Substrate oxidation was estimated through measures of pulmonary gas exchange recorded between 50 and 55 min of cycling. Exercise in the cold resulted in an increase (P cold and control trials, with no differences between trials at any instant. Neither sIL-6R nor sgp130 was affected by exercise or the environment. The alterations in carbohydrate and fat utilization during 1 h of exercise in the cold are not paralleled by changes in plasma concentrations of IL-6 or its soluble receptors.

  11. Soluble transferrin receptor in sickle cell diseases: correlation with spleen function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Zerlotti Wolf Grotto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To correlate spleen function with soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR levels and red cell ferritin (RCF values in patients with sickle cell diseases. DESIGN: Prospective study. LOCATION: University Hospital, School of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas; a tertiary hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 60 patients with sickle cell diseases, in a steady state, who had not received blood transfusions for 3 months; 28 normal individuals with no clinical or laboratory signs of anemia. MEASUREMENTS: Determination of serum iron, transferrin iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin, RCF and sTfR. Evaluation of spleen function: erythrocytes with pits were quantified. RESULTS: Patients with sickle cell anemia had sTfR levels significantly higher than in normal individuals or those with HbSC (p=0.0001 and there was an inverse correlation between sTfR and fetal Hb (p=0.0016. RCF values were significantly higher in sickle cell anemia patients than in normal individuals or those with HbSC (p=0.0001, and there was a correlation between RCF and pitted erythrocytes (p=0.0512. CONCLUSION: The association between sTfR and fetal Hb confirms the contribution of fetal Hb to improving the hemolytic state by minimizing the consequent reactive erythrocyte expansion. High sTfR levels are not related to the degree of spleen function deficiency seen in sickle cell disease patients. The deficiency in the exocytosis process of the spleen occurring in sickle cell anemia patients may contribute to their accumulation of RCF.

  12. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products and risk of liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Kristin A; Jiao, Li; Freedman, Neal D; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Sinha, Rashmi; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z

    2013-06-01

    Binding of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) to their receptor (RAGE) increases oxidative stress and inflammation and may be involved in liver injury and subsequent carcinogenesis. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) may neutralize the effects mediated by the AGE/RAGE complex. Epidemiologic studies examining sRAGE or AGEs in association with liver cancer are lacking. We examined the associations between prediagnostic serum concentrations of sRAGE or Nϵ-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML)-AGE and hepatocellular carcinoma in a case-cohort study within a cohort of 29,133 Finnish male smokers who completed questionnaires and provided a fasting blood sample between 1985 and 1988. During follow-up beginning 5 years after enrollment through April 2006, 145 liver cancers occurred. Serum concentrations of sRAGE, CML-AGE, glucose, and insulin were measured in case subjects and 485 randomly sampled cohort participants. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were available in most cases and in a subset of the study population. Weighted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, years of smoking, and body mass index. sRAGE and CML-AGE concentrations were inversely associated with liver cancer. Further adjustment for glucose and insulin or exclusion of case subjects with chronic HBV or HCV did not change the associations. Our results support the hypothesis that sRAGE is inversely associated with liver cancer. The findings need confirmation, particularly in populations that include women and nonsmokers. (HEPATOLOGY 2013 ). Copyright © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Soluble transferrin receptor as a marker of erythropoiesis in patients undergoing high-flux hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Yin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a common complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients receiving hemodialysis. The effect of high-flux dialysis (HFD on anemia remains unclear. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the effect of HFD on anemia, and the potential of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR as a marker of iron status and erythropoiesis in CKD patients on hemodialysis. Forty patients, who switched from conventional low-flux dialysis to HFD for 12 months, were enrolled in this study. The levels of sTfR, hemoglobin (Hb, iron, and nutritional markers, as well as the dose of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO and use of chalybeate were determined at 0, 2, 6, and 12 months after starting HFD. HFD significantly increased the hemoglobin level and reduced sTfR level in CKD patients (p < 0.05. In addition, significant decreasing linear trends were observed for rhEPO dosage and chalybeate use (p < 0.05. The level of sTfR was positively correlated with the percentage of reticulocytes (RET%, rhEPO dose, and chalybeate use, while it was negatively correlated with Hb levels and total iron-binding capacity results (all p < 0.05. A univariate generalized estimating equation (GEE model showed that the Hb level, RET%, rhEPO dose, and chalybeate use were the variables associated with sTfR levels. A multivariate GEE model showed that the time points when hemodialysis was performed were the variables associated significantly with sTfR levels. Overall, our findings suggest that HFD can effectively improve renal anemia in hemodialysis patients, and sTfR could be used as a marker of erythropoiesis in HFD patients.

  14. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 suppresses lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wun-Jae

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most bladder cancer patients experience lymphatic metastasis in the course of disease progression, yet the relationship between lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis is not well known. The aim of this study is to elucidate underlying mechanisms of how expanded lymphatic vessels and tumor microenvironment interacts each other and to find effective therapeutic options to inhibit lymphatic metastasis. Results The orthotopic urinary bladder cancer (OUBC model was generated by intravesical injection of MBT-2 cell lines. We investigated the angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and CD11b+/CD68+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAM by using immunofluorescence staining. OUBC displayed a profound lymphangiogenesis and massive infiltration of TAM in primary tumor and lymphatic metastasis in lymph nodes. TAM flocked near lymphatic vessels and express higher levels of VEGF-C/D than CD11b- cells. Because VEGFR-3 was highly expressed in lymphatic vascular endothelial cells, TAM could assist lymphangiogenesis by paracrine manner in bladder tumor. VEGFR-3 expressing adenovirus was administered to block VEGF-C/D signaling pathway and clodronate liposome was used to deplete TAM. The blockade of VEGF-C/D with soluble VEGF receptor-3 markedly inhibited lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in OUBC. In addition, the depletion of TAM with clodronate liposome exerted similar effects on OUBC. Conclusion VEGF-C/D are the main factors of lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in bladder cancer. Moreover, TAM plays an important role in these processes by producing VEGF-C/D. The inhibition of lymphangiogenesis could provide another therapeutic target to inhibit lymphatic metastasis and recurrence in patients with invasive bladder cancer.

  15. Serum Soluble (ProRenin Receptor Levels in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Amari

    Full Text Available The (prorenin receptor [(PRR] is cleaved by furin to generate soluble (PRR [s(PRR], which reflects the status of the tissue renin-angiotensin system. Hemodialysis patients have advanced atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between serum s(PRR levels and background factors, including indices of atherosclerosis, in hemodialysis patients. Serum s(PRR levels were measured in hemodialysis patients and clearance of s(PRR through the membrane of the dialyzer was examined. Furthermore, relationships between serum s(PRR levels and background factors were assessed. Serum s(PRR levels were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients (30.4 ± 6.1 ng/ml, n = 258 than those in subjects with normal renal function (21.4 ± 6.2 ng/ml, n = 39, P < 0.0001. Clearance of s(PRR and creatinine were 56.9 ± 33.5 and 147.6 ± 9.50 ml/min, respectively. Serum s(PRR levels were significantly higher in those with ankle-brachial index (ABI of < 0.9, an indicator of severe atherosclerosis, than those with ABI of ≥ 0.9 (32.2 ± 5.9 and 30.1 ± 6.2 ng/ml, respectively, P < 0.05. An association between low ABI and high serum s(PRR levels was observed even after correction for age, history of smoking, HbA1c, and LDL-C. Serum s(PRR levels were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients when compared with subjects with normal renal function, although s(PRR is dialyzed to some extent, but to a lesser extent than creatinine. High serum s(PRR levels may be associated with atherosclerosis independent of other risk factors, suggesting that serum s(PRR could be used as a marker for atherosclerotic conditions in hemodialysis patients.

  16. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors required during Trypanosoma cruzi parasitophorous vacuole development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Juan Agustín; Vanrell, María Cristina; Salassa, Betiana Nebaí; Nola, Sébastien; Galli, Thierry; Colombo, María Isabel; Romano, Patricia Silvia

    2017-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is an obligate intracellular parasite that exploits different host vesicular pathways to invade the target cells. Vesicular and target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) are key proteins of the intracellular membrane fusion machinery. During the early times of T. cruzi infection, several vesicles are attracted to the parasite contact sites in the plasma membrane. Fusion of these vesicles promotes the formation of the parasitic vacuole and parasite entry. In this work, we study the requirement and the nature of SNAREs involved in the fusion events that take place during T. cruzi infection. Our results show that inhibition of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor protein, a protein required for SNARE complex disassembly, impairs T. cruzi infection. Both TI-VAMP/VAMP7 and cellubrevin/VAMP3, two v-SNAREs of the endocytic and exocytic pathways, are specifically recruited to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane in a synchronized manner but, although VAMP3 is acquired earlier than VAMP7, impairment of VAMP3 by tetanus neurotoxin fails to reduce T. cruzi infection. In contrast, reduction of VAMP7 activity by expression of VAMP7's longin domain, depletion by small interfering RNA or knockout, significantly decreases T. cruzi infection susceptibility as a result of a minor acquisition of lysosomal components to the parasitic vacuole. In addition, overexpression of the VAMP7 partner Vti1b increases the infection, whereas expression of a KIF5 kinesin mutant reduces VAMP7 recruitment to vacuole and, concomitantly, T. cruzi infection. Altogether, these data support a key role of TI-VAMP/VAMP7 in the fusion events that culminate in the T. cruzi parasitophorous vacuole development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Quantifies Lung Injury in Polytraumatized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrin, Lukas L; Halat, Gabriel; Prosch, Helmut; Hüpfl, Michael; Hajdu, Stefan; Heinz, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Biomarkers caused by blunt chest trauma might leak into the vascular compartment and therefore reflect the severity of parenchymal lung injury (PLI). Five promising proteins were preselected after a literature scan. The objective of our study was to identify a biomarker that is released abundantly into the serum shortly after trauma and reliably quantifies the loss of functional lung tissue. Polytraumatized patients (aged ≥18 years, Injury Severity Score [ISS] ≥16) were included in our prospective observational study if they were admitted directly to our level I trauma center during the first hour after trauma occurred. Immediately after stabilizing the patient's condition, blood samples were taken and a whole-body computed tomographic (CT) scan was obtained. Biomarker levels were measured directly after admission and on day 2. PLI volume was calculated using volumetric analysis. One hundred thirty patients met the inclusion criteria. Compared with a matched healthy control population, median levels of the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) was almost 3 times higher and decreased by 41% on day 2. Higher initial median sRAGE levels were detected in patients with PLI compared with patients without PLI and in individuals with severe PLI compared with those with mild PLI. Spearman correlation analysis and a univariate linear log regression model revealed a significant correlation/equation between initial sRAGE levels and relative PLI volume. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) statistics identified the initial sRAGE level as an indicator of severe PLI. sRAGE levels measured shortly after trauma seem to be a promising diagnostic tool to assess the severity of PLI in polytraumatized patients. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Elevated soluble endothelial protein C receptor levels at ICU admission are associated with sepsis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, A G; Kotanidou, A; Mastora, Z; Maniatis, N A; Albani, P; Jahaj, E; Koutsoukou, A; Armaganidis, A; Orfanos, S E

    2015-02-01

    The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) is a protein that regulates the protein C anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory pathways. A soluble form of EPCR (sEPCR) circulates in plasma and inhibits activated protein C (APC) activities. The clinical impact of sEPCR and its involvement in the septic process is under investigation. In this study, we assessed the role of sEPCR levels as an early indicator of sepsis development. Plasma sEPCR levels were measured in 59 critically-ill non-septic patients at the time of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors for sepsis development and Cox-Regression models were fitted for variables to examine their relationship with time to sepsis development. Thirty patients subsequently developed sepsis and 29 did not. At ICU admission, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores were significantly higher in the subsequent sepsis group as compared to the non sepsis group (mean ± SD: 6.4±2.7 and 5±2.3, respectively, P=0.037). sEPCR levels were also higher in the patients who subsequently developed sepsis compared to the patients who did not (median and interquartile range: 173.4 [104.5-223.5] ng/mL vs. 98.3 [69.8-147.7] ng/mL, respectively; P=0.004). Cox regression analysis identified sEPCR as the only parameter related to sepsis development with time (relative risk: 1.078, 95% confidence interval: 1.016-1.144, by 10 units; P=0.013). Upon ICU admission, sEPCR levels in initially non-septic critically-ill patients appear elevated in the subjects who will subsequently become septic.

  19. Insights into Soluble Toll-Like Receptor 2 as a Downregulator of Virally Induced Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrick, Bethany M; Yao, Xiao-Dan; Taha, Ameer Y; German, J Bruce; Rosenthal, Kenneth Lee

    2016-01-01

    The ability to distinguish pathogens from self-antigens is one of the most important functions of the immune system. However, this simple self versus non-self assignment belies the complexity of the immune response to threats. Immune responses vary widely and appropriately according to a spectrum of threats and only recently have the mechanisms for controlling this highly textured process emerged. A primary mechanism by which this controlled decision-making process is achieved is via Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and the subsequent activation of the immune response coincident with the presence of pathogenic organisms or antigens, including lipid mediators. While immune activation is important, the appropriate regulation of such responses is also critical. Recent findings indicate a parallel pathway by which responses to both viral and bacterial infections is controlled via the secretion of soluble TLR2 (sTLR2). sTLR2 is able to bind a wide range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). sTLR2 has been detected in many bodily fluids and is thus ubiquitous in sites of pathogen appearance. Interestingly, growing evidence suggests that sTLR2 functions to sequester PAMPs and DAMPs to avoid immune activation via detection of cellular-expressed TLRs. This immune regulatory function would serve to reduce the expression of the molecules required for cellular entry, and the recruitment of target cells following infection with bacteria and viruses. This review provides an overview of sTLR2 and the research regarding the mechanisms of its immune regulatory properties. Furthermore, the role of this molecule in regulating immune activation in the context of HIV infection via sTLR2 in breast milk provides actionable insights into therapeutic targets across a variety of infectious and inflammatory states.

  20. Effects of exercise on soluble transferrin receptor and other variables of the iron status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Y; Schmid, A; Konig, D; Berg, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfr) is a new marker of iron status and erythropoietic activity. It has been included in multivariable blood testing models for the detection of performance enhancing erythropoietin misuse in sport. Objective: To evaluate the effect of different types and volumes of physical activity on sTfr concentration, variables of iron status (ferritin, transferrin, iron, and protein), and haematological indices. Methods: Thirty nine subjects were divided into three groups: 1, untrained (n = 12); 2, moderately trained (n = 14); 3, highly trained (n = 13, seven men, six women). Groups 1 and 2 carried out two exercise tests: an incremental running test until exhaustion (test A) and a 45 minute constant speed running test at 70% VO2MAX (test B). Group 3 performed three days (women) or four days (men) of prolonged aerobic cycling exercise. The above variables together with haemoglobin and packed cell volume were analysed in venous blood samples before and after exercise. Changes in blood and plasma volume were estimated. Results: sTfr levels were slightly increased in trained and untrained subjects immediately after test A. Test B and aerobic exercise had no significant effect on sTfr. Ferritin levels were increased after the laboratory tests for trained and untrained subjects and after prolonged aerobic exercise in male cyclists. Transferrin was increased significantly in trained and untrained subjects after both laboratory tests, but remained unchanged after prolonged exercise. Plasma and blood volumes were decreased after the laboratory tests but increased after aerobic exercise. No differences in the variables were observed between trained and untrained subjects with respect to response to exercise. Conclusion: The changes in sTfr and the variables of iron status can be mainly attributed to exercise induced changes in volume. Taking these limitations into account, sTfr can be recommended as a marker of iron deficiency in athletes

  1. Prevention of colitis-associated cancer: natural compounds that target the IL-6 soluble receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriasi, Cate; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Awasthi, Shanjana; Ramalingam, Satish; Anant, Shrikant

    2012-12-01

    The risk of developing colorectal cancer increases in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and a growing body of evidence shows the critical role of interleukin (IL-6) in this process. IL-6 is both a pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine whose effects are mediated through activation of STAT3. Recent studies have also demonstrated that IL-6 trans-signaling through its soluble receptor occurs in IBD and cancer. IL-6 trans-signaling therefore is emerging as an attractive approach to diminish the inflammatory signals in conditions of chronic inflammation. The purpose of cancer chemoprevention is to either delay the onset or progression from precancerous lesions. Natural compounds because of their low toxicity render themselves excellent candidates that can be administered over the lifetime of an individual. With the focus of managing IBD over a long time and preventing onset of colitis-associated cancer, we believe that there should be increased research focus on identifying chemopreventive compounds that can render themselves to long term use possibly for the lifetime of predisposed individuals. Here, we review the role of IL-6 signaling in IBD and colitis-associated cancer and underscore the importance of searching for natural compounds that would target the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway as a way to diminish chronic inflammatory conditions in the gastrointestinal tract and possibly hamper the progression to colon cancer. We propose that effective screening and identification of natural chemopreventive compounds that target IL-6 trans-signaling has important implications for the development of optimal strategies against cancer development triggered by inflammation.

  2. Improved protein structure selection using decoy-dependent discriminatory functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levitt Michael

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key component in protein structure prediction is a scoring or discriminatory function that can distinguish near-native conformations from misfolded ones. Various types of scoring functions have been developed to accomplish this goal, but their performance is not adequate to solve the structure selection problem. In addition, there is poor correlation between the scores and the accuracy of the generated conformations. Results We present a simple and nonparametric formula to estimate the accuracy of predicted conformations (or decoys. This scoring function, called the density score function, evaluates decoy conformations by performing an all-against-all Cα RMSD (Root Mean Square Deviation calculation in a given decoy set. We tested the density score function on 83 decoy sets grouped by their generation methods (4state_reduced, fisa, fisa_casp3, lmds, lattice_ssfit, semfold and Rosetta. The density scores have correlations as high as 0.9 with the Cα RMSDs of the decoy conformations, measured relative to the experimental conformation for each decoy. We previously developed a residue-specific all-atom probability discriminatory function (RAPDF, which compiles statistics from a database of experimentally determined conformations, to aid in structure selection. Here, we present a decoy-dependent discriminatory function called self-RAPDF, where we compiled the atom-atom contact probabilities from all the conformations in a decoy set instead of using an ensemble of native conformations, with a weighting scheme based on the density scores. The self-RAPDF has a higher correlation with Cα RMSD than RAPDF for 76/83 decoy sets, and selects better near-native conformations for 62/83 decoy sets. Self-RAPDF may be useful not only for selecting near-native conformations from decoy sets, but also for fold simulations and protein structure refinement. Conclusions Both the density score and the self-RAPDF functions are decoy

  3. Expression of a fusion protein of human ciliary neurotrophic factor and soluble CNTF-receptor and identification of its activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Pia, März; Uwe, Otten; Ge, Ji-Guang; Stefan, Rose-John

    2003-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has pleiotropic actions on many neuronal populations as well as on glia. Signal transduction by CNTF requires that it bind first to CNTF-R, permitting the recruitment of gp130 and LIF-R, forming a tripartite receptor complex. Cells that only express gp130 and LIF-R, but not CNTF-R are refractory to stimulation by CNTF. On many target cells CNTF only acts in the presence of its specific agonistic soluble receptors. We engineered a soluble fusion protein by linking the COOH-terminus of sCNTF-R to the NH2-terminus of CNTF. Recombinant CNTF/sCNTF-R fusion protein (Hyper-CNTF) was successfully expressed in COS-7 cells. The apparent molecular mass of the Hyper-CNTF protein was estimated from western blots to be 75 kDa. Proliferation assays of transfected BAF/3 cells in response to CNTF and Hyper-CNTF were used to verify the activity of the cytokines. The proliferative results confirmed that CNTF required homodimerization of the gp130, CNTF-R and LIF-R receptor subunit whereas Hyper-CNTF required heterodimerization of the gp130 and LIF-R receptor subunit. We concluded that the fusion protein Hyper-CNTF had superagonistic activity on target cells expressing gp130 and LIF-R, but lacking membrane-bound CNTF-R.

  4. The soluble transcobalamin receptor (sCD320) is present in cerebrospinal fluid and correlates to dementia-related biomarkers tau proteins and amyloid-beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abuyaman, Omar; Nexo, Ebba

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cellular uptake of vitamin B12 (B12) demands binding of the vitamin to transcobalamin (TC) and recognition of TC-B12 (holoTC) by the receptor CD320. Recently, we identified a soluble form of CD320 (sCD320) in human plasma. Here we present data on the occurrence of this soluble recepto...

  5. Maternal circulating levels of transforming growth factor-β superfamily and its soluble receptors in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-Ting; Shen, Min-Hong; Jin, Ai-Ying; Li, Hong; Zhu, Rui

    2017-06-01

    To assess circulating levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily members and their soluble receptors in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and to investigate associations with clinical manifestations. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women admitted to a center in China for delivery between May 2011 and April 2013. Women with severe pre-eclampsia, mild pre-eclampsia, and gestational hypertension were included, along with a control group. Serum levels of activin A, inhibin A, TGF-β1, soluble endoglin (sEng), and soluble betaglycan (sBG) were measured. Women with severe pre-eclampsia (n = 17) had higher mean levels of activin A (23.5±2.1 μg/L), inhibin A (1.7±0.2 μg/L), sEng (32.1±3.2 μg/L), and sBG (84.1±9.4 μg/L) than did normotensive controls (n = 18), women with gestational hypertension (n = 15), and those with mild pre-eclampsia (n = 14; all Psoluble receptors, which might contribute to the development of pre-eclampsia and help to predict onset and severity. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  6. Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels and peripheral arterial disease outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman Tahhan, Ayman; Hayek, Salim S; Sandesara, Pratik; Hajjari, Jamal; Hammadah, Muhammad; O'Neal, Wesley T; Kelli, Heval M; Alkhoder, Ayman; Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Ko, Yi-An; Aida, Hiroshi; Gafeer, Mohamad Mazen; Abdelhadi, Naser; Mohammed, Kareem Hosny; Patel, Keyur; Arya, Shipra; Reiser, Jochen; Vaccarino, Viola; Sperling, Laurence; Quyyumi, Arshed

    2017-09-01

    Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a marker of immune activation associated with atherosclerosis. Whether suPAR levels are associated with prevalent peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and its adverse outcomes remains unknown and is the aim of the study. SuPAR levels were measured in 5810 patients (mean age 63 years, 63% male, 77% with obstructive coronary artery disease [CAD]) undergoing cardiac catheterization. The presence of PAD (n = 967, 17%) was classified as carotid (36%), lower/upper extremities (30%), aortic (15%) and multisite disease (19%). Multivariable logistic and Cox regression models were used to determine independent predictors of prevalent PAD and outcomes including all-cause death, cardiovascular death and PAD-related events after adjustment for age, gender, race, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, renal function, heart failure history, and obstructive CAD. Plasma suPAR levels were 22.5% (p < 0.001) higher in patients with PAD compared to those without PAD. Plasma suPAR was higher in patients with more extensive PAD (≥2 compared to single site) p < 0.001. After multivariable adjustment, suPAR was associated with prevalent PAD; odds ratio (OR) for highest compared to lowest tertile of 2.0, 95% CI (1.6-2.5) p < 0.001. In Cox survival analyses adjusted for clinical characteristics and medication regimen, suPAR (in the highest vs. lowest tertile) remained an independent predictor of all-cause death [HR 3.1, 95% CI (1.9-5.3)], cardiovascular death [HR 3.5, 95% CI (1.8-7.0)] and PAD-related events [HR = 1.8, 95% CI (1.3-2.6) p < 0.001 for all]. Plasma suPAR level is predictive of prevalent PAD and of incident cardiovascular and PAD-related events. Whether SuPAR measurement can help screen, risk stratify, or monitor therapeutic responses in PAD requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Periplasmic expression of soluble single chain T cell receptors is rescued by the chaperone FkpA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogen Bjarne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient expression systems exist for antibody (Ab molecules, which allow for characterization of large numbers of individual Ab variants. In contrast, such expression systems have been lacking for soluble T cell receptors (TCRs. Attempts to generate bacterial systems have generally resulted in low yields and material which is prone to aggregation and proteolysis. Here we present an optimized periplasmic bacterial expression system for soluble single chain (sc TCRs. Results The effect of 1 over-expression of the periplasmic chaperon FkpA, 2 culture conditions and 3 molecular design was investigated. Elevated levels of FkpA allowed periplasmic soluble scTCR expression, presumably by preventing premature aggregation and inclusion body formation. Periplasmic expression enables disulphide bond formation, which is a prerequisite for the scTCR to reach its correct fold. It also enables quick and easy recovery of correctly folded protein without the need for time-consuming downstream processing. Expression without IPTG induction further improved the periplasmic expression yield, while addition of sucrose to the growth medium showed little effect. Shaker flask yield of mg levels of active purified material was obtained. The Vαβ domain orientation was far superior to the Vβα domain orientation regarding monomeric yield of functionally folded molecules. Conclusion The general expression regime presented here allows for rapid production of soluble scTCRs and is applicable for 1 high yield recovery sufficient for biophysical characterization and 2 high throughput screening of such molecules following molecular engineering.

  8. Successful inhibition of intracranial human glioblastoma multiforme xenograft growth via systemic adenoviral delivery of soluble endostatin and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2: laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentirmai, Oszkar; Baker, Cheryl H; Bullain, Szofia S; Lin, Ning; Takahashi, Masaya; Folkman, Judah; Mulligan, Richard C; Carter, Bob S

    2008-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by neovascularization, raising the question of whether angiogenic blockade may be a useful therapeutic strategy for this disease. It has been suggested, however, that, to be useful, angiogenic blockade must be persistent and at levels sufficient to overcome proangiogenic signals from tumor cells. In this report, the authors tested the hypothesis that sustained high concentrations of 2 different antiangiogenic proteins, delivered using a systemic gene therapy strategy, could inhibit the growth of established intracranial U87 human GBM xenografts in nude mice. Mice harboring established U87 intracranial tumors received intravenous injections of adenoviral vectors encoding either the extracellular domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2-Fc fusion protein (Ad-VEGFR2-Fc) alone, soluble endostatin (Ad-ES) alone, a combination of Ad-VEGFR2-Fc and Ad-ES, or immunoglobulin 1-Fc (Ad-Fc) as a control. Three weeks after treatment, magnetic resonance imaging-based determination of tumor volume showed that treatment with Ad-VEGFR2-Fc, Ad-ES, or Ad-VEGFR2-Fc in combination with Ad-ES, produced 69, 59, and 74% growth inhibition, respectively. Bioluminescent monitoring of tumor growth revealed growth inhibition in the same treatment groups to be 62, 74, and 72%, respectively. Staining with proliferating cell nuclear antigen and with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling showed reduced tumor cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in all antiangiogenic treatment groups. These results suggest that systemic delivery and sustained production of endostatin and soluble VEGFR2 can slow intracranial glial tumor growth by both reducing cell proliferation and increasing tumor apoptosis. This work adds further support to the concept of using antiangiogenesis therapy for intracranial GBM.

  9. Successful inhibition of intracranial human glioblastoma multiforme xenograft growth via systemic adenoviral delivery of soluble endostatin and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentirmai, Oszkar; Baker, Cheryl H.; Bullain, Szofia S.; Lin, Ning; Takahashi, Masaya; Folkman, Judah; Mulligan, Richard C.; Carter, Bob S.

    2015-01-01

    Object Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by neovascularization, raising the question of whether angiogenic blockade may be a useful therapeutic strategy for this disease. It has been suggested, however, that, to be useful, angiogenic blockade must be persistent and at levels sufficient to overcome proangiogenic signals from tumor cells. In this report, the authors tested the hypothesis that sustained high concentrations of 2 different antiangiogenic proteins, delivered using a systemic gene therapy strategy, could inhibit the growth of established intracranial U87 human GBM xenografts in nude mice. Methods Mice harboring established U87 intracranial tumors received intravenous injections of adenoviral vectors encoding either the extracellular domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2-Fc fusion protein (Ad-VEGFR2-Fc) alone, soluble endostatin (Ad-ES) alone, a combination of Ad-VEGFR2-Fc and Ad-ES, or immunoglobulin 1-Fc (Ad-Fc) as a control. Results Three weeks after treatment, magnetic resonance imaging-based determination of tumor volume showed that treatment with Ad-VEGFR2-Fc, Ad-ES, or Ad-VEGFR2-Fc in combination with Ad-ES, produced 69, 59, and 74% growth inhibition, respectively. Bioluminescent monitoring of tumor growth revealed growth inhibition in the same treatment groups to be 62, 74, and 72%, respectively. Staining with proliferating cell nuclear antigen and with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling showed reduced tumor cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in all antiangiogenic treatment groups. Conclusions These results suggest that systemic delivery and sustained production of endostatin and soluble VEGFR2 can slow intracranial glial tumor growth by both reducing cell proliferation and increasing tumor apoptosis. This work adds further support to the concept of using antiangiogenesis therapy for intracranial GBM. PMID:18447716

  10. Effects of Viscum album extract therapy in patients with cancer: relation with interleukin-6, soluble interleukin-6 receptor, and soluble gp130.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Eva

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the effects of Viscum album (VA) extract therapy on interleukin (IL)-12, IL-16, IL-6, soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R), and soluble gp130 (sgp130) in patients with cancer. VA extract as immunomodulator is used as treatment either following or in combination with chemo/radiotherapy. Previously we showed that serum levels of IL-12 and IL-16 were significantly elevated during tumor progression in 72 patients. The serum values of IL-6 were not significantly altered, however sIL-6R and sgp130 also increased significantly. In this study the serum levels of the five parameters were measured during VA extract therapy in 46 of these 72 tumor patients and compared to the values before VA extract treatment. The levels of the serum parameters IL-12, IL-16, IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp130 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Private cancer hospital in Arlesheim, Switzerland. Eighty percent (80%) of the tumor patients survived longer than 1 year (11 patients in stage I + II without, 8 patients after chemotherapy/radiotherapy, 10 patients in stage III + IV without, 8 patients after chemotherapy). Clinically and with laboratory investigations there was no progression in these patients. VA extract therapy did not affect serum values of IL-12 or IL-16. However both the number of patients with increased levels of IL-6, sIL-6R, and sgp130 and also the serum values decreased significantly during the treatment, (between p cancer with rapid progression who died within 3 months, the serum values of IL-6 increased significantly (p < 0.05), whereas the other investigated parameters did not change. The results show that measurements of IL-6, sIL-6R, and sgp130 could be important for establishing the clinical condition and evaluating treatment in tumor patients.

  11. Soluble interleukin-1 receptor, a potential negative regulator of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides interleukin-1 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D Q; Yao, M; Yi, S B; Li, Y W; Liu, X C; Zhang, Y; Lin, H R

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the cDNA sequence encoding interleukin-1 (Il-1) receptor-like protein of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides was obtained. The newly identified sequence was named soluble type I Il-1 receptor (sIl-1rI) owing to its structural composition, which had two Ig-like domains, lack of transmembrane region and the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain, similar to the brown rat Rattus norvegicus soluble Il-1rI. In addition, sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that E. coioides sequence had a closer relationship with Il-1rI than Il-1rII. Real-time PCR revealed that sil-1rI mRNA expression presented a process of decrease, restoration and increase in Cryptocaryon irritans-infected E. coioides. The negative correlation between Il-1β and sil-1rI mRNA in C. irritans-infected head-kidney implied the potential negative regulatory role of sil-1rI in E. coioides Il-1 system. The leucocytes incubated with lipopolysaccharide or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid exhibited different expression profiles of sil-1rI. Recombinant Il-1β (rIl-1β) protein was capable of inducing sil-1rI mRNA under the concentration of 100 ng ml(-1) , suggesting that high dosage or excess Il-1β would stimulate the expression of sil-1rI to maintain the homoeostasis of E. coioides Il-1 system. For the first time, the role of teleost Il-1rI in parasite infection has been identified, and soluble Il-1r was found in fish. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Soluble Leukocyte-Associated Ig-Like Receptor-1 in Amniotic Fluid Is of Fetal Origin and Positively Associates with Lung Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.L.; Olde Nordkamp, M.J.M.; Nikkels, P.G.J.; van der Ent, C.K.; Meyaard, L.; Bont, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The soluble form of the inhibitory immune receptor leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 (sLAIR-1) is present in plasma, urine and synovial fluid and correlates to inflammation. We and others previously showed inflammatory protein expression in normal amniotic fluid at term. We hypothesized that

  13. The TNF-alpha system in heart failure and after heart transplantation : plasma protein levels, mRNA expression, soluble receptors and plasma buffer capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Riemsdijk-van Overbeeke, I C; Baan, C C; Niesters, H G; Hesse, C J; Loonen, E H; Balk, A H; Maat, A P; Weimar, W

    BACKGROUND: The two soluble tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptors (sTNF-R1, sTNF-R2) can bind TNF-alpha, which is a cytokine with cardiodepressant properties. In heart failure and after heart transplantation, the TNF-alpha system is unbalanced, due to elevated levels of sTNF receptors. AIM: To

  14. Soluble Interleukin-7 receptor levels and risk of acute graft-versus-disease after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsen, Katrine; Shamim, Zaiba; Thiant, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    in patients developing grade II-IV aGVHD (OR = 4.3, P = 0.026). Furthermore, donor carriage of the rs6897932 T allele was associated with reduced sIL-7Rα levels, increased risk of grades II-IV aGVHD (OR = 2.4, P = 0.055) and increased transplant-related mortality (CC = 4.5%, CT = 21.4% and TT = 27.3%, P = 0.......0037). In conclusion, this study suggests an impact of sIL-7Rα levels and rs6897932 donor genotype on alloreactivity and outcome after HSCT.......Interleukin-7 is a cytokine essential for T cell homeostasis. IL-7 binds to cellular IL-7 receptors in competition with a soluble form of the receptor (sIL-7Rα). We hypothesized that altered sIL-7Rα levels may cause adverse outcomes in patients undergoing HSCT. In parallel, we investigated...

  15. Carboxylatopillar[n]arenes: a versatile class of water soluble synthetic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Suvankar; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2017-01-25

    Carboxylatopillar[n]arenes (CP[n]As, n = 5, 6, 7, 9, 10) are water soluble derivatives of pillar[n]arenes. The three-dimensional π-electron-rich cavity and carboxylate groups at the portals, enabled CP[n]A to have strong binding affinity in water, which has been successfully harnessed in fabricating responsive supramolecular assemblies from supra-amphiphiles and developing targeted drug delivery systems (DDSs). CP[n]A based supraamphiphiles have also been used for sensor applications. This review highlights the diverse applications of water soluble carboxylatopillar[n]arenes.

  16. Soluble CD163 and soluble mannose receptor predict survival and decompensation in patients with liver cirrhosis, and correlate with gut permeability and bacterial translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rainer, F; Horvath, A; Sandahl, T D

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activated hepatic macrophages play a key role in inflammation and fibrosis progression in chronic liver disease. AIM: To assess the prognostic value of soluble (s)CD163 and mannose receptor (sMR) in cirrhotic patients and explore associations with markers of intestinal permeability...... (lactulose-mannitol ratio, diamine oxidase), bacterial translocation (endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein) and markers of systemic immune activation (interleukin-6, interleukin-8, sCD14). METHODS: We prospectively investigated 101 cirrhotic patients (Child-Pugh class A: n = 72, Child-Pugh classes B.......3, Child-Pugh class A = 4.2, Child-Pugh classes B and C = 8.4 mg/L; sMR in healthy controls = 15.8, Child-Pugh class A = 36.5, Child-Pugh classes B and C = 66.3 μg/dL). A total of 21 patients died during the observation period. Patients with sCD163 levels above 5.9 mg/L showed significantly reduced...

  17. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) stimulate the release of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and soluble IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor from MCF7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confort, C; Rochefort, H; Vignon, F

    1995-09-01

    The growth of hormone-responsive MCF7 human breast cancer cells is controlled by steroid hormones and growth factors. By metabolic labeling of cells grown in steroid- and growth factor-stripped serum conditions, we show that insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) increase by approximately 5-fold the release of several proteins including cathepsin D, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, and soluble forms of the multifunctional IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) receptor. Two soluble forms of IGF-II/M6P receptors were detected, one major (approximately 260 kilodaltons) and one minor (approximately 85 kilodaltons) that probably represents a proteolytic fragment of the larger soluble molecule. IGFs increased receptor release in a dose-dependent fashion with 50-60% of newly synthesized receptor released at 5-10 nM IGFs. The release of IGF-II/M6P receptors correlated with the levels of secreted cathepsin D in different human breast cancer cells or in rats stable transfectants that are constitutively expressing variable levels of human cathepsin D. IGFs had a stronger effect on IGF-II/M6P receptor release, whereas estradiol treatment preferentially enhanced the release of protease and antiprotease. We thus demonstrate that in human breast cancer cells, IGFs not only act as strong mitogens but also regulate release of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, IGF-II/M6P-soluble receptor, and cathepsin D; three proteins that potentially regulate cell proliferation and/or invasion.

  18. Water-soluble plasmonic nanosensors with synthetic receptors for label-free detection of folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Randa; Félidj, Nordin; Boubekeur-Lecaque, Leïla; Lau-Truong, Stéphanie; Gam-Derouich, Sarra; Decorse, Philippe; Lamouri, Aazdine; Mangeney, Claire

    2015-06-14

    We describe an original approach to graft molecularly imprinted polymers around gold nanorods by combining the diazonium salt chemistry and the iniferter method. This chemical strategy enables fine control of the imprinting process at the nanometer scale and provides water-soluble plasmonic nanosensors.

  19. Correlations between hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor levels in children aged 6-59 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajar Diah Tri Kusumastuti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Early detection of iron deficiency is important in young children to prevent iron deficiency anemia, which may cause permanent neurocognitive development disorders. Hemoglobin level is an insensitive tool for detecting iron deficiency without anemia, while serum ferritin levels may be influenced by infection and inflammation. However, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR is a sensitive marker for detecting iron deficiency, yet not widely used in daily practice. Objective To assess for correlations between hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor levels in children aged 6-59 months. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in the Yogyakarta and Bantul Districts involving 85 children aged 6-59 months who visited integrated health posts (posyandu and who met the inclusion criteria. Subjects were chosen by cluster random sampling. Blood specimens were collected to examine hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and sTfR levels. Results Spearman’s correlation test revealed weak negative correlations between hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels, as well as between hemoglobin and sTfR levels, with coefficient correlations of r = -0.220, (P=0.043 and r = -0.317, (P=0.003, respectively. There was no correlation between serum ferritin and sTfR levels (r = -0.033; P=0.767. Conclusion Hemoglobin levels has weak negative correlations with serum ferritin and sTfR, but serum ferritin does not correlate with sTfR. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:122-6.

  20. Transcription factor decoy technology: A therapeutic update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Markus; Wagner, Andreas H

    2017-11-15

    Targeting transcription factors represents one possibility to interfere with a known activated regulatory pathway that promotes disease. Double-stranded transcription factor decoy (TFD) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) are therapeutic drug candidates, which are able to specifically target and neutralize key transcription factors involved in the pathogenesis of a given disease. These short double-stranded TFD molecules mimic the consensus DNA binding site of a specific transcription factor in the promoter region of its target genes. Therefore, it is possible to exploit this nucleic acid-based drug class for the treatment of diseases caused by aberrant expression of such target genes the products of which are involved in disease initiation and progression. This research update focuses firstly on the mechanism of action of TFD molecules. Long-term effects of such ODNs depend on their stability and the efficiency by which they are delivered to the target tissue and taken up by their target cells. Hence structural modifications like e.g., single-stranded TFD molecules hybridising to itself to form an intramolecular hairpin molecule or circular ODNs assuming a dumbbell configuration, intended to enhance both stability and efficacy, are addressed. Also specific drug delivery methods like ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction with TFD ODN-coated microbubbles or adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for tissue-specific transduction and long-term TFD molecule expression in non-dividing cells will be discussed. Finally, current therapeutic applications of TFD ODN will be summarized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential use of fucose-appended dendrimer/α-cyclodextrin conjugates as NF-κB decoy carriers for the treatment of lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akao, Chiho; Tanaka, Takahiro; Onodera, Risako; Ohyama, Ayumu; Sato, Nana; Motoyama, Keiichi; Higashi, Taishi; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2014-11-10

    The purpose of the present study is to treat lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatitis by NF-κB decoy complex with fucose-appended dendrimer (generation 2; G2) conjugate with α-cyclodextrin (Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2)). Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, average degree of substitution of fucose (DSF2))/NF-κB decoy complex significantly suppressed nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production from LPS-stimulated NR8383 cells, a rat alveolar macrophage cell line, by adequate physicochemical properties and fucose receptor-mediated cellular uptake. Intravenous injection of Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-κB decoy complex extended the survival of LPS-induced fulminant hepatitis model mice. In addition, Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-κB decoy complex administered intravenously highly accumulated in the liver, compared to naked NF-κB decoy alone. Furthermore, the liver accumulation of Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-κB decoy complex was inhibited by the pretreatment with GdCl3, a specific inhibitor of Kupffer cell uptake. Also, the serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and TNF-α levels in LPS-induced fulminant hepatitis model mice were significantly attenuated by the treatment with Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2)/NF-κB decoy complex, compared with naked NF-κB decoy alone. Taken together, these results suggest that Fuc-S-α-CDE (G2, DSF2) has the potential for a novel Kupffer cell-selective NF-κB decoy carrier for the treatment of LPS-induced fulminant hepatitis in mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preoperative serum soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin predict postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing cardiac valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hailong; Zhou, Qing; Wu, Yanhu; Li, Qingguo; Røe, Oluf Dimitri; Chen, Yijiang; Wu, Zhong; Wang, Dongjin

    2013-09-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF), a frequent complication after cardiac surgery, causes morbidity and prolongs hospitalization. A significant association between circulating osteoprotegerin concentration and atrial fibrillation incidence had been identified. Osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) axis may also contribute to the development and progression of AF. Herein we sought to determine whether preoperative serum soluble RANKL and osteoprotegerin and soluble RANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio are associated with the incidence of POAF in cardiac surgery patients. We enrolled 154 patients with preoperative sinus rhythm undergoing isolated cardiac valve surgery. Preoperative venous blood samples were obtained for measurement of serum soluble RANKL and osteoprotegerin. The POAF was defined as the characteristic arrhythmia lasting for at least 30 seconds before discharge. Comparison was made between patients without episode of POAF (sinus rhythm group, n=93) and patients experiencing POAF (atrial fibrillation group, n=61). Serum levels of soluble RANKL and osteoprotegerin and soluble RANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio were significantly higher in the atrial fibrillation group than the sinus rhythm group. In multivariate survival regression, C-reactive protein, ejection fraction, left and right atrial diameters, preoperative use of beta-blocker, duration of ventilation, particularly serum soluble RANKL level, and soluble RANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio independently predicted POAF. According to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the best threshold values of serum soluble RANKL level and soluble RANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio for predicting POAF were 3.62 pmol/L and 0.51, respectively. Elevated preoperative serum soluble RANKL level and soluble RANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio are independent predictors for POAF in patients undergoing cardiac valve surgery. These findings have important

  3. Harnessing soluble NK cell killer receptors for the generation of novel cancer immune therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arnon, Tal I; Markel, Gal; Bar-Ilan, Ahuva; Hanna, Jacob; Fima, Eyal; Benchetrit, Fabrice; Galili, Ruth; Cerwenka, Adelheid; Benharroch, Daniel; Sion-Vardy, Netta; Porgador, Angel; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2008-01-01

    .... Even though the tumor ligands of the NCRs have not been identified yet, the selective manner by which these receptors target tumor cells may provide an excellent basis for the development of novel anti-tumor therapies...

  4. Targeting of Adenovirus Vectors to Breast Cancer Mediated by Soluble Receptor-Ligand Fusion Proteins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dmitriev, Igor

    2001-01-01

    The use of adenovirus (Ad) vectors for cancer gene therapy applications is currently limited due to the broad viral tropism associated with the widespread expression of primary coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) in human tissues...

  5. Targeting of Adenovirus Vectors to Breast Cancer Mediated by Soluble Receptor-Ligand Fusion Proteins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dmitriev, Igor

    2002-01-01

    The use of adenovirus (Ad) vectors for cancer gene therapy is currently limited by several factors, including broad Ad tropism associated with expression of coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR...

  6. A robust and rapid method of producing soluble, stable, and functional G-protein coupled receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Corin

    Full Text Available Membrane proteins, particularly G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, are notoriously difficult to express. Using commercial E. coli cell-free systems with the detergent Brij-35, we could rapidly produce milligram quantities of 13 unique GPCRs. Immunoaffinity purification yielded receptors at >90% purity. Secondary structure analysis using circular dichroism indicated that the purified receptors were properly folded. Microscale thermophoresis, a novel label-free and surface-free detection technique that uses thermal gradients, showed that these receptors bound their ligands. The secondary structure and ligand-binding results from cell-free produced proteins were comparable to those expressed and purified from HEK293 cells. Our study demonstrates that cell-free protein production using commercially available kits and optimal detergents is a robust technology that can be used to produce sufficient GPCRs for biochemical, structural, and functional analyses. This robust and simple method may further stimulate others to study the structure and function of membrane proteins.

  7. Synergistic Effect of Subtoxic-dose Cisplatin and TRAIL to Mediate Apoptosis by Down-regulating Decoy Receptor 2 and Up-regulating Caspase-8, Caspase-9 and Bax Expression on NCI-H460 and A549 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL can selectively induce apoptosis in tumor cells, more than half of tumors including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC exhibit TRAIL-resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether subtoxic-dose cisplatin and TRAIL could synergistically enhance apoptosis on NSCLC cells and investigate its underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods:NCI-H460 and A549 cells were treated with TRAIL alone, cisplatin alone or combination treatment in this study. The cytotoxicity was evaluated according to Sulforhodamine B assay, and apoptosis was examined using Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein levels of TRAIL receptors and apoptotic proteins including caspase-8, caspase-9, Bcl-2 and Bax were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results:Our results showed that NCI-H460 cells were sensitive to TRAIL, whereas A549 cells were resistant. However, subtoxic-dose cisplatin could enhance the both cells to TRAIL-mediated cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis. The underlying mechanisms might be associated with the down-regulation of DcR2 and up-regulation of Caspase-8, Caspase-9 and Bax. Conclusion:Subtoxic-dose cisplatin could enhance both TRAIL- sensitive and TRAIL- resistant NSCLC cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. These findings motivated further studies to evaluate such a combinatory therapeutic strategy against NSCLC in the animal models.

  8. The soluble form of urokinase receptor promotes angiogenesis through its Ser⁸⁸-Arg-Ser-Arg-Tyr⁹² chemotactic sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, K; Longanesi-Cattani, I; Gala, M; DI Carluccio, G; Masucci, M T; Pavone, V; Lista, L; Arra, C; Stoppelli, M P; Carriero, M V

    2010-12-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) focuses the proteolytic activity of the urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) on the endothelial cell surface, thus promoting angiogenesis in a protease-dependent manner. The u-PAR may exist in a glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored and in a soluble form (soluble u-PAR [Su-PAR]), both including the chemotactic Ser⁸⁸ -Arg-Ser-Arg-Tyr⁹² internal sequence. To investigate whether Su-PAR may trigger endothelial cell signaling leading to new vessel formation through its chemotactic Ser⁸⁸ -Arg-Ser-Arg-Tyr⁹² sequence. In this study, the formation of vascular-like structures by human umbilical vein endothelial cells was assessed by using a matrigel basement membrane preparation. First, we found that Su-PAR protein promotes the formation of cord-like structures, and that this ability is retained by the isolated Ser(88) -Arg-Ser-Arg-Tyr⁹² chemotactic sequence, the maximal effect being reached at 10 nmol L⁻¹ SRSRY peptide (SRSRY). This effect is mediated by the α(v) β₃ vitronectin receptor, is independent of u-PA proteolytic activity, and involves the internalization of the G-protein-coupled formyl-peptide receptor in endothelial cells. Furthermore, exposure of human saphenous vein rings to Su-PAR or SRSRY leads to a remarkable degree of sprouting. Finally, we show that Su-PAR and SRSRY promote a marked response in angioreactors implanted into the dorsal flank of nude mice, retaining 91% and 66%, respectively, of the angiogenic response generated by a mixture of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor type 2. Our results show a new protease-independent activity of Su-PAR that stimulates in vivo angiogenesis through its Ser⁸⁸ -Arg-Ser-Arg-Tyr⁹² chemotactic sequence. © 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  9. The role of tumour necrosis factor alpha and soluble tumour necrosis factor alpha receptors in the symptomatology of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Levent; Batmaz, Sedat; Kocbiyik, Sibel; Soygur, Arif Haldun

    2016-07-01

    Background Immunological mechanisms may be responsible for the development and maintenance of schizophrenia symptoms. Aim The aim of this study is to measure tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), soluble tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor I (sTNF-αRI), and soluble tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor II (sTNF-αRII) levels in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals, and to determine their relationship with the symptoms of schizophrenia. Methods Serum TNF-α, sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels were measured. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was administered for patients with schizophrenia (n = 35), and the results were compared with healthy controls (n = 30). Hierarchical regression analyses were undertaken to predict the levels of TNF-α, sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII. Results No significant difference was observed in TNF-α levels, but sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels were lower in patients with schizophrenia. Serum sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels were found to be negatively correlated with the negative subscale score of the PANSS, and sTNF-αRI levels were also negatively correlated with the total score of the PANSS. Smoking, gender, body mass index were not correlated with TNF-α and sTNF-α receptor levels. Conclusions These results suggest that there may be a change in anti-inflammatory response in patients with schizophrenia due to sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels. The study also supports low levels of TNF activity in schizophrenia patients with negative symptoms.

  10. Soluble Levels of Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE) and Progression of Atherosclerosis in Individuals Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: ACTG NWCS 332

    OpenAIRE

    Danoff, Ann; Kendall, Michelle A.; Currier, Judith S.; Kelesidis, Theodoros; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Aberg, Judith A

    2016-01-01

    Identification of biomarkers and/or mediators of cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with HIV-infection would be of diagnostic and therapeutic value. As soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (sRAGE) and endogenous secretory (esRAGE) have been implicated in vascular complications in other settings, we investigated whether either soluble form of RAGE was associated with changes in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in HIV-infected patients and HIV-uninfected controls. We f...

  11. Upregulation of contractile endothelin type B receptors by lipid-soluble cigarette smoking particles in rat cerebral arteries via activation of MAPK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Hardip; Xu, Cang Bao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure increases the risk of stroke. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Endothelin system plays key roles in the pathogenesis of stroke. The present study was designed to examine if lipid-soluble (dimethyl sulfoxide-soluble) cigarette smoke...... or water-soluble cigarette smoke particles to the organ culture. The increased upregulation of contractile ET(B) receptors by DSP was abrogated by U0126, SP600125, actinomycin D, and cycloheximide, suggesting that the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in this process include activation of MEK...

  12. Higher plasma soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (sRAGE) levels are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, Johanna W M; Jorsal, Anders; Ferreira, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the associations of plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal dysfunct......To investigate the associations of plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal...

  13. Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor Is a Predictor of Incident Non-AIDS Comorbidity and All-Cause Mortality in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte M.; Langkilde, Anne; Mejer, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Persistent inflammation and immune activation have been associated with non-AIDS comorbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We aimed to investigate the potential association between soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and incident non-AIDS como......Persistent inflammation and immune activation have been associated with non-AIDS comorbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We aimed to investigate the potential association between soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and incident non...... hazard rates for both non-AIDS comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic lung disease, liver disease, and cancer) and all-cause mortality....

  14. Lipid-soluble smoke particles upregulate vascular smooth muscle ETB receptors via activation of mitogen-activating protein kinases and NF-kappaB pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, C.B.; Zheng, J.P.; Zhang, W.

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to cigarette smoke-associated cardiovascular disease remain elusive. With functional and molecular methods, we demonstrate for the first time that lipid-soluble cigarette smoke...... particles (dimethylsulfoxide-soluble cigarette smoke particles; DSP) increased the expression of endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptors in arterial smooth muscle cells. The increased ET(B) receptors in arterial smooth muscle cells was documented as enhanced contractility (sensitive myograph technique...

  15. A single amino acid substitution in the activation loop defines the decoy characteristic of VEGFR-1/FLT-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rosana D; Mohammadi, Moosa; Rahimi, Nader

    2006-01-13

    VEGFR-1 is a kinase-defective receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and negatively modulates angiogenesis by acting as a decoy receptor. The decoy characteristic of VEGFR-1 is required for normal development and angiogenesis. To date, there is no molecular explanation for this unusual characteristic of VEGFR-1. Here we show that the molecular mechanisms underlying the decoy characteristic of VEGFR-1 is linked to the replacement of a highly conserved amino acid residue in the activation loop. This amino acid is highly conserved among all the type III RTKs and corresponds to aspartic acid, but in VEGFR-1 it is substituted to asparagine. Mutation of asparagine (Asn(1050)) within the activation loop to aspartic acid promoted enhanced ligand-dependent tyrosine autophosphorylation and kinase activation in vivo and in vitro. The mutant VEGFR-1 (Asp(1050)) promoted endothelial cell proliferation but not tubulogenesis. It also displayed an oncogenic phenotype as its expression in fibroblast cells elicited transformation and colony growth. Furthermore, mutation of the invariable aspartic acid to asparagine in VEGFR-2 lowered the autophosphorylation of activation loop tyrosines 1052 and 1057. We propose that the conserved aspartic acid in the activation loop favors the transphosphorylation of the activation loop tyrosines, and its absence renders RTK to a less potent enzyme by disfavoring transphosphorylation of activation loop tyrosines.

  16. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in the Activation Loop Defines the Decoy Characteristic of VEGFR-1/FLT-1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rosana D.; Mohammadi, Moosa; Rahimi, Nader

    2006-01-01

    VEGFR-1 is a kinase-defective receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and negatively modulates angiogenesis by acting as a decoy receptor. The decoy characteristic of VEGFR-1 is required for normal development and angiogenesis. To date, there is no molecular explanation for this unusual characteristic of VEGFR-1. Here we show that the molecular mechanisms underlying the decoy characteristic of VEGFR-1 is linked to the replacement of a highly conserved amino acid residue in the activation loop. This amino acid is highly conserved among all the type III RTKs and corresponds to aspartic acid, but in VEGFR-1 it is substituted to asparagine. Mutation of asparagine (Asn1050) within the activation loop to aspartic acid promoted enhanced ligand-dependent tyrosine autophosphorylation and kinase activation in vivo and in vitro. The mutant VEGFR-1 (Asp1050) promoted endothelial cell proliferation but not tubulogenesis. It also displayed an oncogenic phenotype as its expression in fibroblast cells elicited transformation and colony growth. Furthermore, mutation of the invariable aspartic acid to asparagine in VEGFR-2 lowered the autophosphorylation of activation loop tyrosines 1052 and 1057. We propose that the conserved aspartic acid in the activation loop favors the transphosphorylation of the activation loop tyrosines, and its absence renders RTK to a less potent enzyme by disfavoring transphosphorylation of activation loop tyrosines. PMID:16286478

  17. Elevated levels of soluble urokinase receptor in serum from mycobacteria infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Ravn, P; Hoyer-Hansen, G

    2006-01-01

    In search for a serological marker, which may be used to monitor treatment efficacy in patients with extra-pulmonary mycobacterial infections, serum samples were collected prospectively from patients during a 6-months treatment period. The levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator......). suPAR levels were elevated to more than double (median 7.7 ng/ml, range 5.6-25.8) compared to levels previously reported for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. The serum suPAR levels however remained high during the entire treatment period. This may reflect that significant inflammatory activity...

  18. Collectin CL-LK Is a Novel Soluble Pattern Recognition Receptor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troegeler, Anthony; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Hansen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular components of immune recognition of the tuberculosis (TB) bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, can help designing novel strategies to combat TB. Here, we identify collectin CL-LK as a novel soluble C-type lectin able to bind M. tuberculosis, and characterize...... mycobacterial mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan as a primary ligand for CL-LK. Mice deficient in CL-K1, one of the CL-LK subunits, do not display altered susceptibility to M. tuberculosis. However, we found that the amount of CL-LK in the serum of patients with active TB is reduced, compared to that in controls...

  19. Serum levels of Interleukin-33 and its soluble receptor ST2 in asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensaf A. Azazi

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The serum levels of IL-33 and its receptor sST2 were markedly elevated in patients with bronchial asthma and this supports the concept of sST2 and Interleukin-33 as a therapeutic target in asthma.

  20. Enhanced levels of urokinase plasminogen activator and its soluble receptor in common variable immunodeficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fevang, Børre; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Yndestad, Arne

    2009-01-01

    receptor (uPAR, suPAR) have complex biological functions involving innate immune defense mechanisms and regulation of inflammation. Based on this dual role, we hypothesized that the uPA system could be affected in CVID, and examined expression of components of the uPA system in subgroups of CVID. All CVID...

  1. Serum levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is associated with parasitemia in children with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch, M; Kofoed, Pe; Fischer, Torge

    2004-01-01

    Serum levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) are significantly elevated and of prognostic value in patients suffering from serious infectious diseases such as HIV and tuberculosis. Our objective was to investigate suPAR levels during symptomatic malaria infection and 7...... days after treatment. Children younger than 6 years who presented with fever or other symptoms compatible with malaria were enrolled. Blood films and samples were collected on day 0 and day 7. Twenty-five children were allocated to each of three groups according to the amount of Plasmodium falciparum...... detected in their initial blood film. Children in group 1 had parasite densities in excess of 20 parasites per 200 leucocytes. The median plasma suPAR level was 6.49 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR]: 4.90-7.61) and correlated to parasitemia (Spearman 0.43, P

  2. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor as a prognostic marker of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a black population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botha, Shani; Fourie, Carla M T; Schutte, Rudolph

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are well-known risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. The less familiar marker, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), is known to predict cancer, infections and all......-cause mortality. We determined whether suPAR, CRP and IL-6 are predictive of both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a black population, highly burdened by cardiovascular disease and HIV infection. METHODS: We included 1425 black South Africans, of which 208 died within five years after baseline data...... collection. EDTA plasma biomarker levels were determined, while all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were used as endpoints. RESULTS: At baseline suPAR, CRP and IL-6 were higher in non-survivors than in survivors (PCRP (HR 1...

  3. Soluble tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor levels in serum as markers of anti-viral host reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, C; Nansen, A; Marker, O

    1999-01-01

    The role of soluble receptors for TNF-alpha (sTNF-Rs) as markers of virus-induced host responses was studied by the use of murine model infections. A marked elevation in serum levels of sTNF-R75, but not sTNF-R55, was found 1 day after infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). In mice......TNF-R75 into serum early after VSV infection was independent of T cells, whereas interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta seemed to be a major mediator. In contrast, increased release of sTNF-R75 into serum 8 days post-LCMV infection was mediated via T cells but independently of both CD40 ligand and IFN...

  4. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels are elevated and associated with complications in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, S; Lyngbaek, S; Hansen, T W

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a marker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the associations between suPAR and diabetes, including diabetes duration and complications, in patients with type 1 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS...... diabetes and is associated with diabetes duration and complications independent of other risk factors. suPAR is a potential novel risk marker for the management of diabetes.......: From 2009 to 2011, 667 patients with type 1 diabetes and 51 nondiabetic control subjects were included in a cross-sectional study at Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark. suPAR levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The investigated diabetic...

  5. A decoy-free approach to the identification of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnelli, Giulia; Stock, Michiel; Verwaeren, Jan; Maddelein, Davy; De Baets, Bernard; Martens, Lennart; Degroeve, Sven

    2015-04-03

    A growing number of proteogenomics and metaproteomics studies indicate potential limitations of the application of the "decoy" database paradigm used to separate correct peptide identifications from incorrect ones in traditional shotgun proteomics. We therefore propose a binary classifier called Nokoi that allows fast yet reliable decoy-free separation of correct from incorrect peptide-to-spectrum matches (PSMs). Nokoi was trained on a very large collection of heterogeneous data using ranks supplied by the Mascot search engine to label correct and incorrect PSMs. We show that Nokoi outperforms Mascot and achieves a performance very close to that of Percolator at substantially higher processing speeds.

  6. Plasmatic Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products as a New Oxidative Stress Biomarker in Patients with Prosthetic-Joint-Associated Infections?

    OpenAIRE

    Massaccesi, Luca; Bonomelli, Barbara; Marazzi, Monica Gioia; Drago, Lorenzo; Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco Corsi; Erba, Daniela; Papini, Nadia; Barassi, Alessandra; Goi, Giancarlo; Galliera, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is the most common cause of failure of total joint arthroplasty, but a gold standard for PJI diagnosis is still lacking. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are proinflammatory molecules inducing intracellular oxidative stress (OS) after binding to their cell membrane receptors (RAGE). The aim of this study was to evaluate plasmatic soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), as a new OS and infection marker correlating sRAGE to the level ...

  7. Decreased serum level of soluble-leptin-receptor in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, K; Ebadi, P; Naeimi, S

    2012-09-01

    There is some evidence suggesting that leptin and its negative regulator, soluble-leptinreceptor (SLR) may be able to influence inflammatory and autoimmune processes. In this study, several variables including socio-demographics, health-related habits, depression score, serum molecules and blood parameters besides the SLR level were evaluated in patients with SLE (SLE-patients) and healthy controls. The patients had significantly lower SLR level and higher depression score than the controls and both of these variables have a significant association with the occurrence of disease in logistic regression model. Moreover, the results of Pearson correlation analysis showed that patients' SLR level was negatively correlated with their weights and BDI scores. For the first time, this study indicated a lower level of SLR in SLE-patients and suggested that lower concentrations of SLR in these patients may be implicated in the pathogenesis of SLE.

  8. Soluble interleukin-13rα1: a circulating regulator of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmin, Inbal; O'Meara, Caitlin C; Ricci-Blair, Elisabeth M; Feng, Yilin; Christensen, Emily M; Duffy, Jeanne F; Zitting, Kirsi M; Czeisler, Charles A; Pancoast, James R; Cannon, Christopher P; O'Donoghue, Michelle L; Morrow, David A; Lee, Richard T

    2017-12-01

    Soluble IL-13 receptor-α1, or sIL13rα1, is a soluble protein that binds to interleukin-13 (IL-13) that has been previously described in mice. The function of sIL13rα1 remains unclear, but it has been hypothesized to act as a decoy receptor for IL-13. Recent studies have identified a role for IL-13 in glucose metabolism, suggesting that a decoy receptor for IL-13 might increase circulating glucose levels. Here, we report that delivery of sIL13rα1 to mice by either gene transfer or recombinant protein decreases blood glucose levels. Surprisingly, the glucose-lowering effect of sIL13rα1 was preserved in mice lacking IL-13, demonstrating that IL-13 was not required for the effect. In contrast, deletion of IL-4 in mice eliminated the hypoglycemic effect of sIL13rα1. In humans, endogenous blood levels of IL13rα1 varied substantially, although there were no differences between diabetic and nondiabetic patients. There was no circadian variation of sIL13rα1 in normal human volunteers. Delivery of sIL13rα1 fused to a fragment crystallizable (Fc) domain provided sustained glucose lowering in mice on a high-fat diet, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy. These data reveal sIL13rα1 as a circulating human protein with an unexpected role in glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Improved efficacy of soluble human receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) fusion protein by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Young Jun; Han, Jihye; Lee, Jae Yeon; Kim, HaHyung; Chun, Taehoon

    2015-06-01

    Soluble human receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B fusion immunoglobulin (hRANK-Ig) has been considered as one of the therapeutic agents to treat osteoporosis or diseases associated with bone destruction by blocking the interaction between RANK and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). However, no scientific record showing critical amino acid residues within the structural interface between the human RANKL and RANK complex is yet available. In this study, we produced several mutants of hRANK-Ig by replacement of amino acid residue(s) and tested whether the mutants had increased binding affinity to human RANKL. Based on the results from flow cytometry and surface plasmon resonance analyses, the replacement of E(125) with D(125), or E(125) and C(127) with D(125) and F(127) within loop 3 of cysteine-rich domain 3 of hRANK-Ig increases binding affinity to human RANKL over the wild-type hRANK-Ig. This result may provide the first example of improvement in the efficacy of hRANK-Ig by protein engineering and may give additional information to understand a more defined structural interface between hRANK and RANKL.

  10. Serum soluble receptor of advanced glycation end products and risk of metabolic syndrome in Egyptian obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Moushira; Kamal, Sanaa; Kholousi, Shams; El-Bassyouni, Hala T; Yousef, Walaa; Reyad, Hanaa; Mohamed, Ramy; Basha, Walaa A

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is one of the diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome (MS). It is correlated with insulin resistance (IR) and high vascular risk as well. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) play an important role in abnormal metabolic components in obese women. This study aimed to explore the serum levels of sRAGE in Egyptian obese women and compare with healthy non-obese controls and investigate the relationship between serum sRAGE, metabolic parameters, and obesity complications. The soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), anthropometry, metabolic and biochemical biomarkers were measured in 100 obese women and 100 age-matched healthy control non-obese women. The homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) has been determined from serum insulin and glucose values. Serum sRAGE levels were significantly lower in obese cases than controls and inversely correlated with obesity and metabolic parameters. Results of univariate and multivariate analyses for determinants of serum sRAGE levels in obese cases showed that parameters statistically and significantly related were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), LDL-C, TG, BP, HOMA-IR, ALT and AST. sRAGE is a novel biomarker for metabolic dysfunction in Egyptian obese women and might predict the future cardio-metabolic events.

  11. Intact and cleaved plasma soluble urokinase receptor in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with oxaliplatin with or without cetuximab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarpgaard, Line S; Christensen, Ib J; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2015-01-01

    Circulating forms of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) are associated with prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. Preclinical studies have shown that uPAR can influence the state of phosphorylation and signalling activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in ...... with FLOX + cetuximab as compared to patients with KRAS wild-type and high levels of suPAR. These results thus support the preclinical findings and should be further tested in an independent clinical data set.......) in a ligand-independent manner. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether plasma soluble intact and cleaved uPAR(I-III)+(II-III) levels could identify a subpopulation of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) where treatment with cetuximab would have a beneficial effect. Plasma samples were...... available from 453 patients treated in the NORDIC VII study. Patients were randomized between FLOX and FLOX + cetuximab. The levels of uPAR(I-III)+(II-III) were determined by time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay. We demonstrated that higher baseline plasma uPAR(I-III)+(II-III) levels were significantly...

  12. Analysis of Circulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Its Soluble Receptors in Patients with Different Forms of Chronic Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Jagodzinska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a powerful enhancer of vascular permeability and inflammatory response; however its significance in chronic urticaria is poorly recognised. Aim. To compare free circulating levels of VEGF and its soluble receptors (sVEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in patients with different forms of chronic urticaria. Methods. The concentrations of VEGF and its receptors in plateletpoor plasma (PPP/plasma were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in chronic urticaria: (1 chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU with positive autologous serum skin test (ASST, (2 CSU with negative response to ASST, (3 CSU with concomitant euthyroid Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (CSU/Hashimoto, (4 delayed pressure urticaria (DPU, and the healthy subjects. Results. There were no significant differences in VEGF concentration in PPP between CSU groups and the healthy subjects. Contrary, VEGF concentration was significantly higher in DPU and CSU/Hashimoto patients as compared with the healthy subjects and CSU groups. Furthermore, VEGF value in CSU/Hashimoto patients during the remission was similar to that of the active period and significantly higher than the healthy subjects; VEGF concentration was significantly correlated with TSH. Plasma concentrations of sVEGF1 and sVEGF2 were similar in chronic urticaria patients and the healthy subjects. Conclusions. Increased free circulating VEGF concentration may result from the urticarial process itself as well as concomitant Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.

  13. A lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived soluble protein, p40, stimulates ligand release from intestinal epithelial cells to transactivate epidermal growth factor receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived soluble protein, ameliorates intestinal injury and colitis, reduces apoptosis and preserves barrier function by activation of EGF receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which p40...

  14. High levels of soluble VEGF receptor 1 early after trauma are associated with shock, sympathoadrenal activation, glycocalyx degradation and inflammation in severely injured patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Sørensen, Anne Marie; Windeløv, Nis Agerlin

    2012-01-01

    The level of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sVEGFR1) is increased in sepsis and strongly associated with disease severity and mortality. Endothelial activation and damage contribute to both sepsis and trauma pathology. Therefore, this study measured sVEGFR1 levels in trauma...

  15. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is in contrast to high-sensitive C-reactive-protein associated with coronary artery calcifications in healthy middle-aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Hjortdal; Gerke, Oke; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the association between two markers of low-grade inflammation; soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP); and coronary artery calcification (CAC) score detected by cardiac ...

  16. Influence of corticosteroid pulse therapy on the serum levels of soluble interleukin 2 receptor, interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, H. R.; van Wijk, M. J.; Geertzen, R. G.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the influence of corticosteroid pulse (CP) therapy on soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty-five patients with active RA were studied before and after treatment with intravenous CP

  17. Early evolution of plasma soluble TNF-alpha p75 receptor as a marker of progression in treated HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlat, P; Pereira, E; Clayette, P; Derreudre-Bosquet, N; Ecobichon, J-L; Benveniste, O; Saves, M; Leport, C

    2008-11-01

    Abstract We evaluated the prognostic value of different mediators of inflammation: TNF-alpha and its soluble receptor p75, platelet-activating factor, and glutathione tripeptide in a case-control study nested within a cohort of 1281 patients infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) started on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). During the first year of HAART, 16 cases experienced an AIDS-defining event and 6 experienced an evolution of T CD4(+) cell count <100/mm(3). Forty-four controls who did not progress during the same follow-up period were matched for age, baseline CD4(+), and HIV-RNA. In the control group, plasma levels of TNF-alpha and its soluble receptor p75 decreased significantly from baseline to month 4: from 11.0 to 8.7 pg/ml (p < 0.001) and from 27.3 to 22.8 pg/ml (p < 0.003), respectively. Furthermore the decrease of TNF-alpha soluble receptor p75 was larger in nonprogressors than in progressors (p = 0.003). Measurement of TNF-alpha soluble receptor p75 may be of interest as an additional marker of early antiretroviral effect.

  18. Increased levels of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor-I (P55) and decreased IgG1 reactivities in HIV-1 patients with cytomegalovirus disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Palle Høy; Dodt, K K; Meyer, C N

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate potential associations between tumour necrosis factor (TNF), soluble TNF receptors (sTNF-Rs), immunoglobulin (Ig)G subclasses and development of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease amongst human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 patients. We enrolled HIV-1...

  19. Biological variation and reference intervals for circulating osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette Pia; Jacobsen, S; Jensen, T

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Monitoring inflammatory diseases and osteoclastogenesis with osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (total sRANKL) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) has recently attracted increased interest. The purpose...

  20. Prognostic value of plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in Danish patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (REOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begum, Farah Diba; Høgdall, Estrid V S; Riisbo, Rikke

    2006-01-01

    The level of the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is elevated in tumour tissue from several types of cancer. This is the first study aiming to predict the prognosis for survival by the use of a pre-chemotherapeutic plasma suPAR value in 71 patients with recurrent epithelial...

  1. Usefulness of Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor to Predict Repeat Myocardial Infarction and Mortality in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Marott, Jacob L; Møller, Daniél V

    2012-01-01

    The plasma level of the inflammatory biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in healthy subjects. The prognostic capability of suPAR, its temporal course, and its relation to plasma C-reactive...

  2. Soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor release after anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody treatment in mice is independent of tumour necrosis factor-alpha release.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, A.C.T.M.; Tibbe, G.J.M.; Buurman, W.A.; Benner, R.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    1996-01-01

    Soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor release after anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody treatment in mice is independent of tumour necrosis factor-alpha release. Vossen AC, Tibbe GJ, Buurman WA, Benner R, Savelkoul HF. Department of Immunology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The

  3. Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor Level Is an Independent Predictor of the Presence and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease and of Future Adverse Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eapen, Danny J; Manocha, Pankaj; Ghasemzedah, Nima

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an emerging inflammatory and immune biomarker. Whether suPAR level predicts the presence and the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), and of incident death and myocardial infarction (MI) in subjects with suspected CAD...

  4. Soluble forms of tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNF-Rs). The cDNA for the type I TNF-R, cloned using amino acid sequence data of its soluble form, encodes both the cell surface and a soluble form of the receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nophar, Y; Kemper, O; Brakebusch, C

    1990-01-01

    found to have effects characteristic of TNF, including stimulating phosphorylation of specific cellular proteins. Oligonucleotide probes designed on the basis of the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of TBPI were used to clone the cDNA for the structurally related cell surface type 1 TNF-R. It is notable...... of structure, did not suggest any identity between this protein and the extracellular domain of the type I TNF-R. CHO cells transfected with type I TNF-R cDNA produced both cell surface and soluble forms of the receptor. The receptor produced by CHO cells was recognized by several monoclonal antibodies against...... in the extracellular domains of the nerve growth factor receptor and the B lymphocytes surface antigen CDw40. The amino acid composition and size of the extracellular domain of the type I TNF-R closely resemble those of TBPI. The COOH-terminal amino acid sequence of the four cysteine rich repeats within...

  5. Architecture of the soluble receptor Aer2 indicates an in-line mechanism for PAS and HAMP domain signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airola, Michael V; Huh, Doowon; Sukomon, Nattakan; Widom, Joanne; Sircar, Ria; Borbat, Peter P; Freed, Jack H; Watts, Kylie J; Crane, Brian R

    2013-03-11

    Bacterial receptors typically contain modular architectures with distinct functional domains that combine to send signals in response to stimuli. Although the properties of individual components have been investigated in many contexts, there is little information about how diverse sets of modules work together in full-length receptors. Here, we investigate the architecture of Aer2, a soluble gas-sensing receptor that has emerged as a model for PAS (Per-Arnt-Sim) and poly-HAMP (histidine kinase-adenylyl cyclase-methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein-phosphatase) domain signaling. The crystal structure of the heme-binding PAS domain in the ferric, ligand-free form, in comparison to the previously determined cyanide-bound state, identifies conformational changes induced by ligand binding that are likely essential for the signaling mechanism. Heme-pocket alternations share some similarities with the heme-based PAS sensors FixL and EcDOS but propagate to the Iβ strand in a manner predicted to alter PAS-PAS associations and the downstream HAMP junction within full-length Aer2. Small-angle X-ray scattering of PAS and poly-HAMP domain fragments of increasing complexity allow unambiguous domain assignments and reveal a linear quaternary structure. The Aer2 PAS dimeric crystal structure fits well within ab initio small-angle X-ray scattering molecular envelopes, and pulsed dipolar ESR measurements of inter-PAS distances confirm the crystallographic PAS arrangement within Aer2. Spectroscopic and pull-down assays fail to detect direct interactions between the PAS and HAMP domains. Overall, the Aer2 signaling mechanism differs from the Escherichia coli Aer paradigm, where side-on PAS-HAMP contacts are key. We propose an in-line model for Aer2 signaling, where ligand binding induces alterations in PAS domain structure and subunit association that is relayed through the poly-HAMP junction to downstream domains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Utilidad en el post parto de la determinación de protoporfirina eritrocitaria y su relación con el receptor soluble de transferrina Usefulness of erythrocyte protoporphyrin test in the puerperium compared to the soluble transferrin receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia H. Langini

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió, en 77 puérperas, la relación entre la protoporfirina eritrocitaria (PE, la ferritina sérica (FS, el receptor soluble de transferrina (RsT y los indicadores hematológicos utilizados en la rutina clínica. En sangre venosa se determinó: Hematocrito (Hto, Hemoglobina (Hb, recuento de glóbulos rojos (GR y glóbulos blancos (GB (contador electrónico MEGA; PE (Piomelli; en suero: RsT (ELISA, Orion Diagnostica, FS (ELISA, IMx Ferritina, Abbott y Proteína C-Reactiva (PCR- Látex, Wiener lab. Se analizaron sensibilidad (S, especificidad (E y puntos de corte mediante el modelo ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics, considerando como gold standard el RsT. Los resultados (media ± DE fueron: Hto (% 35 ± 5; Hb (g/l 113 ± 18; GRx10³/mm³ 3 893 ± 489; VCM (fL 90 ± 6; GB/mm³ 9 543 ± 2.669; PE (µg/dl GR 46 ± 39; RsT (mg/l 4.7 ± 2.8; FS (µg/l 26 ± 31; PCR (Pos/Neg 72/5. La PE no correlacionó con FS, pero sí con el RsT (r=0.323, p=0.007. La S y E de la FS fueron de 83% y 63%, respectivamente, para un punto de corte de 25 µg/l; para la PE la S fue de 38% y la E de 90% para un punto de corte de 53 µg/dl GR. Estos resultados sugieren que ese punto de corte en el puerperio, permitiría detectar con un bajo costo un mayor porcentaje de mujeres (16% en nuestro estudio que presentan deficiencia de Fe pese a sus valores normales de hemoglobina.Erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP, serum ferritin (SF, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR and routine hematological laboratory tests were studied in 77 women 24 h post-partum, assisted at Paroissien Hospital (in Buenos Aires Province. Hematocrite (Hct, hemoglobin (Hb, red blood cells (RBC and white blood cells (WBC were determined using an electronic counter (Mega; EP by Piomelli’s; SF by ELISA (IMx Ferritina, Abbott; sTfR by ELISA (Orion Diagnostica and C-Reactive Protein (PCR-Latex, Wiener lab. All determinations were made in fasting blood samples. Statistical analysis (Receiver Operating

  7. Lipid-modified G4-decoy oligonucleotide anchored to nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cogoi, S; Jakobsen, U; Pedersen, E B

    2016-01-01

    factor essential for KRAS transcription. It is based on the use of palmitoyl-oleyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) liposomes functionalized with lipid-modified G4-decoy oligonucleotides and a lipid-modified cell penetrating TAT peptide. The potency of the strategy in pancreatic cancer cells is demonstrated...

  8. Passive Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with Coherent Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Curty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Signal state preparation in quantum key distribution schemes can be realized using either an active or a passive source. Passive sources might be valuable in some scenarios; for instance, in those experimental setups operating at high transmission rates, since no externally driven element is required. Typical passive transmitters involve parametric down-conversion. More recently, it has been shown that phase-randomized coherent pulses also allow passive generation of decoy states and Bennett–Brassard 1984 (BB84 polarization signals, though the combination of both setups in a single passive source is cumbersome. In this paper, we present a complete passive transmitter that prepares decoy-state BB84 signals using coherent light. Our method employs sum-frequency generation together with linear optical components and classical photodetectors. In the asymptotic limit of an infinite long experiment, the resulting secret key rate (per pulse is comparable to the one delivered by an active decoy-state BB84 setup with an infinite number of decoy settings.

  9. Extraction of hydrophobic species into a water-soluble synthetic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooley, Richard J; Van Anda, Hillary J; Rebek, Julius

    2007-11-07

    A deep, water-soluble cavitand extracts a variety of neutral hydrophobic species into its cavity. Flexible species such as n-alkanes tumble rapidly on the NMR time scale inside the cavity, but this motion is slowed for bulkier guests. Long, rigid guests such as p-substituted aromatics are either static or only tumble at elevated temperatures via flexing motions of the cavitand. Strong selectivity in recognition of long rigid guests is seen. The binding of neutral guests occurs via the classical hydrophobic effect; the process is entropically favored, as shown by isothermal titration calorimetry measurements. Binding affinities are generally on the order of 10(4)-10(5) M(-1). The extent of the hydrophobic stabilization is shown by the binding of long trimethylammonium salts, which bind the alkyl chain in the cavity, rather than the NMe3+ group. Dynamic NMR studies show that self-exchange of neutral guests is independent of guest concentration, and most likely occurs via rate-determining unfolding of the cavitand. In the absence of guests, the cavitand exists in a dimeric velcrand structure.

  10. A strategy for bacterial production of a soluble functional human neonatal Fc receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Terje; Justesen, Sune; Berntzen, Gøril

    2008-01-01

    level. Truncated wild type hFcRn heavy chains were expressed, extracted, purified from inclusion bodies under denaturing non-reducing conditions, and subsequently refolded in the presence of human beta(2)-microglobulin (hbeta(2)m). The secondary structural elements of refolded heterodimeric shFcRn were...... (human) or newborn (rodents), and may translocate IgG over mucosal surfaces. FcRn interacts with the Fc-region of IgG and domain III of albumin with binding at pH 6.0 and release at pH 7.4. Knowledge of these interactions has facilitated design of recombinant proteins with altered serum half-lives and....../or altered biodistribution. To generate further research in this field, there is a great need for large amounts of soluble human FcRn (shFcRn) for in vitro interaction studies. In this report, we describe a novel laboratory scale production of functional shFcRn in Escherichia coli (E. coli) at milligram...

  11. Biosynthesis of the precursor of a soluble human insulin receptor ectodomain in insect Sf9 cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissom, J F; Ellis, L

    1991-06-14

    In contrast to transfected mammalian cells, insect Sf9 cells infected with a recombinant Baculovirus inefficiently process and secrete a soluble derivative of the extracellular domain of the human insulin receptor. The high-mannose form of the receptor precursor that accumulates intracellularly is not grossly aberrant or malfolded, as its interaction with a diverse panel of monoclonal antibodies are comparable to secreted precursor and proteolytically processed receptor, both of which bear partially trimmed oligosaccharide chains. Thus the inefficient step in the biosynthesis of this protein in Sf9 cells is either at, or just preceding, the trimming of its high-mannose oligosaccharide chains.

  12. Soluble CD80 Protein Delays Tumor Growth and Promotes Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Lucas A; Long, Tiha M; Atkinson, Ryan; Clements, Virginia; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Tumor cells use various immune-suppressive strategies to overcome antitumor immunity. One such method is tumor expression of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), which triggers apoptotic death or anergy upon binding programmed death-1 (PD-1) on T cells. Our previous in vitro cellular studies with human and mouse PD-L1+ tumor cells demonstrated that a soluble form of the costimulatory molecule CD80 prevented PD-L1-mediated immune suppression and restored T-cell activation by binding PD-L1 and blocking interaction with PD-1. We now report that in vivo treatment of established syngeneic PD-L1+ CT26 colon carcinoma and B16F10 melanoma tumors with CD80-Fc delays tumor growth and promotes tumor-infiltrating T cells. Studies with PD-1-/- and CD28-/- mice demonstrate that soluble CD80 acts in vivo by simultaneously neutralizing PD-1 suppression and activating through CD28. We also report that soluble CD80 mediates its effects by activating transcription factors EGR1-4, NF-κB, and MAPK, downstream signaling components of the CD28 and T-cell receptor pathways. Soluble CD80 binds to CTLA-4 on activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, increasing quantities of CTLA-4 antagonist antibodies do not increase T-cell activation. These results indicate that soluble CD80 does not suppress T-cell function through CTLA-4 and suggest that CTLA-4 acts as a decoy receptor for CD80, rather than functioning as a suppressive signaling receptor. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that soluble CD80 has therapeutic efficacy in vivo in mouse tumor systems and that its effects are due to its ability to inhibit PD-1-mediated suppression while concurrently activating T cells through CD28. Cancer Immunol Res; 6(1); 59-68. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and the lung.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Stephen T

    2010-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules. As a pattern-recognition receptor capable of binding a diverse range of ligands, it is typically expressed at low levels under normal physiological conditions in the majority of tissues. In contrast, the lung exhibits high basal level expression of RAGE localised primarily in alveolar type I (ATI) cells, suggesting a potentially important role for the receptor in maintaining lung homeostasis. Indeed, disruption of RAGE levels has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of pulmonary disorders including cancer and fibrosis. Furthermore, its soluble isoforms, sRAGE, which act as decoy receptors, have been shown to be a useful marker of ATI cell injury. Whilst RAGE undoubtedly plays an important role in the biology of the lung, it remains unclear as to the exact nature of this contribution under both physiological and pathological conditions.

  14. Clinical relevance and cellular source of elevated soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alexander; Zimmermann, Henning W; Gassler, Nikolaus; Jochum, Christoph; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Bruensing, Jan; Buendgens, Lukas; Dückers, Hanna; Bruns, Tony; Gerken, Guido; Neumann, Ulf P; Adams, David H; Trautwein, Christian; Canbay, Ali; Tacke, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening condition with a high mortality rate. The expression of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR, CD87) and release of its shedded receptor into serum as soluble uPAR (suPAR) have been closely related to immune activation and prognosis in systemic inflammation and cirrhosis. We now aimed at investigating the clinical relevance and cellular source of uPAR and circulating suPAR in ALF. Serum suPAR concentrations were measured in 48 ALF patients and 62 healthy controls from a German liver transplantation centre. Hepatic immune cell subsets and uPAR expression were studied by FACS, qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Circulating suPAR levels were significantly increased in ALF patients, independent from the underlying aetiology, in comparison to controls. Serum suPAR concentrations were closely correlated with parameters reflecting liver cell injury, decreased liver function and the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score in ALF patients. By immunohistochemistry from explanted livers, ALF was associated with distinct immune cell accumulation and strong up-regulation of intrahepatic uPAR mRNA expression. CD87 (uPAR) expression was specifically detected on intrahepatic 'non-classical' monocytes (CD14(+) CD16(+) ), NKT and CD56(dim) NK cells isolated from human liver, but not on parenchymal or other non-parenchymal hepatic cell types. Membrane-bound uPAR was rapidly cleaved from monocytes upon inflammatory stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and partially by co-cultured lymphocytes. Similar to its prognostic properties in patients with sepsis or cirrhosis, intrahepatic uPAR activation and serum suPAR concentrations might serve as an interesting biomarker in ALF. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Release of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1 during coronary artery bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsel Isabelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to follow plasma concentrations of sFlt-1 and sKDR, two soluble forms of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF receptor in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery with extracorporeal circulation (ECC. Methods Plasma samples were obtained before, during and after surgery in 15 patients scheduled to undergo CABG. Levels of sFlt-1 and KDR levels were investigated using specific ELISA. Results A 75-fold increase of sFlt-1 was found during cardiac surgery, sFlt-1 levels returning to pre-operative values at the 6th post-operative hour. In contrast sKDR levels did not change during surgery. The ECC-derived sFlt-1 was functional as judge by its inhibitory effect on the VEGF mitogenic response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Kinetic experiments revealed sFlt-1 release immediately after the beginning of ECC suggesting a proteolysis of its membrane form (mFlt-1 rather than an elevated transcription/translation process. Flow cytometry analysis highlighted no effect of ECC on the shedding of mFlt-1 on platelets and leukocytes suggesting vascular endothelial cell as a putative cell source for the ECC-derived sFlt-1. Conclusion sFlt-1 is released during CABG with ECC. It might be suggested that sFlt-1 production, by neutralizing VEGF and/or by inactivating membrane-bound Flt-1 and KDR receptors, might play a role in the occurrence of post-CABG complication.

  16. A soluble form of the glycolipid-anchored receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator is secreted from peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, M; Eriksen, J; Plesner, T

    1992-01-01

    The cellular urokinase-type plasminogen-activator (uPA) receptor (uPAR) is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein thought to be involved in pericellular proteolysis during cell migration and tumor invasion. In the present study, we have identified and characterized two soluble forms of uPAR which...... by the stem-cell disorder paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), and was found in the plasma from these PNH patients as well as in the conditioned medium from cultured PNH leukocytes. Under normal conditions, we find no evidence for any shedding or secretion of a soluble uPA-binding counterpart to human u...

  17. Decreased plasma levels of factor II + VII + X correlate with increased levels of soluble cytokine receptors in patients with malaria and meningococcal infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Hansen, M B; Rønn, A M

    1997-01-01

    thrombocytes were lowest in the Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients. There was no correlation between factors II + VII + X and thrombocytes, but plasma levels of coagulation factors II + VII + X were found to correlate inversely with levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and soluble tumour...... necrosis factor-I (sTNF-RI) in patients with malaria and meningococcal infections. Elevated sIL-2R and sTNF-RI levels and decreased coagulation factors reverted to normal within 3-5 days after initiation of therapy in P. falciparum patients followed consecutively. Estimation of coagulation factors may...

  18. Ibuprofen does not affect levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor types I and II in Gabonese children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsiegui, Pierre-Blaise; Missinou, Michel A; Issifou, Saadou; Necek, Magdalena; Mavoungou, Elie

    2007-12-01

    We assessed the ability of ibuprofen to modulate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type I (sTNFR-I), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type II (sTNFR-II) responses during the treatment of fever in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study of 50 pediatric patients in Lambaréné, Gabon. Treatment of the malaria involved the patients receiving intravenous quinine (12 mg/kg of quinine dihydrochloride every 12 h for 72 h) followed by a single dose of oral sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (25 mg and 1.25 mg/kg). Fever was treated by mechanical treatment plus either ibuprofen (7 mg/kg every 8 h) or placebo during the hospitalization period. We determined serum concentrations of TNF-alpha, sTNFR-I, and sTNFR-II in peripheral blood throughout the treatment period in the two groups: ibuprofen and placebo groups. TNF-alpha levels were found to be positively correlated with body temperature. In contrast, TNF receptors levels did not differ between the two groups and the antipyretic effect of ibuprofen was not correlated with specific changes in sTNFR-I and sTNFR-II production. Our data suggest that TNF-alpha is involved in malarial fever, but soluble TNF receptors play no major role in fever modulation.

  19. Serum Hepcidin and Soluble Transferrin Receptor in the Assessment of Iron Metabolism in Children on a Vegetarian Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Mazur, Joanna; Gajewska, Joanna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Chełchowska, Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vegetarian diet on iron metabolism parameters paying special attention to serum hepcidin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations in 43 prepubertal children (age range 4.5-9.0 years) on vegetarian and in 46 children on omnivorous diets. There were no significant differences according to age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) between vegetarian and omnivorous children. Vegetarians had similar intake of iron and vitamin B 12 and a significantly higher intake of vitamin C (p vegetarians. Hematologic parameters and serum iron concentrations were within the reference range in both groups of children. Serum transferrin levels were similar in all subjects; however, ferritin concentrations were significantly (p vegetarians than in omnivores. In children on a vegetarian diet, median hepcidin levels were lower (p vegetarians. We did not find significant associations with concentration of sTfR and selected biochemical, anthropometric, and dietary parameters in any of the studied groups of children. As hematologic parameters and iron concentrations in vegetarians and omnivores were comparable and ferritin level was lower in vegetarians, we suggest that inclusion of novel markers, in particular sTfR (not cofounded by inflammation) and hepcidin, can better detect subclinical iron deficiency in children following vegetarian diets.

  20. Soluble CD163 and mannose receptor associate with chronic hepatitis B activity and fibrosis and decline with treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Tea Lund; Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Kazankov, Konstantin

    2018-01-01

    MR), are released during liver damage and their serum levels reflect liver disease severity and portal hypertension. We aimed to investigate associations between sCD163 and sMR and histopathological activity and fibrosis, and changes in sCD163, sMR and hepatic CD163-expression following anti-viral treatment in CHB......BACKGROUND AND AIM: Liver macrophages are activated in chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infection and play a pivotal role in hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. However, their role during anti-viral treatment is unclear. The soluble (s) macrophage activation markers, sCD163 and mannose receptor (s...... with fibrosis (sCD163: OR 1.16, 95%CI:1.03-1.31; sMR: OR 1.34, 95%CI:1.13-1.59); both were markers of fibrosis independent of other biochemical parameters and risk factors. Anti-viral treatment significantly reduced sCD163 (3.76 (1.46) vs. 2.31 (0.95), p

  1. Increased Soluble Leptin Receptor Levels in Morbidly Obese Patients With Insulin Resistance and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Valentina; Ali, Mohamed R.; Seo, Suk; Aoki, Christopher A.; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Kim, Kyoungmi; Fuller, Will D.; Vidovszky, Tamas J.; Smith, William; Jiang, Joy X.; Maganti, Kalyani; Havel, Peter J.; Kamboj, Amit; Ramsamooj, Rajendra; Török, Natalie J.

    2016-01-01

    The adipocyte hormone, leptin has been demonstrated to have profibrogenic actions in vitro and in animal models. However, no correlation was found between plasma leptin levels and fibrosis stage in humans. Thus, our aim was to study whether soluble leptin receptor (SLR) or free leptin index (FLI; calculated as the ratio of leptin to SLR), may correlate better with the features of metabolic syndrome and with the histological grade and stage of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We studied a population (n = 104) of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Data including BMI, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia were obtained. Plasma fasting leptin and SLR, fasting glucose and insulin were measured, and homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (HOMAIR) index and FLI were calculated. All patients had intraoperative liver biopsies. Leptin levels correlated with the BMI. The multiple regression analysis indicated that increasing HOMA and decreasing FLI were predictors of steatosis in the liver (P < 0.0003). SLR levels were positively correlated with the presence of diabetes mellitus and the stage of fibrosis. In conclusion, increased SLR levels in morbidly obese patients with diabetes are correlated with the stage of liver fibrosis, and may reflect progressive liver disease. PMID:20448542

  2. Risk assessment in sepsis: a new prognostication rule by APACHE II score and serum soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Mylona, Vassiliki; Savva, Athina; Tsangaris, Iraklis; Dimopoulou, Ioanna; Mouktaroudi, Maria; Raftogiannis, Maria; Georgitsi, Marianna; Linnér, Anna; Adamis, George; Antonopoulou, Anastasia; Apostolidou, Efterpi; Chrisofos, Michael; Katsenos, Chrisostomos; Koutelidakis, Ioannis; Kotzampassi, Katerina; Koratzanis, George; Koupetori, Marina; Kritselis, Ioannis; Lymberopoulou, Korina; Mandragos, Konstantinos; Marioli, Androniki; Sundén-Cullberg, Jonas; Mega, Anna; Prekates, Athanassios; Routsi, Christina; Gogos, Charalambos; Treutiger, Carl-Johan; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Dimopoulos, George

    2012-08-08

    Early risk assessment is the mainstay of management of patients with sepsis. APACHE II is the gold standard prognostic stratification system. A prediction rule that aimed to improve prognostication by APACHE II with the application of serum suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) is developed. A prospective study cohort enrolled 1914 patients with sepsis including 62.2% with sepsis and 37.8% with severe sepsis/septic shock. Serum suPAR was measured in samples drawn after diagnosis by an enzyme-immunoabsorbent assay; in 367 patients sequential measurements were performed. After ROC analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis a prediction rule for risk was developed. The rule was validated in a double-blind fashion by an independent confirmation cohort of 196 sepsis patients, predominantly severe sepsis/septic shock patients, from Sweden. Serum suPAR remained stable within survivors and non-survivors for 10 days. Regression analysis showed that APACHE II ≥ 17 and suPAR ≥ 12 ng/ml were independently associated with unfavorable outcome. Four strata of risk were identified: i) APACHE II APACHE II APACHE II ≥ 17 and suPAR APACHE II ≥ 17 and suPAR ≥ 12 ng/ml with mortality 51.7%. This prediction rule was confirmed by the Swedish cohort. A novel prediction rule with four levels of risk in sepsis based on APACHE II score and serum suPAR is proposed. Prognostication by this rule is confirmed by an independent cohort.

  3. Increased Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR Levels in Plasma of Suicide Attempters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Ventorp

    Full Text Available The soluble form of the urokinase receptor, suPAR, has been suggested as a novel biomarker of low-grade inflammation. Activation of the immune system has been proposed to contribute to the development of depression and suicidal behavior. In order to identify depressed and suicidal individuals who could benefit from an anti-inflammatory treatment, a reliable biomarker of low-grade inflammation is vital. This study evaluates plasma suPAR levels as a biomarker of low-grade inflammation in patients with major depressive disorder and in patients who recently attempted suicide. The plasma suPAR and an established biomarker, C reactive protein (CRP of suicide attempters (n = 54, depressed patients (n = 19 and healthy controls (n = 19 was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The biomarker attributes of sensitivity and sensibility were evaluated using ROC curve analysis. Both the depressed patients and suicide attempters had increased plasma suPAR. The levels of suPAR discriminated better between controls and suicide attempters than did CRP. In the future, plasma suPAR might be a superior prognosticator regarding outcome of treatment applying conventional antidepressants in conjunction with anti-inflammatory drugs.

  4. Effects of Acute Exercise on Circulating Soluble Form of the Urokinase Receptor in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gustafsson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has been proposed to play a role in the generation of depressive symptoms. Previously, we demonstrated that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD have increased plasma levels of the soluble form of the urokinase receptor (suPAR, a marker for low-grade inflammation. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute exercise would induce inflammatory response characterized by increased suPAR and elucidate whether patients with MDD display altered levels of suPAR in response to acute exercise. A total of 17 patients with MDD and 17 controls were subjected to an exercise challenge. Plasma suPAR (P-suPAR was analyzed before, during, and after exercise. There was a significantly higher baseline P-suPAR in the patients with MDD, and the dynamic changes of P-suPAR during the exercise were significantly lower in the patients with MDD, compared with the controls. This study supports the hypothesis that an activation of systemic inflammatory processes, measured as elevated P-suPAR, is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The study concludes that P-suPAR is influenced by acute exercise, most likely due to release from activated neutrophils.

  5. Effects of Acute Exercise on Circulating Soluble Form of the Urokinase Receptor in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Anna; Ventorp, Filip; Wisén, Anita Gm; Ohlsson, Lars; Ljunggren, Lennart; Westrin, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation has been proposed to play a role in the generation of depressive symptoms. Previously, we demonstrated that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have increased plasma levels of the soluble form of the urokinase receptor (suPAR), a marker for low-grade inflammation. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute exercise would induce inflammatory response characterized by increased suPAR and elucidate whether patients with MDD display altered levels of suPAR in response to acute exercise. A total of 17 patients with MDD and 17 controls were subjected to an exercise challenge. Plasma suPAR (P-suPAR) was analyzed before, during, and after exercise. There was a significantly higher baseline P-suPAR in the patients with MDD, and the dynamic changes of P-suPAR during the exercise were significantly lower in the patients with MDD, compared with the controls. This study supports the hypothesis that an activation of systemic inflammatory processes, measured as elevated P-suPAR, is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The study concludes that P-suPAR is influenced by acute exercise, most likely due to release from activated neutrophils.

  6. Administration of soluble activin receptor 2B increases bone and muscle mass in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGirolamo, Douglas J.; Singhal, Vandana; Chang, Xiaoli; Lee, Se-Jin; Germain-Lee, Emily L.

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of heritable connective tissue disorders generally defined by recurrent fractures, low bone mass, short stature and skeletal fragility. Beyond the skeletal complications of OI, many patients also report intolerance to physical activity, fatigue and muscle weakness. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated that skeletal muscle is also negatively affected by OI, both directly and indirectly. Given the well-established interdependence of bone and skeletal muscle in both physiology and pathophysiology and the observations of skeletal muscle pathology in patients with OI, we investigated the therapeutic potential of simultaneous anabolic targeting of both bone and skeletal muscle using a soluble activin receptor 2B (ACVR2B) in a mouse model of type III OI (oim). Treatment of 12-week-old oim mice with ACVR2B for 4 weeks resulted in significant increases in both bone and muscle that were similar to those observed in healthy, wild-type littermates. This proof of concept study provides encouraging evidence for a holistic approach to treating the deleterious consequences of OI in the musculoskeletal system. PMID:26161291

  7. Infliximab therapy balances regulatory T cells, tumour necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) expression and soluble TNFR2 in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwoerd, A; Hijdra, D; Vorselaars, A D M; Crommelin, H A; van Moorsel, C H M; Grutters, J C; Claessen, A M E

    2016-08-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology that most commonly affects the lungs. Although elevated levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs ) have been reported, the extent to which they play a role in sarcoidosis pathogenesis remains unclear. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is thought to be one of the driving forces behind granuloma formation, illustrated by the efficacy of infliximab in severe sarcoidosis. Tregs express TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2) highly. Here, we examined the influence of infliximab therapy on Tregs and (soluble) TNFR2 levels in sarcoidosis, and correlated these with response to therapy. We observed that relative frequencies of Tregs were significantly higher in patients (n = 54) compared to healthy controls (n = 26; median 6·73 versus 4·36%; P infliximab therapy, suggesting a pathophysiological role of this T cell subset. Interestingly, sTNFR2 levels at baseline differed significantly between responders and non-responders, making it a potential marker in predicting which patients might benefit from infliximab. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  8. Interleukin-6 and Soluble Interleukin-6 Receptor Levels in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Associations with Lifetime Diagnostic Status and Psychological Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Tamara L.; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Miller, James J.; Burns, Vicki Ellison

    2014-01-01

    This study correlated lifetime PTSD diagnostic status with interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) levels, and tested whether these correlations are sensitive to psychological context. Midlife women attended two research visits where blood was drawn (beginning of visits) and saliva and oral mucosal transudate were collected (beginning and end of visits) to measure IL-6 and sIL-6R. Women were classified as PTSD−/− (past and current symptoms below subsyndromal levels), PTSD+/− (past symptoms at or above subsyndromal levels), or PTSD +/+ (past and current symptoms at or above subsyndromal levels). PTSD+/+ women, compared to the other women, showed more negative emotion at the beginning of the visits, higher salivary IL-6 levels at the beginning versus end of visits, and positive correlations between negative emotion, salivary IL-6, and plasma sIL-6R. Their plasma sIL-6R levels exceeded those of the PTSD+/− women. Overall, IL-6 sensitivity to anticipation and to negative emotions, and higher sIL-6R levels, differentiated persistent versus remitted PTSD. PMID:24695006

  9. Angiopoietin-2 and soluble Tie-2 receptor plasma levels in children with obstructive sleep apnea and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozal, David; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Qiao, Zhuanghong; Smith, Dale L; Philby, Mona F; Koren, Dorit; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent condition, especially in children with obesity, and is associated with increased risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Angiopoietins have been identified as potential biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and MetS. In adults, angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and its soluble receptor (sTie-2) are associated with diabetes, hypertension, and obesity and could be increased in children with OSA and obesity, particularly those with evidence of cardiometabolic alterations. One hundred twenty-six children (7.4 ± 2.0 years) were consecutively recruited and underwent overnight polysomnography, as well as endothelial function and BMI z score assessments and a fasting blood draw the morning after the sleep study. In addition to lipid profile, glucose and insulin levels, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), Ang-2 and sTie-2 concentrations were determined. Children with obesity and OSA had significantly elevated plasma Ang-2 and sTie-2 levels compared to corresponding controls with and without obesity. Furthermore, endothelial function (Tmax) and HOMA-IR were linearly and independently associated with Ang-2 and sTie-2 levels. In a small subset of children (n = 14), treatment of OSA by adenotonsillectomy resulted in reductions of Ang-2 and sTie-2 (P obesity, particularly when endothelial dysfunction or insulin resistance is detectable, and appear to decrease upon OSA treatment. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  10. Increased serum levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (sTNFR2 in patients with active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Fontes Bessa

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the serum levels of the cytokine TNF-α and its soluble receptors (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 in patients with toxoplasmosis retinochoroidits (TR and controls. 37 patients with TR and 30 subjects with positive serology for toxoplasmosis but without history and signs of uveitis were included in this study. Serum concentrations of TNF-α, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 were determined by ELISA. Serum concentrations of TNF-α and sTNFR1 were similar in controls (mean ± SD median values; 56.57 ± 141.96 and 504.37 ± 163.87, respectively and TR patients (mean ± SD values, 121.62 ± 217.56 and 511.15 ± 189.30, respectively. Serum concentrations of sTNFR2 were higher in the uveitis group when compared to the control group (respectively, mean ± SD values, 1734.84 ± 379.32 and 1442.75 ± 309.47; p=0.002. There was no association between the serum levels of the molecules and the time of first symptoms, severity of vitreous haze, size or localization of active lesions, levels of visual acuity, and presence of vasculitis. These results suggest that TR is associated with changes in the circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers, but they are not correlated with local/ocular signs.

  11. Increased serum levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (sTNFR2 in patients with active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Fontes Bessa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the serum levels of the cytokine TNF-α and its soluble receptors (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 in patients with toxoplasmosis retinochoroidits (TR and controls. 37 patients with TR and 30 subjects with positive serology for toxoplasmosis but without history and signs of uveitis were included in this study. Serum concentrations of TNF-α, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 were determined by ELISA. Serum concentrations of TNF-α and sTNFR1 were similar in controls (mean ± SD median values; 56.57 ± 141.96 and 504.37 ± 163.87, respectively and TR patients (mean ± SD values, 121.62 ± 217.56 and 511.15 ± 189.30, respectively. Serum concentrations of sTNFR2 were higher in the uveitis group when compared to the control group (respectively, mean ± SD values, 1734.84 ± 379.32 and 1442.75 ± 309.47; p=0.002. There was no association between the serum levels of the molecules and the time of first symptoms, severity of vitreous haze, size or localization of active lesions, levels of visual acuity, and presence of vasculitis. These results suggest that TR is associated with changes in the circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers, but they are not correlated with local/ocular signs.

  12. Analysis of the interaction between human interleukin-5 and the soluble domain of its receptor using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, T A; Bennett, D B; Appelbaum, E R; Cusimano, D M; Johanson, K O; Matico, R E; Young, P R; Doyle, M; Chaiken, I M

    1994-03-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor was used to study the interaction of human interleukin-5 (hIL5) with its receptor. IL5 is a major growth factor in the production and activation of eosinophils. The receptor for IL5 is composed of two subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit provides the specificity for IL5 and consists of an extracellular soluble domain, a single transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic tail. We expressed the soluble domain of the human IL5 receptor alpha subunit (shIL5R alpha) and human IL5 (hIL5) in Drosophila. Both hIL5 and shIL5R alpha were immobilized separately through amine groups onto the carboxylated dextran layer of sensor chips of the BIAcore (Pharmacia) SPR biosensor after N-hydroxysuccinimide/carbodiimide activation of the chip surface. Interactions were measured for the complementary macromolecule, either shIL5R alpha or hIL5, in solution. Kinetics of binding of soluble analyte to immobilized ligand were measured and from this the association rate constant, dissociation rate constant and equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) were derived. With immobilized shIL5R alpha and soluble hIL5, the measured Kd was 2 nM. A similar value was obtained by titration calorimetry. The Kd for Drosophila expressed receptor and IL5 is higher than the values reported for proteins expressed in different systems, likely due to differences in the methods of interaction analysis used or differences in protein glycosylation. Receptor-IL5 binding was relatively pH independent between pH 6.5 and 9.5. Outside this range, the dissociation rate increased with comparatively little increase in association rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Plasma levels of leptin and soluble leptin receptor and polymorphisms of leptin gene -18G > A and leptin receptor genes K109R and Q223R, in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skoczen, Szymon; Tomasik, Przemyslaw J; Bik-Multanowski, Miroslaw; Surmiak, Marcin; Balwierz, Walentyna; Pietrzyk, Jacek J; Sztefko, Krystyna; Gozdzik, Jolanta; Galicka-Latała, Danuta; Strojny, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    ...) are at increased risk of overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess leptin and leptin soluble receptor levels, as well as polymorphisms of selected genes in survivors of pediatric ALL, and the influence of chemo- and radio...

  14. Silencing or knocking out eukaryotic gene expression by oligodeoxynucleotide decoys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutroneo, Kenneth R; Ehrlich, H

    2006-01-01

    The elucidation of molecular and signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells is often achieved by targeting regulatory element(s) found in the promoter or the enhancer region of eukaryotic gene(s) using a double-stranded (ds) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing a specific cis-element. Our laboratory is focusing on dsODN decoys containing the TGF-beta element as a novel nonsteroidal antifibrotic for achieving normal wound healing. In the model systems discussed, there is either a specific gene possessing a specific cis-element or a cluster of genes with one gene containing the consensus cis-element. The rest of the genes in the cluster contain the cis-elements homologous to this consensus element, which allows for dsODN decoy regulation of a gene cluster at one time.

  15. Soluble and cell-associated insulin receptor dysfunction correlates with severity of HAND in HIV-infected women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamil Gerena

    Full Text Available Blood sugar metabolism abnormalities have been identified in HIV-infected individuals and associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. These abnormalities may occur as a result of chronic HIV infection, long-term use of combined antiretroviral treatment (CART, aging, genetic predisposition, or a combination of these factors, and may increase morbidity and mortality in this population.To determine if changes in soluble and cell-associated insulin receptor (IR levels, IR substrate-1 (IRS-1 levels, and IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation are associated with the presence and severity of HAND in a cohort of HIV-seropositive women.This is a retrospective cross-sectional study using patient database information and stored samples from 34 HIV-seropositive women and 10 controls without history of diabetes from the Hispanic-Latino Longitudinal Cohort of Women. Soluble IR subunits [sIR, ectodomain (α and full-length or intact (αβ] were assayed in plasma and CSF samples by ELISA. Membrane IR levels, IRS-1 levels, and IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation were analyzed in CSF white cell pellets (WCP using flow cytometry. HIV-seropositive women had significantly increased levels of intact or full-length sIR in plasma (p<0.001 and CSF (p<0.005 relative to controls. Stratified by HAND, increased levels of full-length sIR in plasma were associated with the presence (p<0.001 and severity (p<0.005 of HAND. A significant decrease in IRS-1 tyrosine-phosphorylation in the WCP was also associated with the presence (p<0.02 and severity (p<0.02 of HAND.This study provides evidence that IR secretion is increased in HIV-seropositive women, and increased IR secretion is associated with cognitive impairment in these women. Thus, IR dysfunction may have a role in the progression of HAND and could represent a biomarker for the presence and severity of HAND.

  16. Role of Fc gamma receptors in the activation of neutrophils by soluble and insoluble immunoglobulin aggregates isolated from the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, J J; Watson, F.; Bucknall, R. C.; Edwards, S W

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis contains both soluble and insoluble immunoglobulin aggregates which activate reactive oxidant production in human neutrophils. The objectives were to determine the roles played by Fc gamma receptors in activation of neutrophils by these complexes. METHODS--Pronase treatment was used to remove Fc gamma RIII from the neutrophil surface and blocking monoclonal antibodies were used to prevent the binding of complexes to Fc gamma R...

  17. Modeling, Simulation, and Performance Analysis of Decoy State Enabled Quantum Key Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mailloux, Logan O.; Grimaila, Michael R.; Hodson, Douglas D.; Ryan Engle; Colin McLaughlin; Gerald Baumgartner

    2017-01-01

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) systems exploit the laws of quantum mechanics to generate secure keying material for cryptographic purposes. To date, several commercially viable decoy state enabled QKD systems have been successfully demonstrated and show promise for high-security applications such as banking, government, and military environments. In this work, a detailed performance analysis of decoy state enabled QKD systems is conducted through model and simulation of several common decoy s...

  18. First trimester serum levels of the soluble transcobalamin receptor, holo-transcobalamin, and total transcobalamin in relation to preeclampsia risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuyaman, Omar; Torring, Niels; Obeid, Rima; Nexo, Ebba

    2016-12-01

    Human placenta expresses CD320, a receptor that ensures the uptake of holo-transcobalamin (holoTC). Soluble CD320 (sCD320) is present in the circulation and its concentration increases during pregnancy. To investigate a possible association of sCD320, holoTC and total transcobalamin (TC) with the risk of subsequent preeclampsia using serum samples from asymptomatic first trimester pregnant women. Moreover, we aimed to establish reference intervals of the aforementioned biomarkers for first trimester pregnant women who remained healthy throughout pregnancy. This study was a retrospective case-control study that we performed on biobank serum samples. Cases (n = 50) and controls (n = 198) (matched for gestational age and date of sample collection) were asymptomatic women in early pregnancy [median (range) gestational age = 10 (8-12) weeks]. Cases developed preeclampsia while the controls remained normotensive throughout pregnancy. We measured the serum concentration of sCD320, holoTC, and total TC by using in-house ELISA methods. First trimester median concentrations of sCD320, holoTC and total TC were not significantly different between cases and controls. The odd ratio for developing preeclampsia based on exposure to low or high levels of sCD320, holoTC or total TC at first trimester was not significant. The reference intervals (2.5-97.5% percentiles (median)) derived from the controls were 50-170 (90) pmol\\L for sCD320, 20-140 (70) pmol\\L for holoTC and 560-1300 (810) pmol\\L for total TC. The risk of preeclampsia is not predicted by first trimester serum concentrations of sCD320, holoTC or total TC. The first trimester reference intervals for the three parameters is reported.

  19. Early and exudative age-related macular degeneration is associated with increased plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Carsten; Jehs, Tina; Juel, Helene Baek; Singh, Amardeep; Falk, Mads Krüger; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2015-05-01

    We have recently identified homeostatic alterations in the circulating T cells of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In cultures of retinal pigment epithelial cells, we have demonstrated that T-cell-derived cytokines induced the upregulation of complement, chemokines and other proteins implicated in AMD pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to test whether increased plasma levels of cytokines were present in patients with AMD. We conducted a case-control study. Age-related macular degeneration status was assessed using standardized multimodal imaging techniques. Plasma was isolated from freshly drawn peripheral venous blood samples and analysed for interleukin (IL)15, IL18, interferon (IFN)γ, soluble tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor II (sTNFRII) and complement factor H (CFH) Y402H genotype. We included 136 individuals with early or late forms of AMD and 74 controls. Significantly increased levels of sTNFRII were observed in patients with early or exudative AMD (p age, sex and smoking history, the level of sTNFRII remained a significant predictor for prevalence of AMD with odds ratios at 3.0 in the middle and 3.6 in the highest tertiles. Levels of IL15, IL18 and IFNγ were low and not associated with AMD. Increased plasma level of sTNFRII is found to be associated with AMD. The data supports the observations of low-grade, systemic inflammatory alterations in patients with AMD. However, it remains to be determined whether increased levels of TNFα can be found, which directly reflects an increased activity of macrophages and T cells. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Skin Autofluorescence Relates to Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products and Albuminuria in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Škrha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare skin autofluorescence caused by advanced glycation end-products (AGEs with biochemical markers of endothelial dysfunction and soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE in patients with diabetes. Skin autofluorescence (AF assessed by AGE-Reader was evaluated with sRAGE and other biochemical parameters in 88 patients with diabetes (47 Type 1/T1DM/ and 41 Type 2/T2DM/ and 20 controls. Skin AF was significantly higher in T1DM and T2DM in comparison to controls (2.39 ± 0.54, 2.63 ± 0.73 versus 1.96 ± 0.33 AU; P<0.0001. Positive correlation of AF with sRAGE was detected in T1DM and T2DM (r=0.37, P<0.02 and r=0.60, P<0.0001, but not in controls. Significantly higher AF values were found in patients with positive albuminuria as compared to those with normal albuminuria. Similarly, higher AF was detected in patients with endothelial dysfunction expressed by vWF, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. Multiple regression analysis revealed independent association of skin AF with age, sRAGE, and albumin-creatinine ratio in patients with diabetes (R2=0.38. Our study confirms that AF is elevated in patients with diabetes, especially with positive albuminuria and endothelial dysfunction. The strong and independent relationship between AF and sRAGE supports the idea that AF may reflect AGEs/RAGE interactions. The exact mechanism remains to be established.

  1. Correlation of Serum Soluble Interleukin-7 Receptor and Anti-C1q Antibody in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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    Shuhong Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Serum concentrations of soluble interleukin-7 receptor (sIL-7R and anti-C1q antibody have recently been identified as unique serological markers for lupus nephritis (LN in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. In this study, we evaluated the correlation of serum sIL-7R and anti-C1q in SLE patients. Methods. Sera from 134 patients with SLE and 84 healthy cohorts were tested for levels of sIL-7R and anti-C1q antibodies in terms of ELISA. Correlations of the sIL-7R and anti-C1q autoantibodies were evaluated. Results. The serum concentrations of sIL-7R and anti-C1q antibodies were significantly higher in SLE patients and LN patients in comparison with healthy individuals/controls and SLE patients with non-LN, respectively. In addition, both sIL-7R and anti-C1q concentrations were found to significantly correlate with the SLE disease activity as evaluated by SLEDAI scores. Interestingly, the serum sIL-7R concentration was strongly correlated with the level of anti-C1q antibodies (r=0.2871, p=0.0008 but not statistically correlated with other serological markers, including the anti-dsDNA and complements C3 and C4 concentrations in SLE patients. Conclusion. Both serum sIL-7R and anti-C1q antibodies were strongly associated with disease activity and LN in SLE patients, suggesting that they may be reliable serological markers for identification of SLE patients with active diseases and LN.

  2. Lectin-Dependent Enhancement of Ebola Virus Infection via Soluble and Transmembrane C-type Lectin Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Calli; Chen, Li; Yantosca, L. Michael; Scully, Corinne; Sarraju, Ashish; Sokolovska, Anna; Zariffard, M. Reza; Eisen, Damon P.; Mungall, Bruce A.; Kotton, Darrell N.; Omari, Amel; Huang, I-Chueh; Farzan, Michael; Takahashi, Kazue; Stuart, Lynda; Stahl, Gregory L.; Ezekowitz, Alan B.; Spear, Gregory T.; Olinger, Gene G.; Schmidt, Emmett V.; Michelow, Ian C.

    2013-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key soluble effector of the innate immune system that recognizes pathogen-specific surface glycans. Surprisingly, low-producing MBL genetic variants that may predispose children and immunocompromised individuals to infectious diseases are more common than would be expected in human populations. Since certain immune defense molecules, such as immunoglobulins, can be exploited by invasive pathogens, we hypothesized that MBL might also enhance infections in some circumstances. Consequently, the low and intermediate MBL levels commonly found in human populations might be the result of balancing selection. Using model infection systems with pseudotyped and authentic glycosylated viruses, we demonstrated that MBL indeed enhances infection of Ebola, Hendra, Nipah and West Nile viruses in low complement conditions. Mechanistic studies with Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviruses confirmed that MBL binds to N-linked glycan epitopes on viral surfaces in a specific manner via the MBL carbohydrate recognition domain, which is necessary for enhanced infection. MBL mediates lipid-raft-dependent macropinocytosis of EBOV via a pathway that appears to require less actin or early endosomal processing compared with the filovirus canonical endocytic pathway. Using a validated RNA interference screen, we identified C1QBP (gC1qR) as a candidate surface receptor that mediates MBL-dependent enhancement of EBOV infection. We also identified dectin-2 (CLEC6A) as a potentially novel candidate attachment factor for EBOV. Our findings support the concept of an innate immune haplotype that represents critical interactions between MBL and complement component C4 genes and that may modify susceptibility or resistance to certain glycosylated pathogens. Therefore, higher levels of native or exogenous MBL could be deleterious in the setting of relative hypocomplementemia which can occur genetically or because of immunodepletion during active

  3. Lectin-dependent enhancement of Ebola virus infection via soluble and transmembrane C-type lectin receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Brudner

    Full Text Available Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is a key soluble effector of the innate immune system that recognizes pathogen-specific surface glycans. Surprisingly, low-producing MBL genetic variants that may predispose children and immunocompromised individuals to infectious diseases are more common than would be expected in human populations. Since certain immune defense molecules, such as immunoglobulins, can be exploited by invasive pathogens, we hypothesized that MBL might also enhance infections in some circumstances. Consequently, the low and intermediate MBL levels commonly found in human populations might be the result of balancing selection. Using model infection systems with pseudotyped and authentic glycosylated viruses, we demonstrated that MBL indeed enhances infection of Ebola, Hendra, Nipah and West Nile viruses in low complement conditions. Mechanistic studies with Ebola virus (EBOV glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviruses confirmed that MBL binds to N-linked glycan epitopes on viral surfaces in a specific manner via the MBL carbohydrate recognition domain, which is necessary for enhanced infection. MBL mediates lipid-raft-dependent macropinocytosis of EBOV via a pathway that appears to require less actin or early endosomal processing compared with the filovirus canonical endocytic pathway. Using a validated RNA interference screen, we identified C1QBP (gC1qR as a candidate surface receptor that mediates MBL-dependent enhancement of EBOV infection. We also identified dectin-2 (CLEC6A as a potentially novel candidate attachment factor for EBOV. Our findings support the concept of an innate immune haplotype that represents critical interactions between MBL and complement component C4 genes and that may modify susceptibility or resistance to certain glycosylated pathogens. Therefore, higher levels of native or exogenous MBL could be deleterious in the setting of relative hypocomplementemia which can occur genetically or because of immunodepletion

  4. The relation of leptin and soluble leptin receptor levels with metabolic and clinical parameters in obese and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catli, Gonul; Anik, Ahmet; Tuhan, Hale Ünver; Kume, Tuncay; Bober, Ece; Abaci, Ayhan

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the relation of serum leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sLR) and free leptin index (FLI) with metabolic and anthropometric parameters in obese and healthy children. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), fasting serum glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin and sLR levels of 35 obese children and 36 healthy children were measured and FLI was calculated as the ratio of leptin to sLR. In obese children, serum leptin and FLI were found significantly higher, while sLR level was significantly lower than the healthy children. Comparison of obese children regarding the insulin resistance showed significantly higher serum leptin and FLI in the insulin resistant group; however sLR level was not different between the insulin resistant and non-resistant obese children. In obese children, sLR was not correlated with any of the metabolic parameters except total cholesterol, while FLI was significantly and positively correlated with BMI, WC, TC, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR. However, regression analysis confirmed that the HOMA-IR was the only independent variable significantly correlated with FLI in obese children. Findings of this study suggest that in obese children and adolescents (i) serum leptin and FLI were found significantly higher, while sLR level was significantly lower than the healthy children, (ii) increased FLI might be a compensatory mechanism for increasing leptin effect in peripheral tissue, (iii) FLI is a more accurate marker to evaluate leptin resistance than leptin or sLR alone, and (iv) increased FLI may contribute toward the development of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasma Levels of Soluble Interleukin-2 Receptor α: Associations With Clinical Cardiovascular Events and Genome-Wide Association Scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durda, Peter; Sabourin, Jeremy; Lange, Ethan M; Nalls, Mike A; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Li, Jin; Walston, Jeremy; Harris, Tamara B; Psaty, Bruce M; Valdar, William; Liu, Yongmei; Cushman, Mary; Reiner, Alex P; Tracy, Russell P; Lange, Leslie A

    2015-10-01

    Interleukin (IL) -2 receptor subunit α regulates lymphocyte activation, which plays an important role in atherosclerosis. Associations between soluble IL-2Rα (sIL-2Rα) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been widely studied and little is known about the genetic determinants of sIL-2Rα levels. We measured baseline levels of sIL-2Rα in 4408 European American (EA) and 766 African American (AA) adults from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and examined associations with baseline CVD risk factors, subclinical CVD, and incident CVD events. We also performed a genome-wide association study for sIL-2Rα in CHS (2964 EAs and 683 AAs) and further combined CHS EA results with those from two other EA cohorts in a meta-analysis (n=4464 EAs). In age, sex- and race- adjusted models, sIL-2Rα was positively associated with current smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, insulin, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, IL-6, fibrinogen, internal carotid wall thickness, all-cause mortality, CVD mortality, and incident CVD, stroke, and heart failure. When adjusted for baseline CVD risk factors and subclinical CVD, associations with all-cause mortality, CVD mortality, and heart failure remained significant in both EAs and AAs. In the EA genome-wide association study analysis, we observed 52 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the chromosome 10p15-14 region, which contains IL2RA, IL15RA, and RMB17, that reached genome-wide significance (Passociated single-nucleotide polymorphisms at chromosome 10p15-14. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. IL2RA genetic heterogeneity in multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes susceptibility and soluble interleukin-2 receptor production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Maier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS and type 1 diabetes (T1D are organ-specific autoimmune disorders with significant heritability, part of which is conferred by shared alleles. For decades, the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA complex was the only known susceptibility locus for both T1D and MS, but loci outside the HLA complex harboring risk alleles have been discovered and fully replicated. A genome-wide association scan for MS risk genes and candidate gene association studies have previously described the IL2RA gene region as a shared autoimmune locus. In order to investigate whether autoimmunity risk at IL2RA was due to distinct or shared alleles, we performed a genetic association study of three IL2RA variants in a DNA collection of up to 9,407 healthy controls, 2,420 MS, and 6,425 T1D subjects as well as 1,303 MS parent/child trios. Here, we report "allelic heterogeneity" at the IL2RA region between MS and T1D. We observe an allele associated with susceptibility to one disease and risk to the other, an allele that confers susceptibility to both diseases, and an allele that may only confer susceptibility to T1D. In addition, we tested the levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2RA in the serum from up to 69 healthy control subjects, 285 MS, and 1,317 T1D subjects. We demonstrate that multiple variants independently correlate with sIL-2RA levels.

  7. Soluble RAGE in type 2 diabetes: association with oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devangelio, Eleonora; Santilli, Francesca; Formoso, Gloria; Ferroni, Patrizia; Bucciarelli, Loredana; Michetti, Noemi; Clissa, Cristina; Ciabattoni, Giovanni; Consoli, Agostino; Davì, Giovanni

    2007-08-15

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute to diabetic vascular complications by engaging the AGE receptor (RAGE). A soluble RAGE form (sRAGE) acts as a decoy domain receptor, thus decreasing AGE cellular binding. A cross-sectional comparison of sRAGE, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) plasma levels (index of endothelial dysfunction), and urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F(2alpha) (marker of oxidative stress) was performed between 86 diabetic patients and 43 controls. Plasma sRAGE levels were significantly lower and ADMA levels were significantly higher in diabetic patients as compared to controls (Pdiabetic patients. Twenty-four of 86 patients with newly diagnosed diabetes and 12 patients in poor metabolic control were reevaluated after treatment with a hypoglycemic agent or insulin, respectively. Improvement in metabolic control by oral agents or insulin resulted in a significant increase in sRAGE and decrease in ADMA levels (Poxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. These abnormalities are susceptible to modulation by improvement in metabolic control.

  8. The soluble amino-terminal region of HVEM mediates efficient herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of gD receptor-negative cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek Hyunjung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies from our own and other labs reported the surprising finding that the soluble V domain of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 entry receptor nectin-1 can both block HSV infection of receptor-bearing cells and mediate infection of receptor-deficient cells. Here we show that this property is not unique to nectin-1. We generated a pair of truncated, soluble forms of the other major HSV-1 entry receptor, herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM or HveA, and examined its effects on HSV-1 infection of receptor-deficient cells. Results In cultures of CHO-K1 cells, sHveA102 comprising the two amino-terminal cysteine-rich pseudorepeats (CRPs of HVEM enabled infection of greater than 80% of the cells at an MOI of 3, while sHveA162 comprising the complete ectodomain failed to mediate infection. Both sHveA102 and sHveA162 blocked infection of CHO-K1 cells stably expressing HVEM in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that both were capable of binding to viral gD. We found that sHveA102-mediated infection involves pH-independent endocytosis whereas HSV infection of HVEM-expressing CHO-K1 cells is known to be pH-dependent. Conclusions Our results suggest that the C-terminal portion of the soluble HVEM ectodomain inhibits gD activation and that this effect is neutralized in the full-length form of HVEM in normal infection.

  9. [Effect of high-temperature phase change material on the performance of infrared decoy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Ting; Chen, Xin; Han, Ai-Jun; Ye, Ming-Quan; Zhao, Min-Chun

    2013-10-01

    The impact of the high-temperature phase change material on conventional infrared decoy's combustion performance and infrared radiation characteristics was studied. The selected high-temperature phase change materials did not reduce infrared radiation in the 3-5 microm or 8-14 microm band of infrared decoy, while extended the burning time, and reduced the burning rate of the grain, thus prolonged the effective interference time of IR decoy. The results show the phase change material is effective infrared decoy functional additives.

  10. Contextual effects and psychological features influencing decoy options: A review and research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonzalez-Prieto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop future research proposals aiming to contribute the extant theory which explains decoy effects.Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, a review of the existing literature about decoy options and its interactions with contextual effects that could affect their performance is presented. Next, two research proposals are presented: the introduction of a double decoy choice set and the evaluation of decoy effect under different levels of cognitive effort in a purchasing process.Findings and Originality/value: For the research proposal concerning double decoy choice sets, different hypothesis are introduced based on the different theories aiming to explain the effect of simple decoy choice sets. This hypothesis predict different outcomes for the same experimental design, fact that could provide further support for at least one of the current explanations for decoy effects. Regarding the effect of decoy options under different levels of cognitive effort, implications for experimental design for sequential purchasing process are expected. Especially for those designed with complex options, with many steps or high number of options.Originality/value: Two new research proposal approaches are presented in order enhance the current theory. Moreover, both have managerial implications concerning the real usage of decoy options in reduced choice sets as well as in sequential purchasing processes.

  11. Enhancement of solubility and yield of a β-glucan receptor Dectin-1 C-type lectin-like domain in Escherichia coli with a solubility-enhancement tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulal, Hari Prasad; Nagae, Masamichi; Ikeda, Akemi; Morita-Matsumoto, Kana; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki

    2016-07-01

    Dectin-1 is a C-type lectin-like pattern recognition receptor for β(1-3)-glucans. It plays a crucial role in protecting against fungal invasion through binding to β-glucans which are commonly present on the fungal cell wall. To probe its ligand binding mechanism by NMR, we expressed the recombinant murine Dectin-1 C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) in E. coli using pCold vector and purified it. However, the high concentration of Dectin-1 CTLD required for NMR analysis could not be attained due to its inherent low solubility and low bacterial expression. In this study, we tried to increase expression and solubility of Dectin-1 CTLD by codon optimization and fusion of a GB1 tag (B1 domain of streptococcal Protein G). GB1 was inserted on either the N-terminal (NT) or C-terminal end as well as both terminal ends of human and mouse Dectin-1 CTLDs. A pure monomeric sample was only obtained with NT-GB1 fused mouse Dectin-1. Expression of mouse Dectin-1 CTLD yielded 0.9 ± 0.2 mg/L culture, codon optimized mouse Dectin-1 CTLD produced 1.4 ± 0.2 mg/L, and the tag-fused domain 7.1 ± 0.3 mg/L. The tag also increased solubility from 0.1 mM to 1.4 mM. The recombinant protein was correctly folded, in a monomeric state, and specifically bound β-glucan laminarin. These results indicate that fusing GB1 to the N-terminus of mouse Dectin-1 domain advantageously increases yield and solubility, allows retention of native structure, and that the site of fusion is critical. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum levels of interleukin-6 type cytokines and soluble interleukin-6 receptor in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

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    T. Robak

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and two IL-6 family of cytokines (leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF as well as IL-6 soluble receptor (sIL-6R using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in 66 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and 24 healthy controls. We examined a possible association between the serum levels of these peptides and RA activity according to the Mallya and Mace scoring system and Ritchie's index. We also evaluated the correlation between the serum levels of IL-6, LIF, CNTF and sIL-6R and duration of the disease and calculated sIL-6R/IL-6 ratio in RA patients and in the control group. IL-6 and sIL-6R were detectable in all 66 patients with RA and 24 normal individuals. LIF was also found in the serum of all patients with RA and in 16 (66.7% normal individuals. In contrast CNTF was measurable only in 15 (22.7% patients with RA and 24 (33.3% normal individuals. The highest IL-6 and sIL-6R levels were found in the patients with Stages 3 and 4 of RA activity and the lowest in the control group. In contrast there were no statistically significant diferences between the LIF and CNTF levels in RA patients and normal individuals. We found positive correlation between IL-6 and sIL-6R concentrations and Ritchie's index and a lack of such correlation with LIF and CNTF. IL-6 serum level correlated positively with the disease duration, but sIL-6R, LIF and CNTF did not. Serum sIL-6R/IL-6 ratio was significantly lower in RA patients than in healthy controls. In conclusion, an increase in the serum levels of IL-6 and sIL-6R, but not LIF and CNTF concentrations, may be useful markers for RA activity.

  13. [Value of soluble urokinase receptor serum levels in the differential diagnosis between idiopathic and secondary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Alfons; Jatem, Elías; Quiles, M Teresa; Arbós, M Antonia; Ostos, Helena; Valtierra, Naiara; Carnicer, Clara; Salcedo, M Teresa

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that the circulating level of the soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) could be useful for distinguishing idiopathic from secondary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, but the results published are conflicting. In this study, we analyse the intraindividual variability and clinical and anatomopathological variables associated with the suPAR levels and if circulating suPAR levels allow the different forms of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) to be distinguished, i.e., idiopathic forms from secondary FSGS, regardless of the presence of nephrotic syndrome and the activity phase. We studied 35 patients affected by idiopathic FSGS and 48 with secondary FSGS (83 in total). We carried out measurements of circulating suPAR at the time of diagnosis and/or after remission and we analysed correlations between suPAR levels and demographic, clinical and biochemical variables. The ability of suPAR to distinguish between both forms of FSGS was analysed by ROC curves and logistic regression analysis. In both forms of FSGS, suPAR levels were independent of proteinuria and the histopathological subtype of FSGS and they were significantly associated with age and renal function. After adjusting for both variables, suPAR levels were significantly higher in patients with idiopathic FSGS, both in the nephrotic syndrome phase and in partial or complete remission. The most sensitive suPAR level (80%) and the most specific (73%) for discriminating between idiopathic and secondary forms was 3443.6 pg/ml (area below curve [ABC] 0.78 ± 0.083, Pdiagnosis of idiopathic FSGS, but the model was poorly adjusted for low risk categories in which it tended to classify primary forms as secondary forms (χ(2) = 11.2 p=.027). SuPAR levels lack sensitivity for differentiating between idiopathic and secondary FSGS. However, suPAR values greater than 4000 ng/ml are highly specific to primary FSGS, and as such, with a morphological FSGS pattern associated with non

  14. Adjusting soluble transferrin receptor concentrations for inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Fabian; Namaste, Sorrel Ml; Larson, Leila M; Addo, O Yaw; Mei, Zuguo; Suchdev, Parminder S; Williams, Anne M; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A; Rawat, Rahul; Raiten, Daniel J; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A

    2017-07-01

    Background: Iron deficiency is thought to be one of the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies globally, but an accurate assessment in populations who are frequently exposed to infections is impeded by the inflammatory response, which causes iron-biomarker alterations. Objectives: We assessed the relation between soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations and inflammation and malaria in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y) and investigated adjustment algorithms to account for these effects. Design: Cross-sectional data from the Biomarkers Reflecting the Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project from 11,913 PSC in 11 surveys and from 11,173 WRA in 7 surveys were analyzed individually and combined with the use of a meta-analysis. The following 3 adjustment approaches were compared with estimated iron-deficient erythropoiesis (sTfR concentration >8.3 mg/L): 1 ) the exclusion of individuals with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations >5 mg/L or α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations >1 g/L, 2 ) the application of arithmetic correction factors, and 3 ) the use of regression approaches. Results: The prevalence of elevated sTfR concentrations incrementally decreased as CRP and AGP deciles decreased for PSC and WRA, but the effect was more pronounced for AGP than for CRP. Depending on the approach used to adjust for inflammation, the estimated prevalence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis decreased by 4.4-14.6 and 0.3-9.5 percentage points in PSC and WRA, respectively, compared with unadjusted values. The correction-factor approach yielded a more modest reduction in the estimated prevalence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis than did the regression approach. Mostly, adjustment for malaria in addition to AGP did not significantly change the estimated prevalence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis. Conclusions: sTfR may be useful to assess iron-deficient erythropoiesis, but

  15. Adjusting soluble transferrin receptor concentrations for inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Leila M; Mei, Zuguo; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A; Rawat, Rahul; Raiten, Daniel J; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency is thought to be one of the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies globally, but an accurate assessment in populations who are frequently exposed to infections is impeded by the inflammatory response, which causes iron-biomarker alterations. Objectives: We assessed the relation between soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations and inflammation and malaria in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6–59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15–49 y) and investigated adjustment algorithms to account for these effects. Design: Cross-sectional data from the Biomarkers Reflecting the Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project from 11,913 PSC in 11 surveys and from 11,173 WRA in 7 surveys were analyzed individually and combined with the use of a meta-analysis. The following 3 adjustment approaches were compared with estimated iron-deficient erythropoiesis (sTfR concentration >8.3 mg/L): 1) the exclusion of individuals with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations >5 mg/L or α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations >1 g/L, 2) the application of arithmetic correction factors, and 3) the use of regression approaches. Results: The prevalence of elevated sTfR concentrations incrementally decreased as CRP and AGP deciles decreased for PSC and WRA, but the effect was more pronounced for AGP than for CRP. Depending on the approach used to adjust for inflammation, the estimated prevalence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis decreased by 4.4–14.6 and 0.3–9.5 percentage points in PSC and WRA, respectively, compared with unadjusted values. The correction-factor approach yielded a more modest reduction in the estimated prevalence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis than did the regression approach. Mostly, adjustment for malaria in addition to AGP did not significantly change the estimated prevalence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis. Conclusions: sTfR may be useful to assess iron-deficient erythropoiesis

  16. COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN OF RECEPTOR SELECTIVE TRAIL VARIANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sloot, Almer M.; Szegezdi, Eva; Reis, Carlos R.; Tur, Vicente; Quax, Wim J.; Samali, Afshin; Serrano, Luis; Wallach, D; Kovalenko, A; Feldman, M

    2011-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potential anticancer drug that selectively induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells by interacting with death receptors DR4 and DR5. TRAIL can also bind to decoy receptors (DcR1, DcR2, and osteoprotegerin receptor) that

  17. Elevated CSF levels of TACE activity and soluble TNF receptors in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blennow Kaj

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We recently reported that expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, are significantly changed in the brains and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Moreover, we also found that, in an Alzheimer's mouse model, genetic deletion of TNF receptor (TNFR1 reduces amyloid plaques and amyloid beta peptides (Aβ production through β-secretase (BACE1 regulation. TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM-17 does not only cleave pro- TNF-α but also TNF receptors, however, whether the TACE activity was changed in the CSF was not clear. In this study, we examined TACE in the CSF in 32 AD patients and 27 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. Interestingly, we found that TACE activity was significantly elevated in the CSF from AD patients compared with HCs. Furthermore, we also assayed the CSF levels of TACE cleaved soluble forms of TNFR1 and TNFR2 in the same patients. We found that AD patients had higher levels of both TACE cleaved soluble TNFR1 (sTNFR1 and TNFR2 (sTNFR2 in the CSF compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Levels of sTNFR1 correlated strongly with the levels of sTNFR2 (rs = 0.567-0.663, p

  18. Tissue fibrosis and carcinogenesis: divergent or successive pathways dictate multiple molecular therapeutic targets for oligo decoy therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutroneo, Kenneth R; White, Sheryl L; Chiu, Jen-Fu; Ehrlich, H Paul

    2006-04-15

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of several families of macromolecular components: fibrous proteins such as collagens, type I collagen (COL1), type III collagen (COL3), fibronectin, elastin, and glycoconjugates such as proteoglycans and matrix glycoproteins. Their receptors on the cell membrane, most of which in the case of the ECM belong to the integrins, which are heterodimeric proteins composed of alpha and beta chains. COL1 is the major fibrous collagen of bone, tendon, and skin; while COL3 is the more pliable collagen of organs like liver. Focus will not only be given to the regulation of synthesis of several fibrogenic parameters but also modulation of their degradation during growth factor-induced tissue fibrosis and cancer development. Evidence will be provided that certain tissues, which undergo fibrosis, also become cancerous. Why does there exist a divergency between tissues, which undergo frank fibrosis as an endpoint, and those tissues that undergo fibrosis and subsequently are susceptible to carcinogenicity; resulting from the etiological factor(s) causing the initial injury? For example, why does a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge implant become encapsulated and filled with fibrous tissue then fibrosis tissue growth stops? Why does the subcutaneous injection of a fibrogenic growth factor cause a benign growth and incisional wounding results in fibrosis and ultimately scarring? There are many examples of tissues, which undergo fibrosis as a prerequisite to carcinogenesis. Is there a cause-effect relationship? If you block tissue fibrosis in these precancerous tissues, would you block cancer formation? What are the molecular targets for blocking fibrosis and ultimately carcinogenesis? How can oligo decoys may be used to attenuate carcinogenesis and which oligo decoys specifically attenuate fibrogenesis as a prelude to carcinogenesis? What are other molecular targets for oligo decoy therapy in carcinogenesis? Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Characterization of low-glycosylated forms of soluble human urokinase receptor expressed in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells after deletion of glycosylation-sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Werner, Finn; Søndergaard, Leif

    2004-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein that is thought to play an active role during cancer cell invasion and metastasis. We have expressed a truncated soluble form of human uPAR using its native signal peptide in stably transfected......PAR-wt. In conclusion, stable expression of suPAR in Drosophila S2 cells offers a convenient and attractive method for the large scale production of homogeneous preparations of several uPAR mutants, which may be required for future attempts to solve the three-dimensional structure of uPAR by X-ray crystallography....

  20. The soluble receptor for vitamin B12 uptake (sCD320) increases during pregnancy and occurs in higher concentration in urine than in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abuyaman, Omar; Andreasen, Birgitte H; Kronborg, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cellular uptake of vitamin B12 (B12) demands binding of the vitamin to transcobalamin (TC) and recognition of TC-B12 (holoTC) by the receptor CD320, a receptor expressed in high quantities on human placenta. We have identified a soluble form of CD320 (sCD320) in serum and here we...... gestational weeks 17-41. sCD320, holoTC, total TC and complex formation between holoTC and sCD320 were measured by in-house ELISA methods, while creatinine was measured on the automatic platform Cobas 6000. Size exclusion chromatography was performed on a Superdex 200 column. RESULTS: Median (range) of serum...

  1. High-MET status in non-small cell lung tumors correlates with receptor phosphorylation but not with the serum level of soluble form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copin, Marie-Christine; Lesaffre, Marie; Berbon, Mélanie; Doublet, Louis; Leroy, Catherine; Tresch, Emmanuelle; Porte, Henri; Vicogne, Jérôme; B Cortot, Alexis; Dansin, Eric; Tulasne, David

    2016-11-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase MET is essential to embryonic development and organ regeneration. Its deregulation is associated with tumorigenesis. While MET gene amplification and mutations leading to MET self-activation concern only a few patients, a high MET level has been found in about half of the non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) tested. How this affects MET activation in tumors is unclear. Also uncertain is the prognostic value, in cancer, of a phenomenon well described in cell models: MET shedding, i.e. its cleavage by membrane proteases leading to release of a soluble fragment into the medium. A prospective cohort of 39 NSCLC patients was constituted at diagnosis or soon after. Normal tissues, tumor tissues, and blood samples were obtained. This allowed, for the same patient, synchronous determination of (i) the MET level in the tumor, (ii) receptor phosphorylation, and (iii) the concentration of soluble MET fragment (sMET) in the serum. After confirming the adequacy of an ELISA for measuring the serum level of sMET, we found no correlation between this level and the concentration of MET in tumors, as evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Nevertheless, all but one tumor displaying a high MET level also displayed receptor phosphorylation, restricted to a small number of tumor cells. Our results thus demonstrate that the serum level of sMET is not indicative of the amount of MET present in the tumor cells and cannot be used as a biomarker for therapeutic purposes. However, MET scoring of tumor biopsies could be a first step prior to determination of MET receptor activation in high-MET tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of Nitric Oxide Induced by Angiotensin II Receptor Type 1 Using Soluble Guanylate Cyclase beta1 Subunit Fused to a Yellow Fluorescent Protein, Venus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yuichi; Ozawa, Kentaro; Komatsubara, Akira T; Zhao, Jing; Nishi, Mayumi; Yoshizumi, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important gaseous molecule involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including the regulation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here, we report the development of a high-affinity method to detect NO using soluble guanylate cyclase beta1 subunit fused to Venus, a variant of yellow fluorescent protein (sGC-Venus). We measured the fluorescence intensity of sGC-Venus with and without an NO donor using purified probes. At 560 nm emission, the fluorescence intensity of sGC-Venus at 405 nm excitation was increased by approximately 2.5-fold by the NO donor, but the fluorescence intensities of sGC-Venus excited by other wavelengths showed much less of an increase or no significant increase. To measure NO in living cells, the fluorescence intensity of sGC-Venus at 405 nm excitation was normalized to that at 488 nm excitation because it showed no significant difference with or without the NO donor. In HEK293 cells overexpressing the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1 receptor), the production of NO induced by activation of the AT1 receptor was detected using sGC-Venus. These data indicate that sGC-Venus will be a useful tool for visualizing intracellular NO in living cells and that NO might be a common tool to regulate GPCRs.

  3. Concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-α and its soluble receptors in the serum of teenagers with atherosclerosis risk factors: obesity or obesity combined with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchowicz, Anna; Kniażewska, Maria; Zmudzińska-Kitczak, Joanna; Urban, Katarzyna; Gonciarz-Majda, Anna

    2014-11-01

    Obesity and hypertension are recognised risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis. It has not been proven whether their co-existence increases the synthesis of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and what the levels of soluble receptors of this cytokine (sTNF-R) are. This study is aimed to investigate whether there exists a relationship between TNF-α and sTNF-R concentrations in blood serum with the occurrence of obesity or obesity combined with primary hypertension in teenagers. 68 persons, aged 9-17, including 32 persons with primary obesity (Group I) and 36 with primary obesity combined with primary hypertension (Group II). TNF-α (pg/mL) and sTNF-R (ng/mL) concentrations were determined in serum samples using the ELISA method with sets of reagents manufactured by Bender Med Systems GmbH. No significant differences in TNF-α, sTNF-R, glucose or insulin concentrations were found between Group I and Group II. These concentrations were not correlated with the age and the nutritional status of the patients or with each other in either of the groups. Both obese teenagers and teenagers exhibiting obesity combined with hypertension (as two atherosclerosis risk factors) are characterised by comparable concentrations of TNF-α and its soluble receptors.

  4. The soluble mannose receptor (sMR) is elevated in alcoholic liver disease and associated with disease severity, portal hypertension, and mortality in cirrhosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandahl, Thomas Damgaard; Støy, Sidsel Hyldgaard; Laursen, Tea Lund; Rødgaard-Hansen, Sidsel; Møller, Holger Jon; Møller, Søren; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Grønbæk, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic macrophages (Kupffer cells) are involved in the immunopathology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The mannose receptor (MR, CD206), expressed primarily by macrophages, mediates endocytosis, antigen presentation and T-cell activation. A soluble form, sMR, has recently been identified in humans. We aimed to study plasma sMR levels and its correlation with disease severity and survival in ALD patients. We included 50 patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH), 68 alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) patients (Child-Pugh A (23), B (24), C (21)), and 21 healthy controls (HC). Liver status was described by the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score (GAHS), Child-Pugh (CP) and MELD-scores, and in AC patients the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) was measured by liver vein catheterisation. We used Kaplan-Meier statistics for short-term survival (84-days) in AH patients and long-term (4 years) in AC patients. We measured plasma sMR by ELISA. Median sMR concentrations were significantly elevated in AH 1.32(IQR:0.69) and AC 0.46(0.5) compared to HC 0.2(0.06) mg/L; p0.43 mg/l) was associated with increased mortality (p = 0.005). The soluble mannose receptor is elevated in alcoholic liver disease, especially in patients with AH. Its blood level predicts portal hypertension and long-term mortality in AC patients.

  5. Soluble interleukin 6 receptor (sIL-6R) mediates colonic tumor cell adherence to the vascular endothelium: a mechanism for metastatic initiation?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dowdall, J F

    2012-02-03

    The mechanisms by which surgery increases metastatic proliferation remain poorly characterized, although endotoxin and immunocytes play a role. Recent evidence suggests that endothelial adherence of tumor cells may be important in the formation of metastases. Soluble receptors of interleukin-6 (sIL-6R) shed by activated neutrophils exert IL-6 effects on endothelial cells, which are unresponsive under normal circumstances. This study examined the hypothesis that sIL-6R released by surgical stress increases tumor cell adherence to the endothelium. Neutrophils (PMN) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Soluble IL-6R release was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Colonic tumor cells transfected with green fluorescent protein and endothelial cells were exposed to sIL-6R, and tumor cell adherence and transmigration were measured by fluorescence microscopy. Basal release of sIL-6R from PMN was 44.7 +\\/- 8.2 pg\\/ml at 60 min. This was significantly increased by endotoxin and CRP (131 +\\/- 16.8 and 84.1 +\\/- 5.3, respectively; both P < 0.05). However, tumor necrosis factor-alpha did not significantly alter sIL-6R release. Endothelial and tumor cell exposure to sIL-6R increased tumor cell adherence by 71.3% within 2 h but did not significantly increase transmigration, even at 6 h. Mediators of surgical stress induce neutrophil release of a soluble receptor for IL-6 that enhances colon cancer cell endothelial adherence. Since adherence to the endothelium is now considered to be a key event in metastatic genesis, these findings have important implications for colon cancer treatment strategies.

  6. High levels of soluble VEGF receptor 1 early after trauma are associated with shock, sympathoadrenal activation, glycocalyx degradation and inflammation in severely injured patients: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrowski Sisse R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The level of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sVEGFR1 is increased in sepsis and strongly associated with disease severity and mortality. Endothelial activation and damage contribute to both sepsis and trauma pathology. Therefore, this study measured sVEGFR1 levels in trauma patients upon hospital admission hypothesizing that sVEGFR1 would increase with higher injury severity and predict a poor outcome. Methods Prospective observational study of 80 trauma patients admitted to a Level I Trauma Centre. Data on demography, biochemistry, Injury Severity Score (ISS, transfusions and 30-day mortality were recorded and plasma/serum (sampled a median of 68 min (IQR 48-88 post-injury was analyzed for sVEGFR1 and biomarkers reflecting sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline, noradrenaline, tissue injury (histone-complexed DNA fragments, hcDNA, endothelial activation and damage (von Willebrand Factor Antigen, Angiopoietin-2, soluble endothelial protein C receptor, syndecan-1, soluble thrombomodulin (sTM, coagulation activation/inhibition and fibrinolysis (prothrombinfragment 1 + 2, protein C, activated Protein C, tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, D-dimer and inflammation (interleukin-6. Spearman correlations and regression analyses to identify variables associated with sVEGFR1 and its predictive value. Results Circulating sVEGFR1 correlated with injury severity (ISS, rho = 0.46, shock (SBE, rho = -0.38; adrenaline, rho = 0.47, tissue injury (hcDNA, rho = 0.44 and inflammation (IL-6, rho = 0.54 (all p Conclusions sVEGFR1 increased with increasing injury severity, shock and inflammation early after trauma but only sympathoadrenal activation, hypoperfusion, and inflammation were independent predictors of sVEGFR1 levels. sVEGFR1 correlated strongly with other biomarkers of endothelial activation and damage and with RBC transfusion requirements. Sympathoadrenal activation, shock and

  7. Protein C system defects inflicted by the malaria parasite protein PfEMP1 can be overcome by a soluble EPCR variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens E V; Bouwens, Eveline A M; Tamayo, Ibai

    2015-01-01

    malaria, specifically target EPCR on vascular endothelial cells. Here, we examine the cellular response to PfEMP1 engagement to elucidate its role in malaria pathogenesis. Binding of the CIDRα1.1 domain of PfEMP1 to EPCR obstructed activated PC (APC) binding to EPCR and induced a loss of cellular EPCR...... functions. CIDRα1.1 severely impaired endothelial PC activation and effectively blocked APC-mediated activation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) and associated barrier protective effects of APC on endothelial cells. A soluble EPCR variant (E86A-sEPCR) bound CIDRα1.1 with high affinity and did...... contributions of PfEMP1-induced protein C pathway defects in the pathogenesis of severe malaria. Furthermore, the E86A-sEPCR decoy provides a proof-of-principle strategy for the development of novel adjunct therapies for severe malaria....

  8. Cloning of Human Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor cDNA and Expression of Recombinant Soluble TNF-Binding Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Patrick W.; Barrett, Kathy; Chantry, David; Turner, Martin; Feldmann, Marc

    1990-10-01

    The cDNA for one of the receptors for human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been isolated. This cDNA encodes a protein of 455 amino acids that is divided into an extracellular domain of 171 residues and a cytoplasmic domain of 221 residues. The extracellular domain has been engineered for expression in mammalian cells, and this recombinant derivative binds TNFα with high affinity and inhibits its cytotoxic activity in vitro. The TNF receptor exhibits similarity with a family of cell surface proteins that includes the nerve growth factor receptor, the human B-cell surface antigen CD40, and the rat T-cell surface antigen OX40. The TNF receptor contains four cysteine-rich subdomains in the extra-cellular portion. Mammalian cells transfected with the entire TNF receptor cDNA bind radiolabeled TNFα with an affinity of 2.5 x 10-9 M. This binding can be competitively inhibited with unlabeled TNFα or lymphotoxin (TNFβ).

  9. Modeling, Simulation, and Performance Analysis of Decoy State Enabled Quantum Key Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan O. Mailloux

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Key Distribution (QKD systems exploit the laws of quantum mechanics to generate secure keying material for cryptographic purposes. To date, several commercially viable decoy state enabled QKD systems have been successfully demonstrated and show promise for high-security applications such as banking, government, and military environments. In this work, a detailed performance analysis of decoy state enabled QKD systems is conducted through model and simulation of several common decoy state configurations. The results of this study uniquely demonstrate that the decoy state protocol can ensure Photon Number Splitting (PNS attacks are detected with high confidence, while maximizing the system’s quantum throughput at no additional cost. Additionally, implementation security guidance is provided for QKD system developers and users.

  10. Practical issues in decoy-state quantum key distribution based on the central limit theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushechkin, A. S.; Kiktenko, E. O.; Fedorov, A. K.

    2017-08-01

    Decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) is a standard tool for long-distance quantum communications. An important issue in this field is processing the decoy-state statistics taking into account statistical fluctuations (or "finite-key effects"). In this work, we propose and analyze an option for decoy statistics processing, which is based on the central limit theorem. We discuss such practical issues as inclusion of the failure probability of the decoy-state statistical estimates in the total failure probability of a QKD protocol and also taking into account the deviations of the binomially distributed random variables used in the estimations from the Gaussian distribution. The results of numerical simulations show that the obtained estimations are quite tight. The proposed technique can be used as a part of post-processing procedures for industrial quantum key distribution systems.

  11. Antibodies to a soluble form of a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor have TNF-like activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, H; Holtmann, H; Brakebusch, C

    1990-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binding proteins which are present in human urine (designated TBPI and TBPII) and two molecular species of the cell surface receptors for TNF is demonstrated. The two TNF receptors are shown to be immunologically distinct, to differ...... in molecular weight (58,000 and 73,000), and to be expressed differentially in different cells. It is further shown that polyclonal antibodies against one of the TNF binding proteins (TBPI) display, by virtue of their ability to bind the TNF receptor, activities which are very similar to those of TNF....... These antibodies are cytotoxic to cells which are sensitive to TNF toxicity, induce resistance to TNF toxicity, enhance the incorporation of thymidine into normal fibroblasts, inhibit the growth of chlamydiae, and induce the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Monovalent F(ab) fragments of the polyclonal antibodies...

  12. Characterization of membrane-bound and soluble D2 receptors in canine caudate using ( sup 125 I)IBZM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonwetter, B.S.; Luedtke, R.R.; Kung, M.P.; Billings, J.; Kung, H.F.; Molinoff, P.B. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (USA))

    1989-07-01

    (S)-(-)-3-iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N-((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl)benzamide (IBZM) was shown to be a high-affinity antagonist selective for the D2 subtype of dopamine receptor. Binding sites for the radioligand (125I)IBZM were characterized with membranes and digitonin-solubilized extracts of canine caudate enriched by chromatography on heparin-agarose. Nonspecific binding, defined using 2 microM (+)-butaclamol, was less than 10% of the total ligand bound at the Kd of the receptor for ({sup 125}I)IBZM. Direct binding, competition and kinetic experiments indicated that ({sup 125}I)IBZM bound to a homogeneous population of binding sites. The rank order of potency for inhibition of the binding of ({sup 125}I)IBZM by antagonists and agonists was found to be consistent with the pharmacological profile expected of a D2 receptor. The affinities of ({sup 125}I)IBZM for membrane-associated and detergent-solubilized binding sites were essentially identical (Kd congruent to 0.4 nM). This result contrasts with findings obtained in studies with ({sup 3}H)spiroperidol, where a marked decrease in the affinity of the receptor for the ligand has been observed during detergent solubilization and purification of the receptor. The high selectivity, nanomolar affinity and high specific activity of ({sup 125}I)IBZM and the results obtained in studies with detergent extracts suggest that ({sup 125}I)IBZM will be a particularly useful ligand for studies of D2 receptors in the presence of detergents.

  13. Higher plasma soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (sRAGE) levels are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes: a 12-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, Johanna W M; Jorsal, Anders; Merces Ferreira, Isabel Maria

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the associations of plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal dysfunct......To investigate the associations of plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal...

  14. Circulating levels of osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis randomized to etanercept alone or in combination with methotrexate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, H.; Sørensen, Steen; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether circulating levels of osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (total sRANKL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) change in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during immunosuppress......OBJECTIVE: To determine whether circulating levels of osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (total sRANKL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) change in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during...

  15. Synthesis and Properties of a New Water-Soluble Prodrug of the Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonist MSX-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa E. Müller

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The compound L-valine-3-{8-[(E-2-[3-methoxyphenylethenyl]-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine-3-yl}propyl ester hydrochloride (MSX-4 was synthesized as an aminoacid ester prodrug of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-2. It was found to bestable in artificial gastric acid, but readily cleaved by pig liver esterase.

  16. Probabilistic search and energy guidance for biased decoy sampling in ab initio protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Kevin; Saleh, Sameh; Shehu, Amarda

    2013-01-01

    Adequate sampling of the conformational space is a central challenge in ab initio protein structure prediction. In the absence of a template structure, a conformational search procedure guided by an energy function explores the conformational space, gathering an ensemble of low-energy decoy conformations. If the sampling is inadequate, the native structure may be missed altogether. Even if reproduced, a subsequent stage that selects a subset of decoys for further structural detail and energetic refinement may discard near-native decoys if they are high energy or insufficiently represented in the ensemble. Sampling should produce a decoy ensemble that facilitates the subsequent selection of near-native decoys. In this paper, we investigate a robotics-inspired framework that allows directly measuring the role of energy in guiding sampling. Testing demonstrates that a soft energy bias steers sampling toward a diverse decoy ensemble less prone to exploiting energetic artifacts and thus more likely to facilitate retainment of near-native conformations by selection techniques. We employ two different energy functions, the associative memory Hamiltonian with water and Rosetta. Results show that enhanced sampling provides a rigorous testing of energy functions and exposes different deficiencies in them, thus promising to guide development of more accurate representations and energy functions.

  17. The soluble mannose receptor (sMR) is elevated in alcoholic liver disease and associated with disease severity, portal hypertension, and mortality in cirrhosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl, Thomas Damgaard; Støy, Sidsel Hyldgaard; Laursen, Tea Lund

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic macrophages (Kupffer cells) are involved in the immunopathology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The mannose receptor (MR, CD206), expressed primarily by macrophages, mediates endocytosis, antigen presentation and T-cell activation. A soluble form, sMR, has recently......). Liver status was described by the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score (GAHS), Child-Pugh (CP) and MELD-scores, and in AC patients the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) was measured by liver vein catheterisation. We used Kaplan-Meier statistics for short-term survival (84-days) in AH patients...... and long-term (4 years) in AC patients. We measured plasma sMR by ELISA. RESULTS: Median sMR concentrations were significantly elevated in AH 1.32(IQR:0.69) and AC 0.46(0.5) compared to HC 0.2(0.06) mg/L; p

  18. High plasma levels of intact and cleaved soluble urokinase receptor reflect immune activation and are independent predictors of mortality in HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Piironen, Timo; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High blood levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) (bulk measurement of 3-domain and 2-domain suPAR [suPAR(I-III), suPAR(II-III)], and suPAR(I-III) ligand complexes) strongly predict mortality in HIV-1-infected patients. This study......PAR(I) in 99 HIV patients and 59 healthy individuals. RESULTS: Plasma suPAR(I-III), suPAR(II-III), and suPAR(I) were increased in HIV patients and increased with HIV disease progression (P hemoglobin were......). In multivariate Cox analysis adjusting for CD4+ count, HIV RNA, beta2-microglobulin, hemoglobin and clinical stage, higher levels of suPAR(I-III) and suPAR(II-III) were independent predictors of increased mortality risk (P

  19. Elevated soluble urokinase receptor values in CSF, age and bacterial meningitis infection are independent and additive risk factors of fatal outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzanakaki, G; Paparoupa, M; Kyprianou, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of cerebrospinal fluid soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) level, infection and age as risk factors for fatal outcome in patients suspected of having meningitis and/or bacteraemia on admission to hospital. A total of 545 cerebrospinal...... fluid samples from patients with clinically suspected meningitis were sent to the Hellenic National Meningitis Reference Laboratory. Ten of 545 (1.83%) patients died. Analysis by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve revealed that both suPAR and age were significant for prediction of fatal...... outcome. Patients with levels of suPAR above the cut-off values and age ≥51 years, or patients in which either Neisseria meningitis or Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected were categorized as high risk patients. The combination of the above three predictors (suPAR, age and infectious agent...

  20. Plasma soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor level is independently associated with coronary microvascular function in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonnen, Girum; Corban, Michel T; Hung, Olivia Y

    2015-01-01

    microvascular function. METHODS: Coronary blood flow velocity and plasma suPAR levels were evaluated in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) was calculated as the ratio of hyperemic to basal average peak blood flow velocity and coronary microvascular dysfunction...... microvascular function. Larger prospective clinical trials are warranted to investigate the prognostic value of this novel biomarker and the role of immune dysregulation in coronary microvascular disease.......BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a novel biomarker released from leukocytes and endothelial cells that has been associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that plasma suPAR level is an independent predictor of coronary...

  1. Renin angiotensin system blockade reduces urinary levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Theilade, Simone; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is associated with faster decline in kidney function and the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. However, little is known about the impact of treatment on plasma and urinary levels of suPAR. We aimed to investigate the impact of renin...... angiotensin system (RAS) single and dual blockade on suPAR levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled crossover trial. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed for suPAR levels. The placebo period was considered reference and all.......1) and urine levels were 4.0 ng/mL (1.1). None of the treatments had significant effects on plasma levels of suPAR compared to placebo. Compared to placebo, irbesartan and combination treatment decreased urinary levels of suPAR significantly (-1.3 ng/mL), while aliskiren did not. In patients with type 2...

  2. Soluble membrane receptors, interleukin 6, procalcitonin and C reactive protein as prognostic markers in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Toro, Juan-Jesús; Márquez-Coello, Mercedes; García-Álvarez, José-María; Martín-Aspas, Andrés; Rivera-Fernández, Ricardo; Sáez de Benito, Ana; Girón-González, José-Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell 1 (sTREM-1), soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14), soluble cluster of differentiation 163 (sCD163), interleukin-6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels for patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in an intensive care unit (ICU). Fifty patients admitted at the ICU with the diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock were studied. SOFA and APACHE II scores as well as serum biomarkers were measured at days 0, 2 and 5. The influence of these variables on 28-day mortality was analyzed. Twenty healthy individuals served as controls. Baseline serum concentrations of sTREM-1, sCD163, IL-6 and PCT correlated with SOFA score. Only sTREM-1 levels correlated with APACHE II score. The 28-day mortality rate for all patients was 42%. The absence of risk factors for infection, presence of septic shock, baseline values of sCD14 and decrease of PCT and IL-6 from baseline to day 5 were variables associated to mortality in the univariate analysis. The unique independent factor associated to mortality in the multivariate analysis was a decrease of PCT higher than 50% from days 0 to 5. Serum levels of sTREM-1 are correlated with the severity of sepsis. A 50% decrease of PCT was the unique variable associated with survival in the multivariate analysis.

  3. Soluble membrane receptors, interleukin 6, procalcitonin and C reactive protein as prognostic markers in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

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    Juan-Jesús Ríos-Toro

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell 1 (sTREM-1, soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14, soluble cluster of differentiation 163 (sCD163, interleukin-6 (IL-6, procalcitonin (PCT, and C-reactive protein (CRP serum levels for patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in an intensive care unit (ICU.Fifty patients admitted at the ICU with the diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock were studied. SOFA and APACHE II scores as well as serum biomarkers were measured at days 0, 2 and 5. The influence of these variables on 28-day mortality was analyzed. Twenty healthy individuals served as controls.Baseline serum concentrations of sTREM-1, sCD163, IL-6 and PCT correlated with SOFA score. Only sTREM-1 levels correlated with APACHE II score. The 28-day mortality rate for all patients was 42%. The absence of risk factors for infection, presence of septic shock, baseline values of sCD14 and decrease of PCT and IL-6 from baseline to day 5 were variables associated to mortality in the univariate analysis. The unique independent factor associated to mortality in the multivariate analysis was a decrease of PCT higher than 50% from days 0 to 5.Serum levels of sTREM-1 are correlated with the severity of sepsis. A 50% decrease of PCT was the unique variable associated with survival in the multivariate analysis.

  4. Soluble Levels of Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE) and Progression of Atherosclerosis in Individuals Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: ACTG NWCS 332.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danoff, Ann; Kendall, Michelle A; Currier, Judith S; Kelesidis, Theodoros; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Aberg, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    Identification of biomarkers and/or mediators of cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with HIV infection would be of diagnostic and therapeutic value. As soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (sRAGE) and endogenous secretory (esRAGE) have been implicated in vascular complications in other settings, we investigated whether either soluble form of RAGE was associated with changes in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in HIV-infected patients and HIV-uninfected controls. We found no differences in sRAGE, esRAGE, or CIMT among groups at study entry, or in yearly rates of change in sRAGE, esRAGE, or CIMT by HIV-serostatus (all p > 0.10). However, yearly rates of change in sRAGE (p = 0.07) and esRAGE (p < 0.001) were higher in those taking protease inhibitors, and lower baseline esRAGE levels (p = 0.06) were associated with increased odds of CIMT progression in HIV-infected individuals. Although esRAGE was not altered by HIV-serostatus (p = 0.17), its inverse relationship with CIMT progression in HIV-infected patients suggests a possible role as a mediator of CVD in HIV-infected persons.

  5. Serial measurement of the circulating levels of tumour necrosis factor and its soluble receptors 1 and 2 for monitoring leprosy patients during multidrug treatment

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    Rosane Dias Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is an infectious and contagious spectral disease accompanied by a series of immunological events triggered by the host response to the aetiologic agent, Mycobacterium leprae . The induction and maintenance of the immune/inflammatory response in leprosy are linked to multiple cell interactions and soluble factors, primarily through the action of cytokines. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the serum levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α and its soluble receptors (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 in leprosy patients at different stages of multidrug treatment (MDT in comparison with non-infected individuals and to determine their role as putative biomarkers of the severity of leprosy or the treatment response. ELISA was used to measure the levels of these molecules in 30 healthy controls and 37 leprosy patients at the time of diagnosis and during and after MDT. Our results showed increases in the serum levels of TNF-α and sTNF-R2 in infected individuals in comparison with controls. The levels of TNF-α, but not sTNF-R2, decreased with treatment. The current results corroborate previous reports of elevated serum levels of TNF-α in leprosy and suggest a role for sTNF-R2 in the control of this cytokine during MDT.

  6. Ecdysone receptor isoform-B mediates soluble trehalase expression to regulate growth and development in the mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y-A; Xiao, L-B; Zhao, J; Xiao, Y-F; Sun, Y; Bai, L-X

    2015-12-01

    Ecdysone receptor (EcR) is the hormonal receptor of ecdysteroids and strictly regulates growth and development in insects. However, the action mechanism of EcR is not very clear. In this study, the cDNA of EcR isoform-B was cloned from Apolygus lucorum (AlEcR-B) and its expression profile was investigated. We reduced AlEcR-B mRNA expression using systemic RNA interference in vivo, and obtained knockdown specimens. Examination of these specimens indicated that AlEcR-B is required for nymphal survival, and that reduced expression is associated with longer development time and lower nymphal weight. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of the observed suppression effects, we selected trehalase for a detailed study. Transcript encoding soluble trehalase (AlTre-1) was up-regulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone and in agreement with the mRNA expression of AlEcR-B. The expression profile of AlTre-1, soluble trehalase activity and translated protein level in the midgut of surviving nymphs were down-regulated, compared with controls, after the knockdown expression of AlEcR-B. By contrast, membrane-bound trehalase activity, the related gene expression and translated protein level remained at their initial levels. However, trehalose content significantly increased and the glucose content significantly decreased under the same conditions. We propose that AlEcR-B controls normal carbohydrate metabolism by mediating the expression of AlTre-1 to regulate the growth and development in A. lucorum, which provide an extended information into the functions of AlEcR-B. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. [Application of the concetrations ratio of soluble receptor tyrosine kinase type 1, and placental growth factor for short-term prediction and diagnosis of preeclampsia].

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    Bubeníková, Š; Cíchová, A; Roubalová, L; Durdová, V; Vlk, R

    Bring a comprehensive overview of the available information about applications of the concetration ratio of soluble receptor tyrosine kinase type 1 (sFlt-1), and placental growth factor for short-term prediction and diagnosis of preeclampsia. Overview study. Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Olomouc; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University Hospital Olomouc; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Olomouc; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and Motol University Hospital. Analysis of literary sources and databases Ovid, Medline (2001-2016). Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease with not fully understood etiology. This disease occurs in 2-5% of pregnant women. Preeclampsia is one of the main causes of global maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It manifests itself as a newborn hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of pregnancy in previously normotensive women. The only effective treatment is the delivery of the child. Diagnosis of preeclampsia comprises measuring blood pressure and proteinuria. These indicators have low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. In preeclampsia, there is a decrease of serum levels of placental growth factor (PlGF). Soluble receptor tyrosine kinase type 1 (sFlt-1) is an antagonist of PlGF. Increased levels of sFlt-1 in proportion to the reduced level of PlGF are associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia. The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio can be a better predictive marker in the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia after 20 weeks of gestation.

  8. A novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR in teleost fish: carp SITR is involved in the nitric oxide-mediated response to a protozoan parasite.

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    Carla M S Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The innate immune system relies upon a wide range of germ-line encoded receptors including a large number of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF receptors. Different Ig-like immune receptor families have been reported in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish. Most innate immune receptors of the IgSF are type I transmembrane proteins containing one or more extracellular Ig-like domains and their regulation of effector functions is mediated intracellularly by distinct stimulatory or inhibitory pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Carp SITR was found in a substracted cDNA repertoire from carp macrophages, enriched for genes up-regulated in response to the protozoan parasite Trypanoplasma borreli. Carp SITR is a type I protein with two extracellular Ig domains in a unique organisation of a N-proximal V/C2 (or I- type and a C-proximal V-type Ig domain, devoid of a transmembrane domain or any intracytoplasmic signalling motif. The carp SITR C-proximal V-type Ig domain, in particular, has a close sequence similarity and conserved structural characteristics to the mammalian CD300 molecules. By generating an anti-SITR antibody we could show that SITR protein expression was restricted to cells of the myeloid lineage. Carp SITR is abundantly expressed in macrophages and is secreted upon in vitro stimulation with the protozoan parasite T. borreli. Secretion of SITR protein during in vivo T. borreli infection suggests a role for this IgSF receptor in the host response to this protozoan parasite. Overexpression of carp SITR in mouse macrophages and knock-down of SITR protein expression in carp macrophages, using morpholino antisense technology, provided evidence for the involvement of carp SITR in the parasite-induced NO production. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We report the structural and functional characterization of a novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR in a teleost fish and propose a role for carp SITR in the NO-mediated response to a

  9. Using decoy effects to influence an online brand choice: the role of price-quality trade-offs.

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    Hsu, Huei-Chen; Liu, Wen-Liang

    2011-04-01

    This research aims to investigate decoy effects on online brand choices. To assess the influence of decoys, we test decoy effects on three constructs-product involvement, judgment conditions, and decoy conditions-within an online experiment. A survey of 635 Internet users and a 2 × 2 × 3 ANOVA between-subjects experimental design is used to guide the research design and the systematic analysis procedure. A major finding of this study is that a standard decoy seems to have a significant effect on an advertised (target) brand for high-involvement products; from the survey, it is also apparent that competitors can also use inferior decoys to increase brand preference for low-involvement products.

  10. High levels of soluble VEGF receptor 1 early after trauma are associated with shock, sympathoadrenal activation, glycocalyx degradation and inflammation in severely injured patients: a prospective study.

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    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Sørensen, Anne Marie; Windeløv, Nis A; Perner, Anders; Welling, Karen-Lise; Wanscher, Michael; Larsen, Claus F; Johansson, Pär I

    2012-04-10

    The level of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sVEGFR1) is increased in sepsis and strongly associated with disease severity and mortality. Endothelial activation and damage contribute to both sepsis and trauma pathology. Therefore, this study measured sVEGFR1 levels in trauma patients upon hospital admission hypothesizing that sVEGFR1 would increase with higher injury severity and predict a poor outcome. Prospective observational study of 80 trauma patients admitted to a Level I Trauma Centre. Data on demography, biochemistry, Injury Severity Score (ISS), transfusions and 30-day mortality were recorded and plasma/serum (sampled a median of 68 min (IQR 48-88) post-injury) was analyzed for sVEGFR1 and biomarkers reflecting sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline, noradrenaline), tissue injury (histone-complexed DNA fragments, hcDNA), endothelial activation and damage (von Willebrand Factor Antigen, Angiopoietin-2, soluble endothelial protein C receptor, syndecan-1, soluble thrombomodulin (sTM)), coagulation activation/inhibition and fibrinolysis (prothrombinfragment 1 + 2, protein C, activated Protein C, tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, D-dimer) and inflammation (interleukin-6). Spearman correlations and regression analyses to identify variables associated with sVEGFR1 and its predictive value. Circulating sVEGFR1 correlated with injury severity (ISS, rho = 0.46), shock (SBE, rho = -0.38; adrenaline, rho = 0.47), tissue injury (hcDNA, rho = 0.44) and inflammation (IL-6, rho = 0.54) (all p degradation (syndecan-1, rho = 0.67), endothelial cell damage (sTM, rho = 0.66) and activation (Ang-2, rho = 0.31) and hyperfibrinolysis (tPA, rho = 0.39; D-dimer, rho = 0.58) and with activated protein C (rho = 0.31) (all p red blood cells (RBC) at 1 h (rho = 0.27, p = 0.016), 6 h (rho = 0.27, p = 0.017) and 24 h (rho = 0.31, p = 0.004) but was not associated with mortality. sVEGFR1 increased with increasing injury severity

  11. [Research on Spectrum Radiation Characteristics of a New Type Infrared/ Ultraviolet Dual Color Decoy].

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    Chen, Chun-sheng; Dai, Meng-yan; Liu, Hai-feng; Xie, Chang-you; Zhang, Tong; Fang, Guo-feng

    2015-07-01

    The advantage of traditional MTV infrared decoys which are mainly consist of magnesium, Teflon and VITON is that it emits high radiant energy, so it is an effective countermeasure to traditional seekers which seek the target by heat source. The spectral radiant intensity which generated from high temperature combustion of MTV infrared decoys in near infrared region and ultraviolet band is very high, and that in Mid-IR region is relative lower, however the radiant intensity of real jet fighter in ultraviolet band is low and the infrared radiant intensity ratio of Mid-IR to near IR band is greater than 1. Thus, the traditional MTV infrared decoys are hardly able to counter the seekers equipped with dual color combined guidance system. Based on the spectral matching principle, we designed and prepared a new infrared/ultraviolet dual color decoy which is mainly consist of oxidant (wt% 45-75), fuel (wt% 10-25), energetic binder (wt% 25-50) and additives. We conducted theoretical calculations on combustion products of the reagent combinations using CEA (Chemic equilibrium & Application) software and initially determined the content of each component of the decoy formulation on the basis of the calculations results, then investigated the infrared radiation characteristics of decoys employing SR5000 spectrum radiometer and remote sensing interferometer spectrometer Tensor37 and analyzed the possible reasons for test results difference of the two systems separately from the test principle and calculation method, the testing environment, stability of testing results and other aspects. We studied the ultraviolet radiation characteristics of decoys using S2000 fiber optical spectrometer and the test results were consistent with the fighter ultraviolet radiant intensity which gained from theoretical calculation. We researched on the temperature characteristics of decoys by Imager IR 8325 mid-infrared thermal imager and it turned out that the dual color decoy is similar to the

  12. Mutual Balance between Vasohibin-1 and Soluble VEGFR-1 in Endothelial Cells

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    Yasufumi Sato

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Vasohibin-1 (VASH1 is a VEGF-inducible gene of endothelial cells (ECs that acts as a negative feedback regulator of angiogenesis. To further characterize the function of VASH1, we transfected human VASH1 gene into the mouse EC line MS1, established stable VASH1 expressing clones, and determined gene alteration by cDNA microarray analysis. Among the various angiogenesis-related genes, vascular endothelial growth factor type 1 receptor (VEGFR-1 and its alternative spliced form, soluble VEGFR1 (sVEGFR-1, were found to be the most significantly down-regulated genes. Transient overexpression of VASH1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells confirmed the down-regulation of VEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-1. sVEGFR-1 is a decoy receptor for VEGF and inhibits angiogenesis. Interestingly, when sVEGFR-1 was overexpressed in ECs, it inhibited the expression of VASH1 in turn. These results suggest that VASH1 and sVEGFR-1, two angiogenesis inhibitors, mutually balance their expressions in ECs.

  13. Postnatal soluble FGFR3 therapy rescues achondroplasia symptoms and restores bone growth in mice.

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    Garcia, Stéphanie; Dirat, Béatrice; Tognacci, Thomas; Rochet, Nathalie; Mouska, Xavier; Bonnafous, Stéphanie; Patouraux, Stéphanie; Tran, Albert; Gual, Philippe; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Gennero, Isabelle; Gouze, Elvire

    2013-09-18

    Achondroplasia is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormal bone development, resulting in short stature. It is caused by a single point mutation in the gene coding for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), which leads to prolonged activation upon ligand binding. To prevent excessive intracellular signaling and rescue the symptoms of achondroplasia, we have developed a recombinant protein therapeutic approach using a soluble form of human FGFR3 (sFGFR3), which acts as a decoy receptor and prevents FGF from binding to mutant FGFR3. sFGFR3 was injected subcutaneously to newborn Fgfr3(ach/+) mice-the mouse model of achondroplasia-twice per week throughout the growth period during 3 weeks. Effective maturation of growth plate chondrocytes was restored in bones of treated mice, with a dose-dependent enhancement of skeletal growth in Fgfr3(ach/+) mice. This resulted in normal stature and a significant decrease in mortality and associated complications, without any evidence of toxicity. These results describe a new approach for restoring bone growth and suggest that sFGFR3 could be a potential therapy for children with achondroplasia and related disorders.

  14. The macrophage soluble receptor AIM/Api6/CD5L displays a broad pathogen recognition spectrum and is involved in early response to microbial aggression.

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    Martinez, Vanesa G; Escoda-Ferran, Cristina; Tadeu Simões, Inês; Arai, Satoko; Orta Mascaró, Marc; Carreras, Esther; Martínez-Florensa, Mario; Yelamos, José; Miyazaki, Toru; Lozano, Francisco

    2014-07-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages (AIMs), a homologue of human Spα, is a mouse soluble member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily (SRCR-SF). This family integrates a group of proteins expressed by innate and adaptive immune cells for which no unifying function has yet been described. Pleiotropic functions have been ascribed to AIM, from viability support in lymphocytes during thymic selection to lipid metabolism and anti-inflammatory effects in autoimmune pathologies. In the present report, the pathogen binding properties of AIM have been explored. By using a recombinant form of AIM (rAIM) expressed in mammalian cells, it is shown that this protein is able to bind and aggregate Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as pathogenic and saprophytic fungal species. Importantly, endogenous AIM from mouse serum also binds to microorganisms and secretion of AIM was rapidly induced in mouse spleen macrophages following exposure to conserved microbial cell wall components. Cytokine release induced by well-known bacterial and fungal Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands on mouse splenocytes was also inhibited in the presence of rAIM. Furthermore, mouse models of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-induced septic shock of bacterial and fungal origin showed that serum AIM levels changed in a time-dependent manner. Altogether, these data suggest that AIM plays a general homeostatic role by supporting innate humoral defense during pathogen aggression.

  15. Plasmatic Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products as a New Oxidative Stress Biomarker in Patients with Prosthetic-Joint-Associated Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaccesi, Luca; Bonomelli, Barbara; Marazzi, Monica Gioia; Drago, Lorenzo; Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco Corsi; Erba, Daniela; Papini, Nadia; Barassi, Alessandra; Goi, Giancarlo; Galliera, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is the most common cause of failure of total joint arthroplasty, but a gold standard for PJI diagnosis is still lacking. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are proinflammatory molecules inducing intracellular oxidative stress (OS) after binding to their cell membrane receptors (RAGE). The aim of this study was to evaluate plasmatic soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), as a new OS and infection marker correlating sRAGE to the level of OS and antioxidant defenses, in PJI, in order to explore the possible application of this new biomarker in the early diagnosis of PJI. Plasmatic sRAGE levels (by ELISA assay), plasma antioxidant total defenses (by lag time method), plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels (by colorimetric assay) were evaluated in 11 PJI patients and in 30 matched controls. ROS and TBARS were significantly higher ( p plasmatic sRAGE as a potential marker for improving PJI early diagnosis.

  16. Plasmatic Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products as a New Oxidative Stress Biomarker in Patients with Prosthetic-Joint-Associated Infections?

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    Luca Massaccesi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic joint infection (PJI is the most common cause of failure of total joint arthroplasty, but a gold standard for PJI diagnosis is still lacking. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are proinflammatory molecules inducing intracellular oxidative stress (OS after binding to their cell membrane receptors (RAGE. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasmatic soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE, as a new OS and infection marker correlating sRAGE to the level of OS and antioxidant defenses, in PJI, in order to explore the possible application of this new biomarker in the early diagnosis of PJI. Plasmatic sRAGE levels (by ELISA assay, plasma antioxidant total defenses (by lag time method, plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels (by colorimetric assay were evaluated in 11 PJI patients and in 30 matched controls. ROS and TBARS were significantly higher (p<0.001 while plasma total antioxidant capacity and sRAGE were significantly lower (p<0.01 in patients with PJI compared to controls. Our results confirm the OS in PJI and show a strong negative correlation between the level of sRAGE and oxidative status, suggesting the plasmatic sRAGE as a potential marker for improving PJI early diagnosis.

  17. MANPADS protection for civil aircraft using an expendable decoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Roy H.; Friede, Johan; Millwood, Nicolas; Butters, Brian

    2009-09-01

    With the ever present threat of MANPADS throughout the world the protection of civil aircraft is a desirable capability that has special requirements in terms of certification, safety, logistics, affordability, environmental impact and exportability. The Civil Aircraft Missile Protection System (CAMPS), which includes the CIV-IR (infrared) leaf-based pyrophoric (not pyrotechnic) expendable countermeasure, is a system designed to meet these requirements. This paper presents the operating aspects of the decoy, including discussion of design features necessary to ensure safety both on the ground and in flight and assure successful deployment. The characteristics of the CIV-IR have been measured, both on static single leaves in the laboratory and on deployed packs in field tests and aircraft trials. These measured properties have been used in engagement modelling and simulation to assess the level of protection that can be afforded to commercial airliners against generation 1 and 2 MANPADS threats. Aircraft flight trials with ground based seekers have also been carried out to validate the modelling work. These combine to define the deployment patterns necessary for a successful seduction of the MANPAD.

  18. Serum Levels of IL-6 Type Cytokines and Soluble IL-6 Receptors in Active B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and in Cladribine Induced Remission

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    T. Robak

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and two IL-6 family cytokines-oncostatin M (OSM and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF-in 63 patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL and 17 healthy controls using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Simultaneously, we measured the serum levels of the soluble forms of two subunits of the IL-6 receptor complex-ligand binding glycoprotein 80 (sIL-6R and glycoprotein 130 (sgp130. The cytokines and receptors were evaluated in 25 untreated patients and 38 patients treated with cladribine (2-CdA, as well as in 17 healthy controls. We have correlated the serum levels of these proteins with Rai's clinical stage of the disease, the response to 2-CdA treatment and some hematological parameters. We have also evaluated the correlation of the IL-6 serum level with the concentration of OSM and IL-6 soluble receptors. IL-6 was measurable in 62/63 (98.4%, OSM in 20/25 (80% of untreated and 14/38 (37.8% of the treated patients. sIL-6R and sgp130 were detectable in all 63 patients and LIF in none of the CLL patients. IL-6 serum level in untreated patients was not significantly different as compared to its concentration in the control group (P>0.05. However, in the patients treated with 2-CdA the IL-6 level was significantly lower (P0.05. We have found significant positive correlation between the levels of sIL6R and the lymphocytes count in CLL patients (Ρ=0.423; P<0.001. In addition, sIL-6R and OSM serum concentrations correlated also with CLL Rai stage. In conclusion, the serum level of IL-6, OSM and sIL-6R, but not LIF and sgp130, are useful indicators of CLL activity.

  19. Plasma levels of leptin and soluble leptin receptor and polymorphisms of leptin gene -18G > A and leptin receptor genes K109R and Q223R, in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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    Gozdzik Jolanta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 20% of children and adolescents in Europe are overweight. Survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL are at increased risk of overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess leptin and leptin soluble receptor levels, as well as polymorphisms of selected genes in survivors of pediatric ALL, and the influence of chemo- and radiotherapy on development of overweight in the context of leptin regulation. Methods Eighty two patients (55% males, of median age 13.2 years (m: 4.8 years; M: 26.2 years were included in the study. The ALL therapy was conducted according to modified Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (BFM; n = 69 regimen or New York (n = 13 regimen. In 38% of patients cranial radiotherapy (CRT was used in median dose of 18.2Gy (m: 14Gy; M: 24Gy. Median age at diagnosis was 4.5 (m: 1 year; M: 16.9 years and median time from completion of ALL treatment was 3.2 years (m: 0.5 year; M: 4.3 years. Patients with BMI ≥85 percentile were classified as overweight. Correlation of plasma levels of leptin and leptin soluble receptor, and polymorphisms of leptin gene -18G > A, leptin receptor genes K109R and Q223R, and the overweight status were analyzed in relation to gender, intensity of chemotherapy (high intensity vs. standard intensity regimens and to the use of CRT. Results Significant differences of leptin levels in patients treated with and without CRT, both in the entire study group (22.2+/- 3.13 ng/ml vs. 14.9+/-1.6 ng/ml; p Conclusions The prevalence of overweight in our cohort was higher than in general European population (31% vs 20% and increased regardless of the use of CRT. Leptin and leptin receptor levels may be used as useful markers of high risk of becoming overweight in ALL survivors, particularly in females treated with CRT. Polymorphisms of leptin gene -18G > A and leptin receptor genes K109R and Q223R were not associated with overweight status in ALL survivors.

  20. Soluble ligands for the NKG2D receptor are released during endometriosis and correlate with disease severity.

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    Iñaki González-Foruria

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a benign gynaecological disease. Abundant bulk of evidence suggests that patients with endometriosis have an immunity dysfunction that enables ectopic endometrial cells to implant and proliferate. Previous studies show that natural killer cells have a pivotal role in the immune control of endometriosis.This is a prospective laboratory study conducted in a tertiary-care university hospital between January 2011 and April 2013. We investigated non-pregnant, younger than 42-year-old patients (n= 202 during surgery for benign gynaecological conditions. After complete surgical exploration of the abdominopelvic cavity, 121 women with histologically proven endometriosis and 81 endometriosis-free controls women were enrolled. Patients with endometriosis were classified according to a surgical classification in three different types of endometriosis: superficial peritoneal endometriosis (SUP, ovarian endometrioma (OMA and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE. Peritoneal fluid samples were obtained from all study participants during the surgery in order to detect soluble NKG2D ligands (MICA, MICB and ULBP-2. When samples with undetectable peritoneal fluid levels of MICA, MICB and ULBP-2 were excluded, MICA ratio levels were significantly higher in endometriosis patients than in controls (median, 1.1 pg/mg; range, 0.1-143.5 versus median, 0.6 pg/mg; range, 0.1-3.5; p=0.003. In a similar manner peritoneal fluid MICB levels were also increased in endometriosis-affected patients compared with disease-free women (median, 4.6 pg/mg; range, 1.2-4702 versus median, 3.4 pg/mg; range, 0.7-20.1; p=0.001. According to the surgical classification, peritoneal fluid soluble MICA, MICB and ULBP-2 ratio levels were significantly increased in DIE as compared to controls (p=0.015, p=0.003 and p=0.045 respectively. MICA ratio levels also correlated with dysmenorrhea (r=0.232; p=0.029, total rAFS score (r=0.221; p=0.031 and adhesions rAFS score (r=0.221; p=0

  1. A compartment model of VEGF distribution in humans in the presence of soluble VEGF receptor-1 acting as a ligand trap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence T H Wu

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, through its activation of cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases including VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, is a vital regulator of stimulatory and inhibitory processes that keep angiogenesis--new capillary growth from existing microvasculature--at a dynamic balance in normal physiology. Soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR1--a naturally-occurring truncated version of VEGFR1 lacking the transmembrane and intracellular signaling domains--has been postulated to exert inhibitory effects on angiogenic signaling via two mechanisms: direct sequestration of angiogenic ligands such as VEGF; or dominant-negative heterodimerization with surface VEGFRs. In pre-clinical studies, sVEGFR1 gene and protein therapy have demonstrated efficacy in inhibiting tumor angiogenesis; while in clinical studies, sVEGFR1 has shown utility as a diagnostic or prognostic marker in a widening array of angiogenesis-dependent diseases. Here we developed a novel computational multi-tissue model for recapitulating the dynamic systemic distributions of VEGF and sVEGFR1. Model features included: physiologically-based multi-scale compartmentalization of the human body; inter-compartmental macromolecular biotransport processes (vascular permeability, lymphatic drainage; and molecularly-detailed binding interactions between the ligand isoforms VEGF(121 and VEGF(165, signaling receptors VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, non-signaling co-receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP1, as well as sVEGFR1. The model was parameterized to represent a healthy human subject, whereupon we investigated the effects of sVEGFR1 on the distribution and activation of VEGF ligands and receptors. We assessed the healthy baseline stability of circulating VEGF and sVEGFR1 levels in plasma, as well as their reliability in indicating tissue-level angiogenic signaling potential. Unexpectedly, simulated results showed that sVEGFR1 - acting as a diffusible VEGF sink alone, i.e., without sVEGFR1-VEGFR heterodimerization

  2. Plasma Levels of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and Coronary Atherosclerosis: Possible Correlation with Clinical Presentation

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    Colomba Falcone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (RAGE is a multi-ligand receptor ubiquitous present on epithelial, neuronal, vascular and inflammatory cells, usually expressed at low levels in homeostasis and to increased degrees at sites of stress or injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sRAGE plasma levels in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS and to assess its diagnostic efficacy in identification of patients with acute events. Plasma levels of sRAGE were determined in 860 patients with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD: 530 patients presented stable angina and 330 were observed during acute ischemic event (147 with unstable angina and 183 with myocardial infarction. sRAGE plasma levels were significantly lower in patients with ACS than in patients with stable angina: [median 584 pg/mL (IQR: 266–851 pg/mL in MI patients, median 769 pg/mL (IQR: 394–987 pg/mL in patients with unstable angina, median 834 pg/mL (IQR 630–1005 pg/mL in patients with stable angina; P<0.001]. sRAGE levels did not differ among ACS patients stratified by the extent of coronary artery disease. In conclusion, this study confirm the role of sRAGE in activation and progression of inflammatory process and suggests the possibility that sRAGE can be considered an indicator of destabilization of vulnerable plaque.

  3. Up-regulation of thromboxane A2 receptor expression by lipid soluble smoking particles through post-transcriptional mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yaping; Edvinsson, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a key factor in vascular disease, and cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor that may induce an inflammatory response and enhance plaque formation in arteries. Thromboxane (Tx) is one key inflammatory mediator involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The p...... are responsible for the up-regulation of TP receptor by DSP, in which enhanced translation is the major cause of the elevated protein expression and the enhanced contraction.......Atherosclerosis is a key factor in vascular disease, and cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor that may induce an inflammatory response and enhance plaque formation in arteries. Thromboxane (Tx) is one key inflammatory mediator involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease....../ml for 24h) resulted in markedly elevated contractile responses to the Tx analog U46619, compared with the control DMSO. There was no increase in TP receptor mRNA expression, while the protein expression was significantly enhanced. This up-regulation was not affected by a general transcriptional inhibitor...

  4. The effect of capsaicin on circulating biomarkers, soluble tumor necrosis factor and soluble tumor necrosis factor-receptor-1 and -2 levels in vivo using lipopolysaccharide-treated mice

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    Yoshio Ijiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The circulating soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF and sTNF-receptor (R 1 and -R2 have known as septic biomarker. The pungent component of capsicum, capsaicin (Cap, has several associated physiological activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of Cap on circulating sTNF and sTNF-R1 and -R2 in vivo using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated mice. LPS (20 mg/kg, ip-treated group was significantly increased circulating sTNF, sTNF-R1, and -R2 and TNF-α mRNA expression levels compared to the vehicle group. Treatment with LPS (20 mg/kg, ip + Cap (4 mg/kg, sc-treated group was significantly decreased both circulating sTNF levels (after 1 h only and TNF-α mRNA expression (after 6 h compared to the LPS-treated group. There is an early increase in circulating sTNF, sTNR-R1, and -R2 observed in the LPS-treated mice. Since Cap inhibits this initial increase as biomarkers, circulating sTNF, it is considered a potent treatment option for TNF-α-related diseases, such as septicemia. In conclusion, Cap interferes with TNF-α mRNA transcription and exerts an inhibiting effect on TNF-α release from macrophages in the early phase after LPS stimulation. Thus, Cap is considered a potent agent for the treatment of TNF-α-related diseases, such as septicemia.

  5. Microvesicle-mediated release of soluble LH/hCG receptor (LHCGR from transfected cells and placenta explants

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    Randeva Harpal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Placental hCG and pitutary LH transduce signals in target tissues through a common receptor (LHCGR. We demonstrate that recombinant LHCGR proteins which include the hormone-binding domain are secreted from transfected cells and that natural LHCGR is also secreted from human placental explants. LHCGR recombinant proteins representing varying lengths of the N-terminal extracellular domain were expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells in suspension culture. Secretion was minimal up to 72h but by 96h 24-37% of the LHCGR had been released into the culture medium. The secreted proteins were folded and sensitive to glycosidases suggesting N-linked glycosylation. Secretion was independent of recombinant size and was mediated via structurally defined membrane vesicles (50-150nm. Similarly cultured human early pregnancy placental explants also released LHCGR via microvesicles. These studies provide the first experimental evidence of the possible mechanistic basis of the secretion of LHCGR.

  6. Soluble CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger J

    2012-01-01

    CD163 is an endocytic receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes and is expressed solely on macrophages and monocytes. As a result of ectodomain shedding, the extracellular portion of CD163 circulates in blood as a soluble protein (sCD163) at 0.7-3.9 mg/l in healthy individuals. The function...

  7. Structure and decoy-mediated inhibition of the SOX18/Prox1-DNA interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Miriam; Prokoph, Nina; Girbig, Mathias; Wang, Xuecong; Huang, Yong-Heng; Srivastava, Yogesh; Hou, Linlin; Narasimhan, Kamesh; Kolatkar, Prasanna R; Francois, Mathias; Jauch, Ralf

    2016-05-05

    The transcription factor (TF) SOX18 drives lymphatic vessel development in both embryogenesis and tumour-induced neo-lymphangiogenesis. Genetic disruption of Sox18 in a mouse model protects from tumour metastasis and established the SOX18 protein as a molecular target. Here, we report the crystal structure of the SOX18 DNA binding high-mobility group (HMG) box bound to a DNA element regulating Prox1 transcription. The crystals diffracted to 1.75Å presenting the highest resolution structure of a SOX/DNA complex presently available revealing water structure, structural adjustments at the DNA contact interface and non-canonical conformations of the DNA backbone. To explore alternatives to challenging small molecule approaches for targeting the DNA-binding activity of SOX18, we designed a set of five decoys based on modified Prox1-DNA. Four decoys potently inhibited DNA binding of SOX18 in vitro and did not interact with non-SOX TFs. Serum stability, nuclease resistance and thermal denaturation assays demonstrated that a decoy circularized with a hexaethylene glycol linker and terminal phosphorothioate modifications is most stable. This SOX decoy also interfered with the expression of a luciferase reporter under control of a SOX18-dependent VCAM1 promoter in COS7 cells. Collectively, we propose SOX decoys as potential strategy for inhibiting SOX18 activity to disrupt tumour-induced neo-lymphangiogenesis. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with a passive decoy state method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2017-02-13

    Recently, a new type of protocol named Round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution (RRDPS QKD) was proposed, where the security can be guaranteed without monitoring conventional signal disturbances. The active decoy state method can be used in this protocol to overcome the imperfections of the source. But, it may lead to side channel attacks and break the security of QKD systems. In this paper, we apply the passive decoy state method to the RRDPS QKD protocol. Not only can the more environment disturbance be tolerated, but in addition it can overcome side channel attacks on the sources. Importantly, we derive a new key generation rate formula for our RRDPS protocol using passive decoy states and enhance the key generation rate. We also compare the performance of our RRDPS QKD to that using the active decoy state method and the original RRDPS QKD without any decoy states. From numerical simulations, the performance improvement of the RRDPS QKD by our new method can be seen.

  9. Practical passive decoy state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with unstable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2017-09-12

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with the active decoy state method can remove all detector loopholes, and resist the imperfections of sources. But it may lead to side channel attacks and break the security of QKD system. In this paper, we apply the passive decoy state method to the MDI-QKD based on polarization encoding mode. Not only all attacks on detectors can be removed, but also the side channel attacks on sources can be overcome. We get that the MDI-QKD with our passive decoy state method can have a performance comparable to the protocol with the active decoy state method. To fit for the demand of practical application, we discuss intensity fluctuation in the security analysis of MDI-QKD protocol using passive decoy state method, and derive the key generation rate for our protocol with intensity fluctuation. It shows that intensity fluctuation has an adverse effect on the key generation rate which is non-negligible, especially in the case of small data size of total transmitting signals and long distance transmission. We give specific simulations on the relationship between intensity fluctuation and the key generation rate. Furthermore, the statistical fluctuation due to the finite length of data is also taken into account.

  10. Aberrant plasma IL-7 and soluble IL-7 receptor levels indicate impaired T-cell response to IL-7 in human tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lundtoft

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available T-cell proliferation and generation of protective memory during chronic infections depend on Interleukin-7 (IL-7 availability and receptivity. Regulation of IL-7 receptor (IL-7R expression and signalling are key for IL-7-modulated T-cell functions. Aberrant expression of soluble (s and membrane-associated (m IL-7R molecules is associated with development of autoimmunity and immune failure in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS patients. Here we investigated the role of IL-7/IL-7R on T-cell immunity in human tuberculosis. We performed two independent case-control studies comparing tuberculosis patients and healthy contacts. This was combined with follow-up examinations for a subgroup of tuberculosis patients under therapy and recovery. Blood plasma and T cells were characterised for IL-7/sIL-7R and mIL-7R expression, respectively. IL-7-dependent T-cell functions were determined by analysing STAT5 phosphorylation, antigen-specific cytokine release and by analysing markers of T-cell exhaustion and inflammation. Tuberculosis patients had lower soluble IL-7R (p < 0.001 and higher IL-7 (p < 0.001 plasma concentrations as compared to healthy contacts. Both markers were largely independent and aberrant expression normalised during therapy and recovery. Furthermore, tuberculosis patients had lower levels of mIL-7R in T cells caused by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Functional in vitro tests indicated diminished IL-7-induced STAT5 phosphorylation and impaired IL-7-promoted cytokine release of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells from tuberculosis patients. Finally, we determined T-cell exhaustion markers PD-1 and SOCS3 and detected increased SOCS3 expression during therapy. Only moderate correlation of PD-1 and SOCS3 with IL-7 expression was observed. We conclude that diminished soluble IL-7R and increased IL-7 plasma concentrations, as well as decreased membrane-associated IL-7R expression in T cells, reflect impaired T

  11. Aberrant plasma IL-7 and soluble IL-7 receptor levels indicate impaired T-cell response to IL-7 in human tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundtoft, Christian; Afum-Adjei Awuah, Anthony; Rimpler, Jens; Harling, Kirstin; Nausch, Norman; Kohns, Malte; Adankwah, Ernest; Lang, Franziska; Olbrich, Laura; Mayatepek, Ertan; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Jacobsen, Marc

    2017-06-01

    T-cell proliferation and generation of protective memory during chronic infections depend on Interleukin-7 (IL-7) availability and receptivity. Regulation of IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) expression and signalling are key for IL-7-modulated T-cell functions. Aberrant expression of soluble (s) and membrane-associated (m) IL-7R molecules is associated with development of autoimmunity and immune failure in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Here we investigated the role of IL-7/IL-7R on T-cell immunity in human tuberculosis. We performed two independent case-control studies comparing tuberculosis patients and healthy contacts. This was combined with follow-up examinations for a subgroup of tuberculosis patients under therapy and recovery. Blood plasma and T cells were characterised for IL-7/sIL-7R and mIL-7R expression, respectively. IL-7-dependent T-cell functions were determined by analysing STAT5 phosphorylation, antigen-specific cytokine release and by analysing markers of T-cell exhaustion and inflammation. Tuberculosis patients had lower soluble IL-7R (p < 0.001) and higher IL-7 (p < 0.001) plasma concentrations as compared to healthy contacts. Both markers were largely independent and aberrant expression normalised during therapy and recovery. Furthermore, tuberculosis patients had lower levels of mIL-7R in T cells caused by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Functional in vitro tests indicated diminished IL-7-induced STAT5 phosphorylation and impaired IL-7-promoted cytokine release of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells from tuberculosis patients. Finally, we determined T-cell exhaustion markers PD-1 and SOCS3 and detected increased SOCS3 expression during therapy. Only moderate correlation of PD-1 and SOCS3 with IL-7 expression was observed. We conclude that diminished soluble IL-7R and increased IL-7 plasma concentrations, as well as decreased membrane-associated IL-7R expression in T cells, reflect impaired T-cell sensitivity to IL-7 in

  12. Production of bioactive soluble interleukin-15 in complex with interleukin-15 receptor alpha from a conditionally-replicating oncolytic HSV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Gaston

    Full Text Available Oncolytic type-1 herpes simplex viruses (oHSVs lacking the γ134.5 neurovirulence gene are being evaluated for treatment of a variety of malignancies. oHSVs replicate within and directly kill permissive cancer cells. To augment their anti-tumor activity, oHSVs have been engineered to express immunostimulatory molecules, including cytokines, to elicit tumor-specific immune responses. Interleukin-15 (IL-15 holds potential as an immunotherapeutic cytokine because it has been demonstrated to promote both natural killer (NK cell-mediated and CD8(+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity against cancer cells. The purpose of these studies was to engineer an oHSV producing bioactive IL-15. Two oHSVs were constructed encoding murine (mIL-15 alone (J100 or with the mIL-15 receptor α (mIL-15Rα, J100D to determine whether co-expression of these proteins is required for production of bioactive mIL-15 from oHSV. The following were demonstrated: i both oHSVs retain replication competence and cytotoxicity in permissive tumor cell lines. ii Enhanced production of mIL-15 was detected in cell lysates of neuro-2a cells following J100D infection as compared to J100 infection, suggesting that mIL-15Rα improved mIL-15 production. iii Soluble mIL-15 in complex with mIL-15Rα was detected in supernates from J100D-infected, but not J100-infected, neuro-2a, GL261, and CT-2A cells. These cell lines vary in permissiveness to oHSV replication and cytotoxicity, demonstrating soluble mIL-15/IL-15Rα complex production from J100D was independent of direct oHSV effects. iv The soluble mIL-15/IL-15Rα complex produced by J100D was bioactive, stimulating NK cells to proliferate and reduce the viability of syngeneic GL261 and CT-2A cells. v J100 and J100D were aneurovirulent inasmuch as no neuropathologic effects were documented following direct inoculation into brains of CBA/J mice at up to 1x10(7 plaque forming units. The production of mIL-15/mIL-15Rα from multiple tumor lines, as well

  13. Cytokines and Bone Loss in a 5-Year Longitudinal Study—Hormone Replacement Therapy Suppresses Serum Soluble Interleukin-6 Receptor and Increases Interleukin-1-Receptor Antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B.; Bonnevie-Nielsen, V.; Ebbesen, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and IL-6 may play a central role in the acceleration of postmenopausal bone loss, but observational studies have led to contradictory results. Estrogen-dependent changes in the production of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra...... observed in the control group. IL-1ra was inversely correlated with bone loss at the ultradistal forearm (r = 0.29; p bone loss at the ultradistal forearm (r = 0.26; p ....05). High IL-6 levels were associated with slower bone loss (spine r = 0.31, p bone loss at the femoral neck (r = -0.29; p bone loss in the spine (r = -0...

  14. Soluble leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 in amniotic fluid is of fetal origin and positively associates with lung compliance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel L Houben

    Full Text Available The soluble form of the inhibitory immune receptor leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 (sLAIR-1 is present in plasma, urine and synovial fluid and correlates to inflammation. We and others previously showed inflammatory protein expression in normal amniotic fluid at term. We hypothesized that sLAIR-1 is present in amniotic fluid during term parturition and is related to fetal lung function development. sLAIR-1 was detectable in all amniotic fluid samples (n=355 collected during term spontaneous deliveries. First, potential intra-uterine origins of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 were explored. Although LAIR-1 was expressed on the surface of amniotic fluid neutrophils, LAIR-1 was not secreted upon ex vivo neutrophil stimulation with LPS, or PMA/ionomycin. Cord blood concentrations of sLAIR-1 were fourfold lower than and not related to amniotic fluid concentrations and placentas showed no or only sporadic LAIR-1 positive cells. Similarly, in post-mortem lung tissue of term neonates that died of non-pulmonary disorders LAIR-1 positive cells were absent or only sporadically present. In fetal urine samples, however, sLAIR-1 levels were even higher than in amniotic fluid and correlated with amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 concentrations. Second, the potential relevance of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 was studied. sLAIR-1 concentrations had low correlation to amniotic fluid cytokines. We measured neonatal lung function in a convenient subset of 152 infants, using the single occlusion technique, at a median age of 34 days (IQR 30-39. The amniotic fluid concentration of sLAIR-1 was independently correlated to airway compliance (ρ=0.29, P=.001. Taken together, we show the consistent presence of sLAIR-1 in amniotic fluid, which originates from fetal urine. Concentrations of sLAIR-1 in amniotic fluid during term deliveries are independent from levels of other soluble immune mediators. The positive association between concentrations of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 and neonatal lung

  15. Levels of circulating soluble receptor activator of NF-κB and interleukins-1 predicting outcome of locally advanced basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Quan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Duo; Jin, Hongjuan

    2016-12-01

    Decreasing levels of cytokines are associated with better responses to therapies, while increasing levels are related to progression or recurrence and decreased survival. NF-κB's role in the cell cycle and its ubiquity are only stressed out by the evidence for the importance of activation (aberrant activation in the majority of cancers) of both canonical and non-canonical pathways in advanced basal cell carcinomas (aBCCs), a subset of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). NF-κB acts through its canonical, or classical, form activated by interleukin-1 (IL-1), regulates cytoprotective, innate, and adaptive immune responses. However, NF-κB2 often acts through its non-canonical or alternate pathway. During the two-year study period, we selected 21 patients presenting with aBCCs due to delay in accessing medical attention with an advanced form of BCCs (n = 19) and infiltrative BCCs (n = 2). Initial diagnosis of BCCs of head and neck was made clinically and verified by skin biopsy. Venous blood was drawn and serum was obtained. Samples were collected at baseline and every three days thereafter (days 3, 6, 9, etc. until surgery). Antigenes' quantities (cytokines) were determined by ELISA kits. Initially, the mean value of all cytokine subjects was significantly different related to the control group (P <0.05). Changes in serum levels of circulating soluble receptor activator of NF-κB and interleukins-1 (α and β) were observed following the surgery. Changes in serum levels of circulating soluble receptor activator of NF-κB and interleukins-1 (α and β) are evident throughout our study period and a certain regularity in its dynamics is evident as the follow-up period moves away. It was therefore concluded that measurement of these factors might be useful in predicting the overall outcome of patients with aBCCs. This study highlights the systemic effects of aBCCs, but further studies are required on this topic. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Expression, Purification, and Biophysical Characterization of a Secreted Anthrax Decoy Fusion Protein in Nicotiana benthamiana

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    Kalimuthu Karuppanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax toxin receptor-mediated drug development for blocking anthrax toxin action has received much attention in recent decades. In this study, we produced a secreted anthrax decoy fusion protein comprised of a portion of the human capillary morphogenesis gene-2 (CMG2 protein fused via a linker to the fragment crystallizable (Fc domain of human immunoglobulin G1 in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using a transient expression system. Using the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV 35S promoter and co-expression with the p19 gene silencing suppressor, we were able to achieve a high level of recombinant CMG2-Fc-Apo (rCMG2-Fc-Apo protein accumulation. Production kinetics were observed up to eight days post-infiltration, and maximum production of 826 mg/kg fresh leaf weight was observed on day six. Protein A affinity chromatography purification of the rCMG2-Fc-Apo protein from whole leaf extract and apoplast wash fluid showed the homodimeric form under non-reducing gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the molecular integrity of the secreted protein. The N-glycosylation pattern of purified rCMG2-Fc-Apo protein was analysed; the major portion of N-glycans consists of complex type structures in both protein samples. The most abundant (>50% N-glycan structure was GlcNAc2(XylMan3(FucGlcNAc2 in rCMG2-Fc-Apo recovered from whole leaf extract and apoplast wash fluid. High mannose N-glycan structures were not detected in the apoplast wash fluid preparation, which confirmed the protein secretion. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that high-level production of rCMG2-Fc-Apo can be achieved by transient production in Nicotiana benthamiana plants with apoplast targeting.

  17. Opposing roles of membrane and soluble forms of the receptor for advanced glycation end products in primary respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Allison L; Sims, Gary P; Brewah, Yambasu A; Rebelatto, Marlon C; Kearley, Jennifer; Benjamin, Ebony; Keller, Ashley E; Brohawn, Philip; Herbst, Ronald; Coyle, Anthony J; Humbles, Alison A; Kolbeck, Roland

    2012-04-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a common respiratory pathogen in infants and the older population, causes pulmonary inflammation and airway occlusion that leads to impairment of lung function. Here, we have established a role for receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in RSV infection. RAGE-deficient (ager(-/-)) mice were protected from RSV-induced weight loss and inflammation. This protection correlated with an early increase in type I interferons, later decreases in proinflammatory cytokines, and a reduction in viral load. To assess the contribution of soluble RAGE (sRAGE) to RSV-induced disease, wild-type and ager(-/-) mice were given doses of sRAGE following RSV infection. Of interest, sRAGE treatment prevented RSV-induced weight loss and neutrophilic inflammation to a degree similar to that observed in ager(-/-) mice. Our work further elucidates the roles of RAGE in the pathogenesis of respiratory infections and highlights the opposing roles of membrane and sRAGE in modulating the host response to RSV infection.

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the VEGF soluble receptor-1 (sFlt-1) in chorionic villus tissue from Chinese women with early recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, L-H; Li, M-J; Li, M-Q; Yang, D-M; Shi, L

    2011-01-01

    This case-control study explored the relationship between early recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and the expression of two genes: VEGFA, the gene encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); and fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (FLT1), the gene encoding the soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sFlt-1). Women experiencing RSA or undergoing induced abortions in the early stage of normal pregnancy were recruited to the study (n = 30 per group). There were no significant between-group differences in maternal age or duration of pregnancy. The levels of VEGF and sFlt-1 mRNA in chorionic villus tissue samples were examined by quanti tative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Levels of sFlt-1 and VEGF mRNA in the chorionic villus tissue of women with RSA were significantly higher than levels in the control group. This study demonstrated that there is a relationship between early RSA and VEGF and sFlt-1 levels, suggesting that over-expression of the FLT1 and VEGFA genes may be associated with the pathogenesis of RSA.

  19. Relationships between vitreous levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and renal function in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Makiko; Shoji, Jun; Kato, Satoshi; Kitano, Shigehiko; Uchigata, Yasuko

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the relationship between vitreous levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and renal function, and correlations between vitreous sRAGE levels and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) activity. We examined 33 eyes from 33 patients with diabetes mellitus who underwent a vitrectomy (eight patients in the non-PDR [NPDR] group and 25 in the PDR group). Serum creatinine levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were measured and classified according to the chronic kidney disease (CKD)-staging method. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to quantify vitreous sRAGE and VEGF levels. Vitreous sRAGE levels were significantly higher in PDR group compared to NPDR group (p = 0.00003). Vitreous sRAGE levels were significantly higher in patients with CKD stage 5 (end-stage renal failure or hemodialysis) than in patients with CKD stage 1 or 2 (p vitreous surgeries for early postoperative vitreous hemorrhage significantly more frequently than those with high (≥27 pg/mL) sRAGE levels (p = 0.0067). Vitreous sRAGE levels were significantly correlated with renal function, and low vitreous sRAGE levels in patients with PDR were associated with postoperative vitreous hemorrhage. Vitreous sRAGE may be a useful biomarker for renal dysfunction associated with diabetic retinopathy.

  20. Serum level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha correlates with the clinical course and activity of Wilms' tumour and soft tissue sarcomas in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, E; Balcerska, A; Kuchta, G

    2007-01-01

    Wilms' tumour (WT) and soft tissue sarcomas (SA) in children lack reliable biochemical markers. This study was carried out to determine the clinical significance of serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Ralpha) in the diagnostics and treatment monitoring of children with WT and SA. The study included 48 children: ten with WT, eight with SA and 30 healthy controls. The sIL-2Ralpha levels (ELISA) and rates of elevated sIL-2Ralpha values were estimated prospectively at diagnosis and in complete remission during treatment and after therapy. As the dependence on age was determined, the levels of sIL-2Ralpha were expressed as multiplications of the upper value of the normal range for a particular age ( xN). Median pretreatment levels of sIL-2Ralpha in patients exceeded those of healthy controls (1.79 xN for WT and 1.53 for SA vs. 0.61 for controls; p < 0.001) as did the rates of elevated sIL-2Ralpha values (80% of WTand 87.5% of SA patients vs. 0% of controls). Good response to therapy was paralleled by a significant decline of pretreatment sIL-2Ralpha levels and its elevated rates. Thus, sIL-2Ralpha determination may be of some value in the diagnostics and treatment monitoring of childhood WT and SA.

  1. Experimental pain ratings and reactivity of cortisol and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor II following a trial of hypnosis: results of a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Burel R; Quinn, Noel B; Kronfli, Tarek; King, Christopher D; Page, Gayle G; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Edwards, Robert R; Stapleton, Laura M; McGuire, Lynanne

    2012-01-01

    Current evidence supports the efficacy of hypnosis for reducing the pain associated with experimental stimulation and various acute and chronic conditions; however, the mechanisms explaining how hypnosis exerts its effects remain less clear. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and pro-inflammatory cytokines represent potential targets for investigation given their purported roles in the perpetuation of painful conditions; yet, no clinical trials have thus far examined the influence of hypnosis on these mechanisms. Healthy participants, highly susceptible to the effects of hypnosis, were randomized to either a hypnosis intervention or a no-intervention control. Using a cold pressor task, assessments of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were collected prior to the intervention (Pre) and following the intervention (Post) along with pain-provoked changes in salivary cortisol and the soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor II (sTNFαRII). Compared with the no-intervention control, data analyses revealed that hypnosis significantly reduced pain intensity and pain unpleasantness. Hypnosis was not significantly associated with suppression of cortisol or sTNFαRII reactivity to acute pain from Pre to Post; however, the effect sizes for these associations were medium-sized. Overall, the findings from this randomized controlled pilot study support the importance of a future large-scale study on the effects of hypnosis for modulating pain-related changes of the HPA axis and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pregnancy Followed by Delivery May Affect Circulating Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 Levels in Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective. It is known that menopause or lack of endogenous estrogen is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and CAD. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1 is involved inmultiple phases of vascular dysfunction.The purpose of the current study was to determine the association between soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1 and pregnancy followed by delivery in women of reproductive age. Materials/Methods. Sixty-eight subjects with pregnancy followed by delivery (group 1 and 57 subjects with nongravidity (group 2 were included in this study. Levels of sLOX-1 were measured in serum by EL SA. Results. Plasma levels of sLOX-1 were significantly lower in Group 1 than Group 2 in women of reproductive age (0.52±0.18 ng/mL and 0.78±0.13, resp., <0.001. There were strong correlations between sLOX-1 levels and the number of gravida (=−0.645, <0.001. The levels of sLOX-1 highly correlated with the number of parous (=−0.683, <0.001. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that serum sLOX-1 levels were associated with pregnancy followed by delivery that might predict endothelial dysfunction. We conclude that pregnancy followed by delivery may delay the beginning and progress of arteriosclerosis and its clinical manifestations in women of reproductive age.

  3. Systemic soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproducts is a biomarker of emphysema and associated with AGER genetic variants in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Donavan T; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Cockayne, Debra A; Belousov, Anton; Bitter, Hans; Cho, Michael H; Duvoix, Annelyse; Edwards, Lisa D; Lomas, David A; Miller, Bruce E; Reynaert, Niki; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Wouters, Emiel F M; Agustí, Alvar; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Rames, Alex; Visvanathan, Sudha; Rennard, Stephen I; Jones, Paul; Parmar, Harsukh; MacNee, William; Wolff, Gerhard; Silverman, Edwin K; Mayer, Ruth J; Pillai, Sreekumar G

    2013-10-15

    Emphysema in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be characterized by high-resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT); however, the repeated use of HRCT is limited because of concerns regarding radiation exposure and cost. To evaluate biomarkers associated with emphysema and COPD-related clinical characteristics, and to assess the relationships of soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (sRAGE), a candidate systemic biomarker identified in this study, with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene coding for RAGE (AGER locus) and with clinical characteristics. Circulating levels of 111 biomarkers were analyzed for association with clinical characteristics in 410 patients with COPD enrolled in the TESRA study. sRAGE was also measured in the ECLIPSE cohort in 1,847 patients with COPD, 298 smokers and 204 nonsmokers. The association between 21 SNPs in the AGER locus with sRAGE levels and clinical characteristics was also investigated. sRAGE was identified as a biomarker of diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide and lung density in the TESRA cohort. In the ECLIPSE cohort, lower sRAGE levels were associated with increased emphysema, increased Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage, and COPD disease status. The associations with emphysema in both cohorts remained significant after covariate adjustment (P emphysema severity and genetic polymorphisms in the AGER locus are associated with systemic sRAGE levels. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00413205 and NCT 00292552).

  4. Determinants of concentrations of N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products and their associations with risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhigang; Chen, Guoqing; Chen, Liang; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Mannisto, Satu; White, Donna L; Albanes, Demetrius; Jiao, Li

    2014-01-01

    The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) is shown to mitigate pro-inflammatory effects triggered by ligation of RAGE with N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML)-AGE or other ligands. We examined the associations among host, lifestyle, and genetic determinants of CML-AGE or sRAGE and risk of pancreatic cancer in the prospective ATBC Study. We obtained baseline exposure information, data on serological and genetic biomarkers from 141 patients with pancreatic cancer and 141 subcohort controls. Stepwise linear and logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that CML-AGE concentrations were independently inversely correlated with the minor allele of rs640742 of DDOST, physical activity, alcohol consumption, diastolic blood pressure (BP), and positively correlated with heart rate, serum sRAGE and HDL concentrations (P associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer (any T compared with CC: multivariate OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.38-0.98). We identified host metabolic profile, lifestyle and genetic factors that explained approximately 50% of variability of CML-AGE or sRAGE in Finnish men smokers. The association between RAGE SNPs and pancreatic cancer risk warrants further investigation.

  5. Anti-Drug Antibodies, Drug Levels, Interleukin-6 and Soluble TNF Receptors in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients during the First 6 Months of Treatment with Adalimumab or Infliximab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eng, Grith Petersen; Bouchelouche, Pierre; Bartels, Else Marie

    2016-01-01

    -TNFi Abs). METHODS: Blood samples from 26 patients with established RA were taken at baseline and following 6 months of treatment with adalimumab or infliximab. Samples were analyzed for levels of TNFi, interleukin (IL)-6, and soluble TNF-receptors 1 and -2 (sTNF-R1 and -2) and for presence of anti......-TNFi Abs. Clinical and demographic data were recorded as well. RESULTS: During the initial 6 months treatment, DAS28(CRP) (Disease activity score in 28 joints using C-reactive protein) and levels of IL-6 and sTNF-R2 decreased significantly in patients without anti-TNFi Abs and in patients retaining...... detectable drug levels. The levels of other tested cytokines (TNF-α, TNF-β, IL-1ra, IL-1b, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12(p70), IL-13, IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-33) were generally below detection limits. Higher baseline levels of IL-6 associated with undetectable levels of TNFi at follow-up. Anti-TNFi Abs were associated...

  6. Analysis of the prognostic value of soluble epidermal growth factor receptor plasma concentration in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantus-Lewintre, Eloisa; Sirera, Rafael; Cabrera, Andrea; Blasco, Ana; Caballero, Cristina; Iranzo, Vega; Rosell, Rafael; Camps, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in a variety of epithelial malignancies including lung cancer. A soluble fragment of the EGFR extracellular domain (sEGFR) can be detected in the blood of patients who have non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its clinical/ prognostic role must be further elucidated. sEGFR concentration was retrospectively determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in plasma samples from 308 advanced NSCLC patients (before treatment) and 109 healthy controls and correlated with clinico-pathological variables. The concentration of sEGFR was lower in NSCLC patients than in controls (P concentration and demographic/clinical characteristics such as gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, stage, and number or location of the metastatic sites. sEGFR was lower in patients with progressive disease or in squamous cell carcinoma compared with adenocarcinoma, but these differences were not significant. Patients with sEGFR ≤ 34.56 ng/mL showed a shorter overall survival (median 9.1 versus 12.2 months, P = .019) than others. Moreover, in multivariate analysis, sEGFR remained a significant independent prognostic marker. Low baseline sEGFR is associated with reduced survival in advanced NSCLC. Therefore, our findings in this large cohort of patients suggest that the determination of sEGFR concentration provides valuable prognostic information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Leptin, Leptin Soluble Receptor, and the Free Leptin Index following a Diet and Physical Activity Lifestyle Intervention in Obese Males and Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Herrick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin (LEP is associated with appetite regulation and metabolism. Concentration is linear with adiposity, suggesting LEP resistance. LEP circulates freely and bound with its soluble receptor (sOB-r; the ratio is the free leptin index (FLI, an index of leptin resistance; lower FLI suggests reduced biological action. Purpose. The aim was to determine the effect of changes in adipose tissue distribution on LEP, sOB-r, and FLI following 6 months (6 M of a diet/exercise weight loss program (WLP. In addition, we aim to identify predictors of the FLI. Methods. 6 M WLP consisted of diet/lifestyle interventions following ADA guidelines. Body composition was assessed by DXA. LEP and sOB-r analysis were done via ELISA. Results. 10 adults completed the WLP. Significant reductions were seen in total fat percentage (% fat, nontrunk fat, (NTF, and trunk fat (TF from base to 3 m and 6 M (p≤0.05. The FLI were reduced at 3 M and 6 M for males and 6 M for females. Total body fat and body weight predicted the FLI in both sexes. Conclusions. LEP and FLI reductions following 6 M of WLP were achieved independent of sOB-r changes. We also demonstrate that the FLI can be predicted noninvasively through total fat mass and body weight in kilograms.

  8. Parameter optimization in biased decoy-state quantum key distribution with both source errors and statistical fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-Rong; Li, Jian; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Qin

    2017-10-01

    The decoy-state method has been widely used in commercial quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. In view of the practical decoy-state QKD with both source errors and statistical fluctuations, we propose a universal model of full parameter optimization in biased decoy-state QKD with phase-randomized sources. Besides, we adopt this model to carry out simulations of two widely used sources: weak coherent source (WCS) and heralded single-photon source (HSPS). Results show that full parameter optimization can significantly improve not only the secure transmission distance but also the final key generation rate. And when taking source errors and statistical fluctuations into account, the performance of decoy-state QKD using HSPS suffered less than that of decoy-state QKD using WCS.

  9. The use of decoys to attract Least Terns (Sterna antillarum) to abandoned colony sites in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotliar, Natasha B.; Burger, Joanna

    1984-01-01

    The number of Least Tern colony sites in New Jersey has declined in recent years. Decoys were used at two recently abandoned Least Tern colony sites in New Jersey to encourage nesting. The sites were chosen because of their apparent suitability as colony sites and the relative ease of protecting them from human disturbance and predators. Least Terns were observed flying over and landing at both sites, although nesting occurred at only one site. The effect of decoys was statically significant at the colony site used for nesting. At this site, 44.5% of the landings occurred in the plot containing decoys and only 10.6% o the landings were in the control plot. Nesting was initiated among the decoys. These results indicate that decoys can be used to attract Least Terns to abandoned colony sites and may be useful for managing Least Terns and other colonial nesting birds.

  10. Solubility Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  11. A phase I study of recombinant human soluble interleukin-1 receptor (rhu IL-1R) in patients with relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, S H; Fay, J; Frankel, S; Christiansen, N; Baer, M R; Jacobs, C; Blosch, C; Hanna, R; Herzig, G

    1999-01-01

    The recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor (rhu IL-1R) is a soluble truncated form of the type 1 full-length membrane-bound receptor that binds IL-1 with identical affinity to that of the membrane form. As such, it may have clinical potential by sequestering IL-1, thereby preventing it from binding to its membrane-bound receptor and eliciting a biological effect. As IL-1 has been shown to regulate leukemic cell proliferation in an autocrine fashion, a phase I trial of rhu IL-1R was conducted in patients with relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The study group comprised 11 patients who were sequentially treated on one of three dose levels, receiving a single intravenous (i.v.) bolus dose on day 1 followed by 13 days of daily subcutaneous (s.c.) injections with the option of an additional 14 days of treatment if a response of stable disease or better was achieved. Dose level 1 i.v. bolus 500 microg/m2, s.c. dose 250 microg/m2 per day (five patients); dose level 2 i.v. bolus 1000 microg/m2, s.c. dose 500 microg/m2 per day (three patients); dose level 3 i.v. bolus 2000 microg/m2, s.c. dose 1000 microg/m2 per day (three patients). Owing to limited drug availability, the study was designed to only examine these three dose levels. rhu IL-IR was well tolerated. There was no grade 3 or 4 non-hematological toxicity related to the study drug and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached. No IL-1R-blocking antibodies developed during the course of the study. Serum levels of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF were undetectable before, during and after rhu IL-IR administration. The terminal half-life after i.v. dosing was at least 7-12 h, and after s.c. dosing 2-4 days. Serum levels of rhu IL-1R up to 360- and 25-fold those of pretreatment levels were achieved after i.v. and s.c. dosing respectively. No patient had a complete, partial or minor response to treatment; four had stable disease and seven had progressive disease. rhu IL-1R therapy was safe but did not have

  12. Nanoparticle-delivered multimeric soluble CD40L DNA combined with Toll-Like Receptor agonists as a treatment for melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey W Stone

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of CD40 or Toll-Like Receptors (TLR has potential for tumor immunotherapy. Combinations of CD40 and TLR stimulation can be synergistic, resulting in even stronger dendritic cell (DC and CD8+ T cell responses. To evaluate such combinations, established B16F10 melanoma tumors were injected every other day X 5 with plasmid DNA encoding a multimeric, soluble form of CD40L (pSP-D-CD40L either alone or combined with an agonist for TLR1/2 (Pam(3CSK(4 , TLR2/6 (FSL-1 and MALP2, TLR3 (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, poly(I:C, TLR4 ( monophosphoryl lipid A, MPL, TLR7 (imiquimod, or TLR9 (Class B CpG phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide, CpG. When used by itself, pSP-D-CD40L slowed tumor growth and prolonged survival, but did not lead to cure. Of the TLR agonists, CpG and poly(I:C also slowed tumor growth, and the combination of these two TLR agonists was more effective than either agent alone. The triple combination of intratumoral pSP-D-CD40L + CpG + poly(I:C markedly slowed tumor growth and prolonged survival. This treatment was associated with a reduction in intratumoral CD11c+ dendritic cells and an influx of CD8+ T cells. Since intratumoral injection of plasmid DNA does not lead to efficient transgene expression, pSP-D-CD40L was also tested with cationic polymers that form DNA-containing nanoparticles which lead to enhanced intratumoral gene expression. Intratumoral injections of pSP-D-CD40L-containing nanoparticles formed from polyethylenimine (PEI or C32 (a novel biodegradable poly(B-amino esters polymer in combination with CpG + poly(I:C had dramatic antitumor effects and frequently cured mice of B16F10 tumors. These data confirm and extend previous reports that CD40 and TLR agonists are synergistic and demonstrate that this combination of immunostimulants can significantly suppress tumor growth in mice. In addition, the enhanced effectiveness of nanoparticle formulations of DNA encoding immunostimulatory molecules such as multimeric

  13. Comparison of the antiviral potential among soluble forms of herpes simplex virus type-2 glycoprotein D receptors, herpes virus entry mediator A, nectin-1 and nectin-2, in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yoshikazu; Tomioka, Yukiko; Ozaki, Kinuyo; Takeda, Keiko; Suyama, Haruka; Yamamoto, Sayo; Takakuwa, Hiroki; Morimatsu, Masami; Uede, Toshimitsu; Ono, Etsuro

    2017-07-01

    Herpesvirus entry mediator A (HVEM), nectin-1 and nectin-2 are cellular receptors of glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2). It has been shown that soluble forms of HSV gD receptors have the antiviral potential in cultured cells and transgenic mice. Here, to compare antiviral potential of soluble forms of HVEM, nectin-1 and nectin-2 against HSV-2 infections in vivo, transgenic mice expressing fusion proteins consisting of the entire ectodomain of HVEM, nectin-1 or nectin-2 and the Fc portion of human IgG (HVEMIg, nectin-1Ig and nectin-2Ig, respectively) were intraperitoneally infected with HSV-2. In the infection with 3 MLD50 (50 % mouse lethal dose), effective resistance was not observed in transgenic mice expressing nectin-2Ig. In a transgenic mouse line with high expression of nectin-1Ig, significant protection from the infection with 30 and 300 MLD50 was observed (survival rate of 100 and 71 %, respectively). On the other hand, transgenic mice expressing HVEMIg showed a complete resistance to the lethal infection even with 300 MLD50 (survival rate of 100 %). These results demonstrated that HVEMIg could exert effective antiviral activities against HSV-2 infections in vivo as compared with other soluble forms of HSV gD receptors.

  14. Decoy-state BB84 protocol using space division multiplexing in silicon photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacco, Davide; Ding, Yunhong; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    experiments have already demonstrated conventional binary QKD systems, using polarization and phase reference degrees of freedom [2, 3]. In this paper, we show the first silicon chip-to-chip decoy-state BB84 protocol based on spatial degrees of freedom (the cores of a multi-core fiber-MCF-). By tuning...

  15. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter and Salmonella strains isolated from decoys and raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Tarifa, E; Torralbo, A; Borge, C; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Ayats, T; Carbonero, A; García-Bocanegra, I

    2016-10-01

    Infections caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are the leading causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Wild birds can act as reservoirs of both pathogens. A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of thermotolerant Campylobacter and Salmonella in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The overall prevalence detected for Campylobacter was 5.9% (18/306; CI95%: 3.25-8.52) in decoys and 2.3% (9/387; CI95%: 0.82-3.83) in wild raptors. Isolates were identified as C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari in both bird groups. Salmonella was isolated in 3.3% (10/306; CI95%: 2.3-4.3) and 4.6% (18/394; CI95%: 3.5-5.6) of the decoys and raptors, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium were the most frequently identified serovars, although Salmonella serovars Anatum, Bredeney, London and Mikawasima were also isolated. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates showed higher genetic diversity within Campylobacter species compared to Salmonella serovars. Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, while resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was found in Salmonella isolates. The results indicate that both decoys and raptors can act as natural carriers of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Spain, which may have important implications for public and animal health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A 7-mer knowledge-based potential for detecting native protein structures from decoys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter

    Abstract: The prediction of proteins 3d-structure from its sequence of amino acids, remains a key and very difficult problem in Computational Structural Biology. Often the prediction is divided into two parts: 1) a sampling of decoy structures and 2) the evaluation of an energy function that need......, Geometriae Dedicata, 134(1), 91-107, 2008....

  17. Modelling infrared signatures of ships and decoys for countermeasure effectiveness studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Degache, M.A.C.; Veerman, H.E.T.; Sweeden, R. van; Devecchi, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Infrared guided missiles are a threat for modern naval forces. The vulnerability of ships can be reduced by applying countermeasures such as infrared decoys and infrared signature reduction. This paper presents recent improvements in a simulation toolset which can be used for assessing the

  18. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Improves Risk Prediction in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Lorenz; Stojkovic, Stefan; Richter, Bernhard; Sulzgruber, Patrick; Potolidis, Christos; Liebhart, Florian; Mörtl, Deddo; Berger, Rudolf; Goliasch, Georg; Wojta, Johann; Hülsmann, Martin; Niessner, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the predictive value of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). SuPAR originates from proteolytic cleavage of the membrane-bound receptor from activated immune and endothelial cells and reflects the level of immune activation. As inflammation plays a crucial role in the complex pathophysiology of CHF, we hypothesized that suPAR might be a suitable prognostic biomarker in patients with CHF. SuPAR levels were determined in 319 patients with CHF admitted to our outpatient department for heart failure and in a second cohort consisting of 346 patients with CHF, for validation. During a median follow-up time of 3.2 years, 119 patients (37.3%) died. SuPAR was a strong predictor of mortality with a crude hazard ratio (HR) per increase of 1 SD (HR per 1 SD) of 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63 to 2.35; p < 0.001) in univariate analysis and remained significant after comprehensive multivariate adjustment with an adjusted HR per 1 SD of 1.38 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.83; p = 0.026). SuPAR added prognostic value beyond the multivariate model indicated by improvements in C-statistics (area under the curve: 0.72 vs 0.74, respectively; p = 0.02), the category-free net reclassification index (24.9%; p = 0.032), and the integrated discrimination improvement (0.011; p = 0.05). Validation in the second cohort yielded consistent results. SuPAR is a strong and independent predictor of mortality in patients with CHF, potentially suitable to refine risk assessment in this vulnerable group of patients. Our results emphasize the impact of immune activation on survival in patients with CHF. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Decoy methods for assessing false positives and false discovery rates in shotgun proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Wu, Wells W; Zhang, Zheng; Masilamani, Shyama; Shen, Rong-Fong

    2009-01-01

    The potential of getting a significant number of false positives (FPs) in peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs) obtained by proteomic database search has been well-recognized. Among the attempts to assess FPs, the concomitant use of target and decoy databases is widely practiced. By adjusting filtering criteria, FPs and false discovery rate (FDR) can be controlled at a desired level. Although the target-decoy approach is gaining in popularity, subtle differences in decoy construction (e.g., reversing vs stochastic methods), rate calculation (e.g., total vs unique PSMs), or searching (separate vs composite) do exist among various implementations. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of these differences on FP and FDR estimations using a rat kidney protein sample and the SEQUEST search engine as an example. On the effects of decoy construction, we found that, when a single scoring filter (XCorr) was used, stochastic methods generated a higher estimation of FPs and FDR than sequence reversing methods, likely due to an increase in unique peptides. This higher estimation could largely be attenuated by creating decoy databases similar in effective size but not by a simple normalization with a unique-peptide coefficient. When multiple filters were applied, the differences seen between reversing and stochastic methods significantly diminished, suggesting multiple filterings reduce the dependency on how a decoy is constructed. For a fixed set of filtering criteria, FDR and FPs estimated by using unique PSMs were almost twice those using total PSMs. The higher estimation seemed to be dependent on data acquisition setup. As to the differences between performing separate or composite searches, in general, FDR estimated from the separate search was about three times that from the composite search. The degree of difference gradually decreased as the filtering criteria became more stringent. Paradoxically, the estimated true positives in separate search were higher when

  20. CD8+CD28-lymphocytes in peripheral blood and serum concentrations of soluble interleukin 6 receptor are increased in patients with Graves' orbitopathy and correlate with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowik, Miroslaw; Urbaniak-Kujda, Donata; Bohdanowicz-Pawlak, Anna; Kapelko-Slowik, Katarzyna; Dybko, Jaroslaw; Wolowiec, Dariusz; Jazwiec, Bozena; Daroszewski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    The extrathyroid, orbital manifestation of Graves' disease (GD)--Graves' orbitopathy (GO)--presents a difficult clinical problem. The immunological status of GO patients is still under investigation. The aim of this study was to assess the serum concentration of interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble interleukin 6 receptor (sIL-6R), and CD8+CD28- lymphocytes in GO patients and to evaluate if these parameters were associated with disease activity. Thirty-nine patients (29 women and 10 men, aged 24-71, mean 50.18) with newly diagnosed GD were enrolled in the study. Active GO was diagnosed in 20 patients. The control group included 12 healthy individuals. Serum concentrations of IL-6 and sIL-6R were estimated by ELISA. Percentages of CD8+CD28- lymphocytes in peripheral blood were assessed by flow cytometry. Mean serum IL-6 and sIL-6R concentrations were significantly higher in all GD patients and in GO and non-GO patients than in normal controls. In all GD patients and the non-GO group, serum IL-6 and sIL-6R concentrations were significantly reduced after efficient treatment. In GO patients, only serum sIL-6R concentration was significantly lower after efficient treatment. In all GD patients, the mean percentage of CD8+CD28- lymphocytes was significantly lower after efficient treatment. In GO patients, the mean percentage of CD8+CD28- lymphocytes was significantly higher than in the non-GO group or in normals. Moreover, in the GO group, the mean percentage of CD8+CD28- lymphocytes was significantly lower after treatment. Our results have shown that CD8+CD28- lymphocyte percentage in peripheral blood and serum concentration of sIL-6R are increased in GO patients and correlate with disease activity.

  1. Soluble Forms and Ligands of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: An Observational Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabaudon, Matthieu; Blondonnet, Raiko; Roszyk, Laurence; Pereira, Bruno; Guérin, Renaud; Perbet, Sébastien; Cayot, Sophie; Bouvier, Damien; Blanchon, Loic; Sapin, Vincent; Constantin, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    The main soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) is elevated during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However other RAGE isoforms and multiple ligands have been poorly reported in the clinical setting, and their respective contribution to RAGE activation during ARDS remains unclear. Our goal was therefore to describe main RAGE isoforms and ligands levels during ARDS. 30 ARDS patients and 30 mechanically ventilated controls were prospectively included in this monocenter observational study. Arterial, superior vena cava and alveolar fluid levels of sRAGE, endogenous-secretory RAGE (esRAGE), high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), S100A12 and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) were measured in duplicate ELISA on day 0, day 3 and day 6. In patients with ARDS, baseline lung morphology was assessed with computed tomography. ARDS patients had higher arterial, central venous and alveolar levels of sRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A12, but lower levels of esRAGE and AGEs, than controls. Baseline arterial sRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A12 were correlated with nonfocal ARDS (AUC 0.79, 0.65 and 0.63, respectively). Baseline arterial sRAGE, esRAGE, S100A12 and AGEs were associated with severity as assessed by PaO2/FiO2. This is the first kinetics study of levels of RAGE main isoforms and ligands during ARDS. Elevated sRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A12, with decreased esRAGE and AGEs, were found to distinguish patients with ARDS from those without. Our findings should prompt future studies aimed at elucidating RAGE/HMGB1/S100A12 axis involvement in ARDS. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01270295.

  2. Serum Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 and Procalcitonin Can Reflect Sepsis Severity and Predict Prognosis: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the prognostic significance of serum soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1, procalcitonin (PCT, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP, C-reactive protein (CRP, cytokines, and clinical severity scores in patients with sepsis. Methods. A total of 102 patients with sepsis were divided into survival group (n=60 and nonsurvival group (n=42 based on 28-day mortality. Serum levels of biomarkers and cytokines were measured on days 1, 3, and 5 after admission to an ICU, meanwhile the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA scores were calculated. Results. Serum sTREM-1, PCT, and IL-6 levels of patients in the nonsurvival group were significantly higher than those in the survival group on day 1 (P<0.01. The area under a ROC curve for the prediction of 28 day mortality was 0.792 for PCT, 0.856 for sTREM-1, 0.953 for SOFA score, and 0.923 for APACHE II score. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that serum baseline sTREM-1 PCT levels and SOFA score were the independent predictors of 28-day mortality. Serum PCT, sTREM-1, and IL-6 levels showed a decrease trend over time in the survival group (P<0.05. Serum NT-pro-BNP levels showed the predictive utility from days 3 and 5 (P<0.05. Conclusion. In summary, elevated serum sTREM-1 and PCT levels provide superior prognostic accuracy to other biomarkers. Combination of serum sTREM-1 and PCT levels and SOFA score can offer the best powerful prognostic utility for sepsis mortality.

  3. Effect of S100A12 and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products on the occurrence of severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Chen, Ying; Sun, Wen Wu; Chen, Wei Wei; Ma, Li; Yang, Zhi Tao; Huang, Jun; Chen, Er Zhen; Fei, Jian; Mao, En Qiang

    2016-07-01

    To assess whether serum levels of S100A12 and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) could predict the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). We conducted a non-interventional pilot study, including 74 AP patients and 28 healthy volunteers serving as controls. AP patients were further divided into the mild (MAP, n = 22), moderately severe (MSAP, n = 30) and severe (SAP, n = 22) groups. Peripheral blood samples were collected within 72 h after the onset of AP for the determination of S100A12, sRAGE and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, Balthazar computed tomography severity index (CTSI) were calculated at admission. S100A12 and sRAGE levels in SAP patient were significantly higher than in controls, MAP and MSAP patients. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated the predictive ability of S100A12 [sensitivity 91%, specificity 81%, the area under the ROC curve AUROC 0.9047] and sRAGE (sensitivity 57%, specificity 100%, AUROC 0.8304) for evaluating the severity of AP. S100A12 and sRAGE were correlated with APACHE II and CTSI but not with CRP. This combination of new and traditional indicators had higher accuracy than traditional indicators alone. Specifically, S100A12 and sRAGE were positively correlated with the type of organ failure (respiratory and renal failure) and might distinguish transient from persistent organ failure at admission. S100A12 and sRAGE could be used as efficient biomarkers for the early identification of SAP. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Soluble Forms and Ligands of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: An Observational Prospective Study.

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    Matthieu Jabaudon

    Full Text Available The main soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE is elevated during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. However other RAGE isoforms and multiple ligands have been poorly reported in the clinical setting, and their respective contribution to RAGE activation during ARDS remains unclear. Our goal was therefore to describe main RAGE isoforms and ligands levels during ARDS.30 ARDS patients and 30 mechanically ventilated controls were prospectively included in this monocenter observational study. Arterial, superior vena cava and alveolar fluid levels of sRAGE, endogenous-secretory RAGE (esRAGE, high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1, S100A12 and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs were measured in duplicate ELISA on day 0, day 3 and day 6. In patients with ARDS, baseline lung morphology was assessed with computed tomography.ARDS patients had higher arterial, central venous and alveolar levels of sRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A12, but lower levels of esRAGE and AGEs, than controls. Baseline arterial sRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A12 were correlated with nonfocal ARDS (AUC 0.79, 0.65 and 0.63, respectively. Baseline arterial sRAGE, esRAGE, S100A12 and AGEs were associated with severity as assessed by PaO2/FiO2.This is the first kinetics study of levels of RAGE main isoforms and ligands during ARDS. Elevated sRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A12, with decreased esRAGE and AGEs, were found to distinguish patients with ARDS from those without. Our findings should prompt future studies aimed at elucidating RAGE/HMGB1/S100A12 axis involvement in ARDS.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01270295.

  5. The soluble VEGF receptor 1 and 2 expression in cerebral spinal fluid as an indicator for leukemia central nervous system metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yue-Ting; Jiang, Fang; Guo, Li; Si, Meng-Ya; Jiao, Xiao-Yang

    2013-05-01

    Over-expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is correlated with leukemia metastasis. VEGF-A acts by binding to its membrane receptors R1 and R2 present in soluble forms (sVEGFR1, sVEGFR2) with different functions. sVEGFR could inhibit VEGF-A bioactivities, associated with favorable prognosis in solid tumors. However, its role is obscure in central nervous system leukemia (CNSL). The aim of this study was to investigate sVEGFR1, R2 as biomarkers in CNSL. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples were collected from 35 leukemia cases with or without CNS metastasis. Levels of sVEGFR1 and sVEGFR2 in both CSF (sVEGFR1CSF, sVEGFR2CSF) and serum (sVEGFR1Serum, sVEGFR2Serum) were detected by ELISA. Other risk factors related to CNSL prognosis were also analyzed. sVEGFRSerum levels were 2.54-fold (sVEGFR1) and 25.6-fold (sVEGFR2) higher than sVEGFRCSF in both leukemic groups. sVEGFR1CSF in CNSL were 33 % higher than in the non-CNSL, and the levels of sVEGFR2CSF and sVEGFR2Serum had the same trend. Elevated sVEGFR1CSF and sVEGFR2CSF is closely correlated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) values and WBCCSF that is an indicator of CNSL disease burden. Cox regression analysis showed that the sVEGFR2CSF had a positive effect on event-free survival. Our data suggest that sVEGFR2CSF may be more potent than sVEGFR1CSF in predicting the outcome of leukemia patients, the balance between sVEGFR2CSF and VEGF-ACSF levels might be crucial for the progression of CNSL.

  6. Role of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 for diagnosing ventilator-associated pneumonia after cardiac surgery: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Alessandra K; Carlotti, Ana P C P

    2013-12-01

    The diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a challenge, particularly after cardiac surgery. The use of biological markers of infection has been suggested to improve the accuracy of VAP diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (sTREM)-1 in the diagnosis of VAP following cardiac surgery. This was a prospective observational cohort study of children with congenital heart disease admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) after surgery and who remained intubated and mechanically ventilated for at least 24 hours postoperatively. VAP was defined by the 2007 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Blood, modified bronchoalveolar lavage (mBAL) fluid and exhaled ventilator condensate (EVC) were collected daily, starting immediately after surgery until the fifth postoperative day or until extubation for measurement of sTREM-1. Thirty patients were included, 16 with VAP. Demographic variables, Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) and Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS)-1 scores, duration of surgery and length of cardiopulmonary bypass were not significantly diferent in patients with and without VAP. However, time on mechanical ventilation and length of stay in the PICU and in the hospital were significantly longer in the VAP group. Serum and mBAL fluid sTREM-1 concentrations were similar in both groups. In the VAP group, 12 of 16 patients had sTREM-1 detected in EVC, whereas it was undetectable in all but two patients in the non-VAP group over the study period (p = 0.0013) (sensitivity 0.75, specificity 0.86, positive predictive value 0.86, negative predictive value 0.75, positive likelihood ratio (LR) 5.25, negative LR 0.29). Measurement of sTREM-1 in EVC may be useful for the diagnosis of VAP after cardiac surgery.

  7. Plasma levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR and early mortality risk among patients enrolling for antiretroviral treatment in South Africa

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    Bangani Nonzwakazi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum concentrations of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR have a strong independent association with HIV-1-related mortality. The practical utility of plasma suPAR in assessing short-term all-cause mortality risk was evaluated in patients with advanced immunodeficiency enrolling in an antiretroviral treatment (ART programme in South Africa. Methods An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to measure plasma concentrations of suPAR in patients at the time of enrolment to the ART programme. The association between plasma suPAR concentrations, baseline patient characteristics and cohort outcomes after 4 months of ART were determined. Results Patients (n = 293, 70% female had a median age of 33 years and were followed up for a median of 5 months from enrolment. The median CD4 cell count was 47 cells/μl (IQR = 22–72 and 38% of patients had WHO stage 4 disease. 218 (74% patients remained alive after 4 months of ART; 39 (13% died and 36 (12% were lost to the programme for other reasons. Patients who died had significantly higher plasma suPAR concentrations compared to those who either survived (P 10 suPAR concentrations were significantly associated with lower CD4 cell counts, WHO clinical stage 4 disease and male sex. In multivariate analysis to identify factors associated with death, log10 suPAR concentration was the most strongly associated variable (P Conclusion Plasma suPAR concentration was the strongest independent predictor of short-term mortality risk among patients with advanced immunodeficiency enrolling in this ART programme. However, lack of a discriminatory threshold did not permit this marker to be used to triage patients according to short-term mortality risk.

  8. Serum Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Is Associated with Low Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Elevated Plasma Brain-Type Natriuretic Peptide Level.

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    Shu-Ichi Fujita

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR, a biomarker of subclinical levels of inflammation, is significantly correlated with cardiovascular events.We investigated the association between suPAR and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, left ventricular mass index (LVMI, and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP among cardiac inpatients.In total, 242 patients (mean age 71.3 ± 9.8 years; 70 women admitted to the cardiology department were enrolled in the study. suPAR was significantly correlated with LVEF (R = -0.24, P 3236 pg/mL was associated with low LVEF ( 300 pg/mL with an odds ratio of 3.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-12.1 and 5.36 (95% CI, 1.32-21.8, respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, log-transformed estimated glomerular filtration rate (log(eGFR, C-reactive protein, and diuretic use. The association between suPAR and LVMI was not statistically significant. In multivariate receiver operating characteristic analysis, addition of log(suPAR to the combination of age, sex, log(eGFR and CRP incrementally improved the prediction of low LVEF (area under the curve [AUC], 0.827 to 0.852, P = 0.046 and BNP ≥ 300 pg/mL (AUC, 0.869 to 0.906; P = 0.029.suPAR was associated with low LVEF and elevated BNP, but not with left ventricular hypertrophy, independent of CRP, renal function, and diuretic use among cardiac inpatients who were not undergoing chronic hemodialysis.

  9. High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) and serum soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) in children affected by vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Anna Maria; Zicari, Alessandra; Nebbioso, Marcella; Mari, Emanuela; Celani, Camilla; Lollobrigida, Valeria; Cesoni Marcelli, Azzurra; Occasi, Francesca; Duse, Marzia

    2014-02-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic disease affecting conjunctiva even though the immunopathogenetic mechanisms underlying this inflammation are unclear. The aim of our study is to investigate serum levels of HMGB1 and circulating sRAGE in children affected by VKC before and after treatment with cyclosporine A (CsA) eye drops and in a group of healthy children. Twenty-four children affected by VKC aged between 5 and 12 yrs of life were enrolled at the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, 'Sapienza' University of Rome. Twenty-four healthy children without atopy, ocular, and systemic disease, cross-matched for sex and age to patients affected by VKC, represented the controls. All children affected by VKC were treated with CsA 1% eye drops for 4 wks, and blood samples were collected before and 2 wks after the end of treatment while the controls underwent to a single blood sample at the time of enrollment. Serum basal levels of HMGB1 and sRAGE were higher in children with VKC when compared with controls while, in patients affected by VKC, no difference was detected between atopic and non-atopic, and between ANA-positive and ANA-negative children. A significant reduction in serum HMGB1 and sRAGE levels was detected after the therapy while CsA serum levels were negative. Our study gives a support to the definition of VKC as a systemic inflammation in which HMGB1 and its soluble receptors could play a role. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Nuclear IL-33 regulates soluble ST2 receptor and IL-6 expression in primary human arterial endothelial cells and is decreased in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Dongmin [Section of Vascular Biology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Perros, Frédéric [Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris-Sud, Paris, Clamart (France); Caramori, Gaetano [Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Sezione di Medicina Interna e Cardiorespiratoria, Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio delle Malattie Infiammatorie delle Vie Aeree e Patologie Fumo-Correlate, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Meng, Chao [Section of Vascular Biology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Department of Geriatrics, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Dormuller, Peter [Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris-Sud, Paris, Clamart (France); Chou, Pai-Chien [Airways Disease, National Heart and Lung Institute (United Kingdom); Church, Colin [Scottish Pulmonary Vascular Unit, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Papi, Alberto; Casolari, Paolo [Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Sezione di Medicina Interna e Cardiorespiratoria, Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio delle Malattie Infiammatorie delle Vie Aeree e Patologie Fumo-Correlate, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Welsh, David; Peacock, Andrew [Scottish Pulmonary Vascular Unit, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Humbert, Marc [Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris-Sud, Paris, Clamart (France); Adcock, Ian M. [Airways Disease, National Heart and Lung Institute (United Kingdom); Wort, Stephen J., E-mail: s.wort@imperial.ac.uk [Section of Vascular Biology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear IL-33 expression is reduced in vascular endothelial cells from PAH patients. • Knockdown of IL-33 leads to increased IL-6 and sST2 mRNA expression. • IL-33 binds homeobox motifs in target gene promoters and recruits repressor proteins. - Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is an incurable condition leading to right ventricular failure and death and inflammation is postulated to be associated with vascular remodelling. Interleukin (IL)-33, a member of the “alarmin” family can either act on the membrane ST2 receptor or as a nuclear repressor, to regulate inflammation. We show, using immunohistochemistry, that IL-33 expression is nuclear in the vessels of healthy subjects whereas nuclear IL-33 is markedly diminished in the vessels of IPAH patients. This correlates with reduced IL-33 mRNA expression in their lung. In contrast, serum levels of IL-33 are unchanged in IPAH. However, the expression of the soluble form of ST2, sST2, is enhanced in the serum of IPAH patients. Knock-down of IL-33 in human endothelial cells (ECs) using siRNA is associated with selective modulation of inflammatory genes involved in vascular remodelling including IL-6. Additionally, IL-33 knock-down significantly increased sST2 release from ECs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that IL-33 bound multiple putative homeodomain protein binding motifs in the proximal and distal promoters of ST2 genes. IL-33 formed a complex with the histone methyltransferase SUV39H1, a transcriptional repressor. In conclusion, IL-33 regulates the expression of IL-6 and sST2, an endogenous IL-33 inhibitor, in primary human ECs and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PAH through recruitment of transcriptional repressor proteins.

  11. Effects of body fat on the associations of high-molecular-weight adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor with metabolic syndrome in Chinese.

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    Danxia Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the associations between high-molecular-weight (HMW- adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R and metabolic syndrome (MetS in Chinese. Also few studies elucidate the effects of inflammation and body fat mass on the relations. METHODS: Plasma HMW-adiponectin, leptin and sOB-R were measured among 1055 Chinese men and women (35∼54 yrs. Whole body and trunk fat mass were determined by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. MetS was defined by the updated NCEP/ATPIII criterion for Asian-Americans. RESULTS: HMW-adiponectin was inversely associated with MetS in multivariate model including fat mass index (FMI, inflammatory markers, leptin and sOB-R (OR in the highest quartile= 0.30, 95%CI 0.18∼0.50, P<.0001. Plasma sOB-R was also inversely associated with MetS independent of body fatness and inflammatory markers, whereas the association was somewhat attenuated after adjusting HMW-adiponectin (OR for the highest quartile = 0.78, 95%CI 0.47∼1.32, P = 0.15. In contrast, leptin was associated with increased odds of MetS independent of inflammatory markers, HMW-adiponectin, and sOB-R (OR for the highest quartile= 2.64, 95%CI 1.35∼5.18, P = 0.006, although further adjustment for FMI abolished this association. CONCLUSIONS: HMW-adiponectin exhibited strong inverse associations with MetS independent of body composition, inflammation, leptin and sOB-R; while the associations of leptin and sOB-R were largely explained by fat mass or HMW-adiponectin, respectively.

  12. Insights into Soluble Toll-Like Receptor 2 (sTLR-2 as a Down-Regulator of Virally-Induced Inflammation

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    Bethany M Henrick

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to distinguish pathogens from self-antigens is one of the most important functions of the immune system. However, this simple self versus non-self assignment belies the complexity of the immune response to threats. Immune responses vary widely and appropriately according to a spectrum of threats and only recently have the mechanisms for controlling this highly textured process emerged. A primary mechanism by which this controlled decision-making process is achieved is via Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling, and the subsequent activation of the immune response coincident with the presence of pathogenic organisms or antigens, including lipid mediators. While immune activation is important, the appropriate regulation of such responses is also critical. Recent findings indicate a parallel pathway by which responses to both viral and bacterial infections is controlled via the secretion of soluble TLR2 (sTLR2. sTLR2 is able to bind a wide range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs. sTLR2 has been detected in many bodily fluids and is thus ubiquitous in sites of pathogen appearance. Interestingly, growing evidence suggests that sTLR2 functions to sequester PAMPs and DAMPs to avoid immune activation via detection of cellular-expressed TLRs. This immune regulatory function would serve to reduce the expression of the molecules required for cellular entry, and the recruitment of target cells following infection with bacteria and viruses. This review provides an overview of sTLR2 and the research regarding the mechanisms of its immune regulatory properties. Furthermore, the role of this molecule in regulating immune activation in the context of HIV infection via sTLR2 in breast milk provides actionable insights into therapeutic targets across a variety of infectious and inflammatory states.

  13. Serum Soluble Transferrin Receptor Concentrations Are Elevated in Congolese Children with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Variants, but Not Sickle Cell Variants or α-Thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Mikaela K; Henderson, Amanda M; Naguib, Karimah; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Devlin, Angela M; Albert, Arianne Y; Bahizire, Esto; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Akilimali, Pierre Z; Boy, Erick; Green, Tim J; Karakochuk, Crystal D

    2017-09-01

    Background: Anemia is common in Congolese children, and inherited blood disorders may be a contributing cause. The presence of sickle cell variants, X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and α-thalassemia, has been previously reported. G6PD A- deficiency is characterized by the co-inheritance of G6PD 376 and 202 variants and is common in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: We aimed to measure the associations between inherited blood disorders and hemoglobin, ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations in Congolese children. Methods: Venous blood was collected from 744 children aged 6-59 mo from 2 provinces. We measured biomarkers of nutritional and inflammation status and malaria. Pyrosequencing was used to detect sickle cell variants. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect G6PD variants and α-thalassemia deletions. Results: Overall, 11% of children had a sickle cell variant, 19% of boys were G6PD A- hemizygotes, 12% and 10% of girls were G6PD A- hetero- or homozygotes, respectively, and 12% of children had α-thalassemia. Multivariable linear regression models (adjusted for age, province, altitude, malaria, and biomarkers of nutritional and inflammation status) showed that G6PD A- hemizygous boys and G6PD 376 homozygous girls had higher sTfR concentrations [geometric mean ratios (95% CIs): 1.20 (1.03, 1.39) and 1.25 (1.02, 1.53), respectively] than children with no G6PD variants. Hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations were not independently associated with any of the inherited blood disorder genotypes. Conclusions: We found that 2 G6PD variant genotypes were associated with elevated sTfR concentrations, which limits the accuracy of sTfR as a biomarker of iron status in this population. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Complementary Effects of Genetic Variations in LEPR on Body Composition and Soluble Leptin Receptor Concentration after 3-Month Lifestyle Intervention in Prepubertal Obese Children

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    Joanna Gajewska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In obese individuals, weight loss might be affected by variants of the adipokine-encoding genes. We verified whether selected functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in LEP, LEPR and ADIPOQ are associated with changes in serum levels of the respective adipokines and weight loss in 100 prepubertal obese (SDS-BMI > 2 Caucasian children undergoing lifestyle intervention. Frequencies of the -2548G > A LEP, Q223R LEPR, K656N LEPR, -11377C > G and -11426A > G ADIPOQ polymorphisms were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Serum adipokine and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R concentrations were measured using the ELISA method. Among the analyzed polymorphisms, only LEPR polymorphisms were associated with changes of SDS-BMI or sOB-R concentrations in children after therapy. Carriers of the wild-type K665N and at least one minor Q223R allele had the greatest likelihood of losing weight (OR = 5.09, p = 0.006, an increase in sOB-R (ptrend = 0.022 and decrease in SDS-BMI correlated with the decrease of fat mass (p < 0.001. In contrast, carrying of the wild-type Q223R and at least one minor K665N allele were associated with a decrease in sOB-R concentrations and a decrease in SDS-BMI correlated with a decrease in fat-free mass (p = 0.002. We suggest that the combination of different LEPR variants, not a single variant, might determine predisposition to weight loss in the prepubertal period.

  15. Depleted iron stores and iron deficiency anemia associated with reduced ferritin and hepcidin and elevated soluble transferrin receptors in a multiethnic group of preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Hope A; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Cohen, Tamara R; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry

    2015-09-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in subgroups of the Canadian population. The objective of this study was to examine iron status and anemia in preschool-age children. Healthy children (n = 430, 2-5 years old, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) were sampled from randomly selected daycares. Anthropometry, demographics, and diet were assessed. Biochemistry included hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), ferritin index, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)), and hepcidin. Iron deficiency and anemia cutoffs conformed to the World Health Organization criteria. Differences among categories were tested using mixed-model ANOVA or χ(2) tests. Children were 3.8 ± 1.0 years of age, with a body mass index z score of 0.48 ± 0.97, and 51% were white. Adjusted intakes of iron indicated children, whereas ferritin was higher with greater age and female sex. Inflammatory markers and hepcidin did not vary with any demographic variable. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 16.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0-20.0). Three percent (95% CI, 1.4-4.6) of children had iron deficiency anemia and 12.8% (95% CI, 9.6-16.0) had unexplained anemia. Children with iron deficiency, with and without anemia, had lower plasma ferritin and hepcidin but higher sTfR, ferritin index, and IL-6, whereas those with unexplained anemia had elevated TNFα. We conclude that iron deficiency anemia is not very common in young children in Montreal. While iron deficiency without anemia is more common than iron deficiency with anemia, the correspondingly reduced circulating hepcidin would have enabled heightened absorption of dietary iron in support of erythropoiesis.

  16. From Extraction of Local Structures of Protein Energy Landscapes to Improved Decoy Selection in Template-Free Protein Structure Prediction

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    Nasrin Akhter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the essential role that the three-dimensional conformation of a protein plays in regulating interactions with molecular partners, wet and dry laboratories seek biologically-active conformations of a protein to decode its function. Computational approaches are gaining prominence due to the labor and cost demands of wet laboratory investigations. Template-free methods can now compute thousands of conformations known as decoys, but selecting native conformations from the generated decoys remains challenging. Repeatedly, research has shown that the protein energy functions whose minima are sought in the generation of decoys are unreliable indicators of nativeness. The prevalent approach ignores energy altogether and clusters decoys by conformational similarity. Complementary recent efforts design protein-specific scoring functions or train machine learning models on labeled decoys. In this paper, we show that an informative consideration of energy can be carried out under the energy landscape view. Specifically, we leverage local structures known as basins in the energy landscape probed by a template-free method. We propose and compare various strategies of basin-based decoy selection that we demonstrate are superior to clustering-based strategies. The presented results point to further directions of research for improving decoy selection, including the ability to properly consider the multiplicity of native conformations of proteins.

  17. Soluble NCAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein involved in homophilic interactions that facilitate cell-cell adhesion. In addition to a number of membrane-bound isoforms, NCAM also exists in several soluble isoforms that have been identified in cerebrospinal fluid, blood...... serum, brain tissue, and cell culture media. Soluble NCAM can be produced in a number of ways, such as alternative splicing of the transcript from NCAM1 and enzymatic processing of the extracellular domain at the cell membrane. Soluble NCAM interferes with homophilic NCAM interactions mediated...... by membrane-bound NCAM, thereby reducing NCAM-dependent adhesion, and can modulate neurite outgrowth in vitro-a property that likely is dose-dependent. The biological effects of overexpressing soluble NCAM in transgenic animals include a perturbation of synaptic connectivity and the development of abnormal...

  18. The pro-fusion domain of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D (gD) interacts with the gD N terminus and is displaced by soluble forms of viral receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Daniela; Forghieri, Cristina; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella

    2005-06-28

    Entry of herpes simplex virus into the cell requires the interaction of gD with one of its receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator or nectin 1, and the intervention of gB, gH, or gL, required to execute fusion of the virion envelope with cell membranes. The gD ectodomain is organized in two structurally and functionally differentiated regions. The N terminus (residues 1-260) carries the receptor binding sites, and the C terminus (residues 260-310) functions as the pro-fusion domain (PFD), which is required for viral infectivity and fusion but not for receptor binding. The objective of our studies is to elucidate how gD links receptor recognition to the triggering of fusion. Here, we show that PFD is made of subdomains 1 and 2 (amino acids 260-285 and 285-310). Each one partially contributed to herpes simplex virus infectivity. By means of glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins, we show that PFD bound soluble forms of gD, truncated at residue 260 (gD260t) or downstream. Both PFD subdomains bound gD260t, highlighting multiple contact sites between the N and C termini of gD. When gD260t was in complex with either receptor, it failed to bind GST-PFD. In turn, the receptors did not bind GST-PFD, irrespective of whether they were in complex with gD. Thus, gD260t interacted with the C terminus only if unbound to the receptor. We propose that (i) before receptor binding, gD adopts a "closed" conformation in which the N and C termini interact; and (ii) on encounter with a receptor, gD modifies its conformation and the N and C termini are released from reciprocal interactions ("opened" conformation) and enabled to trigger fusion.

  19. Designed tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand variants initiating apoptosis exclusively via the DR5 receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sloot, Almer M.; Tur, Vicente; Szegezdi, Eva; Mullally, Margaret M.; Cool, Robbert H.; Samali, Afshin; Serrano, Luis; Quax, Wim J.

    2006-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inclucing ligand (TRAIL) is a potential anticancer drug that selectively induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells by interacting with death receptors DR4 and DR5. TRAIL can also bind to decoy receptors (DcR1, DcR2, and osteoprotegerin receptor) that

  20. A role for soluble ST2 in vascular remodeling associated with obesity in rats.

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    Ernesto Martínez-Martínez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The function of the Interleukin-33 (IL-33/ST2 system has been mainly investigated on immunological aspects, but recent data suggest that this pathway plays also an important role in cardiovascular system and adipose tissue. Whereas IL-33 has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory and protective effects, circulating soluble ST2 (sST2 has emerged as a prognostic biomarker in patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure. Furthermore, sST2 is increased in severe obesity, although its role in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling associated with obesity is still not well defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male Wistar rats fed standard diet (Control or high fat diet (HFD for 6 weeks. Aortic tunica media from diet-induced obese animals showed hypertrophy and fibrosis. The IL-33/ST2 system was spontaneously expressed in the aorta from Wistar rats. Administration of HFD in animals did not modify IL-33 expression at the transcriptional level. By contrast, HFD group showed an increase in aortic soluble sST2 and a decrease in the transmembrane isoform (ST2L levels, resulting in decreased protective pathway activity. Aortic sST2 mRNA levels were associated with parameters showing vascular hypertrophy and fibrosis. In vitro experiments showed that primary cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs spontaneously expressed the IL-33/ST2 system. VSMCs stimulated with sST2 showed an increase in collagen type I, fibronectin and profibrotic factors. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study demonstrating a deleterious role for sST2 in the vascular remodeling associated with obesity. In addition, we demonstrated that sST2 may act not only as a decoy receptor by binding IL-33 and preventing ST2L, but also modulating ECM remodeling and turnover. Thus, sST2 could be a new therapeutic target to reduce vascular remodeling in the context of obesity.

  1. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) plus soluble CNTF receptor alpha increases cyclooxygenase-2 expression, PGE2 release and interferon-gamma-induced CD40 in murine microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jain, Mohit Raja; Li, Hong; Levison, Steven W

    2009-03-06

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been regarded as a potent trophic factor for motor neurons. However, recent studies have shown that CNTF exerts effects on glial cells as well as neurons. For instance, CNTF stimulates astrocytes to secrete FGF-2 and rat microglia to secrete glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which suggest that CNTF exerts effects on astrocytes and microglia to promote motor neuron survival indirectly. As CNTF is structurally related to IL-6, which can stimulate immune functions of microglia, we hypothesized that CNTF might exert similar effects. We performed 2-D and 1-D proteomic experiments with western blotting and flow cytometry to examine effects of CNTF on primary microglia derived from neonatal mouse brains. We show that murine microglia express CNTF receptor alpha (CNTFRalpha), which can be induced by interferon-gamma (IFNgamma). Whereas IL-6 activated STAT-3 and ERK phosphorylation, CNTF did not activate these pathways, nor did CNTF increase p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation. Using 2-D western blot analysis, we demonstrate that CNTF induced the dephosphorylation of a set of proteins and phosphorylation of a different set. Two proteins that were phosphorylated upon CNTF treatment were the LYN substrate-1 and beta-tubulin 5. CNTF weakly stimulated microglia, whereas a stronger response was obtained by adding exogenous soluble CNTFRalpha (sCNTFRalpha) as has been observed for IL-6. When used in combination, CNTF and sCNTFRalpha collaborated with IFNgamma to increase microglial surface expression of CD40 and this effect was quite pronounced when the microglia were differentiated towards dendritic-like cells. CNTF/sCNTFRalpha complex, however, failed to increase MHC class II expression beyond that induced by IFNgamma. The combination of CNTF and sCNTFRalpha, but not CNTF alone, enhanced microglial Cox-2 protein expression and PGE2 secretion (although CNTF was 30 times less potent than LPS). Surprisingly, Cox-2 production was

  2. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF plus soluble CNTF receptor α increases cyclooxygenase-2 expression, PGE2 release and interferon-γ-induced CD40 in murine microglia

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    Li Hong

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF has been regarded as a potent trophic factor for motor neurons. However, recent studies have shown that CNTF exerts effects on glial cells as well as neurons. For instance, CNTF stimulates astrocytes to secrete FGF-2 and rat microglia to secrete glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, which suggest that CNTF exerts effects on astrocytes and microglia to promote motor neuron survival indirectly. As CNTF is structurally related to IL-6, which can stimulate immune functions of microglia, we hypothesized that CNTF might exert similar effects. Methods We performed 2-D and 1-D proteomic experiments with western blotting and flow cytometry to examine effects of CNTF on primary microglia derived from neonatal mouse brains. Results We show that murine microglia express CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα, which can be induced by interferon-γ (IFNγ. Whereas IL-6 activated STAT-3 and ERK phosphorylation, CNTF did not activate these pathways, nor did CNTF increase p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation. Using 2-D western blot analysis, we demonstrate that CNTF induced the dephosphorylation of a set of proteins and phosphorylation of a different set. Two proteins that were phosphorylated upon CNTF treatment were the LYN substrate-1 and β-tubulin 5. CNTF weakly stimulated microglia, whereas a stronger response was obtained by adding exogenous soluble CNTFRα (sCNTFRα as has been observed for IL-6. When used in combination, CNTF and sCNTFRα collaborated with IFNγ to increase microglial surface expression of CD40 and this effect was quite pronounced when the microglia were differentiated towards dendritic-like cells. CNTF/sCNTFRα complex, however, failed to increase MHC class II expression beyond that induced by IFNγ. The combination of CNTF and sCNTFRα, but not CNTF alone, enhanced microglial Cox-2 protein expression and PGE2 secretion (although CNTF was 30 times less potent than LPS. Surprisingly, Cox-2

  3. Plasma soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor level is independently associated with coronary microvascular function in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Girum; Corban, Michel T; Hung, Olivia Y; Eshtehardi, Parham; Eapen, Danny J; Al-Kassem, Hatem; Rasoul-Arzrumly, Emad; Gogas, Bill D; McDaniel, Michael C; Pielak, Tomasz; Thorball, Christian W; Sperling, Laurence; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Samady, Habib

    2015-03-01

    Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a novel biomarker released from leukocytes and endothelial cells that has been associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that plasma suPAR level is an independent predictor of coronary microvascular function. Coronary blood flow velocity and plasma suPAR levels were evaluated in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) was calculated as the ratio of hyperemic to basal average peak blood flow velocity and coronary microvascular dysfunction was defined as CFR ≤ 2.0 in the setting of a fractional flow reserve value of ≥0.75. Plasma suPAR levels were measured using ELISA technique. The association between suPAR and CFR was investigated using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. In 66 patients, 47% were men, 26% had diabetes, 68% had hypertension and 76% had dyslipidemia. Mean age was 55 ± 12 years and median suPAR level 2.82 (2.08-3.40) ng/mL. Plasma suPAR levels correlated with age (r = 0.31, p = 0.01), body mass index (r = 0.25, p = 0.04) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (r = 0.33, p = 0.009). While median suPAR level was not significantly different in patients with different cardiovascular risk factors, patients on statin therapy had significantly higher suPAR level (p = 0.03). SuPAR correlated negatively with CFR and, after multivariate adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors, medications profiles and hs-CRP, suPAR remained an independent predictor of CFR (B = -0.30, p = 0.04), indicating an independent association between suPAR level and coronary microvascular function. In this cross-sectional study, plasma suPAR level was an independent predictor of coronary microvascular function. Larger prospective clinical trials are warranted to investigate the prognostic value of this novel biomarker and the role of immune dysregulation in coronary microvascular disease

  4. Fluorescent advanced glycation end products and their soluble receptor: the birth of new plasmatic biomarkers for risk stratification of acute coronary syndrome.

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    Sergio Raposeiras-Roubín

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs have pathophysiological implications in cardiovascular diseases. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of fluorescent AGEs and its soluble receptor (sRAGE in the context of acute coronary syndrome (ACS, both in-hospital phase and follow-up period. METHODS: A prospective clinical study was performed in patients with debut's ACS. The endpoints were the development of cardiac events (cardiac deaths, re-infarction and new-onset heart failure during in-hospital phase and follow-up period (366 days, inter-quartile range: 273-519 days. 215 consecutive ACS patients admitted to the coronary care unit (62.7±13.0 years, 24.2% female were included. 47.4% had a diagnosis of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. AGEs and sRAGE were analysed by fluorescence spectroscopy and competitive ELISA, respectively. Risk scores (GRACE, TIMI, PURSUIT were calculated retrospectively using prospective data. The complexity of coronary artery disease was evaluated by SYNTAX score. RESULTS: The mean fluorescent AGEs and sRAGE levels were 57.7±45.1 AU and 1045.4±850.0 pg/mL, respectively. 19 patients presented cardiac events during in-hospital phase and 29 during the follow-up. In-hospital cardiac events were significantly associated with higher sRAGE levels (p = 0.001, but not long-term cardiac events (p = 0.365. Regarding fluorescent AGE the opposite happened. After multivariate analysis correcting by gender, left ventricular ejection fraction, glucose levels, haemoglobin, GRACE and SYNTAX scores, sRAGE was significantly associated with in-hospital prognosis, whereas fluorescent AGEs was significantly associated with long-term prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that elevated values of sRAGE are associated with worse in-hospital prognosis, whereas high fluorescent AGE levels are associated with more follow-up events.

  5. Genetics of Plasma Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products and Cardiovascular Outcomes in a Community-based Population: Results from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa M Maruthur

    Full Text Available Plasma soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (sRAGE is a strong marker of vascular outcomes although evidence on the direction of association is mixed. Compared to whites, blacks have lower levels of sRAGE. We hypothesized that genetic determinants of sRAGE would help clarify the causal role of sRAGE and the black-white difference in sRAGE levels. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of sRAGE in whites and blacks from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Median plasma sRAGE levels were lower in blacks than whites (728 vs. 1067 pg/ml; P<0.0001. The T (vs. C allele of rs2070600, a missense variant in AGER, the gene encoding RAGE, was associated with approximately 50% lower sRAGE levels in both whites (N = 1,737; P = 7.26x10-16; minor allele frequency (MAF = 0.04 and blacks (N = 581; P = 0.02; MAF = 0.01. In blacks, the T (vs. C allele of rs2071288, intronic to AGER, was associated with 43% lower sRAGE levels (P = 2.22x10-8; MAF = 0.10 and was nearly absent in whites. These AGER SNPs explained 21.5% and 26% of the variation in sRAGE in blacks and whites, respectively, but did not explain the black-white difference in sRAGE. These SNPs were not significantly associated with incident death, coronary heart disease, diabetes, heart failure, or chronic kidney disease in whites (N = 8,130-9,017 or blacks (N = 2,293-2,871 (median follow up ~20 years. We identified strong genetic determinants of sRAGE that did not explain the large black-white difference in sRAGE levels or clearly influence risk of clinical outcomes, suggesting that sRAGE may not be a causal factor in development of these outcomes.

  6. Circulating soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) as diagnostic and prognostic marker in neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Amira A M; Ismail, Eman A; Andrawes, Nevine G; El-Saadany, Marwa A

    2014-02-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is an important receptor involved in the innate inflammatory response and sepsis. We assessed soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) in 112 septic neonates (63 culture-positive and 49 culture-negative) and 40 healthy controls as a potential early diagnostic and prognostic marker for neonatal sepsis (NS). Studied neonates were evaluated for early- or late-onset sepsis using clinical and laboratory indicators upon admission. sTREM-1 was measured on initial sepsis evaluation and at 48h after antibiotic therapy. For ethical reasons, cord blood samples were collected from control neonates and only samples from neonates that proved to be healthy by clinical examination and laboratory analysis were further analyzed for sTREM-1. Baseline sTREM-1 levels were significantly elevated in culture-proven (1461.1±523pg/mL) and culture-negative sepsis (1194±485pg/mL) compared to controls (162.2±61pg/mL) with no significant difference between both septic groups. Culture-positive or negative septic preterm neonates had significantly higher sTREM-1 compared to full term neonates. sTREM-1 was significantly higher in neonates with early sepsis than late sepsis and was associated with high mortality. sTREM-1 was significantly decreased 48h after antibiotic therapy compared to baseline or levels in neonates with persistently positive cultures. sTREM-1 was positively correlated to white blood cells (WBCs), absolute neutrophil count, immature/total neutrophil (I/T) ratio, C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and sepsis score while negatively correlated to gestational age and weight. hs-CRP and sepsis score were independently related to sTREM-1 in multiregression analysis. sTREM-1 cutoff value of 310pg/mL could be diagnostic for NS with 100% sensitivity and specificity (AUC, 1.0 and 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.696-1.015) while the cutoff value 1100pg/mL was predictive of survival with 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity (AUC, 0.978 and 95% CI, 0

  7. DECOY: Documenting Experiences with Cigarettes and Other Tobacco in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Haardörfer, Regine; Lewis, Michael; Getachew, Betelihem; Lloyd, Steven A; Thomas, Sarah Fretti; Lanier, Angela; Trepanier, Kelleigh; Johnston, Teresa; Grimsley, Linda; Foster, Bruce; Benson, Stephanie; Smith, Alicia; Barr, Dana Boyd; Windle, Michael

    2016-05-01

    We examined psychographic characteristics associated with tobacco use among Project DECOY participants. Project DECOY is a 2-year longitudinal mixed-methods study examining risk for tobacco use among 3418 young adults across 7 Georgia colleges/universities. Baseline measures included sociodemographics, tobacco use, and psychographics using the Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyle Scale. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify correlates of tobacco use. Past 30-day use prevalence was: 13.3% cigarettes; 11.3% little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs); 3.6% smokeless tobacco; 10.9% e-cigarettes; and 12.2% hookah. Controlling for sociodemographics, correlates of cigarette use included greater novelty seeking (p fashion orientation (p = .007). Correlates of smokeless tobacco use included greater novelty seeking (p = .006) and less intellectual curiosity (p fashion orientation (p = .044), and self-focused thinking (p = .002), and less social conservatism (p < .001). Psychographic characteristics distinguish users of different tobacco products.

  8. A decoy chain deployment method based on SDN and NFV against penetration attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Chuanhao; Zhao, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Penetration attacks are one of the most serious network security threats. However, existing network defense technologies do not have the ability to entirely block the penetration behavior of intruders. Therefore, the network needs additional defenses. In this paper, a decoy chain deployment (DCD) method based on SDN+NFV is proposed to address this problem. This method considers about the security status of networks, and deploys decoy chains with the resource constraints. DCD changes the attack surface of the network and makes it difficult for intruders to discern the current state of the network. Simulation experiments and analyses show that DCD can effectively resist penetration attacks by increasing the time cost and complexity of a penetration attack.

  9. Surveillance of influenza viruses in waterfowl used as decoys in Andalusia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Tarifa, Estefanía; Napp, Sebastian; Gómez-Pacheco, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Morente, Manuel; Jaén-Téllez, Juan Antonio; Arenas, Antonio; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in waterfowl used as decoys in Andalusia, southern Spain. A total of 2319 aquatic birds from 193 flocks were analyzed before and after the hunting season 2011-2012. In the first sampling, 403 out of 2319 (18.0%, CI95%: 15.8-19.0) decoys showed antibodies against AIVs by ELISA. The AI seroprevalence was significantly higher in geese (21.0%) than in ducks (11.7%) (P<0.001). Besides, the spatial distribution of AIVs was not homogeneous as significant differences among regions were observed. The prevalence of antibodies against AIVs subtypes H5 and H7 were 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively, using hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The overall and H5 seroprevalences slightly increased after the hunting period (to 19.2% and 1.4%, respectively), while the H7 seroprevalence remained at the same level (0.3%). The proportion of flocks infected by AIVs was 65.3%, while 11.2% and 4.9% of flocks were positive for H5 and H7, respectively. Viral shedding was not detected in any of the 47 samples positive by both ELISA and HI, tested by RRT-PCR. The individual incidence after the hunting season was 3.4%. The fact that 57 animals seroconverted, 15 of which were confirmed by HI (12 H5 and 3 H7), was indication of contact with AIVs during the hunting period. The results indicate that waterfowl used as decoys are frequently exposed to AIVs and may be potentially useful as sentinels for AIVs monitoring. The seroprevalence detected and the seropositivity against AIVs H5 and H7, suggest that decoys can act as reservoirs of AIVs, which may be of animal and public health concern.

  10. Double-stranded RNA transcribed from vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide acts as transcription factor decoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xiao [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Gang, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Department of Infectious Diseases, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710038, Shaanxi Province (China); Wang, Honghong [No. 518 Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Xi’an 710043, Shaanxi Province (China); Wang, Jiayin [The Genome Institute, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63108 (United States); Zhao, Lina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Xu, Li, E-mail: lxuhelen@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Liu, Zhiguo, E-mail: liuzhiguo@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China)

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • A shRNA vector based transcription factor decoy, VB-ODN, was designed. • VB-ODN for NF-κB inhibited cell viability in HEK293 cells. • VB-ODN inhibited expression of downstream genes of target transcription factors. • VB-ODN may enhance nuclear entry ratio for its feasibility of virus production. - Abstract: In this study, we designed a short hairpin RNA vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide (VB-ODN) carrying transcription factor (TF) consensus sequence which could function as a decoy to block TF activity. Specifically, VB-ODN for Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) could inhibit cell viability and decrease downstream gene expression in HEK293 cells without affecting expression of NF-κB itself. The specific binding between VB-ODN produced double-stranded RNA and NF-κB was evidenced by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Moreover, similar VB-ODNs designed for three other TFs also inhibit their downstream gene expression but not that of themselves. Our study provides a new design of decoy for blocking TF activity.

  11. Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and their soluble receptors (sTNF-α-Rp55 and slL-6R serum levels in systemic lupus erythematodes

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    E. Robak

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a possible association between serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and their soluble receptors (sTNF-α-Rp55 and sIL-6R using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in 55 patients with systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE and 16 healthy controls. We also examined a possible association between the serum levels of these peptides and SLE activity, as well as TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations and the levels of their soluble receptors. The median concentrations of TNF-α, sTNF-α-Rp55 and IL-6 were significantly higher in SLE patients than in normal individuals. In contrast, there was no difference between the serum level of sIL-6R in both groups. We found positive correlations between the serum concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 as well as their soluble receptors and disease activity. There were also correlations between TNF-α and sTNF-α-Rp55 as well as IL-6 and sIL-6R serum levels in SLE patients but there were no such correlations in the normal control group. In conclusion, an increase in the serum levels of TNF-α, sTNF-α-Rp55 and IL-6 may become useful markers for SLE activity. Patients with SLE have sIL-6R serum concentration similar to that as in normal individuals. However, it correlates with disease activity and the level of IL-6.

  12. A chemokine-binding domain in the tumor necrosis factor receptor from variola (smallpox) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Alí; Ruiz-Argüello, M Begoña; Ho, Yin; Smith, Vincent P; Saraiva, Margarida; Alcami, Antonio

    2006-04-11

    Variola virus (VaV) is the causative agent of smallpox, one of the most devastating diseases encountered by man, that was eradicated in 1980. The deliberate release of VaV would have catastrophic consequences on global public health. However, the mechanisms that contribute to smallpox pathogenesis are poorly understood at the molecular level. The ability of viruses to evade the host defense mechanisms is an important determinant of viral pathogenesis. Here we show that the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) homologue CrmB encoded by VaV functions not only as a soluble decoy TNFR but also as a highly specific binding protein for several chemokines that mediate recruitment of immune cells to mucosal surfaces and the skin, sites of virus entry and viral replication at late stages of smallpox. CrmB binds chemokines through its C-terminal domain, which is unrelated to TNFRs, was named smallpox virus-encoded chemokine receptor (SECRET) domain and uncovers a family of poxvirus chemokine inhibitors. An active SECRET domain was found in another viral TNFR (CrmD) and three secreted proteins encoded by orthopoxviruses. These findings identify a previously undescribed chemokine-binding and inhibitory domain unrelated to host chemokine receptors and a mechanism of immune modulation in VaV that may influence smallpox pathogenesis.

  13. Soluble programmed cell death receptor-1 (sPD-1: a potential biomarker with anti-inflammatory properties in human and experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS

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    Sean F. Monaghan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS remains a common organ dysfunction in the critically ill patient. Mechanisms for its development have focused on immune mediated causes, aspects of our understanding are not complete, and we lack biomarkers. Design, setting, and subjects Blood and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BAL from humans (n = 10–13 with ARDS and controls (n = 5–10 as well as a murine model of ARDS (n = 5–6 with controls (n = 6–7 were studied. Methods ARDS was induced in mice by hemorrhagic shock (day 1 followed by poly-microbial sepsis (day 2. Samples were then collected on the third day after the animals were euthanized. Ex vivo experiments used splenocytes from animals with ARDS cultured with and without soluble programmed death receptor-1 (sPD-1. Results Levels of sPD-1 are increased in both the serum (11,429.3 pg/mL(SD 2133.3 vs. 8061.4(SD 4187.8, p = 0.036 and bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL fluid (6,311.1 pg/mL(SD 3758.0 vs. 90.7 pg/mL(SD 202.8, p = 0.002 of humans with ARDS. Similar results are seen in the serum (9396.1 pg/mL(SD 1546.0 vs. 3464.5 pg/mL(SD 2511.8, p = 0.001 and BAL fluid (2891.7 pg/mL(SD 868.1 vs. 1385.9 pg/mL(SD 927.8, p = 0.012 of mice. sPD-1 levels in murine blood (AUC = 1(1–1, p = 0.006, murine BAL fluid (AUC = 0.905(0.717–1.093, p = 0.015, and human BAL (AUC = 1(1–1, p = 0.001 fluid predicted ARDS. To assess the importance of sPD-1 in ARDS, ex vivo experiments were undertaken. BAL fluid from mice with ARDS dampens the TNF-α production compared to cells cultured with BAL lacking sPD-1 (2.7 pg/mL(SD 3.8 vs. 52.38 pg/mL(SD 25.1, p = 0.002. Conclusions This suggests sPD-1 is elevated in critical illness and may represent a potential biomarker for ARDS. In addition, sPD-1 has an anti-inflammatory mechanism in conditions of marked stress and aids in the resolution of severe inflammation. sPD-1 could be used to not only diagnose ARDS

  14. Attenuation of corneal myofibroblast development through nanoparticle-mediated soluble transforming growth factor-β type II receptor (sTGFβRII) gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajay; Rodier, Jason T; Tandon, Ashish; Klibanov, Alexander M; Mohan, Rajiv R

    2012-01-01

    To explore (i) the potential of polyethylenimine (PEI)-DNA nanoparticles as a vector for delivering genes into human corneal fibroblasts, and (ii) whether the nanoparticle-mediated soluble extracellular domain of the transforming growth factor-β type II receptor (sTGFβRII) gene therapy could be used to reduce myofibroblasts and fibrosis in the cornea using an in vitro model. PEI-DNA nanoparticles were prepared at a nitrogen-to-phosphate ratio of 30 by mixing linear PEI and a plasmid encoding sTGFβRII conjugated to the fragment crystallizable (Fc) portion of human immunoglobulin. The PEI-DNA polyplex formation was confirmed through gel retardation assay. Human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) were generated from donor corneas; myofibroblasts and fibrosis were induced with TGFβ1 (1 ng/ml) stimulation employing serum-free conditions. The sTGFβRII conjugated to the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin gene was introduced into HCF using either PEI-DNA nanoparticles or Lipofectamine. Suitable negative and positive controls to compare selected nanoparticle and therapeutic gene efficiency were included. Delivered gene copies and mRNA (mRNA) expression were quantified with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and protein with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The changes in fibrosis parameters were quantified by measuring fibrosis marker α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) mRNA and protein levels with qPCR, immunostaining, and immunoblotting. Cytotoxicity was determined using cellular viability, proliferation, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. PEI readily bound to plasmids to form nanoparticular polyplexes and exhibited much greater transfection efficiency (pLipofectamine. The PEI-DNA-treated cultures showed 4.5×10(4) plasmid copies/µg DNA in real-time qPCR and 7,030±87 pg/ml sTGFβRII protein in ELISA analyses, whereas Lipofectamine-transfected cultures demonstrated 1.9×10(3) gene copies/µg DNA and 1,640±100 pg/ml s

  15. The discriminative capacity of soluble Toll-like receptor (sTLR)2 and sTLR4 in inflammatory diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, J. ten; Kox, M.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Mothapo, K.M.; Slavcovici, A.; Jansen, T.L.Th.A.; Tweehuysen, L.; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E.J.; Schneeberger, P.M.; Wever, P.C.; Stoffels, M.; Simon, A.; Meer, J. van der; Johnson, M.D.; Kullberg, B.J.; Pickkers, P.; Pachot, A.; Joosten, L.; Netea, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe extracellular domains of cytokine receptors are released during inflammation, but little is known about the shedding of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and whether they can be used as diagnostic biomarkers.MethodsThe release of sTLR2 and sTLR4 was studied in in-vitro stimulations, as well as

  16. Decoy receptor 3 analogous supplement protects steatotic rat liver from ischemia–reperfusion injury

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    Tzu-Hao Li

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Using multimodal in vivo and in vitro approaches, we found that DcR3a analogue was a potential agent to protect steatotic liver against IR injury by simultaneous blockade of the multiple IR injury-related pathogenic changes.

  17. Serum decoy receptor 3 is a biomarker for disease severity in nonatopic asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Han Chen

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: High serum DcR3 levels are associated with disease severity in nonatopic asthma patients, which suggests that DcR3 is a potential biomarker that can be used to predict the severity of nonatopic asthma.

  18. Decoy receptor 1 (DCR1) promoter hypermethylation and response to irinotecan in metastatic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Linda J W; Trooskens, Geert; Snaebjornsson, Petur; Coupe, Veerle M. H.; Mongera, Sandra; Haan, Josien C.; Richman, Susan D.; Koopman, Miriam|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298209640; Tol, Jolien; Meyer, Tim; Louwagie, Joost; Dehaspe, Luc; van Grieken, Nicole C. T.; Ylstra, Bauke; Verheul, Henk M. W.; van Engeland, Manon; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Herman, James G; Quirke, Philip; Seymour, Matthew T; Punt, Cornelis J A; van Criekinge, Wim; Carvalho, Beatriz; Meijer, Gerrit A.

    2017-01-01

    Diversity in colorectal cancer biology is associated with variable responses to standard chemotherapy. We aimed to identify and validate DNA hypermethylated genes as predictive biomarkers for irinotecan treatment of metastatic CRC patients. Candidate genes were selected from 389 genes involved in

  19. Changes in soluble transferrin receptor and hemoglobin concentrations in Malawian mothers are associated with those values in their exclusively breastfed, HIV-exposed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infant iron status at birth is influenced bymaternal iron status during pregnancy; however, there are limited data on the extent to which maternal iron status is associated with infant iron status during exclusive breastfeeding. We evaluated how maternal and infant hemoglobin and iron status [solubl...

  20. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insoluble vs. soluble fiber; Fiber - soluble vs. insoluble ... There are 2 different types of fiber -- soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows ...

  1. Accurate assignment of significance to neuropeptide identifications using Monte Carlo k-permuted decoy databases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik N Akhtar

    Full Text Available In support of accurate neuropeptide identification in mass spectrometry experiments, novel Monte Carlo permutation testing was used to compute significance values. Testing was based on k-permuted decoy databases, where k denotes the number of permutations. These databases were integrated with a range of peptide identification indicators from three popular open-source database search software (OMSSA, Crux, and X! Tandem to assess the statistical significance of neuropeptide spectra matches. Significance p-values were computed as the fraction of the sequences in the database with match indicator value better than or equal to the true target spectra. When applied to a test-bed of all known manually annotated mouse neuropeptides, permutation tests with k-permuted decoy databases identified up to 100% of the neuropeptides at p-value < 10(-5. The permutation test p-values using hyperscore (X! Tandem, E-value (OMSSA and Sp score (Crux match indicators outperformed all other match indicators. The robust performance to detect peptides of the intuitive indicator "number of matched ions between the experimental and theoretical spectra" highlights the importance of considering this indicator when the p-value was borderline significant. Our findings suggest permutation decoy databases of size 1×105 are adequate to accurately detect neuropeptides and this can be exploited to increase the speed of the search. The straightforward Monte Carlo permutation testing (comparable to a zero order Markov model can be easily combined with existing peptide identification software to enable accurate and effective neuropeptide detection. The source code is available at http://stagbeetle.animal.uiuc.edu/pepshop/MSMSpermutationtesting.

  2. Osteoprotegerin and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype : a nested case-control study in the EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortner, Renée T; Sarink, Danja; Schock, Helena; Johnson, Theron; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Affret, Aurélie; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X; Peeters, Petra H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Van Gils, Carla H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/17443068X; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rinaldi, Sabina; Dossus, Laure; Gunter, Marc; Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) axis, may influence breast cancer risk via its role as the decoy receptor for both the RANK ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL).

  3. Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Teng-Yun; Liang, Hao; Liu, Yang; Cai, Wen-Qi; Ju, Lei; Liu, Wei-Yue; Wang, Jian; Yin, Hao; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2009-04-13

    We present a secure network communication system that operated with decoy-state quantum cryptography in a real-world application scenario. The full key exchange and application protocols were performed in real time among three nodes, in which two adjacent nodes were connected by approximate 20 km of commercial telecom optical fiber. The generated quantum keys were immediately employed and demonstrated for communication applications, including unbreakable real-time voice telephone between any two of the three communication nodes, or a broadcast from one node to the other two nodes by using one-time pad encryption.

  4. Target-Decoy Approach and False Discovery Rate: When Things May Go Wrong

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Nitin; Bandeira, Nuno; Keich, Uri; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2011-01-01

    The target-decoy approach (TDA) has done the field of proteomics a great service by filling in the need to estimate the false discovery rates (FDR) of peptide identifications. While TDA is often viewed as a universal solution to the problem of FDR evaluation, we argue that the time has come to critically re-examine TDA and to acknowledge not only its merits but also its demerits. We demonstrate that some popular MS/MS search tools are not TDA-compliant and that it is easy to develop a non-TDA...

  5. The Central Polybasic Region of the Soluble SNARE (Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor) Vam7 Affects Binding to Phosphatidylinositol 3-Phosphate by the PX (Phox Homology) Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Gregory E; Starr, Matthew L; Hurst, Logan R; Sparks, Robert P; Padolina, Mark; Fratti, Rutilio A

    2016-08-19

    The yeast vacuole requires four SNAREs to trigger membrane fusion including the soluble Qc-SNARE Vam7. The N-terminal PX domain of Vam7 binds to the lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) and the tethering complex HOPS (homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting complex), whereas the C-terminal SNARE motif forms SNARE complexes. Vam7 also contains an uncharacterized middle domain that is predicted to be a coiled-coil domain with multiple helices. One helix contains a polybasic region (PBR) composed of Arg-164, Arg-168, Lys-172, Lys-175, Arg-179, and Lys-186. Polybasic regions are often associated with nonspecific binding to acidic phospholipids including phosphoinositides. Although the PX (phox homology) domain alone binds PI3P, we theorized that the Vam7 PBR could bind to additional acidic phospholipids enriched at fusion sites. Mutating each of the basic residues in the PBR to an alanine (Vam7-6A) led to attenuated vacuole fusion. The defective fusion of Vam7-6A was due in part to inefficient association with its cognate SNAREs and HOPS, yet the overall vacuole association of Vam7-6A was similar to wild type. Experiments testing the binding of Vam7 to specific signaling lipids showed that mutating the PBR to alanines augmented binding to PI3P. The increased binding to PI3P by Vam7-6A likely contributed to the observed wild type levels of vacuole association, whereas protein-protein interactions were diminished. PI3P binding was inhibited when the PX domain mutant Y42A was introduced into Vam7-6A to make Vam7-7A. Thus the Vam7 PBR affects PI3P binding by the PX domain and in turn affects binding to SNAREs and HOPS to support efficient fusion. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Placental growth factor, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products, extracellular newly identified receptor for receptor for advanced glycation end products binding protein and high mobility group box 1 levels in patients with acute kidney injury: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiyanov, Oskar; Kriha, Vitezslav; Vachek, Jan; Zima, Tomas; Tesar, Vladimir; Kalousova, Marta

    2013-11-04

    Placental growth factor (PlGF), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), extracellular newly identified receptor for RAGE binding protein (EN-RAGE) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) are novel biomarkers in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, their clinical significance in acute kidney injury (AKI) is unknown. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether selected biomarkers are changed in AKI patients. Serum PlGF, PAPP-A, sRAGE, EN-RAGE and HMGB-1 levels were assessed in 40 patients with AKI, 42 CKD 5 patients, 31 haemodialysis patients (HD) and 39 age-matched healthy controls. PAPP-A was elevated in AKI (20.6 ± 16.9 mIU/L) compared with controls (9.1 ± 2.3 mIU/L, p PAPP-A levels were associated with transferrin (p PAPP-A, EN-RAGE and HMGB1 are elevated, but sRAGE and PlGF are not increased. Whereas PAPP-A correlates with markers of nutrition; PlGF, EN-RAGE and HMGB-1 are related to inflammatory parameters.

  7. sDFIRE: Sequence-specific statistical energy function for protein structure prediction by decoy selections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Yang, Yuedong; Mishra, Avdesh; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2016-05-05

    An important unsolved problem in molecular and structural biology is the protein folding and structure prediction problem. One major bottleneck for solving this is the lack of an accurate energy to discriminate near-native conformations against other possible conformations. Here we have developed sDFIRE energy function, which is an optimized linear combination of DFIRE (the Distance-scaled Finite Ideal gas Reference state based Energy), the orientation dependent (polar-polar and polar-nonpolar) statistical potentials, and the matching scores between predicted and model structural properties including predicted main-chain torsion angles and solvent accessible surface area. The weights for these scoring terms are optimized by three widely used decoy sets consisting of a total of 134 proteins. Independent tests on CASP8 and CASP9 decoy sets indicate that sDFIRE outperforms other state-of-the-art energy functions in selecting near native structures and in the Pearson's correlation coefficient between the energy score and structural accuracy of the model (measured by TM-score). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Water soluble and efficient amino acid Schiff base receptor for reversible fluorescence turn-on detection of Zn2+ ions: Quantum chemical calculations and detection of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subha, L.; Balakrishnan, C.; Natarajan, Satheesh; Theetharappan, M.; Subramanian, Balanehru; Neelakantan, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    An amino acid Schiff base (R) capable of recognizing Zn2+ ions selectively and sensitively in an aqueous medium was prepared and characterized. Upon addition of Zn2+ ions, the receptor exhibits fluorescence intensity enhancements ( 40 fold) at 460 nm (quantum yield, Φ = 0.05 for R and Φ = 0.18 for R-Zn2+) and can be detected by naked eye under UV light. The receptor can recognize the Zn2+ (1.04 × 10- 8 M) selectively for other metal ions in the pH range of 7.5-11. The Zn2+ chelation with R decreases the loss of energy through non-radiative transition and leads to fluorescence enhancement. The binding mode of the receptor with Zn2+ was investigated by 1H NMR titration and further validated by ESI-MS. The elemental color mapping and SEM/EDS analysis were also used to study the binding of R with Zn2+. Density functional theory calculations were carried out to understand the binding mechanism. The receptor was applied as a microbial sensor for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  9. Lipid-soluble smoke particles upregulate vascular smooth muscle ETB receptors via activation of mitogen-activating protein kinases and NF-kappaB pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Cang-Bao; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Zhang, Wei

    2008-01-01

    ), elevated levels of ET(B) receptor mRNA (quantitative real-time PCR), and protein expressions (immunohistochemistry and Western blotting). Intracellular signaling was studied with Western blotting and phosphoELISA; this revealed that DSP induced extracellular-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), p38...

  10. The pro-inflammatory biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is associated with incident type 2 diabetes among overweight but not obese individuals with impaired glucose regulation: effect modification by smoking and body weight status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heraclides, A.; Jensen, T. M.; Rasmussen, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence links the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), a stable biomarker of systemic immune activation, to several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. suPAR is also associated with adiposity and smoking. We hypothesised that this biomarker would be linked...... to incident type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and that this association would be modified by smoking and body weight status. The study included 1,933 participants with impaired glucose regulation, who were drawn from the Danish arm of the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive...... Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION) and for whom data on suPAR, BMI and smoking were available. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds for incident type 2 diabetes per twofold increase in suPAR levels. Interactions between both smoking and body...

  11. A drop in the circulating concentrations of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products is associated with seroconversion to autoantibody positivity but not with subsequent progression to clinical disease in children en route to type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, K M; Ryhänen, S J; Forbes, J M; Härkönen, T; Ilonen, J; Simell, O; Veijola, R; Groop, P-H; Knip, M

    2017-05-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their interaction with the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) have been studied for their role in the pathogenesis and complications of type 1 diabetes. Decreased concentrations of soluble RAGE (sRAGE) have been reported in acute autoimmune inflammation. We set out to analyze the changes in sRAGE concentration during preclinical diabetes in children seroconverting to islet autoantibody positivity. We measured serum concentrations of sRAGE in 168 children who progressed to clinical disease and 43 children who turned positive for at least 2 diabetes-associated autoantibodies but remained nondiabetic. We analyzed the sRAGE before seroconversion in the first autoantibody-positive sample and annually thereafter until the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes or end of follow-up. Both groups had similar sRAGE before seroconversion, but subsequently, sRAGE concentrations were lower (P disease. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. receptores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Regina Daronco Benetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnográfico, que tuvo lo objetivo de interpretar el sistema de conocimiento y del significado atribuidos a la sangre referente a la transfusión sanguínea por los donadores y receptores de un banco de sangre. Para la colecta de las informaciones se observaron los participantes y la entrevista etnográfica se realizó el análisis de dominio, taxonómicos y temáticos. Los dominios culturales fueron: la sangre es vida: fuente de vida y alimento valioso; creencias religiosas: fuentes simbólicas de apoyos; donación sanguínea: un gesto colaborador que exige cuidarse, gratifica y trae felicidad; donación sanguínea: fuente simbólica de inseguridad; estar enfermo es una condición para realizar transfusión sanguínea; transfusión sanguínea: esperanza de vida; Creencias populares: transfusión sanguínea como riesgo para la salud; donadores de sangre: personas benditas; donar y recibir sangre: como significado de felicidad. Temática: “líquido precioso que origina, sostiene, modifica la vida, provoca miedo e inseguridad”.

  13. Opposing Roles of Membrane and Soluble Forms of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Primary Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Allison L.; Sims, Gary P.; Brewah, Yambasu A.; Rebelatto, Marlon C.; Kearley, Jennifer; Benjamin, Ebony; Keller, Ashley E.; Brohawn, Philip; Herbst, Ronald; Coyle, Anthony J.; Humbles, Alison A.; Kolbeck, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a common respiratory pathogen in infants and the older population, causes pulmonary inflammation and airway occlusion that leads to impairment of lung function. Here, we have established a role for receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in RSV infection. RAGE-deficient (ager−/− ) mice were protected from RSV-induced weight loss and inflammation. This protection correlated with an early increase in type I interferons, later decreases in proinflam...

  14. Ankylosing Spondylitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: Serum Levels of TNF-α and Its Soluble Receptors during the Course of Therapy with Etanercept and Infliximab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the TNF-α blockers infliximab or etanercept on the levels of TNF-α, TNF-receptor 1 (TNF-R1), and TNF-receptor 2 (TNF-R2), as well as the levels of the inflammation markers CRP and IL-6, were measured in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients receiving treatment with either compound. We found that RA patients tend to have higher levels of TNF-α than both healthy individuals and AS patients prior to treatment (P etanercept patient groups during the course of treatment, while in the infliximab treated patients, the amount of TNF-α measured remained unchanged. Elevated TNF-α in the etanercept treated patients does not appear to be a significant risk factor for the spontaneous development of further autoimmune diseases in our study group. Increased levels of TNF-R1 were determined in both AS (P etanercept (P < 0.001). In contrast, the levels of this receptor remained unchanged in RA patients treated with either compound. PMID:24783218

  15. New treatment of periodontal diseases by using NF-kappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides via prevention of bone resorption and promotion of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hideo; Nakagami, Hironori; Morita, Shosuke; Tsukamoto, Ikuyo; Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Nakagami, Futoshi; Shimosato, Takashi; Minobe, Noriko; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2009-09-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is involved in osteoclast differentiation and activation. Thus, the blockade of the NF-kappaB pathway might be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating bone metabolic diseases. Periodontitis is subgingival inflammation caused by bacterial infection; this disease also is thought to be a chronic focal point responsible for systemic diseases. In this study, NF-kappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were topically applied for experimental periodontitis in a debris-accumulation model and wound healing in a bone-defect model of beagle dogs to investigate the effect of decoy ODN on bone metabolism. Application of NF-kappaB decoy ODN significantly reduced interleukin-6 activity in crevicular fluid and improved alveolar bone loss in the analysis of dental radiographs and DEXA. Direct measurement of exposed root that lost alveolar bone support revealed that NF-kappaB decoy treatment dramatically protected bone from loss. In a bone-defect model, NF-kappaB decoy ODN promoted the healing process as compared with control scrambled decoy in micro-CT analysis. Overall, inhibition of NF-kappaB by decoy strategy prevented the progression of bone loss in periodontitis and promoted the wound healing in bone defects through the inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption. Targeting of NF-kappaB might be a potential therapy in various bone metabolic diseases.

  16. Characterization in vitro of a human tumor necrosis factor-binding protein. A soluble form of a tumor necrosis factor receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Lantz, M; Gullberg, U; Nilsson, E; Olsson, I

    1990-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a pleiotropic mediator of inflammatory responses. A cysteine-rich, highly glycosylated 30-kD TNF-binding protein (TNF-BP) purified from urine may have a role in regulation because it protects in vitro against the biological effects of TNF. The cytotoxic effect of TNF on the fibrosarcoma cell line WEHI 164 was inhibited by 50% at a 10-fold excess of TNF-BP. The binding of TNF to the receptor was partially reversed after the addition of TNF-BP. Results from biosyn...

  17. An Increase in Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and VEGF Soluble Receptor-1 (sFlt-1) Are Associated with Early Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Lihong; Wei, Zhouling; Li, Ouyang; Huang, Rudian; Qin, Junzhen; Chen, Hongyan; Fan, Xiaojing; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a health problem that affects approximately 1% to 5% reproductive age woman. Yet, in around half of these patients, the mechanism for RSA is unexplained. Recent studies have indicated that placental ischemia/hypoxia and endothelial dysfunction are important factors in miscarriage. Other studies have indicated that the level and expression of soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1) is increased under a hypoxic environment. However, decreased sFlt-1 in the maternal circulation during the first trimester has recently been proposed as a potential marker for identifying risk of pregnancy loss. In this prospective study clinical samples were obtained within a short time after the fetal death, protein expression and maternal serum levels of sFlt1 were assessed and compared to samples taken from those with normal pregnancies. Our results indicate that levels of VEGF and sFlt-1 are both increased in women during early pregnancy compared women that are not pregnant (pmiscarriages compare to controls. These results demonstrate that there is likely a relationship between VEGF, sFlt-1 and RSA suggesting that the high levels and over expression of sFlt-1 and VEGF might be associated with the pathogenesis of RSA. PMID:24098721

  18. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-04-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

  19. Oligodeoxynucleotide decoy therapy blocks type 1 procollagen transcription and the prolyl hydroxylase beta subunit translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Chun-Nam; Ehrlich, H Paul; White, Sheryl L; Buttolph, Thomas R; Cutroneo, Kenneth R; Chiu, Jen-Fu

    2008-03-01

    Persistent transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) exposure to lungs increases type 1 collagen synthesis and deposition resulting in excess fibrosis which leads to morbidity and possibly death. We now report using human embryonic lung fibroblasts in the presence of TGF-beta1, a novel double-stranded (ds) DNA decoy with phosphorothioate (PT) linkages, containing the TGF-beta cis-element found in the distal promoter region of the COL1A1 gene which silences COL1A1 gene expression. In a cell-free protein translation system, we have previously reported that collagen synthesis was inhibited by disulfide isomerase, the prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P-4-H) beta subunit. By comparative proteomics dsdecoy therapy increased the levels of disulfide isomerase, the P-4-H beta subunit. These findings taken together support the notion that the dsdecoy inhibits type 1 collagen synthesis at both the transcriptional and translational levels.

  20. Truncation of the ectodomain of the human insulin receptor results in secretion of a soluble insulin binding protein from transfected CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, L; Sissom, J; Levitan, A

    1988-02-01

    The insulin receptor is an integral transmembrane glycoprotein comprised of two alpha-(approximately 135 kDa) and two beta-(approximately 95 kDa) subunits, which is synthesized as a single polypeptide chain precursor (alpha beta). The primary sequence of the human insulin receptor (hIR) protein, deduced from the nucleotide sequence of cloned human placental mRNAs, predicts two large domains (929 and 403 residues) on either side of a single membrane spanning domain (23 residues); each of these major domains has a distinct function (insulin binding and protein/tyrosine kinase activity, respectively). To experimentally test this deduced topology, and to explore the potential for independent domain function by the hIR extracellular domain, we have constructed an expression plasmid encoding an hIR deletion mutant which is truncated 8 residues from the beginning of the predicted transmembrane domain (i.e., 921 residues). This domain of the hIR is in fact processed into alpha- and truncated beta-subunits and secreted with high efficiency from transfected CHO cell lines which express this mutant hIR, and the protein accumulates as an (alpha beta)2 dimer in the medium. This molecule is recognized by a battery of 13 monoclonal antibodies to epitopes on the IR extracellular domain, four of which block insulin binding and two of which require the native conformation of the IR for recognition. Further, this domain binds insulin with an apparent dissociation constant comparable to that of the wild-type hIR. However, the secreted dimer displays a linear Scatchard plot, while that of the wild-type membrane-associated hIR is curvilinear.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. An increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and VEGF soluble receptor-1 (sFlt-1 are associated with early recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Pang

    Full Text Available Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA is a health problem that affects approximately 1% to 5% reproductive age woman. Yet, in around half of these patients, the mechanism for RSA is unexplained. Recent studies have indicated that placental ischemia/hypoxia and endothelial dysfunction are important factors in miscarriage. Other studies have indicated that the level and expression of soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1 is increased under a hypoxic environment. However, decreased sFlt-1 in the maternal circulation during the first trimester has recently been proposed as a potential marker for identifying risk of pregnancy loss. In this prospective study clinical samples were obtained within a short time after the fetal death, protein expression and maternal serum levels of sFlt1 were assessed and compared to samples taken from those with normal pregnancies. Our results indicate that levels of VEGF and sFlt-1 are both increased in women during early pregnancy compared women that are not pregnant (p<0.05 indicating that VEGF and sFlt-1 are both associated with pregnancy. More importantly, we detected a significant (p<0.05 increase in sFlt1 and VEGF levels and expression in the RSA patients who suffered subsequent miscarriages compare to controls. These results demonstrate that there is likely a relationship between VEGF, sFlt-1 and RSA suggesting that the high levels and over expression of sFlt-1 and VEGF might be associated with the pathogenesis of RSA.

  2. TGF-beta-induced fibrosis and SMAD signaling: oligo decoys as natural therapeutics for inhibition of tissue fibrosis and scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutroneo, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    Transforming-growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a pleiotrophic growth factor that is synthesized by many cells in the body. This growth factor is chemotactic for fibroblasts, stimulates fibroblast proliferation, and increases the synthesis of a number of extracellular matrix proteins including collagens. The TGF-beta activator protein is a transacting factor, which binds to the TGF-beta element in the distal promoter of the COL1A1 collagen gene and induces transcription of this gene. Although transient TGF-beta 1 activity participates in repair and regeneration of tissues, persistent TGF-beta 1 function affects excessive fibrosis and ultimately scarring of both skin and internal organs. Scarring of internal organ (e.g., liver and lung) results in a loss of function and ultimately death may occur. The central issue of this review is that phosphorothioate double-stranded decoys or other decoys decrease procollagen gene expression, procollagen synthesis, and collagen during fibrogenesis. The rationale is that the decoys containing the TGF-beta element or other gene transcription regulatory CIS-elements bind the transacting proteins preventing the latter from binding to the CIS-element in the 5'-flanking region of the natural gene resulting in transcription inhibition. We will, in part, focus on aspects involved in TGF-beta 1-induced fibrosis that occur during fibrogenesis and the use of the dsTGF-beta element containing oligodeoxynucleotide decoys to control excessive collagen synthesis, and deposition resulting from persistent TGF-beta. In our model of regulation of collagen synthesis, these double-stranded oligo decoys act as promoter competitors, binding to the activator protein either in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. The significance of the proposed studies is that these novel natural antifibrotics will mimic the effect of glucocorticoids on collagen synthesis during fibrogenesis without the unwanted side effects of these steroids. Based on our previous studies

  3. Soluble CTLA-4 receptor an immunological marker of Graves' disease and severity of ophthalmopathy is associated with CTLA-4 Jo31 and CT60 gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroszewski, Jacek; Pawlak, Edyta; Karabon, Lidia; Frydecka, Irena; Jonkisz, Anna; Slowik, Miroslaw; Bolanowski, Marek

    2009-11-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disorder with genetic and environmental background. CTLA-4 is a candidate gene for thyroid autoimmunity. Increased serum levels of soluble CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4) were found in some autoimmune diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relation between sCTLA-4 level and clinical manifestation of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), thyroid status, and CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms. Serum sCTLA-4 concentrations were determined in 93 GO patients and 93 healthy controls. In the GO group, CTLA-4 gene was genotyped in five polymorphic sites: g.319C>T, c.49A>G, CT60 by means of PRC-RFLP, Jo31, and g.*642AT(8_33) by means of minisequencing assay. Serum sCTLA-4 level was significantly higher in the GO group than in controls (median: 7.94 vs 0.00 ng/ml, P=0.000001). This level was higher in severe than in nonsevere GO (median: 10.3 vs 5.6 ng/ml, P=0.01). sCTLA-4 concentration was related neither to the activity of GO nor to thyroid function. Elevated sCTLA-4 levels were observed in carriers Jo31[G] allele (genotype GG+GT) as compared with subjects with an absence of the [G] allele (TT genotype; median: 9.18 vs 4.0 ng/ml, P=0.02). Also patients possessing CT60[G] allele (genotype GG+GA) had higher serum sCTLA-4 levels than subjects who lack the [G] allele (AA genotype; median: 8.73 vs 2.28 ng/ml, P=0.03). It was shown for the first time that increased serum concentration of sCTLA-4 correlate with the severity of GO. Genetic variation in the CTLA-4 gene region in GD patients at least partially determines the level of sCTLA-4.

  4. Sotatercept, a soluble activin receptor type 2A IgG-Fc fusion protein for the treatment of anemia and bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raje, Noopur; Vallet, Sonia

    2010-10-01

    Sotatercept (ACE-011), under development by Acceleron Pharma Inc in collaboration with Celgene Corp, is a chimeric protein containing the extracellular domain of the activin receptor 2A (ACVR2A) fused to the Fc domain of human IgG1. Sotatercept contains the binding site of ACVR2A and interferes with downstream signaling cascades, in particular the SMAD pathway, by sequestering activin. The murine counterpart of sotatercept, referred to as RAP-011, has been extensively evaluated in preclinical studies, in particular in models of cancer- and osteoporosis-related bone loss, and the developing companies envisage that sotatercept may also have potential for the treatment of cancer and cancer-related bone loss. In a phase I clinical trial in postmenopausal females, sotatercept increased hematocrit levels, and, in a phase II trial in patients with multiple myeloma, a trend toward improvement in osteolytic lesions as well as antitumor activity was observed. At the time of publication, phase II trials in patients with anemia were ongoing. Future clinical development will rely on an evaluation of the benefits and complications of sotatercept administration, focusing in particular on suppression of ovarian function and increases in hematocrit levels without a consequent risk of hypertension and thrombosis.

  5. Interleukin-15 and soluble interleukin-15 receptor α in coronary artery disease patients: association with epicardial fat and indices of adipose tissue distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dozio

    Full Text Available Interleukin-15 (IL-15 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which signals via a specific alpha receptor subunit (IL-15Rα. Increased IL-15 level has been observed in cardiovascular patients and IL-15 immunoreactivity has been detected at vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Due to the association between adipose tissue distribution, inflammation and coronary artery disease (CAD, we quantified IL-15 and IL-15Rα in CAD patients with different adiposity and adipose tissue distribution and we evaluated whether epicardial adipose tissue (EAT, a visceral fat depot surrounding and infiltrating myocardium, may be a source of both molecules. IL-15 and IL-15Rα proteins were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Gene expression of IL-15 and IL-15Rα in EAT depots was evaluated by one colour microarray platform. EAT thickness was measured by echocardiography. Plasmatic IL-15 and IL-15Rα levels were higher in CAD than non-CAD patients. After classification according to adipose tissue distribution, IL-15 was higher in CAD patients with increased abdominal adiposity. Increased level of IL-15Rα was observed both in CAD and non-CAD patients with increased abdominal fat. EAT was a source of IL-15 and IL-15Rα and their expression was higher in CAD patients with increased EAT thickness. In conclusion, our data suggest that circulating levels of IL-15 and IL-15Rα seem to reflect visceral distribution of adipose tissue and that EAT may be a potential source of both IL-15 and IL-15Rα. Future studies on the relationship between IL-15, visceral fat and characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques could help to better understand the complex biology of this cytokine.

  6. Circulating Angiopoietin-2 and Its Soluble Receptor Tie-2 Concentrations Are Related to Renal Function in Two Population-Based Cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hennings

    Full Text Available An intact angiopoietin/Tie-2 ligand receptor system is indispensable for life. High circulating angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2 concentrations are strongly associated with kidney disease involving the progressive loss of glomerular filtration. The aim of our study was to investigate the associations between renal function and serum Ang-2 or serum Tie-2 concentrations in the general population.Data of 3081 and 4088 subjects from two population-based studies, the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1 and SHIP-Trend, were used. Renal function was assessed by serum creatinine, cystatin C concentration, creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR(crea], cystatin C-based eGFR [eGFR(cys] and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR. Analyses of variance and linear regression models were calculated.In both cohorts, strong positive associations between serum cystatin C concentrations and serum Ang-2 or Tie-2 concentrations as well as inverse associations between eGFR(cys and serum Ang-2 or Tie-2 concentrations were found. These relations were also present in a subpopulation without hypertension or diabetes mellitus type 2. Furthermore, we detected weak U-shaped associations between serum creatinine concentrations or eGFR(crea and serum Ang-2 concentrations. With respect to uACR a strong positive association with serum Ang-2 concentrations was revealed.Serum Ang-2 concentrations are strongly associated with sensitive parameters of renal impairment like serum cystatin C, uACR and eGFR(cys. These findings persisted even after exclusion of subjects with hypertension or diabetes mellitus type 2, conditions that predispose to chronic renal disease and are associated with increased Ang-2 concentrations. Interestingly, we did not detect the same strong relations between serum creatinine and eGFR(crea with serum Ang-2 concentration. Additionally, significant association of serum Tie-2 concentrations with cystatin C and eGFR(cys were detected.

  7. VEGF receptor signaling links inflammation and tumorigenesis in colitis-associated cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Maximilian J; Wirtz, Stefan; Jefremow, André; Warntjen, Moritz; Neufert, Clemens; Atreya, Raja; Becker, Christoph; Weigmann, Benno; Vieth, Michael; Rose-John, Stefan; Neurath, Markus F

    2010-12-20

    Whereas the inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has shown promising results in sporadic colon cancer, the role of VEGF signaling in colitis-associated cancer (CAC) has not been addressed. We found that, unlike sporadic colorectal cancer and control patients, patients with CAC show activated VEGFR2 on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We then explored the function of VEGFR2 in a murine model of colitis-associated colon cancer characterized by increased VEGFR2 expression. Epithelial cells in tumor tissue expressed VEGFR2 and responded to VEGF stimulation with augmented VEGFR2-mediated proliferation. Blockade of VEGF function via soluble decoy receptors suppressed tumor development, inhibited tumor angiogenesis, and blocked tumor cell proliferation. Functional studies revealed that chronic inflammation leads to an up-regulation of VEGFR2 on IECs. Studies in conditional STAT3 mutant mice showed that VEGFR signaling requires STAT3 to promote epithelial cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo. Thus, VEGFR-signaling acts as a direct growth factor for tumor cells in CAC, providing a molecular link between inflammation and the development of colon cancer.

  8. Suppression of chronic inflammation with engineered nanomaterials delivering nuclear factor κB transcription factor decoy oligodeoxynucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Leila; Darvishi, Behrad; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan

    2017-11-01

    As a prototypical pro-inflammatory transcription factor, constitutive activation of NF-κB signaling pathway has been reported in several chronic inflammatory disorders including inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. Application of decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) against NF-κB, as an effective molecular therapy approach, has brought about several promising outcomes in treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders. However, systematic administration of these genetic constructs is mostly hampered due to their instability, rapid degradation by nucleases and poor cellular uptake. Both chemical modification and application of delivery systems have shown to effectively overcome some of these limitations. Among different administered delivery systems, nanomaterials have gained much attention for delivering NF-κB decoy ODNs owing to their high loading capacity, targeted delivery and ease of synthesis. In this review, we highlight some of the most recently developed nanomaterial-based delivery systems for overcoming limitations associated with clinical application of these genetic constructs.

  9. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE)--intra- and inter-individual variability in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míková, Blanka; Jarolímková, Eva; Benáková, Hana; Dohnal, Luděk; Tesař, Vladimír; Zima, Tomáš; Kalousová, Marta

    2012-07-01

    Dialysis patients are at high risk of cardiovascular complications. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) as well as sRAGE (soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products) are new biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to describe their intra- and inter-individual variability. The studied group consisted of 21 chronic hemodialysis patients. PAPP-A, sRAGE and selected routine parameters were measured monthly during a 1-year prospective study. Our results show high intra-individual variability of both PAPP-A and sRAGE. Both PAPP-A and sRAGE were closely linked to serum transferrin levels. Additionally, sRAGE was significantly associated with leukocyte count and haemoglobin. Our study demonstrates high intra-individual variability of PAPP-A and sRAGE in stable clinical status. This finding could be helpful for further evaluation of the significance of PAPP-A and sRAGE in chronic kidney disease.

  10. The predictive value of soluble biomarkers (CD14 subtype, interleukin-2 receptor, human leucocyte antigen-G) and procalcitonin in the detection of bacteremia and sepsis in pediatric oncology patients with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonas, Vincas; Eidukaitė, Audronė; Tamulienė, Indrė

    2013-04-01

    Prediction of bacteremia/sepsis in childhood oncology patients with febrile neutropenia still remains a challenge for the medical community due to the lack of reliable biomarkers, especially at the beginning of infectious process. The objective of this study was to evaluate diagnostic value of soluble biomarkers (CD14 subtype, interleukin-2 receptor, HLA-G) and procalcitonin (PCT) in the identification of infectious process at the beginning of a febrile episode in pediatric oncology patients. A total of 62 episodes of febrile neutropenia in 37 childhood oncology patients were enrolled in this study. Serum samples were collected at presentation after confirmation of febrile neutropenia and analyzed according to recommendations of manufacturers. Patients were classified into bacteremia/sepsis and fever of unknown origin groups. Median of PCT and sIL-2R were considerably higher in bacteremia/sepsis group compared to fever of unknown origin group, whereas median of sHLA-G and presepsin levels between investigated groups did not differ sufficiently. PCT and sIL-2R determination might be used as an additional diagnostic tool for the detection of bacteremia/sepsis in childhood oncology patients with febrile neutropenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Added value of soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 as a biomarker of ESRD risk in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsblom, Carol; Moran, John; Harjutsalo, Valma; Loughman, Tony; Wadén, Johan; Tolonen, Nina; Thorn, Lena; Saraheimo, Markku; Gordin, Daniel; Groop, Per-Henrik; Thomas, Merlin C

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that circulating levels of the tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 (sTNFαR1) may be a useful predictor for the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with diabetes. However, its potential utility as a biomarker has not been formally quantified. Circulating levels of sTNFαR1 were assessed in 429 patients with type 1 diabetes and overt nephropathy from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) cohort study. Predictors of incident ESRD over a median of 9.4 years of follow-up were determined by Cox regression and Fine-Gray competing risk analyses. The added value of sTNFαR1 was estimated via time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves, net reclassification index (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) for survival data. A total of 130 individuals developed ESRD (28%; ESRD incidence rate of 3.4% per year). In cause-specific modeling, after adjusting for baseline renal status, predictors of increased incidence of ESRD in patients with overt nephropathy were an elevated HbA1c, shorter duration of diabetes, and circulating levels of sTNFαR1. Notably, sTNFαR1 outperformed estimated glomerular filtration rate in terms of R(2). Circulating levels of the sTNFαR1 also remained associated with ESRD after adjusting for the competing risk of death. A prediction model including sTNFαR1 (as a -0.5 fractional polynomial) was superior to a model without it, as demonstrated by better global fit, an increment of R(2), the C index, and area under the curve. Estimates of IDI and NRI(>0) were 0.22 (95% CI 0.16-0.28; P added value as a biomarker, based on the absolute values of NRI and IDI. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  12. Enhanced suppression of adenovirus replication by triple combination of anti-adenoviral siRNAs, soluble adenovirus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and cidofovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzuto, Tanja; Röger, Carsten; Kurreck, Jens; Fechner, Henry

    2015-08-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) generally induce mild self-limiting respiratory or intestinal infections but can also cause serious disease with fatal outcomes in immunosuppressed patients. Antiviral drug therapy is an important treatment for adenoviral infections but its efficiency is limited. Recently, we have shown that gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising new approach to inhibit adenoviral infection. In the present in vitro study, we examined whether the efficiency of an RNAi-based anti-adenoviral therapy can be further increased by combination with a virus receptor trap sCAR-Fc and with the antiviral drug cidofovir. Initially, three siRNAs, siE1A_4, siIVa2_2 and Pol-si2, targeting the adenoviral E1A, IVa2 and DNA polymerase mRNAs, respectively, were used for gene silencing. Replication of the Ad was inhibited in a dose dependent manner by each siRNA, but the efficiency of inhibition differed (Pol-si2>siIVa2_2>siE1A_4). Double or triple combinations of the siRNAs compared with single siRNAs did not result in a measurably higher suppression of Ad replication. Combination of the siRNAs (alone or mixes of two or three siRNAs) with sCAR-Fc markedly increased the suppression of adenoviral replication compared to the same siRNA treatment without sCAR-Fc. Moreover, the triple combination of a mix of all three siRNAs, sCAR-Fc and cidofovir was about 23-fold more efficient than the combination of siRNAs mix/sCAR-Fc and about 95-fold more efficient than the siRNA mix alone. These data demonstrate that co-treatment of cells with sCAR-Fc and cidofovir is suitable to increase the efficiency of anti-adenoviral siRNAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. On-demand single-photon sources via quantum blockade and applications in decoy-state quantum key distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ao; Chen, Tian; Zhou, Yiheng; Wang, Xiangbin

    2016-05-01

    Quantum blockades as a nonlinear quantum optical process have been well studied in recent years. Using the quantum trajectory method, we calculate and discuss the output photon number distributions of a single-photon blockade process in a Kerr nonlinear dissipative resonator, revealing that the probability of the single-photon state can be optimized. Then we show through numerical simulations that such a quasi-single-photon source can drastically raise the key rate in the decoy-state quantum key distribution.

  14. Discriminating the native structure from decoys using scoring functions based on the residue packing in globular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2009-12-28

    Setting the rules for the identification of a stable conformation of a protein is of utmost importance for the efficient generation of structures in computer simulation. For structure prediction, a considerable number of possible models are generated from which the best model has to be selected. Two scoring functions, Rs and Rp, based on the consideration of packing of residues, which indicate if the conformation of an amino acid sequence is native-like, are presented. These are defined using the solvent accessible surface area (ASA) and the partner number (PN) (other residues that are within 4.5 A) of a particular residue. The two functions evaluate the deviation from the average packing properties (ASA or PN) of all residues in a polypeptide chain corresponding to a model of its three-dimensional structure. While simple in concept and computationally less intensive, both the functions are at least as efficient as any other energy functions in discriminating the native structure from decoys in a large number of standard decoy sets, as well as on models submitted for the targets of CASP7. Rs appears to be slightly more effective than Rp, as determined by the number of times the native structure possesses the minimum value for the function and its separation from the average value for the decoys. Two parameters, Rs and Rp, are discussed that can very efficiently recognize the native fold for a sequence from an ensemble of decoy structures. Unlike many other algorithms that rely on the use of composite scoring function, these are based on a single parameter, viz., the accessible surface area (or the number of residues in contact), but still able to capture the essential attribute of the native fold.

  15. A decoy set for the thermostable subdomain from chicken villin headpiece, comparison of different free energy estimators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosatto Silvio CE

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimators of free energies are routinely used to judge the quality of protein structural models. As these estimators still present inaccuracies, they are frequently evaluated by discriminating native or native-like conformations from large ensembles of so-called decoy structures. Results A decoy set is obtained from snapshots taken from 5 long (100 ns molecular dynamics (MD simulations of the thermostable subdomain from chicken villin headpiece. An evaluation of the energy of the decoys is given using: i a residue based contact potential supplemented by a term for the quality of dihedral angles; ii a recently introduced combination of four statistical scoring functions for model quality estimation (FRST; iii molecular mechanics with solvation energy estimated either according to the generalized Born surface area (GBSA or iv the Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (PBSA method. Conclusion The decoy set presented here has the following features which make it attractive for testing energy scoring functions: 1 it covers a broad range of RMSD values (from less than 2.0 Å to more than 12 Å; 2 it has been obtained from molecular dynamics trajectories, starting from different non-native-like conformations which have diverse behaviour, with secondary structure elements correctly or incorrectly formed, and in one case folding to a native-like structure. This allows not only for scoring of static structures, but also for studying, using free energy estimators, the kinetics of folding; 3 all structures have been obtained from accurate MD simulations in explicit solvent and after molecular mechanics (MM energy minimization using an implicit solvent method. The quality of the covalent structure therefore does not suffer from steric or covalent problems. The statistical and physical effective energy functions tested on the set behave differently when native simulation snapshots are included or not in the set and when averaging over the

  16. How do glucocorticoids compare to oligo decoys as inhibitors of collagen synthesis and potential toxicity of these therapeutics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutroneo, Kenneth R; Sterling, Kenneth M

    2004-05-01

    This article demonstrates how glucocorticoids decrease collagen synthesis. The parameters used to assess procollagen synthesis in our laboratory will be compared to those used by others. This article will note all the pertinent literature on the molecular mechanisms of this down regulation of procollagen synthesis. For example, what are the effects of glucocorticoids at the levels of transcription and translation of collagen mRNAs? Finally, we will define a molecular mechanism to inhibit Type I collagen synthesis by decreasing the binding of the TGF-beta activator protein complex to the TGF-beta element in the distal promoter of the proalpha1 Type I collagen gene, preventing the 2:1 ratio of alpha1 to alpha2 chains in the processed Type I collagen molecule. We will next ask "How do sense oligo decoys decrease Type I collagen synthesis at the in vivo and at the cell levels?" In primary fibrotic cell culture, the double-stranded phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide decoys were more effective than their sense single-stranded counterparts. The molecular mechanism for the decrease in Type I collagen synthesis is the same as glucocorticoids, that is by decreasing the binding of the TGF-beta activator protein complex to the TGF-beta element in the distal promoter of the proalpha1 Type I collagen gene for the transcription of the proalpha1 mRNAs. The reason for using sense oligo decoys as anti-fibrotic agents as compared to the anti-fibrotic glucocorticoids, is that presently marketed and FDA approved glucocorticoids have many untoward side effects which the sense oligo decoys do not have. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  18. Monocyte expression and soluble levels of the haemoglobin receptor (CD163/sCD163 and the mannose receptor (MR/sMR in septic and critically ill non-septic ICU patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders G Kjærgaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of sepsis is challenging and there is an unmet need for sensitive and specific diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Following activation of macrophages and monocytes, the haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor (CD163 and the mannose receptor (MR are shed into the circulation (sCD163 and sMR. OBJECTIVE: We investigated monocyte expression of CD163 and MR, and levels of sCD163 and sMR in septic and non-septic patients, and in healthy controls. We hypothesised that these receptors are elevated during sepsis and can be used diagnostic and prognostic. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and 15 critically ill non-septic patients were included in this prospective observational study at three ICUs at Aarhus University Hospital and Randers Regional Hospital, Denmark. Fifteen age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers served as controls. Levels of sCD163 and sMR were measured using a sandwich ELISA and monocyte expression of CD163 and MR was evaluated by flow cytometry during the first four days of ICU stay. The diagnostic and prognostic values of the receptors were assessed using AUROC curves. RESULTS: At ICU admission and during the observation period, monocyte expression of CD163 and levels of sCD163 and sMR were significantly higher in septic patients compared with non-septic patients and healthy controls (p<0.01 for all comparisons. Monocytes did not express MR. The diagnostic values estimated by AUROC were 1.00 for sMR, 0.95 for sCD163, 0.87 for CRP, and 0.75 for monocyte-bound CD163. Among the septic patients, monocyte expression of CD163 was higher in non-survivors compared with survivors at ICU admission (p = 0.02 and during the observation period (p = 0.006. The prognostic value of monocyte-bound CD163 estimated by AUROC at ICU admission was 0.82. CONCLUSION: The macrophage-specific markers CD163, sCD163, and sMR are increased in septic patients. Particularly sMR is a promising new

  19. G4-DNA formation in the HRAS promoter and rational design of decoy oligonucleotides for cancer therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Membrino

    Full Text Available HRAS is a proto-oncogene involved in the tumorigenesis of urinary bladder cancer. In the HRAS promoter we identified two G-rich elements, hras-1 and hras-2, that fold, respectively, into an antiparallel and a parallel quadruplex (qhras-1, qhras-2. When we introduced in sequence hras-1 or hras-2 two point mutations that block quadruplex formation, transcription increased 5-fold, but when we stabilized the G-quadruplexes by guanidinium phthalocyanines, transcription decreased to 20% of control. By ChIP we found that sequence hras-1 is bound only by MAZ, while hras-2 is bound by MAZ and Sp1: two transcription factors recognizing guanine boxes. We also discovered by EMSA that recombinant MAZ-GST binds to both HRAS quadruplexes, while Sp1-GST only binds to qhras-1. The over-expression of MAZ and Sp1 synergistically activates HRAS transcription, while silencing each gene by RNAi results in a strong down-regulation of transcription. All these data indicate that the HRAS G-quadruplexes behave as transcription repressors. Finally, we designed decoy oligonucleotides mimicking the HRAS quadruplexes, bearing (R-1-O-[4-(1-Pyrenylethynyl phenylmethyl] glycerol and LNA modifications to increase their stability and nuclease resistance (G4-decoys. The G4-decoys repressed HRAS transcription and caused a strong antiproliferative effect, mediated by apoptosis, in T24 bladder cancer cells where HRAS is mutated.

  20. Nanoparticles camouflaged in platelet membrane coating as an antibody decoy for the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoli; Gao, Jie; Fang, Ronnie H; Luk, Brian T; Kroll, Ashley V; Dehaini, Diana; Zhou, Jiarong; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Gao, Weiwei; Lu, Weiyue; Zhang, Liangfang

    2016-12-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) is characterized by the production of pathological autoantibodies that cause reduction in platelet counts. The disease can have serious medical consequences, leading to uncontrolled bleeding that can be fatal. Current widely used therapies for the treatment of ITP are non-specific and can, at times, result in complications that are more burdensome than the disease itself. In the present study, the use of platelet membrane-coated nanoparticles (PNPs) as a platform for the specific clearance of anti-platelet antibodies is explored. The nanoparticles, whose outer layer displays the full complement of native platelet surface proteins, act as decoys that strongly bind pathological anti-platelet antibodies in order to minimize disease burden. Here, we study the antibody binding properties of PNPs and assess the ability of the nanoparticles to neutralize antibody activity both in vitro and in vivo. Ultimately, we leverage the neutralization capacity of PNPs to therapeutically treat a murine model of antibody-induced thrombocytopenia and demonstrate considerable efficacy as shown in a bleeding time assay. PNPs represent a promising platform for the specific treatment of antibody-mediated immune thrombocytopenia by acting as an alternative target for anti-platelet antibodies, thus preserving circulating platelets with the potential of leaving broader immune function intact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long non-coding RNA ROR decoys gene-specific histone methylation to promote tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiayan; Xing, Yue; Wen, Xuyang; Jia, Renbin; Ni, Hongyan; He, Jie; Ding, Xia; Pan, Hui; Qian, Guanxiang; Ge, Shengfang; Hoffman, Andrew R; Zhang, He; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-07-14

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are not translated into proteins and were initially considered to be part of the 'dark matter' of the genome. Recently, it has been shown that lncRNAs play a role in the recruitment of chromatin modifying complexes and can influence gene expression. However, it is unknown if lncRNAs function in a similar way in cancer. Here, we show that the lncRNA ROR occupies and activates the TESC promoter by repelling the histone G9A methyltransferase and promoting the release of histone H3K9 methylation. Suppression of ROR in tumors results in silencing of TESC expression, and G9A-mediated histone H3K9 methylation in the TESC promoter is restored, which significantly reduces tumor growth and metastasis. Without ROR silencing, TESC knockdown presents consistent and significant reductions in tumor progression. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which ROR may serve as a decoy oncoRNA that blocks binding surfaces, preventing the recruitment of histone modifying enzymes, thereby specifying a new pattern of histone modifications that promote tumorigenesis.

  2. High-dimensional decoy-state quantum key distribution over multicore telecommunication fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, G.; Vera, N.; Cariñe, J.; González, P.; Cardenas, J.; Connolly, P. W. R.; Przysiezna, A.; Gómez, E. S.; Figueroa, M.; Vallone, G.; Villoresi, P.; da Silva, T. Ferreira; Xavier, G. B.; Lima, G.

    2017-08-01

    Multiplexing is a strategy to augment the transmission capacity of a communication system. It consists of combining multiple signals over the same data channel and it has been very successful in classical communications. However, the use of enhanced channels has only reached limited practicality in quantum communications (QC) as it requires the manipulation of quantum systems of higher dimensions. Considerable effort is being made towards QC using high-dimensional quantum systems encoded into the transverse momentum of single photons, but so far no approach has been proven to be fully compatible with the existing telecommunication fibers. Here we overcome such a challenge and demonstrate a secure high-dimensional decoy-state quantum key distribution session over a 300-m-long multicore optical fiber. The high-dimensional quantum states are defined in terms of the transverse core modes available for the photon transmission over the fiber, and theoretical analyses show that positive secret key rates can be achieved through metropolitan distances.

  3. Target-decoy approach and false discovery rate: when things may go wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin; Bandeira, Nuno; Keich, Uri; Pevzner, Pavel A

    2011-07-01

    The target-decoy approach (TDA) has done the field of proteomics a great service by filling in the need to estimate the false discovery rates (FDR) of peptide identifications. While TDA is often viewed as a universal solution to the problem of FDR evaluation, we argue that the time has come to critically re-examine TDA and to acknowledge not only its merits but also its demerits. We demonstrate that some popular MS/MS search tools are not TDA-compliant and that it is easy to develop a non-TDA compliant tool that outperforms all TDA-compliant tools. Since the distinction between TDA-compliant and non-TDA compliant tools remains elusive, we are concerned about a possible proliferation of non-TDA-compliant tools in the future (developed with the best intentions). We are also concerned that estimation of the FDR by TDA awkwardly depends on a virtual coin toss and argue that it is important to take the coin toss factor out of our estimation of the FDR. Since computing FDR via TDA suffers from various restrictions, we argue that TDA is not needed when accurate p-values of individual Peptide-Spectrum Matches are available.

  4. Amyloid Fibril Solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, L G; Auer, S

    2015-11-19

    It is well established that amyloid fibril solubility is protein specific, but how solubility depends on the interactions between the fibril building blocks is not clear. Here we use a simple protein model and perform Monte Carlo simulations to directly measure the solubility of amyloid fibrils as a function of the interaction between the fibril building blocks. Our simulations confirms that the fibril solubility depends on the fibril thickness and that the relationship between the interactions and the solubility can be described by a simple analytical formula. The results presented in this study reveal general rules how side-chain-side-chain interactions, backbone hydrogen bonding, and temperature affect amyloid fibril solubility, which might prove to be a powerful tool to design protein fibrils with desired solubility and aggregation properties in general.

  5. Plasma inducible degrader of the LDLR, soluble low-density lipoprotein receptor, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 levels as potential biomarkers of familial hypercholesterolemia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona, Josefa; Rodríguez-Borjabad, Cèlia; Ibarretxe, Daiana; Heras, Mercedes; Amigo, Nuria; Feliu, Albert; Masana, Luis; Plana, Nuria

    2017-10-12

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in children is under-detected. Plasma biomarkers associated with low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) function could help identifying FH children. We aim to assess the clinical value of inducible degrader of the LDLR (IDOL), soluble LDLR (sLDLR), and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plasma concentrations in children with FH compared with control children (CCh). This was a cross-sectional study performed in a Lipid Unit from a University hospital. The participants were 177 children distributed into FH (n = 77) and CCh (n = 100). Main outcomes were changes in IDOL, sLDLR, and PCSK9 plasma concentrations between children groups; secondary outcomes were the association between IDOL, sLDLR, and PCSK9 and lipid profile determined by 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. The IDOL levels were higher in FH compared with CCh (P = .007). The PCSK9 levels were elevated in FH (P IDOL was significantly positively associated to total and LDL cholesterol and ApoB100 but not to LDL particle number. However, a robust correlation with Lp(a) (P = .001) was observed. PCSK9 had the strongest correlation with LDL-associated parameters including particle number. sLDLR was associated with triglyceride levels (P IDOL and PCSK9 plasma levels are significantly higher in FH children. Interestingly, sLDLR was associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia components. IDOL concentrations show a robust association with Lp(a) levels. To study the role of plasma biomarkers associated with LDLR expression in FH is warranted. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of the human alpha1 beta1 soluble guanylyl cyclase promoter: key role for NF-kappaB(p50) and CCAAT-binding factors in regulating expression of the nitric oxide receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marro, Martín L; Peiró, Concepción; Panayiotou, Catherine M; Baliga, Reshma S; Meurer, Sabine; Schmidt, Harald H H W; Hobbs, Adrian J

    2008-07-18

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the principal receptor for NO and plays a ubiquitous role in regulating cellular function. This is exemplified in the cardiovascular system where sGC governs smooth muscle tone and growth, vascular permeability, leukocyte flux, and platelet aggregation. As a consequence, aberrant NO-sGC signaling has been linked to diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and stroke. Despite these key (patho)physiological roles, little is known about the expressional regulation of sGC. To address this deficit, we have characterized the promoter activity of human alpha(1) and beta(1) sGC genes in a cell type relevant to cardiovascular (patho)physiology, primary human aortic smooth muscle cells. Luciferase reporter constructs revealed that the 0.3- and 0.5-kb regions upstream of the transcription start sites were optimal for alpha(1) and beta(1) sGC promoter activity, respectively. Deletion of consensus sites for c-Myb, GAGA, NFAT, NF-kappaB(p50), and CCAAT-binding factor(s) (CCAAT-BF) revealed that these are the principal transcription factors regulating basal sGC expression. In addition, under pro-inflammatory conditions, the effects of the strongest alpha(1) and beta(1) sGC repressors were enhanced, and enzyme expression and activity were reduced; in particular, NF-kappaB(p50) is pivotal in regulating enzyme expression under such conditions. NO itself also elicited a cGMP-independent negative feedback effect on sGC promoter activity that is mediated, in part, via CCAAT-BF activity. In sum, these data provide a systematic characterization of the promoter activity of human sGC alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits and identify key transcription factors that govern subunit expression under basal and pro-inflammatory (i.e. atherogenic) conditions and in the presence of ligand NO.

  7. Marine Lectins DlFBL and HddSBL Fused with Soluble Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor Facilitate Adenovirus Infection in Cancer Cells BUT Have Different Effects on Cell Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer development and progression are usually associated with glycosylation change, providing prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets, for various cancers. In this work, Dicentrarchus labrax fucose binding lectin (DlFBL and Haliotis discus discus sialic acid binding lectin (HddSBL were genetically fused with soluble coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (sCAR, and produced through a bacterial expression system. Results showed that recombinant sCAR-DlFBL not only facilitated adenovirus Ad-EGFP infection in K562/ADR and U87MG cells, but also enhanced the cytotoxicity of adenovirus harboring gene encoding Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (PPA or DlFBL (Ad-PPA or Ad-DlFBL on U87MG cells through inducing apoptosis. Recombinant sCAR-HddSBL facilitated Ad-EGFP infection, but dramatically counteracted the cytotoxicity of both Ad-PPA and Ad-DlFBL in U87MG cells. Further analysis revealed that sCAR-HddSBL, but not sCAR-DlFBL, significantly upregulated transcription factor E2F1 levels in U87MG cells, which might be responsible for the adverse effect of sCAR-HddSBL on Ad-PPA and Ad-DlFBL. Taken together, our data suggested that sCAR-DlFBL could be further developed to redirect therapeutic adenoviruses to infect cancer cells such as U87MG, and the sCAR-lectin fusion proteins for adenoviral retargeting should be carefully examined for possible survival signaling induced by lectins, such as HddSBL.

  8. Effects of intratracheal administration of nuclear factor-kappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides on long-term cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation and pathology in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu-Zhu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To determine if nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation may be a key factor in lung inflammation and respiratory dysfunction, we investigated whether NF-κB can be blocked by intratracheal administration of NF-κB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs, and whether decoy ODN-mediated NF-κB inhibition can prevent smoke-induced lung inflammation, respiratory dysfunction, and improve pathological alteration in the small airways and lung parenchyma in the long-term smoke-induced mouse model system. We also detected changes in transcriptional factors. In vivo, the transfection efficiency of NF-κB decoy ODNs to alveolar macrophages in BALF was measured by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-labeled NF-κB decoy ODNs and flow cytometry post intratracheal ODN administration. Pulmonary function was measured by pressure sensors, and pathological changes were assessed using histology and the pathological Mias software. NF-κB and activator protein 1(AP-1 activity was detected by the electrophoretic motility shift assay (EMSA. Mouse cytokine and chemokine pulmonary expression profiles were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and lung tissue homogenates, respectively, after repeated exposure to cigarette smoke. After 24 h, the percentage of transfected alveolar macrophages was 30.00 ± 3.30%. Analysis of respiratory function indicated that transfection of NF-κB decoy ODNs significantly impacted peak expiratory flow (PEF, and bronchoalveolar lavage cytology displayed evidence of decreased macrophage infiltration in airways compared to normal saline-treated or scramble NF-κB decoy ODNs smoke exposed mice. NF-κB decoy ODNs inhibited significantly level of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP 1α and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1(MCP-1 in lung homogenates compared to normal saline-treated smoke exposed mice. In contrast, these NF-κB decoy ODNs-treated mice showed significant increase in the

  9. Effects of intratracheal administration of nuclear factor-kappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides on long-term cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation and pathology in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Tao; He, Bei; Wang, Yu-Zhu; Wang, Jing

    2009-08-25

    To determine if nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation may be a key factor in lung inflammation and respiratory dysfunction, we investigated whether NF-kappaB can be blocked by intratracheal administration of NF-kappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), and whether decoy ODN-mediated NF-kappaB inhibition can prevent smoke-induced lung inflammation, respiratory dysfunction, and improve pathological alteration in the small airways and lung parenchyma in the long-term smoke-induced mouse model system. We also detected changes in transcriptional factors. In vivo, the transfection efficiency of NF-kappaB decoy ODNs to alveolar macrophages in BALF was measured by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled NF-kappaB decoy ODNs and flow cytometry post intratracheal ODN administration. Pulmonary function was measured by pressure sensors, and pathological changes were assessed using histology and the pathological Mias software. NF-kappaB and activator protein 1(AP-1) activity was detected by the electrophoretic motility shift assay (EMSA). Mouse cytokine and chemokine pulmonary expression profiles were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue homogenates, respectively, after repeated exposure to cigarette smoke. After 24 h, the percentage of transfected alveolar macrophages was 30.00 +/- 3.30%. Analysis of respiratory function indicated that transfection of NF-kappaB decoy ODNs significantly impacted peak expiratory flow (PEF), and bronchoalveolar lavage cytology displayed evidence of decreased macrophage infiltration in airways compared to normal saline-treated or scramble NF-kappaB decoy ODNs smoke exposed mice. NF-kappaB decoy ODNs inhibited significantly level of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1(MCP-1) in lung homogenates compared to normal saline-treated smoke exposed mice. In contrast, these NF-kappaB decoy ODNs-treated mice showed

  10. Two New Tools for Glycopeptide Analysis Researchers: A Glycopeptide Decoy Generator and a Large Data Set of Assigned CID Spectra of Glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakbub, Jude C; Su, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Zhikai; Patabandige, Milani W; Hua, David; Go, Eden P; Desaire, Heather

    2017-08-04

    The glycopeptide analysis field is tightly constrained by a lack of effective tools that translate mass spectrometry data into meaningful chemical information, and perhaps the most challenging aspect of building effective glycopeptide analysis software is designing an accurate scoring algorithm for MS/MS data. We provide the glycoproteomics community with two tools to address this challenge. The first tool, a curated set of 100 expert-assigned CID spectra of glycopeptides, contains a diverse set of spectra from a variety of glycan types; the second tool, Glycopeptide Decoy Generator, is a new software application that generates glycopeptide decoys de novo. We developed these tools so that emerging methods of assigning glycopeptides' CID spectra could be rigorously tested. Software developers or those interested in developing skills in expert (manual) analysis can use these tools to facilitate their work. We demonstrate the tools' utility in assessing the quality of one particular glycopeptide software package, GlycoPep Grader, which assigns glycopeptides to CID spectra. We first acquired the set of 100 expert assigned CID spectra; then, we used the Decoy Generator (described herein) to generate 20 decoys per target glycopeptide. The assigned spectra and decoys were used to test the accuracy of GlycoPep Grader's scoring algorithm; new strengths and weaknesses were identified in the algorithm using this approach. Both newly developed tools are freely available. The software can be downloaded at http://glycopro.chem.ku.edu/GPJ.jar.

  11. Inhibition of cyclic AMP response element-directed transcription by decoy oligonucleotides enhances tumor-specific radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Serk In, E-mail: serkin@korea.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The BK21 Plus Program for Biomedical Sciences, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Medicine and Center for Bone Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Park, Sung-Jun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Obesity and Aging Research, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Lee, Junghan; Kim, Hye Eun; Park, Su Jin; Sohn, Jeong-Won [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yun Gyu, E-mail: parkyg@korea.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The radiation stress induces cytotoxic responses of cell death as well as cytoprotective responses of cell survival. Understanding exact cellular mechanism and signal transduction pathways is important in improving cancer radiotherapy. Increasing evidence suggests that cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor (ATF) family proteins act as a survival factor and a signaling molecule in response to stress. We postulated that CREB inhibition via CRE decoy oligonucleotide increases tumor cell sensitization to γ-irradiation-induced cytotoxic stress. In the present study, we demonstrate that CREB phosphorylation and CREB DNA-protein complex formation increased in time- and radiation dose-dependent manners, while there was no significant change in total protein level of CREB. In addition, CREB was phosphorylated in response to γ-irradiation through p38 MAPK pathway. Further investigation revealed that CREB blockade by decoy oligonucleotides functionally inhibited transactivation of CREB, and significantly increased radiosensitivity of multiple human cancer cell lines including TP53- and/or RB-mutated cells with minimal effects on normal cells. We also demonstrate that tumor cells ectopically expressing dominant negative mutant CREB (KCREB) and the cells treated with p38 MAPK inhibitors were more sensitive to γ-irradiation than wild type parental cells or control-treated cells. Taken together, we conclude that CREB protects tumor cells from γ-irradiation, and combination of CREB inhibition plus ionizing radiation will be a promising radiotherapeutic approach. - Highlights: • γ-Irradiation induced CREB phosphorylation and CRE-directed transcription in tumor. • γ-Irradiation-induced transcriptional activation of CREB was via p38 MAPK pathway. • CRE blockade increased radiosensitivity of tumor cells but not of normal cells. • CRE decoy oligonucleotides or p38 MAPK inhibitors can be used as radiosensitizers.

  12. The maternal plasma soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 concentration is elevated in SGA and the magnitude of the increase relates to Doppler abnormalities in the maternal and fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Kim, Yeon Mee; Kim, Gi Jin; Goncalves, Luis F; Edwin, Samuel; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Than, Nandor Gabor; Hassan, Sonia S; Romero, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The soluble form of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1), an antagonist to vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia and pregnancy complicated with small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses share some pathophysiologic derangements, such as failure of physiologic transformation of the spiral arteries, endothelial cell dysfunction, and leukocyte activation. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine whether plasma concentrations of sVEGFR-1 in mothers with SGA fetuses without preeclampsia at the time of diagnosis are different from those in patients with preeclampsia or normal pregnant women, and (2) examine the relationship between plasma concentrations of sVEGFR-1 and Doppler velocimetry in uterine and umbilical arteries in patients with preeclampsia and those with SGA. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the concentrations of the soluble form of VEGFR-1 in plasma obtained from normal pregnant women (n = 135), women with SGA fetuses (n = 53), and patients with preeclampsia (n = 112). Patients with SGA fetuses and those with preeclampsia were sub-classified according to the results of uterine and umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry examinations. Plasma concentrations of sVEGFR-1 were determined by an ELISA. Since these concentrations change with gestational age, differences among various subgroups were statistically estimated with the delta value, defined as the difference between the observed and expected plasma sVEGFR-1 concentration. The expected values were derived from regression analysis of plasma sVEGFR-1 concentrations in normal pregnancy. Regression analysis and univariate and multivariate analysis were employed. (1) Mothers with SGA fetuses had a mean plasma concentration of sVEGFR-1 higher than normal pregnant women (p SGA fetuses, only those with abnormal uterine artery Doppler velocimetry had a mean plasma sVEGFR-1

  13. Monitoring of West Nile virus, Usutu virus and Meaban virus in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Tarifa, E; Napp, S; Lecollinet, S; Arenas, A; Beck, C; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Fernández-Morente, M; García-Bocanegra, I

    2016-12-01

    In the last decade, the number of emerging flaviviruses described worldwide has increased considerably, with wild birds acting as the main reservoir hosts of these viruses. We carried out an epidemiological survey to determine the seroprevalence of antigenically related flaviviruses, particularly West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV) and Meaban virus (MBV), in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in Andalusia (southern Spain), the region considered to have the highest risk of flaviviruses circulation in Spain. The overall flaviviruses seroprevalence according to bELISA was 13.0% in both in decoys (n=1052) and wild raptors (n=123). Specific antibodies against WNV, USUV and MBV were confirmed by micro virus neutralization tests in 12, 38 and 4 of the seropositive decoys, respectively. This is the first study on WNV and USUV infections in decoys and the first report of MBV infections in waterfowl and raptors. Moreover we report the first description of WNV infections in short-toed snake eagle (Circaetus gallicus) and Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus). The seropositivity obtained indicates widespread but not homogeneous distribution of WNV and USUV in Andalusia. The results also confirm endemic circulation of WNV, USUV and MBV in both decoys and wild raptors in southern Spain. Our results highlight the need to implement surveillance and control programs not only for WNV but also for other related flaviviruses. Further research is needed to determine the eco-epidemiological role that waterfowl and wild raptors play in the transmission of emerging flaviviruses, especially in decoys, given their close interactions with humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Influence of zinc administered by total parenteral nutrition on plasmatic zinc levels, on reactive C protein, on serum interleukin-6 and on serum interleukin-6 soluble receptor, in critical patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, A M; De Portela, M L; Weisstaub, A; Montemerlo, H; Guidoni, M E; Rusí, F; Zeni, S

    2009-01-01

    To study the interrelationship between serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum Interleukin-6 soluble Receptor (IL-6 sR), C-Reactive Protein (C-RP), plasmatic Zinc levels (PlZn) and their response in relation to Zn administered by TPN, in critical patients. 17 patients, receiving TPN as a consequence of acute pancreatitis (n = 4) or after a major abdominal surgery due to intestinal cancer (n = 7), intestinal fístula (n = 3), intestinal obstruction (n = 2) or intestinal íleus (n = 1) were studied. At the beginning (To) and at the end of the TPN administration (6-21 days) serum IL-6 and IL-6 sR were determined by ELISA; C-RP ultrasensitive (C-RP us) by inmunoturbidimetric method; Zn was determined in TPN and in plasma by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Characteristics of the patients were (mean +/- SD and ranges): age: 60.6 +/- 11.7 (37-77) years; BMI (kg/m(2)): 26.0 +/- 3.4 (19.9-34.0). The results (mean +/- standard deviation and ranges) were: Zn provided by TPN (mg/d): 6.1 +/- 2.0 (range 2.8 to 10.8). Biochemical levels were, at To and Tf, respectively: (mean+/-SD and ranges) were at To y Tf, respectively: Zn Pl (microg/dl): 104 +/- 46 (35-177); 120 +/- 55 (52-229); IL-6 (pg/mL) 93 +/- 74 (10-262); 117 +/- 180 (7-761); IL6sR (pg/mL): 1,012 +/- 322 (589-1855); 1,269 +/- 451 (631-2195); C-RP us (mg/L): 71 +/- 63 (2-196); 65 +/- 43 (0-137). There was no correlation between variations of IL6, IL6sR, C-RP, PlZn levels and the daily amount of Zn administered in the TPN mixtures. Two patients presented a bad evolution; they received 4.2 and 5.2 md/d of Zn and showed an increase of IL6 levels, maintained high levels of IL6sR but C-RP levels decreased. the range of 2.8 to 10.8 mg/d of Zn administered in TPN mixtures did not exacerbate the inflammatory response.

  15. Impact of type 2 diabetes on the plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors type 1 and type 2 in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczór, Radosław; Gadomska, Grażyna; Ruszkowska-Ciastek, Barbara; Stankowska, Katarzyna; Budzyński, Jacek; Fabisiak, Jacek; Suppan, Karol; Pulkowski, Grzegorz; Rość, Danuta

    2015-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes coexistent with lower extremity artery disease (peripheral arterial disease (PAD)) can be observed in numerous patients. The mechanism compensating for ischemia and contributing to healing is angiogenesis-the process of forming new blood vessels. The purpose of this study was to assess the likely impact of type 2 diabetes on the plasma levels of proangiogenic factor (vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)) and angiogenesis inhibitors (soluble VEGF receptors type 1 and type 2 (sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2)) in patients with PAD. Among 46 patients with PAD under pharmacological therapy (non-invasive), we identified, based on medical history, a subgroup with coexistent type 2 diabetes (PAD-DM2+, n=15) and without diabetes (PAD-DM2-, n=31). The control group consisted of 30 healthy subjects. Plasma levels of VEGF-A, sVEGFR-1, and sVEGFR-2 were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The subgroups of PAD-DM2+ and PAD-DM2- revealed significantly higher concentrations of VEGF-A (P=0.000 007 and P=0.000 000 1, respectively) and significantly lower sVEGFR-2 levels (P=0.02 and P=0.000 01, respectively), when compared with the control group. Patients with PAD and coexistent diabetes tended to have a lower level of VEGF-A and higher levels of sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2 comparable with non-diabetic patients. The coexistence of type 2 diabetes and PAD is demonstrated by a tendency to a lower plasma level of proangiogenic factor (VEGF-A) and higher levels of angiogenesis inhibitors (sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2) at the same time. Regardless of the coexistence of type 2 diabetes, hypoxia appears to be a crucial factor stimulating the processes of angiogenesis in PAD patients comparable with healthy individuals, whereas hyperglycemia may have a negative impact on angiogenesis in lower limbs.

  16. Effects of intratracheal administration of nuclear factor-kappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides on long-term cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation and pathology in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yu-Tao; He, Bei; Wang, Yu-Zhu; Wang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Abstract To determine if nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation may be a key factor in lung inflammation and respiratory dysfunction, we investigated whether NF-κB can be blocked by intratracheal administration of NF-κB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), and whether decoy ODN-mediated NF-κB inhibition can prevent smoke-induced lung inflammation, respiratory dysfunction, and improve pathological alteration in the small airways and lung parenchyma in the long-term smoke-induced mouse model syste...

  17. Applications of Solubility Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several applications of the use of solubility data. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to show that knowledge of solubility data is required in a variety of technical applications that assist in the design of chemical processes. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  18. The Solubility of struvite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, H. K.; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann; Blom, A.

    1997-01-01

    The solubility of magnesium-amonium-phosphate (struvite) has been studied emloying the radioisotope 32P as tracer. The amount of sample in solution is determined by measuring the Cherenkov radiation due to the beta-particles emitted from this radionuclide. The thermodynamic solubility product...

  19. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  20. How Soluble GARP Enhances TGFβ Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Fridrich

    Full Text Available GARP (glycoprotein A repetitions predominant is a cell surface receptor on regulatory T-lymphocytes, platelets, hepatic stellate cells and certain cancer cells. Its described function is the binding and accommodation of latent TGFβ (transforming growth factor, before the activation and release of the mature cytokine. For regulatory T cells it was shown that a knockdown of GARP or a treatment with blocking antibodies dramatically decreases their immune suppressive capacity. This confirms a fundamental role of GARP in the basic function of regulatory T cells. Prerequisites postulated for physiological GARP function include membrane anchorage of GARP, disulfide bridges between the propeptide of TGFβ and GARP and connection of this propeptide to αvβ6 or αvβ8 integrins of target cells during mechanical TGFβ release. Other studies indicate the existence of soluble GARP complexes and a functionality of soluble GARP alone. In order to clarify the underlying molecular mechanism, we expressed and purified recombinant TGFβ and a soluble variant of GARP. Surprisingly, soluble GARP and TGFβ formed stable non-covalent complexes in addition to disulfide-coupled complexes, depending on the redox conditions of the microenvironment. We also show that soluble GARP alone and the two variants of complexes mediate different levels of TGFβ activity. TGFβ activation is enhanced by the non-covalent GARP-TGFβ complex already at low (nanomolar concentrations, at which GARP alone does not show any effect. This supports the idea of soluble GARP acting as immune modulator in vivo.

  1. Soluble oil flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, L.W.; Knight, R.K.

    1976-11-01

    A soluble oil-polymer flooding process used in previously waterflooded reservoirs utilizes oleic, micellar solutions which, when injected as small slugs and driven by polymer thickened water, are capable of displacing all oil and water contacted. During the micellar flood, oil and water are displaced from reservoir rock by one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) miscible-type displacement of oil by soluble oil; (2) miscible-type displacement of resident water by injection water and soluble oil; (3) formation of microemulsions by the intermingling of soluble oil and injected water; and (4) reduction of interfacial tension between oil and water phases where both are present. The Higgs Unit, site of a field test of soluble oil flooding, is a small pool in the Jones County Regular field near Abilene, Tex. Field data, special equipment, test evaluation, and field test conclusions are given for this operation.

  2. TRAM-Derived Decoy Peptides inhibits the inflammatory response in mouse mammary epithelial cells and a mastitis model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Tiancheng; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Wei; Gao, Xuejiao; Qu, Shihui; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2015-10-05

    It has been proved that TRAM-Derived Decoy peptides have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we synthesized a TRAM-Derived decoy peptide (TM6), belongs to TRAM TIR domain, of which sequence is "N"-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWK, KENFLRDTWCNFQFY-"C" and evaluated the effects of TM6 on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice. In vivo, LPS-induced mice mastitis model was established by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. TM6 was injected 1h before or after LPS treatment. In vitro, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells were used to investigate the effects of TM6 on LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The results showed that TM6 inhibited LPS-induced mammary gland histopathologic changes, MPO activity, and TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 production in mice. In vitro, TM6 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production, as well as NF-κB and MAPKs activation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that TM6 had protective effects on LPS-mastitis and may be a promising therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Structure-based receptor MIMICS targeted against bacterial superantigen toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Goutam [Santa Fe, NM; Hong-Geller, Elizabeth [Los Alamos, NM; Shiflett, Patrick R [Los Alamos, NM; Lehnert, Nancy M [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-08-18

    The invention provides therapeutic compositions useful in the treatment of bacterial superantigen mediated conditions, such as Toxic Shock Syndrome. The compositions comprise genetically engineered bifunctional polypeptides containing a specific T-cell receptor binding domain and a specific MHC class II receptor binding domain, each targeting non-overlapping epitopes on a superantigen molecule against which they are designed. The anti-superantigen "receptor mimetics" or "chimeras" are rationally designed to recreate the modality of superantigen binding directly to both the TCR and the MHC-II receptor, and are capable of acting as decoys for superantigen binding, effectively out-competing the host T-cell and MHC-II receptors, the natural host receptors.

  4. Soluble and insoluble fiber (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stool. There are two types of dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber retains water and turns to gel during ... and nutrient absorption from the stomach and intestine. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oat ...

  5. Learning about Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Dino G.; Reyes, Juan G.

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative questions are proposed to assess the understanding of solubility and some of its applications. To improve those results, a simple quantitative problem on the precipitation of proteins is proposed.

  6. Protein solubility modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Soluble CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkner, Tina; Sørensen, L P; Nielsen, A R

    2012-01-01

    Soluble CD163 (sCD163) was recently identified as a strong risk marker for developing type 2 diabetes. We hypothesised that sCD163 independently associates with insulin resistance.......Soluble CD163 (sCD163) was recently identified as a strong risk marker for developing type 2 diabetes. We hypothesised that sCD163 independently associates with insulin resistance....

  8. A library of protein surface patches discriminates between native structures and decoys generated by structure prediction servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolodny Rachel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein surfaces serve as an interface with the molecular environment and are thus tightly bound to protein function. On the surface, geometric and chemical complementarity to other molecules provides interaction specificity for ligand binding, docking of bio-macromolecules, and enzymatic catalysis. As of today, there is no accepted general scheme to represent protein surfaces. Furthermore, most of the research on protein surface focuses on regions of specific interest such as interaction, ligand binding, and docking sites. We present a first step toward a general purpose representation of protein surfaces: a novel surface patch library that represents most surface patches (~98% in a data set regardless of their functional roles. Results Surface patches, in this work, are small fractions of the protein surface. Using a measure of inter-patch distance, we clustered patches extracted from a data set of high quality, non-redundant, proteins. The surface patch library is the collection of all the cluster centroids; thus, each of the data set patches is close to one of the elements in the library. We demonstrate the biological significance of our method through the ability of the library to capture surface characteristics of native protein structures as opposed to those of decoy sets generated by state-of-the-art protein structure prediction methods. The patches of the decoys are significantly less compatible with the library than their corresponding native structures, allowing us to reliably distinguish native models from models generated by servers. This trend, however, does not extend to the decoys themselves, as their similarity to the native structures does not correlate with compatibility with the library. Conclusions We expect that this high-quality, generic surface patch library will add a new perspective to the description of protein structures and improve our ability to predict them. In particular, we expect that it will

  9. EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase is a modulator of onset and disease severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Munro

    Full Text Available The EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase is a major regulator of axonal growth and astrocyte reactivity and is a possible inflammatory mediator. Given that multiple sclerosis (MS is primarily an inflammatory demyelinating disease and in mouse models of MS, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, axonal degeneration and reactive gliosis are prominent clinical features, we hypothesised that endogenous EphA4 could play a role in modulating EAE. EAE was induced in EphA4 knockout and wildtype mice using MOG peptide immunisation and clinical severity and histological features of the disease were then compared in lumbar spinal cord sections. EphA4 knockout mice exhibited a markedly less severe clinical course than wildtype mice, with a lower maximum disease grade and a slightly later onset of clinical symptoms. Numbers of infiltrating T cells and macrophages, the number and size of the lesions, and the extent of astrocytic gliosis were similar in both genotypes; however, EphA4 knockout mice appeared to have decreased axonal pathology. Blocking of EphA4 in wildtype mice by administration of soluble EphA4 (EphA4-Fc as a decoy receptor following induction of EAE produced a delay in onset of clinical symptoms; however, most mice had clinical symptoms of similar severity by 22 days, indicating that EphA4 blocking treatment slowed early EAE disease evolution. Again there were no apparent differences in histopathology. To determine whether the role of EphA4 in modulating EAE was CNS mediated or due to an altered immune response, MOG primed T cells from wildtype and EphA4 knockout mice were passively transferred into naive recipient mice and both were shown to induce disease of equivalent severity. These results are consistent with a non-inflammatory, CNS specific, deleterious effect of EphA4 during neuroinflammation that results in axonal pathology.

  10. Generation of Soluble Advanced Glycation End Products Receptor (sRAGE)-Binding Ligands during Extensive Heat Treatment of Whey Protein/Lactose Mixtures Is Dependent on Glycation and Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Fahui; Teodorowicz, Gosia; Wichers, Harry J.; Boekel, van Tiny; Hettinga, Kasper A.

    2016-01-01

    Heating of protein- and sugar-containing materials is considered the primary factor affecting the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). This study aimed to investigate the influence of heating conditions, digestion, and aggregation on the binding capacity of AGEs to the soluble AGE

  11. In vivo T cell activation by anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody induces soluble TNF receptor release in mice. Effects of pentoxifylline, methylprednisolone, anti-TNF, and anti-IFN-gamma antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, M. H.; Abramowicz, D.; Gouma, D. J.; Goldman, M.; Buurman, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Injection of anti-CD3 is accompanied by an increase in systemic TNF, a mediator of the physiologic changes induced by anti-CD3 injection. Various mechanisms have been reported to be responsible for TNF inactivation and clearance. Recently, it has become evident that circulating soluble TNFRs (P55

  12. In vivo T cell activation by anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody induces soluble TNF receptor release in mice. Effects of pentoxifylline, methylprednisolone, anti-TNF, and anti-IFN-gamma antibodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, M.H.; Abramowicz, D.; Gouma, D.J.; Goldman, M.; Buurman, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Injection of anti-CD3 is accompanied by an increase in systemic TNF, a mediator of the physiologic changes induced by anti-CD3 injection. Various mechanisms have been reported to be responsible for TNF inactivation and clearance. Recently, it has become evident that circulating soluble TNFRs (P55

  13. CLUB-MARTINI: Selecting Favourable Interactions amongst Available Candidates, a Coarse-Grained Simulation Approach to Scoring Docking Decoys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhen Hou

    Full Text Available Large-scale identification of native binding orientations is crucial for understanding the role of protein-protein interactions in their biological context. Measuring binding free energy is the method of choice to estimate binding strength and reveal the relevance of particular conformations in which proteins interact. In a recent study, we successfully applied coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to measure binding free energy for two protein complexes with similar accuracy to full-atomistic simulation, but 500-fold less time consuming. Here, we investigate the efficacy of this approach as a scoring method to identify stable binding conformations from thousands of docking decoys produced by protein docking programs. To test our method, we first applied it to calculate binding free energies of all protein conformations in a CAPRI (Critical Assessment of PRedicted Interactions benchmark dataset, which included over 19000 protein docking solutions for 15 benchmark targets. Based on the binding free energies, we ranked all docking solutions to select the near-native binding modes under the assumption that the native-solutions have lowest binding free energies. In our top 100 ranked structures, for the 'easy' targets that have many near-native conformations, we obtain a strong enrichment of acceptable or better quality structures; for the 'hard' targets without near-native decoys, our method is still able to retain structures which have native binding contacts. Moreover, in our top 10 selections, CLUB-MARTINI shows a comparable performance when compared with other state-of-the-art docking scoring functions. As a proof of concept, CLUB-MARTINI performs remarkably well for many targets and is able to pinpoint near-native binding modes in the top selections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time interaction free energy calculated from MD simulations have been used to rank docking solutions at a large scale.

  14. Characterization of B7H6, an endogenous ligand for the NK cell activating receptor NKp30, reveals the identity of two different soluble isoforms during normal human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Franco, Jorge; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Bueno-Topete, Miriam Ruth; Haramati, Jesse; Navarro-Hernandez, Rosa Elena; Escarra-Senmarti, Marta; Vega-Magaña, Natali; Del Toro-Arreola, Alicia; Pereira-Suarez, Ana Laura; Del Toro-Arreola, Susana

    2018-01-01

    B7H6, an endogenous ligand expressed on tumor cell surfaces, triggers NKp30-mediated activation of human NK cells. In contrast, the release of soluble B7H6 has been proposed as a novel mechanism by which tumors might evade NK cell-mediated recognition. Since NK cells are critical for the maintenance of early pregnancy, it is not illogical that soluble B7H6 might also be an important factor in directing NK cell activity during normal pregnancy. Thus, this study was focused on the characterization of soluble B7H6 during the development of normal pregnancy. Serum samples were obtained from healthy pregnant women who were experiencing their second pregnancies (n=36). Additionally, 17 of these pregnant participants were longitudinally studied for the presence of B7H6 during their second and third trimesters. Age-matched healthy non-pregnant women served as controls (n=30). The presence of soluble B7H6 was revealed by Western blotting. A further characterization was performed using an immunoproteomic approach based on 2DE-Western blotting combined with MALDI-MS. The results show that sera from all pregnant women were characterized by the presence of two novel isoforms of B7H6, both with lower MW than the reported of 51kDa. These isoforms were either a heavy (∼37kDa) or a light isoform (∼30kDa) and were mutually exclusive. N-glycosylation did not completely explain the different molecular weights exhibited by the two isoforms, as was demonstrated by enzymatic deglycosylation with PNGase F. The confirmation of the identity and molecular mass of each isoform indicates that B7H6, while maintaining the C- and N-termini, is most likely released during pregnancy by a mechanism distinct from proteolytic cleavage. We found that both isoforms, but mainly the heavier B7H6, were released via exosomes; and that the lighter isoform was also released in an exosome-free manner that was not observed in the heavy isoform samples. In conclusion, we find that soluble B7H6 is

  15. (Pro)Renin receptor regulates potassium homeostasis through a local mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuanming; Lu, Aihua; Wang, Hong; Fang, Hui; Zhou, Li; Sun, Peng; Yang, Tianxin

    2017-09-01

    (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) is highly expressed in the distal nephron, but it has an unclear functional implication. The present study was conducted to explore a potential role of renal PRR during high K(+) (HK) loading. In normal Sprague-Dawley rats, a 1-wk HK intake increased renal expression of full-length PRR and urinary excretion of soluble PRR (sPRR). Administration of PRO20, a decoy peptide antagonist of PRR, in K(+)-loaded animals elevated plasma K(+) level and decreased urinary K(+) excretion, accompanied with suppressed urinary aldosterone excretion and intrarenal aldosterone levels. HK downregulated Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) expression but upregulated CYP11B2 (cytochrome P-450, family 11, subfamily B, polypeptide 2), renal outer medullary K(+) channel (ROMK), calcium-activated potassium channel subunit α1 (α-BK), α-Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (α-NKA), and epithelial Na(+) channel subunit β (β-ENaC), all of which were blunted by PRO20. After HK loading was completed, urinary, but not plasma renin, was upregulated, which was blunted by PRO20. The same experiments that were performed using adrenalectomized (ADX) rats yielded similar results. Interestingly, spironolactone treatment in HK-loaded ADX rats attenuated kaliuresis but promoted natriuresis, which was associated with the suppressed responses of β-ENaC, α-NKA, ROMK, and α-BK protein expression. Taken together, we discovered a novel role of renal PRR in regulation of K(+) homeostasis through a local mechanism involving intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and coordinated regulation of membrane Na(+)- and K(+)-transporting proteins.

  16. Solubility Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tantra, Ratna; Bolea, Eduardo; Bouwmeester, H.; Rey-Castro, Carlos; David, C.A.A.; Dogné, Jean Michel; Laborda, Francisco; Laloy, Julie; Robinson, Kenneth N.; Undas, A.K.; Zande, van der M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of different methods that can potentially be used to determine the solubility of nanomaterials. In general, the methods presented can be broadly divided into four categories: separation methods, methods to quantify free ions, methods to quantify total dissolved

  17. Inorganic Kernel-Reconstituted Lipoprotein Biomimetic Nanovehicles Enable Efficient Targeting "Trojan Horse" Delivery of STAT3-Decoy Oligonucleotide for Overcoming TRAIL Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kai; Xue, Jianxiu; Fang, Yan; Bi, Hongshu; Gao, Shan; Yang, Dongjuan; Lu, Anqi; Li, Yuai; Chen, Yao; Ke, Liyuan

    2017-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can selectively induce apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells, but not most normal cells. Nevertheless, its therapeutic potential is limited due to the frequent occurrence of resistance in tumor cells, especially hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Therefore, we investigated the reversal effect of STAT3-decoy oligonucleotides (ODNs) on TRAIL resistance. Methods. Considering that the drawback of poor cellular permeability and rapid degradation in vivo limited ODNs' further clinical applications, we developed a biomimetic calcium phosphate-reconstituted low density lipoprotein nanovehicle (CaP@LDL) that would serve as a "Trojan horse" to carry STAT3-decoy ODNs into tumor cells and then regulate TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Results. In comparison with native ODNs, the reconstituted CaP@LDL packaged ODNs showed significantly increased serum stability, cellular transfection, in vitro synergistic cytotoxicity and apoptosis in hepatoma cells, while there was no cytotoxicity to normal cells. The improved TRAIL sensitization is attributed to blocking of STAT3 signaling and consequent expression of the downstream target antiapoptotic gene. Following systemic administration, CaP@LDL displayed LDL-mimicking pharmacokinetic behavior such as attenuated blood clearance as well as enhanced accumulation in tumor and hepatorenal sites. With the synergistic combination of decoyODN/CaP@LDL, TRAIL dramatically inhibited hepatic tumor growth in a xenograft model and induced significant tumor apoptosis in vivo. Conclusion. These results suggested that CaP@LDL-mediated STAT3-decoy ODN delivery might be a promising new strategy for reversing TRAIL resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

  18. Free-space measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol using decoy states with orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Zhao, Sheng-Mei; Gong, Long-Yan; Cheng, Wei-Wen

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol using orbital angular momentum (OAM) in free space links, named the OAM-MDI-QKD protocol. In the proposed protocol, the OAM states of photons, instead of polarization states, are used as the information carriers to avoid the reference frame alignment, the decoy-state is adopted to overcome the security loophole caused by the weak coherent pulse source, and the high efficient OAM-sorter is adopted as the measurement tool for Charlie to obtain the output OAM state. Here, Charlie may be an untrusted third party. The results show that the authorized users, Alice and Bob, could distill a secret key with Charlie’s successful measurements, and the key generation performance is slightly better than that of the polarization-based MDI-QKD protocol in the two-dimensional OAM cases. Simultaneously, Alice and Bob can reduce the number of flipping the bits in the secure key distillation. It is indicated that a higher key generation rate performance could be obtained by a high dimensional OAM-MDI-QKD protocol because of the unlimited degree of freedom on OAM states. Moreover, the results show that the key generation rate and the transmission distance will decrease as the growth of the strength of atmospheric turbulence (AT) and the link attenuation. In addition, the decoy states used in the proposed protocol can get a considerable good performance without the need for an ideal source. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61271238 and 61475075), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20123223110003), the Natural Science Research Foundation for Universities of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. 11KJA510002), the Open Research Fund of Key Laboratory of Broadband Wireless Communication and Sensor Network Technology, Ministry of Education, China (Grant No. NYKL2015011), and the

  19. Iterative Knowledge-Based Scoring Functions Derived from Rigid and Flexible Decoy Structures: Evaluation with the 2013 and 2014 CSAR Benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chengfei; Grinter, Sam Z; Merideth, Benjamin Ryan; Ma, Zhiwei; Zou, Xiaoqin

    2016-06-27

    In this study, we developed two iterative knowledge-based scoring functions, ITScore_pdbbind(rigid) and ITScore_pdbbind(flex), using rigid decoy structures and flexible decoy structures, respectively, that were generated from the protein-ligand complexes in the refined set of PDBbind 2012. These two scoring functions were evaluated using the 2013 and 2014 CSAR benchmarks. The results were compared with the results of two other scoring functions, the Vina scoring function and ITScore, the scoring function that we previously developed from rigid decoy structures for a smaller set of protein-ligand complexes. A graph-based method was developed to evaluate the root-mean-square deviation between two conformations of the same ligand with different atom names and orders due to different file preparations, and the program is freely available. Our study showed that the two new scoring functions developed from the larger training set yielded significantly improved performance in binding mode predictions. For binding affinity predictions, all four scoring functions showed protein-dependent performance. We suggest the development of protein-family-dependent scoring functions for accurate binding affinity prediction.

  20. Associations between patterns of human intestinal schistosomiasis and snail and mammal species richness in Uganda: can we detect a decoy effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Sofie Stensgaard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ecological research has suggested several mechanisms by which biodiversity might affect the risk of acquiring infectious diseases (i.e., the decoy, dilution or amplification effects, but the topic remains controversial. While many experimental studies suggest a negative relationship between biodiversity and disease, this relationship is inherently complex, and might be negative, positive or neutral depending on the geographical scale and ecological context. Here, applying a macroecological approach, we look for associations between diversity and disease by comparing the distribution of human schistosomiasis and biogeographical patterns of freshwater snail and mammal species richness in Uganda. We found that the association between estimated snail richness and human infection was best described by a negative correlation in non-spatial bi- and multivariate logistic mixed effect models. However, this association lost significance after the inclusion of a spatial component in a full geostatistical model, highlighting the importance of accounting for spatial correlation to obtain more precise parameter estimates. Furthermore, we found no significant relationships between mammal richness and schistosomiasis risk. We discuss the limitations of the data and methods used to test the decoy hypothesis for schistosomiasis, and highlight key future research directions that can facilitate more powerful tests of the decoy effect in snail-borne infections, at geographical scales that are relevant for public health and conservation.

  1. Oral formulation strategies to improve solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Worku, Zelalem Ayenew; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2011-10-01

    In the past two decades, there has been a spiraling increase in the complexity and specificity of drug-receptor targets. It is possible to design drugs for these diverse targets with advances in combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening. Unfortunately, but not entirely unexpectedly, these advances have been accompanied by an increase in the structural complexity and a decrease in the solubility of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Therefore, the importance of formulation strategies to improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs is inevitable, thus making it crucial to understand and explore the recent trends. Drug delivery systems (DDS), such as solid dispersions, soluble complexes, self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), nanocrystals and mesoporous inorganic carriers, are discussed briefly in this review, along with examples of marketed products. This article provides the reader with a concise overview of currently relevant formulation strategies and proposes anticipated future trends. Today, the pharmaceutical industry has at its disposal a series of reliable and scalable formulation strategies for poorly soluble drugs. However, due to a lack of understanding of the basic physical chemistry behind these strategies, formulation development is still driven by trial and error.

  2. Transient Co-Expression of Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Suppressors for Increased in Planta Expression of a Recombinant Anthrax Receptor Fusion Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipong Rattanaporn

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Potential epidemics of infectious diseases and the constant threat of bioterrorism demand rapid, scalable, and cost-efficient manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Molecular farming of tobacco plants provides an alternative for the recombinant production of therapeutics. We have developed a transient production platform that uses Agrobacterium infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants to express a novel anthrax receptor decoy protein (immunoadhesin, CMG2-Fc. This chimeric fusion protein, designed to protect against the deadly anthrax toxins, is composed of the von Willebrand factor A (VWA domain of human capillary morphogenesis 2 (CMG2, an effective anthrax toxin receptor, and the Fc region of human immunoglobulin G (IgG. We evaluated, in N. benthamiana intact plants and detached leaves, the expression of CMG2-Fc under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, and the co-expression of CMG2-Fc with nine different viral suppressors of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS: p1, p10, p19, p21, p24, p25, p38, 2b, and HCPro. Overall, transient CMG2-Fc expression was higher on intact plants than detached leaves. Maximum expression was observed with p1 co-expression at 3.5 days post-infiltration (DPI, with a level of 0.56 g CMG2-Fc per kg of leaf fresh weight and 1.5% of the total soluble protein, a ten-fold increase in expression when compared to absence of suppression. Co-expression with the p25 PTGS suppressor also significantly increased the CMG2-Fc expression level after just 3.5 DPI.

  3. Transient co-expression of post-transcriptional gene silencing suppressors for increased in planta expression of a recombinant anthrax receptor fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzola, Lucas; Chen, Junxing; Rattanaporn, Kittipong; Maclean, James M; McDonald, Karen A

    2011-01-01

    Potential epidemics of infectious diseases and the constant threat of bioterrorism demand rapid, scalable, and cost-efficient manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Molecular farming of tobacco plants provides an alternative for the recombinant production of therapeutics. We have developed a transient production platform that uses Agrobacterium infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants to express a novel anthrax receptor decoy protein (immunoadhesin), CMG2-Fc. This chimeric fusion protein, designed to protect against the deadly anthrax toxins, is composed of the von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain of human capillary morphogenesis 2 (CMG2), an effective anthrax toxin receptor, and the Fc region of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). We evaluated, in N. benthamiana intact plants and detached leaves, the expression of CMG2-Fc under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, and the co-expression of CMG2-Fc with nine different viral suppressors of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS): p1, p10, p19, p21, p24, p25, p38, 2b, and HCPro. Overall, transient CMG2-Fc expression was higher on intact plants than detached leaves. Maximum expression was observed with p1 co-expression at 3.5 days post-infiltration (DPI), with a level of 0.56 g CMG2-Fc per kg of leaf fresh weight and 1.5% of the total soluble protein, a ten-fold increase in expression when compared to absence of suppression. Co-expression with the p25 PTGS suppressor also significantly increased the CMG2-Fc expression level after just 3.5 DPI.

  4. Increased CD4(+) T cell co-inhibitory immune receptor CEACAM1 in neonatal sepsis and soluble-CEACAM1 in meningococcal sepsis: a role in sepsis-associated immune suppression?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, M. van der; Sharma, D.B.; Estevao, S.; Emonts, M.; Rook, D.; Hazelzet, J.A.; Goudoever, J.B. van; Hartwig, N.G.

    2013-01-01

    The co-inhibitory immune receptor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell-adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) and its self-ligand CEACAM1 can suppress T cell function. Suppression of T cell function in sepsis is well documented. Late-onset neonatal sepsis in VLBW-infants was associated with an increased

  5. Increased CD4+ T Cell Co-Inhibitory Immune Receptor CEACAM1 in Neonatal Sepsis and Soluble-CEACAM1 in Meningococcal Sepsis: A Role in Sepsis-Associated Immune Suppression?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Flier (Michiel); D.B. Sharma (Dyana); S. Estevão (Silvia); M. Emonts (Marieke); D. Rook (Denise); J.A. Hazelzet (Jan); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); N.G. Hartwig (Nico)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe co-inhibitory immune receptor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell-adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) and its self-ligand CEACAM1 can suppress T cell function. Suppression of T cell function in sepsis is well documented. Late-onset neonatal sepsis in VLBW-infants was associated with an

  6. Identification of soluble CD14 as an endogenous agonist for toll-like receptor 2 on human astrocytes by genome-scale functional screening of glial cell derived proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bsibsi, M.; Bajramovic, J.J.; Duijvenvoorden, E. van; Persoon, C.; Ravid, R.; Noort, J.M. van; Vogt, M.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Human astrocytes express a limited repertoire of Toll-like receptor (TLR) family members including TLR1-4, which are expressed on the cell surface. Also, TLR3 but not TLR4 activation on astrocytes induces expression of several factors involved in neuroprotection and down-regulation of inflammation

  7. Osteoprotegerin and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand and risk for coronary events: a nested case-control approach in the prospective EPIC-Norfolk population study 1993-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semb, Anne G.; Ueland, Thor; Aukrust, Pål; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Luben, Robert; Gullestad, Lars; Kastelein, John J. P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between serum levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and future coronary artery disease (CAD) in apparently healthy individuals. The identification of OPG as a novel

  8. Water soluble and efficient amino acid Schiff base receptor for reversible fluorescence turn-on detection of Zn²⁺ ions: Quantum chemical calculations and detection of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subha, L; Balakrishnan, C; Natarajan, Satheesh; Theetharappan, M; Subramanian, Balanehru; Neelakantan, M A

    2016-01-15

    An amino acid Schiff base (R) capable of recognizing Zn(2+) ions selectively and sensitively in an aqueous medium was prepared and characterized. Upon addition of Zn(2+) ions, the receptor exhibits fluorescence intensity enhancements (~40 fold) at 460 nm (quantum yield, Φ=0.05 for R and Φ=0.18 for R-Zn(2+)) and can be detected by naked eye under UV light. The receptor can recognize the Zn(2+) (1.04×10(-8) M) selectively for other metal ions in the pH range of 7.5-11. The Zn(2+) chelation with R decreases the loss of energy through non-radiative transition and leads to fluorescence enhancement. The binding mode of the receptor with Zn(2+) was investigated by (1)H NMR titration and further validated by ESI-MS. The elemental color mapping and SEM/EDS analysis were also used to study the binding of R with Zn(2+). Density functional theory calculations were carried out to understand the binding mechanism. The receptor was applied as a microbial sensor for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Argon solubility in liquid steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R; Dankert, O; Van Veen, A; Kamperman, AA

    2000-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to establish the solubility of argon in liquid interstitial-free steel. The solubility appears to be lower than 0.1 at ppb, The results are in line with argon solubilities reported in the literature on liquid iron. Semiempirical theories and calculations based on the

  10. Similarity Mapplet: Interactive Visualization of the Directory of Useful Decoys and ChEMBL in High Dimensional Chemical Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awale, Mahendra; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2015-08-24

    An Internet portal accessible at www.gdb.unibe.ch has been set up to automatically generate color-coded similarity maps of the ChEMBL database in relation to up to two sets of active compounds taken from the enhanced Directory of Useful Decoys (eDUD), a random set of molecules, or up to two sets of user-defined reference molecules. These maps visualize the relationships between the selected compounds and ChEMBL in six different high dimensional chemical spaces, namely MQN (42-D molecular quantum numbers), SMIfp (34-D SMILES fingerprint), APfp (20-D shape fingerprint), Xfp (55-D pharmacophore fingerprint), Sfp (1024-bit substructure fingerprint), and ECfp4 (1024-bit extended connectivity fingerprint). The maps are supplied in form of Java based desktop applications called "similarity mapplets" allowing interactive content browsing and linked to a "Multifingerprint Browser for ChEMBL" (also accessible directly at www.gdb.unibe.ch ) to perform nearest neighbor searches. One can obtain six similarity mapplets of ChEMBL relative to random reference compounds, 606 similarity mapplets relative to single eDUD active sets, 30,300 similarity mapplets relative to pairs of eDUD active sets, and any number of similarity mapplets relative to user-defined reference sets to help visualize the structural diversity of compound series in drug optimization projects and their relationship to other known bioactive compounds.

  11. Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.

    2012-01-01

    A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of…

  12. Soluble TACI and soluble BCMA as biomarkers in primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Franziska S; Laurent, Sarah A; Huber, Marion; Mulazzani, Matthias; Dreyling, Martin; Ködel, Uwe; Kümpfel, Tania; Straube, Andreas; Meinl, Edgar; von Baumgarten, Louisa

    2017-11-29

    B-cell survival is regulated through interactions of B-cell-activating factor and a proliferation-inducing ligand with their receptors transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI) and B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA). We evaluated the diagnostic potential of soluble TACI (sTACI) and soluble BCMA (sBCMA) in CSF and serum as biomarkers in primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). CSF (n = 176) and serum samples (n = 105) from patients with clinically or radiologically suspected PCNSL as well as from control patients were collected prospectively. Levels of sTACI and sBCMA were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, in patients with PCNSL, CSF was analyzed during disease course (time of diagnosis, n = 26; relapse, n = 10; remission, n = 14), and in 2 patients long-term longitudinal analysis was performed. Soluble TACI and sBCMA are significantly increased in patients with PCNSL (sTACI, median: 445 pg/mL; sBCMA, median: 760 pg/mL) compared with control patients (sTACI, median: 0 pg/mL; sBCMA, median: 290 pg/mL). At a cutoff value of 68.4 pg/mL, sTACI shows high sensitivity (87.9%) and specificity (88.3%) for the diagnosis of active PCNSL. Soluble BCMA is less sensitive (72.7%) and specific (71.8%) (cutoff: 460 pg/mL). When both markers are combined, specificity increases, however, at the cost of a lower sensitivity. In serum, both sTACI and sBCMA are not increased in PCNSL patients. Both soluble receptors correlate with clinical course and therapy response. Our results suggest that sTACI and sBCMA in the CSF are promising new biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy monitoring in PCNSL. However, our findings need to be validated in an independent cohort.

  13. Doping Induced Solubility Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ian Edward

    Polymeric semiconductors are promising class of materials, which combine many of the electrical properties of inorganic semiconductors with the mechanical flexibility and chemical processability of organic materials. Semiconducting polymers can be deposited from solution over large areas at low cost, and may find applications in displays, photovoltaics, and sensor arrays. Unfortunately, these materials are generally mutually soluble with other organics, preventing solution-based deposition of complex patterned structures using standard photolithographic techniques. Here, we present an entirely new method for patterning conductive polymers utilizing a change in polymer solubility upon p-type doping. Many polymer : molecular dopant systems, including the extensively studied system poly-(3-hexylthiophene) : 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (P3HT : F4TCNQ), are rendered insoluble in a wide range solvents by p-type doping at only a few mol%. By sequentially doping and dedoping films, polymer solubility can be switched on an off at will. We find that doped films can be easily prepared in a two-step process, by first coating the polymer (P3HT), then exposing the film to an orthogonal solvent containing the dopant (F4TCNQ). Dedoping is achieved by means of a chemical reaction that deactivates F4TCNQ, allowing it to be removed by an orthogonal solvent in a single step. This process allows for fully quantitative dedoping, in some cases leaving films with an even lower free carrier density than as cast films by removing intrinsic p-type defects. In addition, we have also identified a photochemical reaction between F4TCNQ and solvents such as tetrahydrofuran (THF), which similarly yields a non-doping product. By immersing films in THF and exposing them to light, this reaction allows for direct, optical patterning of P3HT films. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), we demonstrate direct write topographic patterning of arbitrary structures with in

  14. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  15. Transient Co-Expression of Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Suppressors for Increased in Planta Expression of a Recombinant Anthrax Receptor Fusion Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Kittipong Rattanaporn; Maclean, James M.; McDonald, Karen A.; Junxing Chen; Lucas Arzola

    2011-01-01

    Potential epidemics of infectious diseases and the constant threat of bioterrorism demand rapid, scalable, and cost-efficient manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Molecular farming of tobacco plants provides an alternative for the recombinant production of therapeutics. We have developed a transient production platform that uses Agrobacterium infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants to express a novel anthrax receptor decoy protein (immunoadhesin), CMG2-Fc. This chimeric fusion protein,...

  16. Effect of cleavage enzyme, search algorithm and decoy database on mass spectrometric identification of wheat gluten proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vensel, William H; Dupont, Frances M; Sloane, Stacia; Altenbach, Susan B

    2011-07-01

    While tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is routinely used to identify proteins from complex mixtures, certain types of proteins present unique challenges for MS/MS analyses. The major wheat gluten proteins, gliadins and glutenins, are particularly difficult to distinguish by MS/MS. Each of these groups contains many individual proteins with similar sequences that include repetitive motifs rich in proline and glutamine. These proteins have few cleavable tryptic sites, often resulting in only one or two tryptic peptides that may not provide sufficient information for identification. Additionally, there are less than 14,000 complete protein sequences from wheat in the current NCBInr release. In this paper, MS/MS methods were optimized for the identification of the wheat gluten proteins. Chymotrypsin and thermolysin as well as trypsin were used to digest the proteins and the collision energy was adjusted to improve fragmentation of chymotryptic and thermolytic peptides. Specialized databases were constructed that included protein sequences derived from contigs from several assemblies of wheat expressed sequence tags (ESTs), including contigs assembled from ESTs of the cultivar under study. Two different search algorithms were used to interrogate the database and the results were analyzed and displayed using a commercially available software package (Scaffold). We examined the effect of protein database content and size on the false discovery rate. We found that as database size increased above 30,000 sequences there was a decrease in the number of proteins identified. Also, the type of decoy database influenced the number of proteins identified. Using three enzymes, two search algorithms and a specialized database allowed us to greatly increase the number of detected peptides and distinguish proteins within each gluten protein group. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Comparing side chain packing in soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, J C; Acebes, S; Virrueta, A; Butler, M; Regan, L; O'Hern, C S

    2018-02-10

    We compare side chain prediction and packing of core and non-core regions of soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins. We first identified or created comparable databases of high-resolution crystal structures of these 3 protein classes. We show that the solvent-inaccessible cores of the 3 classes of proteins are equally densely packed. As a result, the side chains of core residues at protein-protein interfaces and in the membrane-exposed regions of transmembrane proteins can be predicted by the hard-sphere plus stereochemical constraint model with the same high prediction accuracies (>90%) as core residues in soluble proteins. We also find that for all 3 classes of proteins, as one moves away from the solvent-inaccessible core, the packing fraction decreases as the solvent accessibility increases. However, the side chain predictability remains high (80% within 30°) up to a relative solvent accessibility, rSASA≲0.3, for all 3 protein classes. Our results show that ≈40% of the interface regions in protein complexes are "core", that is, densely packed with side chain conformations that can be accurately predicted using the hard-sphere model. We propose packing fraction as a metric that can be used to distinguish real protein-protein interactions from designed, non-binding, decoys. Our results also show that cores of membrane proteins are the same as cores of soluble proteins. Thus, the computational methods we are developing for the analysis of the effect of hydrophobic core mutations in soluble proteins will be equally applicable to analyses of mutations in membrane proteins. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Free proline, soluble sugars and soluble proteins concentration as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effects of salt stress on free proline, soluble sugars and soluble proteins accumulation were investigated in two sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) cultivars: CP66-346 (salt- tolerant) and CP65-357 (salt-sensitive). Young plants of these cultivars were exposed, in a hydroponic system, to four concentrations of NaCl ...

  19. Effect on vein graft intimal hyperplasia of nuclear factor-kB decoy transfection using the second generation of HVJ vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, N; Azuma, N; Nishikawa, T; Hirata, S; Morishita, R; Kaneda, Y; Sasajima, T

    2007-08-01

    Vein graft stenosis due to intimal hyperplasia (IH) is the main cause of graft failure. We examined possibilities of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) expression in vein grafts, and inhibitive effects of NF-kB decoy on the gene expression and subsequent vein graft IH. Fifteen mongrel dogs underwent femoral artery replacement with autogenous vein grafts. Group I: grafts were retrieved at a predetermined time and subjected to NF-kB binding activity assay; Groups II and III: grafts were transfected with scrambled (II-a, III-a) or NF-kB (II-b, III-b) decoy using hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope before implantation. Grafts were retrieved 7 days after implantation for evaluation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA expression (Group II) and 4 weeks after implantation for comparison of IH by morphometric analysis (Group III). NF-kB binding activity was increased in a time-dependent manner, with a peak 2 days after implantation. The ratio between ICAM-1 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA expression in II-b was significantly lower than that in II-a (0.347 +/- 0.07 versus 0.612+/-0.08; P = 0.047). The ratio of intimal cross-section area to luminal cross-section area of III-b was significantly lower than that of the III-a (0.096+/-0.03 versus 0.461+/-0.11; P = 0.048). NF-kB binding activity in vein grafts increases after implantation, and transfection of NF-kB decoy before implantation may reduce IH through the inhibition of ICAM-1 expression.

  20. Therapeutic effect of intra-articular injection of ribbon-type decoy oligonucleotides for hypoxia inducible factor-1 on joint contracture in an immobilized knee animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotobayashi, Daisuke; Kawahata, Hirohisa; Anada, Natsuki; Ogihara, Toshio; Morishita, Ryuichi; Aoki, Motokuni

    2016-08-01

    Limited range of motion (ROM) as a result of joint contracture in treatment associated with joint immobilization or motor paralysis is a critical issue. However, its molecular mechanism has not been fully clarified and a therapeutic approach is not yet established. In the present study, we investigated its molecular mechanism, focusing on the role of a transcription factor, hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which regulates the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and evaluated the possibility of molecular therapy to inhibit HIF-1 activation by ribbon-type decoy oligonucleotides (ODNs) for HIF-1 using immobilized knee animal models. In a mouse model, ROM of the immobilized knee significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner, accompanied by synovial hypertrophy. Immunohistochemical studies suggested that CTGF and VEGF are implicated in synovial hypertrophy with fibrosis. CTGF and VEGF were up-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels at 1 and 2 weeks after immobilization, subsequent to up-regulation of HIF-1 mRNA and transcriptional activation of HIF-1. Of importance, intra-articular transfection of decoy ODNs for HIF-1 in a rat model successfully inhibited transcriptional activation of HIF-1, followed by suppression of expression of CTGF and VEGF, resulting in attenuation of restricted ROM, whereas transfection of scrambled decoy ODNs did not. The present study demonstrates the important role of HIF-1 in the initial progression of immobilization-induced joint contracture, and indicates the possibility of molecular treatment to prevent the progression of joint contracture prior to intervention with physical therapy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Synergistic effect of signaling from receptors of soluble platelet agonists and outside-in signaling in formation of a stable fibrinogen-integrin αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Ivan; Shenkman, Boris; Savion, Naphtali

    2015-01-01

    Thrombus formation in the injured vessel wall is a highly complex process involving various blood-born components that go through specific temporal and spatial changes as observed by intravital videomicroscopy. Platelets bind transiently to the developing thrombus and may either become stably incorporated into or disengage from the thrombus. The aim of the present study was to reveal the processes involved in the formation of a stable thrombus. Platelet-rich plasma and washed platelets were studied by the aggregometer. The aggregate stability was challenged by eptifibatide. Platelet Triton-insoluble fraction was prepared and the actin and αIIb content in the cytoskeleton was analyzed by western blot. Maximal actin polymerization is achieved 1min after platelet activation while maximal αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton association requires 5 to 10min of activation and fibrinogen-mediated platelet-to-platelet bridging. Thus, actin polymerization is dependent on platelet activation and requires neither αIIbβ3 integrin occupation nor platelet aggregation. Formation of a stable aggregate requires platelet activation for more than 1min, complete increase in actin cytoskeleton fraction and partial association of αIIbβ3 with the actin cytoskeleton. However, direct αIIbβ3 activation is not sufficient for cytoskeleton complex formation. Thus, stable αIIbβ3-fibrinogen interaction, representing stable aggregate, is achieved after more than 1min agonist activation, involving inside-out and outside-in signaling but not after direct integrin activation, involving only outside-in signaling. Formation of a stable fibrinogen-αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton complex is the result of the combined effect of platelet stimulation by soluble agonists, activation of αIIbβ3, fibrinogen binding and platelet-to-platelet bridging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roy W.; Bonicamp, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that there are only a few cases in which solubility and Ksp are related in a simple way. States that illustrations of the solubility product principle for one-to-one salts are adequate for students. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  3. Soluble form of transferrin receptor-1 level is associated with the age at first diagnosis and the risk of therapeutic intervention and iron overloading in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchi, Paolo; Meloni, Antonella; Costantini, Silvia; Spasiano, Anna; Di Matola, Tiziana; Pepe, Alessia; Cinque, Patrizia; Filosa, Aldo

    2017-09-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the relationship between serum transferrin receptor-1 (sTfR1) and some fundamental events in the life and the management (the age at diagnosis, the age at the first red blood cells transfusion, the age at splenectomy, and the overall need of chelation therapy) of 111 patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT) subdivided in four genetic entities: patients with homozygous or compound heterozygous state for β-thalassemia, patients with triplicated α genotype associated with β heterozygosity, patients with deletional HbH, and patients with the combination of a β defect plus a β chain variant. We found that the group with homozygous or compound heterozygous state for β-thalassemia had the highest sTfR1 levels and that the presence of increased sTfR1 levels (>5 times normal) was associated with a complex and severe history of disease requiring splenectomy, occasional red blood cells transfusions, and early start and continuous iron chelation therapy.The complexity in the management of NTDT patients is an emerging issue due to the wide heterogeneity of clinical behavior. Our data indicate that the measurement of sTfR1 levels, a common laboratory test, could contribute to correctly stratify disease history and the iron chelation strategy in NTDT patients.

  4. Iron chelation therapy in Upper Egyptian transfusion-dependent pediatric homozygous beta-thalassemia major: impact on serum L-carnitine/free fatty acids, osteoprotegerin/the soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappabeta ligand systems, and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Enas A; Mohamed, Nagwa A; El-Metwally, Tarek H; Kamal, Manal M

    2010-05-01

    Bone disease in beta-thalassemia major (betaTM) remains poorly understood. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappabeta ligand (RANKL) regulates osteoclast formation and function. RANKL activity is balanced by interaction with its receptor (RANK) and binding to osteoprotegerin (OPG). L-Carnitine (LC) enhances osteoblastic activity by furnishing fuel. This study hypothesized that abnormal bone metabolism in betaTM involves imbalanced RANKL/OPG and LC/free fatty acids (FFAs) metabolism. Sixty-nine transfusion-dependent betaTM patients and 15 healthy controls were enrolled. One group of patients (n=34) received desferrioxamine (DFO) and the other (n=35) did not. Serum OPG, soluble RANKL (sRANKL), FFAs, LC [total LC (TC), free LC (FC), and esterified LC (EC)], calcium, and inorganic phosphate were measured by specific immuno and colorimetric assays; bone mineral density was examined by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Patients showed lower levels of OPG, TC, FC, EC and higher levels of sRANKL, sRANKL/OPG ratio, and FFAs than controls. Patients on DFO showed lower levels of OPG, TC, FC and higher levels of sRANKL, sRANKL/OPG ratio, and FFAs than those without chelation. In patients, sRANKL correlated negatively with TC and OPG and FC correlated positively with OPG and negatively with sRANKL, sRANKL/OPG ratio, and FFAs. In conclusion, altered bone metabolism owing to imbalanced osteoclastic bone resorption versus constructive osteoblastic activities in betaTM pediatric patients could be due to abnormal sRANKL-OPG and LC-FFAs systems that were worsened by DFO.

  5. A novel nonsteroidal antifibrotic oligo decoy containing the TGF-beta element found in the COL1A1 gene which regulates murine schistosomiasis liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, D L; Singh, K P; Gerard, H C; Hudson, A P; White, S L; Cutroneo, K R

    2005-08-01

    Schistosomiasis mansoni disseminated worm eggs in mice and humans induce granulomatous inflammations and cumulative fibrosis causing morbidity and possibly mortality. In this study, intrahepatic and I.V. injections of a double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide decoy containing the TGF-beta regulatory element found in the distal promoter of the COL1A1 gene into worm-infected mice suppressed TGF-beta1, COL1A1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and decreased COL3A1 mRNAs to a lesser extent. Sequence comparisons within the mouse genome found homologous sequences within the COL3A1, TGF-beta1, and TIMP-1 5' flanking regions. Cold competition gel mobility shift assays using these homologous sequences with 5' and 3' flanking regions found in the natural COL1A1 gene showed competition. Competitive gel mobility assays in a separate experiment showed no competition using a 5-base mutated or scrambled sequence. Explanted liver granulomas from saline-injected mice incorporated 10.45 +/- 1.7% (3)H-proline into newly synthesized collagen, whereas decoy-treated mice showed no collagen synthesis. Compared with the saline control schistosomiasis mice phosphorothioate double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide treatment decreased total liver collagen content (i.e. hydroxy-4-proline) by 34%. This novel molecular approach has the potential to be employed as a novel antifibrotic treatment modality. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were principle in a specific and sensitive method for the determination of free and bound pantothenic acid in a large variety of foods. A French laboratory invited European laboratories to participate in a series of collaborative studies for this method, which will be carried out in 2005/2006. A more sophisticated method was described by Mittermayer et al. They developed an LC-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for the determination of vitamin B5 in a wide range of fortified food products. Application of the method to various samples showed consistent results with those obtained by microbiology. Vitamin B6.-Method 2004.07, an LC method for the analysis of vitamin B6 in reconstituted infant formula, was published by Mann et al. In contrast with this method, which quantifies vitamin B6 after converting the phosphorylated and free vitamers into pyridoxine, Viñas et al. published an LC method which determines 6 vitamin B6 related compounds, the 3 B6 vitamers, their corresponding phosphorylated esters, and a metabolite. Accuracy was determined using 2 CRMs. Results were within the certified ranges. Vitamin C.-Franke et al. described an extensive

  7. Students' mental models on the solubility and solubility product concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmi, Chusnur; Katmiati, Siti; Wiji, Mulyani, Sri

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to obtain some information regarding profile of students' mental models on the solubility and solubility product concept. A descriptive qualitative method was the method employed in the study. The participants of the study were students XI grade of a senior high school in Bandung. To collect the data, diagnostic test on mental model-prediction, observation, explanation (TDM-POE) instrument was employed in the study. The results of the study revealed that on the concept of precipitation formation of a reaction, 30% of students were not able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction either in submicroscopic or symbolic level although the microscopic have been shown; 26% of students were able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction based on the relation of Qsp and Ksp, but they were not able to explain the interaction of particles that involved in the reaction and to calculate Qsp; 26% of students were able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction based on the relation of Qsp and Ksp, and determine the particles involved, but they did not have the knowledge about the interactions occured and were uncapable of calculating Qsp; and 18% of students were able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction based on the relation of Qsp and Ksp, and determine the interactions of the particles involved in the reactions but they were not able to calculate Qsp. On the effect of adding common ions and decreasing pH towards the solubility concept, 96% of students were not able to explain the effect of adding common ions and decreasing pH towards the solubility either in submicroscopic or symbolic level although the microscopic have been shown; while 4% of students were only able to explain the effect of adding common ions towards the solubility based on the chemical equilibrium shifts and predict the effect of decreasing pH towards the solubility. However, they were not able to calculate the solubility before and after

  8. Method for estimating solubility parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, D. D.; Ingham, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Semiempirical correlations have been developed between solubility parameters and refractive indices for series of model hydrocarbon compounds and organic polymers. Measurement of intermolecular forces is useful for assessment of material compatibility, glass-transition temperature, and transport properties.

  9. Camouflage, Concealment, and Decoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    are designed to exhibit an artificial chlorophyll response at selected NIR wavelengths. Nonstandard materials (sheets, tarps ) are not likely to exhibit...the background. The dark hoses experience solar loading, and the POL liquids within the hoses can provide a thermal cue.  Equipment. Palletized

  10. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-26

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility

  11. Topological Analysis of HIV-1 Glycoproteins Expressed In Situ on Virus Surfaces Reveals Tighter Packing but Greater Conformational Flexibility than for Soluble gp120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tommy; Osawa, Keiko; Robinson, James E.; Crooks, Ema T.

    2013-01-01

    In natural infection, antibodies interact with HIV-1 primarily through nonfunctional forms of envelope glycoproteins (Env), including uncleaved (UNC) gp160 and gp41 stumps. These antigens are important to fully characterize, as they may be decoys that promote nonneutralizing responses and may also be targets for nonneutralizing effector responses. In this study, we compared the antigenic properties of Env expressed in situ on pseudovirion virus-like particle (VLP) surfaces and soluble gp120 using harmonized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and a panel of 51 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Only 32 of 46 soluble gp120-reactive MAbs recognized the primary UNC gp160 antigen of VLPs. Indeed, many epitopes were poorly exposed (C1, V2, C1-C4, C4, C4-V3, CD4 induced [CD4i], and PGT group 3) or obscured (C2, C5, and C1-C5) on VLPs. In further studies, VLP Env exhibited an increased degree of inter-MAb competition, the epicenter of which was the base of the V3 loop, where PGT, 2G12, V3, and CD4 binding site specificities competed. UNC gp160 also underwent more drastic soluble CD4 (sCD4)-induced conformational changes than soluble gp120, exposing CD4i, C1-C4, and V2 epitopes. A greater propensity of UNC gp160 to undergo conformational changes was also suggested by the induction of CD4i MAb binding to VLPs by a V3 MAb as well as by soluble CD4. The same effect was not observed for soluble gp120. Taken together, our data suggest that membrane-expressed UNC gp160 exists in a less “triggered” conformational state than soluble gp120 and that MAb binding to UNC gp160 tends to have greater conformational consequences. PMID:23740975