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Sample records for soluble cod scod

  1. Effects of COD/N ratio on soluble microbial products in effluent from sequencing batch reactors and subsequent membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Quang Viet; Nghiem, Long D; Sibag, Mark; Maqbool, Tahir; Hur, Jin

    2018-05-01

    The relative ratios of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to nitrogen (N) in wastewater are known to have profound effects on the characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMP) from activated sludge. In this study, the changes in the SMP characteristics upon different COD/N ratios and the subsequent effects on ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling potentials were examined in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) using excitation emission matrix-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Three unique fluorescent components were identified from the SMP samples in the bioreactors operated at the COD/N ratios of 100/10 (N rich), 100/5 (N medium), and 100/2 (N deficient). The tryptophan-like component (C1) was the most depleted at the N medium condition. Fulvic-like (C2) and humic-like (C3) components were more abundant with N rich wastewater. Greater abundances of large size biopolymer (BP) and low molecular weight neutrals (LMWN) were found under the N deficient and N rich conditions, respectively. SMPs from various COD/N exhibited a greater degree on membrane fouling following the order of 100/2 > 100/10 > 100/5. C1 and C2 had close associations with reversible and irreversible fouling, respectively, while the reversible fouling potential of C3 depended on the COD/N ratios. No significant impact of COD/N ratio was observed on the relative contributions of SMP size fractions to either reversible or irreversible fouling potential. However, the COD/N ratios likely altered the BP foulants' composition with greater contribution of proteinaceous substances to reversible fouling under the N deficient condition than at other N richer conditions. The opposite trend was observed for irreversible fouling. Our results provided further insight into changes in different SMP constitutes and their membrane fouling in response to microbial activities under different COD/N ratios. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A study of lipid- and water-soluble arsenic species in liver of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) containing high levels of total arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kale

    2015-01-01

    In the present study liver samples (n = 26) of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), ranging in total arsenic concentrations from 2.1 to 240 mg/kg liver wet weight (ww), were analysed for their content of total arsenic and arsenic species in the lipid-soluble and water-soluble fractions. The arsen...

  3. Integrated electrocoagulation-electrooxidation process for the treatment of soluble coffee effluent: Optimization of COD degradation and operation time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Taquez, Harold N; GilPavas, Edison; Blatchley, Ernest R; Gómez-García, Miguel-Ángel; Dobrosz-Gómez, Izabela

    2017-09-15

    Soluble coffee production generates wastewater containing complex mixtures of organic macromolecules. In this work, a sequential Electrocoagulation-Electrooxidation (EC-EO) process, using aluminum and graphite electrodes, was proposed as an alternative way for the treatment of soluble coffee effluent. Process operational parameters were optimized, achieving total decolorization, as well as 74% and 63.5% of COD and TOC removal, respectively. The integrated EC-EO process yielded a highly oxidized (AOS = 1.629) and biocompatible (BOD 5 /COD ≈ 0.6) effluent. The Molecular Weight Distribution (MWD) analysis showed that during the EC-EO process, EC effectively decomposed contaminants with molecular weight in the range of 10-30 kDa. In contrast, EO was quite efficient in mineralization of contaminants with molecular weight higher than 30 kDa. A kinetic analysis allowed determination of the time required to meet Colombian permissible discharge limits. Finally, a comprehensive operational cost analysis was performed. The integrated EC-EO process was demonstrated as an efficient alternative for the treatment of industrial effluents resulting from soluble coffee production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A new route of bioaugmentation by allochthonous and autochthonous through biofilm bacteria for soluble chemical oxygen demand removal of old leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijani Ardeshir, Rashid; Rastgar, Sara; Peyravi, Majid; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Shokuhi Rad, Ali

    2017-10-01

    Landfill leachate contains environmental pollutants that are generally resistant to biodegradation. In this study, indigenous and exogenous bacteria in leachate were acclimated in both biofilm and suspension forms to increase the removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD). The bacteria from the leachate and sewage were acclimated to gradually increasing leachate concentration prepared using a reverse osmosis membrane over 28 days. The SCOD removal was measured aerobically or nominally anaerobically. Biofilms were prepared using different carrier media (glass, rubber, and plastic). The maximum SCOD removal in suspensions was 32% (anaerobic) and in biofilms was 39% (aerobic). In the suspension form, SCOD removal using acclimated bacteria from leachate and sewage anaerobically increased in comparison with the control (P technology using biofilms and acclimations can be an effective, inexpensive, and simple way to decrease SCOD in old landfill leachate.

  5. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used as a source of vitamin A ... called macular degeneration. Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed healing of wounds, ...

  6. Genomics of Arctic cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sage, George K.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Gravley, Megan C.; Menning, Damian; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) is an abundant marine fish that plays a vital role in the marine food web. To better understand the population genetic structure and the role of natural selection acting on the maternally-inherited mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), a molecule often associated with adaptations to temperature, we analyzed genetic data collected from 11 biparentally-inherited nuclear microsatellite DNA loci and nucleotide sequence data from from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (cytb) gene and, for a subset of individuals, the entire mitogenome. In addition, due to potential of species misidentification with morphologically similar Polar cod (Arctogadus glacialis), we used ddRAD-Seq data to determine the level of divergence between species and identify species-specific markers. Based on the findings presented here, Arctic cod across the Pacific Arctic (Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas) comprise a single panmictic population with high genetic diversity compared to other gadids. High genetic diversity was indicated across all 13 protein-coding genes in the mitogenome. In addition, we found moderate levels of genetic diversity in the nuclear microsatellite loci, with highest diversity found in the Chukchi Sea. Our analyses of markers from both marker classes (nuclear microsatellite fragment data and mtDNA cytb sequence data) failed to uncover a signal of microgeographic genetic structure within Arctic cod across the three regions, within the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, or between near-shore or offshore habitats. Further, data from a subset of mitogenomes revealed no genetic differentiation between Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas populations for Arctic cod, Saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis), or Walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus). However, we uncovered significant differences in the distribution of microsatellite alleles between the southern Chukchi and central and eastern Beaufort Sea samples of Arctic cod. Finally, using ddRAD-Seq data, we

  7. Cod reproductive ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria

    In recent decades, Baltic cod has experienced a period of low recruitment. In the same period the pelagic Baltic Sea ecosystem experienced a regime shift, due to hydrographic changes, affecting all trophic levels. The rationale for the thesis is built on the hypothesis that the regime shift has r...

  8. Effect of the two-stage thermal disintegration and anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge on the COD fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaciuch Anna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research presents the changes in chemical oxygen demand (COD fractions during the two-stage thermal disintegration and anaerobic digestion (AD of sewage sludge in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. Four COD fractions have been separated taking into account the solubility of substrates and their susceptibility to biodegradation: inert soluble organic matter SI, readily biodegradable substrate SS, slowly biodegradable substrates XS and inert particulate organic material XI. The results showed that readily biodegradable substrates SS (46.8% of total COD and slowly biodegradable substrates XS (36.1% of total COD were dominant in the raw sludge effluents. In sewage effluents after two-stage thermal disintegration, the percentage of SS fraction increased to 90% of total COD and percentage of XS fraction decreased to 8% of total COD. After AD, percentage of SS fraction in total COD decreased to 64%, whereas the percentage of other fractions in effluents increased.

  9. Northeast Regional Cod Tagging Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientific justification: Canadian and US stock assessments for Atlantic cod indicate considerable fluctuation in stock abundance and recruitment over the last 20...

  10. Industry Based Survey (IBS) Cod

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Gulf of Maine Atlantic Cod Industry-Based Survey" was a collaboration of the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries and the fishing industry, with support...

  11. How cod shapes its world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, A.; de Roos, A.M.; Persson, L.

    2008-01-01

    Cod stocks in the North West Atlantic and the Baltic Sea have shown similar dynamics in recent decades with a rapid decline in abundance and a lack of stock recovery following a period of large biomass. We explore whether the lack of recovery can be ascribed to an emergent Allee effect, which is a

  12. Cod monitoring; results 2015, quarter 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijden, van der K.J.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Trapman, B.K.; Kraan, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    The Cod monitoring program is part of the Dutch cod avoidance plan developed by the Dutch Government together with the Dutch fishing sector. The aim of this cod monitoring program is to provide information on the Catch per Unit Effort (CpUE) in the TR fleet (bottom trawls and seines). This is needed

  13. Cod monitoring : results 2015, quarter 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teal, L.R.; Reijden, van der K.J.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Kraan, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    The Cod monitoring program is part of the Dutch cod avoidance plan developed by the Dutch Government together with the Dutch fishing sector. The aim of this cod monitoring program is to provide information on the Catch per Unit Effort (CpUE) in the TR fleet (bottom trawls and seines). This is needed

  14. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  15. Daily Intake of Protein from Cod Residual Material Lowers Serum Concentrations of Nonesterified Fatty Acids in Overweight Healthy Adults: A Randomized Double-Blind Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iselin Vildmyren

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved process technologies have allowed fishing vessels to utilize residuals from cod fillet production (head, backbone, skin, cuttings, and entrails and convert this to high-quality protein powders for human consumption. In this double-blind pilot study, 42 healthy overweight or obese adults were randomized to three experimental groups consuming tablets corresponding to 6 g/day of proteins from cod residuals as presscake meal (Cod-PC, presscake and stickwater meal (Cod-PCW, or placebo tablets (control for eight weeks. The primary outcome of this study was changes in metabolites related to glucose regulation in overweight or obese healthy adults after intake of proteins from cod residuals. Cod-PC supplementation decreased postprandial serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA concentration and increased gene expressions of diglyceride acyltransferase 1 and 2 in subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with controls. Fasting insulin increased while fasting NEFA and 120-min postprandial glucose decreased within the Cod-PC group, but these changes did not differ from the other groups. In conclusion, supplementation with Cod-PC beneficially affected postprandial serum NEFA concentration compared with the other groups in overweight or obese adults. Supplementation with Cod-PCW, which contains a higher fraction of water-soluble protein compared to Cod-PC, did not affect serum markers of glucose regulation.

  16. COD fractions of leachate from aerobic and anaerobic pilot scale landfill reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgili, M. Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Akkaya, Ebru; Ozkaya, Bestamin

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important problems with designing and maintaining a landfill is managing leachate that generated when water passes through the waste. In this study, leachate samples taken from aerobic and anaerobic landfill reactors operated with and without leachate recirculation are investigated in terms of biodegradable and non-biodegradable fractions of COD. The operation time is 600 days for anaerobic reactors and 250 days for aerobic reactors. Results of this study show that while the values of soluble inert COD to total COD in the leachate of aerobic landfill with leachate recirculation and aerobic dry reactors are determined around 40%, this rate was found around 30% in the leachate of anaerobic landfill with leachate recirculation and traditional landfill reactors. The reason for this difference is that the aerobic reactors generated much more microbial products. Because of this condition, it can be concluded that total inert COD/total COD ratios of the aerobic reactors were 60%, whereas those of anaerobic reactors were 50%. This study is important for modeling, design, and operation of landfill leachate treatment systems and determination of discharge limits

  17. COD and colour removal from molasses spent wash using activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of COD and colour from a melanoidin solution with this activated carbon was carried out using an experimental design taking 4 factors into account. These were adsorbent dose, contact time, pH and initial COD concentration, with removal of COD and colour as response variables. COD reduction was ...

  18. Plutonium solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdomnech, I.; Bruno, J.

    1991-02-01

    Thermochemical data has been selected for plutonium oxide, hydroxide, carbonate and phosphate equilibria. Equilibrium constants have been evaluated in the temperature range 0 to 300 degrees C at a pressure of 1 bar to T≤100 degrees C and at the steam saturated pressure at higher temperatures. Measured solubilities of plutonium that are reported in the literature for laboratory experiments have been collected. Solubility data on oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and phosphates have been selected. No solubility data were found at temperatures higher than 60 degrees C. The literature solubility data have been compared with plutonium solubilities calculated with the EQ3/6 geochemical modelling programs, using the selected thermodynamic data for plutonium. (authors)

  19. Walking the cod: an investigation into the relative robustness of cod, Gadus morhua, skeletal elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K.G. Jones

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple experiment is described which details what happens to the bones of cod when they are walked on by a man. The pattern of fragmentation for various elements is illustrated and an index of robustness proposed for those elements in a cod skeleton most frequently recovered from archaeological sites.

  20. Combined thermo-chemo-sonic disintegration of waste activated sludge for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Yukesh Kannah, R; Yeom, Ick Tae; Do, Khac-Uan; Banu, J Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, there was an investigation about the impact of a new combined thermo-chemo-sonic disintegration of waste activated sludge (WAS) on biodegradability. The outcome of sludge disintegration reveals that maximum Suspended Solids (SS) reduction and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) solubilization effectuated at a specific energy input of 5290.5kJ/kgTS, and was found to be 20%, 16.4%, 15% and 27%, 22%, and 20%, respectively for the three alkalis (NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH)2). The conversion coefficient of the Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS) to product Soluble COD (SCOD), calculated by nonlinear regression modeling, was found to be 0.5530gSCOD/gVSS, 0.4587gSCOD/gVSS, and 0.4195gSCOD/gVSS for NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH)2, respectively. In the biodegradability studies, the parameter evaluation provides an estimate of parameter uncertainty and correlation, and elucidates that there is no significant difference in biodegradability (0.413gCOD/gCOD, 0.367gCOD/gCOD, and 0.342gCOD/gCOD) for three alkalis (NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH)2). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Geologic history of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1976-01-01

    Cape Cod, a sandy peninsula built mostly during the Ice Age, juts into the Atlantic Ocean like a crooked arm. Because of its exposed location, Cape Cod was visited by many early explorers. Although clear-cut evidence is lacking, the Vikings may have sighted this land about 1,000 years ago. It was visited by Samuel de Champlain in 1605, and his detailed descriptions and charts have helped present-day scientists to determine the rate of growth of Nauset Beach marsh and Nauset spit. Bartholomew Gosnold, a lesser known explorer, settled for a short time on the Elizabeth Islands to the southwest and gave Cape Cod its name in 1602. The Pilgrims first landed in America on the tip of Lower Cape Cod after they were turned back from their more southerly destination by shoals between Cape Cod and Nantucket Island. On Cape Cod they found potable water and food and had their first fight with the natives. The Pilgrims, however, decided that this land was too isolated, too exposed, and too sandy to support them, and they sailed across Cape Cod Bay to establish Plymouth. These features remain today. Small villages are separated by large areas of forest, dune, beach, and marsh. This unspoiled natural beauty makes Cape Cod one of the most favored vacation areas for the people living in the thickly settled Northeastern States. Cape Cod is of particular interest to geologists because it was formed by glaciers very recently in terms of geologic time. During the Great Ice Age, (the Pleistocene Epoch which began 2 to 3 million years ago), glaciers advanced from the north into the temperate regions of the Earth. Glacial ice covered the land at least four times. Each advance was accompanied by a worldwide lowering of sea level because the source of the ice was water from the seas. When the glaciers melted, the climate and sea level were probably much like they are today. In fact, some scientists believe that the Earth is presently between glacial episodes and that ice once again will

  2. Sensory characteristics of different cod products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    atmosphere) were evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis by a trained sensory panel. Signal-to-noise analysis, p*MSE (discrimination and repeatability) and line plots proved to be very useful in studying panelists' performance. Most sensory attributes described significant differences between...... the products, and principal component analysis provided an overview of the differences and similarities between the products with regard to sensory characteristics. Farmed cod had different sensory characteristics compared with wild cod, such as more meat flavor, and rubbery and meaty texture. Different...... storage methods had minor influence on sensory characteristics of cod fillets after short storage time, but after extended storage, the groups were different with regard to most attributes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This paper presents different ways of analyzing sensory data. The process of analysis...

  3. 137CS in cod from Barents sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, H.-J.; Kanisch, G.; Krueger, A.

    2003-01-01

    After publication of the Yablovkov report about dumping of radioactive waste by the former Soviet Union the Institute for Fishery Ecology has analysed fish from Barents Sea for radioactivity. In all studies 137 Cs concentrations in cod fillet showed a clear dependance from fish length. Results from an analysis of covariance for cod of 70 cm length have minor changes within Barents Sea and indicate a rapid decay to a value as is expected for marine fish which is only influenced by global fallout. (orig.)

  4. Occurrence of anisakid nematodes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Greenland cod (Gadus ogac), West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Kim N.; Hedeholm, Rasmus; Schack, Henriette B.

    2010-01-01

    Anisakid nematodes commonly infect gadids, and are of economic and aesthetic importance to the commercial fishing industry in Greenland as some species are pathogenic to humans. However, very little is known about the occurrence of these parasites and their impact on the hosts in Greenland waters....... During a survey in 2005, stomach sample of 227 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and 64 Greenland cod (Gadus ogac) was collected in Godthaab and Sisimiut fiord systems in West Greenland waters. All cod were dissected for stomach contents and anisakid nematodes were removed from the visceral cavity. Third stage...... nematode species regarding prevalence of infection and mean infection intensity was evident, and there was no relationship between fish condition and the intensity of nematode infections. Standardised for size, capelin-eating cod were in better condition and more heavily infected than fish subsisting...

  5. Explaining the catch efficiency of different cod pots using underwater video to observe cod entry and exit behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedgärde, Maria; Berg, Casper Willestofte; Kindt-Larsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Cod pots are considered seal-safe fishing gear and are proposed as a solution to mitigate the ongoing seal-fisheries conflict in the Baltic Sea. This study examined various factors which could affect the entry and exit behaviour of cod in relation to cod pots. Statistical modelling was used...

  6. Selective haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) trawling: Avoiding cod (Gadus morhua) bycatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Holst, René; Madsen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The critical condition of the North Sea cod stocks has resulted in restrictions on not only cod, but also haddock and other species that are caught together with cod. Thus full exploitation of the haddock stock is unachievable unless cod can be excluded from the haddock catch. We designed a selec...... dependent: smaller cod escaped the trawl in greater numbers than did larger individuals. Whiting, saithe. lemon sole, and plaice were included in the analysis. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...... in otolith opacity, but the effect was minor compared to that of variations in ambient temperature. The combined influence of these effects, which both act on fish metabolism, are most likely controlling the seasonal opacity changes observed in wild fish. Our results help explain the variations seen in fish...

  8. Northeast arctic cod stock and fishery dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Bulatov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Northeast arctic cod stock is one of a most valuable target of fisheries in the Barents Sea. The catches of cod for the period 1960-2014 are widely changed. The minimum level of catches is marked in 1990 (212 thousands ton, and the maximum values of catches were observed in 1969 – 1.2 mill. ton. In the recent years international catch of cod exceeded 1 mill. ton. Fishable and spawning stock biomass (SSB also widely changed in this period. According to ICES data, SSB had a minimum in 1965 (102 thousand tons, and extremely high level in 2013 – 2 150 thousand tons. Fishable biomass changed also widely. The maximum level is registered in 2013 – 3 636 thousand tons, and minimum value was 5 times less, 739 thousand tons (1983. The ratio between historical high level of SSB and catch in 2013 was 2.2:1.0, due to low value of fishing mortality. Possibility to increase catch will be discussed.

  9. Particulate COD balance of particulate cod in eletrocuagulation/flotation reactor treating tannery effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Babora Borri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass balance or particulate organic matter was studied in terms of COD, by means of electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF reactor treating tannery effluent. Reactor was operated in fill and draw (batch mode. Operating in hydraulic residence time of 65 minutes, ECF reactor reached 55 % COD removal. Although volatile solids were also removed from liquid phase (removal of 40%, fixed solids concentration, and hence total solids concentration, showed to be higher in withdrawn effluent than in ECF’s influent. This was assigned to NaCl added in order to enhance conductivity in wastewater.

  10. Harvesting Atlantic Cod under Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremus, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    Previous literature links the growth of a fishery to climate variability. This study uses an age-structured bioeconomic model to compare optimal harvest in the Gulf of Maine Atlantic cod fishery under a variable climate versus a static climate. The optimal harvest path depends on the relationship between fishery growth and the interest rate, with higher interest rates dictating greater harvests now at the cost of long-term stock sustainability. Given the time horizon of a single generation of fishermen under assumptions of a static climate, the model finds that the economically optimal management strategy is to harvest the entire stock in the short term and allow the fishery to collapse. However, if the biological growth of the fishery is assumed to vary with climate conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, there will always be pulses of high growth in the stock. During some of these high-growth years, the growth of the stock and its economic yield can exceed the growth rate of the economy even under high interest rates. This implies that it is not economically optimal to exhaust the New England cod fishery if NAO is included in the biological growth function. This finding may have theoretical implications for the management of other renewable yet exhaustible resources whose growth rates are subject to climate variability.

  11. CodY-Dependent Regulation of Sporulation in Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Kathryn L; Edwards, Adrianne N; Daou, Nadine; Bouillaut, Laurent; McBride, Shonna M

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium difficile must form a spore to survive outside the gastrointestinal tract. The factors that trigger sporulation in C. difficile remain poorly understood. Previous studies have suggested that a link exists between nutritional status and sporulation initiation in C. difficile In this study, we investigated the impact of the global nutritional regulator CodY on sporulation in C. difficile strains from the historical 012 ribotype and the current epidemic 027 ribotype. Sporulation frequencies were increased in both backgrounds, demonstrating that CodY represses sporulation in C. difficile The 027 codY mutant exhibited a greater increase in spore formation than the 012 codY mutant. To determine the role of CodY in the observed sporulation phenotypes, we examined several factors that are known to influence sporulation in C. difficile Using transcriptional reporter fusions and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, we found that two loci associated with the initiation of sporulation, opp and sinR, are regulated by CodY. The data demonstrate that CodY is a repressor of sporulation in C. difficile and that the impact of CodY on sporulation and expression of specific genes is significantly influenced by the strain background. These results suggest that the variability of CodY-dependent regulation is an important contributor to virulence and sporulation in current epidemic isolates. This report provides further evidence that nutritional state, virulence, and sporulation are linked in C. difficile This study sought to examine the relationship between nutrition and sporulation in C. difficile by examining the global nutritional regulator CodY. CodY is a known virulence and nutritional regulator of C. difficile, but its role in sporulation was unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CodY is a negative regulator of sporulation in two different ribotypes of C. difficile We also demonstrate that CodY regulates known effectors of sporulation, Opp and Sin

  12. Quantifying predation on Baltic cod early life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Schaber, Matthias; Eero, Margit

    2017-01-01

    Predation on cod (Gadus morhua) eggs by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) is known to be one of the processes influencing reproductive success of the eastern Baltic cod and has been reported to have contributed to lack of recovery of the stock in the 1990s. This study quanti...

  13. Monitoring cod catches of the Dutch demersal fleet in 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, van R.; Machiels, M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the results of the cod monitoring program 2016. The research was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs within the EZ-program Beleidsondersteunend Onderzoek. Cod catches of the vessels in the fleet segments BT2 (beam trawl and pulse trawl) and TR (otter trawls

  14. Modelling axisymmetric cod-ends made of different mesh types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priour, D.; Herrmann, Bent; O'Neill, F.G.

    2009-01-01

    the selectivity process has become more important. This paper presents a model of the deformation of an axisymmetric cod-end. The twine tension and the catch pressure acting on the knots of each mesh along the cod-end profile are calculated, and a Newton-Raphson scheme is used to estimate the equilibrium position...

  15. Rationale for restocking the Eastern Baltic cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Overton, Julia Lynne; Paulsen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Institute for Fisheries Research and Bornholm's Salmon Hatchery examined the potential for restocking Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) in the eastern Baltic Sea. This cod population has adapted to the unique brackish water conditions where successful spawning depends on regular i...

  16. Distribution of water in fresh cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Rinnan, A.

    2002-01-01

    Low-field (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation was used to measure water mobility and distribution of water in fresh cod fillets. The NMR relaxations were analysed with the so-called SLICING method giving uni-exponential profiles from which the transverse relaxation time (T(2......)-values) and the relative sizes of the water populations were calculated. Two water populations with the T(2)-values of 50 and 94 ms were obtained. The shortest relaxation time was primarily found near the head, and water with the longest relaxation time was primarily found near the tail. This variation...... can he explained by the smaller muscle cells and muscle fibers in the tail, which may influence the distributions of water into the different pools. The amount of one of the water populations was correlated to the overall water content with a correlation coefficient of -0.94. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science...

  17. The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kraus, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 71-86.......The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 71-86....

  18. An integrated mathematical model for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) including predation and hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Marta; Galán, Berta; Viguri, Javier R

    2016-07-01

    An integrated mathematical model is proposed for modelling a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) under aerobic conditions. The composite model combines the following: (i) a one-dimensional biofilm model, (ii) a bulk liquid model, and (iii) biological processes in the bulk liquid and biofilm considering the interactions among autotrophic, heterotrophic and predator microorganisms. Depending on the values for the soluble biodegradable COD loading rate (SCLR), the model takes into account a) the hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable compounds in the bulk liquid, and b) the growth of predator microorganisms in the bulk liquid and in the biofilm. The integration of the model and the SCLR allows a general description of the behaviour of COD removal by the MBBR under various conditions. The model is applied for two in-series MBBR wastewater plant from an integrated cellulose and viscose production and accurately describes the experimental concentrations of COD, total suspended solids (TSS), nitrogen and phosphorous obtained during 14 months working at different SCLRs and nutrient dosages. The representation of the microorganism group distribution in the biofilm and in the bulk liquid allow for verification of the presence of predator microorganisms in the second reactor under some operational conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Structure of chymotrypsin variant B from Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Asgeirsson, B; Thórólfsson, M

    1996-01-01

    The amino-acid sequence of chymotrypsin variant B isolated from the pyloric caeca of Atlantic cod has been elucidated. The characterization of the primary structure is based on N-terminal Edman degradation and mass spectrometry of the native protein and enzymatically derived peptides. Chymotrypsi...... autolysis sites, cod variant B only contains a single autolysis site. The three-dimensional structures of the A- and B-variants of cod has been modelled on the known crystal structure of bovine alpha-chymotrypsin showing almost superimposable structures....

  20. "XANSONS for COD": a new small BOINC project in crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverov, Vladislav S.; Khrapov, Nikolay P.

    2018-04-01

    "XANSONS for COD" (http://xansons4cod.com) is a new BOINC project aimed at creating the open-access database of simulated x-ray and neutron powder diffraction patterns for nanocrystalline phase of materials from the collection of the Crystallography Open Database (COD). The project uses original open-source software XaNSoNS to simulate diffraction patterns on CPU and GPU. This paper describes the scientific problem this project solves, the project's internal structure, its operation principles and organization of the final database.

  1. The COD Model: Simulating Workgroup Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggiero, Lucio; Sevi, Enrico

    Though the question of the determinants of workgroup performance is one of the most central in organization science, precise theoretical frameworks and formal demonstrations are still missing. In order to fill in this gap the COD agent-based simulation model is here presented and used to study the effects of task interdependence and bounded rationality on workgroup performance. The first relevant finding is an algorithmic demonstration of the ordering of interdependencies in terms of complexity, showing that the parallel mode is the most simplex, followed by the sequential and then by the reciprocal. This result is far from being new in organization science, but what is remarkable is that now it has the strength of an algorithmic demonstration instead of being based on the authoritativeness of some scholar or on some episodic empirical finding. The second important result is that the progressive introduction of realistic limits to agents' rationality dramatically reduces workgroup performance and addresses to a rather interesting result: when agents' rationality is severely bounded simple norms work better than complex norms. The third main finding is that when the complexity of interdependence is high, then the appropriate coordination mechanism is agents' direct and active collaboration, which means teamwork.

  2. COD correction for laser cooling at S-LSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souda, Hikaru; Fujimoto, Shinji; Tongu, Hiromu; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Tanabe, Mikio; Ishikawa, Takehiro; Nakao, Masao; Ikegami, Masahiro; Wakita, Akihisa; Iwata, Soma; Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Noda, Koji; Noda, Akira

    2008-01-01

    A closed orbit is corrected for single-turn injection to perform laser cooling experiments of 40 keV 24 Mg + beam at the small laser-equipped storage ring (S-LSR). Closed orbit distortion (COD) corrections have been carried out using a downhill simplex method, and CODs of less than ±0.5mm have been achieved throughout the whole circumference. The injection orbit and the CODs are optimized to pass through the two aperture holes in the alignment targets located in the laser cooling section with an algorithm to maximize beam lifetime. The CODs at the aperture holes are reduced to be less than ±0.2mm, assuring an overlap between the laser and the 24 Mg + ion beam.

  3. Implications of stock recovery for a neighbouring management unit: experience from the Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hüssy, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Cod in the Baltic Sea is assessed and managed as two separate stocks, i.e. eastern and western Baltic cod. The eastern Baltic cod has recently started to recover after several decades of severe depletion. In the present study, we suggest that the recovery of the eastern Baltic cod population has ...

  4. Simulation-based investigation of the paired-gear method in cod-end selectivity studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the paired-gear and covered cod-end methods for estimating the selectivity of trawl cod-ends are compared. A modified version of the cod-end selectivity simulator PRESEMO is used to simulate the data that would be collected from a paired-gear experiment where the test cod-end also ...

  5. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  6. COMPARISON OF THE FRACTIONS OF COD IN RAW WASTEWATER INFLUENT FOR SMALL AND LARGE SEWAGE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Smyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparison of the share fraction of COD in raw wastewater in treatment plants which flow in a small amount of wastewater and the sewage treatment with high flow. Compared the constructed wetlands with an average capacity of 4 dm3/m,, the treatment plant with biological deposits with an average capacity of 8 dm3/m, and a sewage treatment plant with activated sludge in Bialystok with a capacity of about 70 000 dm3/m. The lowest percentages of dissolved fraction of soluble organic non-biodegradable substances SI was reported in raw sewage in small sewage treatment plants. Based on the available data wasn’t found significant correlation between the factions XI, SS, XS in raw sewage and the amount of wastewater.

  7. Resolving the impact of short-term variations in physical processes impacting on the spawning environment of eastern Baltic cod : application of a 3-D hydrodynamic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael; Lehmann, A.

    2002-01-01

    /Kattegat area and in the western Baltic influence the water mass properties (high oxygen solubility). Eastward oriented transports of these well-oxygenated highly saline water masses may have a significant positive impact on the Baltic cod reproduction volume in the Bornholm Basin. Finally, we analysed how...... large scale and local atmospheric forcing conditions are related to the identified major processes affecting the reproduction volume. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. Neptunium (IV) oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    The equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate in nitric/oxalic acid solutions was determined at 22 0 C, 45 0 C, and 60 0 C. The concentrations of nitric/oxalic acid solutions represented a wide range of free oxalate ion concentration. A mathematical solubility model was developed which is based on the formation of the known complexes of neptunium (IV) oxalate. the solubility model uses a simplified concentration parameter which is proportional to the free oxalate ion concentration. The solubility model can be used to estimate the equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate over a wide range of oxalic and nitric acid concentrations at each temperature

  9. COD removal characteristics in air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Exoelectrogenic microorganisms in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) compete with other microorganisms for substrate. In order to understand how this affects removal rates, current generation, and coulombic efficiencies (CEs), substrate removal rates were compared in MFCs fed a single, readily biodegradable compound (acetate) or domestic wastewater (WW). Removal rates based on initial test conditions fit first-order kinetics, but rate constants varied with circuit resistance. With filtered WW (100Ω), the rate constant was 0.18h- 1, which was higher than acetate or filtered WW with an open circuit (0.10h- 1), but CEs were much lower (15-24%) than acetate. With raw WW (100Ω), COD removal proceeded in two stages: a fast removal stage with high current production, followed by a slower removal with little current. While using MFCs increased COD removal rate due to current generation, secondary processes will be needed to reduce COD to levels suitable for discharge.

  10. CodY-mediated regulation of Streptococcus pyogenes exoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDowell Emily J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of Streptococcus pyogenes exoproteins, many of which contribute to virulence, is regulated in response to nutrient availability. CodY is a transcriptional regulator that controls gene expression in response to amino acid availability. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the expression of streptococcal exoproteins associated with deletion of the codY gene. Results We compared the secreted proteins produced by wild-type S. pyogenes to a codY mutant in the post-exponential phase of growth. We used both one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to separate exoproteins. Proteins that were significantly different in abundance upon repeated analysis were identified with tandem mass spectrometry. The production of the secreted cysteine protease SpeB, a secreted chromosomally encoded nuclease (SdaB, and a putative adhesion factor (Spy49_0549 were more abundant in supernatant fluids obtained from the codY mutant. In addition, hyaluronidase (HylA, CAMP factor (Cfa, a prophage encoded nuclease (Spd-3, and an uncharacterized extracellular protein (Spy49_0015 were less abundant in supernatant fluids obtained from the codY mutant strain. Enzymatic assays showed greater DNase activity in culture supernatants isolated in the post-exponential phase of growth from the codY mutant strain compared to the wild-type strain. Because extracellular nucleases and proteases can influence biofilm formation, we also measured the ability of the strains to form biofilms during growth with both rich medium (Todd Hewitt yeast extract; THY and chemically defined media (CDM. No difference was observed with rich media but with CDM the biofilms formed by the codY mutant strain had less biomass compared to the wild-type strain. Conclusions Overall, the results indicate that CodY alters the abundance of a select group of S. pyogenes exoproteins, including DNases, a protease, and hylauronidase, which together may alleviate

  11. Exophiala angulospora causes systemic inflammation in atlantic cod Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjessing, Mona Cecilie; Davey, Marie; Kvellestad, Agnar; Vrålstad, Trude

    2011-10-06

    Species of Exophiala are opportunistic fungal pathogens that may infect a broad range of warm- and cold-blooded animals, including salmonids and Atlantic cod. In the present study, we observed abnormal swimming behaviour and skin pigmentation and increased mortality in cod kept in an indoor tank. Necropsy revealed foci of different sizes with a greyish to brownish colour in internal organs of diseased fish. The foci consisted of ramifying darkly pigmented fungal hyphae surrounded by distinct layers of inflammatory cells, including macrophage-like cells. In the inner layer with many hyphae, the macrophage-like cells were dead. We observed no apparent restriction of fungal growth by the inflammatory response. A darkly pigmented fungus was repeatedly isolated in pure culture from foci of diseased fish and identified as Exophiala angulospora using morphological and molecular characters. This species has not been previously reported to cause disease in cod, but has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen of both marine and freshwater fish. Based on the morphology and sequence analysis presented here, we conclude that E. angulospora caused the observed chronic multifocal inflammation in internal organs of cod, leading to severe disease and mortality.

  12. Regime shifts, resilience and recovery of a cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Diekmann, Rabea; Möllmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In the North and Baltic seas Atlantic cod Gadus morhua stocks collapsed as part or one of the major factors inducing large-scale ecosystem regime shifts. Determining the relative contribution of overfishing and climate variability in causing these shifts has proven difficult. While facing similar...

  13. Chemical oxygen demand (cod) attenuation of methyl red in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical oxygen demand (cod) attenuation of methyl red in water using biocarbons obtained from Nipa palm leaves. ... eco-friendly and locally accessible biocarbon for mitigation of organic contaminants in water. Keywords: Chemical oxygen demand, biocarbon, methyl red, biodegradation, bioremediation, Nipa palm ...

  14. Arctic Climate Change: A Tale of Two Cod Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arctic cod play an important role in the Arctic trophic hierarchy as the consumer of primary productivity and a food source for many marine fish and mammals. Shifts in their distribution and abundance could have cascading affects in the marine environment. This paper investigates...

  15. Removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to identify the factors affecting the suspended and fixed biomass in the removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a coal gasification wastewater (CGWW) stream using a hybrid fixed-film bioreactor (H-FFBR) process under real-time plant operational conditions and ...

  16. Review of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Important processes in the recruitment dynamics of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) are identified. Spawning areas are in the deep, saline waters below 20–40 m, depending on area topography. Spatial distribution remains relatively stable over time. Peak spawning shows an area-specific pattern...

  17. Eastern Baltic cod recruitment revisited—dynamics and impacting factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Baltic cod abundance started rapidly to increase in the mid-2000s as evidenced by analytical stock assessments, due to increased recruitment and declining fishing mortality. Since 2014, the analytical stock assessment is not available, leaving the present stock status unclear and cast......The Eastern Baltic cod abundance started rapidly to increase in the mid-2000s as evidenced by analytical stock assessments, due to increased recruitment and declining fishing mortality. Since 2014, the analytical stock assessment is not available, leaving the present stock status unclear...... and casting doubts about the magnitude of the recent increase in recruitment. Earlier studies identified main factors impacting on cod reproductive success to be related to the loss of two out of three spawning areas in the 1980s caused by lack of major Baltic inflows with a concurrent reduction in salinity...... decade, as the period was characterized by an absence of large-scale Baltic inflows since 2003 and persistent anoxic conditions in the bottom water of the deep Baltic basins. This questions the perception of the increased recruitment in later years and challenges our present understanding of cod...

  18. Fluorescence of muscle and connective tissue from cod and salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Wold, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Autofluorescence of salmon and cod muscle was measured and compared with autofluorescence of collagen type I and type V. Similarities between fluorescence of fish muscle and collagen were found in that the same peaks were obtained around 390, 430, and 480 nm, These similarities are supported...

  19. Could seals prevent cod recovery in the Baltic Sea?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

    2011-01-01

    Fish populations are increasingly affected by multiple human and natural impacts including exploitation, eutrophication, habitat alteration and climate change. As a result many collapsed populations may have to recover in ecosystems whose structure and functioning differ from those in which...... these goals will also depend on how climate change affects cod recruitment....

  20. Fluidized pellet bed bioreactor system for SS, COD, nitrogen and phosphorus; Ryudoso zoryu bio reactor system ni yoru SS, COD, chisso oyobi rin jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T.; Tanbo, N.; Kudo, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hamaguchi, T.; Nakabayashi, A. [Tsukishima Kikai Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-10

    An examination was carried out on a treatment system which was constituted of an aerobic fluidized pellet bed (AFRB) bioreactor and the two steps comprising a contact aeration process and a sand filtration process for sewage/drainage treatment. The following data were obtained from the experiment by a pilot plant installed in a sewage plant. The removal ratios were the same as or above 95% in SS, 95% in total phosphorus, 85% in COD and 80% in total nitrogen. The highly dense sludge pellets formed in the AFPB bioreactor in summer contained aerobic filamentous bacteria that were capable of multiplying. The sludge retention time of this bioreactor was 2.2 to 8.1 days which were sufficient for the multiplication of denitrifiers, whose number and activity were also satisfactory for dinitrification. Further, other microorganisms existed in the bioreactor such as sulfate reducers and methanation bacteria. The role of a contact aeration tank was the oxidized decomposition and nitration of soluble BOD, and the biofilm had niterite and nitrate bacteria adhered to it. Assuming the retention time of the tank was two hours, the nitration ratio was 90% or more at the water temperature of 15{degree}C or higher. 29 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Effect of dairy wastewater on changes in COD fractions in technical-scale SBR type reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk-Sokołowska, Joanna; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Mielcarek, Artur

    2017-04-01

    The annual global production of milk is approximately 630,000 million litres and the volume of generated dairy wastewater accounts for 3.2 m 3 ·m -3 product. Dairy wastewater is characterized by a high load of chemical oxygen demand (COD). In many wastewater plants dairy wastewater and municipal wastewater are co-treated. The effect of dairy wastewater contribution on COD fraction changes in municipal sewage which has been treated with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) in three wastewater treatment plants in north-east Poland is presented. In these plants the real contribution of dairy wastewater was 10, 13 and 17%. In raw wastewater, S S fraction (readily biodegradable dissolved organic matter) was dominant and ranged from 38.3 to 62.6%. In the effluent, S S fraction was not noted, which is indicative of consumption by microorganisms. The presence of dairy wastewater in municipal sewage does not cause changes in the content of the X I fraction (insoluble fractions of non-biodegradable organic matter). SBR effluents were dominated by non-biodegradable dissolved organic matter S I , which from 57.7 to 61.7%. In raw wastewater S I ranged from 1.0 to 4.6%. X s fraction (slowly biodegradable non-soluble organic matter) in raw wastewater ranged from 24.6 to 45.5% while in treated wastewater it ranged from 28.6 to 30.8%. In the control object (fourth wastewater plant) which does not process dairy wastewater, the S S , S I , X s and X I fraction in inflow was 28.7, 2.4, 51.7 and 17.2% respectively. In the effluent the S S , S I , X s and X I fraction was below 0.1, 33.6, 50.0 and 16.4% respectively.

  2. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms at five microsatellite DNA loci provide evidence that Atlantic cod Gadus morhua inhabiting Gilbert Bay, Labrador are genetically distinguishable from offshore cod on the north- east Newfoundland shelf and from inshore cod in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Antifreeze activity in the bloo...

  3. Externally driven mortality of cod early life stages in the central Baltic: hydrography vs. predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, Matthias

    pressure by clupeids on the early life stages of cod could have enhanced cod recruitment in recent years. The analyses are based on a large dataset of stomach content of clupeids, cod egg abundances from ichthyoplankton surveys, and hydrographic measurements. We investigate temporal and spatial variability...

  4. Estimation of bacterial quality of cod fillets with the disc flotation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boismenu, D.; Lepine, F.; Thibault, C.; Gagnon, M.; Charbonneau, R.; Dugas, H.

    1991-01-01

    Spoilage bacteria of cod fillets were desorbed off the fillet surface by ultrasonication. Catalase activity of these bacteria was determined using the disc flotation method after selective heat inactivation of the endogenous cod catalase and then correlated with the colony forming units. The method was applied to cod fillets from ten retail sources with satisfactory results

  5. Feeding opportunities of larval and juvenile cod (Gadus morhua) in a Greenlandic fjord: temporal and spatial linkages between cod and their preferred prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus; Kjellerup, Sanne; Malanski, Evandro

    2014-01-01

    preferences of the early-life stages of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) to quantify the availability of prey during a spring-summer season in a West Greenlandic fjord. We hypothesized that abundances of larval and juvenile cod at size were synchronized to optimal availability of preferred prey in space and time....... These findings stress the importance of focusing on abundance of preferred prey when assessing the actual prey availability to young fish. We found a spatio-temporal overlap between cod and their preferred prey, and observations suggest that advection of both zooplankton and cod contributed to this overlap...

  6. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms at five microsatellite DNA loci provide evidence that Atlantic cod Gadus morhua inhabiting Gilbert Bay, Labrador are genetically distinguishable from offshore cod on the north- east Newfoundland shelf and from inshore cod in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Antifreeze activity in the blood...... of population structure suggest that important barriers to gene flow exist among five components that include two inshore (Gilbert and Trinity Bay) and three offshore cod aggregations on the north-east Newfoundland Shelf and the Grand Bank. D-A and D-SW estimates of genetic distance that involve Gilbert Bay cod...

  7. Isolation of putative probionts from cod rearing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzon, H.L.; Gudmundsdottir, S.; Pedersen, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    , metabolite production and adhesion to fish cell lines. Our study demonstrated that 14% of screened bacteria (n = 188) had antagonistic properties towards fish pathogens. The majority of these isolates were Gram-positive (81%), belonging to Firmicutes (69.2%) and Actinobacteria (11.5%) phyla based on 16S r...... was designed to search for new probiotics to target this critical period in cod rearing. Potential probionts were selected from the naturalmicrobiota of cod aquacultural environment. The selection was based on several criteria: pathogen inhibition potential, growth characteristics, strain identification......RNA gene sequencing. Only 6 (3.2%) of 188 isolates could inhibit all three pathogens tested: Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and Vibrio salmonicida. Differences observed in activity intensity and spectrum among inhibitory isolates emphasise the need to develop probiotic...

  8. Ecological forecasting under climate change: the case of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian; Nielsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Good decision making for fisheries and marine ecosystems requires a capacity to anticipate the consequences of management under different scenarios of climate change. The necessary ecological forecasting calls for ecosystem-based models capable of integrating multiple drivers across trophic levels...... and properly including uncertainty. The methodology presented here assesses the combined impacts of climate and fishing on marine food-web dynamics and provides estimates of the confidence envelope of the forecasts. It is applied to cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea, which is vulnerable to climate......-related decline in salinity owing to both direct and indirect effects (i.e. through species interactions) on early-life survival. A stochastic food web-model driven by regional climate scenarios is used to produce quantitative forecasts of cod dynamics in the twenty-first century. The forecasts show how...

  9. Practical application of COD measurement in welded assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghe, S.

    1975-01-01

    Measurement of the COD makes it possible to evaluate sensitivity to brittle fracture initiation. This technique is ideal for welded structures, owing to the types of defect likely to affect them, and the magnitude of the residual stresses introduced. Moreover, the COD concept, based on thickness and temperature experiments on materials, enables evaluation of the critical defect size in these structures. However, its application to welded joints encounters certain problems. The presence of fatigue cracks in the molten zone of a welded joint is frequently disturbed by the residual stresses caused by welding. An additional difficulty is created by the problem of stable growth of the crack during the bending test. This discussion covers all these matters and suggests some solutions [fr

  10. Stability of compounded trilostane suspension in cod liver oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Jesse; Brown, Stacy

    2017-10-01

    Trilostane is a synthetic steroid analog used to treat canine hyperadrenocorticism. For small dogs, the dose found in commercially available dosage forms of trilostane is sometimes too high. Compounding trilostane in a liquid diluent provides an option for more precise dosing and adjustments, and can be easier to administer, versus a tablet or capsule. Trilostane suspends well in cod liver oil, which is generally palatable to dogs. The stability of a compounded trilostane suspension in cod liver oil stored at room temperature was investigated for 90 days. Compounded trilostane retained stability, defined as maintaining 90-105% labeled value, for 60 days when stored in amber glass bottles. However, drug potency fell >10% below the labeled value when stored in amber plastic bottles after 7 days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Countercurrent extraction of soluble sugars from almond hulls and assessment of the bioenergy potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtman, Kevin M; Offeman, Richard D; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Bayati, Andre K; Orts, William J

    2015-03-11

    Almond hulls contain considerable proportions (37% by dry weight) of water-soluble, fermentable sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), which can be extracted for industrial purposes. The maximum optimal solids loading was determined to be 20% for sugar extraction, and the addition of 0.5% (w/v) pectinase aided in maintaining a sufficient free water volume for sugar recovery. A laboratory countercurrent extraction experiment utilizing a 1 h steep followed by three extraction (wash) stages produced a high-concentration (131 g/L fermentable sugar) syrup. Overall, sugar recovery efficiency was 88%. The inner stage washing efficiencies were compatible with solution equilibrium calculations, indicating that efficiency was high. The concentrated sugar syrup was fermented to ethanol at high efficiency (86% conversion), and ethanol concentrations in the broth were 7.4% (v/v). Thin stillage contained 233 g SCOD/L, which was converted to biomethane at an efficiency of 90% with a biomethane potential of 297 mL/g SCODdestroyed. Overall, results suggested that a minima of 49 gal (185 L) ethanol and 75 m(3) methane/t hulls (dry whole hull basis) are achievable.

  12. Detection of Fish Bones in Cod Fillets by UV Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Nian, Rui; Cao, Limin; Sui, Jianxin; Lin, Hong

    2015-07-01

    The presence of fish bones is now regarded as an important hazard in fishery products, and there is increasing demand for new analytical techniques to control it more effectively. Here, the fluorescent properties of cod bones under UV illumination were investigated, and the maximal wavelengths for excitation and emission were determined to be 320 nm and 515 nm, respectively, demonstrating significantly different fluorescence characteristics and much higher fluorescence intensity compared to those of fillet muscles. Based on the results, UV fluorescence-assisted candling for the detection of bones in fishery products was developed for the first time. Using cod fillets as samples, the detection ratio of this technique was calculated as 90.86%, significantly higher than that of traditional candling under daylight (76.78%). Moreover, the working efficiency of the new technique was about 26% higher than that of the traditional method. A UV fluorescence imaging framework was also developed, and a method for automatic identification of the fish bones in the cod fillets based on the linear discriminant analysis proposed by Fisher was preliminarily realized, but the detection ratio was demonstrated to be relatively poor compared to those of candling techniques. These results allow us to suggest UV-based methods as new and promising approaches for routine monitoring of bones in fishery products.

  13. Removal of COD from laundry wastewater by electrocoagulation/electroflotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.-T. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan County, Hsien 717, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ctwwang@mail.hwai.edu.tw; Chou, W.-L. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering and Institute of Occupational Safety and Hazard Prevention, HungKuang University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Y.-M. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan County, Hsien 717, Taiwan (China)

    2009-05-15

    The removal efficiency of COD in the treatment of simulated laundry wastewater using electrocoagulation/electroflotation technology is described. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency was better, reaching to about 62%, when applying ultrasound to the electrocoagulation cell. The solution pH approached neutrality in all experimental runs. The optimal removal efficiency of COD was obtained by using the applied voltage of 5 V when considering the energy efficiency and the acceptable removal efficiency simultaneously. The Cl{sup -} concentration of less than 2500 ppm had a positive effect on the removal efficiency. The performance of the monopolar connection of electrodes was better than that of the bipolar connection in this work. In addition, the removal efficiency of using Al electrodes was higher in comparison with using Fe electrodes in the study. The highest COD removal amount per joule was found to be 999 mg dm{sup -3} kW h{sup -1} while using two Al electrodes, although the removal efficiency increased with the number of Al plates.

  14. Effect of produced water on cod (Gadus morhua) immune responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamoutene, D.; Mabrouk, G.; Samuelson, S.; Mansour, A.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division; Volkoff, H.; Parrish, C. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Mathieu, A. [Oceans Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Studies have shown that produced water (PW) discharged from North Sea offshore platforms affects the biota at greater distances from operational platforms than originally presumed. According to PW dispersion simulations, dilution by at least 240 times occurs within 50-100 m, and up to 9000 times by 20 km from the discharge. In this study, the effect of PW on cod immunity was investigated by exposing fish to 0, 100 ppm (x 10,000 dilution) or 200 ppm (x 500) of PW for 76 days. Immune responses were evaluated at the end of the exposure. Fish from the 3 groups were injected with Aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Blood cell observation and flow cytometry were used to investigate the serum cortisol levels and gill histology along with ratios and respiratory burst (RB) responses of both circulating and head-kidney white blood cells (WBCs). The study revealed that baseline immunity and stress response were not affected by PW, other than an irritant-induced change in gill cells found in treated cod. In all groups, LPS injection resulted in a pronounced decrease in RB of head-kidney cells and an increase in serum cortisol and protein levels. However, the group exposed to 200 ppm of PW exhibited the most significant changes. LPS injection was also shown to influence WBC ratios, but further studies are needed to determine if this impact is stronger in fish exposed to PW. This study suggested an effect of PW on cod immunity after immune challenge with LPS.

  15. Removal of COD from laundry wastewater by electrocoagulation/electroflotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-T.; Chou, W.-L.; Kuo, Y.-M.

    2009-01-01

    The removal efficiency of COD in the treatment of simulated laundry wastewater using electrocoagulation/electroflotation technology is described. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency was better, reaching to about 62%, when applying ultrasound to the electrocoagulation cell. The solution pH approached neutrality in all experimental runs. The optimal removal efficiency of COD was obtained by using the applied voltage of 5 V when considering the energy efficiency and the acceptable removal efficiency simultaneously. The Cl - concentration of less than 2500 ppm had a positive effect on the removal efficiency. The performance of the monopolar connection of electrodes was better than that of the bipolar connection in this work. In addition, the removal efficiency of using Al electrodes was higher in comparison with using Fe electrodes in the study. The highest COD removal amount per joule was found to be 999 mg dm -3 kW h -1 while using two Al electrodes, although the removal efficiency increased with the number of Al plates

  16. pH-adjustment strategy for volatile fatty acid production from high-strength wastewater for biological nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Liu, Hui; Chen, Yin-Guang; Zhou, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from three types of high-strength organic wastewater (cassava thin stillage, starch wastewater and yellow-wine processing wastewater) were compared. The results showed that cassava thin stillage was the most suitable substrate, based on its high specific VFA production (0.68 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/g initial soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)) and yield (0.72 g COD/g SCOD) as well as low nutrient content in the substrate and fermented liquid. The acid fermented cassava thin stillage was evaluated and compared with sodium acetate in a sequencing batch reactor system. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was higher with fermented cassava thin stillage than with the sodium acetate. The effects of pH and a pH-adjustment strategy on VFA production and composition were determined using cassava thin stillage. At an initial pH range of 7-11, a relatively high VFA concentration of about 9 g COD/L was obtained. The specific VFA production (g COD/g initial SCOD) increased from 0.27 to 0.47 to 0.67 at pH 8 and from 0.26 to 0.68 to 0.81 at pH 9 (initial pH, interval pH, and constant pH adjustment, respectively). The dominant VFA species changed significantly with the increasing frequency of the pH adjustment. Further studies will examine the metabolic pathways responsible for VFA composition.

  17. New type of canned cod gonads and liver pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grokhovsky V. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of rational way of processing the offal of the Gadidae family (liver and gonads for food purposes has been proved. The possibility of using the frozen gonads (milt and caviar and the liver of the cod in the human nutrition (especially for the people of elderly age has been researched. The frozen gonads with addition of fish liver are proven to be used for producing the canned foods with high quality level. The physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the product have been determined by the standardized methods. The quality level of canned foods has been obtained using the developed criteria of the objective evaluation of the quality. The specimens of the canned pastes produced from the frozen cod milt, caviar and liver using different compositions have been researched. Near-to-optimal composition of the new product has been defined. The quality level of canned food is 88.6 %. The commercial sterility of the canned food specimens prepared using the developed technology has been established. The chemical composition and the sensory characteristics of canned food have been researched. It has been established that protein content in the canned food is 12.9 %, fat content – 13.5 %, water content – 71.2 %, sodium chloride content – 1.3 %, carbohydrates content – 0.5 %. The product is the uniform, finely ground, evenly mixed mass with the presence of the separate caviar grains. The color of the paste is light-beige. The canned food has the tender consistency, pleasant taste and aroma. The energy value of the product is 678 kJ (162 kcal. Using the frozen cod caviar, milt and liver for producing the developed assortment of canned foods will make it possible to solve the problem of the complex processing of fish, and also to manufacture the canned food of high quality on the shore enterprises from the frozen fish offal (caviar, milt and liver all the year round.

  18. Suitability of otolith microchemistry for stock separation of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, F; Marohn, L; Hinrichsen, HH

    2012-01-01

    differences between individuals from the eastern and the western Baltic Sea and between North Sea and Baltic Sea samples. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Y/Ca, Mg/Ca, Zr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios had the strongest discriminatory power. A further separation of individuals caught in 3 different spawning grounds of the eastern Baltic......, however, was not possible. Elemental compositions from the core regions of otoliths from young of the year cod caught in eastern and western Baltic Sea spawning grounds showed significant differences in Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca and Mg/Ca concentrations. Analyses of similarities again showed significant differences...

  19. Lessons for fisheries management from the EU cod recovery plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraak, S.B.M.; Bailey, N.; Cardinale, M.

    2013-01-01

    Member States to 'buy back' or increase fishing effort for fleet segments engaged in cod-avoidance measures. The stipulated fishing mortality reductions have not been achieved. On the positive side, the 'buy-back' instrument has led to increased uptake of selective gear and implementation of permanent...... in targeted fisheries, although fishers experienced them as prohibiting the full uptake of other quotas. Recommendations for future plans include (i) management through catch rather than landings quotas, (ii) the internalisation of the costs of exceeding quotas, (iii) use of more selective gear types, (iv...

  20. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition...... aged 2-25 days (median 10 days) ranged from 0.4 to 6.2, corresponding to levels exhibited by starving and fast growing larvae in laboratory calibration studies (starvation, protein growth rate, G(pi)=-12.2% day(-1); fast-growing larvae, G(pi)=14.1% day(-1)) respectively. Seventy per cent of the field...

  1. A millennium of north-east Atlantic cod juvenile growth trajectories inferred from archaeological otoliths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðbjörg Ásta Ólafsdóttir

    Full Text Available Archaeological excavations of historical fishing sites across the North Atlantic have recovered high quantities of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua bones. In the current study we use Atlantic cod otoliths from archaeological excavations of a historical fishing sites in north-west Iceland, dated to AD 970 -AD 1910 to examine historical growth trajectories of cod. No large scale growth variations or shifts in growth patterns were observed in the current chronologies, supporting the stability of historical Atlantic cod growth trajectories. The most significant variation in growth patterns was consistent with those that have been observed in recent times, for example, reduced early juvenile growth during periods of colder ocean temperature. The current results represent a high resolution chronological record of north-east Atlantic cod growth, greatly increasing the prior temporal range of such data, thereby providing a valuable baseline for a broad range of studies on Atlantic cod growth.

  2. Improved management based on stock identification of eastern and western Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Bastardie, Francois; Eero, Margit

    The objective of this project was to establish an empirically founded knowledge base for the sustainable exploitation of the western Baltic cod stock by including the complex stock structure and migration patterns. Stock mapping: Extensive immigration of “Eastern” cod into the Arkona Basin (SD 24......) within the “Western” cod’s management unit was documented using high-powered genetic tools. The majority (91%) of all spawning fish caught in SD 24 in 2011 were “Eastern” cod and only 9% were from the “Western” stock. The results suggest that the stock structure in the Arkona Basin is highly influenced...... by mixing of genetically separate stocks. Trends in mixing: Since the 1980’s where cod in SD 24 consisted primarily of “Western” type, the proportion of “Eastern” cod has increased, particularly since 2005. Throughout that period, the immigration of “Eastern” cod into SD 24 consisted primarily of adult...

  3. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...... in the second half of the 2000s, new analyses of stomach content of sprat and herring were conducted, to elucidate the contribution of changes in predation pressure on cod recruitment. Comparison of stomach contents of sprat and herring in 2004–2008 with data from the 1990s showed a similar diet composition...

  4. Soluble CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger J

    2012-01-01

    CD163 is an endocytic receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes and is expressed solely on macrophages and monocytes. As a result of ectodomain shedding, the extracellular portion of CD163 circulates in blood as a soluble protein (sCD163) at 0.7-3.9 mg/l in healthy individuals. The function o...

  5. Solubility Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tantra, Ratna; Bolea, Eduardo; Bouwmeester, H.; Rey-Castro, Carlos; David, C.A.A.; Dogné, Jean Michel; Laborda, Francisco; Laloy, Julie; Robinson, Kenneth N.; Undas, A.K.; Zande, van der M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of different methods that can potentially be used to determine the solubility of nanomaterials. In general, the methods presented can be broadly divided into four categories: separation methods, methods to quantify free ions, methods to quantify total dissolved

  6. Effect of microwaves on solubilization of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahriari, H.; Warith, M.; Kennedy, K.J. [Ottawa Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Landfilling is the most common method for disposing of municipal solid waste (MSW) in North America. MSW consists of nonbiodegradable fractions as well as biodegradable fractions known as the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). Because of its high moisture content, OFMSW produces large amounts of leachate in landfills. If not treated properly, leachates can pollute groundwater and negatively affect health and the environment. This paper reported on a study that was conducted to determine the effects of microwave (MW) irradiation on the solubilization of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) at different temperatures, MW ramp times, and supplemental water addition (SWA). The objective was to enhance solubilization before anaerobic digestion (AD). MW pretreatment resulted in higher soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), proteins and sugars in the supernatant phase. The highest increase in sCOD was achieved at 175 degrees C. For the same condition, the free liquid volume from bound water released from OFMSW into the supernatant was about 1.39 times higher than the control. The increase in potentially bio-available sCOD increased significantly to more than 200 per cent after microwaving at high temperature. It was concluded that microwaving of OFMSW at high temperature with SWA provides the best conditions for waste solubilisation in preparation for anaerobic digestion. The actual effect of MW pre-treatment on the anaerobic digestion process has yet to be determined. 49 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. L’écodéveloppement participatif en question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Dejouhanet

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Si les politiques forestières indiennes ont évolué d’un paradigme directif à un paradigme participatif, les aires protégées sont encore gérées par des textes de loi qui privilégient la séparation entre activités humaines et espaces à protéger. L’écodéveloppement, soutenu par la Banque Mondiale, se voulait un moyen de favoriser des activités alternatives à l’exploitation des ressources et de faire participer les populations à la protection de leur environnement. Lancé en 2001 dans la réserve naturelle de Parambikulam au Kérala, ses résultats quelques années après sont peu concluants. Alors qu’un rapport de 2003 accuse le délitement social des populations concernées, cet article insiste davantage sur l’inadaptation des projets des comités d’écodéveloppement au contexte des villages ; le cliché essentialiste attaché aux populations adivasi constitue une vision a-historique qui ne permet pas de penser le développement aujourd’hui. L’écodéveloppement, s’il veut atteindre ses objectifs, doit permettre une réelle négociation entre acteurs des aires protégées et proposer des compromis réalistes entre limitation des activités et survie des populations.While Indian forest policies have evolved from a directive paradigm to a participative one, protected areas are still managed by legislative acts, which advocate a clear separation between human activities and areas to be protected. Eco-development financed by the World Bank was planned as a tool for developing alternative activities to resource exploitation and for involving local populations in environment protection through participation. Started in 2001 in the Wildlife Sanctuary of Parambikulam in Kerala, its results few years after are rather inconclusive. While a report in 2003 was accusing the social disintegration of concerned people, I am more stressing on the inappropriateness of EDC to villages’ context. The essentialist clich

  8. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models I : Resolving spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning stock and recruitment for cod, herring, and sprat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Möllmann, C.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    The Baltic Sea comprises a heterogeneous oceanographic environment influencing the spatial and temporal potential for reproductive success of cod (Gadus morhua) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in the different spawning basins. Hence, to quantify stock and recruitment dynamics, it is necessary......-disaggregated multispecies virtual population analyses (MSVPA) were performed for interacting species cod, herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat in the different subdivisions of the Central Baltic. The MSVPA runs revealed distinct spatial trends in population abundance, spawning biomass, recruitment, and predation...

  9. Hydrolysis of Marine Cod (Gadus Morhua) Head - Utilization of rest raw material from cod for production of ingredients for human consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Meldstad, Fataneh

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possibility of utilizing frozen marine cod head for further processing into high-quality and high-yield fish protein hydrolysates. The project included determination of the effect of mincing versus whole head, frozen storage and thawing methods on the composition and yield of FPH. The results show that freezing and thawing of cod head lead to small changes in the composition of raw material and consequently the resulting ...

  10. Ingestion of bacteria by cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae. In: The propagation of cod Gadus morhua L.: an international symposium, Arendal, 14 - 17 June 1983

    OpenAIRE

    Olafsen, Jan A.

    1984-01-01

    The uptake of Rhodamine-labelled bacteria by cod larvae was demonstrated using a fluorescent microscopy technique, which allowed a quick estimate of bacterial uptake and gut clearance. Live or heat-killed bacteria, isolated from cod-eggs, were rapidly ingested by larvae at yolk-sac and older stages. A substantial uptake could be seen after 15 min exposure, and eventually the bacteria became densely packed in the digestive tract. Some morphological details in the develo...

  11. Uranyl Oxalate Solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leturcq, G.; Costenoble, S.; Grandjean, S. [CEA Marcoule DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LCA - BP17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    The solubility of uranyl oxalate was determined at ambient temperature by precipitation in oxalic-nitric solutions, using an initial uranyl concentration of 0.1 mol/L. Oxalic concentration varied from 0.075 to 0.3 mol/L while nitric concentration ranged between 0.75 and 3 mol/L. Dissolution tests, using complementary oxalic-nitric media, were carried out for 550 hours in order to study the kinetic to reach thermodynamic equilibrium. Similar solubility values were reached by dissolution and precipitation. Using the results, it was possible to draw the solubility surface versus oxalic and nitric concentrations and to determine both the apparent solubility constant of UO{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 3H{sub 2}O (Ks) and the apparent formation constant of the first uranyl-oxalate complex UO{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} (log {beta}1), for ionic strengths varying between 1 and 3 mol/L. Ks and log {beta}1 values were found to vary from 1.9 10{sup -8} to 9.2 10{sup -9} and from 5.95 to 6.06, respectively, when ionic strength varied from 1 to 3 mol/L. A second model may fit our data obtained at an ionic strength of 3 mol/L suggesting as reported by Moskvin et al. (1959) that no complexes are formed for [H{sup +}] at 3 M. The Ks value would then be 1.3 10{sup -8}. (authors)

  12. Hazard Analysis and identification of Critical Control Points of collagen extraction from cod by-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, C.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the European research project “UTILISATION AND STABILISATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COD SPECIES” (QLK1-CT-2000-01017 QLRT-2001-02829) is to investigate whether collagen from fish by-products could serve as an important raw material in high quality food. Since Atlantic cod is a major

  13. Plastic ingestion by juvenile polar cod (Boreogadus saida) in the Arctic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühn, Susanne; Schaafsma, Fokje L.; Werven, van Bernike; Flores, Hauke; Bergmann, Melanie; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Tekman, Mine B.; Franeker, van Jan A.

    2018-01-01

    One of the recently recognised stressors in Arctic ecosystems concerns plastic litter. In this study, juvenile polar cod (Boreogadus saida) were investigated for the presence of plastics in their stomachs. Polar cod is considered a key species in the Arctic ecosystem. The fish were collected both

  14. 77 FR 59970 - Notice of November 14, 2012, Meeting for Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... change Herring Cove Beach/revetment Climate Friendly Parks 6. Old Business National Seashore Law Enforcement Policies 7. New Business 8. Date and agenda for next meeting 9. Public comment and 10. Adjournment... Meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meeting of the Cape Cod...

  15. Increasing intake of soybean protein or casein, but not cod meal, reduces nephrocalcinosis in female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Beynen, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Female weanling rats were fed diets with soybean protein, casein or cod meal at 171, 342 or 513 mmol nitrogen/100 g for 3 wk. The diets were isonitrogenous and balanced for fat, cholesterol, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Cod meal feeding at 171 and 342 mmol nitrogen/100 g diet produced lower

  16. Prediction of selectivity from morphological conditions: Methodology and a case study on cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Frandsen, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    The FISHSELECT methodology. tools, and software were developed and used to measure the morphological parameters that determine the ability of cod to penetrate different mesh types, sizes, and openings. The shape of one cross-section at the cod's head was found to explain 97.6% of the mesh...

  17. Time matters: post-surgical recovery of gastric evacuation rate in Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane; Gräns, Albin; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    GER was affected after surgically introducing dummies of a blood-flow biotelemetry system into the abdominal cavity of Atlantic cod. Two days post surgery the cod with implants were, together with a control group, force-fed a standardized meal and the stomach contents recovered 24h later...

  18. Cod Gadus morhua and climate change: processes, productivity and prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Keith

    2010-01-01

    the causes. Investigation of cod Gadus morhua populations across the whole North Atlantic Ocean has shown large-scale patterns of change in productivity due to lower individual growth and condition, caused by large-scale climate forcing. If a population is being heavily exploited then a drop in productivity......Environmental factors act on individual fishes directly and indirectly. The direct effects on rates and behaviour can be studied experimentally and in the field, particularly with the advent of ever smarter tags for tracking fishes and their environment. Indirect effects due to changes in food......, predators, parasites and diseases are much more difficult to estimate and predict. Climate can affect all life-history stages through direct and indirect processes and although the consequences in terms of growth, survival and reproductive output can be monitored, it is often difficult to determine...

  19. [Cod liver oil. A natural Vitamin D for preserving health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, János; Kovács, Illés; Corrado, Balacco-Gabrieli

    2011-02-27

    Vitamin D deficiency is pandemic in industrialized countries due to life-style changes. Recent studies suggest that besides bone-metabolism, vitamin D plays a central role in basic cell function like multiplication, differentiation and metabolism. This may explain that low vitamin D levels represent a risk factor for several apparently different diseases such as infective, autoimmune, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, as well as diabetes, osteoporosis and cancer. Accumulating evidences suggest that an adequate intake of vitamin D may significantly decrease prevalence and clinical outcome of these diseases. Estimated reduction of the economic burden might reach about 10 percent through normalizing vitamin D levels for these diseases. However, high doses of vitamin D monotherapy needs precaution for potential adverse effects and it should be substituted with the recommended doses of vitamin D in combination with synergistic vitamin A and omega 3 fatty acids, such as cod liver oil.

  20. Biohydrogen production from soluble condensed molasses fermentation using anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, Chyi-How; Lin, Chiu-Yue [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China); Wu, Jou-Hsien; Hsiao, Chin-Lang [Department of Water Resource Engineering, Feng Chia University (China); Chang, Jui-Jen [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University (China); Chen, Chin-Chao [Environmental Resources Laboratory, Department of Landscape Architecture, Chungchou Institute of Technology (China)

    2010-12-15

    Using anaerobic micro-organisms to convert organic waste to produce hydrogen gas gives the benefits of energy recovery and environmental protection. The objective of this study was to develop a biohydrogen production technology from food wastewater focusing on hydrogen production efficiency and micro-flora community at different hydraulic retention times. Soluble condensed molasses fermentation (CMS) was used as the substrate because it is sacchariferous and ideal for hydrogen production. CMS contains nutrient components that are necessary for bacterial growth: microbial protein, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins and coenzymes. The seed sludge was obtained from the waste activated sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant in Central Taiwan. This seed sludge was rich in Clostridium sp. A CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor) lab-scale hydrogen fermentor (working volume, 4.0 L) was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3-24 h with an influent CMS concentration of 40 g COD/L. The results showed that the peak hydrogen production rate of 390 mmol H{sub 2}/L-d occurred at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 320 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 3 h. The peak hydrogen yield was obtained at an OLR of 80 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 12 h. At HRT 8 h, all hydrogenase mRNA detected were from Clostridium acetobutylicum-like and Clostridium pasteurianum-like hydrogen-producing bacteria by RT-PCR analysis. RNA based hydrogenase gene and 16S rRNA gene analysis suggests that Clostridium exists in the fermentative hydrogen-producing system and might be the dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria at tested HRTs (except 3 h). The hydrogen production feedstock from CMS is lower than that of sucrose and starch because CMS is a waste and has zero cost, requiring no added nutrients. Therefore, producing hydrogen from food wastewater is a more commercially feasible bioprocess. (author)

  1. Argon solubility in liquid steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R; Dankert, O; Van Veen, A; Kamperman, AA

    2000-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to establish the solubility of argon in liquid interstitial-free steel. The solubility appears to be lower than 0.1 at ppb, The results are in line with argon solubilities reported in the literature on liquid iron. Semiempirical theories and calculations based on the

  2. Biodegradation of COD in Household Wastewater with Aerobic Biofilm Technology by Adding Sediment Drainage Sewerage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyati, Sri; Purwanto; Sutrisno, Endro; Sudarno; Arthawidya, Jalu; Izzudin, Humam

    2018-02-01

    Household wastewater contains contaminants that harm the environment. One of the pollutants found COD. If being discharged into the environment directly, COD concentrations exceeding the existing quality standard will disrupt the ecosystem in the receiving water body. One of the technologies that can degrade COD is biofilm technology with honeycomb tube media. This research aims to analyze the decrease of COD concentration present in wastewater household with biofilm technology of honeycomb media. The reactor used in was made of glass with a thickness of 4 mm, a volume of 18 litres and operated continuously. The media used is made of a PVC pipe, cut to 3 cm in size and then glued to one another, forming a honey comb. The results showed that there has been a decrease in COD concentration of household wastewater.

  3. Host size-dependent anisakid infection in Baltic cod Gadus morhua associated with differential food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, Shaozhi; Huwer, Bastian; Bahlool, Qusay

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in the infection level of Baltic cod Gadus morhua with the anisakid nematode larvae Contracaecum osculatum and Pseudoterranova decipiens has been recorded during recent years due to the expanding local population of grey seals Halichoerus grypus, which act as final hosts...... for these parasites. Here, we report from an investigation of 368 cod (total length [TL] 6-49 cm; caught in ICES Subdivision 25) that the infection level of juvenile cod (TL 6-30 cm) with larvae of C. osculatum and P. decipiens is absent or very low, whereas it increases drastically in larger cod (TL 31-48 cm...... suggest that the C. osculatum life cycle in the Baltic Sea includes grey seals as final hosts, sprat as the first transport host and cod as second transport host. It may be speculated that sprat obtain infection by feeding on copepods and/or cladocerans, which could serve as the first intermediate hosts...

  4. Thermal niche of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua: limits, tolerance and optima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Righton, David A.; Andersen, Ken Haste; Neat, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in the marine environment have suggested that the limited phenotypic plasticity of cold-adapted species such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. will cause distributions to shift toward the poles in response to rising sea temperatures. Some cod stocks are predicted to collapse, but thi......Recent studies in the marine environment have suggested that the limited phenotypic plasticity of cold-adapted species such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. will cause distributions to shift toward the poles in response to rising sea temperatures. Some cod stocks are predicted to collapse...... niche of approximately 12°C, but latitudinal differences in water temperature meant that cod in the warmer, southern regions experienced 3 times the degree days (DD; ~4000 DD yr–1) than individuals from northern regions (~1200 DD yr–1). Growth rates increased with temperature, reaching a maximum...

  5. Association between nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum invasion of cod larvae and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Kuhn, Jesper

    , lapillus otoliths were removed, polished and the number of growth zones in each otolith counted by light microscopy. Each growth zone indicates one day of the fish life span. Covariance analysis demonstrated highly significant differences (p≤ 0.001) between the growth rate of infected and uninfected cod...... invertebrates and fish species and for some species also higher vertebrate hosts. We have recently demonstrated that fry of North Sea cod has a high prevalence of infection with regard to the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum and it was indicated that these infections could affect survival of cod and thereby...... affect the cod stock in the North Sea. The objective of the present study was to elucidate if infections are associated with a decrease or an increase of fish size when examining fish of the same age. We investigated effects of H. aduncum infections on the growth rate of cod larvae by using the otolith...

  6. Determination and identification of hydrophilic and hydrophobic arsenic species in methanol extract of fresh cod liver by RP-HPLC with simultaneous ICP-MS and ESI-Q-TOF-MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Abad, Uriel; Lischka, Susanne; Piechotta, Christian; Mattusch, Jürgen; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2013-12-01

    The present study was focused on the determination and identification of arsenic species in methanolic extracts of cod liver. Arsenic species were fractionated and the fractions analysed by RP-HPLC-ICP-MS coupled with ESI-Q-TOF-MS. The total concentration of arsenic in the fresh cod liver was analysed by ICP-MS to be 1.53±0.02 mg As kg(-1)w.w. and the extraction recovery was ca. 100% and the column recovery >93%. Besides polar inorganic and methylated arsenic species (>70%) more hydrophobic arsenic-containing fatty acids and hydrocarbons occurred. Based on the mass spectrometric data proposals for molecular structures were elaborated for 20 of the organic As species included 10 arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFA) and an arsenic-containing hydrocarbon (AsHC) mentioned for the first time in fresh cod liver. Arsenobetaine was found as main water-soluble arsenic compound in cod liver followed by higher molecular mass arsenic-containing fatty acids and hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diet of Norwegian coastal cod (Gadus morhua) studied by using citizen science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoksen, Siri Elise; Reiss, Henning

    2018-04-01

    The Norwegian coastal cod (Gadus morhua) is a keystone species in the food web of northern Norwegian fjords. Their relatively stationary populations might specifically depend on local food resources, but the diet of cod has rarely been studied in fjord systems. Using a citizen science approach, where recreational anglers and tourists participated in the sampling, we studied small-scale differences in the diet composition of cod in a fjord system in northern Norway. We compared the cod diet from the MPA Saltstraumen, characterised by strong tidal currents and a highly diverse and abundant fauna, with the inner fjord area of Skjerstadfjord. The diet composition of cod significantly differed between both areas within the fjord. Although fish was the dominant prey in both areas, cod consumed > 40% invertebrates in terms of weight, even in the cod size class of 70-99 cm. The invertebrate prey also caused the observed spatial differences. In Saltstraumen, brittle stars (Ophiuroidea), crabs (Brachyura) and sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) were important food sources for cod, while sea urchins (Echinoidea), clams (Bivalvia), shrimps (Caridea) and krill (Euphausiacea) dominated the diet in the inner Skjerstadfjord. The high densities of sessile fauna in the dynamic environment of Saltstraumen, was only partly reflected in the diet of cod, with only Holothuroidea found in 17% of the stomachs. High rates of empty stomachs (24%), cannibalism as well as a higher proportion of low-energy prey in the diet of large cod, may indicate a shortage of high quality food in Skjerstadfjord. The samples for this study were collected through a citizen science campaign. This approach might provide opportunities to be used for coastal ecological monitoring with potential applications in local ecosystem management strategies through public involvement.

  8. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  9. Slave to the rhythm: seasonal signals in otolith microchemistry reveal age of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Gröger, J.; Heidemann, F.

    2016-01-01

    Annual growth zones in cod otoliths from the eastern Baltic stock are less discrete than in other cod stocks leading to biased age reading, which recently led to a failure of age-based assessment in the eastern Baltic cod stock. In this study, we explored the applicability of minor and trace elem...

  10. 75 FR 19561 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters) length... meters) length overall using hook-and-line or pot gear in the BSAI under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on March... 400 metric tons of Pacific cod remain in the 2010 Pacific cod apportionment for catcher vessels less...

  11. Thawed cod fillets spoil less rapidly than unfrozen fillets when stored under modified atmosphere at 2 C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, H.S.; Bøknæs, Niels; Østerberg, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    The effect of two months of frozen storage at -20 degrees C on the spoilage characteristics and shelf life of thawed and modified atmosphere packed (MAP) cod fillets stored at 2 degrees C was studied. Thawed MAP cod fillets were compared with fresh cod fillets stored in CO2-containing modified at...

  12. Inversion of CDOM and COD in water using HJ-1/CCD data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Miaofen; Xing, Xufeng; Zhao, Zulong; Li, Zhanqiang; Wang, Xinxing

    2014-01-01

    With the in-situ measurement data including the absorption coefficient of the CDOM, apparent optical properties and the COD, a regression model was established for retrieving ag(440) based on the remote sensing reflectance of the first and the third band of the environment satellite HJ-1/CCD. The measurement data were obtained at the regions of Panjin, Liaoning province in May 2008 and August 2009. Secondly, the remote sensing regression model was created based on the correlation of the CDOM optical properties and the COD. Finally, using the HJ-1/CCD data from 2009 to 2011 in Liaodong bay, the thematic snapshots of water environmental parameters in coastal waters, such as the CDOM and the COD, were calculated and analyzed. The results showed that: (1) the distribution of the CDOM tends to decrease from offshore areas to distant sea with some zonated character; (2) Most of the retrieved CDOM values vary between 0.2–1.7m-1, which is consistent with the measured value in 2009 and 2010 years; (3) the spatial distribution of the COD has good consistency with the CDOM, also shows a certain zonated distribution in coastal-offshore areas; (4) in September 2009 and September 2011, the values of the COD was basically below 40 mg/L while the values of the COD in September 2010 are relatively higher, mostly above 55 mg/L; (5) in June 2011 and May 2010, the COD values are nearly all larger than 55 mg/L

  13. Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua benefits from the availability of seagrass (Zostera marina nursery habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Lilley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species of significant economic and historic importance but infamous for its decline. Apart from overfishing, the causes of this decline and its subsequent lack of recovery remain largely unresolved. Indeed, the degree to which specific habitats are important for this species remains unquantified at the scale of North Atlantic. Here, the literature on the role of eelgrass meadows (Zostera marina as valuable nursery habitat for the Atlantic cod is reviewed and synthesized. Evidence is presented on relative densities of Atlantic cod in shallow water environments and in eelgrass meadows in comparison to alternative habitats. In addition, evidence pertaining to the ’viability gains’ attributed to the use of eelgrass meadows as nursery habitat (growth and survival by juvenile Atlantic cod is analyzed. Although juvenile Atlantic cod use of Z. marina is found to be facultative, when possible, available literatures indicates that they may select Z. marina as a nursery habitat where they are found in high density (average of at least 246 ha−1. From their use of Z. marina habitat the juvenile Atlantic cod receives viability benefits from it, improving their chances of reaching maturation. This paper provides strong evidence that eelgrass meadows are of significant importance to contributing to Atlantic cod stocks. Keywords: Zostera marina, Eelgrass, Gadus morhua, Fisheries, Juveniles, Nursery habitat

  14. Ribosomal RNA gene sequences confirm that protistan endoparasite of larval cod Gadus morhua is Ichthyodinium sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Alf; Meyer, Stefan; Overton, Julia Lynne

    2010-01-01

    An enigmatic protistan endoparasite found in eggs and larvae of cod Gadus morhua and turbot Psetta maxima was isolated from Baltic cod larvae, and DNA was extracted for sequencing of the parasite's small Subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. The endoparasite has previously been suggested...... to be related to Ichthyodinium chabelardi, a dinoflagellate-like protist that parasitizes yolk sacs of embryos and larvae of a variety of fish species. Comparison of a 1535 bp long fragment of the SSU rRNA gene of the cod endoparasite showed absolute identify with I. chabelardi, demonstrating that the 2...

  15. Sensory characteristics of different cod products related to consumer preferences and attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Green-Petersen, Ditte

    2009-01-01

    countries tasted and scored the cod products on a 9-point hedonic scale. In addition information on the consumers attitudes, motives/barriers and fish purchase behaviour was collected. The aim was to investigate how sensory quality corresponded to consumers liking of different cod products and to study...... to fish consumption, attitudes and preferences of the eight cod products. However, it was demonstrated that within each country, different segments of consumers existed with different preferences, motives/barriers and demographic background. The results indicated various potential to increase fish...

  16. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models II : Incorporation of environmental variability and species interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We investigate whether a process-oriented approach based on the results of field, laboratory, and modelling studies can be used to develop a stock-environment-recruitment model for Central Baltic cod (Gadus morhua). Based on exploratory statistical analysis, significant variables influencing...... cod in these areas, suggesting that key biotic and abiotic processes can be successfully incorporated into recruitment models....... survival of early life stages and varying systematically among spawning sites were incorporated into stock-recruitment models, first for major cod spawning sites and then combined for the entire Central Baltic. Variables identified included potential egg production by the spawning stock, abiotic conditions...

  17. Threshold-dependent climate effects and high mortality limit recruitment and recovery of the Kattegat cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Eero, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Cod in the Kattegat is one of the most dramatic examples of stock collapse, where despite large management efforts, almost no signs of recovery have been observed. We investigate how multiple physical and biological factors could potentially influence recruitment and recovery of Kattegat cod, using...... non-additive threshold models. In contrast to previous studies on recruitment dynamics of Kattegat cod Gadus morhua, we found that recruitment variability may be explained by a combination of the size of the spawning stock and external conditions (i.e. sea surface temperature and oxygen concentrations...

  18. Hierarchical modelling of temperature and habitat size effects on population dynamics of North Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene; Sørensen, Helle; O'Hara, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    and Beverton and Holt stock–recruitment (SR) models were extended by applying hierarchical methods, mixed-effects models, and Bayesian inference to incorporate the influence of these ecosystem factors on model parameters representing cod maximum reproductive rate and carrying capacity. We identified......Understanding how temperature affects cod (Gadus morhua) ecology is important for forecasting how populations will develop as climate changes in future. The effects of spawning-season temperature and habitat size on cod recruitment dynamics have been investigated across the North Atlantic. Ricker...

  19. Bioactivity of Cod and Chicken Protein Hydrolysates before and after in vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamnik, Polona; Istenič, Katja; Wulff, Tune

    2017-01-01

    , where values of cod and chicken were (95.5±1.2) and (90.5±0.7) %, respectively. Neither species nor digestion had any effect on cellular metabolic energy. At proteome level, digested hydrolysates gave again significantly stronger responses than undigested counterparts; cod peptides here also gave...... somewhat stronger response than chicken peptides. The knowledge of the action of food protein hydrolysates and their digests within live cells, also at proteome level, is important for further validation of their activity in higher eukaryotes to develop new products, such as in this case chicken and cod...... muscle-derived peptides as functional ingredients....

  20. Significance of Charpy and COD tests in the determination of fracture toughness of welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caminha Junior, H.M.; Bastian, F.L.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison is made between the Charpy and crack opening displacement (COD) tests used to acess the fracture toughness of metallic materials. The main problems inherent in these tests are discussed, such as scatter of results and their advantages and limitations. The chief experimental difficulties when they are applied to welds are indicated and the various methods available for calculating the COD from a test graph are described. Comments are made on the use of the Charpy test and the methods of calculating the COD in determing critical defect sizes in welded structures. (Author) [pt

  1. Specific inhibition of Photobacterium phosphoreum extends the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Munoz, L.G.; Mejlholm, Ole

    1998-01-01

    rather than the development of a new product. In naturally contaminated modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets, 500 ppm Na(2)CaEDTA reduced the growth rate of P. phosphoreum by 40% and shelf life was increased proportionally by 40%, from 15 to 17 days to 21 to 23 days at 0 degrees C. In aerobically...... stored cod fillets other microorganisms were responsible for spoilage and Na2CaEDTA had no effect on shelf Life. The extension of the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod therefore was a result of the reduced growth of P. phosphoreum and no other microbial or nonmicrobial spoilage reactions...

  2. Delineation of groundwater recharge areas, western Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Walter, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    The unconfined sand-and-gravel aquifer in western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, which is the sole source of water supply for the communities in the area, is recharged primarily from precipitation. The rate of recharge from precipitation is estimated to be about 26 inches per year (in/yr), or about 60 percent of the precipitation rate. This recharge rate yields a flow through the aquifer of about 180 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Groundwater flows radially outward from the top of the water-table mound in the north-central part of the flow system toward the coast, as indicated by the water-table contours on the large map on this sheet. Recharge that reaches the water table near the top of the mound travels deeper through the aquifer than recharge that reaches the water table closer to the coast. All recharge to the aquifer ultimately discharges to pumping wells, streams, or coastal areas; however, some of this recharge may flow first through kettle ponds before eventually reaching these discharge points.

  3. Between Localization and Delocalization: Ru(cod)2+ Units in the Zintl Clusters [Bi9 {Ru(cod)}2 ]3- and [Tl2 Bi6 {Ru(cod)}]2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, Niels; Spang, Nils; Eichhöfer, Andreas; Dehnen, Stefanie

    2017-10-16

    Reactions of [K(crypt-222)] 2 (TlBi 3 )⋅0.5 en (1 b) with [Ru(cod)(H 2 CC(Me)CH 2 ) 2 ] (A) in 1,2-diaminoethane (en) led to the formation of two compounds with new bismuth-rich cluster anions, [K(crypt-222)] 3 [Bi 9 {Ru(cod)} 2 ]⋅1.5 en (2) and [K(crypt-222)] 2 [Tl 2 Bi 6 {Ru(cod)}]⋅2 tol (3), alongside the salt of a binary nido cluster, [K(crypt-222)] 3 (Tl 4 Bi 5 )⋅2 en (4). The anions in 2 and 3 are two further examples of rare heterometallic clusters containing Ru atoms. As one cod ligand is retained on each Ru atom in both clusters, the anions may be viewed as intermediates on the way towards larger, ligand-free intermetalloid clusters. Quantum-chemical studies provided insight into the bonding situation in these clusters. According to these studies, the anion of 2 features both electron-precise and electron-deficient parts. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the clusters undergo stepwise fragmentation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preferred temperature of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua with different haemoglobin genotypes at normoxia and moderate hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M.F.; Steffensen, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    .2+/-1.5 degrees C while HbI-1 cod preferred 15.4+/-1.1 degrees C, and this preference was significant. The effect of hypoxia (35% oxygen saturation) on the preferred temperature was also measured. Previous studies showed that the preferred temperature of fish decreases during hypoxia, and this was the case for Hb......I-1 cod, which preferred 9.8+/-1.8 degrees C during hypoxia, whereas HbI-2 cod did not show this effect. The results indicate that environmental temperature changes will lead to a distributional change in the different haemoglobin types of Atlantic cod, global warming providing an advantage for HbI-1...... cod. However, since HbI-1 cod prefer a low temperature under hypoxic conditions, a combination of increased water temperature and hypoxia could be unfavourable for Atlantic cod stocks....

  6. Research progress of on-line automatic monitoring of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Youfa; Fu, Xing; Gao, Xiaolu; Li, Lianyin

    2018-02-01

    With the increasingly stricter control of pollutant emission in China, the on-line automatic monitoring of water quality is particularly urgent. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a comprehensive index to measure the contamination caused by organic matters, and thus it is taken as one important index of energy-saving and emission reduction in China’s “Twelve-Five” program. So far, the COD on-line automatic monitoring instrument has played an important role in the field of sewage monitoring. This paper reviews the existing methods to achieve on-line automatic monitoring of COD, and on the basis, points out the future trend of the COD on-line automatic monitoring instruments.

  7. 75 FR 64955 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Correction to Cod...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... GOM cod. By an administrative error, the inseason action published on September 27, 2010, reduced the... effectiveness would further disadvantage vessels subject to the lower trip limits implemented on September 27...

  8. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod genetics in the Aleutian Islands 2004-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Landscape genetics of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus within the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area of Alaska was examined in samples from nine...

  9. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Nichol: Archival tag depth and temperature data from Pacific cod

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from 250 recaptured (624 released) depth and temperature recording archival (data storage) tags attached to Pacific cod off Kodiak Island and in the eastern...

  10. Location of and post-mortem changes in some cytoskeletal proteins in pork and cod muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, E.H.; Bremner, Allan; Purslow, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The cytoskeletal proteins actin, nebulin, spectrin, desmin, vinculin and talin were labelled immunohistochemically in sections of muscle from commercially available pigs and cod (Gadus morhua) taken pre-rigor and from samples stored for several days. Actin, nebulin and spectrin gave similar...... labelling patterns in both pork and cod muscle which remained the same in stored samples. Desmin was intensely labelled at the cell boundaries and within the body of the cells in both pork and cod in the initial and the stored samples. Vinculin was readily labelled in pork muscle but showed only diffuse...... labelling in fish. Labelling for talin in pork muscle was intense at the sarcolemma but was not present in samples stored for 4 days. In contrast, the label for talin was concentrated at the myotendinous junction of the cod muscle throughout the storage period. These are the first reports of the detection...

  11. Host size-dependent anisakid infection in Baltic cod Gadus morhua associated with differential food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, Shaozhi; Huwer, Bastian; Bahlool, Qusay

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in the infection level of Baltic cod Gadus morhua with the anisakid nematode larvae Contracaecum osculatum and Pseudoterranova decipiens has been recorded during recent years due to the expanding local population of grey seals Halichoerus grypus, which act as final hosts......). A third nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum was rarely found. The study indicates that the prey animals for large cod act as transport hosts for the parasite larvae. Analyses of stomach contents of cod caught in the same area (2007-2014) showed that small benthic organisms (including polychaetes Harmothoë...... suggest that the C. osculatum life cycle in the Baltic Sea includes grey seals as final hosts, sprat as the first transport host and cod as second transport host. It may be speculated that sprat obtain infection by feeding on copepods and/or cladocerans, which could serve as the first intermediate hosts...

  12. Contracaecum osculatum and other anisakid nematodes in grey seals and cod in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, S; Kania, P W; Mehrdana, F

    2018-01-01

    Populations of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), sprats (Sprattus sprattus) and cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea are relatively stationary. The present work, applying classical and molecular helminthological techniques, documents that seals and cod also share a common parasite, the anisakid...... nematode Contracaecum osculatum, which uses seals as the final host and fish as transport hosts. Sequencing mitochondrial genes (COX1 and COX2) in adult worms from seals and third-stage larvae from livers of Baltic fish (sprats and cod), showed that all gene variants occur in both seals and fish. Other...... anisakid nematodes Pseudoterranova decipiens and Anisakis simplex are also found in both seals and cod in the Baltic Sea, but at much lower rates. The Baltic grey seal population was left at a critically low level (comprising a few hundred individuals) during the latter part of the 20th century, but since...

  13. Effect of influent COD/SO4(2-) ratios on UASB treatment of a synthetic sulfate-containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Jing, Zhaoqian; Sudo, Yuta; Niu, Qigui; Du, Jingru; Wu, Jiang; Li, Yu-You

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO4(2-)) ratio on the anaerobic treatment of synthetic chemical wastewater containing acetate, ethanol, and sulfate, was investigated using a UASB reactor. The experimental results show that at a COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 20 and a COD loading rate of 25.2gCODL(-1)d(-1), a COD removal of as high as 87.8% was maintained. At a COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 0.5 (sulfate concentration 6000mgL(-1)), however, the COD removal was 79.2% and the methane yield was 0.20LCH4gCOD(-1). The conversion of influent COD to methane dropped from 80.5% to 54.4% as the COD/SO4(2-) ratio decreased from 20 to 0.5. At all the COD/SO4(2-) ratios applied, over 79.4% of the total electron flow was utilized by methane-producing archaea (MPA), indicating that methane fermentation was the predominant reaction. The majority of the methane was produced by acetoclastic MPA at high COD/SO4(2-) ratios and both acetoclastic and hydrogenthrophic MPA at low COD/SO4(2-) ratios. Only at low COD/SO4(2-) ratios were SRB species such as Desulfovibrio found to play a key role in ethanol degradation, whereas all the SRB species were found to be incomplete oxidizers at both high and low COD/SO4(2-) ratios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Historic changes in length distributions of three Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks: Evidence of growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedäng, Henrik; Hornborg, Sara

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how combinations of fishing effort and selectivity affect productivity is central to fisheries research. We investigate the roles of fishing regulation in comparison with ecosystem status for Baltic Sea cod stock productivity, growth performance, and population stability. This case study is interesting because three cod populations with different exploitation patterns and stock status are located in three adjacent but partially, ecologically different areas. In assessing stock status, growth, and productivity, we use survey information and rather basic stock parameters without relying on age readings. Because there is an urgent interest of better understanding of the current development of the Eastern Baltic cod stock, we argue that our approach represents partly a novel way of interpreting monitoring information together with catch data in a simplified yet more informative way. Our study reports how the Eastern and Western Baltic cod have gone toward more truncated size structures between 1991 and 2016, in particular for the Eastern Baltic cod, whereas the Öresund cod show no trend. We suggest that selective fishing may disrupt fish population dynamic stability and that lower natural productivity might amplify the effects of selective fishing. In support of earlier findings on a density-dependent growth of Eastern Baltic cod, management is advised to acknowledge that sustainable exploitation levels for Eastern Baltic cod are much more limited than perceived in regular assessments. Of more general importance, our results emphasize the need to embrace a more realistic view on what ecosystems can produce regarding tractable fish biomass to facilitate a more ecosystem-based fisheries management.

  15. The effect of external dummy transmitters on oxygen consumption and performance of swimming Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, M.F.; Andersen, Niels Gerner; Steffensen, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Decreased critical swimming speed and increased oxygen consumption (Mo-2) was found for externally tagged Atlantic cod Gadus morhua swimming at a high speed of 0 center dot 9 body length (total length, L-Gamma) s(-1). No difference was found in the standard metabolic rate, indicating...... that the higher Mo-2 for tagged cod was due to drag force rather than increased costs to keep buoyancy. (c) 2006 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2006 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles....

  16. Water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were based on, for example, LC. Koontz et al. showed results of total folate concentrations measured by microbiological assay in a variety of foods. Samples were submitted in a routine manner to experienced laboratories that regularly perform folate analysis fee-for-service basis in the United States. Each laboratory reported the use of a microbiological method similar to the AOAC Official Method for the determination of folic acid. Striking was, the use of 3 different pH extraction conditions by 4 laboratories. Only one laboratory reported using a tri-enzyme extraction. Results were evaluated. Results for folic acid fortified foods had considerably lower between-laboratory variation, 9-11%, versus >45% for other foods. Mean total folate ranged from 14 to 279 microg/100 g for a mixed vegetable reference material, from 5 to 70 microg/100 g for strawberries, and from 28 to 81 microg/100 g for wholemeal flour. One should realize a large variation in results, which might be caused by slight modifications in the microbiological analysis of total folate in foods or the analysis in various (unfortified) food matrixes. Furthermore, optimal

  17. Multidimensionality of behavioural phenotypes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meager, Justin J; Fernö, Anders; Skjæraasen, Jon Egil; Järvi, Torbjörn; Rodewald, Petra; Sverdrup, Gisle; Winberg, Svante; Mayer, Ian

    2012-06-25

    Much of the inter-individual variation observed in animal behaviour is now attributed to the existence of behavioural phenotypes or animal personalities. Such phenotypes may be fundamental to fisheries and aquaculture, yet there have been few detailed studies of this phenomenon in exploited marine animals. We investigated the behavioural and neuroendocrine responses of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), to situations reflecting critical ecological challenges: predator attacks and territorial challenges. Both hatchery-reared and wild fish were tested and behavioural profiles were compared with baseline conditions. We then used an objective, multivariate approach, rather than assigning individuals along one-dimensional behavioural axes, to examine whether distinct behavioural phenotypes were present. Our results indicate that two distinct behavioural phenotypes were evident in fish from each background. In hatchery-reared fish, phenotypes displayed divergent locomotor activity, sheltering, brain monoamine concentrations and responses to competitive challenges. In wild fish, phenotypes were distinguished primarily by locomotor activity, sheltering and responsiveness to predator stimuli. Hatcheries presumably represent a more stressful social environment, and social behaviour and neuroendocrine responses were important in discerning behavioural phenotypes in hatchery fish, whereas antipredator responses were important in discerning phenotypes in wild fish that have previously encountered predators. In both fish types, behavioural and physiological traits that classified individuals into phenotypes were not the same as those that were correlated across situations. These results highlight the multidimensionality of animal personalities, and that the processes that regulate one suite of behavioural traits may be very different to the processes that regulate other behaviours. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mercury Cycling in Salt Marsh Pond Ecosystems: Cape Cod, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, P. M.; Gonneea, M. E.; Lamborg, C. H.; Kroeger, K. D.; Swarr, G.; Vadman, K. J.; Baldwin, S.; Brooks, T. W.; Green, A.

    2014-12-01

    We are measuring total mercury (HgT) and monomethylmercury (CH3Hg+ or MMHg) in pore water, surface water, and sediment cores from two salt marsh pond systems on the south shore of Cape Cod, MA to characterize the distribution of mercury species and to identify features that influence mercury speciation and transport. Sage Lot Pond is relatively undisturbed and has low nitrogen loading (12 kg ha-1 y-1). It is part of the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Reserve and is surrounded by undeveloped wooded uplands. In contrast, Great Pond is highly impacted. Nitrogen loading to the site is elevated (600 kg ha-1 y-1) and the marsh is adjacent to a large residential area. In both systems, a 1 to 2 m organic-rich peat layer overlies the permeable sand aquifer. Groundwater in this region is typically oxic, where pore water within salt marsh peat is suboxic to anoxic. We hypothesize that redox gradients at the transition from the root zone to peat and at the peat-sand interface may provide habitat for MMHg-producing anaerobic bacteria. Preliminary results from a 2-m nearshore depth profile at Sage Lot Pond indicate HgT in groundwater within the sand aquifer occurred primarily in the > 0.2 μm fraction, with unfiltered concentrations exceeding 100 pM. Filtered (fraction of filtered HgT in peat pore water. Although MMHg in both groundwater and pore water remained around 1 pM throughout our depth profile, we observed an increase in sediment MMHg (0.3 to 1.6 μg/kg) at the peat-sand interface. MMHg comprised ~50% of the HgT concentration in pore water suggesting mercury in the salt marsh peat is biologically available.

  19. Impact of influent COD/N ratio on disintegration of aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinghai; Hao, Tianwei; Wei, Li; Mackey, Hamish R; Lin, Ziqiao; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2014-10-01

    Disintegration of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is a challenging issue in the long-term operation of an AGS system. Chemical oxygen demand (COD)-to-nitrogen (N) ratio (COD/N), often variable in industrial wastewaters, could be a destabilizing factor causing granule disintegration. This study investigates the impact of this ratio on AGS disintegration and identifies the key causes, through close monitoring of AGS changes in its physical and chemical characteristics, microbial community and treatment performance. For specific comparison, two lab-scale air-lift type sequencing batch reactors, one for aerobic granular and the other for flocculent sludge, were operated in parallel with three COD/N ratios (4, 2, 1) applied in the influent of each reactor. The decreased COD/N ratios of 2 and 1 strongly influenced the stability of AGS with regard to physical properties and nitrification efficiency, leading to AGS disintegration when the ratio was decreased to 1. Comparatively the flocculent sludge maintained relatively stable structure and nitrification efficiency under all tested COD/N ratios. The lowest COD/N ratio resulted in a large microbial community shift and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) reduction in both flocculent and granular sludges. The disintegration of AGS was associated with two possible causes: 1) reduction in net tyrosine production in the EPS and 2) a major microbial community shift including reduction in filamentous bacteria leading to the collapse of granule structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Students’ misconceptions on solubility equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiowati, H.; Utomo, S. B.; Ashadi

    2018-05-01

    This study investigated the students’ misconceptions of the solubility equilibrium. The participants of the study consisted of 164 students who were in the science class of second year high school. Instrument used is two-tier diagnostic test consisting of 15 items. Responses were marked and coded into four categories: understanding, misconception, understand little without misconception, and not understanding. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 45 students according to their written responses which reflected different perspectives, to obtain a more elaborated source of data. Data collected from multiple methods were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Based on the data analysis showed that the students misconceptions in all areas in solubility equilibrium. They had more misconceptions such as in the relation of solubility and solubility product, common-ion effect and pH in solubility, and precipitation concept.

  1. On the americium oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakolupin, S.A.; Korablin, Eh.V.

    1977-01-01

    The americium oxalate solubility at different nitric (0.0-1 M) and oxalic (0.0-0.4 M) acid concentrations was investigated in the temperature range from 14 to 60 deg C. The dependence of americium oxalate solubility on the oxalic acid concentration was determined. Increasing oxalic acid concentration was found to reduce the americium oxalate solubility. The dependence of americium oxalate solubility on the oxalic acid concentration was noted to be a minimum at low acidity (0.1-0.3 M nitric acid). This is most likely due to Am(C 2 O 4 ) + , Am(C 2 O 4 ) 2 - and Am(C 2 O 4 ) 3 3- complex ion formation which have different unstability constants. On the basis of the data obtained, a preliminary estimate was carried out for the product of americium oxalate solubility in nitric acid medium (10 -29 -10 -31 ) and of the one in water (6.4x10 -20 )

  2. [Spatial distribution of COD and the correlations with other parameters in the northern region of Lake Taihu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-lin; Yang, Long-yuan; Qin, Bo-qiang; Gao, Guang; Luo, Lian-cong; Zhu, Guang-wei; Liu, Ming-liang

    2008-06-01

    Spatial variation of chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration was documented and significant correlations between COD concentration and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption, fluorescence, DOC concentration were found based on a cruise sampling in the northern region of Lake Taihu in summer including 42 samplings. The possible source of COD was also discussed using every two cruise samplings in summer and winter, respectively. The COD concentration ranged from 3.77 to 7.96 mg x L(-1) with a mean value of (5.90 +/- 1.54) mg x L(-1). The mean COD concentrations in Meiliang Bay and the central lake basin were (6.93 +/- 0.89) mg x L(-1) and (4.21 +/- 0.49) mg x L(-1) respectively. A significant spatial difference was found between Meiliang Bay and the central lake basin in COD concentration, CDOM absorption coefficient, fluorescence, DOC and phytoplankton pigment concentrations, decreasing from the river mouth to inner bay, outer bay and the central lake basin. Significant correlations between COD concentration and CDOM absorption, fluorescence, DOC concentration, suggested that COD concentration could be estimated and organic pollution could be assessed using CDOM absorption retrieved from remote sensing images. Significant and positive correlation was found between COD concentration and chlorophyll a concentration in summer. However, the correlation was weak or no correlation was found in winter. Furthermore, a significant higher COD concentration was found in summer than in winter (p summer, except for river terrestrial input.

  3. Removal of anaerobic soluble microbial products in a biological activated carbon reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaojing; Zhou, Weili; He, Shengbing

    2013-09-01

    The soluble microbial products (SMP) in the biological treatment effluent are generally of great amount and are poorly biodegradable. Focusing on the biodegradation of anaerobic SMP, the biological activated carbon (BAC) was introduced into the anaerobic system. The experiments were conducted in two identical lab-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. The high strength organics were degraded in the first UASB reactor (UASB1) and the second UASB (UASB2, i.e., BAC) functioned as a polishing step to remove SMP produced in UASB1. The results showed that 90% of the SMP could be removed before granular activated carbon was saturated. After the saturation, the SMP removal decreased to 60% on the average. Analysis of granular activated carbon adsorption revealed that the main role of SMP removal in BAC reactor was biodegradation. A strain of SMP-degrading bacteria, which was found highly similar to Klebsiella sp., was isolated, enriched and inoculated back to the BAC reactor. When the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 10,000 mg/L and the organic loading rate achieved 10 kg COD/(m3 x day), the effluent from the BAC reactor could meet the discharge standard without further treatment. Anaerobic BAC reactor inoculated with the isolated Klebsiella was proved to be an effective, cheap and easy technical treatment approach for the removal of SMP in the treatment of easily-degradable wastewater with COD lower than 10,000 mg/L.

  4. Uranium solubility and solubility controls in selected Needle's Eye groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W.E.; Hooker, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The solubility control of uranium in selected groundwater samples from the cliff and sediments at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site is investigated using the speciation code PHREEQE and the CHEMVAL thermodynamic database (release 3). Alkali-earth bearing uranyl carbonate secondary minerals are likely to exert influence on the solubility . Other candidates are UO 2 and arsenates, depending on the prevailing redox conditions. In the absence of literature data, solubility products for important arsenates have been estimated from analogy with other arsenates and phosphates. Phosphates themselves are unlikely to exert control owing to their comparatively high solubilities. The influence of seawater flooding into the sediments is also discussed. The importance of uranyl arsenates in the retardation of uranium in shallow sediments has been demonstrated in theory, but there are some significant gaps in the thermodynamic databases used. (author)

  5. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cod nursery areas in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, H.-H.; von Dewitz, B.; Lehmann, A.; Bergström, U.; Hüssy, K.

    2017-06-01

    In this study the drift of eastern Baltic cod larvae and juveniles spawned within the historical eastern Baltic cod spawning grounds was investigated by detailed drift model simulations for the years 1971-2010, to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental suitability in the nursery areas of juvenile cod settlement. The results of the long-term model scenario runs, where juvenile cod were treated as simulated passively drifting particles, enabled us to find strong indications for long-term variations of settlement and potentially the reproduction success of the historically important eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds. Only low proportions of juveniles hatched in the Arkona Basin and in the Gotland Basin were able to settle in their respective spawning ground. Ocean currents were either unfavorable for the juveniles to reach suitable habitats or transported the juveniles to nursery grounds of neighboring subdivisions. Juveniles which hatched in the Bornholm Basin were most widely dispersed and showed the highest settlement probability, while the second highest settlement probability and horizontal dispersal was observed for juveniles originating from the Gdansk Deep. In a long-term perspective, wind-driven transport of larvae/juveniles positively affected the settlement success predominately in the Bornholm Basin and in the Bay of Gdansk. The Bornholm Basin has the potential to contribute on average 54% and the Bay of Gdansk 11% to the production of juveniles in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, transport of juveniles surviving to the age of settlement with origin in the Bornholm Basin contributed on average 13 and 11% to the total settlement in the Arkona Basin and in the Gdansk Deep, respectively. The time-series of the simulated occupied juvenile cod habitat in the Bornholm Basin and in the Gdansk Deep showed a similar declining trend as the Fulton's K condition factor of demersal 1-group cod, which may confirm the importance of oxygen-dependent habitat

  6. Potential of hydrolysis of particulate COD in extended anaerobic conditions to enhance biological phosphorous removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, P; Yuan, Q; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2016-11-01

    The effect of anaerobic hydrolysis of particulate COD (pCOD) on biological phosphorous removal in extended anaerobic condition was investigated through (i) sequencing batch reactors (SBR)s with anaerobic hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 0.8, 2, and 4 h; (ii) batch tests using biomass from a full scale biological nutrient removal (BNR) plant; and (iii) activated sludge modeling (BioWin 4.1 simulation). The results from long-term SBRs operation showed that phosphorus removal was correlated to the ratio of filtered COD (FCOD) to total phosphorus (TP) in the influent. Under conditions with low FCOD/TP ratio (average of 20) in the influent, extending anaerobic HRT to 4 h in the presence of pCOD did not significantly improve overall phosphorous removal. During the period with high FCOD/TP ratio (average of 37) in the influent, all SBRs removed phosphorous completely, and the long anaerobic HRT did not have negative effect on overall phosphorous removal. The batch tests also showed that pCOD at different concentration during 4 h test did not affect the rate of anaerobic phosphorus release. The rate of anaerobic hydrolysis of pCOD was significantly low and extending the anaerobic HRT was ineffective. The simulation (BioWin 4.1) of SBRs with low influent FCOD/TP ratio showed that the default kinetics of anaerobic hydrolysis in ASM2d overestimated phosphorous removal in the SBRs (high anaerobic hydrolysis of pCOD). The default anaerobic hydrolysis rate in BioWin 4.1 (ten times lower) could produce similar phosphorous removal to that in the experiment. Results showed that the current kinetics of anaerobic hydrolysis in ASM2d could lead to considerable error in predicting phosphorus removal in processes with extended anaerobic HRT. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2377-2385. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. First-order hydrothermal oxidation kinetics of digested sludge compared with raw sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanableh, A; Imteaz, M

    2008-09-01

    This article presents an assessment of the first-order hydrothermal oxidation kinetics of a selected digested sludge at subcritical ( 374 degrees C) temperatures in the range of 250-460 degrees C. Furthermore, the results were compared with reported oxidation kinetics of raw sludge treated under identical experimental conditions. In the assessment, oxidation was considered to proceed in two steps: (1) decomposition of the particulate, or non-filterable, chemical oxygen demand (PCOD); followed by (2) ultimate oxidation and removal of the total, particulate and soluble, COD. The accumulation and removal of soluble COD (SCOD) was determined from the difference between the rates of sludge decomposition and ultimate oxidation. Using results from batch and continuous-flow hydrothermal treatment experiments, the reacting organic ingredients were separated into groups according to the ease or difficulty at which they were decomposed or removed, with Arrhenius-type activation energy levels assigned to the different groups. The analysis confirmed that within the treatment range of 75% to more than 97% COD removal, the oxidation kinetics of the digested and raw sludges were nearly identical despite differences in the proportions of their original organic ingredients. The original organic ingredients were mostly removed above 75% COD removal, and the oxidation kinetics appeared to be dominated by the removal of acetic acid, an intermediate by-product which constituted 50% to more than 80% of the remaining COD. Furthermore, the oxidation kinetics of both sludge types were consistent with reported first-order oxidation kinetics of pure acetic acid solutions. The resulting kinetic models adequately represented hydrothermal oxidation of digested sludge, in terms of COD and PCOD removals, as well as accumulation and removal of the soluble SCOD.

  8. Noble gases solubility in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovetto, Rosa; Fernandez Prini, Roberto.

    1980-07-01

    The available experimental data of solubility of noble gases in water for temperatures smaller than 330 0 C have been critically surveyed. Due to the unique structure of the solvent, the solubility of noble gases in water decreases with temperature passing through a temperature of minimum solubility which is different for each gas, and then increases at higher temperatures. As aresult of the analysis of the experimental data and of the features of the solute-solvent interaction, a generalized equation is proposed which enables thecalculation of Henry's coefficient at different temperatures for all noble gases. (author) [es

  9. CodY Promotes Sporulation and Enterotoxin Production by Clostridium perfringens Type A Strain SM101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jihong; Freedman, John C; Evans, Daniel R; McClane, Bruce A

    2017-03-01

    Clostridium perfringens type D strains cause enterotoxemia and enteritis in livestock via epsilon toxin production. In type D strain CN3718, CodY was previously shown to increase the level of epsilon toxin production and repress sporulation. C. perfringens type A strains producing C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) cause human food poisoning and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Sporulation is critical for C. perfringens type A food poisoning since spores contribute to transmission and resistance in the harsh food environment and sporulation is essential for CPE production. Therefore, the current study asked whether CodY also regulates sporulation and CPE production in SM101, a derivative of C. perfringens type A food-poisoning strain NCTC8798. An isogenic codY -null mutant of SM101 showed decreased levels of spore formation, along with lower levels of CPE production. A complemented strain recovered wild-type levels of both sporulation and CPE production. When this result was coupled with the earlier results obtained with CN3718, it became apparent that CodY regulation of sporulation varies among different C. perfringens strains. Results from quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis clearly demonstrated that, during sporulation, codY transcript levels remained high in SM101 but rapidly declined in CN3718. In addition, abrB gene expression patterns varied significantly between codY -null mutants of SM101 and CN3718. Compared to the levels in their wild-type parents, the level of abrB gene expression decreased in the CN3718 codY -null mutant strain but significantly increased in the SM101 codY -null mutant strain, demonstrating CodY-dependent regulation differences in abrB expression between these two strains. This difference appears to be important since overexpression of the abrB gene in SM101 reduced the levels of sporulation and enterotoxin production, supporting the involvement of AbrB repression in regulating C. perfringens sporulation. Copyright © 2017

  10. The effect of pH and operation mode for COD removal of slaughterhouse wastewater with Anaerobic Batch Reactor (ABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Octoviane Dyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of industrial wastes in large quantities was not in accordance with today's standards of waste into environmental issues that must be overcome with proper treatment. Similarly, the abattoir wastewater that contains too high organic compounds and suspended solids. The amount of liquid waste disposal Slaughterhouse (SW with high volume also causes pollution. The research aim to resolve this problem by lowering the levels of BOD-COD to comply with effluent quality standard. Anaerobic process is the right process for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment because of high content of organic compounds that can be utilized by anaerobic bacteria as a growth medium. Some research has been conducted among abattoir wastewater treatment using anaerobic reactors such as ABR, UASB and ASBR. Our research focuses on the search for the optimum results decline effluent COD levels to match the quality standards limbah and cow rumen fluid with biodigester ABR (Anaerobic Batch Reactor. The variables used were PH of 6, 7, and 8, as well as the concentration ratio of COD: N is 400:7; 450:7, and 500:7. COD value is set by the addition of N derived from urea [CO(NH2 2]. COD levels will be measured daily by water displacement technique. The research’s result for 20 days seen that optimum PH for biogas production was PH 7,719 ml. The optimum PH for COD removal is PH 6, 72.39 %. The operation mode COD:N for biogas production and COD removal is 500:7, with the production value is 601 ml and COD removal value is 63.85 %. The research’s conclusion, the PH optimum for biogas production was PH 7, then the optimum PH for COD removal is PH 6. The optimum operation mode COD:N for biogas production and COD removal was 500:7

  11. Relationships between water quality parameters in rivers and lakes: BOD5, COD, NBOPs, and TOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewoong; Lee, Seunghyun; Yu, Soonju; Rhew, Doughee

    2016-04-01

    Biological oxygen demand (BOD5) or chemical oxygen demand (COD) analysis is widely used to evaluate organic pollutants in water systems as well as the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants. However, both analysis methods have restrictions such as being insensitive, imprecise, time-consuming, and the production of chemical waste. Therefore, total organic carbon (TOC) analysis for organic pollutants has been considered for an alternative analysis instead of BOD5 or COD. Several studies have investigated the replacement of BOD5 or COD with TOC in wastewater samples; however, few studies have investigated the relationships between water quality parameters in rivers and lakes. Therefore, this study evaluated the relationships between BOD5, COD, or NBOPs and TOC by the analysis of national water quality monitoring data of rivers and lakes for 5 years. High correlation coefficients (r) of 0.87 and 0.66 between BOD5 and TOC (p TOC (p TOC was 0.93 for rivers and 0.72 for lakes. The coefficients of determination (R 2) were 0.75 and 0.44 between BOD5 and TOC for rivers and lakes as well as were 0.87 and 0.57 between COD and TOC for rivers and lakes, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R 2) between NBOPs and TOC was 0.73 for rivers and 0.52 for lakes.

  12. Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) by direct and indirect means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Clive J; Taylor, Martin; Dickey-Collas, Mark; Fossum, Petter; Kraus, Gerd; Rohlf, Norbert; Munk, Peter; van Damme, Cindy J G; Bolle, Loes J; Maxwell, David L; Wright, Peter J

    2008-07-07

    Despite recent evidence for sub-stock structuring, North Sea cod are assessed as a single unit. As a consequence, knowledge of sub-stock trends is poor. In particular, there are no recent evaluations of which spawning grounds are active. Here we report results from the first ichthyoplankton survey to cover the whole North Sea. Also, this survey, conducted in 2004, was the first to make extensive use of DNA-based molecular methods to unambiguously identify early developmental stage cod eggs. We compare the findings from the plankton survey with estimated egg production inferred from the distribution of mature cod in contemporaneous trawl surveys. Results from both approaches were in general agreement and showed hot spots of egg production around the southern and eastern edges of the Dogger Bank, in the German Bight, the Moray Firth and to the east of the Shetlands. These areas broadly coincide with known spawning locations from the period 1940 to 1970. We were, however, unable to directly detect significant numbers of cod eggs at the historic spawning ground off Flamborough (northeast coast of England). The results demonstrate that most of the major spawning grounds of cod in the North Sea are still active but that some localized populations may have been reduced to the point where it is now difficult to detect the presence of eggs in the plankton.

  13. Quantification of the inert chemical oxygen demand of raw wastewater and evaluation of soluble microbial product production in demo-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors under different operational conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Sergio F; Gloria, Roberto M; Silva, Silvana Q; Chernicharo, Carlos A L

    2009-06-01

    This paper investigates the production of soluble microbial products (SMPs) in demonstration-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors operated under different conditions and fed with raw wastewater. The results showed that 9.2 +/- 1.3% of the influent soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be considered inert to anaerobic treatment and that the amount of COD produced by biomass varied from 30 to 70 mg x L(-1), accounting for 45 to 63% of the soluble effluent COD. The accumulation of SMP appeared to be dependent on the hydraulic retention time (HRT) applied to the reactors, with a larger accumulation of SMP observed at the lowest HRT (5 hours); this may have been due to stress conditions caused by high upflow velocity (1.1 m x h(-1)). In terms of residual COD characterization, ultrafiltration results showed that higher amounts of high molecular weight compounds were found when HRT was the lowest (5 hours), and that the molecular weight distribution depended on the operational condition of the reactors. Biodegradability tests showed that the low and high molecular weight SMPs were only partially degraded anaerobically (10 to 60%) and that the high molecular weight SMPs were difficult to degrade aerobically.

  14. Stable isotope evidence for late medieval (14th-15th C origins of the eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Orton

    Full Text Available Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1 development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2 large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ(13C and δ(15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n = 249. The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years.

  15. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-01

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO 2 partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility products

  16. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-26

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility

  17. Correlation of COD and BOD of domestic wastewater with the power output of bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A M; Ataullah,; Shaheen, A; Ahmad, I; Malik, F; Shahid, H A [Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, University Road, Karachi-75300 (Pakistan). Research Laboratory of Bioenergy, Department of Chemistry

    2011-04-15

    This research article deals with the studies on the development of the correlation of COD, BOD, and BOD/sub 5/ of domestic wastewater (DWW), and fermented domestic wastewater (FDWW) with the power output of the microbial fuel cell (MFC). The fermentation of DWW was carried out with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and yogurt bacteria (Streptococcus lactis) to produce biohydrogen which was converted to the electrical energy through the development of microbial fuel cell (MFC). The values of COD, BOD, and BOD/sub 5/ for yogurt fermented domestic wastewater (Yogurt-FDWW) were found to be greater than the values of yeast fermented domestic wastewater (Yeast-FDWW). The power output of DWW and FDWW was increased with the increase in COD, BOD and BOD/sub 5/ values. The main objective of this article is to develop the renewable alternative of fossil fuels which are the major cause of global warming and global pollution. (author)

  18. Correlation of COD and BOD of domestic wastewater with the power output of bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.; Ataullah; Shaheen, A.; Ahmad, I.; Malik, F.; Shahid, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    This research article deals with the studies on the development of the correlation of COD, BOD, and BOD/sub 5/ of domestic wastewater (DWW), and fermented domestic wastewater (FDWW) with the power output of the microbial fuel cell (MFC). The fermentation of DWW was carried out with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and yogurt bacteria (Streptococcus lactis) to produce biohydrogen which was converted to the electrical energy through the development of microbial fuel cell (MFC). The values of COD, BOD, and BOD/sub 5/ for yogurt fermented domestic wastewater (Yogurt-FDWW) were found to be greater than the values of yeast fermented domestic wastewater (Yeast-FDWW). The power output of DWW and FDWW was increased with the increase in COD, BOD and BOD/sub 5/ values. The main objective of this article is to develop the renewable alternative of fossil fuels which are the major cause of global warming and global pollution. (author)

  19. Removal of COD and color loads in bleached kraft pulp effluents by bottom ashes from boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tran, A

    2008-07-01

    The effectiveness of the bottom ashes from biomass and coal-fired boilers in removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colorloads in effluents of a kraft pulp bleachery plant is investigated. The effluents tested are those of the sulfuric acid treatment (A stage) of a hardwood kraft pulp, and of the first acidic (chlorine or chlorine dioxide) and second alkaline (extraction) stages in the chlorine and elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching lines of hardwood and softwood kraft pulps. The coal-fired boiler's bottom ashes are unable to remove either COD or color load in the bleached kraft pulp effluents. However, the bottom ashes of the biomass boiler are effective in removing COD and color loads of the acidic and alkaline effluents irrespective of the bleaching process or wood species. In particular, these ashes increase the pH of all the effluents examined.

  20. Escape windows to improve the size selectivity in the Baltic cod trawl fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Foldager, L.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid decrease of the stock of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) has provided the incentive to improve the size selectivity in the trawl fishery. Use of escape windows is permitted in the legislation to give means of improving the size selectivity of cod as an alternative to a traditional standard codend....... The history of the use of escape windows in the Baltic Sea cod fishery is reviewed. The present escape windows do not function optimally. The objective of this new experiment was to compare an improved design of escape window, which is placed in the upper panel, with that of standard codend. Three standard...... of the codend selectivity was formulated to analyse the results and determine the effects of codend type, mesh size and other recorded variables. L50 and SR increased significantly with the mesh size. L50 was significantly increased and SR significantly reduced for a window codend with the same window mesh size...

  1. Evaluation of chemical markers for age validation of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua otoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Stötera

    2015-11-01

    Baltic cod were intraperitoneally injected with the different chemicals and kept for 47 days in netpens. The lowest mortality and best ring formation was observed at 100mg/kg cod wet weight compared to 50 and 25mg/kg wet weight (TET only. Preliminary analysis suggests that the simultaneous injection of TET and STR decreases the visibility of TET-rings. This is probably due to a binding interaction between both markers in the body of the fish, so that less TET is bound in the otolith. The use of tetracycline hydrochloride in the concentrations of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg fish were considered the most appropriate to mark Baltic cod for age validation in large-scale mark-recapture experiments. TET and STR should not be injected together.

  2. Removal of COD and turbidity to improve wastewater quality using electrocoagulation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Faiqun Niam; Fadil Othman; Johan Sohaili; Zulfa Fauzia

    2007-01-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is becoming a popular process to be used for wastewater treatment. The removal of COD and turbidity from wastewater by EC using iron (Fe) electrode material was investigated in this paper. Several working parameters, such as pH, current density, and operating time were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. Wastewater sample was made from milk powder with initial COD of 1140 mgL -1 and turbidity of 491 NTU. Current density was varied from 3.51 to 5.62 mA cm -2 , and operating time of between 30 and 50 minutes. The results show that the effluent wastewater was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. The removal efficiencies of COD and turbidity were high, being more than 65 % and 95 %. In addition, the experimental results also show that the electrocoagulation can neutralize pH of wastewater. (author)

  3. Optimizing removal of cod from water by catalytic ozonation of cephalexin using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, J.; Amin, N.S.; Zahoor, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the effect of circulation rates, ozone supply, cephalexin (CEX) concentration, and granular activated carbon (GAC) dose on removal of COD from solution. According to statistical analysis, all of the input variables exerted significant influence on COD removal, however, the effect of interaction variables was not found to be significant on comparative basis. Further, the developed quadratic regression model based on obtained results emphasized the significance of individual terms and little of interaction terms. The values of r/sup 2/ (0.959), adjusted r/sup 2/ (0.902) obtained by analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicates the significance of quadratic model in predicting desired response. The maximum of 70% of COD was removed in these experiments and optimized value according to main effect of variables was 60%. (author)

  4. Spatial and Temporal Patterns in the Cod Fisheries of the North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hayden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic Cod Gadus morhua has been subject to commercial exploitation since the thirteenth century. An analysis of cod fisheries over space and time reveals a pattern of serial depletion that reflects the cross-scale interaction of fish population structure, economic incentives, developments in fishing technology, and government efforts to limit access to fishing areas. Three case studies from Newfoundland and Labrador, the larger Northwest Atlantic, and the Gulf of Maine illustrate a pattern of fish population depletion followed by expansion of fishing activity that repeats at a range of scales. The meta-population structure of cod populations allows overharvesting, even when strict but broadscale controls are in place. The results argue for the reform of fisheries management to incorporate governance that more closely reflects the scale of the local components of metapopulations.

  5. Association between nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum invasion of cod larvae and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Kuhn, Jesper

    Parasitic nematodes of the superfamily Ascaridoidea are distributed worldwide also with numerous representatives in fish. They have an important role to play in the aquatic environment and may affect survivability of fish. The life cycle of many of these fish infecting roundworm species includes...... invertebrates and fish species and for some species also higher vertebrate hosts. We have recently demonstrated that fry of North Sea cod has a high prevalence of infection with regard to the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum and it was indicated that these infections could affect survival of cod and thereby......, lapillus otoliths were removed, polished and the number of growth zones in each otolith counted by light microscopy. Each growth zone indicates one day of the fish life span. Covariance analysis demonstrated highly significant differences (p≤ 0.001) between the growth rate of infected and uninfected cod...

  6. Spatio-temporal variability of the North Sea cod recruitment in relation to temperature and zooplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Nicolas

    Full Text Available The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L. stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and zooplankton food availability.

  7. PEMANFAATAN SPUIT BEKAS SEBAGAI MEDIA BIOFILTRASI DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR BOD DAN COD AIR LIMBAH LAUNDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawati Susilawati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Utilization Spuit Used As Media biofilters on Reducing levels of BOD and COD Wastewater Laundry. The aim of this study was to test the ability of the media syringe biofiltration method used in lowering levels of BOD and COD in waste water laundry Hospital Dr. Soedarso Pontianak. This research is a quasi-experimental research design with one group pretest-posttest. Laboratory results mean BOD levels before processing is 103.63 mg/L and the average after processing into 46.41 mg/ L, with a value of 55.21 % effectiveness. While the average COD level before processing is 413.70 mg / L and the average after processing into a 195.88 mg/L with a value of 45.92% effectiveness. Expected to other researchers to control the pH and blowers before treatment and during treatment, as it will affect the final result. Abstrak : Pemanfaatan Spuit Bekas Sebagai Media Biofiltrasi Dalam Menurunkan Kadar BOD dan COD Air Limbah Laundry. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk menguji kemampuan metode biofiltrasi dengan media spuit bekas pakai dalam menurunkan kadar BOD dan COD pada air limbah laundry RSUD Dr. Soedarso Pontianak. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimen semu dengan rancangan penelitian one group pre test post test. Hasil laboratorium rata-rata kadar BOD sebelum pengolahan yaitu 103.63 mg/L dan rata-rata setelah pengolahan menjadi 46.41 mg/L, dengan nilai efektivitas 55,21 %. Sedangkan rata-rata kadar COD sebelum pengolahan yaitu 413.70 mg/L dan rata-rata setelah pengolahan menjadi 195.88 mg/L dengan nilai efektivitas 45,92 %. Diharapkan kepada peneliti lain untuk mengontrol pH dan blower sebelum perlakuan dan pada saat perlakuan, jika melakukan penelitian sejenis karena akan mempengaruhi hasil akhir.

  8. Degradation of ATP and glycogen in cod ( Gadus morhua ) muscle during freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    Changes in ATP, IMP, lactate and glycogen contents in the muscle of cod were followed during freezing at temperatures of -20C and -45C. ATP degradation was accompanied by a corresponding increase in IMP content. Simultaneous measurement of temperature showed that at both freezing rates......, the greatest decrease in ATP content was observed when the temperature reached -0.8C. Glycolysis occurred during freezing of cod as indicated by an increase in lactate content. The changes found in all measured metabolites were more pronounced when freezing was performed at a slow rate compared to a fast rate...

  9. Otolith microstructure analysis to resolve seasonal patterns of hatching and settlement in western Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehberg-Haas, Sabine; Hammer, Cornelius; Hillgruber, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) settle to demersal life at a given size, while the annulus is formed seasonally, irrespective of size. The goal of this study was to examine the timing of check formation in juvenile Baltic cod otoliths to validate macrostructural ageing...... and to differentiate between true annuli and secondary structures such as settlement checks. Otoliths were collected from fish off Fehmarn Island in 2008 and 2009, and were examined for macrostructural and microstructural patterns using light and scanning electron microscopy. All fish examined were age-0. Back...

  10. Modelling and simulation of size selectivity in diamond mesh trawl cod-ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent

    of the fishing gear. The cod-end is the rearmost part of a trawl where catch accumulates and in which most of the size selection is known to take place. To date, the main method used to assess the selectivity of trawl cod-ends has been to run sea trials followed by statistical analysis of the obtained......Within many fisheries there is a widespread discard of fish. Furthermore, there are several fisheries where fish are caught before reaching the optimal size, leading to an adverse exploitation of the resources. One way to achieve a more optimal exploitation is to improve the size selectivity...

  11. The effect of carbon dioxide on growth of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moran, Damian; Støttrup, Josianne

    2011-01-01

    A trial was undertaken to investigate how exposure to graded hypercapnia affected the growth performance of juvenile (15-80 g) Atlantic cod. Juveniles were grown at 20‰ salinity and 10 °C for 55 days under three hypercapnic regimes: low (2 ± 0.9 mg L−1 CO2, 0.6 mm Hg, 1000 μatm), medium (8 ± 0.5 mg...... experiments using marine fish species. The test concentrations were recalculated from the reported carbonate chemistry conditions, and indicated that the CO2 concentration effect threshold may have been overestimated in two of these studies. Our study suggests that juvenile Atlantic cod are more susceptible...

  12. Improvement of COD and color removal from UASB treated poultry manure wastewater using Fenton's oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Sakar, Suleyman

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of Fenton's oxidation as an advanced treatment for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was investigated. The raw poultry manure wastewater, having a pH of 7.30 (±0.2) and a total COD of 12,100 (±910) mg/L was first treated in a 15.7 L of pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated for 72 days at mesophilic conditions (32 ± 2 deg. C) in a temperature-controlled environment with three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15.7, 12 and 8.0 days, and with organic loading rates (OLR) between 0.650 and 1.783 kg COD/(m 3 day). Under 8.0 days of HRT, the UASB process showed a remarkable performance on total COD removal with a treatment efficiency of 90.7% at the day of 63. The anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was further treated by Fenton's oxidation process using Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 solutions. Batch tests were conducted on the UASB effluent samples to determine the optimum operating conditions including initial pH, effects of H 2 O 2 and Fe 2+ dosages, and the ratio of H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ . Preliminary tests conducted with the dosages of 100 mg Fe 2+ /L and 200 mg H 2 O 2 /L showed that optimal initial pH was 3.0 for both COD and color removal from the UASB effluent. On the basis of preliminary test results, effects of increasing dosages of Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 were investigated. Under the condition of 400 mg Fe 2+ /L and 200 mg H 2 O 2 /L, removal efficiencies of residual COD and color were 88.7% and 80.9%, respectively. Under the subsequent condition of 100 mg Fe 2+ /L and 1200 mg H 2 O 2 /L, 95% of residual COD and 95.7% of residual color were removed from the UASB effluent. Results of this experimental study obviously indicated that nearly 99.3% of COD of raw poultry manure wastewater could be effectively removed by a UASB process followed by Fenton's oxidation technology used as a post-treatment unit

  13. Improvement of COD and color removal from UASB treated poultry manure wastewater using Fenton's oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Sakar, Suleyman

    2008-03-01

    The applicability of Fenton's oxidation as an advanced treatment for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was investigated. The raw poultry manure wastewater, having a pH of 7.30 (+/-0.2) and a total COD of 12,100 (+/-910) mg/L was first treated in a 15.7 L of pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated for 72 days at mesophilic conditions (32+/-2 degrees C) in a temperature-controlled environment with three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15.7, 12 and 8.0 days, and with organic loading rates (OLR) between 0.650 and 1.783 kg COD/(m3day). Under 8.0 days of HRT, the UASB process showed a remarkable performance on total COD removal with a treatment efficiency of 90.7% at the day of 63. The anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was further treated by Fenton's oxidation process using Fe2+ and H2O2 solutions. Batch tests were conducted on the UASB effluent samples to determine the optimum operating conditions including initial pH, effects of H2O2 and Fe2+ dosages, and the ratio of H2O2/Fe2+. Preliminary tests conducted with the dosages of 100 mg Fe2+/L and 200 mg H2O2/L showed that optimal initial pH was 3.0 for both COD and color removal from the UASB effluent. On the basis of preliminary test results, effects of increasing dosages of Fe2+ and H2O2 were investigated. Under the condition of 400 mg Fe2+/L and 200 mg H2O2/L, removal efficiencies of residual COD and color were 88.7% and 80.9%, respectively. Under the subsequent condition of 100 mg Fe2+/L and 1200 mg H2O2/L, 95% of residual COD and 95.7% of residual color were removed from the UASB effluent. Results of this experimental study obviously indicated that nearly 99.3% of COD of raw poultry manure wastewater could be effectively removed by a UASB process followed by Fenton's oxidation technology used as a post-treatment unit.

  14. Linking lipid dynamics with the reproductive cycle in Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    ovaries and decreased in late maturing and spawning fish, most likely due to their antioxidant protection activity. The fatty acid composition of cod liver reflected its clupeid prey. The ratio of 18:1n-9 to DHA was almost twice as high in sprat as in herring and indicated the ratio of sprat and herring...... with cod ovarian development in the central Baltic Sea, and may be associated with the delay in spawning and affect egg and larval survival; however, this needs further verification in experimental studies....

  15. Fishing gear-induced skin ulcerations in Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellergaard, Stig; Bagge, O.

    1998-01-01

    In 1982 a high prevalence of skin ulcerations was observed in Baltic cod in the vicinity of the Danish island of Bornholm. In March the prevalence varied from G to 13%, and in May it had increased to between 26 and 48%. The ulcerations had a sequential development. The initial stage appeared...... from the nets, combined with bilateral occurrence of the ulcers, strongly indicates that the skin ulcers were induced by the fishing gear. Features of the pathology could be linked to the temporary retention of cod in trawl meshes....

  16. Eastern Baltic cod in distress: biological changes and challenges for stock assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hjelm, Joakim; Behrens, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The eastern Baltic (EB) cod (Gadus morhua) stock was depleted and overexploited for decades until the mid-2000s, when fishing mortality rapidly declined and biomass started to increase, as shown by stock assessments. These positive developments were partly assigned to effective management measures...... that the stock is in distress. In this study, we (i) summarize the knowledge of recent changes in cod biology and ecosystem conditions, (ii) describe the subsequent challenges for stock assessment, and (iii) highlight the key questions where answers are urgently needed to understand the present stock status...

  17. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  18. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman, E-mail: nilgunayman@comu.edu.tr; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  19. Effects of mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) derived from cod liver oil on H295R steroidogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montano, M.; Zimmer, K.E.; Dahl, E.; Berge, V.; Olsaker, I.; Skaare, J.U.; Murk, A.J.; Ropstad, E.; Verhaegen, S.

    2011-01-01

    Crude cod liver oil and liver oil supplements are consumed as a source of vitamin A, D and polyunsaturated fatty acids; during winter and early pregnancy. Crude cod liver oil however constitutes a considerable source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This paper aimed at characterizing and

  20. Lipid biomarkers : Linking the utilization of frontal plankton biomass to enhanced condition of juvenile North Sea cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    St. John, Michael; Lund, T.

    1996-01-01

    , hatched and the N1 nauplii from these different feeding regimes fed to post yolk-sac larval North Sea cod. Post yolk-sac larval cod required 8 d on either a Heterocapsa- or Skeletonema-based food chain before tracer Lipid signals (the ratio of the lipids 16:1 omega 7 to 16:0) in the larvae began to change...

  1. The third serine proteinase with chymotrypsin specificity isolated from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a type-II elastase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgeirsson, B; Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Thórólfsson, M

    1998-01-01

    -Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide, but inactive against the typical elastase substrates succinyl-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide and orcein-elastin. Comparison of the kinetic properties of the cod elastase C with bovine chymotrypsin and cod chymotrypsin variants A and B, using succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide, showed a lower catalytic...

  2. 75 FR 52478 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from trawl catcher... catcher vessel Pacific cod fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry... and efficient operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to...

  3. Freshness assessment of thawed and chilled cod fillets packed in modified atmosphere using near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Jensen, K.N.; Andersen, Charlotte Møller

    2002-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectra was recorded of 105 samples of cod mince prepared from chill stored thawed cod fillets of varying quality in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Traditional chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory quality methods developed for assessing fresh fish...

  4. The Evaluation of Removal Efficiency of COD Due to Water Contaminated by Gasoline by Granular Active Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Salmani

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: We can conclude from this study that the activated carbon is an appropriate adsorbent for decreasing of COD due to gasoline contamination in water. The use of this adsorbent can well decrease COD of water contamination due to gasoline at times of 30 min.

  5. 76 FR 73513 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revisions to Pacific Cod Fishing in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... term of the permit. Third, it requires an operator of any Federally permitted pot or hook-and-line C/P... catching a greater amount of Pacific cod in the parallel fishery than has been allocated to their sector from the BSAI total allowable catch. Maintaining Pacific cod catch amounts within BSAI sector...

  6. 77 FR 8177 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in...

  7. 77 FR 14305 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Using Jig Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using jig gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using jig gear in...

  8. 77 FR 6683 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Using Pot Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in...

  9. 76 FR 44699 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Parts 679 and 680 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska... 0648-AY53 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of... competition among sectors and support stability in the Pacific cod fishery. This rule would also limit access...

  10. 76 FR 37763 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ...-AY53 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of Alaska... the uncertainty regarding the distribution of Pacific cod catch, enhance stability among the sectors... available for public review and comment. The groundfish fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of the Gulf...

  11. Thawed cod fillets spoil less rapidly than unfrozen fillets when stored under modified atmosphere at 2 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldager, H S; Bøknaes, N; Osterberg, C; Nielsen, J; Dalgaard, P

    1998-09-01

    The effect of two months of frozen storage at -20 degrees C on the spoilage characteristics and shelf life of thawed and modified atmosphere packed (MAP) cod fillets stored at 2 degrees C was studied. Thawed MAP cod fillets were compared with fresh cod fillets stored in CO2-containing modified atmospheres with and without added oxygen. The shelf life of 11 to 12 days in the fresh MAP cod was extended to more than 20 days in the thawed MAP cod at 2 degrees C. This shelf life extension was most likely due to the inactivation of the spoilage bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum during frozen storage as reflected both in chemical analyses and sensory evaluation. In contrast to fresh MAP cod fillets no significant production of trimethylamine occurred and almost no amine odor and taste were detected during 20 days of chill storage of thawed MAP cod fillets. The use of frozen fillets as raw material not only provides a more stable product in MAP but also allows much greater flexibility for production and distribution. However, a slightly increased concentration of dimethylamine, a larger drip loss, and detection of weak frozen storage flavor were observed in the thawed MAP cod fillets.

  12. Co-distribution of seabirds and their polar cod prey near the ice edge in southern Baffin Bay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeBlanc, Mathieu; Gauthier, S; Mosbech, Anders

    species, and age-1 polar cod found in bird stomachs were likely individuals associated to ice. At a large scale of hundreds of kilometers, seabirds and age-0 polar cod were more abundant in ice-covered habitats (30 to 100% ice concentration). At medium and small scale of 12.5 and 1 km respectively...

  13. Theoretical study of the influence of twine thickness on haddock selectivity in diamond mesh cod-ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; O'Neill, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    Using the cod-end simulation model PRESEMO, the influence of twine thickness on cod-end selectivity is investigated. The reduction of lateral mesh opening that arises as a result of both twine bending stiffness and the physical presence of the twine is considered. While it is shown that this lead...

  14. On nitrogen solubility in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalajda, Yu.A.; Katkov, Yu.D.; Kuznetsov, V.A.; Lastovtsev, A.Yu.; Lastochkin, A.P.; Susoev, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the results of experimental investigations on nitrogen solubility in water under 0-15 MPa pressure, at the temperature of 100-340 deg C and nitrogen concentration of 0-5000 n.ml. N 2 /kg H 2 O. Empiric equations are derived and a diagram of nitrogen solubility in water is developed on the basis of the experimental data, as well as critically evaluated published data. The investigation results can be used in analyzing water-gas regime of a primary heat carrier in stream-generating plants with water-water reactors

  15. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented

  16. Thorium oxalate solubility and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.; Hall, R.

    1981-10-01

    Thorium was used as a stand-in for studying the solubility and precipitation of neptunium and plutonium oxalates. Thorium oxalate solubility was determined over a range of 0.001 to 10.0 in the concentration parameter [H 2 C 2 O 4 ]/[HNO 3 ] 2 . Morphology of thorium oxide made from the oxalate precipitates was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The different morphologies found for oxalate-lean and oxalate-rich precipitations were in agreement with predictions based on precipitation theory

  17. Solubility database for TILA-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, U.; Carlsson, T. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Kulmala, S.; Hakanen, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry; Ahonen, L. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-11-01

    The safety assessment of spent fuel disposal requires solubility values for several elements estimated in Finnish disposal conditions. In Finland four sites (Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara) are investigated for the disposal of spent fuel. Haestholmen and OLkiluoto are onshore sites, while Kivetty and Romuvaara are inland sites. Based on groundwater analysis and classification according to salinity at the planned disposal depth mainly fresh groundwater is encountered at Kivetty and Romuvaara, while brackish and saline water-types are met at Haestholmen and Olkiluoto. Very saline, almost brine-type water ({approx}70 g/l) has been found in the deepest parts of the investigated bedrock at one of the sites (Olkiluoto). The reference waters and conditions were chosen according to the water-types. The considered reference conditions incorporated both the near- and far-field, and both oxidizing and reducing conditions were considered. In the reference conditions, the changes in solubilities were also estimated as caused by possible variations in the pH, carbonate content and redox conditions. Uranium, which is the main component of spent fuel is dealt with in a separate report presenting the solubility of uranium and spent fuel dissolution. In this work the solubilities of all the other elements of concern (Am, Cu, Nb, Np, Pa, Pd, Pu, Ra, Se, Sn, Tc, Zr, Cm, Ni, Sr, Th, C, Cl, Cs, Fe, Ho, I, and Sm) in the safety assessment are considered. Some discussion on the corrosion of the spent fuel canister is also presented. For the estimation of solubilities of the elements in question, literature data was collected that mainly comprised experimentally measured concentrations. The sources used were spent fuel experiments, concentrations measured in solubility measurements, natural concentrations and concentrations from natural analogue sites (especially Palmottu and Hyrkkoelae in Finland) as well as the concentrations measured at the Finnish investigation sites

  18. Solubility database for TILA-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, U.; Carlsson, T.; Kulmala, S.; Hakanen, M.

    1998-11-01

    The safety assessment of spent fuel disposal requires solubility values for several elements estimated in Finnish disposal conditions. In Finland four sites (Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara) are investigated for the disposal of spent fuel. Haestholmen and OLkiluoto are onshore sites, while Kivetty and Romuvaara are inland sites. Based on groundwater analysis and classification according to salinity at the planned disposal depth mainly fresh groundwater is encountered at Kivetty and Romuvaara, while brackish and saline water-types are met at Haestholmen and Olkiluoto. Very saline, almost brine-type water (∼70 g/l) has been found in the deepest parts of the investigated bedrock at one of the sites (Olkiluoto). The reference waters and conditions were chosen according to the water-types. The considered reference conditions incorporated both the near- and far-field, and both oxidizing and reducing conditions were considered. In the reference conditions, the changes in solubilities were also estimated as caused by possible variations in the pH, carbonate content and redox conditions. Uranium, which is the main component of spent fuel is dealt with in a separate report presenting the solubility of uranium and spent fuel dissolution. In this work the solubilities of all the other elements of concern (Am, Cu, Nb, Np, Pa, Pd, Pu, Ra, Se, Sn, Tc, Zr, Cm, Ni, Sr, Th, C, Cl, Cs, Fe, Ho, I, and Sm) in the safety assessment are considered. Some discussion on the corrosion of the spent fuel canister is also presented. For the estimation of solubilities of the elements in question, literature data was collected that mainly comprised experimentally measured concentrations. The sources used were spent fuel experiments, concentrations measured in solubility measurements, natural concentrations and concentrations from natural analogue sites (especially Palmottu and Hyrkkoelae in Finland) as well as the concentrations measured at the Finnish investigation sites. The

  19. APPLICATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS FOR DECREASING OF CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD AND TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS OF TOFU INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tofu industrial wastewater has high COD and TSS level, which it cause an environmental pollution. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease the value of COD and TSS of tofu industrial wastewater before discharge into the water body. Decreasing of COD and TSS values can be carried out using an electrochemical method. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of potential, electrode distance, pH, and time to decrease of COD and TSS value of the tofu industrial wastewater. The experiment has been performed by electrolysis tofu industrial wastewater using PbO2 as anode and Pb as cathode. The result of the research showed that under the optimum conditions of 12 V voltage, 1 cm electrode distance, pH 1, and electrolysis time of 120 minutes, decreasing COD and TSS of 96.33% and 87.87% respectively

  20. The effect of COD loading on the granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal system and the recoverability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shenjing; Sun, Peide; Zheng, Wei; Chen, Lujun; Zheng, Xiongliu; Han, Jingyi; Yan, Tao

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the effect of varied COD loading (200, 400, 500, 600 and 800 mg L(-1)) on stability and recoverability of granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system was investigated during continuously 53-d operation. Results showed that COD loading higher than 500 mg L(-1) could obviously deteriorate the granular EBPR system and result in sludge bulking with filamentous bacteria. High COD loading also changed the transformation patterns of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen in metabolism process of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and inhibited the EPS secretion, which completely destroyed the stability and integrality of granules. Results of FISH indicated that glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) and other microorganisms had a competitive advantage over PAOs with higher COD loading. The community composition and EBPR performance were recovered irreversibly in long time operation when COD loading was higher than 500 mg L(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Technological Parameters and Fishing Ground on Quality Attributes of Thawed, Chilled Cod Fillets Stored in Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Østerberg, Carsten; Sørensen, Rie

    2001-01-01

    . The parameters investigated were: (1) packaging in modified atmosphere during frozen storage, (2)frozen storage period and temperature, (3),fishing ground and chill storage temperature, together with (4) the addition of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) and sodium chloride (NaCl) to cod fillets before freezing......Effects were studied of various technological parameters and fishing ground on quality attributes of thawed, chilled cod fillets stored in modified atmosphere packaging Frozen fillets of Baltic Sea and Barents Sea cod, representing two commercial fishing grounds, were used as raw material...... of Baltic Sea cod. Therefore, addition of trimethylamine oxide and NaCl to Baltic Sea cod fillets was evaluated and shown to protect P, phosphoreum against fro::en storage inactivation and this explained the observed differences in growth of the spoilage bacteria and trimethylamine production between thawed...

  2. Oceanographic influences on the distribution of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua , during spawning in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Lehmann, K.M.; St. John, Michael

    1998-01-01

    proportion of males to females. On the basin slopes, aggregations of cod were found near the bottom. These individuals were mainly immature and maturing stages with an increasing proportion of females to males with size. Salinity and oxygen conditions were found to be the major factors influencing...... the vertical and horizontal distribution of adult cod. Abundance of immature cod was also positively related to decreasing bottom depths. The effect of temperature was minor. The observed size- and sex-dependent spawning aggregation patterns, in association with habitat volume and stock size, may influence cod......The Baltic Sea is a stratified, semi-enclosed sea typified by a low-salinity surface layer and a deep saline layer of varying volume, salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration. The relationships between these oceanographic factors and the distribution of Baltic cod are presented, utilizing...

  3. Factors determining variations in otolith microincrement width of demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Hinrichsen, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    by comparison with laboratory-reared individuals, and to investigate the factors determining variation in these increments. The different increment-width patterns were identified with a method based on the widths of consecutive increments. Otolith increment widths of juvenile cod were found to be highly...

  4. Sensory characteristics of different cod products related to consumer preferences and attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Green-Petersen, D.; Hyldig, G.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was used to analyse the sensory quality of eight cod products, different with regard to origin (wild/farmed), storage time (short/extended) and storage method (fresh/frozen/packed in modified atmosphere). At the same time, 378 consumers in four European

  5. The membrane action mechanism of novel antimicrobial peptide COD isolated from the venom of bee

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čujová, Sabína; Slaninová, Jiřina; Fučík, Vladimír; Monincová, Lenka; Voburka, Zdeněk; Čeřovský, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, Suppl. 1 (2013), S164-S164 ISSN 0175-7571. [European Biophysics Congress EBSA /9./. 13.07.2013-17.07.2013, Lisbon] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : antimicrobial peptides * COD Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  6. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi poses no direct threat to Baltic cod eggs and larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Titelman, Josefin; Hansson, Lars Johan

    2011-01-01

    conducted laboratory incubation experimentsand video observations to quantify feeding rates on Baltic cod eggs and larvae. Ingestion rates increased with codlarvae concentrations up to 8 prey L21, beyond which ingestion remained constant. Neither Mnemiopsis size noregg concentration (1–16 prey L21) affected...... feeding rates on cod eggs. Observed feeding rates pooled from allexperiments conducted at nonsaturating prey concentrations were low, with the highest volume-specific clearanceon , 4.5-d-old yolk-sac larvae (0.05 6 0.02 L (mL Mnemiopsis)21 h21), and lower rates on 4.5–8-d-old larvae(0.02 6 0.02 L (m......L Mnemiopsis)21 h21) and eggs (0.02 6 0.03 L (mL Mnemiopsis)21 h21). When offered Artemiasalina and cod eggs simultaneously, Mnemiopsis passively selected against cod eggs. Video recordings showed thateggs did not trigger the capture response that Mnemiopsis shows toward motile prey, and ingested eggs were...

  7. 76 FR 15888 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Cape Cod National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... flora and fauna, the physiographic conditions and the historic sites and structures be permanently... wild cranberry bogs provide a glimpse into Cape Cod's past and continuing life ways. The Seashore... Military Reservation, have their own special regulations that have different dates than the standard dates...

  8. Acoustically Induced Streaming Flows near a Model Cod Otolith and their Potential Implications for Fish Hearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotas, Charlotte W [ORNL; Rogers, Peter [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yoda, Minami [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    The ears of fishes are remarkable sensors for the small acoustic disturbances associated with underwater sound. For example, each ear of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) has three dense bony bodies (otoliths) surrounded by fluid and tissue, and detects sounds at frequencies from 30 to 500 Hz. Atlantic cod have also been shown to localize sounds. However, how their ears perform these functions is not fully understood. Steady streaming, or time-independent, flows near a 350% scale model Atlantic cod otolith immersed in a viscous fluid were studied to determine if these fluid flows contain acoustically relevant information that could be detected by the ear s sensory hair cells. The otolith was oscillated sinusoidally at various orientations at frequencies of 8 24 Hz, corresponding to an actual frequency range of 280 830 Hz. Phaselocked particle pathline visualizations of the resulting flows give velocity, vorticity, and rate of strain fields over a single plane of this mainly two-dimensional flow. Although the streaming flows contain acoustically relevant information, the displacements due to these flows are likely too small to explain Atlantic cod hearing abilities near threshold. The results, however, may suggest a possible mechanism for detection of ultrasound in some fish species.

  9. Glycolysis and ATP degradation in cod ( Gadus morhua ) at subzero temperatures in relation to thaw rigor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    Glycolysis was shown to occur during freezing of cod of decrease in glycogen and an increase in lactate. In addition, the ATP content decreased during freezing. Synthesis of ATP was measured as degradation of glycogen. During storage at -9 and - 12 degreesC it was found that degradation of ATP...

  10. Eel, cod and seatrout harvest in Danish recreational fishing during 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Storr-Paulsen, Marie

    , it was estimated that 80 t [Relative standard error (RSE)=6%] eel, close to 1,300 t (RSE=5 %) cod and 400 t (RSE=5 %) seatrout (including freshwater catches) was harvested in the recreational fishery. Eel is almost exclusively taken in the passive gear fykenet fishery and seatrout was mainly caught by anglers...

  11. Nitrogen and COD removal from domestic and synthetic wastewater in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2013-09-01

    Comparisons of the performance of constructed-wetland systems (CWs) for treating domestic wastewater in the laboratory and field may use pathogen-free synthetic wastewater to avoid regulatory health concerns. However, little to no data are available describing the relative treatment efficiencies of CWs to both actual and synthetic domestic wastewaters so as to enable such comparison. To fill this gap, treatment performances with respect to organics (chemical organic demand; COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) and a similar-strength synthetic wastewater under planted and non-planted subsurface-flow CWs are determined. One pair of CWs was planted with cattails in May 2008, whereas the adjacent system was non-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each CWs, and effluent samples were collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species regularly during four different periods over six months. Overall, statistically significant greater removal of COD (-12%) and nitrogen (-5%) occurred from the synthetic as compared with the domestic wastewater from the planted and non-planted CWs. Effluent BOD5/COD ratios from the synthetic wastewater CWs averaged nearly twice that from the domestic wastewater CWs (0.17 vs 0.10), reflecting greater concentrations of readily degraded compounds. That removal fractions were consistent across the mid-range loading rates to the CWs suggests that the synthetic wastewater can be used in testing laboratory CWs with reasonable success in application of their results to the field.

  12. Influence of the COD to sulphate ratio on the anaerobic organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were carried out with synthetic substrate containing glucose, ammonium acetate and methanol, besides sodium bicarbonate. Micronutrients were provided by adding salts and trace metals from a stock solution. The influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) was maintained as constant as possible around 2 000 ...

  13. Dose of Biocoagulant-Mixing Rate Combinations for Optimum Reduction of COD in Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia, Maria Faustina; Purwono; Budihardjo, Mochamad Arief

    2018-02-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) in domestic wastewater can be treated using flocculation-coagulation process with addition of Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in powder form as biocoagulant. The fungal cell wall of Oyster mushroom comprises of chitin that is high polyelectrolyte and can be function as an absorbent of heavy metals in wastewater. The effectiveness of flocculation-coagulation process in treating wastewater depends on dose of coagulant and mixing rate. Therefore, this study aims to determine the best combination of three variation of dose of biocoagulant which are 600 mg/l, 1000 mg/l, and 2000 mg/l and mixing rate which are 100 rpm, 125 rpm, and 150 rpm that give the most reduction of COD in the wastewater. The result indicates that the combination of 1000 mg/l of biocoagulant and 100 rpm of mixing rate were found to be the most optimum combination to treat COD in the wastewater with COD reduction of 47.7%.

  14. Dose of Biocoagulant-Mixing Rate Combinations for Optimum Reduction of COD in Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustina Patricia Maria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical oxygen demand (COD in domestic wastewater can be treated using flocculation-coagulation process with addition of Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus in powder form as biocoagulant. The fungal cell wall of Oyster mushroom comprises of chitin that is high polyelectrolyte and can be function as an absorbent of heavy metals in wastewater. The effectiveness of flocculation-coagulation process in treating wastewater depends on dose of coagulant and mixing rate. Therefore, this study aims to determine the best combination of three variation of dose of biocoagulant which are 600 mg/l, 1000 mg/l, and 2000 mg/l and mixing rate which are 100 rpm, 125 rpm, and 150 rpm that give the most reduction of COD in the wastewater. The result indicates that the combination of 1000 mg/l of biocoagulant and 100 rpm of mixing rate were found to be the most optimum combination to treat COD in the wastewater with COD reduction of 47.7%.

  15. Impact of hypoxia on consumption of Baltic cod in a multispecies stock assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teschner, E.C.; Kraus, G.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is characterised by a heterogeneous oceanographic environment. The deep water layers forming the habitat of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) are subjected to frequently occurring pronounced anoxic conditions. Adverse oxygen conditions result in physiological stress for organi......The Baltic Sea is characterised by a heterogeneous oceanographic environment. The deep water layers forming the habitat of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) are subjected to frequently occurring pronounced anoxic conditions. Adverse oxygen conditions result in physiological stress...... for organisms living under these conditions. For cod e.g. a direct relationship between oxygen availability and food intake with a decreasing ingestion rate at hypoxia could be revealed. In the present study, the effects of oxygen deficiency on consumption rates were investigated and how these translate...... to stock size estimates in multi-species models. Based on results from laboratory experiments, a model was fitted to evacuation rates at different oxygen levels and integrated into the existing consumption model for Baltic cod. Individual mean oxygen corrected consumption rates were 0.1–10.9% lower than...

  16. Improvement of COD and TOC reactive dyes in textile wastewater by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... This study was designed to investigate the removal of reactive dyes, Samofix Red V-RBL and Samofix. Green V-G from wastewater using a two step Al (III) coagulation/activated carbon adsorption method. ... (90%) of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) ..... a liquid to a solid surface.

  17. Genomic Sequencing of Ranaviruses Isolated from Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Steckler, Natalie K.; Subramaniam, Kuttichantran

    2016-01-01

    Ranaviruses have been isolated from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in Denmark. Phylogenomic analyses revealed that these two ranaviruses are nearly identical and form a distinct clade at the base of the ranavirus tree branching off near other fish ranaviruses....

  18. Characterization of the Escherichia coli codBA operon encoding cytosine permease and cytosine deaminase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, S; Kilstrup, M; Barilla, K

    1992-01-01

    . A two-codon overlap between the two reading frames indicates that they constitute an operon. Transcription of the operon was found to be regulated by exogenous purines. Polypeptides specified by each of the two reading frames were expressed in minicells, and the codB gene product was found to be highly...

  19. Male size composition affects male reproductive variance in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. spawning aggregations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    Estimates of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua reproductive success, determined using experimental spawning groups and genetic paternity assignment of offspring, showed that within-group variance in male size correlated positively with the degree of male mating skew, predicting a decrease in male reprodu...

  20. Simultaneous removal of AOX and COD from real recycled paper wastewater using GAC-SBBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Wan Hasnidah Wan; Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Rahman, Rakmi Abd

    2013-05-30

    A lab-scale granular activated carbon sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR), a combined adsorption and biological process, was developed to treat real wastewater from a recycled paper mill. In this study, one-consortia of mixed culture (4000-5000 mg/L) originating from recycled paper mill activated sludge from Kajang, Malaysia was acclimatized. The GAC-SBBR was fed with real wastewater taken from the same recycled paper mill, which had a high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and adsorbable organic halides (AOX). The operational duration of the GAC-SBBR was adjusted from 48 h to 24, 12 and finally 8 h to evaluate the effect of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the simultaneous removal of COD and AOX. The COD and AOX removals were in the range of 53-92% and 26-99%, respectively. From this study, it was observed that the longest HRT (48 h) yielded a high removal of COD and AOX, at 92% and 99%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential expression of immune and stress genes in the skin of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caipang, C.M.A.; Lazado, C.C.; Brinchmann, M.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Kiron, V.

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes the transcriptional profiles of selected immune and stress genes with putative important roles in the cutaneous immune defense of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). In addition it shows differential expression of many genes at the dorsal and ventral sides of fish, in general

  2. Challenging ICES age estimation protocols: lessons learned from the eastern Baltic cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Radtke, Krzysztof; Plikshs, Maris

    2016-01-01

    Over the recent decades, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) has set guidelines for best practise quality control of age estimation procedures. The applicability of these guidelines is assessed by reviewing the ageing issues of eastern Baltic cod (EBC) as a case study....

  3. Eastern Baltic cod in distress: biological changes and challenges for stock assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hjelm, Joakim; Behrens, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The eastern Baltic (EB) cod (Gadus morhua) stock was depleted and overexploited for decades until the mid-2000s, when fishing mortality rapidly declined and biomass started to increase, as shown by stock assessments. These positive developments were partly assigned to effective management measure...

  4. Application of a structured decision making process for nitrogen pollution management on Cape Cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant release of reactive nitrogen into coastal water bodies has resulted in declining water quality in Southern New England. The Three Bays Preservation Association, in collaboration with the Cape Cod Commission, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and local water resou...

  5. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion...

  6. Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod ( Gadus morhua ) by direct and indirect means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, C.J.; Taylor, M.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite recent evidence for sub-stock structuring, North Sea cod are assessed as a single unit. As a consequence, knowledge of sub-stock trends is poor. In particular, there are no recent evaluations of which spawning grounds are active. Here we report results from the first ichthyoplankton survey...

  7. Distribution and drift of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) eggs and larvae in Greenland offshore waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hovgård, Holger

    2002-01-01

    Catches of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) eggs and larvae from 45 national and international ichthyoplankton surveys conducted in Greenland offshore waters during the period 1950 to 1984 have been compiled and re-analysed. Southeast and Southwest Greenland were identified as im- portant spawning areas...

  8. Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) by direct and indirect means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, C.J.; Taylor, M.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Fossum, P.; Kraus, G.; Rohlf, N.; Damme, van C.J.G.; Bolle, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite recent evidence for sub-stock structuring, North Sea cod are assessed as a single unit. As a consequence, knowledge of sub-stock trends is poor. In particular, there are no recent evaluations of which spawning grounds are active. Here we report results from the first ichthyoplankton survey

  9. Evaluation of farmed cod products by a trained sensory panel and consumers in different test settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Thorsdottir, F.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Kole, A.; Thorsdottir, I.

    2010-01-01

    Sensory characteristics of farmed cod exposed to low or conventional stress levels prior to slaughter were evaluated by a trained sensory panel. Consumers in two different settings, central location test (CLT) and home-use test (HUT), also tasted the products and rated them according to overall

  10. Assessing impacts of simulated oil spills on the Northeast Arctic cod fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, JoLynn; Vikebø, Frode; Howell, Daniel; Broch, Ole Jacob; Nepstad, Raymond; Augustine, Starrlight; Skeie, Geir Morten; Bast, Radovan; Juselius, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    We simulate oil spills of 1500 and 4500m 3 /day lasting 14, 45, and 90days in the spawning grounds of the commercial fish species, Northeast Arctic cod. Modeling the life history of individual fish eggs and larvae, we predict deviations from the historical pattern of recruitment to the adult population due to toxic oil exposures. Reductions in survival for pelagic stages of cod were 0-10%, up to a maximum of 43%. These reductions resulted in a decrease in adult cod biomass of <3% for most scenarios, up to a maximum of 12%. In all simulations, the adult population remained at full reproductive potential with a sufficient number of juveniles surviving to replenish the population. The diverse age distribution helps protect the adult cod population from reductions in a single year's recruitment after a major oil spill. These results provide insights to assist in managing oil spill impacts on fisheries. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Allometric relationships to liver tissue concentrations of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes in Atlantic cod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Nicholas A.; Nøst, Therese H.; Andrade, Hector; Christensen, Guttorm

    2014-01-01

    Spatial distribution and relationship of allometric measurements (length, weight and age) to liver concentrations of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMS) including octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclosiloxane (D6) in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) collected near the community of Tromsø in Northern Norway were assessed. These congeners were benchmarked against known persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 153 and 180) to assess accumulation behavior of cVMS. D5 was the dominate cVMS detected in all fish livers with lipid normalized concentrations up to 10 times or greater than those observed for PCB 153 and 180. D4 and D6 concentration were negatively correlated with fish length and weight, indicating a greater elimination capacity compared to uptake processes with increasing fish size for these chemicals. These results indicate relationships between allometric measurements and cVMS concentrations may account for concentration variations observed within fish and should be assessed in future studies evaluating cVMS bioaccumulation potential. - Highlights: • cVMS spatial distribution investigated within cod surrounding an Arctic community. • Highest cVMS concentrations detected in biota collected near human settlements. • Cod liver concentrations of D5 were higher compared to PCBs. • D4 and D6 liver concentrations were negatively correlated with fish length/weight. - Liver concentrations of cVMS congeners decreased with increasing fish length and weight in Atlantic cod collected near emission sources of cVMS

  12. Three-way modelling of NMR relaxation profiles from thawed cod muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristina Nedenskov; Guldager, Helle Skov; Jørgensen, Bo Munk

    2002-01-01

    Low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation was used to measure water mobility and distribution in cod stored at -20°C or -30°C for up to 12 months and subsequently from 0 to 21 days in modified atmosphere at +2°C. The relaxation profiles were decomposed by parallel factor analy...

  13. Why is age determination of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) so difficult?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2010-01-01

    to a consistent pattern the following year, and overlap was not influenced by sex or fish size. The results suggest that otolith opacity in Baltic cod is not associated with seasonal patterns in daily increment structure and that traditional age determination based on otolith opacity yields highly uncertain...

  14. Degradation of ATP and glycogen in cod ( Gadus morhua ) muscle during freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    , the greatest decrease in ATP content was observed when the temperature reached -0.8C. Glycolysis occurred during freezing of cod as indicated by an increase in lactate content. The changes found in all measured metabolites were more pronounced when freezing was performed at a slow rate compared to a fast rate...

  15. Do North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries maintain high catch rates at low stock size?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard

    2008-01-01

    This study presents all investigation of the relationship between stock size of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) and catch rates in seven commercial fishing fleets. The shape of the relationship was estimated using a model allowing both density-dependent changes in catchability and bias...

  16. Simulations on the prediction of cod (Gadus morhua) freshness from an intelligent packaging sensor concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heising, J.K.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.

    2015-01-01

    A non-destructive method that monitors changes in the freshness status of packed cod fillets has potential for the development of an intelligent packaging concept. The method is based on monitoring volatile compounds that dissolve and dissociate in the sensing aqueous phase. A mathematical model was

  17. Extrusion of Contracaecum osculatum nematode larvae from the liver of cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, S.; Barlaup, L.; Mohammadkarami, A.

    2017-01-01

    Baltic cod livers have during recent years been found increasingly and heavily infected with third-stage larvae of Contracaecum osculatum. The infections are associated with an increasing population of grey seals which are final hosts for the parasite. Heavy worm burdens challenge utilization...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR FISH CANNED PATE'S COD-FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Efremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Fish and seafood play an important role in a balanced diet. The most reliable method of preservation is the production of canned fish. Cod fishery considered traditional objects of the North Basin, which catches in recent years stored at a consistently high level. They are represented, mainly cod, haddock, pollack, whiting. Lately there has been a tendency to increase yield loaves (polar bib. The aim of this work - the development of technology - canned pate's cod fish species with the addition of plant materials. We used the adopted research microbiological, chemical and physical methods. The weight proportion of water, lipids, protein, mineral raw determined according to State standard 7636-85. Developed a technology - canned pate's cod fish species with the addition of plant materials. Optimized formulation is set to sterilization. Experimentally determined parameters of quality canned and given comprehensive assessment nutritional value of new products, organoleptic, physico-chemical, biochemical and microbiological tests showed that canned pates of Gadidae species of fish with vegetables, meet all safety requirements and are characterized, along with excellent consumer properties, high nutritional value. Based on the results of the research complex developed technical documentation for production of canned vegetables, pates of Gadidae species.

  19. Use of existing hydrographic infrastructure to forecast the environmental spawning conditions for Eastern Baltic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dewitz, Burkhard; Tamm, Susanne; Höflich, Katharina; Voss, Rüdiger; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald

    2018-01-01

    The semi-enclosed nature and estuarine characteristics, together with its strongly alternating bathymetry, make the Baltic Sea prone to much stronger interannual variations in the abiotic environment, than other spawning habitats of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Processes determining salinity and oxygen conditions in the basins are influenced both by long term gradual climate change, e.g. global warming, but also by short-term meteorological variations and events. Specifically one main factor influencing cod spawning conditions, the advection of highly saline and well-oxygenated water masses from the North Sea, is observed in irregular frequencies and causes strong interannual variations in stock productivity. This study investigates the possibility to use the available hydrographic process knowledge to predict the annual spawning conditions for Eastern Baltic cod in its most important spawning ground, the Bornholm Basin, only by salinity measurements from a specific location in the western Baltic. Such a prediction could serve as an environmental early warning indicator to inform stock assessment and management. Here we used a hydrodynamic model to hindcast hydrographic property fields for the last 40+ years. High and significant correlations were found for months early in the year between the 33m salinity level in the Arkona Basin and the oxygen-dependent cod spawning environment in the Bornholm Basin. Direct prediction of the Eastern Baltic cod egg survival in the Bornholm Basin based on salinity values in the Arkona Basin at the 33 m depth level is shown to be possible for eggs spawned by mid-age and young females, which currently predominate the stock structure. We recommend to routinely perform short-term predictions of the Eastern Baltic cod spawning environment, in order to generate environmental information highly relevant for stock dynamics. Our statistical approach offers the opportunity to make best use of permanently existing infrastructure in the

  20. Replacement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with total organic carbon (TOC) for monitoring wastewater treatment performance to minimize disposal of toxic analytical waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubber, Donata; Gray, Nicholas F

    2010-10-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is widely used for wastewater monitoring, design, modeling and plant operational analysis. However this method results in the production of hazardous wastes including mercury and hexavalent chromium. The study examined the replacement of COD with total organic carbon (TOC) for general performance monitoring by comparing their relationship with influent and effluent samples from 11 wastewater treatment plants. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) was also included in the comparison as a control. The results show significant linear relationships between TOC, COD and BOD5 in settled (influent) domestic and municipal wastewaters, but only between COD and TOC in treated effluents. The study concludes that TOC can be reliably used for the generic replacement of both COD (COD=49.2+3.00*TOC) and BOD5 (BOD5=23.7+1.68*TOC) in influent wastewaters but only for COD (COD=7.25+2.99*TOC) in final effluents.

  1. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  2. Solubility of Nd in brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili, F.I.; Symeopoulos, V.; Chen, J.F.; Choppin, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The solubility of Nd(III) has been measured at 23±3 C in a synthetic brine at pcH 6.4, 8.4, 10.4 and 12.4. The brine consisted predominantly of (Na+K)Cl and MgCl 2 with an ionic strength of 7.8 M (9.4 m) a solid compound of Nd(III) at each pcH was assigned from X-ray diffraction patterns. The log values of the experimental solubilities decrease fomr -3 at pcH 6.4 to -5.8 at pcH 8.4; at pcH 10.4 and 12.4 the solubility was below the detection limit of -7.5. The experimental solubility does not follow closely the variation with pcH estimated from modeling of the species in solution in equilibrium with the Nd solid using S.I.T. (orig.)

  3. Daily rhythmicity of clock gene transcripts in atlantic cod fast skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo C Lazado

    Full Text Available The classical notion of a centralized clock that governs circadian rhythmicity has been challenged with the discovery of peripheral oscillators that enable organisms to cope with daily changes in their environment. The present study aimed to identify the molecular clock components in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and to investigate their daily gene expression in fast skeletal muscle. Atlantic cod clock genes were closely related to their orthologs in teleosts and tetrapods. Synteny was conserved to varying degrees in the majority of the 18 clock genes examined. In particular, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 2 (arntl2, RAR-related orphan receptor A (rora and timeless (tim displayed high degrees of conservation. Expression profiling during the early ontogenesis revealed that some transcripts were maternally transferred, namely arntl2, cryptochrome 1b and 2 (cry1b and cry2, and period 2a and 2b (per2a and per2b. Most clock genes were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, suggesting the possible existence of multiple peripheral clock systems in Atlantic cod. In particular, they were all detected in fast skeletal muscle, with the exception of neuronal PAS (Per-Arnt-Single-minded domain-containing protein (npas1 and rora. Rhythmicity analysis revealed 8 clock genes with daily rhythmic expression, namely arntl2, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (clock, npas2, cry2, cry3 per2a, nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (nr1d1, and nr1d2a. Transcript levels of the myogenic genes myogenic factor 5 (myf5 and muscleblind-like 1 (mbnl1 strongly correlated with clock gene expression. This is the first study to unravel the molecular components of peripheral clocks in Atlantic cod. Taken together, our data suggest that the putative clock system in fast skeletal muscle of Atlantic cod has regulatory implications on muscle physiology, particularly in the expression of genes related to myogenesis.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus hyaluronidase is a CodY-regulated virulence factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibberson, Carolyn B; Jones, Crystal L; Singh, Shweta; Wise, Matthew C; Hart, Mark E; Zurawski, Daniel V; Horswill, Alexander R

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen that causes a diverse range of bacterial infections. Invasive S. aureus strains secrete an extensive arsenal of hemolysins, immunomodulators, and exoenzymes to cause disease. Our studies have focused on the secreted enzyme hyaluronidase (HysA), which cleaves the hyaluronic acid polymer at the β-1,4 glycosidic bond. In the study described in this report, we have investigated the regulation and contribution of this enzyme to S. aureus pathogenesis. Using the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library (NTML), we identified eight insertions that modulate extracellular levels of HysA activity. Insertions in the sigB operon, as well as in genes encoding the global regulators SarA and CodY, significantly increased HysA protein levels and activity. By altering the availability of branched-chain amino acids, we further demonstrated CodY-dependent repression of HysA activity. Additionally, through mutation of the CodY binding box upstream of hysA, the repression of HysA production was lost, suggesting that CodY is a direct repressor of hysA expression. To determine whether HysA is a virulence factor, a ΔhysA mutant of a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) USA300 strain was constructed and found to be attenuated in a neutropenic, murine model of pulmonary infection. Mice infected with this mutant strain exhibited a 4-log-unit reduction in bacterial burden in their lungs, as well as reduced lung pathology and increased levels of pulmonary hyaluronic acid, compared to mice infected with the wild-type, parent strain. Taken together, these results indicate that S. aureus hyaluronidase is a CodY-regulated virulence factor. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Characterization of Atlantic cod spawning habitat and behavior in Icelandic coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B Grabowski

    Full Text Available The physical habitat used during spawning may potentially be an important factor affecting reproductive output of broadcast spawning marine fishes, particularly for species with complex, substrate-oriented mating systems and behaviors, such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. We characterized the habitat use and behavior of spawning Atlantic cod at two locations off the coast of southwestern Iceland during a 2-d research cruise (15-16 April 2009. We simultaneously operated two different active hydroacoustic gear types, a split beam echosounder and a dual frequency imaging sonar (DIDSON, as well as a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV. A total of five fish species were identified through ROV surveys: including cusk Brosme brosme, Atlantic cod, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, lemon sole Microstomus kitt, and Atlantic redfish Sebastes spp. Of the three habitats identified in the acoustic surveys, the transitional habitat between boulder/lava field and sand habitats was characterized by greater fish density and acoustic target strength compared to that of sand or boulder/lava field habitats independently. Atlantic cod were observed behaving in a manner consistent with published descriptions of spawning. Individuals were observed ascending 1-5 m into the water column from the bottom at an average vertical swimming speed of 0.20-0.25 m s(-1 and maintained an average spacing of 1.0-1.4 m between individuals. Our results suggest that cod do not choose spawning locations indiscriminately despite the fact that it is a broadcast spawning fish with planktonic eggs that are released well above the seafloor.

  6. Characterization of Atlantic cod spawning habitat and behavior in Icelandic coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Timothy B.; Boswell, Kevin M.; McAdam, Bruce J.; Wells, R. J. David; Marteinsdóttir, Gudrún

    2012-01-01

    The physical habitat used during spawning may potentially be an important factor affecting reproductive output of broadcast spawning marine fishes, particularly for species with complex, substrate-oriented mating systems and behaviors, such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. We characterized the habitat use and behavior of spawning Atlantic cod at two locations off the coast of southwestern Iceland during a 2-d research cruise (15–16 April 2009). We simultaneously operated two different active hydroacoustic gear types, a split beam echosounder and a dual frequency imaging sonar (DIDSON), as well as a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV). A total of five fish species were identified through ROV surveys: including cusk Brosme brosme, Atlantic cod, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, lemon sole Microstomus kitt, and Atlantic redfish Sebastes spp. Of the three habitats identified in the acoustic surveys, the transitional habitat between boulder/lava field and sand habitats was characterized by greater fish density and acoustic target strength compared to that of sand or boulder/lava field habitats independently. Atlantic cod were observed behaving in a manner consistent with published descriptions of spawning. Individuals were observed ascending 1–5 m into the water column from the bottom at an average vertical swimming speed of 0.20–0.25 m s−1 and maintained an average spacing of 1.0–1.4 m between individuals. Our results suggest that cod do not choose spawning locations indiscriminately despite the fact that it is a broadcast spawning fish with planktonic eggs that are released well above the seafloor.

  7. COD removal from pulp and paper effluents by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP); COD:n vaehentaeminen aop-menetelmaellae metsaeteollisuuden jaetevesistae - EKY 04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, K; Wikberg, H [Kemira Chemicals Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The aim of this project is to develop a process where COD from pulp and paper industry can be removed by an AOP process. AOP is a process utilizing the oxidation power of the hydroxyl radical, which can be produced in many different ways. Compared to evaporation and membrane techniques, the benefits of this process are lack of condense, concentrate and sludge. It is a very simple process, based on adjusting the COD removal by means of hydrogen peroxide dosage. The study focuses on using heterogeneous catalyst together with hydrogen peroxide to produce hydroxyl radicals in order to remove COD at low temperatures (< 100 deg C) and normal pressures. The project started by screening catalysts able to perform this task in laboratory scale. Later on pilot scale equipment will be constructed for use in pulp and paper mill trials. The project will be carried out during 1997-1999. The study started by screening the possibilities of different catalysts together with hydrogen peroxide to remove phenols from a model water. Sofar, about hundred catalysts have been screened. These tests show that many of the heterogeneous catalysts are working, but most of them have actually dissolved in the water and `translated` to homogenous catalysts. This means that they cannot be used in this project. A few catalysts have been found to meet the targets for synthetic phenol waters. Next step will be to test these catalysts on actual water samples from pulp and paper mills, and after that a pilot and full-scale trial will be planned. In these trials we will find out which mill streams are possible to treat, and the cost/performances of a system totally based on the catalyst in use. Also, measurements of catalyst leaching and clogging will be made during these tests. The last test series is planned to be a full-scale trial. (orig.)

  8. COD removal from pulp and paper effluents by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP); COD:n vaehentaeminen aop-menetelmaellae metsaeteollisuuden jaetevesistae - EKY 04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, K.; Wikberg, H. [Kemira Chemicals Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this project is to develop a process where COD from pulp and paper industry can be removed by an AOP process. AOP is a process utilizing the oxidation power of the hydroxyl radical, which can be produced in many different ways. Compared to evaporation and membrane techniques, the benefits of this process are lack of condense, concentrate and sludge. It is a very simple process, based on adjusting the COD removal by means of hydrogen peroxide dosage. The study focuses on using heterogeneous catalyst together with hydrogen peroxide to produce hydroxyl radicals in order to remove COD at low temperatures (< 100 deg C) and normal pressures. The project started by screening catalysts able to perform this task in laboratory scale. Later on pilot scale equipment will be constructed for use in pulp and paper mill trials. The project will be carried out during 1997-1999. The study started by screening the possibilities of different catalysts together with hydrogen peroxide to remove phenols from a model water. Sofar, about hundred catalysts have been screened. These tests show that many of the heterogeneous catalysts are working, but most of them have actually dissolved in the water and `translated` to homogenous catalysts. This means that they cannot be used in this project. A few catalysts have been found to meet the targets for synthetic phenol waters. Next step will be to test these catalysts on actual water samples from pulp and paper mills, and after that a pilot and full-scale trial will be planned. In these trials we will find out which mill streams are possible to treat, and the cost/performances of a system totally based on the catalyst in use. Also, measurements of catalyst leaching and clogging will be made during these tests. The last test series is planned to be a full-scale trial. (orig.)

  9. Inhibition of haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle and cod protein isolates by Fucus vesiculosus extract and fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tao; Jonsdottir, Rosa; Kristinsson, Hordur

    2010-01-01

    washed cod muscle and protein isolates, phlorotannin-enriched ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction showed higher inhibitory effect than crude 80% ethanol (EtOH) extract. The addition of oligomeric phlorotannin-rich subfraction (LH-2) separated by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography, completely inhibited...... similar level of TPC and chemical antioxidant activities as oligomeric subfraction LH-2, it was far less efficient in model systems. These results suggest that other factors rather than the intrinsic reactivity toward radicals could be responsible for the inhibitory effect of phlorotannins on lipid...

  10. Solubility of sparingly soluble drug derivatives of anthranilic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domańska, Urszula; Pobudkowska, Aneta; Pelczarska, Aleksandra

    2011-03-24

    This work is a continuation of our systematic study of the solubility of pharmaceuticals (Pharms). All substances here are derivatives of anthranilic acid, and have an anti-inflammatory direction of action (niflumic acid, flufenamic acid, and diclofenac sodium). The basic thermal properties of pure Pharms, i.e., melting and glass-transition temperatures as well as the enthalpy of melting, have been measured with the differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Molar volumes have been calculated with the Barton group contribution method. The equilibrium mole fraction solubilities of three pharmaceuticals were measured in a range of temperatures from 285 to 355 K in three important solvents for Pharm investigations: water, ethanol, and 1-octanol using a dynamic method and spectroscopic UV-vis method. The experimental solubility data have been correlated by means of the commonly known G(E) equation: the NRTL, with the assumption that the systems studied here have revealed simple eutectic mixtures. pK(a) precise measurement values have been investigated with the Bates-Schwarzenbach spectrophotometric method. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Spatio-temporal dynamics of a fish predator: Density-dependent and hydrographic effects on Baltic Sea cod population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Bartolino

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of spatial population dynamics is crucial for the successful management of exploited species and ecosystems. However, the underlying mechanisms of spatial distribution are generally complex due to the concurrent forcing of both density-dependent species interactions and density-independent environmental factors. Despite the high economic value and central ecological importance of cod in the Baltic Sea, the drivers of its spatio-temporal population dynamics have not been analytically investigated so far. In this paper, we used an extensive trawl survey dataset in combination with environmental data to investigate the spatial dynamics of the distribution of the Eastern Baltic cod during the past three decades using Generalized Additive Models. The results showed that adult cod distribution was mainly affected by cod population size, and to a minor degree by small-scale hydrological factors and the extent of suitable reproductive areas. As population size decreases, the cod population concentrates to the southern part of the Baltic Sea, where the preferred more marine environment conditions are encountered. Using the fitted models, we predicted the Baltic cod distribution back to the 1970s and a temporal index of cod spatial occupation was developed. Our study will contribute to the management and conservation of this important resource and of the ecosystem where it occurs, by showing the forces shaping its spatial distribution and therefore the potential response of the population to future exploitation and environmental changes.

  12. Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure: The effect of ammonia inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan-Guang; Zhou, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Ya-Lei; Zhu, Hong-Guang

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ammonia inhibition was evaluated during the enhanced anaerobic treatment of digested effluent from a 700m(3) chicken-manure continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A 12.3L internal circulation (IC) reactor inoculated with an anaerobic granular sludge and operated at 35±1°C was employed for the investigation. With a corresponding organic loading rate of 1.5-3.5kg-COD/m(3)d over a hydraulic retention time of 1.5d, a maximum volumetric biogas production rate of 1.2m(3)/m(3)d and TCOD (total COD) removal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80% was achieved. However, the continual increase in the influent TAN content led to ammonia inhibition in the methanogenesis system. The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was presented to be the key controlling factor for the anaerobic treatment of semi-digested chicken manure, and further validation through shock loading and ammonia inhibition experiments was conducted. The threshold value of the SCOD/TAN ratio was determined to be 2.4 (corresponding to a TAN of 1250mg/L) at an influent pH of 8.5-9. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Pollution load and the first flush effect of BOD5 and COD in urban runoff of Wenzhou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Bi, Chun-juan; Chen, Zhen-lou; Zhou, Dong

    2013-05-01

    Four typical rainfalls were monitored in two different research areas of Wenzhou Municipality. Concentrations of BOD5 and COD in six different urban runoffs were measured. In addition the event mean concentration (EMC), M (V) curve and BOD5/COD of pollutant were calculated. The results showed that concentrations of BOD5 and COD in different urban runoffs of Wenzhou ranged from ND to 69.21 mg x L(-1) and ND to 636 mg x L(-1). Concentrations of BOD5 and COD in different urban runoffs were decreasing over time, so it is greatly significant to manage the initial runoff for reducing organic pollution. Judged by EMC of BOD5 and COD in these five rainfalls, concentrations of pollutant in some urban runoffs were out of the integrated wastewater discharge standard. If these runoffs flowed into river, it would cause environmental pressure to the next level receiving water bodies. According to the M (V) curve, the first flush effect of COD in most urban runoffs was common; while the first flush effect of BOD5 was same as that of COD. The result also showed that organic pollution was serious at the beginning of runoff. The underlying surface type could affect the concentration of BOD5 and COD in urban runoff. While the results of BOD5/COD also suggested that biodegradation was considered as one of the effective ways to decrease the pollution load of organics in urban runoff, and the best management plans (BMPs) should be selected for various urban runoff types for the treatment of organic pollution.

  14. Feasibility of Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS of Atlantic Cod with Seafloor Scattering Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita D. Jain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently reported declines in the population of Atlantic cod have led to calls for additional survey methods for stock assessments. In combination with conventional line-transect methods that may have ambiguities in sampling fish populations, Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS has been shown to have a potential for providing accurate stock assessments (Makris N.C., et al. Science 2009, 323, 1,734–1,737; 54th Northeast Regional Stock Assessment Workshop (54th SAW US Department of Commerce, Northeast Fisheries Science Center, 2012. The use of OAWRS technology enables instantaneous wide-area sensing of fish aggregations over thousands of square kilometers. The ratio of the intensity of scattered returns from fish versus the seafloor in any resolution cell typically determines the maximum fish detection range of OAWRS, which then is a function of fish population density, scattering amplitude and depth distribution, as well as the level of seafloor scattering. With the knowledge of oceanographic parameters, such as bathymetry, sound speed structure and attenuation, we find that a Rayleigh–Born volume scattering approach can be used to efficiently and accurately estimate seafloor scattering over wide areas. From hundreds of OAWRS measurements of seafloor scattering, we determine the Rayleigh–Born scattering amplitude of the seafloor, which we find has a ƒ2,4 frequency dependence below roughly 2 kHz in typical continental shelf environments along the US northeast coast. We then find that it is possible to robustly detect cod aggregations across frequencies at and near swim bladder resonance for observed spawningconfigurations along the U.S. northeast coast, roughly the two octave range 150–600 Hzfor water depths up to roughly 100 m. This frequency range is also optimal for long-rangeocean acoustic waveguide propagation, because it enables multimodal acoustic waveguidepropagation with minimal acoustic absorption and forward

  15. Near-field solubility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomason, H.P.; Williams, S.J.

    1992-02-01

    Experimental determinations of the solubilities of americium, plutonium, neptunium, protactinium, thorium, radium, lead, tin, palladium and zirconium are reported. These elements have radioactive isotopes of concern in assessments of radioactive waste disposal. All measurements were made under the highly alkaline conditions typical of the near field of a radioactive waste repository which uses cementitious materials for many of the immobilisation matrices, the backfill and the engineered structures. Low redox potentials, typical of those resulting from the corrosion of iron and steel, were simulated for those elements having more than one accessible oxidation state. The dissolved concentrations of the elements were defined using ultrafiltration. In addition, the corrosion of iron and stainless steel was shown to generate low redox potentials in solution and the solubility of iron(II) at high pH was measured and found to be sufficient for it to act as a redox buffer with respect to neptunium and plutonium. (author)

  16. Larval and small juvenile cod Gadus morhua concentrated in the highly productive areas of a shelf break front

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Larsson, P.O.; Danielsen, D.

    1995-01-01

    describe the identified nursery areas of larvae/juveniles and analyse the connection between the distribution of cod and hydrographical (frontal) characteristics of the areas. A total area of 67000 km(2) was covered by stations in a 10 x 10 nautical mile grid. Salinity, temperature, NO3+NO2 and chlorophyll...... part of the investigation area, and within the zone of the front we observed enhanced primary production and abundance of both phyto- and zooplankton. The distribution of larval and juvenile cod was also related to the hydrography, the abundance of cod peaked within a restricted zone...

  17. Multi-decadal responses of a cod (Gadus morhua) population to human-induced trophic changes, fishing, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; MacKenzie, Brian; Köster, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    to changes in fish populations can be analyzed with empirical data. In this study we investigate how climate variability and multiple human impacts (fishing, marine mammal hunting, eutrophication) have affected multi-decadal scale dynamics of cod in the Baltic Sea during the 20th century.We document...... significant climate-driven variations in cod recruitment production at multi-annual timescales, which had major impacts on population dynamics and the yields to commercial fisheries. We also quantify the roles of marine mammal predation, eutrophication, and exploitation on the development of the cod...

  18. Effect of netting direction and number of meshes around on size selection in the codend for Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienbeck, Harald; Herrmann, Bent; Moderhak, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the effect that turning the netting direction 90° (T90) and halving the number of meshes around in the circumference in a diamond mesh codend had on size selection of Baltic cod. The results generally agreed with predictions of a previous simulation-based study. Both...... modifications had a significant positive effect on the size selection of cod. The best selection results were obtained for a codend in which both factors were applied together. For that codend, very little between-haul variation in cod size selection was detected, especially compared to the reference codend...

  19. The Solubility Parameters of Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The Hildebrand’s solubility parameters have been calculated for 18 ionic liquids from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. Retention data were used for the calculation. The solubility parameters are helpful for the prediction of the solubility in the binary solvent mixtures. From the solubility parameters, the standard enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated. PMID:20559495

  20. The Solubility Parameters of Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Marciniak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hildebrand’s solubility parameters have been calculated for 18 ionic liquids from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. Retention data were used for the calculation. The solubility parameters are helpful for the prediction of the solubility in the binary solvent mixtures. From the solubility parameters, the standard enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated.

  1. Solubility of Carbon in Nanocrystalline -Iron

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Kirchner; Bernd Kieback

    2012-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for nanocrystalline interstitial alloys is presented. The equilibrium solid solubility of carbon in -iron is calculated for given grain size. Inside the strained nanograins local variation of the carbon content is predicted. Due to the nonlinear relation between strain and solubility, the averaged solubility in the grain interior increases with decreasing grain size. The majority of the global solubility enhancement is due to grain boundary enrichment however. Therefor...

  2. Low-temperature transitions in cod and tuna determined by differential scanning calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristina Nedenskov; Jørgensen, Bo; Nielsen, Jette

    2003-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry measurements have revealed different thermal transitions in cod and tuna samples. Transition temperatures detected Lit -11degreesC, -15degreesC and -21degreesC were highly dependent on the annealing temperature. In tuna muscle an additional transition was observed...... at -72degreesC. This transition appeared differently than the thermal events observed at higher temperatures, as it spanned a broad temperature interval of 25degreesC. The transition was comparable to low-temperature glass transitions reported in protein-rich systems. No transition at this low...... temperature was detected in cod samples. The transitions observed at higher temperatures (-11degreesC to -21degreesC) may possibly stein from a glassy matrix containing muscle proteins. However, the presence of a glass transition at - 11degreesC was in disagreement with the low storage stability at -18degrees...

  3. Modeling the cod larvae drift in the Bornholm Basin in summer 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; Lehmann, A.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    , initial fields of temperature, salinity and cod larvae concentration for the Bornholm Basin were constructed by objective analysis using observations taken during a research survey in early July, 1994. Outside the Bornholm Basin generalized hydrographic features of the Baltic Sea were utilized....... In general, most of the hydrographic features observed during the second research cruise are correctly simulated, with variations mainly attributed to the prescribed initial conditions outside the Bornholm Basin. Results from larval sampling during the second cruise could not entirely confirm the modeled......A combined 3-D physical oceanographic model and a field sampling program was performed in July and August 1994 to investigate the potential drift of larval Baltic cod from the center of spawning effort in the Bornholm Basin, Baltic Sea. The goal of this exercise was to predict the drift...

  4. Hydrographic influence on the spawning habitat suitability of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, K.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Huwer, B.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrographic influence on the spawning habitat suitability of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 1736–1743.Recruitment variability of marine fish is influenced by the reproductive potential of the stock (i.e. stock characteristics and abundance) and the survival...... of early life stages, mediated by environmental conditions of both a physical (water temperature, salinity and oxygen conditions, ocean currents) and a biological nature (i.e. food, predators). The objective of this study is to assess the importance of variability in environmental conditions within...... allowing survival of western Baltic cod eggs indicates that favourable conditions predominantly occurred during the late spawning season in April/May, while minimum survival rates could be expected from January to March. Unsuitable time periods and habitats exhibiting the highest mortality rates...

  5. CcpA and CodY Coordinate Acetate Metabolism in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Nam; Burne, Robert A

    2017-04-01

    In the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans , phosphotransacetylase (Pta) and acetate kinase (Ack) convert pyruvate into acetate with the concomitant generation of ATP. The genes for this pathway are tightly regulated by multiple environmental and intracellular inputs, but the basis for differential expression of the genes for Pta and Ack in S. mutans had not been investigated. Here, we show that inactivation in S. mutans of ccpA or codY reduced the activity of the ackA promoter, whereas a ccpA mutant displayed elevated pta promoter activity. The interactions of CcpA with the promoter regions of both genes were observed using electrophoretic mobility shift and DNase protection assays. CodY bound to the ackA promoter region but only in the presence of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). DNase footprinting revealed that the upstream region of both genes contains two catabolite-responsive elements ( cre1 and cre2 ) that can be bound by CcpA. Notably, the cre2 site of ackA overlaps with a CodY-binding site. The CcpA- and CodY-binding sites in the promoter region of both genes were further defined by site-directed mutagenesis. Some differences between the reported consensus CodY binding site and the region protected by S. mutans CodY were noted. Transcription of the pta and ackA genes in the ccpA mutant strain was markedly different at low pH relative to transcription at neutral pH. Thus, CcpA and CodY are direct regulators of transcription of ackA and pta in S. mutans that optimize acetate metabolism in response to carbohydrate, amino acid availability, and environmental pH. IMPORTANCE The human dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans is remarkably adept at coping with extended periods of carbohydrate limitation during fasting periods. The phosphotransacetylase-acetate kinase (Pta-Ack) pathway in S. mutans modulates carbohydrate flux and fine-tunes the ability of the organisms to cope with stressors that are commonly encountered in the oral cavity. Here, we

  6. Prediction of chemical, physical and sensory data from process parameters for frozen cod using multivariate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Iben Ellegaard; Jensen, H.S.; Bøknæs, Niels

    1998-01-01

    Physical, chemical and sensory quality parameters were determined for 115 cod (Gadus morhua) samples stored under varying frozen storage conditions. Five different process parameters (period of frozen storage, frozen storage. temperature, place of catch, season for catching and state of rigor) were...... varied systematically at two levels. The data obtained were evaluated using the multivariate methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. The PCA models were used to identify which process parameters were actually most important for the quality of the frozen cod....... PLS models that were able to predict the physical, chemical and sensory quality parameters from the process parameters of the frozen raw material were generated. The prediction abilities of the PLS models were good enough to give reasonable results even when the process parameters were characterised...

  7. Chemical surface disinfection of eggs of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overton, J L; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2010-01-01

    The effect of two disinfectants on eggs and larvae of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua, was investigated. The eggs were disinfected for 10 min using various concentrations of either glutaraldehyde (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg L−1) or iodophor (10, 50, 100 and 150 mg L−1), 1–4-days post......-fertilization. Bactericidal effect of disinfection, survival to hatching, hatching success and larval abnormalities were assessed. Larval survival was recorded at 5-, 10- and 15-days post-hatch (dph). Although Baltic cod eggs have an unusually thin chorion, they could tolerate surface disinfection. A reduction in bacterial...... growth was observed with increased concentrations of disinfectant (3.0 × 107–1.6 × 101 CFU mL−1). Abnormalities in newly hatched larvae were not related to disinfection. Survival of the yolk sac larvae was significantly better for eggs treated with 400 mg L−1 glutaraldehyde for 10 min at 10 and 15 dph...

  8. Male reproductive competition in spawning aggregations of cod ( Gadus morhua , L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Hansen, Michael Møller; Loeschcke, V.

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive competition may lead to a large skew in reproductive success among individuals. Very few studies have analysed the paternity contribution of individual males in spawning aggregations of fish species with huge census population sizes. We quantified the variance in male reproductive...... success in spawning aggregations of cod under experimental conditions over an entire spawning season. Male reproductive success was estimated by microsatellite-based parentage analysis of offspring produced in six separate groups of spawning cod. In total, 1340 offspring and 102 spawnings distributed...... across a spawning season were analysed. Our results show that multiple males contributed sperm to most spawnings but that paternity frequencies were highly skewed among males, with larger males on average siring higher proportions of offspring. It was further indicated that male reproductive success...

  9. Genome architecture enables local adaptation of Atlantic cod despite high connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, Julia M I; Berg, Paul R; Jonsson, Per R.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation to local conditions is a fundamental process in evolution; however, mechanisms maintaining local adaptation despite high gene flow are still poorly understood. Marine ecosystems provide a wide array of diverse habitats that frequently promote ecological adaptation even in species...... characterized by strong levels of gene flow. As one example, populations of the marine fish Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) are highly connected due to immense dispersal capabilities but nevertheless show local adaptation in several key traits. By combining population genomic analyses based on 12K single......-nucleotide polymorphisms with larval dispersal patterns inferred using a biophysical ocean model, we show that Atlantic cod individuals residing in sheltered estuarine habitats of Scandinavian fjords mainly belong to offshore oceanic populations with considerable connectivity between these diverse ecosystems. Nevertheless...

  10. Fish stories: cod, oil and gas turn about to be hard to mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, W.

    2000-01-01

    In 1992 the Government of Canada gave the green light for the start of construction of the Hibernia oil platform; in the same year moratorium on cod fishing was declared. Hibernia ushered in a new era of growth in Atlantic Canada, the moratorium put an end to cod exports for a period of seven years. Environmental activist believe that the two events are not unrelated; after-effects of the Hibernia development played a role in reducing fish stocks and likely to inhibit their recovery. The environmental group 'Save our Seas and Shores' (SOSS) claims that seismic work and drilling are likely to interfere with the migration patterns of young cod, forcing them to spawn in areas that are not safe for egg maturity. According to SOSS, the future of cod fishing is in danger of destruction by further exploration and development in spawning nursery and migratory areas. The group is claiming support from a Nova Scotia government review of two marine ecosystems both of which were declared too delicate to withstand the effects of oil and gas activity. SOSS, supported by a coalition of fishery, native, environmental and tourism groups is determined to halt petroleum exploration along the western coast of Cape Breton Island. In the meantime, the Atlantic Petroleum Institute, first opened in Nova Scotia, and now in the process of expanding into Newfoundland, supported by industry and the Canada Atlantic Opportunities Council, has been assured of funding for a period of five years to develop education and training programs, organize forums for discussion, debate and problem solving, and coordinate research and development. The Institute hopes that SOSS will want to participate in finding solutions to the problems of fisheries that are acceptable to both petroleum and fishing industry interests

  11. Reducing COD level on oily effluent by utilizing biosurfactant-producing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Franco Carvalho Jacobucci

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Two bacteria isolated from crude oil contaminated soil, Pantoea agglomerans and Planococcus citreus, produced biosurfactants utilizing 1.5% of kerosene and olive oil as the sole carbon sources, respectively. The bacteria and the biosurfactants produced were introduced to oily effluent, arising from margarine and soap industry. Emulsification activities were determined by increases in the absorbance of the oil-in-water emulsions at 610 nm, whereas the water-in-oil emulsions were expressed as the height (cm of the emulsion layers formed. The 72 h incubation experiment resulted in a COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand reduction of 76% with Planococcus citreus strain and 70% with Pantoea agglomerans.The COD reduction with bacterial biosurfactants was over 50% in 24 h of incubation. The COD reduction showed that these strains and the surfactants produced could be used in bioremediation processes.Duas bactérias isoladas de solo contaminado com derivados de petróleo, Pantoea agglomerans e Planococcus citreus, produzem biosurfactantes utilizando respectivamente 1.5% de querosene e óleo de oliva como únicas fontes de carbono. As bactérias e os biosurfactantes produzidos foram adicionados a um efluente oleoso obtido de uma indústria nacional de sabão e margarina. As atividades de emulsificação foram determinadas pelo aumento da absorbância das emulsões óleo em água a 610 nm, enquanto que as emulsões do tipo água em óleo foram expressas em centímetros, pela altura do halo de espumas formado. A redução da demanda química de oxigênio (COD mostra que as linhagens e os biosurfactantes produzidos podem ser utilizados em processos de biorremediação.

  12. Coastal landforms and processes at the Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts—A primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Graham S.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Adams, Mark

    2015-12-17

    Anyone who spends more than a few days on Cape Cod (the Cape) quickly becomes a coastal geologist, quickly learning the rhythms of daily tides and the seasonal cycles of beaches growing and being swept away by storms; swimmers and surfers track how the breakers appear, and dog-walkers notice the hard-packed sand blanketed overnight by an airy layer that leaves deep labored tracks.

  13. Exploring the Effect of Phage Therapy in Preventing Vibrio anguillarum Infections in Cod and Turbot Larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbo, Nanna; Rønneseth, Anita; Kalatzis, Panos G.

    2018-01-01

    The aquaculture industry is suffering from losses associated with bacterial infections by opportunistic pathogens. Vibrio anguillarum is one of the most important pathogens, causing vibriosis in fish and shellfish cultures leading to high mortalities and economic losses. Bacterial resistance to a...... KVP40, demonstrating that the phage could also reduce mortality imposed by the background population of pathogens. Overall, phage-mediated reduction in mortality of cod and turbot larvae in experimental challenge assays with V. anguillarum pathogens suggested that application of broad...

  14. Historical ecology provides new insights for ecosystem management: Eastern Baltic cod case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Ojaveer, Henn; Eero, Margit

    2011-01-01

    A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass and recru......A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass...... catch data from the late 1500s to early 1600s also contributed new perspectives to cod population dynamics under alternative ecosystem forcings. These new perspectives have contributed, and will likely continue to contribute to new management policies (e.g., revision of fishery management reference...... points), which should lead to higher sustainability of the population and fishery yields, and improved overall ecosystem health. These perspectives will likely continue to provide baseline information as ICES and the EU develop new policies based on maximum sustainable yield concepts....

  15. Optimizing TOC and COD removal for the biodiesel wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanattı, N. Pınar; Şengil, İ. Ayhan; Özdemir, Abdil

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the total organic carbon content (TOC) in biodiesel wastewater iron and aluminum electrodes arranged in a bipolar position. In the EC of the biodiesel wastewater, the effects of the supporting electrolyte, initial pH, electrolysis time and current density were examined. The results showed that the majority of the pollutants in the biodiesel wastewater were effectively removed when the iron or aluminum electrodes were used as a sacrificial anode. The highest COD and TOC removal efficiencies were successfully obtained with the iron electrode. COD removal efficiencies are 91.74 and 90.94% for iron and aluminum electrode, respectively. In the same way, TOC removal efficiencies were obtained as 91.79 and 91.98% for the iron and aluminum electrodes, respectively, at initial pH of 6, the current density of 0.3226 mA/cm2, NaCl concentration 1 g/L and 1 min of operating time.

  16. Reduction of COD in wastewater from an organized tannery industrial region by Electro-Fenton process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurt, Ugur; Apaydin, Omer; Gonullu, M. Talha

    2007-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have led the way in the treatment of aqueous waste and are rapidly becoming the chosen technology for many applications. In this paper, COD reduction potential of leather tanning industry wastewaters by Electro-Fenton (EF) oxidation, as one of the AOPs, was experimentally evaluated. The wastewater sample was taken from an outlet of an equalization basin in a common treatment plant of an organized tannery industrial region in Istanbul, Turkey. Treatment of the wastewater was carried out by an electrochemical batch reactor equipped with two iron electrodes, which were connected parallel to each other. The oxidation process was studied for optimization of H 2 O 2 and the electricity consumptions were observed at different contact times under different pH conditions (3.0, 5.0 and 7.2). In each case, electricity consumption for decreased COD mass was estimated. In this process, COD was reduced by 60-70% within 10 min. By taking into consideration the local sewerage discharge limit, applicability of EF process for the tannery wastewaters was evaluated

  17. Reduction of COD in wastewater from an organized tannery industrial region by Electro-Fenton process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, Ugur [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ukurt@yildiz.edu.tr; Apaydin, Omer [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: apaydin@yildiz.edu.tr; Gonullu, M. Talha [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: gonul@yildiz.edu.tr

    2007-05-08

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have led the way in the treatment of aqueous waste and are rapidly becoming the chosen technology for many applications. In this paper, COD reduction potential of leather tanning industry wastewaters by Electro-Fenton (EF) oxidation, as one of the AOPs, was experimentally evaluated. The wastewater sample was taken from an outlet of an equalization basin in a common treatment plant of an organized tannery industrial region in Istanbul, Turkey. Treatment of the wastewater was carried out by an electrochemical batch reactor equipped with two iron electrodes, which were connected parallel to each other. The oxidation process was studied for optimization of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the electricity consumptions were observed at different contact times under different pH conditions (3.0, 5.0 and 7.2). In each case, electricity consumption for decreased COD mass was estimated. In this process, COD was reduced by 60-70% within 10 min. By taking into consideration the local sewerage discharge limit, applicability of EF process for the tannery wastewaters was evaluated.

  18. Integrative genomic analysis identifies isoleucine and CodY as regulators of Listeria monocytogenes virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Lobel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacterial pathogens are metabolically adapted to grow within mammalian cells. While these adaptations are fundamental to the ability to cause disease, we know little about the relationship between the pathogen's metabolism and virulence. Here we used an integrative Metabolic Analysis Tool that combines transcriptome data with genome-scale metabolic models to define the metabolic requirements of Listeria monocytogenes during infection. Twelve metabolic pathways were identified as differentially active during L. monocytogenes growth in macrophage cells. Intracellular replication requires de novo synthesis of histidine, arginine, purine, and branch chain amino acids (BCAAs, as well as catabolism of L-rhamnose and glycerol. The importance of each metabolic pathway during infection was confirmed by generation of gene knockout mutants in the respective pathways. Next, we investigated the association of these metabolic requirements in the regulation of L. monocytogenes virulence. Here we show that limiting BCAA concentrations, primarily isoleucine, results in robust induction of the master virulence activator gene, prfA, and the PrfA-regulated genes. This response was specific and required the nutrient responsive regulator CodY, which is known to bind isoleucine. Further analysis demonstrated that CodY is involved in prfA regulation, playing a role in prfA activation under limiting conditions of BCAAs. This study evidences an additional regulatory mechanism underlying L. monocytogenes virulence, placing CodY at the crossroads of metabolism and virulence.

  19. Vitamin D, cod-liver oil, sunlight, and rickets: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Kumaravel

    2003-08-01

    Rickets, a disease of vitamin D deficiency, is rarely confronted by the practicing pediatrician in the United States today. At the turn of the 20th century, rickets was rampant among the poor children living in the industrialized and polluted northern cities of the United States. With the discovery of vitamin D and the delineation of the anti-rachitic properties of cod-liver oil by the 1930s, it became possible to not only treat but also eradicate rickets in the United States. Rickets was a common disease in 17th century England. Frances Glisson's treatise on rickets published in 1650, a glorious contribution to English medicine, described the clinical and anatomic features of rickets in great detail. The exact etiology of rickets had been elusive until the 1920s. During the Glissonian era, rickets was a mysterious disease. By the late 19th and early 20th century, faulty diet or faulty environment (poor hygiene, lack of fresh air and sunshine) or lack of exercise was implicated in its etiology. Animal experiments, appreciation of folklore advocating the benefits of cod-liver oil, and the geographical association of rickets to lack of sunshine were all relevant factors in the advancement of knowledge in the conquest of this malady. In this article, the history of rickets pertaining to the discovery of vitamin D, cod-liver oil, and sunlight is reviewed.

  20. Removal of colour and COD from wastewater containing acid blue 22 by electrochemical oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panizza, Marco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo ' G.B. Bonino' , Universita degli Studi di Genova, p.le J.F. Kennedy 1, 16129 Genova (Italy)], E-mail: marco.panizza@unige.it; Cerisola, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo ' G.B. Bonino' , Universita degli Studi di Genova, p.le J.F. Kennedy 1, 16129 Genova (Italy)

    2008-05-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of synthetic wastewater containing acid blue 22 on a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) was studied, using cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis. The influence of current density, dye concentration, flow rate, and temperature was investigated, in order to find the best conditions for COD and colour removal. It was found that, during oxidation, a polymeric film, causing BDD deactivation, was formed in the potential region of water stability, and that it was removed by anodic polarisation at high potentials in the region of O{sub 2} evolution. Bulk electrolysis results showed that the electrochemical process was suitable for completely removing COD and effectively decolourising wastewaters, due to the production of hydroxyl radicals on the diamond surface. In particular, under optimal experimental conditions of flow rates (i.e. 300 dm{sup 3} h{sup -1}) and current density (i.e. 20 mA cm{sup -2}), 97% of COD was removed in 12 h electrolysis, with 70 kWh m{sup -3}energy consumption.

  1. Removal of colour and COD from wastewater containing acid blue 22 by electrochemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panizza, Marco; Cerisola, Giacomo

    2008-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of synthetic wastewater containing acid blue 22 on a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) was studied, using cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis. The influence of current density, dye concentration, flow rate, and temperature was investigated, in order to find the best conditions for COD and colour removal. It was found that, during oxidation, a polymeric film, causing BDD deactivation, was formed in the potential region of water stability, and that it was removed by anodic polarisation at high potentials in the region of O 2 evolution. Bulk electrolysis results showed that the electrochemical process was suitable for completely removing COD and effectively decolourising wastewaters, due to the production of hydroxyl radicals on the diamond surface. In particular, under optimal experimental conditions of flow rates (i.e. 300 dm 3 h -1 ) and current density (i.e. 20 mA cm -2 ), 97% of COD was removed in 12 h electrolysis, with 70 kWh m -3 energy consumption

  2. Understanding Global Supply Chains and Seafood Markets for the Rebuilding Prospects of Northern Gulf Cod Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Khan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although fisheries production and seafood trade are global in scope, with billions of dollars in exports, the rebuilding of collapsed fisheries often focus on national fisheries policy and management measures, with little attention to global supply chains and international consumer markets. Even with two moratoria and two decades of policy changes since the Northern Gulf cod fisheries collapsed in eastern Canada, rebuilding has stalled and the fishing industry and coastal communities continue to undergo challenges with economic viability and resource sustainability. This paper examines and analyzes the global supply chain and marketing dimension of Northern Gulf cod fisheries. Drawing upon fisheries bioeconomics and governance theory, a pre- and post-collapse analysis is undertaken to understand key drivers and institutional mechanisms along global fish supply chains for an effective and successful rebuilding. Findings indicate that the collapse of the cod fishery has cascading effects that go beyond ecosystem changes to new harvesting activities, industry restructuring, supply chain reorganization, new global markets and consumer preference for certified seafood. This suggests that a holistic rebuilding approach is necessary, one that integrates institutional and behavioral changes for both producers and consumers at various scales of fisheries production, political economy issues, as well as cross-scale policies on marine conservation and regional economic development.

  3. Development of new concepts for escape windows to minimise cod catches in Norway lobster fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René

    2010-01-01

    Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused particul......Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused...... particularly on moving the window further back, gaining more stability in the codend to avoid loss of Norway lobster through the window, making a relatively narrow section where the window is located, and testing larger mesh sizes in the window. We designed a four panel sorting section—the sorting box......, but no improvement was observed for cod that came into contact with the window after reducing the distance from the window to the codline. The sorting box also showed a high reduction of flatfish and other roundfish species. The retention of Norway lobster above minimum landing size in the sorting box was higher...

  4. A bio-economic analysis of harvest control rules for the Northeast Arctic cod fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikeset, Anne Maria; Richter, Andries P; Dankel, Dorothy J; Dunlop, Erin S; Heino, Mikko; Dieckmann, Ulf; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2013-05-01

    Harvest control rules (HCRs) have been implemented for many fisheries worldwide. However, in most instances, those HCRs are not based on the explicit feedbacks between stock properties and economic considerations. This paper develops a bio-economic model that evaluates the HCR adopted in 2004 by the Joint Norwegian-Russian Fishery Commission to manage the world's largest cod stock, Northeast Arctic cod (NEA). The model considered here is biologically and economically detailed, and is the first to compare the performance of the stock's current HCR with that of alternative HCRs derived with optimality criteria. In particular, HCRs are optimized for economic objectives including fleet profits, economic welfare, and total yield and the emerging properties are analyzed. The performance of these optimal HCRs was compared with the currently used HCR. This paper show that the current HCR does in fact comes very close to maximizing profits. Furthermore, the results reveal that the HCR that maximizes profits is the most precautionary one among the considered HCRs. Finally, the HCR that maximizes yield leads to un-precautionary low levels of biomass. In these ways, the implementation of the HCR for NEA cod can be viewed as a success story that may provide valuable lessons for other fisheries.

  5. A Novel Method for Predicting Anisakid Nematode Infection of Atlantic Cod Using Rough Set Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wąsikowska, Barbara; Sobecka, Ewa; Bielat, Iwona; Legierko, Monika; Więcaszek, Beata

    2018-03-01

    Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) is one of the most important fish species in the fisheries industries of many countries; however, these fish are often infected with parasites. The detection of pathogenic larval nematodes is usually performed in fish processing facilities by visual examination using candling or by digesting muscles in artificial digestive juices, but these methods are both time and labor intensive. This article presents an innovative approach to the analysis of cod parasites from both the Atlantic and Baltic Sea areas through the application of rough set theory, one of the methods of artificial intelligence, for the prediction of food safety in a food production chain. The parasitological examinations were performed focusing on nematode larvae pathogenic to humans, e.g., Anisakis simplex, Contracaecum osculatum, and Pseudoterranova decipiens. The analysis allowed identification of protocols with which it is possible to make preliminary estimates of the quantity and quality of parasites found in cod catches before detailed analyses are performed. The results indicate that the method used can be an effective analytical tool for these types of data. To achieve this goal, a database is needed that contains the patterns intensity of parasite infections and the conditions of commercial fish species in different localities in their distributions.

  6. Improving bioelectricity generation and COD removal of sewage sludge in microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Atieh; Yousefi Kebria, Daryoush; Darzi, Ghasem Najafpour

    2018-05-01

    Improving wastewater treatment process and water desalination are two important solutions for increasing the available supply of fresh water. Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) with common electrolytes display relatively low organic matter removal and high cost. In this study, sewage sludge was used as the substrate in the Microbial desalination cell (MDC) under three different initial salt concentrations (5, 20 and 35 g.L -1 ) and the maximum salt removal rates of 50.6%, 64% and 69.6% were obtained under batch condition, respectively. The MDC also produced the maximum power density of 47.1 W m -3 and the averaged chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 58.2 ± 0.89% when the initial COD was 6610 ± 83 mg L -1 . Employing treated sludge as catholyte enhanced COD removal and power density to 87.3% and 54.4 W m -3 , respectively, with counterbalancing pH variation in treated effluent. These promising results showed, for the first time, that the excess sewage sludge obtained from biological wastewater treatment plants could be successfully used as anolyte and catholyte in MDC, achieving organic matter biodegradation along with salt removal and energy production. In addition, using treated sludge as catholyte will improve the performance of MDC and introduce a more effective method for both sludge treatment and desalination.

  7. Assessing the Role of Environmental Factors on Baltic Cod Recruitment, a Complex Adaptive System Emergent Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysis Krekoukiotis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For decades, fish recruitment has been a subject of intensive research with stock–recruitment models commonly used for recruitment prediction often only explaining a small fraction of the inter-annual recruitment variation. The use of environmental information to improve our ability to predict recruitment, could contribute considerably to fisheries management. However, the problem remains difficult because the mechanisms behind such complex relationships are often poorly understood; this in turn, makes it difficult to determine the forecast estimation robustness, leading to the failure of some relationships when new data become available. The utility of machine learning algorithms such as artificial neural networks (ANNs for solving complex problems has been demonstrated in aquatic studies and has led many researchers to advocate ANNs as an attractive, non-linear alternative to traditional statistical methods. The goal of this study is to design a Baltic cod recruitment model (FishANN that can account for complex ecosystem interactions. To this end, we (1 build a quantitative model representation of the conceptual understanding of the complex ecosystem interactions driving Baltic cod recruitment dynamics, and (2 apply the model to strengthen the current capability to project future changes in Baltic cod recruitment. FishANN is demonstrated to bring multiple stressors together into one model framework and estimate the relative importance of these stressors while interpreting the complex nonlinear interactions between them. Additional requirements to further improve the current study in the future are also proposed.

  8. Using interview-based recall surveys to estimate cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla harvest in Danish recreational fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Storr-Paulsen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Using interview-based recall surveys to estimate cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla harvest in Danish recreational fishing. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 323–330.Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor activity in Denmark, practised by both anglers and passive gear fishers....... However, the impact on the targeted stocks is unknown, so to estimate the 2009 harvest of cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla, two separate interview-based surveys were initiated and carried out in 2009/2010. The first recall survey exclusively targeted fishers who had been issued......, in certain areas, the recreational harvest of cod accounted for more than 30% of the total yield. The majority (81%) of the recreational cod harvest was taken by anglers. Eels, however, are almost exclusively caught with passive gear (fykenets) and a total of 104 t year−1 was harvested, which corresponds...

  9. The influence of ozonated time on the degree of depreciation of BOD, COD, TSS and phosphate in hospital liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isyuniarto and Andrianto

    2009-01-01

    The influence of ozonated time towards degree depreciation of Bode, COD, TSS and phosphate in hospital liquid waste was done. This research aim study influence of lime adding and ozone using to reduce of BOD, COD, TSS and phosphate in hospital waste. Added of lime mean for total increase ion OH - , while parameter of ozonization time mean to complete organic compounds oxidation in waste and flock formation. From this research it was found that optimum lime addition was 1.1% (% weight) and ozonization time was 20 minutes. In this condition it was achieved degree of BOD = 18.88 mg/l; COD = 25.68 mg/l, TSS = 80 mg/l and phosphate = 1.52 mg/l. This condition fulfil quality standard decided, that has to BOD = 75 mg/l; COD = 100 mg/l, TSS = 100 mg/l and phosphate = 2.0 mg/l. (author)

  10. Comment Period for Proposed Remedy Selection Plan for Multiple Training Areas located at Joint Base Cape Cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is seeking public comment on the EPA’s proposal indicating no further action is needed for multiple Training Areas on the Camp Edwards portion of Joint Base Cape Cod (JBCC).

  11. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Hurst: Contrasting coastal and shelf nursery habitats of Pacific cod in the southeastern Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a study examining the use of demersal and pelagic habitats in the southeast Bering Sea by age-0 Pacific cod, based on 4 years of demersal trawl...

  12. Improving the size- and species selectivity of cod (Gadus morhua) in demersal mixed-species trawl fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    have been published in scientific journals and Paper 3 has been submitted to Fisheries Research. This review will take a broader perspective and will examine the capturing process, which is the basis for the selection process. Moreover, it discusses the existing methods and knowledge in the fields...... different species, including cod, are caught together. Demersal trawling is the predominant fishing method in Denmark, as measured by both catch value and volume. Demersal trawls also account for the highest discard rates of juvenile fish, including cod. The focus of this work was on improving......, and openings. The results show that the morphology-based simulations of size selectivity of cod can be used to explain a large part of both the within-haul and the between-haul variations previously reported from sea trials. The method can further predict the selection parameters (L50 and SR) for cod...

  13. Hydroacoustic resolution of small-scale vertical distribution in Baltic cod Gadus morhua - habitat choise and limits during spawning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaber, Matthias; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    to cod. The results showed a clear influence of ambient salinity and oxygen concentration on the distribution pattern and distributional limitation of cod during spawning time, and also consistency of data storage tag-derived distribution patterns with those based on individual echotracking. We therefore...... and hence the spatial structure of the ecosystem. Our aim here is to present a method to resolve small-scale distribution on an individual level, as needed for the behaviorally-based prediction of habitat choice and limits. We focused on the small-scale vertical distribution of cod Gadus morhua L....... in the Bornholm Basin, central Baltic Sea, during spawning time in 2 years with different vertical thermohaline and oxygen stratifications. Individual cod were identified by echotracking of real-time in situ hydroacoustic distribution data. In order to resolve and identify hydrographic preferences and limits...

  14. Anaerobic treatment of antibiotic production wastewater pretreated with enhanced hydrolysis: Simultaneous reduction of COD and ARGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qizhen; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yingxin; Tian, Zhe; Yang, Min

    2017-03-01

    The presence of high concentration antibiotics in wastewater can disturb the stability of biological wastewater treatment systems and promote generation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the treatment. To solve this problem, a pilot system consisting of enhanced hydrolysis pretreatment and an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor in succession was constructed for treating oxytetracycline production wastewater, and the performance was evaluated in a pharmaceutical factory in comparison with a full-scale anaerobic system operated in parallel. After enhanced hydrolysis under conditions of pH 7 and 85 °C for 6 h, oxytetracycline production wastewater with an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 11,086 ± 602 mg L -1 was directly introduced into the pilot UASB reactor. With the effective removal of oxytetracycline and its antibacterial potency (from 874 mg L -1 to less than 0.61 mg L -1 and from 900 mg L -1 to less than 0.84 mg L -1 , respectively) by the enhanced hydrolysis pretreatment, an average COD removal rate of 83.2%, 78.5% and 68.9% was achieved at an organic loading rate of 3.3, 4.8 and 5.9 kg COD m -3  d -1 , respectively. At the same time, the relative abundances of the total tetracycline (tet) genes and a mobile element (Class 1 integron (intI1)) in anaerobic sludge on day 96 were one order of magnitude lower than those in inoculated sludge on day 0 (P anaerobic system treating oxytetracycline production wastewater with an influent COD of 3720 ± 128 mg L -1 after dilution exhibited a COD removal of 51 ± 4% at an organic loading rate (OLR) 1.2 ± 0.2 kg m -3  d -1 , and a total tet gene abundance in sludge was five times higher than the pilot-scale system (P anaerobic treatment of oxytetracycline production wastewater containing high concentrations of oxytetracycline with significantly lower generation of ARGs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of feed COD/sulfate ratio as a control criterion for the biological hydrogen sulfide production and lead precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, Antonio; Ramirez, Martha; Volke-Sepulveda, Tania; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Armando; Revah, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to produce hydrogen sulfide and the high affinity of sulfide to react with divalent metallic cations represent an excellent option to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Different parameters have been proposed to control the hydrogen sulfide production by anaerobic bacteria, such as the organic and sulfate loading rates and the feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio. This work relates the feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio with the hydrogen sulfide production and dissolved lead precipitation, using ethanol as carbon and energy source in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. A maximum dissolved sulfide concentration of 470 ± 7 mg S/L was obtained at a feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 2.5, with sulfate and ethanol conversions of approximately 94 and 87%, respectively. The lowest dissolved sulfide concentration (145 ± 10 mg S/L) was observed with a feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 0.67. Substantial amounts of acetate (510-1730 mg/L) were produced and accumulated in the bioreactor from ethanol oxidation. Although only incomplete oxidation of ethanol to acetate was observed, the consortium was able to remove 99% of the dissolved lead (200 mg/L) with a feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 1.5. It was found that the feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio could be an adequate parameter to control the hydrogen sulfide production and the consequent precipitation of dissolved lead

  16. COD fractions changes in the SBR-type reactor treating municipal wastewater with controlled percentage of dairy sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struk-Sokołowska Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the influence of percentage of dairy wastewater in the municipal wastewater on the changes of COD fractions during the cycle of SBR-type reactor. The scope of the research included physicochemical analyses of municipal wastewater without dairy wastewater, dairy wastewater, mixture of municipal and dairy wastewater as well as treated sewage. Both the concentrations and the proportions between COD fractions changed in the SBR cycle. In raw municipal and dairy wastewater - XS, insoluble hardly bio-degradable fraction of COD dominated (49.6 and 64.5% respectively. In treated wastewater SI, COD for dissolved compounds that are not biologically decomposed (inert (from 62.1 to 74.6% dominated, while XS fraction was from 19.1 to 24.4%. The consumption rate of organic compounds depended on the type of COD fraction, SBR cycle phase and the percentage of dairy wastewater. The highest rates of organic compounds consumption were noted in the phase of mixing. In the case of fraction SI, no differences in concentration in the SBR cycle time, were found. Concentration of COD in treated wastewater was from 34.8 to 58.9 mgO2·L-1 (efficiency wastewater treatment from 96.0 to 98.6%.

  17. Satellite monitoring temperature conditions spawning area of the Northeast Arctic cod in the Norwegian Sea and assessment its abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyushin, George; Bulatova, Tatiana; Klochkov, Dmitriy; Troshkov, Anatoliy; Kruzhalov, Michail

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the attempt to consider the relationship between sea surface anomalies of temperature (SST anomalies °C) in spawning area of the Norwegian Arctic cod off the Lofoten islands in coastal zone of the Norwegian Sea and modern cod total stock biomass including forecasting assessment of future cod generation success. Continuous long-term database of the sea surface temperature (SST) was created on the NOAA satellites data. Mean monthly SST and SST anomalies are computed for the selected area on the basis of the weekly SST maps for the period of 1998-2012. These maps were plotted with the satellite SST data, as well as information of vessels, byoies and coastal stations. All data were classified by spawning seasons (March-April) and years. The results indicate that poor and low middle generations of cod (2001, 2006, 2007) occurred in years with negative or extremely high positive anomalies in the spawning area. The SST anomalies in years which were close to normal or some more normal significances provide conditions for appearance strong or very strong generations of cod (1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009). Temperature conditions in concrete years influence on different indexes of cod directly. So, the mean temperature in spawning seasons in years 1999-2005 was ≈5,0°C and SST anomaly - +0,35°C, by the way average year significances indexes of cod were: total stock biomass - 1425,0 th.t., total spawning biomass - 460,0 th.t., recruitment (age 3+) - 535,0 mln. units and landings - 530,0 th.t. In spawning seasons 2006-2012 years the average data were following: mean SST ≈6,0°C, SST anomaly - +1,29°C, total stock biomass - 2185,0 th.t., total spawning biomass - 1211,0 th.t., recruitment (age 3+) - 821,0 mln. units and landings - 600,0 th.t. The SST and SST anomalies (the NOAA satellite data) characterize increase of decrease in input of warm Atlantic waters which form numerous eddies along the flows of the main warm currents thus creating

  18. Improvement of municipal wastewater pretreatment by direct membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Thiago A; Mejía, Fanny R; Fdz-Polanco, Fernando; Peña Miranda, Mar

    2017-10-01

    The high content of particulate matter in municipal wastewater hinders the conventional anaerobic treatments at psychrophilic temperatures. The hydrolysis of the particulate chemical oxygen demand (pCOD) could be the limiting step under these conditions. Therefore, new pretreatments or improved conventional pretreatments are needed in order to separate pCOD. In this work, direct membrane filtration of municipal wastewater, using an ultrafiltration membrane, was investigated. This intensive pretreatment, which aims to separate soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and to concentrate pCOD, together with anaerobic treatments of both streams at psychrophilic and mesophilic conditions respectively, could be an alternative to the conventional activated sludge process. The obtained results show a removal yield of 24.9% of the total solids (TS) and 45% of total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD), obtaining a permeate free of suspended solids. This physical removal implies the accumulation of solids inside the membrane tank, reaching the values of 45.4 and 4.4 g/L of TS in the sedimentation and filtration sections, respectively. The membrane operated with filtration, backwashing cycles and continuous gas sparging, with a permeate flux predominantly around 10 L/(m 2  h). The results show the viability of the technology to concentrate pCOD and so to improve energy recovery from municipal wastewater.

  19. Nanosuspension Technology for Solubilizing Poorly Soluble Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Deoli Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    Poor water solubility for many drugs and drug candidates remains a major obstacle to their development and clinical application. It is estimated that around 40% of drugs in the pipeline cannot be delivered through the preferred route or in some cases, at all owing to poor water solubility. Conventional formulations to improve solubility suffer from low bioavailability and poor pharmacokinetics, with some carriers rendering systemic toxicities (e.g. Cremophor1 EL). To date, nanoscale systems f...

  20. Soluble theory with massive ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the unitarity of asymptotically free, higher-derivative theories, like certain models of quantum gravity, I study a prototype in two space-time dimensions. The prototype is a kind of higher-derivative nonlinear sigma model; it is asymptotically free, exhibits dimensional transmutation, and is soluble in a large-N expansion. The S-matrix elements, constructed from the analytic continuation of the Euclidean Green's functions, conserve probability to approx.O(N -1 ), but violate unitarity at approx.O(N -2 ). The model demonstrates that in higher-derivative theories unitarity, or the lack thereof, cannot be decided without explicit control over the infrared limit. Even so, the results suggest that there may exist some (rather special) asymptotically free, higher-derivative theories which are unitary

  1. Contracaecum osculatum and other anisakid nematodes in grey seals and cod in the Baltic Sea: molecular and ecological links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, S; Kania, P W; Mehrdana, F; Marana, M H; Buchmann, K

    2018-01-01

    Populations of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), sprats (Sprattus sprattus) and cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea are relatively stationary. The present work, applying classical and molecular helminthological techniques, documents that seals and cod also share a common parasite, the anisakid nematode Contracaecum osculatum, which uses seals as the final host and fish as transport hosts. Sequencing mitochondrial genes (COX1 and COX2) in adult worms from seals and third-stage larvae from livers of Baltic fish (sprats and cod), showed that all gene variants occur in both seals and fish. Other anisakid nematodes Pseudoterranova decipiens and Anisakis simplex are also found in both seals and cod in the Baltic Sea, but at much lower rates. The Baltic grey seal population was left at a critically low level (comprising a few hundred individuals) during the latter part of the 20th century, but since the year 2000 a marked increase in the population has been observed, reaching more than 40,000 individuals at present. Ecological consequences of the increased seal abundance may result from increased predation on fish stocks, but recent evidence also points to the influence of elevated parasitism on fish performance. Contracaecum osculatum larvae preferentially infect the liver of Baltic cod, considered a vital organ of the host. Whereas low prevalences and intensities in cod were reported during the 1980s and 1990s, the present study documents 100% prevalence and a mean intensity of above 80 worms per fish. Recent studies have also indicated the zoonotic potential of C. osculatum larvae in fish, following the consumption of raw or under-cooked fish. Therefore the present work discusses the impact of parasitism on the cod stock and the increasing risk for consumer health, and lists possible solutions for control.

  2. Issues concerning the determination of solubility products of sparingly soluble crystalline solids. Solubility of HfO2(cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Kitamura, Akira; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sasaki, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Taishi

    2016-01-01

    Solubility studies were conducted with HfO 2 (cr) solid as a function HCl and ionic strength ranging from 2.0 to 0.004 mol kg -1 . These studies involved (1) using two different amounts of the solid phase, (2) acid washing the bulk solid phase, (3) preheating the solid phase to 1400 C, and (4) heating amorphous HfO 2 (am) suspensions to 90 C to ascertain whether the HfO 2 (am) converts to HfO 2 (cr) and to determine the solubility from the oversaturation direction. Based on the results of these treatments it is concluded that the HfO 2 (cr) contains a small fraction of less crystalline, but not amorphous, material [HfO 2 (lcr)] and this, rather than the HfO 2 (cr), is the solubility-controlling phase in the range of experimental variables investigated in this study. The solubility data are interpreted using both the Pitzer and SIT models and they provide log 10 K 0 values of -(59.75±0.35) and -(59.48±0.41), respectively, for the solubility product of HfO 2 (lcr)[HfO 2 (lcr) + 2H 2 O ↔ Hf 4+ + 4OH - ]. The log 10 of the solubility product of HfO 2 (cr) is estimated to be < -63. The observation of a small fraction of less crystalline higher solubility material is consistent with the general picture that mineral surfaces are often structurally and/or compositionally imperfect leading to a higher solubility than the bulk crystalline solid. This study stresses the urgent need, during interpretation of solubility data, of taking precautions to make certain that the observed solubility behavior for sparingly-soluble solids is assigned to the proper solid phase.

  3. Issues concerning the determination of solubility products of sparingly soluble crystalline solids. Solubility of HfO{sub 2}(cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Dhanpat [Rai Enviro-Chem, LLC, Yachats, OR (United States); Kitamura, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Rosso, Kevin M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Sasaki, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Taishi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Solubility studies were conducted with HfO{sub 2}(cr) solid as a function HCl and ionic strength ranging from 2.0 to 0.004 mol kg{sup -1}. These studies involved (1) using two different amounts of the solid phase, (2) acid washing the bulk solid phase, (3) preheating the solid phase to 1400 C, and (4) heating amorphous HfO{sub 2}(am) suspensions to 90 C to ascertain whether the HfO{sub 2}(am) converts to HfO{sub 2}(cr) and to determine the solubility from the oversaturation direction. Based on the results of these treatments it is concluded that the HfO{sub 2}(cr) contains a small fraction of less crystalline, but not amorphous, material [HfO{sub 2}(lcr)] and this, rather than the HfO{sub 2}(cr), is the solubility-controlling phase in the range of experimental variables investigated in this study. The solubility data are interpreted using both the Pitzer and SIT models and they provide log{sub 10} K{sup 0} values of -(59.75±0.35) and -(59.48±0.41), respectively, for the solubility product of HfO{sub 2}(lcr)[HfO{sub 2}(lcr) + 2H{sub 2}O ↔ Hf{sup 4+} + 4OH{sup -}]. The log{sub 10} of the solubility product of HfO{sub 2}(cr) is estimated to be < -63. The observation of a small fraction of less crystalline higher solubility material is consistent with the general picture that mineral surfaces are often structurally and/or compositionally imperfect leading to a higher solubility than the bulk crystalline solid. This study stresses the urgent need, during interpretation of solubility data, of taking precautions to make certain that the observed solubility behavior for sparingly-soluble solids is assigned to the proper solid phase.

  4. The Use of Electrocoagulation Process for Removal of Turbidity, COD, Detergent and Phosphorus from Carwash Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Takdastan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficiency of Electrical coagulation process in removal of COD, turbidity, detergent and phosphate from carwash effluent. An experimental study in laboratory scale was carried out and a glass tank with volume of 3 liters (effective volume of 2 liters containing 4 electrode-page iron and aluminum (AL-AL, AL-Fe, Fe-Fe were used. Electrodes were connected to a power supply with using bipolar method to convert alternative electricity to direct current. Daily samples were collected from different carwash effluents. Initial pH of samples were reported between 7 to 9.At first different tests were performed on primary samples. Percentage of removal was calculated in range pH and electrical potential of 11, 7, 3 and 30, 20, 10 volts respectively. Reaction times were set 90, 60, 30 minutes with middle intervals of 2 cm. The results showed the efficiency of COD removal in the optimum range of  pH=3, voltage of 30 and retention time of 90 minutes removal efficiency in pH of 7 after 90 minutes retention time, voltage of 30, with aluminum electrode reached more than 99%. According to the results obtained electrical energy consumption in aluminum electrodes was less than others. However aluminum is more expensive than iron and the difference in energy consumption between iron and aluminum can be ingnored. Apart from that COD and detergent removal efficiency of iron electrodes is higher than aluminum electrodes therefore, using iron as the electrode is more economical and recommended. Altogether it was found that this method can be use as a safe and convenient method for treating carwash effluent and according to the high removal efficiency of process, effluent can be discharged safely into the environment.

  5. Effect of Vermifiltration on COD and Color Removal from Textile Factories’ Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani D.1 PhD,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims Textile industries are among the manufactures which produce the highly polluted waste water. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of vermifiltration on COD and color removal from textile waste water. Materials & Methods This experimental research was performed March to August 2014 in one of the textile factories of Kashan region, Iran. The glass cubic kits with- without Eisenia fetida were used to filter the waste water samples. Data was analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and two-way analysis of variance in SPSS 19 statistical software. Findings The mean of COD concentration in the raw waste water samples was 1324.24±757.01mg/l which was decreased to 598.22±349.33 and 831.32±445.19mg/l after the experimental and control kits usage, respectively (p<0.001. The mean of color intensity in raw waste water samples was 51.2±30.6% which was decreased to 27.8±15.0 and 27.4±15.1% (p=0.635 in experimental and control kits, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between COD removal and hydraulic loads (p<0.001; r=-0.804 and a significant negative correlation between color removal and hydraulic loads (p<0.001; r=- 0.278 in both experimental and control kits. Conclusion The most important risk groups in our study were abattoir workers, butchers, housewives and students who handle infected animals.

  6. [Experimental research of turbidity influence on water quality monitoring of COD in UV-visible spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Wei, Biao; Wu, De-Cao; Mi, De-Ling; Zhao, Jing-Xiao; Feng, Peng; Jiang, Shang-Hai; Mao, Ben-Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Eliminating turbidity is a direct effect spectroscopy detection of COD key technical problems. This stems from the UV-visible spectroscopy detected key quality parameters depend on an accurate and effective analysis of water quality parameters analytical model, and turbidity is an important parameter that affects the modeling. In this paper, we selected formazine turbidity solution and standard solution of potassium hydrogen phthalate to study the turbidity affect of UV--visible absorption spectroscopy detection of COD, at the characteristics wavelength of 245, 300, 360 and 560 nm wavelength point several characteristics with the turbidity change in absorbance method of least squares curve fitting, thus analyzes the variation of absorbance with turbidity. The results show, In the ultraviolet range of 240 to 380 nm, as the turbidity caused by particle produces compounds to the organics, it is relatively complicated to test the turbidity affections on the water Ultraviolet spectra; in the visible region of 380 to 780 nm, the turbidity of the spectrum weakens with wavelength increases. Based on this, this paper we study the multiplicative scatter correction method affected by the turbidity of the water sample spectra calibration test, this method can correct water samples spectral affected by turbidity. After treatment, by comparing the spectra before, the results showed that the turbidity caused by wavelength baseline shift points have been effectively corrected, and features in the ultraviolet region has not diminished. Then we make multiplicative scatter correction for the three selected UV liquid-visible absorption spectroscopy, experimental results shows that on the premise of saving the characteristic of the Ultraviolet-Visible absorption spectrum of water samples, which not only improve the quality of COD spectroscopy detection SNR, but also for providing an efficient data conditioning regimen for establishing an accurate of the chemical measurement methods.

  7. The Northeast Greenland Shelf as a Potential Habitat for the Northeast Arctic Cod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjersti O. Strand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations (1978–1991 of distributions of pelagic juvenile Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua L. show that up to 1/3 of the year class are dispersed off the continental shelf and into the deep Norwegian Sea while on the way from the spring-spawning areas along the Norwegian coast to the autumn-settlement areas in the Barents Sea. The fate of this variable fraction of pelagic juveniles off-shelf has been an open question ever since Johan Hjort's (1914 seminal work. We have examined both the mechanisms causing offspring off-shelf transport, and their subsequent destiny using an individual-based biophysical model applied to quantify growth and dispersal. Our results show, consistently with the observations, that total off-shelf transport is highly variable between years and may be up to 27.4%. Offspring from spawning grounds around Lofoten have a higher chance of being displaced off the shelf. The off-shelf transport is dominated by episodic events where frequencies and dates vary between years. Northeasterly wind conditions over a 3–7-day period prior to the off-shelf events are a good proxy for dispersal of offspring off the shelf. Offspring transported into the open ocean are on average carried along three following routes: back onto the adjacent eastern shelves and into the Barents Sea (36.9%, recirculating within the Lofoten Basin (60.7%, or drifting northwest to the northeast Greenland shelf (2.4%. For the latter fraction the transport may exceed 12% depending on year. Recent investigations have discovered distributions of young cod on the northeast Greenland shelf indicating that conditions may support survival for Northeast Arctic cod offspring.

  8. Electrochemical oxidation of COD from real textile wastewaters: Kinetic study and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jiaxiu; Peng, Xiaolan; Li, Miao; Xiong, Ying; Wang, Bing; Dong, Faqin; Wang, Bin

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, the electrochemical oxidation of real wastewaters discharged by textile industry was carried out using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The effect of operational variables, such as applied current density (20-100 mA·cm -2 ), NaCl concentration added to the real wastewaters (0-3 g·L -1 ), and pH value (2.0-10.0), on the kinetics of COD oxidation and on the energy consumption was carefully investigated. The obtained experimental results could be well matched with a proposed kinetic model, in which the indirect oxidation mediated by electrogenerated strong oxidants would be described through a pseudo-first-order kinetic constant k. Values of k exhibited a linear increase with increasing applied current density and decreasing pH value, and an exponential increase with NaCl concentration. Furthermore, high oxidation kinetics resulted in low specific energy consumption, but this conclusion was not suitable to the results obtained under different applied current density. Under the optimum operational conditions, it only took 3 h to complete remove the COD in the real textile wastewaters and the specific energy consumption could be as low as 11.12 kWh·kg -1  COD. The obtained results, low energy consumption and short electrolysis time, allowed to conclude that the electrochemical oxidation based on BDD anodes would have practical industrial application for the treatment of real textile wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fishing cod in the Baltic Sea - Gambling with the ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Sven; Nordlöf, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The population of cod in the Baltic sea has over the last decades decreased due to overfishing. To make the students aware of this problem and also to find a solution they are introduced to a game. The purpose of the game is to let the students know how to use renewable natural resources in these aspects; 1 Fishing cod without using it up 2 That solidarity is needed if you are sharing a resource 3 That cooperation is the key to keeping a natural resource healthy. The students are fishermen in group of four and are equipped with a boat. The playing board is a map over the Baltic sea. The rules of the game include the carrying capacity of the sea, how much fish one fishing boat is allowed to pick up, how much it costs to have a boat, and possibilities to buy a bigger boat. The game has two rounds: In round one the students in the group are competing against each other, they are not allowed to talk to each other and they are supposed to get as much fish as they can. As a consequence after round one the sea will become empty. In round two the groups compete with each other and they are coworking within the group. After this round the result is different from the first round. The catches are bigger than in round one and still there are cod left in the sea, which will generate a good fishing in the future.. The discussions after the game can be about why the two rounds ended so different, general discussion about "tragedy of the commons", sustainable use of ecosystem services and discussions about resources in common.

  10. Extrusion of Contracaecum osculatum nematode larvae from the liver of cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, S; Barlaup, L; Mohammadkarami, A; Al-Jubury, A; Chen, D; Kania, P W; Buchmann, K

    2017-10-01

    Baltic cod livers have during recent years been found increasingly and heavily infected with third-stage larvae of Contracaecum osculatum. The infections are associated with an increasing population of grey seals which are final hosts for the parasite. Heavy worm burdens challenge utilization and safety of the fish liver products, and technological solutions for removal of worms are highly needed. We investigated the attachment of the worm larvae in liver tissue by use of histochemical techniques and found that the cod host encapsulates the worm larvae in layers of host cells (macrophages, fibroblasts) supported by enclosures of collagen and calcium. A series of incubation techniques, applying compounds targeting molecules in the capsule, were then tested for their effect to induce worm escape/release reactions. Full digestion solutions comprising pepsin, NaCl, HCl and water induced a fast escape of more than 60% of the worm larvae within 20 min and gave full release within 65 min but the liver tissue became highly dispersed. HCl alone, in concentrations of 48 and 72 mM, triggered a corresponding release of worm larvae with minor effect on liver integrity. A lower HCl concentration of 24 mM resulted in 80% release within 35 min. Water and physiological saline had no effect on worm release, and 1% pepsin in water elicited merely a weak escape reaction. In addition to the direct effect of acid on worm behaviour it is hypothesised that the acid effect on calcium carbonate in the encapsulation, with subsequent release of reaction products, may contribute to activation of C. osculatum larvae and induce escape reactions. Short-term pretreatment of infected cod liver and possibly other infected fish products, using low acid concentrations is suggested as part of a technological solution for worm clearance as low acid concentrations had limited macroscopic effect on liver integrity within 35 min.

  11. Optimization study for Pb(II) and COD sequestration by consortium of sulphate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anamika; Bishnoi, Narsi R.; Gupta, Asha

    2017-09-01

    In this study, initial minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Pb(II) ions was analysed to check optimum concentration of Pb(II) ions at which the growth of sulphate-reducing consortium (SRC) was found to be maximum. 80 ppm of Pb(II) ions was investigated as minimum inhibitory concentration for SRC. Influence of electron donors such as lactose, sucrose, glucose and sodium lactate was examined to investigate best carbon source for growth and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria. Sodium lactate was found to be the prime carbon source for SRC. Later optimization of various parameters was executed using Box-Behnken design model of response surface methodology to explore the effectiveness of three independent operating variables, namely, pH (5.0-9.0), temperature (32-42 °C) and time (5.0-9.0 days), on dependent variables, i.e. protein content, precipitation of Pb(II) ions, and removal of COD by SRC biomass. Maximum removal of COD and Pb(II) was observed to be 91 and 98 %, respectively, at pH 7.0 and temperature 37 °C and incubation time 7 days. According to response surface analysis and analysis of variance, the experimental data were perfectly fitted to the quadratic model, and the interactive influence of pH, temperature and time on Pb(II) and COD removal was highly significant. A high regression coefficient between the variables and response ( r 2 = 0.9974) corroborate eminent evaluation of experimental data by second-order polynomial regression model. SEM and Fourier transform infrared analysis was performed to investigate morphology of PbS precipitates, sorption mechanism and involved functional groups in metal-free and metal-loaded biomass of SRC for Pb(II) binding.

  12. Retrograde curves of solidus and solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, M.V.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation was concerned with the constitutional diagrams of the eutectic type with ''retrograde solidus'' and ''retrograde solubility curve'' which must be considered as diagrams with degenerate monotectic transformation. The solidus and the solubility curves form a retrograde curve with a common retrograde point representing the solubility maximum. The two branches of the Aetrograde curve can be described with the aid of two similar equations. Presented are corresponding equations for the Cd-Zn system and shown is the possibility of predicting the run of the solubility curve

  13. Solubility limits of importance to leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogard, A.; Bentley, G.; Bryant, E.; Duffy, C.; Grisham, J.; Norris, E.; Orth, C.; Thomas, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solubilities of some radionuclides, especially rare earths and actinides, may be an important and controlling factor in leaching of waste forms. These solubilities should be measured accurately as a function of pH and not as a part of a multicomponent system. Individual solubilities should be measured as a function of temperature to determine if a kinetic effect is being observed in the data. A negative temperature coefficient of solubility for actinides and rare earths in water would have important consequences for nuclear reactor safety and for the management of nuclear wastes

  14. Conserving marine biodiversity: insights from life-history trait candidate genes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Meldrup, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological developments have facilitated an increased focus on identifying genomic regions underlying adaptive trait variation in natural populations, and it has been advocated that this information should be important for designating population units for conservation. In marine fishes...... are under selection in natural populations of Atlantic cod. Furthermore, we find that patterns of variation in outlier markers do not align with those observed at selectively neutral markers, and that outlier markers identify conservation units on finer geographical scales than those revealed when analysing...... only neutral markers. Accordingly, results also suggest that information about adaptive genetic variation will be useful for targeted conservation and management in this and other marine species...

  15. Prediction of vertical distribution and ambient development temperature of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L., eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Jarre, Astrid

    1997-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model was established to predict the vertical distribution of Baltic cod eggs. Data from vertical distribution sampling in the Bornholm Basin over the period 1986-1995 were used to train and test the network, while data sets from sampling in 1996 were used...... for validation. The model explained 82% of the variance between observed and predicted relative frequencies of occurrence of the eggs in relation to salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration; The ANN fitted all observations satisfactorily except for one sampling date, where an exceptional hydrographic...

  16. Development of a SNP resource and a genetic linkage map for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Brent

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species with increasing economic significance for the aquaculture industry. The genetic improvement of cod will play a critical role in achieving successful large-scale aquaculture. While many microsatellite markers have been developed in cod, the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is currently limited. Here we report the identification of SNPs from sequence data generated by a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST program, focusing on fish originating from Canadian waters. Results A total of 97976 ESTs were assembled to generate 13448 contigs. We detected 4753 SNPs that met our selection criteria (depth of coverage ≥ 4 reads; minor allele frequency > 25%. 3072 SNPs were selected for testing. The percentage of successful assays was 75%, with 2291 SNPs amplifying correctly. Of these, 607 (26% SNPs were monomorphic for all populations tested. In total, 64 (4% of SNPs are likely to represent duplicated genes or highly similar members of gene families, rather than alternative alleles of the same gene, since they showed a high frequency of heterozygosity. The remaining polymorphic SNPs (1620 were categorised as validated SNPs. The mean minor allele frequency of the validated loci was 0.258 (± 0.141. Of the 1514 contigs from which validated SNPs were selected, 31% have a significant blast hit. For the SNPs predicted to occur in coding regions (141, we determined that 36% (51 are non-synonymous. Many loci (1033 SNPs; 64% are polymorphic in all populations tested. However a small number of SNPs (184 that are polymorphic in the Western Atlantic were monomorphic in fish tested from three European populations. A preliminary linkage map has been constructed with 23 major linkage groups and 924 mapped SNPs. Conclusions These SNPs represent powerful tools to accelerate the genetic improvement of cod aquaculture. They have been used to build a genetic linkage map that can be applied to

  17. Using alternative biological information in stock assessment: condition-corrected natural mortality of Eastern Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casini, Michele; Eero, Margit; Carlshamre, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    ) assumed in the analytical stock assessment model. The results in terms of Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB), Fishing mortality (F) and Recruitment (R) in the final year from the stock assessment using M values adjusted for low condition were up to 40% different compared with the assessment assuming a constant......The inclusion of biological and ecological aspects in the assessment of fish population status is one of the bases for an ecosystem-based fisheries management. During the past two decades the Eastern Baltic cod has experienced a drastic reduction in growth and body condition that may have affected...

  18. Continuous COD measurement in sewage receipts at sewage treatment plants; Kontinuierliche CSB-Messung im Klaeranlagenzulauf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirsing, A. [Siemens AG, Anlagentechnik/Wasserwirtschaft (ATD TD ISA 6), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1997-11-01

    Neural networks are a new instrument in process automation. Contrary to conventional methods, they can dispense with theoretical models. This independence from mathematical models is one of their most important advantages. The article describes how typical sewage parameters can be measured on-line by means of neural networks. On-line measurement of parameters of pollution, for instance COD in sewage, permits new automatic control strategies for the operation of a sewage treatment plant, aiming at the reduction of pollutant freights with simultaneous minimization of operating cost. (orig./SR)

  19. Stock recruitment relationships for cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the central Baltic Sea incorporating environmental variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarre, Astrid; Wieland, Kai; MacKenzie, Brian

    2000-01-01

    of investigations on recruitment, which were continued through a partial recovery of the stock in the mid-1990s. The principal factors influencing recruitment and recognized at present are: (i) the volume of water with temperature, oxygen and salinity conditions which meet the minimum requirements for successful......Recruitment of central/eastern Baltic cod critically depends on favourable oceanographic conditions in the deeper basins of the Baltic Sea creating a suitable habitat for the development of early life stages. The decline in the size of the spawning stock since the mid-1980s initiated a series...

  20. Larval trophodynamics, turbulence, and drift on Georges Bank : A sensitivity analysis of cod and haddock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, F.E.; MacKenzie, Brian; Perry, R.I.

    2001-01-01

    Using an individual-based model approach we consider trophodynamic effects on the growth and survival of larval cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) on Georges Bank during late winter/early spring. These studies represent an extension of results described in Werner et al. (1996...... be an important input to larval growth and survival models. The inclusion of turbulence in determining the position of passive larvae in the water column allows the larvae to sample the entire water column, contributing to a decrease in the variance of the size of the larvae over time. The ability of larvae...

  1. Environmental effects on recruitment and implications for biological reference points of Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Vinther, Morten; MacKenzie, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The decline of the Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) stock from highest to lowest stock levels on record throughout the 1980s and early 1990s was caused by a combination of recruitment failure and increasing fishing pressure at declining stock sizes. The processes driving the reproductive success...... mortality or the limit biomass reference point is indicated. However, an accepted methodology to determine these reference points in situations of changing stock productivity or system carrying capacity does not exist. Environmental conditions affecting recruitment matter not only for the determination...

  2. Foraging behavior of larval cod ( Gadus morhua ) influenced by prey density and hunger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1995-01-01

    activity, prey selectivity, and hunger in a variable prey environment. Gadus morhua eggs were collected in March 1992 and 1993 from the Kattegat area, Denmark, fertilised and incubated in the laboratory. After hatching, the larvae were transferred to rearing tanks of 172 litres. The behaviour of larvae (6...... their prey size selectivity. Behavioural response was to a large degree determined by the level of hunger, represented by the number of newly ingested prey in the gut. The findings show that cod larvae have a flexible response to changes in feeding conditions and imply that larvae can grow and survive even...

  3. Trophic Interactions in the Baltic Sea: Predation on cod eggs by clupeids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola

    datasets on stomach contents of sprat and herring, ambient hydrographic conditions, ichthyoplankton distribution and abundance as well as predator distribution and abundance from hydroacoustic data for the 1990s and 2004-2008. Changes in diet composition of sprat and herring were investigated, including....... As a next step, predation pressure was quantified separately for egg development stages, both for cod and sprat (Paper III). Furthermore, ichthyoplankton prey selection by clupeids was investigated, with specific focus of predation on different fish egg species and development stages, to improve our...

  4. Prey size spectra and prey availability of larval and small juvenile cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to describe the prey preference characteristics of cod larvae and assess preference variability in relation to species and size composition of copepod prey. A further aim is to examine the hypothesis that dietary prey size spectra remain the same during the larval ...... were indicated, dependent on location. The findings illustrate the usefulness of coupling dietary prey size spectra and biomass spectra of available prey sizes during studies of ichthyoplankton feeding ecology. (C) 1997 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles....

  5. Using otolith microstructure to analyse growth of juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Hinrichsen, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    to fish age. At both localities, fish that hatched early in the season spent a shorter time in the pelagic stage than late-hatched fish. However, significant differences in growth rate during the pelagic stage were observed, where fish captured on the slope grew faster. On the bank, individuals with fast...... otolith growth rates before settling continued to grow fast after settling. On the slope, no relationship between growth before and after settling was found. These results indicate that the different settling habitats occupied by juvenile Baltic cod have different potential for settling and nursery areas....

  6. Warm, windy winters drive cod north and homing of spawners keeps them there

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Lewy, Peter

    2006-01-01

    and human exploitation. This stock has experienced a series of poor recruitments since the late 1990s and, concomitant with the decrease in abundance, the distribution of cod has changed. While it has been suggested that the change in distribution can be linked to increasing temperatures and fishing....... This shift of the spawners further augmented that of the new recruits. 4. Although fishing mortality on a North Sea scale was not directly correlated with the displacement of any of the age groups, fishing has severely decreased the number of fish in older age groups. This increased the sensitivity...... is unlikely to result in improved recruitment to the southern North Sea....

  7. Correlations between hemoglobin type and temperature preference of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane W.; Gräns, Albin; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard

    2012-01-01

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) exhibits polymorphic hemoglobin variants with the HbI locus showing a strong North-South geographic cline in frequency distribution of three main types (1/1, 1/2 and 2/2). This may indicate selective advantages of the different HbI types under various temperature re...... inconsistent thermoregulatory behavior. To obtain a more definitive picture of the extent to which thermal niches are realized under natural conditions field observations in areas where the 3 HbI types co-exist should be performed...

  8. Effect of sludge retention time on continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules at different COD loading was investigated during the operation of more than 220days. And the results showed that when the system operated at long SRT (30days) and low COD loading (200mg·L(-1)), it could maintain excellent performance. However, long SRT and high COD loading (300mg·L(-1)) deteriorated the settling ability of granules and the performance of system and resulted in the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria. Meanwhile, the transformation of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen in metabolism process was inhibited. Moreover, the results of pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading and long SRT. The PAOs specious of Candidatus_Accumlibater and system performance increased obviously when the SRT was reduced to 20days at high COD loading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of CodY on virulence determinant production in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Frances E; Miller, Halie K; Kolar, Stacey L; Stevens, Stanley M; Shaw, Lindsey N

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading human pathogen of both hospital and community-associated diseases worldwide. This organism causes a wealth of infections within the human host as a result of the vast arsenal of toxins encoded within its genome. Previous transcriptomic studies have shown that toxin production in S. aureus can be strongly impacted by the negative regulator CodY. CodY acts by directly, and indirectly (via Agr), repressing toxin production during times of plentiful nutrition. In this study, we use iTRAQ-based proteomics for the first time to study virulence determinant production in S. aureus, so as to correlate transcriptional observations with actual changes in protein synthesis. Using a codY mutant in the epidemic CA-MRSA clone USA300 we demonstrate that deletion of this transcription factor results in a major upregulation of toxin synthesis in both post-exponential and stationary growth. Specifically, we observe hyper-production of secreted proteases, leukocidins and hemolysins in both growth phases in the USA300 codY mutant. Our findings demonstrate the power of mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics for studying toxin production in S. aureus, and the importance of CodY to this central process in disease causation and infection. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Comparison of COD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater by electrocoagulation, photoelectrocoagulation, peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Sajjad; Aminzadeh, Behnoush; Torabian, Ali; Khatibikamal, Vahid; Alizadeh Fard, Mohammad

    2012-06-15

    This work makes a comparison between electrocoagulation (EC), photoelectrocoagulation, peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes to investigate the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from pharmaceutical wastewater. The effects of operational parameters such as initial pH, current density, applied voltage, amount of hydrogen peroxide and electrolysis time on COD removal efficiency were investigated and the optimum operating range for each of these operating variables was experimentally determined. In electrocoagulation process, the optimum values of pH and voltage were determined to be 7 and 40 V, respectively. Desired pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration in the Fenton-based processes were found to be 3 and 300 mg/L, respectively. The amounts of COD, pH, electrical conductivity, temperature and total dissolved solids (TDS) were on-line monitored. Results indicated that under the optimum operating range for each process, the COD removal efficiency was in order of peroxi-electrocoagulation > peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation > photoelectrocoagulation>electrocoagulation. Finally, a kinetic study was carried out using the linear pseudo-second-order model and results showed that the pseudo-second-order equation provided the best correlation for the COD removal rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lichenysin production is improved in codY null Bacillus licheniformis by addition of precursor amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengjun; Xiao, Fang; Qiu, Yimin; Wang, Qin; He, Zhili; Chen, Shouwen

    2017-08-01

    Lichenysin is categorized into the family of lipopeptide biosurfactants and has a variety of applications in the petroleum industry, bioremediation, pharmaceuticals, and the food industry. Currently, large-scale production is limited due to the low yield. This study found that lichenysin production was repressed by supplementation of extracellular amino acids. The global transcriptional factor CodY was hypothesized to prevent lichenysin biosynthesis under an amino acid-rich condition in Bacillus licheniformis. Thus, the codY null strain was constructed, and lichenysin production was increased by 31.0% to 2356 mg/L with the addition of precursor amino acids, and the lichenysin production efficiency was improved by 42.8% to 98.2 mg/L• h. Correspondingly, the transcription levels of the lichenysin synthetase gene lchAA, and its corresponding regulator genes comA, degQ, and degU, were upregulated. Also, the codY deletion enhanced biosynthesis of lichenysin precursor amino acids (Gln, Ile, Leu, and Val) and reduced the formation of byproducts, acetate, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. This study firstly reported that lichenysin biosynthesis was negatively regulated by CodY and lichenysin production could be further improved with the precursor amino acid amendment in the codY null strain.

  12. Performance of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor with Three Compartments in Removal of COD of Wastewater of Chilly Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumantri Indro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study is to examine the performance of each compartment of the number of compartments of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR to the COD removal of the chilly sauce wastewater. Three-compartments of ABR were conducted in this experiment with the total volume of 60 l. ABR is very suitable for processing waste water with high content of COD. Wastewater conducted in this research is a degradable chilly sauce synthetic and high content of organic compounds. While the COD parameter is the main parameter to indicate the achievement of wastewater treatment plant. Stepwise in the research starting with the preparation of raw materials such as sample preparation of synthetic wastewater and preparation of activated sludge. Variable used is the time digestion in the ABR, sludge volume (50% and 70%, and initial COD concentrations (6000 – 14000 mg/L. The response is observed up to 7 days process. For a load of organic compounds, the first compartment has high degree of decomposition of organic compounds than 2nd and 3rd, it is shown that the COD removal the second and third compartment increase insignificantly compare the first compartment. As for the different height of the activated sludge indicated that for organic load of of 6170 mg/L up to 14265 mg/L, the first compartment has removal efficiency 79-73%, in the second compartment is 81-75%, 81-77% and third compartment.

  13. Compounds of parasitic roundworm absorbing in the visible region: target molecules for detection of roundworm in Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormo, Svein K; Ernstsen, Arild; Nilsen, Heidi; Heia, Karsten; Sivertsen, Agnar H; Elvevoll, Edel

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to contribute to the development of technology that will be able to replace manual operations in processing of fish fillets. Removal of parasites, black lining, remnants of skin, and bloodstains are costly and time-consuming operations to the fish processing industry. The presence of parasites in fish products tends to spoil consumers' appetites. Recent reports questioning the safety of eating cod infected with parasites might lower consumer acceptance of seafood. Presently, parasites are detected and removed manually. An average efficiency of about 75% under commercial conditions has been reported. In this study, we focused on biochemical differences between cod muscle and the prevalent anisakine nematode species (Anisakis simplex and Pseudoterranova decipiens) infecting Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detector, substances absorbing in the range 300 to 600 nm were identified in extracts from parasite material. These substances were not detected in extracts from cod tissue. Significant biochemical differences between cod muscle and parasite material have thus been demonstrated.

  14. [Assessment of production of eggs of Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) on the basis of long-term ichthyoplankton data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaseva, E M

    2011-01-01

    Proceeding from long-term data on the numbers of eggs of cod in ichthyoplankton, the total annual production of cod eggs at four main spawning grounds of the Baltic Sea was calculated. It was shown that the long-term fluctuations of cod egg production were positively related to the dynamics of the volume of waters coming to the Baltic Sea in years of the North Sea advections. It is suggested that this dependence was determined by a set of adaptations providing the extension of cod reproduction upon the improvement of the environment.

  15. Determination of soluble protein contents from RVNRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Manshol Wan Zin; Nurulhuda Othman

    1996-01-01

    This project was carried out to determine the soluble protein contents on RVNRL film vulcanisates, with respect to the RVNRL storage time, gamma irradiation dose absorbed by the latex and the effect of different leaching time and leaching conditions. These three factors are important in the hope to determine the best possible mean of minimizing the soluble protein contents in products made from RVNRL. Within the nine months storage period employed in the study, the results show that, the longer the storage period the less the soluble protein extracted from the film samples. Gamma irradiation dose absorbed by the samples, between 5.3 kGy to 25.2 kGy seems to influence the soluble protein contents of the RVNRL films vulcanisates. The higher the dose the more was the soluble protein extracted from the film samples. At an absorbed dose of 5.3 kGy and 25.2 kGy, the soluble contents were 0. 198 mg/ml and 0.247 mg/ml respectively. At a fixed leaching temperature, the soluble proteins increases with leaching time and at a fixed leaching time, the soluble proteins increases with leaching temperature. ne highest extractable protein contents was determined at a leaching time of 10 minutes and leaching temperature of 90'C The protein analysis were done by using Modified Lowry Method

  16. Solubility Study of Curatives in Various Rubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, R.; Talma, Auke; Datta, Rabin; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The previous works on solubility of curatives in rubbers were mainly carried out in natural rubber. Not too much information available on dissimilar rubbers and this is important because most of the compounds today are blends of dissimilar rubbers. Although solubility can be expected to certain

  17. Solubility Products of M(II) - Carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, Rolf; Berner, Urs

    1999-01-01

    Many solubility data for M(II) carbonates commonly compiled in tables are contradictory and sometimes obviously wrong. The quality of such data has been evaluated based on the original publications and reliable solubility constants have been selected for the carbonates of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb with the help of cross-comparisons. (author)

  18. Hansen Solubility Parameters for Octahedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    1997, 80, 386-&. 5. Hansen, C. M. The three-dimensional solubility parameter -- key to paint component affinities I. J. Paint Technol. 1967, 39, 104...Chai, J.; Zhang, Q. X.; Han, D. X.; Niu, L. Synthesis and Application of Widely Soluble Graphene Sheets. Langmuir 2010, 26, 12314-12320. 12. Hansen, C

  19. A Colorful Solubility Exercise for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugrue, Christopher R.; Mentzen, Hans H., II; Linton, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    A discovery chemistry laboratory has been developed for the introductory organic chemistry student to investigate the concepts of polarity, miscibility, solubility, and density. The simple procedure takes advantage of the solubility of two colored dyes in a series of solvents or solvent mixtures, and the diffusion of colors can be easily…

  20. Ancient DNA reveals the Arctic origin of Viking Age cod from Haithabu, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Bastiaan; Boessenkool, Sanne; Gondek, Agata T; Nikulina, Elena A; Hufthammer, Anne Karin; Pampoulie, Christophe; Knutsen, Halvor; André, Carl; Nistelberger, Heidi M; Dierking, Jan; Petereit, Christoph; Heinrich, Dirk; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Jentoft, Sissel; Barrett, James H

    2017-08-22

    Knowledge of the range and chronology of historic trade and long-distance transport of natural resources is essential for determining the impacts of past human activities on marine environments. However, the specific biological sources of imported fauna are often difficult to identify, in particular if species have a wide spatial distribution and lack clear osteological or isotopic differentiation between populations. Here, we report that ancient fish-bone remains, despite being porous, brittle, and light, provide an excellent source of endogenous DNA (15-46%) of sufficient quality for whole-genome reconstruction. By comparing ancient sequence data to that of modern specimens, we determine the biological origin of 15 Viking Age (800-1066 CE) and subsequent medieval (1066-1280 CE) Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) specimens from excavation sites in Germany, Norway, and the United Kingdom. Archaeological context indicates that one of these sites was a fishing settlement for the procurement of local catches, whereas the other localities were centers of trade. Fish from the trade sites show a mixed ancestry and are statistically differentiated from local fish populations. Moreover, Viking Age samples from Haithabu, Germany, are traced back to the North East Arctic Atlantic cod population that has supported the Lofoten fisheries of Norway for centuries. Our results resolve a long-standing controversial hypothesis and indicate that the marine resources of the North Atlantic Ocean were used to sustain an international demand for protein as far back as the Viking Age.

  1. Determination of humic acid in alkali leaching solution of uranium by spectophotrometry-COD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yu; An Wei; Chen Shusen

    2014-01-01

    It is one of the main causes of extraction emulsification or resin toxicosis during alkali leaching process in uranium metallurgy which organic matters including humic acid exist in lixiviums. In order to study the effect of humic acid in uranium metallurgy, a method for determination of content of humic acid in aqueous solution need to be established. Spectrophotometry is a simple and convenient method in humic acid analysis. However, accuracy of spectrophotometry can be reduced greatly because of interference of uranium and other elements in the humic acid solutions. Although chemical oxygen demand (COD) method is a common analysis way of organic matters in aqueous solutions, the concentration of humic acid cannot be directly measured. In this paper, COD method is related with spectrophotometry to avoid the interference of uranium and ensure the accurate analysis of humic acid. The results showed that the detection limit of the method was 1.78 mg/L and the recovery rate was 101.2%. (authors)

  2. Efficacy of HRF in COD Removal from Secondary Effluent of Yasuj Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ehteshami

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Re-use of wastewater is an appropriate approach for development of water resources and water supply strategies. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of HRF in COD removal from secondary effluent of municipal wastewater in Yasouj. Methods: The pilot which was used in the present study was a horizontal roughing filter designed and prepared according to the Wegelin’s Design Criteria. The Samples were removed daily and instantaneous based on the predicted number of samples (28 samples at each filtration rate from the input and output filter, and then tested in the laboratory by the D5000 device. The collected data was analyzed using ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: The results indicated that the average COD removal in the filtration rate of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 were 60, 51, and 38 percent respectively. Conclusion: The average output of the HRF for all three filtration rates was lower than the maximum EPA standard of Iran.

  3. Use of COD, TOC, and Fluorescence Spectroscopy to Estimate BOD in Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Evelyn; Batista, Jacimaria R; Gerrity, Daniel

    2017-02-01

      Common to all National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits in the United States is a limit on biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and fluorescence spectroscopy are also capable of quantifying organic content, although the mechanisms of quantification and the organic fractions targeted differ for each test. This study explores correlations between BOD5 and these alternate test procedures using facility influent, primary effluent, and facility effluent samples from a full-scale water resource recovery facility. Relative reductions of the water quality parameters proved to be strong indicators of their suitability as surrogates for BOD5. Suitable correlations were generally limited to the combined datasets for the three sampling locations or the facility effluent alone. COD exhibited relatively strong linear correlations with BOD5 when considering the three sample points (r = 0.985) and the facility effluent alone (r = 0.914), while TOC exhibited a suitable linear correlation with BOD5 in the facility effluent (r = 0.902). Exponential regressions proved to be useful for estimating BOD5 based on TOC or fluorescence (r > 0.95).

  4. Viscoelastic and Functional Properties of Cod-Bone Gelatin in the Presence of Xylitol and Stevioside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyu Nian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The physical, rheological, structural and functional properties of cod bone gelatin (CBG with various concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, 10, and 15% of low-calorie sweeteners [xylitol (X and stevioside (S] to form gels were investigated. The gel strength of CBGX increased with increased xylitol due presumably to hydrogen bonds between xylitol and gelatin, but with CBGS the highest gel strength occurred when S concentration was 4%. Viscosity of CBGS samples were higher than CBGX due to S's high molecular mass. The viscoelasticity (G′ and G′′, foaming capacity and fat binding capacity of CBGX were higher while foam stability was lower. The emulsion activity and emulsion stability of CBGX were a little lower than CBGS at the same concentration. The structure of X is linear making it easier to form a dense three-dimensional network structure, while the complex cyclic structure of S had more difficulty forming a network structure with cod bone gelatin. Therefore, X may be a better choice for sweetening gelatin gels.

  5. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax's nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  6. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Ilievska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  7. PREDICTION OF BOD AND COD OF A REFINERY WASTEWATER USING MULTILAYER ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldon Raj Rene

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, artificial neural networks (ANNs have shown the ability to learn and capture non-linear static or dynamic behaviour among variables based on the given set of data. Since the knowledge of internal procedure is not necessary, the modelling can take place with minimum previous knowledge about the process through proper training of the network. In the present study, 12 ANN based models were proposed to predict the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD concentrations of wastewater generated from the effluent treatment plant of a petrochemical industry. By employing the standard back error propagation (BEP algorithm, the network was trained with 103 data points for water quality indices such as Total Suspended Solids (TSS, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Phenol concentration, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (AMN, Total Organic Carbon (TOC and Kjeldahl’s Nitrogen (KJN to predict BOD and COD. After appropriate training, the network was tested with a separate test data and the best model was chosen based on the sum square error (training and percentage average relative error (% ARE for testing. The results from this study reveal that ANNs can be accurate and efficacious in predicting unknown concentrations of water quality parameters through its versatile training process.

  8. Effect of produced water on feeding and metabolism of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkoff, H.; Parrish, C. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Hamoutene, D.; Mabrouk, G.; Samuelson, S.; Mansour, A.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division

    2007-07-01

    This paper addressed concerns regarding potentially detrimental cumulative effects of waste products from oil industry activities on marine organisms around production sites. The metabolic capacities, feeding and digestive physiology of fish have been shown to change with environmental parameters, which could impact the growth and health status of fish populations. In this study, the effects of produced water (PW) on feeding and metabolism of Atlantic cod was investigated by exposing fish to 0.100 ppm (x 10,000 PW dilution) or 200 ppm (x 500 dilution) of PW for 76 days. Throughout the experiment, food intake and mean weight were monitored. In addition, serum lipids, metabolites and gene expression of a brain appetite regulating factor were measured at the end of the experiment. No significant differences were observed in weight gain or food intake between the 3 groups of fish. Serum metabolites and neuropeptide Y expression remained unchanged between groups. The study is ongoing to complete comparative measurements of whole blood fatty acid profiles in plasma. The preliminary results indicate that feeding and metabolism in cod is not affected by produced water.

  9. The effects of production water, WAF or CEWAF on the fertilization success of Atlantic cod eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burridge, L; Wong, D.; Trippel, E.

    2010-01-01

    Production water (PW), dispersed oil, and oil released from offshore oil and gas platforms can adversely affect fish populations. In this study, eggs from Atlantic cod were fertilized in the presence of PW collected from the Terra Nova and Hibernia offshore platforms in 2008. Cod eggs were also fertilized in the presence of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) and chemically enhanced water accommodated fraction (CEWAF) of Alaskan North Slope oil (ANS). Results of the study showed that exposure to the Terra Nova PW at 12 per cent (V/V) or higher resulted in significantly lower fertilization rates than those observed in controls. Exposure to Hibernia PW at 0.5 per cent (V/V) also resulted in significantly lower fertilization rates. The WAF of ANS up to 25 per cent (V/V) had no effect on fertilization rates. At 50 per cent (V/V), the fertilization rate for WAF ANS was much lower than rates observed in controls. The CEWAF significantly reduced fertilization at all tested concentrations.

  10. Factors regulating early life history dispersal of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from coastal Newfoundland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ryan R E; deYoung, Brad; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Gregory, Robert S

    2013-01-01

    To understand coastal dispersal dynamics of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), we examined spatiotemporal egg and larval abundance patterns in coastal Newfoundland. In recent decades, Smith Sound, Trinity Bay has supported the largest known overwintering spawning aggregation of Atlantic cod in the region. We estimated spawning and dispersal characteristics for the Smith Sound-Trinity Bay system by fitting ichthyoplankton abundance data to environmentally-driven, simplified box models. Results show protracted spawning, with sharply increased egg production in early July, and limited dispersal from the Sound. The model for the entire spawning season indicates egg export from Smith Sound is 13%•day(-1) with a net mortality of 27%•day(-1). Eggs and larvae are consistently found in western Trinity Bay with little advection from the system. These patterns mirror particle tracking models that suggest residence times of 10-20 days, and circulation models indicating local gyres in Trinity Bay that act in concert with upwelling dynamics to retain eggs and larvae. Our results are among the first quantitative dispersal estimates from Smith Sound, linking this spawning stock to the adjacent coastal waters. These results illustrate the biophysical interplay regulating dispersal and connectivity originating from inshore spawning of coastal northwest Atlantic.

  11. Factors regulating early life history dispersal of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua from coastal Newfoundland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R E Stanley

    Full Text Available To understand coastal dispersal dynamics of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, we examined spatiotemporal egg and larval abundance patterns in coastal Newfoundland. In recent decades, Smith Sound, Trinity Bay has supported the largest known overwintering spawning aggregation of Atlantic cod in the region. We estimated spawning and dispersal characteristics for the Smith Sound-Trinity Bay system by fitting ichthyoplankton abundance data to environmentally-driven, simplified box models. Results show protracted spawning, with sharply increased egg production in early July, and limited dispersal from the Sound. The model for the entire spawning season indicates egg export from Smith Sound is 13%•day(-1 with a net mortality of 27%•day(-1. Eggs and larvae are consistently found in western Trinity Bay with little advection from the system. These patterns mirror particle tracking models that suggest residence times of 10-20 days, and circulation models indicating local gyres in Trinity Bay that act in concert with upwelling dynamics to retain eggs and larvae. Our results are among the first quantitative dispersal estimates from Smith Sound, linking this spawning stock to the adjacent coastal waters. These results illustrate the biophysical interplay regulating dispersal and connectivity originating from inshore spawning of coastal northwest Atlantic.

  12. Microbiological, chemical and sensory spoilage analysis of raw Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stored under modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuuliala, L; Al Hage, Y; Ioannidis, A-G; Sader, M; Kerckhof, F-M; Vanderroost, M; Boon, N; De Baets, B; De Meulenaer, B; Ragaert, P; Devlieghere, F

    2018-04-01

    During fish spoilage, microbial metabolism leads to the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), characteristic off-odors and eventual consumer rejection. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the development of intelligent packaging technologies by identifying and quantifying VOCs that indicate spoilage of raw Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) under atmospheres (%v/v CO 2 /O 2 /N 2 ) 60/40/0, 60/5/35 and air. Spoilage was examined by microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses over storage time at 4 or 8 °C. Selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) was used for quantifying selected VOCs and amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used for the characterization of the cod microbiota. OTUs classified within the Photobacterium genus increased in relative abundance over time under all storage conditions, suggesting that Photobacterium contributed to spoilage and VOC production. The onset of exponential VOC concentration increase and sensory rejection occurred at high total plate counts (7-7.5 log). Monitoring of early spoilage thus calls for sensitivity for low VOC concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ocean Acidification Effects on Atlantic Cod Larval Survival and Recruitment to the Fished Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiasny, Martina H; Mittermayer, Felix H; Sswat, Michael; Voss, Rüdiger; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Chierici, Melissa; Puvanendran, Velmurugu; Mortensen, Atle; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2016-01-01

    How fisheries will be impacted by climate change is far from understood. While some fish populations may be able to escape global warming via range shifts, they cannot escape ocean acidification (OA), an inevitable consequence of the dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in marine waters. How ocean acidification affects population dynamics of commercially important fish species is critical for adapting management practices of exploited fish populations. Ocean acidification has been shown to impair fish larvae's sensory abilities, affect the morphology of otoliths, cause tissue damage and cause behavioural changes. Here, we obtain first experimental mortality estimates for Atlantic cod larvae under OA and incorporate these effects into recruitment models. End-of-century levels of ocean acidification (~1100 μatm according to the IPCC RCP 8.5) resulted in a doubling of daily mortality rates compared to present-day CO2 concentrations during the first 25 days post hatching (dph), a critical phase for population recruitment. These results were consistent under different feeding regimes, stocking densities and in two cod populations (Western Baltic and Barents Sea stock). When mortality data were included into Ricker-type stock-recruitment models, recruitment was reduced to an average of 8 and 24% of current recruitment for the two populations, respectively. Our results highlight the importance of including vulnerable early life stages when addressing effects of climate change on fish stocks.

  14. Textile wastewater treatment: colour and COD removal of reactive black-5 by ozonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawan, I. W. K.; Helmy, Q.; Notodarmojo, S.

    2018-01-01

    Textile industries produced a large amount of highly coloured wastewater containing variety of dyes in different concentrations. Due to the high concentration of organics in the effluents and the higher stability of modern synthetic dyes, the conventional biological treatment methods are ineffective for the complete colour removal and degradation of organics and dyes. On the other hand, physical-chemical treatment are not destructive, mainly just concentrate and separate the pollutants phases. This research paper investigates the removal of colour and chemical oxygen demand/COD from textile wastewater using ozone treatment. Varied ozone dosages of 1.16; 3.81; 18.79; and 40.88 mg/minute were used in the experiment. Varied wastewater containing Reactive Black 5 (RB-5) concentrations of 40 mg/L, 100 mg/L were also applied. Research result showed the highest colour removal efficiency of 96.9 % was achieved after 5 hours incubation time, while the highest COD removal efficiency of 77.5% was achieved after 2 hours incubation time.

  15. Variations in the microbial log reduction curves of irradiated cod fillets, shrimp, and their respective homogenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.H.; Kaylor, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    When cod (Gadus morhua morhua) and headless white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) were gamma irradiated with a series of low-ionizing radiation doses, a ''shoulder(s)'' was observed in the graph (log microbial counts versus dose) in the approximate range of 25 to 75 krads. When the microbiological survivors were differentiated into total counts, proteolytic and pseudomonad-type bacteria, it was observed that the pseudomonad-type bacteria were rapidly destroyed by 25 krads and that proteolytic bacteria were destroyed at a faster rate than the rest of the microorganisms. When cod fillets and shrimp were compared with their respective homogenates and irradiated at doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 150, 200, and 300 krads, the homogenates did not exhibt the characteristic shoulders. A further experiment was designed to test surface versus uniform dispersion of microorganisms on/in gelatin disks subject to low doses of irradiation. Differences were found that may explain the observed differences between solid food materials such as fish fillets and shrimp and their homogenates

  16. Geographical trends of PFAS in cod livers along the Norwegian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdersnes, Stig; Nilsen, Bente M; Breivik, Joar F; Borge, Asbjørn; Maage, Amund

    2017-01-01

    The level of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) was determined in North East Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) liver samples from 15 Norwegian fjords and harbors. Five harbors in the eastern part of Norway, six harbors in the western part and four harbours in the northern part. A total of 200 samples were analyzed for 16 PFAS. Determination of PFAS were carried out by LC-MS/MS following sample clean up by solid phase extraction and ultracentrifugation. The predominating PFAS was PFOS, which was found to be higher than the level of quantification (1.5 μg kg-1 wet weight) in 72% of the samples. The highest level of PFOS found was 21.8 μg kg-1 wet weight in a sample from Kragerø in the eastern part of Norway. A significantly higher level of PFOS was found in the eastern fjords and harbors compared to fjords and harbors in the western and northern part of Norway. Within the northern fjords and harbors elevated PFOS levels were found in Narvik, which may indicate a local source there. Variations in PFOS of the cod livers thus reflect differences in levels of pollution between the areas.

  17. Free-living spirochetes from Cape Cod microbial mats detected by electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, T. H.; Chapman, M.; Guillemette, T.; Margulis, L.

    1996-01-01

    Spirochetes from microbial mats and anaerobic mud samples collected in salt marshes were studied by light microscopy, whole mount and thin section transmission electron microscopy. Enriched in cellobiose-rifampin medium, selective for Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, seven distinguishable spirochete morphotypes were observed. Their diameters ranged from 0.17 micron to > 0.45 micron. Six of these morphotypes came from southwest Cape Cod, Massachusetts: five from Microcoleus-dominated mat samples collected at Sippewissett salt marsh and one from anoxic mud collected at School Street salt marsh (on the east side of Eel Pond). The seventh morphotype was enriched from anoxic mud sampled from the north central Cape Cod, at the Sandy Neck salt marsh. Five of these morphotypes are similar or identical to previously described spirochetes (Leptospira, Spirochaeta halophila, Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi and Treponema), whereas the other two have unique features that suggest they have not been previously described. One of the morphotypes resembles Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi (the largest free-living spirochete described), in its large variable diameter (0.4-3.0 microns), cytoplasmic granules, and spherical (round) bodies with composite structure. This resemblance permits its tentative identification as a Sippewissett strain of Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi. Microbial mats samples collected in sterile Petri dishes and stored dry for more than four years yielded many organisms upon rewetting, including small unidentified spirochetes in at least 4 out of 100 enrichments.

  18. The importance of predator–prey overlap: predicting North Sea cod recovery with a multispecies assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempf, Alexander; Dingsør, Gjert Endre; Huse, Geir

    2010-01-01

    The overlap between predator and prey is known as a sensitive parameter in multispecies assessment models for fish, and its parameterization is notoriously difficult. Overlap indices were derived from trawl surveys and used to parametrize the North Sea stochastic multispecies model. The effect...... of time-invariant and year- and quarter-specific overlap estimates on the historical (1991–2007) and predicted trophic interactions, as well as the development of predator and prey stocks, was investigated. The focus was set on a general comparison between single-species and multispecies forecasts...... and the sensitivity of the predicted development of North Sea cod for the two types of overlap implementation. The spatial–temporal overlap between cod and its predators increased with increasing temperature, indicating that foodweb processes might reduce the recovery potential of cod during warm periods...

  19. Development of international fisheries for the eastern Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua ) from the late 1880s until 1938

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; MacKenzie, Brian; Karlsdottir, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    of indicators of fishing effort and qualitative information on developments in fishing technology. This information has been assembled for different countries and locations in the Baltic Sea. We first summarize the multi-decadal development of national cod fisheries and their relative importance during......The paper provides an overview of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries from the end of the 1880s until 1938, in order to improve the knowledge of long-term stock dynamics. The data compiled and included in the study comprise catches and economic values of exploited fish species, time series...... the first decades of the 20th century. We then assess whether these data can be used to estimate the relative roles of fishing and ecosystem changes on variations in catches. We conclude that the assembled data reveal biologically meaningful variations in the state of the cod stock and that some...

  20. Biomarker candidate discovery in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) continuously exposed to North Sea produced water from egg to fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohne-Kjersem, Anneli; Bache, Nicolai; Meier, Sonnich

    2010-01-01

    were able to compare the induced changes by PW to the mode of action of oestrogens. Changes in the proteome in response to exposure in whole cod fry (approximately 80 days post-hatching, dph) were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and image analysis and identified by MALDI-ToF-ToF mass...... spectrometry, using a newly developed cod EST database and the NCBI database. Many of the protein changes occurred at low levels (0.01% and 0.1% PW) of exposure, indicating putative biological responses at lower levels than previously detected. Using discriminant analysis, we identified a set of protein...... changes that may be useful as biomarker candidates of produced water (PW) and oestradiol exposure in Atlantic cod fry. The biomarker candidates discovered in this study may, following validation, prove effective as diagnostic tools in monitoring exposure and effects of discharges from the petroleum...

  1. Growth and biochemical responses of juvenile cod to acute and chronic exposure to production water from the Hibernia oil rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burridge, L.; Lyons, M.; Blair, T.; Haya, K.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division

    2007-07-01

    A study was conducted in which the chemical characteristics of production water collected from the Hibernia oil production platform in June, 2006 were determined. Bioassays were also performed on juvenile cod in order to determine acute responses after 48 hour exposure to concentrations of production water ranging from 0.06 to 5 per cent. Of the 70 juvenile cod that were exposed continuously for 45 days to 0.05 per cent Hibernia production water, 8 were sacrificed and liver, gill muscle and plasma was collected for biochemical analysis at day 3, 14, 28 and 45 during the exposure. Length and weight data were also collected to compare growth rates of exposed fish with unexposed fish. Results did not reveal any difference in growth rate in cod exposed for 45 days to Hibernia production water compared to those held in untreated water under the same conditions. Tissues for mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction are undergoing analysis.

  2. Effect of moderate hypoxia at three acclimation temperatures on stress responses in Atlantic cod with different haemoglobin types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Methling, Caroline; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2010-01-01

    in a difference in stress response to hypoxia exposure. Two hsp70-isoforms (labelled a and b) were detected and they differed in expression in the gills but not in the liver of Atlantic cod. Acclimation temperature significantly affected the expression of hsp70 in the liver, and in an isoform-specific manner...... in the gills. Hypoxia exposure increased the expression of hsp70 in the liver, but not the gills, of cod and this response was not influenced by the acclimation temperature. The expression of hsp70 in both tissues did not differ between fish with different haemoglobin types. Acclimation temperature...... hypoxic exposure influence the organismal and cellular stress responses in Atlantic cod. We hypothesise that HbI-2 fish are more tolerant to short-term hypoxic episodes than HbI-1 fish, and this adaptation may be independent of tissue hsp70 expression....

  3. The Effects of Temperature, Hypoxia and Hypercapnia on the Metabolism of Atlantic Cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tirsgård, Bjørn

    in the water conditions affecting their performance, growth and reproduction. Variations in the water conditions between years and due to climatic changes, affects the survival rate, population dynamic and bio-energetic distribution of the Atlantic cod (Hansson et al., 1996; Essington et al., 2001...... into bio-energetic models used to predict survival, growth and reproduction rates and cod stock dynamics. Furthermore, due to the growing interest of the continuing global increase in atmospheric and oceanic CO2 levels (ICES, 2010), and the rapid expansion of fish farming in land-based recirculated...... important for bio-energetic models (Werner et al., 1996; Leising and Franks, 1999; Werner et al., 2001; Lough et al., 2005). The temperature effect on the metabolism of Atlantic cod larvae however have received little attention (Laurence, 1978; Finn et al., 2002; Peck and Buckley, 2008), likely due...

  4. Towards sustainable fisheries of the Öresund cod (Gadus morhua) through sub-stock-specific assessment and management recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Waldo, Staffan; Nilsson, P. Anders

    2013-01-01

    Fisheries management traditionally relies on stock assessments assuming discrete populations within large administrational areas. However, failing to account for sub-stock structuring may result in overestimation of the stocks' true harvest potential and unsustainable exploitation of small stock...... elements. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) frequently occurs in spatially segregated populations, some of which exhibit fine-scaled stock structuring within current management boundaries. Here we use the locally spawning cod stock in the Sound (“Öresund”) as a case study, and perform a sub-stock......-specific assessment to evaluate biological and economic effects of managing the Sound cod as a separate stock. Our results indicate that reducing exploitation pressure, particularly through technical regulations i.e. increasing gill-net mesh sizes, would not only enhance the stock age distribution, but yield long...

  5. Plasma FITC-dextran exchange between the primary and secondary circulatory systems in the Atlantic cod, Gadus Morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Claes; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-dextran) exchange between the primary (PCS) and secondary (SCS) circulatory systems in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua (Linnaeus, 1752), were studied using 20-kDa (n = 4) and 500-kDa (n = 4) FITC-dextran. In order to give a qualitative perspective...... of the general connection between the PCS and SCS, distribution of plasma-borne tracers (FITC-dextran) in the PCS and SCS were examined. In this study, a total of eight cod were cannulated in the ventral aorta (PCS) and dorsal cutaneous vessel (SCS), for investigation of FITC-dextran disappearance in the PCS...... and its subsequent appearance in the SCS. FITC-dextran of both sizes was found to be in equilibrium between the PCS and SCS in less than 20 min. This indicates a profound connection between the PCS and SCS in the Atlantic cod, and rapid mixing of tracers between the PCS and SCS. The destination...

  6. Impact of water-accommodated fractions of crude oil on Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua following chronic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the long-term effects of hydrocarbon exposure on the gonadal development of fish. Mature Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were exposed to low concentrations of water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an ambient flowthrough seawater system. Some PAH-exposed cod groups were depurated afterwards for 38 to 287 days. Mortality was rare, and external lesions occurred only in the PAH-exposed groups. The gonado-somatic index revealed that gonadal development was disrupted in both sexes and spawning and spermiation was delayed in the 33 depurated PAH-groups. The findings indicate that chronic exposure to WAFs in the water column may have an adverse effect on reproduction in Atlantic cod.

  7. Temporal trends in age and size at maturation of four North Sea gadid populations: cod, haddock, whiting, and Norway pout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marty, Lise; Rochet, Marie-Joëlle; Ernande, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    , phenotypic plasticity, and evolution to these trends were assessed. First, maturation trends were extricated from demographic effects and growth-dependent plasticity by estimating probabilistic maturation reaction norms (PMRNs). PMRN midpoints have significantly shifted downwards at most ages for cod......, haddock, and whiting, but not for Norway pout. Second, increased temperature and food abundance, loosened trophic competition, and relaxed social pressure may also trigger growth-independent plasticity in maturation. Principal component regression of PMRN midpoints on annual estimates of relevant...... environmental variables exhibiting a temporal trend suggest that, despite some evidence of environmental effects, PMRN trends were mostly independent of growth-independent plasticity in haddock, whiting, and male cod, but not in female cod. According to these findings, evolution of maturation, potentially...

  8. Indomethacin solubility estimation in 1,4-dioxane + water mixtures by the extended hildebrand solubility approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller A Ruidiaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Extended Hildebrand Solubility Approach (EHSA was successfully applied to evaluate the solubility of Indomethacin in 1,4-dioxane + water mixtures at 298.15 K. An acceptable correlation-performance of EHSA was found by using a regular polynomial model in order four of the W interaction parameter vs. solubility parameter of the mixtures (overall deviation was 8.9%. Although the mean deviation obtained was similar to that obtained directly by means of an empiric regression of the experimental solubility vs. mixtures solubility parameters, the advantages of EHSA are evident because it requires physicochemical properties easily available for drugs.

  9. Optimization of integrated chemical-biological degradation of a reactive azo dye using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarjanto, Gatut [Advanced Wastewater Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia); Keller-Lehmann, Beatrice [Advanced Wastewater Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia); Keller, Jurg [Advanced Wastewater Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: j.keller@awmc.uq.edu.au

    2006-11-02

    The integrated chemical-biological degradation combining advanced oxidation by UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} followed by aerobic biodegradation was used to degrade C.I. Reactive Azo Red 195A, commonly used in the textile industry in Australia. An experimental design based on the response surface method was applied to evaluate the interactive effects of influencing factors (UV irradiation time, initial hydrogen peroxide dosage and recirculation ratio of the system) on decolourisation efficiency and optimizing the operating conditions of the treatment process. The effects were determined by the measurement of dye concentration and soluble chemical oxygen demand (S-COD). The results showed that the dye and S-COD removal were affected by all factors individually and interactively. Maximal colour degradation performance was predicted, and experimentally validated, with no recirculation, 30 min UV irradiation and 500 mg H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/L. The model predictions for colour removal, based on a three-factor/five-level Box-Wilson central composite design and the response surface method analysis, were found to be very close to additional experimental results obtained under near optimal conditions. This demonstrates the benefits of this approach in achieving good predictions while minimising the number of experiments required.

  10. Optimization of integrated chemical-biological degradation of a reactive azo dye using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarjanto, Gatut; Keller-Lehmann, Beatrice; Keller, Jurg

    2006-01-01

    The integrated chemical-biological degradation combining advanced oxidation by UV/H 2 O 2 followed by aerobic biodegradation was used to degrade C.I. Reactive Azo Red 195A, commonly used in the textile industry in Australia. An experimental design based on the response surface method was applied to evaluate the interactive effects of influencing factors (UV irradiation time, initial hydrogen peroxide dosage and recirculation ratio of the system) on decolourisation efficiency and optimizing the operating conditions of the treatment process. The effects were determined by the measurement of dye concentration and soluble chemical oxygen demand (S-COD). The results showed that the dye and S-COD removal were affected by all factors individually and interactively. Maximal colour degradation performance was predicted, and experimentally validated, with no recirculation, 30 min UV irradiation and 500 mg H 2 O 2 /L. The model predictions for colour removal, based on a three-factor/five-level Box-Wilson central composite design and the response surface method analysis, were found to be very close to additional experimental results obtained under near optimal conditions. This demonstrates the benefits of this approach in achieving good predictions while minimising the number of experiments required

  11. Comparison of COD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater by electrocoagulation, photoelectrocoagulation, peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhadi, Sajjad; Aminzadeh, Behnoush; Torabian, Ali; Khatibikamal, Vahid; Alizadeh Fard, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hydrogen peroxide improves the performance of electrocoagulation process. ► UV light can be effective on the performance on peroxi-electrocoagulation and electrocoagulation processes. ► The optimal amount of hydrogen peroxide for peroxi-electrocoagulation process for COD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater is 300 mg/L. ► The optimal values of pH for electrocoagulation and peroxi-electrocoagulation are 7 and 3, respectively. - Abstract: This work makes a comparison between electrocoagulation (EC), photoelectrocoagulation, peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes to investigate the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from pharmaceutical wastewater. The effects of operational parameters such as initial pH, current density, applied voltage, amount of hydrogen peroxide and electrolysis time on COD removal efficiency were investigated and the optimum operating range for each of these operating variables was experimentally determined. In electrocoagulation process, the optimum values of pH and voltage were determined to be 7 and 40 V, respectively. Desired pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration in the Fenton-based processes were found to be 3 and 300 mg/L, respectively. The amounts of COD, pH, electrical conductivity, temperature and total dissolved solids (TDS) were on-line monitored. Results indicated that under the optimum operating range for each process, the COD removal efficiency was in order of peroxi-electrocoagulation > peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation > photoelectrocoagulation > electrocoagulation. Finally, a kinetic study was carried out using the linear pseudo-second-order model and results showed that the pseudo-second-order equation provided the best correlation for the COD removal rate.

  12. Comparison of COD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater by electrocoagulation, photoelectrocoagulation, peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhadi, Sajjad, E-mail: sajjadfarhadi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aminzadeh, Behnoush, E-mail: bamin@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torabian, Ali, E-mail: atorabi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khatibikamal, Vahid, E-mail: vahidkhatibi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alizadeh Fard, Mohammad, E-mail: malizadeh1987@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen peroxide improves the performance of electrocoagulation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV light can be effective on the performance on peroxi-electrocoagulation and electrocoagulation processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimal amount of hydrogen peroxide for peroxi-electrocoagulation process for COD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater is 300 mg/L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimal values of pH for electrocoagulation and peroxi-electrocoagulation are 7 and 3, respectively. - Abstract: This work makes a comparison between electrocoagulation (EC), photoelectrocoagulation, peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes to investigate the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from pharmaceutical wastewater. The effects of operational parameters such as initial pH, current density, applied voltage, amount of hydrogen peroxide and electrolysis time on COD removal efficiency were investigated and the optimum operating range for each of these operating variables was experimentally determined. In electrocoagulation process, the optimum values of pH and voltage were determined to be 7 and 40 V, respectively. Desired pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration in the Fenton-based processes were found to be 3 and 300 mg/L, respectively. The amounts of COD, pH, electrical conductivity, temperature and total dissolved solids (TDS) were on-line monitored. Results indicated that under the optimum operating range for each process, the COD removal efficiency was in order of peroxi-electrocoagulation > peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation > photoelectrocoagulation > electrocoagulation. Finally, a kinetic study was carried out using the linear pseudo-second-order model and results showed that the pseudo-second-order equation provided the best correlation for the COD removal rate.

  13. Evaluation of feed COD/sulfate ratio as a control criterion for the biological hydrogen sulfide production and lead precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, Antonio [Direccion General del Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental-Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: jvelasco@ine.gob.mx; Ramirez, Martha [Direccion General del Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental-Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico); Volke-Sepulveda, Tania [Departamento de Biotecnologia, UAM-Cuajimalpa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Sanchez, Armando [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, UAM-Cuajimalpa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico); Revah, Sergio [Departamento de Procesos y Tecnologia, UAM-Cuajimalpa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-03-01

    The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to produce hydrogen sulfide and the high affinity of sulfide to react with divalent metallic cations represent an excellent option to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Different parameters have been proposed to control the hydrogen sulfide production by anaerobic bacteria, such as the organic and sulfate loading rates and the feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio. This work relates the feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio with the hydrogen sulfide production and dissolved lead precipitation, using ethanol as carbon and energy source in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. A maximum dissolved sulfide concentration of 470 {+-} 7 mg S/L was obtained at a feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio of 2.5, with sulfate and ethanol conversions of approximately 94 and 87%, respectively. The lowest dissolved sulfide concentration (145 {+-} 10 mg S/L) was observed with a feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio of 0.67. Substantial amounts of acetate (510-1730 mg/L) were produced and accumulated in the bioreactor from ethanol oxidation. Although only incomplete oxidation of ethanol to acetate was observed, the consortium was able to remove 99% of the dissolved lead (200 mg/L) with a feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio of 1.5. It was found that the feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio could be an adequate parameter to control the hydrogen sulfide production and the consequent precipitation of dissolved lead.

  14. Effects of dietary fatty acids on the production and quality of eggs and larvae of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Støttrup, Josianne; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) entering their first year of gamete maturation were fed diets with different levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for 6.5 months prior to commencement of spawning. Gravid females were stripped three times: at the beginning, peak......–173% higher in eggs than in diets. Cod fed the diet with the lowest EPA/ARA ratio had the greatest egg production. Eggs from fish on a diet with high ARA level had significantly higher fertilization and hatching success than those fed low levels of ARA. This diet produced on average 71 viable eggs g 1 female...

  15. CodY Regulates Thiol Peroxidase Expression as Part of the Pneumococcal Defense Mechanism against H2O2 Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajaj, Barak; Yesilkaya, Hasan; Shafeeq, Sulman; Zhi, Xiangyun; Benisty, Rachel; Tchalah, Shiran; Kuipers, Oscar P; Porat, Nurith

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a facultative anaerobic pathogen. Although it maintains fermentative metabolism, during aerobic growth pneumococci produce high levels of H 2 O 2 , which can have adverse effects on cell viability and DNA, and influence pneumococcal interaction with its host. The pneumococcus is unusual in its dealing with toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in that it neither has catalase nor the global regulators of peroxide stress resistance. Previously, we identified pneumococcal thiol peroxidase (TpxD) as the key enzyme for enzymatic removal of H 2 O 2 , and showed that TpxD synthesis is up-regulated upon exposure to H 2 O 2 . This study aimed to reveal the mechanism controlling TpxD expression under H 2 O 2 stress. We hypothesize that H 2 O 2 activates a transcription factor which in turn up-regulates tpxD expression. Microarray analysis revealed a pneumococcal global transcriptional response to H 2 O 2 . Mutation of tpxD abolished H 2 O 2 -mediated response to high H 2 O 2 levels, signifying the need for an active TpxD under oxidative stress conditions. Bioinformatic tools, applied to search for a transcription factor modulating tpxD expression, pointed toward CodY as a potential candidate. Indeed, a putative 15-bp consensus CodY binding site was found in the proximal region of tpxD- coding sequence. Binding of CodY to this site was confirmed by EMSA, and genetic engineering techniques demonstrated that this site is essential for TpxD up-regulation under H 2 O 2 stress. Furthermore, tpxD expression was reduced in a Δ codY mutant. These data indicate that CodY is an activator of tpxD expression, triggering its up-regulation under H 2 O 2 stress. In addition we show that H 2 O 2 specifically oxidizes the 2 CodY cysteines. This oxidation may trigger a conformational change in CodY, resulting in enhanced binding to DNA. A schematic model illustrating the contribution of TpxD and CodY to pneumococcal global transcriptional response to H 2 O 2 is

  16. A model-based evaluation of Marine Protected Areas: the example of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Pelletier, Dominique; Dubreuil, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The eastern Baltic cod stock collapsed as a consequence of climate-driven adverse hydrographic conditions and over fishing and has remained at historically low levels. Spatio-temporal fishing closures [Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)] have been implemented since 1995, to protect and restore......, combining an age-structured population module with a multifleet exploitation module and a management module in a single model environment. The model is parameterized based on (i) the large amount of biological knowledge available for cod and (ii) an analysis of existing spatially disaggregated fishery data...

  17. Improvement of COD and color removal from UASB treated poultry manure wastewater using Fenton's oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Sakar, Suleyman [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-03-01

    The applicability of Fenton's oxidation as an advanced treatment for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was investigated. The raw poultry manure wastewater, having a pH of 7.30 ({+-}0.2) and a total COD of 12,100 ({+-}910) mg/L was first treated in a 15.7 L of pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated for 72 days at mesophilic conditions (32 {+-} 2 deg. C) in a temperature-controlled environment with three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15.7, 12 and 8.0 days, and with organic loading rates (OLR) between 0.650 and 1.783 kg COD/(m{sup 3} day). Under 8.0 days of HRT, the UASB process showed a remarkable performance on total COD removal with a treatment efficiency of 90.7% at the day of 63. The anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was further treated by Fenton's oxidation process using Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solutions. Batch tests were conducted on the UASB effluent samples to determine the optimum operating conditions including initial pH, effects of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe{sup 2+} dosages, and the ratio of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+}. Preliminary tests conducted with the dosages of 100 mg Fe{sup 2+}/L and 200 mg H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/L showed that optimal initial pH was 3.0 for both COD and color removal from the UASB effluent. On the basis of preliminary test results, effects of increasing dosages of Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were investigated. Under the condition of 400 mg Fe{sup 2+}/L and 200 mg H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/L, removal efficiencies of residual COD and color were 88.7% and 80.9%, respectively. Under the subsequent condition of 100 mg Fe{sup 2+}/L and 1200 mg H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/L, 95% of residual COD and 95.7% of residual color were removed from the UASB effluent. Results of this experimental study obviously indicated that nearly 99.3% of COD of raw poultry manure wastewater could be effectively removed by a

  18. Distribution of the early larval stages of cod, plaice and lesser sandeel across haline fronts in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Wright, P.J.; Pihl, Niels Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    A number of commercially important fish species spawn in the coastal areas of the North Sea in the late winter, including cod (Gadus morhua), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus). The distribution of the early stages of these species overlap to some extent...... Influence (ROFI), predominantly in the Dogger Bank and German Bight areas. There was a high degree of overlap between the distributions of cod and plaice, while the maximal abundance of lesser sandeel was found inshore of the other species. Larval distributions were to a large extent confined by the frontal...

  19. Eastern Baltic cod : Perspectives from existing data on processes affecting growth and survival of eggs and larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; St. John, Michael; Wieland, Kai

    1996-01-01

    exist in our knowledge of processes affecting egg and larval growth and survival, but some promising areas of research are indicated. In particular the seasonality of spawning, deep water oxygen concentrations, predation on eggs, and larval food production require further investigation....... surveys have described food concentrations at appropriate scales for cod larvae, and the species composition of larval diets is unknown. Growth rates for Baltic cod larvae have not been measured and cannot be compared with rates in other areas or to variations in biotic and abiotic factors. Large gaps...

  20. Spatio-temporal variability in western Baltic cod early life stage survival mediated by egg buoyancy, hydrography and hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H-H.; Hüssy, K.; Huwer, B.

    2012-01-01

    Spatio-temporal variability in western Baltic cod early life stage survival mediated by egg buoyancy, hydrography and hydrodynamics. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 1744–1752.To disentangle the effects of different drivers on recruitment variability of marine fish, a spatially and temporally...... explicit understanding of both the spawning stock size and the early life stage dynamics is required. The objectives of this study are to assess the transport of western Baltic cod early life stages as well as the variability in environmentally-mediated survival along drift routes in relation to both...

  1. Beneficial effects of cod protein on inflammatory cell accumulation in rat skeletal muscle after injury are driven by its high levels of arginine, glycine, taurine and lysine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junio Dort

    Full Text Available We have shown that feeding cod protein, which is rich in anti-inflammatory arginine, glycine, and taurine, may beneficially modulate the inflammatory response during recovery following skeletal muscle injury; however it is unknown if these amino acids are responsible for this effect. This study was designed to assess whether supplementing casein with an amino acid mixture composed of arginine, glycine, taurine and lysine, matching their respective levels in cod protein, may account for the anti-inflammatory effect of cod protein. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic diets containing either casein, cod protein, or casein supplemented with L-arginine (0.45%, glycine (0.43%, L-taurine (0.17% and L-lysine (0.44% (casein+. After 21 days of ad libitum feeding, one tibialis anterior muscle was injured with 200 µl bupivacaine while the saline-injected contra-lateral tibialis anterior was served as sham. Cod protein and casein+ similarly modulated the inflammation as they decreased COX-2 level at day 2 post-injury (cod protein, p=0.014; casein+, p=0.029 and ED1(+ macrophage density at days 2 (cod protein, p=0.012; casein+, p<0.0001, 5 (cod protein, p=0.001; casein+, p<0.0001 and 14 (cod protein, p<0.0001; casein+, p<0.0001 post-injury, and increased ED2(+ macrophage density at days 5 (cod protein, p<0.0001; casein+, p=0.006, 14 (cod protein, p=0.001; casein+, p<0.002 and 28 (cod protein, p<0.009; casein+, p<0.005 post-injury compared with casein. Furthermore, cod protein up-regulated (p=0.037 whereas casein+ tended to up-regulate (p=0.062 myogenin expression at day 5 post-injury compared with casein. In the cod protein-fed group, these changes resulted in greater muscle mass at days 14 (p=0.002, and 28 (p=0.001 post-injury and larger myofiber cross-sectional area at day 28 post-injury compared with casein (p=0.012. No such effects were observed with casein+. These data indicate that anti-inflammatory actions of cod protein, contrary to its effect on

  2. Serum Soluble Corin is Decreased in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Fangfang; Shi, Jijun; Han, Xiujie; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Yan; Zhi, Zhongwen; Zhang, Fuding; Shen, Yun; Ma, Juanjuan; Song, Yulin; Hu, Weidong

    2015-07-01

    Soluble corin was decreased in coronary heart disease. Given the connections between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, circulating corin might be a candidate marker of stroke risk. However, the association between circulating corin and stroke has not yet been studied in humans. Here, we aimed to examine the association in patients wtith stroke and community-based healthy controls. Four hundred eighty-one patients with ischemic stroke, 116 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, and 2498 healthy controls were studied. Serum soluble corin and some conventional risk factors of stroke were examined. Because circulating corin was reported to be varied between men and women, the association between serum soluble corin and stroke was evaluated in men and women, respectively. Patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke had a significantly lower level of serum soluble corin than healthy controls in men and women (all P values, stroke than men in the highest quartile. Women in the lowest quartile of serum soluble corin were also more likely to have ischemic (OR, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-5.44) and hemorrhagic (OR, 8.54; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-31.02) stroke than women in the highest quartile. ORs of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were significantly increased with the decreasing levels of serum soluble corin in men and women (all P values for trend, stroke compared with healthy controls. Our findings raise the possibility that serum soluble corin may have a pathogenic role in stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Solubilities of uranium for TILA-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.; Ahonen, L.

    1998-11-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the uranium solubilities in the reference waters of TILA-99. The behaviour of uranium has been discussed separately in the near-field and far-field conditions. The bentonite/groundwater interactions have been considered in the compositions of the fresh and saline near-field reference waters. The far-field groundwaters' compositions include fresh, brackish, saline and very saline, almost brine-type compositions. The pH and redox conditions, as the main parameters affecting the solubilities, are considered. A literature study was made in order to obtain information on the recent dissolution and leaching experiments of UO 2 and spent fuel. The latest literature includes studies on UO 2 solubility under anoxic conditions, in which the methods for simulating the reducing conditions of deep groundwater have been improved. Studies on natural uraninite and its alteration products give a valuable insight into the long-term behaviour of spent fuel. Also the solubility equilibria for some relevant poorly known uranium minerals have been determined. The solubilities of the selected solubility-limiting phases were calculated using the geochemical code, EQ3/6. The NEA database for uranium was the basis for the modelling. The recently extended and updated SR '97 database was used for comparison. The solubility products for uranophane were taken from the latest literature. The recommended values for solubilities were given after a comparison between the calculated solubilities, experimental information and measured concentrations in natural groundwaters. The experiments include several UO 2 dissolution studies in synthetic groundwaters with compositions close to the reference groundwaters. (author)

  4. Solubilities of uranium for TILA-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollila, K. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Ahonen, L. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-11-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the uranium solubilities in the reference waters of TILA-99. The behaviour of uranium has been discussed separately in the near-field and far-field conditions. The bentonite/groundwater interactions have been considered in the compositions of the fresh and saline near-field reference waters. The far-field groundwaters` compositions include fresh, brackish, saline and very saline, almost brine-type compositions. The pH and redox conditions, as the main parameters affecting the solubilities, are considered. A literature study was made in order to obtain information on the recent dissolution and leaching experiments of UO{sub 2} and spent fuel. The latest literature includes studies on UO{sub 2} solubility under anoxic conditions, in which the methods for simulating the reducing conditions of deep groundwater have been improved. Studies on natural uraninite and its alteration products give a valuable insight into the long-term behaviour of spent fuel. Also the solubility equilibria for some relevant poorly known uranium minerals have been determined. The solubilities of the selected solubility-limiting phases were calculated using the geochemical code, EQ3/6. The NEA database for uranium was the basis for the modelling. The recently extended and updated SR `97 database was used for comparison. The solubility products for uranophane were taken from the latest literature. The recommended values for solubilities were given after a comparison between the calculated solubilities, experimental information and measured concentrations in natural groundwaters. The experiments include several UO{sub 2} dissolution studies in synthetic groundwaters with compositions close to the reference groundwaters. (author) 81 refs.

  5. Accumulation and elimination of methylmercury in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) following dietary exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amlund, Heidi [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway)]. E-mail: heidi.amlund@nifes.no; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway); Berntssen, Marc H.G. [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2007-08-01

    Methylmercury is known to bioaccumulate and biomagnify up the marine food chain. Fish from high levels of the marine food chain may contain relatively high concentrations of mercury, and most (>70%) of the mercury found in muscle is methylmercury. In aquaculture, marine protein (mainly fishmeal) is the dominant source of methylmercury, and this raises some concern with regards to fish welfare and consumer safety. A dietary exposure study, including a depuration period, was carried out in order to study the accumulation and elimination of methylmercury in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), and to estimate the transfer of methylmercury from feed to fish. Fish were sampled throughout a three month exposure period and a three month depuration period. Muscle samples were fractionated into a protein and a lipid fraction by lipid extraction using methanol and chloroform. Mercury and methylmercury were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICPMS), respectively. A continuous accumulation of methylmercury, after a lag period of 10 days, was observed in muscle tissue during the three months exposure to methylmercury (0.95+/-0.03{mu}g Hg/g feed, n=6). After three months, the final concentration in muscle was 0.38+/-0.04{mu}g Hg/gww (n=6), where methylmercury constituted 90-95% of the mercury present. The elimination of methylmercury from muscle was slow and incomplete (within the three months of depuration) with an estimated elimination half-life (t{sub 1/2}) of 377 days. The transfer of methylmercury from feed to Atlantic cod, described by the estimated absorption efficiency, was 38%. In muscle more than 99% of the mercury was found in the protein fraction. These results suggest that Atlantic cod readily takes up dietary methylmercury, which is efficiently accumulated into muscle, where it is incorporated into larger peptides or proteins. Comparable results were found for

  6. Accumulation and elimination of methylmercury in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) following dietary exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amlund, Heidi; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Berntssen, Marc H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury is known to bioaccumulate and biomagnify up the marine food chain. Fish from high levels of the marine food chain may contain relatively high concentrations of mercury, and most (>70%) of the mercury found in muscle is methylmercury. In aquaculture, marine protein (mainly fishmeal) is the dominant source of methylmercury, and this raises some concern with regards to fish welfare and consumer safety. A dietary exposure study, including a depuration period, was carried out in order to study the accumulation and elimination of methylmercury in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), and to estimate the transfer of methylmercury from feed to fish. Fish were sampled throughout a three month exposure period and a three month depuration period. Muscle samples were fractionated into a protein and a lipid fraction by lipid extraction using methanol and chloroform. Mercury and methylmercury were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICPMS), respectively. A continuous accumulation of methylmercury, after a lag period of 10 days, was observed in muscle tissue during the three months exposure to methylmercury (0.95+/-0.03μg Hg/g feed, n=6). After three months, the final concentration in muscle was 0.38+/-0.04μg Hg/gww (n=6), where methylmercury constituted 90-95% of the mercury present. The elimination of methylmercury from muscle was slow and incomplete (within the three months of depuration) with an estimated elimination half-life (t 1/2 ) of 377 days. The transfer of methylmercury from feed to Atlantic cod, described by the estimated absorption efficiency, was 38%. In muscle more than 99% of the mercury was found in the protein fraction. These results suggest that Atlantic cod readily takes up dietary methylmercury, which is efficiently accumulated into muscle, where it is incorporated into larger peptides or proteins. Comparable results were found for Atlantic salmon

  7. Effects of ocean acidification increase embryonic sensitivity to thermal extremes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, Flemming T; Leo, Elettra; Mark, Felix C; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Storch, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Thermal tolerance windows serve as a powerful tool for estimating the vulnerability of marine species and their life stages to increasing temperature means and extremes. However, it remains uncertain to which extent additional drivers, such as ocean acidification, modify organismal responses to temperature. This study investigated the effects of CO 2 -driven ocean acidification on embryonic thermal sensitivity and performance in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, from the Kattegat. Fertilized eggs were exposed to factorial combinations of two PCO 2 conditions (400 μatm vs. 1100 μatm) and five temperature treatments (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 °C), which allow identifying both lower and upper thermal tolerance thresholds. We quantified hatching success, oxygen consumption (MO 2 ) and mitochondrial functioning of embryos as well as larval morphometrics at hatch and the abundance of acid-base-relevant ionocytes on the yolk sac epithelium of newly hatched larvae. Hatching success was high under ambient spawning conditions (3-6 °C), but decreased towards both cold and warm temperature extremes. Elevated PCO 2 caused a significant decrease in hatching success, particularly at cold (3 and 0 °C) and warm (12 °C) temperatures. Warming imposed limitations to MO 2 and mitochondrial capacities. Elevated PCO 2 stimulated MO 2 at cold and intermediate temperatures, but exacerbated warming-induced constraints on MO 2 , indicating a synergistic interaction with temperature. Mitochondrial functioning was not affected by PCO 2 . Increased MO 2 in response to elevated PCO 2 was paralleled by reduced larval size at hatch. Finally, ionocyte abundance decreased with increasing temperature, but did not differ between PCO 2 treatments. Our results demonstrate increased thermal sensitivity of cod embryos under future PCO 2 conditions and suggest that acclimation to elevated PCO 2 requires reallocation of limited resources at the expense of embryonic growth. We conclude that ocean acidification

  8. Solubility limited radionuclide transport through geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Susumu; Iwamoto, Fumio; Pigford, T.H.

    1980-11-01

    Prior analyses for the migration of radionuclides neglect solubility limits of resolved radionuclide in geologic media. But actually some of the actinides may appear in chemical forms of very low solubility. In the present report we have proposed the migration model with no decay parents in which concentration of radionuclide is limited in concentration of solubility in ground water. In addition, the analytical solutions of the space-time-dependent concentration are presented in the case of step release, band release and exponential release. (author)

  9. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  10. Water Soluble Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeran Gowda Kadajji

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in polymer science have led to the development of novel drug delivery systems. Some polymers are obtained from natural resources and then chemically modified for various applications, while others are chemically synthesized and used. A large number of natural and synthetic polymers are available. In the present paper, only water soluble polymers are described. They have been explained in two categories (1 synthetic and (2 natural. Drug polymer conjugates, block copolymers, hydrogels and other water soluble drug polymer complexes have also been explained. The general properties and applications of different water soluble polymers in the formulation of different dosage forms, novel delivery systems and biomedical applications will be discussed.

  11. Molecular Thermodynamic Modeling of Mixed Solvent Solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela; Abildskov, Jens; O’Connell, John P.

    2010-01-01

    A method based on statistical mechanical fluctuation solution theory for composition derivatives of activity coefficients is employed for estimating dilute solubilities of 11 solid pharmaceutical solutes in nearly 70 mixed aqueous and nonaqueous solvent systems. The solvent mixtures range from...... nearly ideal to strongly nonideal. The database covers a temperature range from 293 to 323 K. Comparisons with available data and other existing solubility methods show that the method successfully describes a variety of observed mixed solvent solubility behaviors using solute−solvent parameters from...

  12. Prediction of vertical distribution and ambient development temperature of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L., eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Jarre, Astrid

    1997-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model was established to predict the vertical distribution of Baltic cod eggs. Data from vertical distribution sampling in the Bornholm Basin over the period 1986-1995 were used to train and test the network, while data sets from sampling in 1996 were used...... for validation. The model explained 82% of the variance between observed and predicted relative frequencies of occurrence of the eggs in relation to salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration; The ANN fitted all observations satisfactorily except for one sampling date, where an exceptional hydrographic...... situation was observed. Mean ambient temperatures, calculated from the predicted vertical distributions of the eggs and used for the computation of egg developmental times, were overestimated by 0.05 degrees C on average. This corresponds to an error in prediction of egg developmental time of less than 1%...

  13. Changes in cod muscle proteins during frozen storage revealed by proteome analysis and multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgård, Inger Vibeke Holst; Nørrelykke, M.R.; Jessen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    Multivariate data analysis has been combined with proteomics to enhance the recovery of information from 2-DE of cod muscle proteins during different storage conditions. Proteins were extracted according to 11 different storage conditions and samples were resolved by 2-DE. Data generated by 2-DE...... was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares regression (DPLSR). Applying PCA to 2-DE data revealed the samples to form groups according to frozen storage time, whereas differences due to different storage temperatures or chilled storage in modified atmosphere...... light chain 1, 2 and 3, triose-phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase A and two ?-actin fragments, and a nuclease diphosphate kinase B fragment to change in concentration, during frozen storage. Application of proteomics, multivariate data analysis and MS/MS to analyse...

  14. Effects of ration size and hypoxia on specific dynamic action in the cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Anders D; Steffensen, John F

    2007-01-01

    We present the first data on the effect of hypoxia on the specific dynamic action (SDA) in a teleost fish. Juvenile cod (Gadus morhua) were fed meals of 2.5% and 5% of their wet body mass (BM) in normoxia (19.8 kPa Po(2)) and 5% BM in hypoxia (6.3 kPa Po(2)). Reduced O(2) availability depressed...... the postprandial peaks of oxygen consumption, and to compensate for this, the total SDA duration lasted 212.0+/-20 h in hypoxia, compared with 95.1+/-25 h in normoxia. The percentage of energy associated with the meal digestion and assimilation (SDA coefficient) was equivalent between the different feeding rations...

  15. Statistical Assessment of Cetacean Stranding Events in Cape Cod (Massachusetts, USA) area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellar, R.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Moore, K.; Reeb, D.; Karakoylu, E.; Uritskaya, O.

    2017-12-01

    Cetacean (whales, dolphins and porpoises) mass strandings are a longstanding mystery in the field of marine biology that continue to be recorded in coastal environments around the world. For each of these events, anywhere from a few to several hundred otherwise healthy animals strand in onshore environments, often for no apparent reason. While the causes of these events remain unclear, anthropogenic and naturogenic mechanisms have been suggested. We present results of an inter-disciplinary study that draws expertise from space weather, marine mammal biology and ecology, and marine mammal stranding response. This study assessed 16 years of cetacean stranding events in the Cape Cod (Massachusetts, USA) area concurrently with a large dataset of meteorological, geophysical, biological, oceanographic and space weather data to produce inferences about possible causes for these unexplained events.

  16. Stage-specific mortality of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Grønkjær, P.

    2000-01-01

    A study on cod egg mortality was carried out in the Bornholm Basin (southern central Baltic Sea) toward the end of July 1996. An initial egg aggregation marked by a satellite-tracked drifter buoy was sampled repeatedly over an Ii-day period; profiles of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen...... were concurrently recorded. Three replicate estimates of mortality were obtained for each pair of subsequent developmental stages from newly spawned eggs to early larvae. A consistent pattern of stage-specific mortality coincided well with previous experimental observations. Average daily mortality...... rates were 7.2% (eggs IA/IB), 38.7% (eggs (IB/II), 25.6% (eggs II/III), 40.0% (eggs III/IV), and 42.3% (eggs IV/early larvae). The cumulative mortality until hatch amounted to 99.9%. Results from hydrodynamic modelling, however, indicated that the drifter's trajectory was influenced by wind stress...

  17. Does DNA extraction affect the physical and chemical composition of historical cod (Gadus morhua) otoliths?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hüssy, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Archived otoliths constitute an important source of historical DNA for use in temporal genetic studies, but such otoliths are also valuable for other research applications, e.g. growth or microchemistry studies, where information about the past is of relevance. Consequently, there are potentially...... conflicting interests regarding how the limited and irreplaceable otolith collections should be used. To resolve this, it is important to find out whether DNA extraction damages otoliths such that they can no longer be used for other research purposes or whether individual otoliths can be used in multiple...... applications. We examined the effects of three different DNA extraction methods on the elemental composition, the morphology, and the clarity of annual growth increments for successful age estimation of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) otoliths that had been archived for 0–31 years. The three extraction methods...

  18. Seasonal prevalence and intensity of follicular atresia in Baltic cod Gadus morhua callarias L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Diekmann, R.

    2008-01-01

    of the physical disector method and volume fraction (Delesse principle). Atretic oocytes were observed in 32% of the ovaries. Prevalence of atresia was independent of female size, but increased significantly with declining female condition from prespawning and through the spawning stages. The relative intensity...... of atresia, i.e. number of atretic oocytes in relation to normally developed vitellogenic oocytes, was low amounting to 1.4% on average. Similar to prevalence, relative intensity of atresia differed significantly between maturity stages and increased with decreasing female condition. The population egg loss......In the present study, 307 ovaries of eastern Baltic cod Gadus morhua callarias sampled during the prespawning and spawning season 2000 were analysed histologically to estimate the seasonal prevalence and intensity of atresia. The number of atretic oocytes per ovary was estimated using a combination...

  19. Effect of catch location, season and quality on value of Icelandic cod (Gadus morhua) products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margeirsson, Sveinn; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Jonsson, Gudmundur R.

    2006-01-01

    In this book, scientists from various disciplines address the advances in seafood research with respect to quality, safety, consumer's demands and processing of wild and farmed fish. The nutritional properties of marine lipids and lipid oxidation from model systems to seafood are presented. Several...... contributions on the effects of natural anti-oxidants to prevent oxidation are also included. Effects of dietary factors on muscle tissue quality, pre-rigor processing and brining of farmed cod are covered. The development of rigor mortis and the quality of muscle in relation to commercial and experimental...... slaughter techniques are also discussed. Consumer's knowledge, perception and need for information about seafood are discussed. Topics such as shelf life and microbial quality of seafood are covered in a range of contributions. Inactivation of micro organisms or biopreservation of seafood are included...

  20. The COD concept and its application to fracture mechanical evaluation of cracked components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kockelmann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive literature study, this report critically evaluates the current state of experiences with the COD concept in fracture mechanics. First the concept is explained and the procedure of materials testing with a view to fracture mechanics is discussed in detail with emphasis on: The definition of crack shape modification; the procedure to detect crack modification, with subsequent comparison; the determination of material characteristics; the impact on the characteristics of the crack tip opening and the dispersion of results. The correlation between crack tip opening characteristics and notch impact strength is explained, and the methods applied for analysis of the streses affecting the structural components are shown. The design-based and failure threshold curves and the treatment of real crack geometries are also discussed. Problems still to be solved are shown. (orig./HP) [de

  1. On the relation between water pools and water holding capacity in cod muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Jørgensen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxations were measured on muscle, minced muscle and centrifuged mince from cod that had been treated under various frozen and chill storage conditions. By using multi-way chemometrics, uni-exponential profiles were obtained, from which the transverse...... relaxation times (T2-values) and the water pool sizes (m- values) were determined. Three pools of water were identified with the different relaxation times and m-values in the centrifuged samples reflecting the removal of loosely bound water. The m-values and the full NMR-signal decays were correlated to two...... measures of water holding capacity (WHC) in a way that WHC related to the original water content could be predicted well for the whole and the minced muscle. The centrifuged samples gave optimal predictions of WHC related to the dry matter content, probably because the centrifuged samples are similar...

  2. Using data storage tags to link otolith macrostructure in Baltic cod Gadus morhua with environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Nielsen, Birgitte; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    of a strontium chloride solution. Based on environmental conditions experienced, fish were classified into different behavioural types: non-reproducing 'non-spawner', and 'spawner' undertaking spawning migrations. Otolith opacity, an indicator of otolith and fish somatic growth and condition, was examined...... in relation to these environmental drivers. Temperature was the only environmental variable with a significant effect, overlaying a strong size-related effect. The temperature effect was not uniform across behavioural types and spawning periods. Opacity showed a negative correlation with temperature......We examined otolith opacity of Baltic cod in relation to environmental conditions in order to evaluate the formation mechanisms of seasonal patterns used in age determination. Adult fish were tagged with data storage tags (DSTs) and a permanent mark was induced in the otoliths by injection...

  3. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cod nursery areas in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Dewitz, B. von; Lehmann, M.

    2017-01-01

    in the Bornholm Basin and in the Gdansk Deep showed a similar declining trend as the Fulton's K condition factor of demersal 1-group cod, which may confirm the importance of oxygen-dependent habitat availability and its effect on density dependence as a process relevant for recruitment success....... to nursery grounds of neighboring subdivisions. Juveniles which hatched in the Bornholm Basin were most widely dispersed and showed the highest settlement probability, while the second highest settlement probability and horizontal dispersal was observed for juveniles originating from the Gdansk Deep....... In a long-term perspective, wind-driven transport of larvae/juveniles positively affected the settlement success predominately in the Bornholm Basin and in the Bay of Gdansk. The Bornholm Basin has the potential to contribute on average 54% and the Bay of Gdansk 11% to the production of juveniles...

  4. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models II : Incorporation of environmental variability and species interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We investigate whether a process-oriented approach based on the results of field, laboratory, and modelling studies can be used to develop a stock-environment-recruitment model for Central Baltic cod (Gadus morhua). Based on exploratory statistical analysis, significant variables influencing...... affecting survival of eggs, predation by clupeids on eggs, larval transport, and cannibalism. Results showed that recruitment in the most important spawning area, the Bornholm Basin, during 1976-1995 was related to egg production; however, other factors affecting survival of the eggs (oxygen conditions......, predation) were also significant and when incorporated explained 69% of the variation in 0-group recruitment. In other spawning areas, variable hydrographic conditions did not allow for regular successful egg development. Hence, relatively simple models proved sufficient to predict recruitment of 0-group...

  5. Removal of COD and TSS From Dye Solution Using Sand Filtration and Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Juniar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in order to obtain proper compositions and the standard condition for the simple filtration equipments and optimum operational conditions in adsorption column. The research was carried out by analyzing parameters COD and TSS. The result showed that the process was able to reduced parameters observed from filtration step until the process in adsorptions column. The optimum conditions for sand filter equipment were 10 cm sand height, at least 7 cm fibers, 3-4 cm gravel. In the adsorption column, the optimum conditions for green waste water were flow rate at 40 ml/min 60 min adsorptions time, and 60 cm bed height. While purple for waste water; 20 mL/min of flowrate, 60 min of adsorption time, and the 60 cm of bed height

  6. Protists from a sewage‐contaminated aquifer on cape cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novarino, Gianfranco; Warren, Alan; Kinner, Nancy E.; Harvey, Ronald W.

    1994-01-01

    Several species of flagellates (genera Bodo, Cercomonas, Cryptaulax, Cyathomonas, Goniomonas, Spumella) have been identified in cultures from a plume of organic contamination (treated sewage effluent) within an aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Amoebae and numerous unidentifiable 2‐ to 3‐μm flagellates have also been observed. As a rule, flagellates were associated with solid surfaces, or were capable of temporary surface attachment, corroborating earlier observations from in situ and column transport experiments suggesting that protists in the Massachusetts aquifer have a high propensity for association with sediment grain surfaces. Based on the fact that cultures from the uncontaminated part of the aquifer yielded only a few species of protists, it is hypothesized that the greater abundance and variety of food sources in the contaminant plume is capable of supporting a greater number of protistan species.

  7. Genetic variation and local differences in Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus around Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, A; Nagata, N; Sato, A; Narimatsu, Y; Nadiatul, H H; Kawata, M

    2017-01-01

    The population structure of the Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus was examined using 15 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (ND2 region). In total, 274 individuals were sampled from 16 locations around Japan to estimate the level of genetic differentiation and effective population size (N e ). Pairwise F ST , analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian clustering analysis suggested the presence of two genetically distinct groups in waters around Japan, with a higher N e value in the eastern group than in the western group. A possible factor that restricts gene flow between groups may be related to the water temperature differences in the south-western part of the Sea of Japan, where the Tsushima Warm Current flows around the area inhabited by the western group, which may limit migration between the west and east. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Nitrogen and COD Removal from Septic Tank Wastewater in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Plants Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetland treatment performance with respect to organics (COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) wastewater as affected by the presence of plants, substrate "rock" cation exchange capacity (CEC), laboratory versus field conditions and use of synthetic as compared to actual domestic wastewater. This article considers the effects of plants on constructed wetland treatment in the field. Each constructed wetland system was comprised of two beds (2.6 m long by 0.28 m wide and deep filled with ~18 mm crushed lava rock) separated by an aeration tank connected in series. The lava rock had a porosity of ~47% and a CEC of 4 meq/100 gm. One pair of constructed wetland systems was planted with cattails in May 2008, while an adjacent pair of systems remained un-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each constructed wetland system and effluent samples were regularly collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species during four time periods spanning November 2008 through June 2009. These effluent concentrations were tested for statistical differences at the 95% level for individual time periods as well as the overall 6-month period. Organics removal from domestic wastewater was 78.8% and 76.1% in the planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 94.5% and 90.2%, respectively. Similarly, organics removal from the synthetic wastewater of equivalent strength was 88.8% and 90.1% for planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 96.9% and 97.3%, respectively.

  9. Real-time ichthyoplankton drift in Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian spring-spawning herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikebø, Frode B; Ådlandsvik, Bjørn; Albretsen, Jon; Sundby, Svein; Stenevik, Erling Kåre; Huse, Geir; Svendsen, Einar; Kristiansen, Trond; Eriksen, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Individual-based biophysical larval models, initialized and parameterized by observations, enable numerical investigations of various factors regulating survival of young fish until they recruit into the adult population. Exponentially decreasing numbers in Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring early changes emphasizes the importance of early life history, when ichthyoplankton exhibit pelagic free drift. However, while most studies are concerned with past recruitment variability it is also important to establish real-time predictions of ichthyoplankton distributions due to the increasing human activity in fish habitats and the need for distribution predictions that could potentially improve field coverage of ichthyoplankton. A system has been developed for operational simulation of ichthyoplankton distributions. We have coupled a two-day ocean forecasts from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute with an individual-based ichthyoplankton model for Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring producing daily updated maps of ichthyoplankton distributions. Recent years observed spawning distribution and intensity have been used as input to the model system. The system has been running in an operational mode since 2008. Surveys are expensive and distributions of early stages are therefore only covered once or twice a year. Comparison between model and observations are therefore limited in time. However, the observed and simulated distributions of juvenile fish tend to agree well during early fall. Area-overlap between modeled and observed juveniles September 1(st) range from 61 to 73%, and 61 to 71% when weighted by concentrations. The model system may be used to evaluate the design of ongoing surveys, to quantify the overlap with harmful substances in the ocean after accidental spills, as well as management planning of particular risky operations at sea. The modeled distributions are already utilized during research surveys to

  10. Real-time ichthyoplankton drift in Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian spring-spawning herring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frode B Vikebø

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual-based biophysical larval models, initialized and parameterized by observations, enable numerical investigations of various factors regulating survival of young fish until they recruit into the adult population. Exponentially decreasing numbers in Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring early changes emphasizes the importance of early life history, when ichthyoplankton exhibit pelagic free drift. However, while most studies are concerned with past recruitment variability it is also important to establish real-time predictions of ichthyoplankton distributions due to the increasing human activity in fish habitats and the need for distribution predictions that could potentially improve field coverage of ichthyoplankton. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A system has been developed for operational simulation of ichthyoplankton distributions. We have coupled a two-day ocean forecasts from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute with an individual-based ichthyoplankton model for Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring producing daily updated maps of ichthyoplankton distributions. Recent years observed spawning distribution and intensity have been used as input to the model system. The system has been running in an operational mode since 2008. Surveys are expensive and distributions of early stages are therefore only covered once or twice a year. Comparison between model and observations are therefore limited in time. However, the observed and simulated distributions of juvenile fish tend to agree well during early fall. Area-overlap between modeled and observed juveniles September 1(st range from 61 to 73%, and 61 to 71% when weighted by concentrations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The model system may be used to evaluate the design of ongoing surveys, to quantify the overlap with harmful substances in the ocean after accidental spills, as well as management planning of particular risky operations

  11. Solubility of carbohydrates in heavy water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Larissa V C; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2012-05-15

    The solubility of several mono-(glucose and xylose), di-(sucrose and maltose), tri-(raffinose) and cyclic (α-cyclodextrin) saccharides in H(2)O and in D(2)O were measured over a range of temperatures. The solution enthalpies for the different carbohydrates in the two solvents were determined using the vant' Hoff equation and the values in D(2)O are presented here for the first time. Our findings indicate that the replacement of H(2)O by D(2)O remarkably decreases the solubilities of the less soluble carbohydrates, such as maltose, raffinose and α-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the more soluble saccharides, glucose, xylose, and sucrose, are practically insensitive to the H/D replacement in water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhancement of Solubility and Bioavailability of Candesartan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance the otherwise poor solubility and bioavailability of candesartan cilexetil (CDS). Methods: This ... PEG 6000-based solid dispersions showed 1st order drug release kinetics. ..... the liver due to quercetin's inhibitory effect on.

  13. An Introduction to the Understanding of Solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Trevor M.; Battino, Rubin

    2001-01-01

    Explores different solubility processes and related issues, including the second law of thermodynamics and ideal mixtures, real liquids, intermolecular forces, and solids in liquids or gases in liquids. (Contains 22 references.) (ASK)

  14. Progress in the research of neptunium solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Tao; Liu Yongye; Yao Jun

    2012-01-01

    237 Np is considered a possible long-term potential threat for environment, because of its long half-life, high toxicity and its mobile nature under aerobic conditions due to the high chemical stability of its pentavalent state. Therefore 237 Np is considered as one of high-level radioactive waste and need to be disposed in deep geologic disposal repository. The dissolution behavior is an important aspect of migration research. The solubility is considered very important for high level waste geological disposal safety and environmental evaluation. The solubility determines the maximum concentration of the discharge, and then it is initial concentration of the radionuclides migration to the environment. The solubility impact directly on radionuclides migration in host rock, and can be used to predict the concentration and speciation of radionuclides in groundwater around disposal sites many years later. This paper focused on research results of the solubility, some proposals for Np dissolution chemistry research were also been suggested. (authors)

  15. Anaerobic digestion for treatment of stillage from cellulosic bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhuoli; Mohan, Gayathri Ram; Ingram, Lonnie; Pullammanappallil, Pratap

    2013-09-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of stillage from a cellulosic ethanol process that uses sugarcane bagasse as feedstock was investigated. A biochemical methane potential (BMP) of 200 ml CH4 at STP (g VS)(-1) was obtained. The whole stillage was separated into two fractions: a fraction retained on 0.5 mm screen called residue and a fraction passing through 0.5 mm screen called filtrate. About 70% of total methane yield of stillage was produced from the filtrate. The filtrate was anaerobically digested in a 15 L semi-continuously fed digester operated for 91 days at HRTs of 21 and 14 days and organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.85 and 2.39 g COD L(-1) d(-1). The methane yield from the stillage from the digester was about 90% of the yield from the BMP assays. The influent soluble COD (sCOD) was reduced from between 35.4 and 38.8 g COD (L(-1)) to between 7.5 and 8 g COD (L(-1)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogen and methane production from condensed molasses fermentation soluble by a two-stage anaerobic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiu-Yue; Liang, You-Chyuan; Lay, Chyi-How [Feng Chia Univ., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Science; Chen, Chin-Chao [Chungchou Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China). Environmental Resources Lab.; Chang, Feng-Yuan [Feng Chia Univ., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Research Center for Energy and Resources

    2010-07-01

    The treatment of condensed molasses fermentation soluble (CMS) is a troublesome problem for glutamate manufacturing factory. However, CMS contains high carbohydrate and nutrient contents and is an attractive and commercially potential feedstock for bioenergy production. The aim of this paper is to produce hydrogen and methane by two-stage anaerobic fermentation process. The fermentative hydrogen production from CMS was conducted in a continuously-stirred tank bioreactor (working volume 4 L) which was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h, organic loading rate (OLR) of 120 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, temperature of 35 C, pH 5.5 and sewage sludge as seed. The anaerobic methane production was conducted in an up-flow bioreactor (working volume 11 L) which was operated at a HRT of 24 -60 hrs, OLR of 4.0-10 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, temperature of 35 C, pH 7.0 with using anaerobic granule sludge from fructose manufacturing factory as the seed and the effluent from hydrogen production process as the substrate. These two reactors have been operated successfully for more than 400 days. The steady-state hydrogen content, hydrogen production rate and hydrogen production yield in the hydrogen fermentation system were 37%, 169 mmol-H{sub 2}/L-d and 93 mmol-H{sub 2}/g carbohydrate{sub removed}, respectively. In the methane fermentation system, the peak methane content and methane production rate were 66.5 and 86.8 mmol-CH{sub 4}/L-d with methane production yield of 189.3 mmol-CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub removed} at an OLR 10 kg/m{sup 3}-d. The energy production rate was used to elucidate the energy efficiency for this two-stage process. The total energy production rate of 133.3 kJ/L/d was obtained with 5.5 kJ/L/d from hydrogen fermentation and 127.8 kJ/L/d from methane fermentation. (orig.)

  17. Effect of influent COD/SO4(2-) ratios on biodegradation behaviors of starch wastewater in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xueqin; Zhen, Guangyin; Ni, Jialing; Hojo, Toshimasa; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You

    2016-08-01

    A lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) has been run for 250days to investigate the influence of influent COD/SO4(2-) ratios on the biodegradation behavior of starch wastewater and process performance. Stepwise decreasing COD/SO4(2-) ratio enhanced sulfidogenesis, complicating starch degradation routes and improving process stability. The reactor exhibited satisfactory performance at a wide COD/SO4(2-) range ⩾2, attaining stable biogas production of 1.15-1.17LL(-1)d(-1) with efficient simultaneous removal of total COD (73.5-80.3%) and sulfate (82.6±6.4%). Adding sulfate favored sulfidogenesis process and diversified microbial community, invoking hydrolysis-acidification of starch and propionate degradation and subsequent acetoclastic methanogenesis; whereas excessively enhanced sulfidogenesis (COD/SO4(2-) ratios UASB technology in water industry from basic science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The responses of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) to ultrasound-emitting predators: stress, behavioural changes or debilitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack, H.B.; Malte, H.; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2008-01-01

    A previous study has reported that Atlantic cod can be conditioned to detect ultrasonic sound pulses of high intensity. This capability has been proposed as a mean for detection and avoidance of echolocating toothed whales that emit intense ultrasonic clicks. In this study, we use acoustic...... exposed to ultrasonic clicks and echosounder pulses with received levels of more than 204 dB re. 1 µPa (pp) did not elicit flight responses as seen in ultrasound detecting Alosinae. Furthermore, we tested the debilitating effects of high intensity ultrasound on swimming cod with no detected changes...... playbacks to test the hypotheses that unconditioned cod can detect and respond to intense ultrasound from toothed whales and from echosounders. Intense ultrasound exposure of 210 dB re. 1µPa (pp) did not cause a short-term stress response in the form of bradycardia in unconditioned cod. Free-swimming cod...

  19. North Atlantic ecosystem shifts revealed by cod otolith δ15N and δ13C chronologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Brøgger; Nielsen, Jens Munk; Steingrund, Petur

    . To study the link between environmental changes and ecosystem trophic structure we developed δ15N and δ13C chronologies by analyzing the organic matrix of cod otoliths from the Faroe Shelf cod population (1950-2010) and the Nuuk Fjord cod population (1927-2009). Significant correlations between δ15N & δ13C...... of organic matrix of otolith core material (Nuuk Fjord) and annual growth increments in Ocean Quahog (A. Islandica) shells will be included.......Changes in climate and exploitation have caused large fluctuations in the productivity of many North Atlantic cod populations and the collapse of many cod fisheries. These fluctuations are most likely due to a combined effect of physical processes and changes in ecosystem trophic structure...

  20. Solubility Products of M(II) - Carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauer, Rolf; Berner, Urs [ed.

    1999-01-01

    Many solubility data for M(II) carbonates commonly compiled in tables are contradictory and sometimes obviously wrong. The quality of such data has been evaluated based on the original publications and reliable solubility constants have been selected for the carbonates of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb with the help of cross-comparisons. (author) translated from a PSI internal report written in German in 1994 (TM-44-94-05). 5 figs., 1 tab., 68 refs.

  1. Hydrogen solubility in polycrystalline - and nonocrystalline niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, T.T.; Silva, J.R.G. da

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen solubility in polycrystalline and monocrystalline niobium was measured in the range 400 0 C to 1000 0 C at one atmosphere hydrogen partial pressure. The experimental technique consists of saturation of the solvent metal with hydrogen, followed by quenching and analysis of the solid solution. It is presented solubility curves versus reciprocal of the absolute doping temperature, associated with their thermodynamical equation. (Author) [pt

  2. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-01-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear...

  3. Correlation of Helium Solubility in Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDresar, Neil T.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    A correlation has been developed for the equilibrium mole fraction of soluble gaseous helium in liquid nitrogen as a function of temperature and pressure. Experimental solubility data was compiled and provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Data from six sources was used to develop a correlation within the range of 0.5 to 9.9 MPa and 72.0 to 119.6 K. The relative standard deviation of the correlation is 6.9 percent.

  4. Characterization of Francisella sp., GM2212, the first Francisella isolate from marine fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottem, Karl F; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil

    2007-01-01

    A Francisella sp., isolate GM2212(T), previously isolated from diseased farmed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in Norway is characterized. The complete 16S rDNA, 16S-23S intergenic spacer, 23S rDNA, 23S-5S intergenic spacer, 5S rDNA, FopA, lipoprotein TUL4 (LpnA), malate dehydrogenase and a hypothetica...

  5. New species in the genus Francisella (Gammaproteobacteria; Francisellaceae); Francisella piscicida sp. nov. isolated from cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottem, Karl F; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil

    2007-01-01

    A Francisella strain, GM2212, previously isolated from moribund farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in Norway, is closely related to Francisella philomiragia among Francisella spp. according to its complete 16S rDNA, 16S-23S intergenic spacer, 23S rDNA, 23S-5S intergenic spacer, 5S rDNA, Fop...

  6. 76 FR 12293 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from jig... fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the revised... this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption...

  7. 77 FR 53152 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from other... fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the revised... this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption...

  8. 75 FR 13444 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod.... Since the fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the... operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential...

  9. 78 FR 73454 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from catcher... is currently ongoing, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the revised... this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption...

  10. 77 FR 76425 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Central...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from catcher...-line gear. Since the fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as... efficient operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid...

  11. 78 FR 9327 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from jig... fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the revised... this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption...

  12. 78 FR 53076 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod... industry as to the revised allocations. Immediate notification is necessary to allow for the orderly conduct and efficient operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and...

  13. 77 FR 8176 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from jig... fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the revised... this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption...

  14. 77 FR 66564 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from catcher... open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the revised allocations. Immediate... the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption to the fishing fleet as...

  15. 75 FR 19562 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from jig... fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the revised... this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption...

  16. 76 FR 76903 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod... industry as to the revised allocations. Immediate notification is necessary to allow for the orderly conduct and efficient operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and...

  17. Application of Calibration Curve, Accuracy and Precision Chart as Internal Quality Control at COD Testing in Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uray Lusiana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality assurance is one of the technical requirements that include in the quality management system based on SNI ISO/IEC 17025 : 2008. Quality assurance is all the process that planned and systematic activity that applied in analysis, so can give the confidence to the customer or data user. Quality assurance that is applied for COD testing in wastewater are calibration curve, accuracy and precision control chart. The purpose of calibration curve, accuracy and precision control chart applied was to control the data of COD testing so that guaranty the validity to report and to keep the consistence of testing result as statistic all the time. Calibration curve of COD testing have a coefficient correlation 0,99987. Accuracy control chart have limited line BTA = 104,95%, BPA = 102,97%, BIA = 100,98%, BTB = 93,03%, BPB = 95,02% and BIB = 97,0%. Accuracy data can be accepted if that data present between line of BPA and BPB (± 2 SD, data is warned if that data present between line BTA-BPA or BTB-BPB (± 2 SD and ± 3 SD, and data is outlier if that data present out of line BTA and BTB (± 3 SD. The precision data can accepted if that the RPD value is not more than 10 % of COD testing result.

  18. Assessment of Electrocoagulation Method for Simultaneous Removal of Phosphate, Nitrate and COD by Fe Electrodes from Laundry Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Razavi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Discharging of wastewaters containing detergents either by manufacturers or through domestic and industrial usages has caused the incidence of serious environmental problems. Entering these materials in to the surface waters reduces the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water and causes unsightly environment and groundwater pollution that is always has been notified by environmental experts. Methods: This study focuses on the treatment of laundry wastewater containing phosphate, nitrate and COD using iron as sacrificial electrode by EC process. Various operating conditions such as pH (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, distance between the electrode (3, 5, 10,15mm and current density (3, 6,9,12 mA/cm2 were investigated. Results: Experimental results showed that pollutant removal efficiency varied by changing pH, distance between the electrodes and current density. According to the results, optimum operating conditions for the removal of phosphate, nitrate and COD, were current density of 12mA/cm2, pH of 7.0, distance between the electrodes equal to 10 mm with Fe electrodes. The removal efficiency of phosphate, nitrate and COD were showed 99.33%, 96.67% and 91.43%. Also Kinetic analysis indicates that the adsorption system obeys a second- order kinetic model. Conclusion: According to the results, the Fe electrodes have been achieved the high removal efficiency of phosphate, nitrate and COD by using electrocoagulation.

  19. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6 with swine wastewater for simultaneous nutrient/COD removal and carbohydrate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Guo, Wanqian; Yen, Hong-Wei; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Lo, Yung-Chung; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Ren, Nanqi; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-12-01

    Swine wastewater, containing a high concentration of COD and ammonia nitrogen, is suitable for the growth of microalgae, leading to simultaneous COD/nutrients removal from the wastewater. In this study, an isolated carbohydrate-rich microalga Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6 was adopted to perform swine wastewater treatment. Nearly 60-70% COD removal and 40-90% NH3-N removal was achieved in the mixotrophic and heterotrophic culture, depending on the dilution ratio of the wastewater, while the highest removal percentage was obtained with 20-fold diluted wastewater. Mixotrophic cultivation by using fivefold diluted wastewater resulted in the highest biomass concentration of 3.96 g/L. The carbohydrate content of the microalga grown on the wastewater can reach up to 58% (per dry weight). The results indicated that the microalgae-based wastewater treatment can efficiently reduce the nutrients and COD level, and the resulting microalgal biomass had high carbohydrate content, thereby having potential applications for the fermentative production of biofuels or chemicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance of denitrifying microbial fuel cell subjected to variation in pH, COD concentration and external resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Tao; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Hua, Yu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and external resistance on denitrifying microbial fuel cell were evaluated in terms of electricity generation characteristics and pollutant removal performance. The results showed that anodic influent with weakly alkaline or neutral pH and cathodic influent with weakly acidic pH favored pollutant removal and electricity generation. The suitable influent pH of the anode and cathode were found to be 7.5-8.0 and 6.0-6.5, respectively. In the presence of sufficient nitrate in the cathode, higher influent COD concentration led to more electricity generation and greater pollutant removal rates. With an anodic influent pH of 8.0 and a cathodic influent pH of 6.0, an influent COD concentration of 400 mg/L was deemed to be appropriate. Low external resistance favored nitrate and COD removal. The results suggest that operation of denitrifying microbial fuel cell at a lower external resistance would be desirable for pollutant removal but not electricity generation.

  1. Cycle length and COD/N ratio determine properties of aerobic granules treating high-nitrogen wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Bernat, Katarzyna; Zielińska, Magdalena; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2014-07-01

    Aerobic granule characteristic in sequencing batch reactors treating high-nitrogen digester supernatant was investigated at cycle lengths (t) of 6, 8 and 12 h with the COD/N ratios in the influent of 4.5 and 2.3. The biomass production (Y obs) correlated with the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in grams per COD removed. Denitrification efficiency significantly decreased as the amount of EPS in biomass increased, suggesting that organic assimilation in EPS hampers nitrogen removal. Granule hydrophobicity was highest at t of 8 h; the t has to be long enough to remove pollutants, but not so long that excessive biomass starvation causes extracellular protein consumption that decreases hydrophobicity. At a given t, reducing the COD/N ratio improved hydrophobicity that stimulates cell aggregation. At t of 6 h and the COD/N ratio of 2.3, the dominance of 0.5-1.0 mm granules favored simultaneous nitrification and denitrification and resulted in the highest nitrogen removal.

  2. Effect of hydrocolloids and pretreatments on the keeping quality of minced fillets of whiting and cod during frozen storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponte, da D.J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of additions of hydrocolloids and pretreatments (precooking and irradiation) on the stability of minced fillets of whiting and cod during frozen storage (-18°C).

    Some hydrocolloids (Xanthan gum, alginates, carboxymethyl celluloses and Iota and Lambda

  3. 76 FR 66655 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod and Octopus in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... catch of octopus by vessels using pot gear to fish for Pacific cod the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs... and management measures prevent overfishing. The 2011 octopus overfishing level in the BSAI is 528...

  4. Learning from ‘apparent consensus’ in TAC disputes: Exploring knowledge overlaps in LEK and genetic categorization of Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedeholm, R. B.; Jacobsen, R. B.; Eg Nielsen, Einar

    2016-01-01

    and the corresponding genetic categories. However, an examination of existing inshore and off-shore catch surveys confirmed the relevance of the morphological characteristics (liver condition and shape) of ecologically defined inshore and off-shore cod that provided the basis for fishers' categorizations. This opens...

  5. An abundance estimate of ling ( Molva molva ) and cod ( Gadus morhua ) in the Skagerrak and the northeastern North Sea, 1872

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, R.T.; Cooper, A.B.; Holm, P.

    2007-01-01

    that long-term, historical abundance estimates are relevant to the determination of biomass reference points in fisheries management. Situated within the field of historical ecology, this paper presents findings on the abundance of ling and cod in 1872. Calculations are based on historical CPUE and catch...

  6. Improving the size- and species selectivity of cod (Gadus morhua) in demersal mixed-species trawl fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    reduce the catch of cod without simultaneously reduce the catch of the target species. To optimise the trade-off between discard and loss of marketable catch, solutions have to be specific to particular fisheries or populations of fish. Papers 1 and 3 provide specific examples of how size- and species...

  7. Calcium from salmon and cod bone is well absorbed in young healthy men: a double-blinded randomised crossover design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graff Ingvild E

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium (Ca - fortified foods are likely to play an important role in helping the consumer achieve an adequate Ca intake, especially for persons with a low intake of dairy products. Fish bones have a high Ca content, and huge quantities of this raw material are available as a by-product from the fish industry. Previously, emphasis has been on producing high quality products from fish by-products by use of bacterial proteases. However, documentation of the nutritional value of the enzymatically rinsed Ca-rich bone fraction remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to assess the bioavailability of calcium in bones of Atlantic salmon (oily fish and Atlantic cod (lean fish in a double-blinded randomised crossover design. Methods Ca absorption was measured in 10 healthy young men using 47Ca whole body counting after ingestion of a test meal extrinsically labelled with the 47Ca isotope. The three test meals contained 800 mg of Ca from three different calcium sources: cod bones, salmon bones and control (CaCO3. Results Mean Ca absorption (± SEE from the three different Ca sources were 21.9 ± 1.7%, 22.5 ± 1.7% and 27.4 ± 1.8% for cod bones, salmon bones, and control (CaCO3, respectively. Conclusion We conclude that bones from Atlantic salmon and Atlantic cod are suitable as natural Ca sources in e.g. functional foods or as supplements.

  8. Calcium from salmon and cod bone is well absorbed in young healthy men: a double-blinded randomised crossover design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malde, Marian K; Bügel, Susanne; Kristensen, Mette; Malde, Ketil; Graff, Ingvild E; Pedersen, Jan I

    2010-07-20

    Calcium (Ca) - fortified foods are likely to play an important role in helping the consumer achieve an adequate Ca intake, especially for persons with a low intake of dairy products. Fish bones have a high Ca content, and huge quantities of this raw material are available as a by-product from the fish industry. Previously, emphasis has been on producing high quality products from fish by-products by use of bacterial proteases. However, documentation of the nutritional value of the enzymatically rinsed Ca-rich bone fraction remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to assess the bioavailability of calcium in bones of Atlantic salmon (oily fish) and Atlantic cod (lean fish) in a double-blinded randomised crossover design. Ca absorption was measured in 10 healthy young men using 47Ca whole body counting after ingestion of a test meal extrinsically labelled with the 47Ca isotope. The three test meals contained 800 mg of Ca from three different calcium sources: cod bones, salmon bones and control (CaCO3). Mean Ca absorption (+/- SEE) from the three different Ca sources were 21.9 +/- 1.7%, 22.5 +/- 1.7% and 27.4 +/- 1.8% for cod bones, salmon bones, and control (CaCO3), respectively. We conclude that bones from Atlantic salmon and Atlantic cod are suitable as natural Ca sources in e.g. functional foods or as supplements.

  9. Biogas-pH automation control strategy for optimizing organic loading rate of anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating high COD wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dawei; Liu, Jibao; Sui, Qianwen; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-03-01

    Control of organic loading rate (OLR) is essential for anaerobic digestion treating high COD wastewater, which would cause operation failure by overload or less efficiency by underload. A novel biogas-pH automation control strategy using the combined gas-liquor phase monitoring was developed for an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating high COD (27.53 g·L(-1)) starch wastewater. The biogas-pH strategy was proceeded with threshold between biogas production rate >98 Nml·h(-1) preventing overload and pH>7.4 preventing underload, which were determined by methane production kinetics and pH titration of methanogenesis slurry, respectively. The OLR and the effluent COD were doubled as 11.81 kgCOD·kgVSS(-1)·d(-1) and halved as 253.4 mg·L(-1), respectively, comparing with a constant OLR control strategy. Meanwhile COD removal rate, biogas yield and methane concentration were synchronously improved to 99.1%, 312 Nml·gCODin(-1) and 74%, respectively. Using the biogas-pH strategy, AnMBR formed a "pH self-regulation ternary buffer system" which seizes carbon dioxide and hence provides sufficient buffering capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prediction of COD and NH4+-N Concentrations in Leachate from Lab-scale Landfill Bioreactors Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Javad Zoqi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model for predicting COD and NH4+-N concentrations in landfill leachate from lab-scale landfill bioreactors. For this purpose, two different lab-scale systems were modeled. for neural network’s data obtained. In the first system, the leachate from a fresh-waste reactor was drained to a recirculation tank and recycled every two days. In the second, the leachate from a fresh waste landfill reactor was fed through a well-decomposed refuse landfill reactor, while the leachate from a well-decomposed refuse landfill reactor was simultaneously recycled to a fresh waste landfill reactor. The results indicate that leachate NH4+-N and COD concentrations accumulated to a high level in the first system, while. NH4+-N and COD removals were successfully carried out in the second. Also, average removal efficiencies in the second system reached 85% and 34% for COD and NH4+-N, respectively. Finally, the ANN’s results exhibited the success of the model as witnessed by the excellent agreement obtained between measured and predicted values.

  11. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder: Management of Baltic cod stock requires an ecosystem approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllmann, Christian; Blenckner, T.; Casini, M.

    2011-01-01

    the fact that human exploitation (i.e. fishing) is the strongest impact on marine ecosystems. They further concluded that single-species approaches to resource management are functioning and that ecosystem-based approaches are not necessary. We (1) argue that the recent increase in the EB cod stock...

  12. Electrical stunning of farmed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L.: a comparison of an industrial and experimental method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Digre, H.; Erikson, U.; Misimi, E.; Lambooij, E.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2010-01-01

    An industrial and experimental electrical method for stunning farmed Atlantic cod in air and seawater (SW), respectively, were compared. The impacts of sedation with AQUI-S™ and exercise to exhaustion before electrical stunning were also assessed to monitor the possible depletion of rested muscle

  13. Epitope mapping of the major allergen from Atlantic cod in Spanish population reveals different IgE-binding patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gordo, Marina; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos; Lin, Jing; Bardina, Ludmilla; Cases, Barbara; Ibáñez, Maria Dolores; Vivanco, Fernando; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier; Sampson, Hugh A

    2013-07-01

    IgE-epitope mapping of allergens reveal important information about antigen components involved in allergic reactions. The peptide-based microarray immunoassay has been used to map epitopes of some food allergens. We developed a peptide microarray immunoassay to map allergenic epitopes in parvalbumin from Atlantic cod (Gad m 1), the most consumed cod species in Spain. Sera from 13 fish-allergic patients with specific IgE to cod parvalbumin were used. A library of overlapping peptides was synthesized, representing the primary sequence of Gad m 1. Peptides were used to analyze allergen-specific IgE antibodies in patient sera. 100% of the patients recognized one antigenic region of 15 amino acids in length in Gad m 1. This region only partially correlated with one of the three antigenic determinants of Gad c 1 (Allergen M), parvalbumin from Baltic cod (Gadus callarias). In the 3D model of the protein, this region was located on the surface of the protein. We have identified a relevant antigenic region in Gad m 1. This epitope could be considered as a severity marker and provides additional information to improve fish allergy diagnosis and the design of safe immunotherapeutic tools. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Use of selective devices in trawls to support recovery of the Kattegat cod stock: a review of experiments and experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Valentinsson, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    this provides a valuable management tool for reducing the bycatch of cod and reducing mortality, and thus helping to rebuild the depleted stock. Gear research in the area has been focused on devices that allow for continued exploitation of the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) and flatfish, but minimizing...

  15. Effects of reproduction on growth and survival in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, assessed by comparison to triploids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trippel, Edward A.; Butts, Ian; Babin, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    in captive iteroparous, batch-spawning Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), utilizing diploids and triploids, knowing that triploid females invest little to no energy into gametogenesis. Based on annual specific growth rate, there was no evidence for a somatic cost of reproduction at ages 2 (virgin year) and 4...

  16. 77 FR 62464 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in the Central...

  17. Identifying eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds using hydrodynamic modelling: knowledge for the design of Marine Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Kraus, Gerd; Böttcher, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of juvenile cod is essential to closing the life cycle in population dynamic models, and it is a prerequisite for the design of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) aiming at the protection of juveniles. In this study, we use a hydrodynamic model to exa...

  18. Differential Survival among Batches of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L. from Fertilisation through to Post-Metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra E Petersen

    Full Text Available Aquaculture production of cod has decreased from over 20,000 tonnes in 2009 to less than 2,000 tonnes in 2014 and the industry faces many challenges, one of which is high and unpredictably variable mortality rates in the early life stages. Hence, full-cycle farming with hatchery produced juveniles is still considered unprofitable compared to fisheries and on-growing of wild cod. In the present study, potential batch differences in progeny survival of wild-caught, hatchery-spawned Faroe Bank cod (Gadus morhua L. were investigated at two defined periods during early life history; i the embryo stage (60 day degrees post fertilisation and ii the fry stage (110 days post hatch, post metamorphosis. The fry stage experiment was conducted in three replicates (N = 300 per replicate, and a panel of three polymorphic microsatellite markers was used for parental analysis. Mean survival rate at the embryo stage was 69% (± 20% SD. Survival was positively associated with egg diameter (P < 0.01, explaining 90% of the variation in egg survival rates. The data were too scarce to conclude either way concerning a possible correlation between survival rates between the two periods (P < 0.10. Offspring from three batches (from a total of eight dominated in the fry stage, contributing over 90% of the progeny, and results were consistent over all three replicate tanks. The skewed batch representation observed may be of relevance to the effective management of selective breeding programmes for cod.

  19. Controlling the COD removal of an A-stage pilot study with instrumentation and automatic process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W; Elliott, Matt; DeArmond, Jon; Kinyua, Maureen; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B

    2017-06-01

    The pursuit of fully autotrophic nitrogen removal via the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) pathway has led to an increased interest in carbon removal technologies, particularly the A-stage of the adsorption/bio-oxidation (A/B) process. The high-rate operation of the A-stage and lack of automatic process control often results in wide variations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal that can ultimately impact nitrogen removal in the downstream B-stage process. This study evaluated the use dissolved oxygen (DO) and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) based automatic control strategies through the use of in situ on-line sensors in the A-stage of an A/B pilot study. The objective of using these control strategies was to reduce the variability of COD removal by the A-stage and thus the variability of the effluent C/N. The use of cascade DO control in the A-stage did not impact COD removal at the conditions tested in this study, likely because the bulk DO concentration (>0.5 mg/L) was maintained above the half saturation coefficient of heterotrophic organisms for DO. MLSS-based solids retention time (SRT) control, where MLSS was used as a surrogate for SRT, did not significantly reduce the effluent C/N variability but it was able to reduce COD removal variation in the A-stage by 90%.

  20. Hydrothermal solubility of uraninite. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, G.A.; Pohl, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the solubility of UO 2 from 100 to 300 0 C under 500 bars H 2 , in NaCl solutions at pH from 1 to 8 do not agree with solubilities calculated using existing thermodynamic databases. For pH 2 (hyd) has precipitated and is controlling solubility. For pH > 8, solubilities at all temperatures are much lower than predicted, suggesting that the U(OH)/sub delta/ - complex is much weaker than predicted. Extrapolated to 25 0 C, high pH solubility agrees within experimental error with the upper limit suggested by Ryan and Rai (1983). In the pH range 2 to 6, solubilities are up to three orders of magnitude lower than predicted for temperatures exceeding 200 0 C and up to two orders higher than predicted at lower temperatures. pH dependence in this region is negligible suggesting that U(OH) 4 (aq) predominates, thus the stability of this species is higher than presently estimated at low temperatures, but the enthalpy of solution is smaller. A low maximum observed near pH approx. =3 is presently unexplained. 40 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs

  1. Uranium solubility and speciation in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this study has been to assess the solubility and possible species of uranium in groundwater at the disposal conditions of spent fuel. The effects of radiolysis and bentonite are considered. The assessment is based on the theoretical calculations found in the literature. The Finnish experimental results are included. The conservative estimate for uranium solubility under the oxidizing conditions caused by alpha radiolysis is based on the oxidation of uranium to the U(VI) state and formation of carbonate complex. For the groundwater with the typical carbonate content of 275 mg/l and the high carbonate content of 485 mg/l due to bentonite, the solubility values of 360 mg u/l and 950 mg U/l, are obtained, respectively. The experimental results predict considerably lower values, 0.5-20 mg U/l. The solubility of uranium under the undisturbed reducing conditions may be calculated based on the hydrolysis, carbonate complexation and redox reactions. The results vary considerably depending on the thermodynamic data used. The wide ranges of the most important groundwater parameters are seen in the solubility values. The experimental results show the same trends. As a conservative value for the solubility in reducing groundwater 50-500 μg U/l is estimated. (author)

  2. Sibutramine characterization and solubility, a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Hernández, Juan M.; Nicolás Vázquez, Inés; Hinojosa-Torres, Jaime; Penieres Carrillo, Guillermo; Arroyo Razo, Gabriel; Miranda Ruvalcaba, René

    2013-04-01

    Solubility data from sibutramine (SBA) in a family of alcohols were obtained at different temperatures. Sibutramine was characterized by using thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction technique. Solubility data were obtained by the saturation method. The van't Hoff equation was used to obtain the theoretical solubility values and the ideal solvent activity coefficient. No polymorphic phenomena were found from the X-ray diffraction analysis, even though this compound is a racemic mixture of (+) and (-) enantiomers. Theoretical calculations showed that the polarisable continuum model was able to reproduce the solubility and stability of sibutramine molecule in gas phase, water and a family of alcohols at B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory. Dielectric constant, dipolar moment and solubility in water values as physical parameters were used in those theoretical calculations for explaining that behavior. Experimental and theoretical results were compared and good agreement was obtained. Sibutramine solubility increased from methanol to 1-octanol in theoretical and experimental results.

  3. Guanine limitation results in CodY-dependent and -independent alteration of Staphylococcus aureus physiology and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alyssa N; Borkar, Samiksha; Samuels, David J; Batz, Zachary; Bulock, Logan; Sadykov, Marat R; Bayles, Kenneth W; Brinsmade, Shaun R

    2018-04-30

    In Staphylococcus aureus , the global transcriptional regulator CodY modulates the expression of hundreds of genes in response to the availability of GTP and the branched-chain amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine (ILV). CodY DNA-binding activity is high when GTP and ILV are abundant. When GTP and ILV are limited, CodY's affinity for DNA drops, altering expression of CodY regulated targets. In this work, we investigated the impact of guanine nucleotides on S. aureus physiology and CodY activity by constructing a guaA null mutant (Δ guaA ). De novo biosynthesis of guanine monophosphate is abolished due to the guaA mutation; thus, the mutant cells require exogenous guanosine for growth. We also found that CodY activity was reduced when we knocked out guaA , activating the Agr two-component system and increasing secreted protease activity. Notably, in a rich, complex medium, we detected an increase in alternative sigma factor B activity in the Δ guaA mutant, which results in a 5-fold increase in production of the antioxidant pigment staphyloxanthin. Under biologically relevant flow conditions, Δ guaA cells failed to form robust biofilms when limited for guanine or guanosine. RNA-seq analysis of S. aureus transcriptome during growth in guanosine-limited chemostats revealed substantial CodY-dependent and -independent alteration of gene expression profiles. Importantly, these changes increase production of proteases and δ-toxin, suggesting that S. aureus exhibits a more invasive lifestyle when limited for guanosine. Further, gene-products upregulated under GN limitation, including those necessary for lipoic acid biosynthesis and sugar transport, may prove to be useful drug targets for treating Gram-positive infections. Importance Staphylococcus aureus infections impose a serious economic burden on healthcare facilities and patients because of the emergence of strains resistant to last-line antibiotics. Understanding the physiological processes governing

  4. The Effect of COD Concentration Containing Leaves Litter, Canteen and Composite Waste to the Performance of Solid Phase Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudro, Ganjar; Syafrudin; Nugraha, Winardi Dwi; Sutrisno, Endro; Priyambada, Ika Bagus; Muthi'ah, Hilma; Sinaga, Glory Natalia; Hakiem, Rahmat Tubagus

    2018-02-01

    This research is conducted to analyze and determine the optimum of COD concentration containing leaves litter, canteen and composite waste to power density and COD removal efficiency as the indicator of SMFC performance. COD as the one of organic matter parameters perform as substrate, nutrient and dominating the whole process of SMFC. Leaves litter and canteen based food waste were obtained from TPST UNDIP in Semarang and treated in SMFC reactor. Its reactor was designed 2 liter volume and equipped by homemade graphene electrodes that were utilized at the surface of organic waste as cathode and in a half of reactor height as anode. COD concentration was initially characterized and became variations of initial COD concentration. Waste volume was maintained 2/3 of volume of reactor. Bacteria sources as the important process factor in SMFC were obtained from river sediment which contain bacteroides and exoelectrogenic bacteria. Temperature and pH were not maintained while power density and COD concentration were periodically observed and measured during 44 days. The results showed that power density up to 4 mW/m2 and COD removal efficiency performance up to 70% were reached by leaves litter, canteen and composite waste at days 11 up to days 44 days. Leaves litter contain 16,567 mg COD/l providing higher COD removal efficiency reached approximately 87.67%, more stable power density reached approximately 4.71 mW/m2, and faster optimum time in the third day than canteen based food waste and composite waste. High COD removal efficiency has not yet resulted in high power density.

  5. Relationships between chemical oxygen demand (COD) components and toxicity in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor/aerobic completely stirred reactor system treating Kemicetine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa, E-mail: delya.sponza@deu.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eyluel University, Buca Kaynaklar Campus, Tinaztepe, 35160 Izmir (Turkey); Demirden, Pinar, E-mail: pinar.demirden@kozagold.com [Environmental Engineer, Koza Gold Company, Environmental Department, Ovacik, Bergama Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    In this study the interactions between toxicity removals and Kemicetine, COD removals, intermediate products of Kemicetine and COD components (CODs originating from slowly degradable organics, readily degradable organics, inert microbial products and from the inert compounds) were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system with a real pharmaceutical wastewater. The total COD and Kemicetine removal efficiencies were 98% and 100%, respectively, in the sequential ABR/CSTR systems. 2-Amino-1 (p-nitrophenil)-1,3 propanediol, l-p-amino phenyl, p-amino phenol and phenol were detected in the ABR as the main readily degradable inter-metabolites. In the anaerobic ABR reactor, the Kemicetin was converted to corresponding inter-metabolites and a substantial part of the COD was removed. In the aerobic CSTR reactor the inter-metabolites produced in the anaerobic reactor were completely removed and the COD remaining from the anerobic reactor was biodegraded. It was found that the COD originating from the readily degradable organics did not limit the anaerobic degradation process, while the CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and from the inert microbial products significantly decreased the anaerobic ABR reactor performance. The acute toxicity test results indicated that the toxicity decreased from the influent to the effluent of the aerobic CSTR reactor. The ANOVA test statistics showed that there was a strong linear correlation between acute toxicity, CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and inert microbial products. A weak correlation between acute toxicity and CODs originating from the inert compounds was detected.

  6. Relationships between chemical oxygen demand (COD) components and toxicity in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor/aerobic completely stirred reactor system treating Kemicetine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Demirden, Pinar

    2010-01-01

    In this study the interactions between toxicity removals and Kemicetine, COD removals, intermediate products of Kemicetine and COD components (CODs originating from slowly degradable organics, readily degradable organics, inert microbial products and from the inert compounds) were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system with a real pharmaceutical wastewater. The total COD and Kemicetine removal efficiencies were 98% and 100%, respectively, in the sequential ABR/CSTR systems. 2-Amino-1 (p-nitrophenil)-1,3 propanediol, l-p-amino phenyl, p-amino phenol and phenol were detected in the ABR as the main readily degradable inter-metabolites. In the anaerobic ABR reactor, the Kemicetin was converted to corresponding inter-metabolites and a substantial part of the COD was removed. In the aerobic CSTR reactor the inter-metabolites produced in the anaerobic reactor were completely removed and the COD remaining from the anerobic reactor was biodegraded. It was found that the COD originating from the readily degradable organics did not limit the anaerobic degradation process, while the CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and from the inert microbial products significantly decreased the anaerobic ABR reactor performance. The acute toxicity test results indicated that the toxicity decreased from the influent to the effluent of the aerobic CSTR reactor. The ANOVA test statistics showed that there was a strong linear correlation between acute toxicity, CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and inert microbial products. A weak correlation between acute toxicity and CODs originating from the inert compounds was detected.

  7. The characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances and soluble microbial products in moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Liang; Jiang, Wei; Song, Yonghui; Xia, Siqing; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W

    2013-11-01

    The characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) in conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR) and in moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactors (MBBR-MBR) were investigated in long-term (170 days) experiments. The results showed that all reactors had high removal efficiency of ammonium and COD, despite very different fouling conditions. The MBBR-MBR with media fill ratio of 26.7% had much lower total membrane resistance and no obvious fouling were detected during the whole operation. In contrast, MBR and MBBR-MBR with lower and higher media fill experienced more significant fouling. Low fouling at optimum fill ratio may be due to the higher percentage of small molecular size (100 kDa) of EPS and SMP in the reactor. The composition of EPS and SMP affected fouling due to different O-H bonds in hydroxyl functional groups, and less polysaccharides and lipids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Skeletal muscle growth dynamics and the influence of first-feeding diet in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu A. Vo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics between hypertrophy (increase in cell size and hyperplasia (increase in cell numbers of white and red muscle in relation to body size [standard length (SL], and the influence of the first-feeding diets on muscle growth were investigated in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua. Cod larvae were fed copepod nauplii or rotifers of different nutritional qualities from 4 to 29 days post hatching (dph, Artemia nauplii from 20 to 40 dph and a formulated diet from 36 to 60 dph. The short period of feeding with cultivated copepod nauplii had a positive effect on both muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy after the copepod/rotifer phase (19 dph, and a positive long term effect on muscle hypertrophy (60 dph. The different nutritional qualities of rotifers did not significantly affect muscle growth. We suggest here a model of the dynamics between hyperplasia and hypertrophy of red and white muscle fibre cells in relation to cod SL (4 to 30 mm, where the different red and white muscle growth phases clearly coincided with different metamorphosis stages in cod larvae. These shifts could be included as biomarkers for the different stages of development during metamorphosis. The main dietary muscle effect was that hypertrophic growth of red muscle fibres was stronger in cod larvae that were fed copepods than in larvae that were fed rotifers, both in relation to larval age and size. Red muscle fibres are directly involved in larval locomotory performance, but may also play an important role in the larval myogenesis. This can have a long term effect on growth potential and fish performance.

  9. Solubility study of Tc(IV) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safer disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under oxidizing conditions technetium exists as the anionic species TcO 4 - whereas under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. Hence, the mobility of Tc(IV) in reducing groundwater may be limited by the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O under these conditions. Due to this fact it is important to investigate the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. The solubility determines the release of radionuclides from waste form and is used as a source term in radionuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium oxide was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2 + . The solubility of Tc(IV) oxide has been determined in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(IV) oxide were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(IV) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is about (1.49-1.86) x 10 -9 mol/(L·d) under aerobic conditions, but Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is not oxidized under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(IV) oxide in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The

  10. Influence of milling process on efavirenz solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erizal Zaini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the milling process on the solubility of efavirenz. Materials and Methods: Milling process was done using Nanomilling for 30, 60, and 180 min. Intact and milled efavirenz were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, spectroscopy infrared (IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and solubility test. Results: The X-ray diffractogram showed a decline on peak intensity of milled efavirenz compared to intact efavirenz. The SEM graph depicted the change from crystalline to amorphous habit after milling process. The IR spectrum showed there was no difference between intact and milled efavirenz. Thermal analysis which performed by DSC showed a reduction on endothermic peak after milling process which related to decreasing of crystallinity. Solubility test of intact and milled efavirenz was conducted in distilled water free CO2with 0.25% sodium lauryl sulfate media and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography method with acetonitrile: distilled water (80:20 as mobile phases. The solubility was significantly increased (P < 0.05 after milling processes, which the intact efavirenz was 27.12 ± 2.05, while the milled efavirenz for 30, 60, and 180 min were 75.53 ± 1.59, 82.34 ± 1.23, and 104.75 ± 0.96 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Based on the results, the solubility of efavirenz improved after milling process.

  11. Solubility of lithium deuteride in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleckis, E.; Yonco, R.M.; Maroni, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The solubility of LiD in liquid lithium between the eutectic and monotectic temperatures was measured using a direct sampling method. Solubilities were found to range from 0.0154 mol.% LiD at 199 0 C to 3.32 mol.% LiD at 498 0 C. The data were used in the derivation of an expression for the activity coefficient of LiD as a function of temperature and composition and an equation relating deuteride solubility and temperature, thus defining the liquidus curve. Similar equations were also derived for the Li-LiH system using the existing solubility data. Extrapolation of the liquidus curves yielded the eutectic concentrations (0.040 mol.% LiH and 0.035 mol.% LiD) and the freezing point depressions (0.23 0 C for Li-LiH and 0.20 0 C for Li-LiD) at the eutectic point. The results are compared with the literature data for hydrogen and deuterium. The implications of the relatively high solubility of hydrogen isotopes in lithium just above the melting point are discussed with respect to the cold trapping of tritium in fusion reactor blankets. (Auth.)

  12. Solubility studies of Np(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingjie; Yao Jun; Jiao Haiyang; Ren Lihong; Zhou Duo; Fan Xianhua

    2001-01-01

    The solubility of Np(IV) in simulated underground water and redistilled water has been measured with the variations of pH(6-12) and storage time (0-100 d) in the presence of reductant (Na 2 S 2 O 4 , metallic Fe). All experiments are performed in a low oxygen concentration glove box containing high purity Ar(99.99%), with an oxygen content of less than 5 x 10 -6 mol/mol. Experimental results show that the variation of pH in solution has little effect on the solubility of Np(IV) in the two kinds of water; the measured solubility of Np(IV) is affected by the composition of solution; with Na 2 S 2 O 4 as a reductant, the solubility of Np(IV) in simulated underground water is (9.23 +- 0.48) x 10 -10 mol/L, and that in redistilled water is (8.31 +- 0.35) x 10 -10 mol/L; with metallic Fe as a reductant, the solubility of Np(IV) in simulated underground water is (1.85 +- 0.56) x 10 -9 mol/L, and that in redistilled water is (1.48 +- 0.66) x 10 -9 mol/L

  13. Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1993-01-01

    Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model

  14. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Partially Soluble HAP 7 Table 7 to... Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63—Partially Soluble HAP As required... partially soluble HAP listed in the following table. Partially soluble HAP name CAS No. 1. 1,1,1...

  15. Interlaboratory validation of small-scale solubility and dissolution measurements of poorly water-soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Sara B. E.; Alvebratt, Caroline; Bevernage, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interlaboratory variability in determination of apparent solubility (Sapp) and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) using a miniaturized dissolution instrument. Three poorly water-soluble compounds were selected as reference compounds and measured at m...

  16. Effect of cyclodextrin complexation on the aqueous solubility and solubility/dose ratio of praziquantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragos, Stratos; Archontaki, Helen; Macheras, Panos; Valsami, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ), the primary drug of choice in the treatment of schistosomiasis, is a highly lipophilic drug that possesses high permeability and low aqueous solubility and is, therefore, classified as a Class II drug according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). In this work, beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) were used in order to determine whether increasing the aqueous solubility of a drug by complexation with CDs, a BCS-Class II compound like PZQ could behave as BCS-Class I (highly soluble/highly permeable) drug. Phase solubility and the kneading and lyophilization techniques were used for inclusion complex preparation; solubility was determined by UV spectroscopy. The ability of the water soluble polymer polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP) to increase the complexation and solubilization efficiency of beta-CD and HP-beta-CD for PZQ was examined. Results showed significant improvement of PZQ solubility in the presence of both cyclodextrins but no additional effect in the presence of PVP. The solubility/dose ratios values of PZQ-cyclodextrin complexes calculated considering the low (150 mg) and the high dose (600 mg) of PZQ, used in practice, indicate that PZQ complexation with CDs may result in drug dosage forms that would behave as a BCS-Class I depending on the administered dose.

  17. Gastrointestinal microbial community changes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) exposed to crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagi, Andrea; Riiser, Even Sannes; Molland, Hilde Steine; Star, Bastiaan; Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Sydnes, Magne Olav; Pampanin, Daniela Maria

    2018-04-02

    The expansion of offshore oil exploration increases the risk of marine species being exposed to oil pollution in currently pristine areas. The adverse effects of oil exposure through toxic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been well studied in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Nevertheless, the fate of conjugated metabolites in the intestinal tract and their effect on the diversity of intestinal microbial community in fish is less understood. Here, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition of Atlantic cod after 28 days of exposure to crude oil (concentration range 0.0-0.1 mg/L). Analysis of PAH metabolites in bile samples confirmed that uptake and biotransformation of oil compounds occurred as a result of the exposure. Various evidence for altered microbial communities was found in fish exposed to high (0.1 mg/L) and medium (0.05 mg/L) concentrations of oil when compared to fish exposed to low oil concentration (0.01 mg/L) or no oil (control). First, altered banding patterns were observed on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for samples pooled from each treatment group. Secondly, based on 16S rRNA sequences, higher levels of oil exposure were associated with a loss of overall diversity of the gut microbial communities. Furthermore, 8 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found to have significantly different relative abundances in samples from fishes exposed to high and medium oil concentrations when compared to samples from the control group and low oil concentration. Among these, only one OTU, a Deferribacterales, had increased relative abundance in samples from fish exposed to high oil concentration. The results presented herein contribute to a better understanding of the effects of oil contamination on the gut microbial community changes in fish and highlight the importance of further studies into the area. Our findings suggest that increased relative abundance of bacteria belonging to the order

  18. Solubilities of boric acid in heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Shigetsugu; Aoi, Hideki; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Katoh, Taizo; Watanabe, Takashi.

    1988-01-01

    A gravimetric analysis using meta-boric acid (HBO 2 or DBO 2 ) as a weighing form has been developed for solubility measurement. The method gave satisfactory results in preliminary measurement of solubilities of boric acid in light water. By using this method, the solubilities of 10 B enriched D 3 BO 3 in heavy water were measured. The results are as follows; 2.67 (7deg C), 3.52 (15deg C), 5.70 (30deg C), 8.87 (50deg C) and 12.92 (70deg C) w/o, respectively. These values are about 10% lower than those in light water. Thermodynamical consideration based on the data shows that boric acid is the water structure breaker. (author)

  19. Resveratrol cocrystals with enhanced solubility and tabletability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengzheng; Li, Wanying; Sun, Wei-Jhe; Lu, Tongbu; Tong, Henry H Y; Sun, Changquan Calvin; Zheng, Ying

    2016-07-25

    Two new 1:1 cocrystals of resveratrol (RES) with 4-aminobenzamide (RES-4ABZ) and isoniazid (RES-ISN) were synthesized by liquid assisted grinding (LAG) and rapid solvent removal (RSR) methods using ethanol as solvent. Their physiochemical properties were characterized using PXRD, DSC, solid state and solution NMR, FT-IR, and HPLC. Pharmaceutically relevant properties, including tabletability, solubility, intrinsic dissolution rate, and hygroscopicity, were evaluated. Temperature-composition phase diagram for RES-ISN cocrystal system was constructed from DSC data. Both cocrystals show higher solubility than resveratrol over a broad range of pH. They are phase stable and non-hygroscopic even under high humidity conditions. Importantly, both cocrystals exhibit improved solubility and tabletability compared with RES, which make them more suitable candidates for tablet formulation development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. AW-101 entrained solids - Solubility versus temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GJ Lumetta; RC Lettau; GF Piepel

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids entrained in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. BNFL requested Battelle to dilute the AW-1-1 sample using de-ionized water to mimic expected plant operating conditions. BNFL further requested Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids present in the diluted AW-101 sample versus temperature conditions of 30, 40, and 50 C. BNFL requested these tests to assess the composition of the LAW supernatant and solids versus expected plant-operating conditions. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-7, Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of LAW Entrained Solids. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan

  1. Solubility and stability of inorganic carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.

    1987-01-01

    The chemistry of inorganic carbonates is reviewed, with emphasis on solubility and hydrolytic stability, in order to identify candidate waste forms for immobilization and disposal of 14 C. At present, CaCO 3 and BaCO 3 are the two most widely favoured wasted forms, primarily because they are the products of proven CO 2 -scrubbing technology. However, they have relatively high solubilities in non-alkaline solutions, necessitating care in selecting and assessing an appropriate disposal environment. Three compounds with better solubility characteristics in near-neutral waters are identified: bismutite, (BiO) 2 CO 3 ; hydrocerussite, Pb 3 (OH) 2 (CO 3 ) 2 ; and rhodochrosite, MnCO 3 . Some of the limitations of each of these alternative waste forms are discussed

  2. A framework for API solubility modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul; Crafts, Peter

    . In addition, most of the models are not predictive and requires experimental data for the calculation of the needed parameters. This work aims at developing an efficient framework for the solubility modelling of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) in water and organic solvents. With this framework......-SAFT) are used for solubility calculations when the needed interaction parameters or experimental data are available. The CI-UNIFAC is instead used when the previous models lack interaction parameters or when solubility data are not available. A new GC+ model for APIs solvent selection based...... on the hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity and polarity information of the API and solvent is also developed, for performing fast solvent selection and screening. Eventually, all the previous developments are integrated in a framework for their efficient and integrated use. Two case studies are presented: the first...

  3. Solubility of iron in liquid lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali-Khan, I.

    1981-01-01

    The use of liquid lead in high temperature chemical and metallurgical processes is well known. The structural materials applied for the containment of these processes are either iron base alloys or possess iron as an alloying element. Besides that, lead itself is alloyed in some steels to achieve some very useful properties. For understanding the effect of liquid lead in such structural materials, it is important to determine the solubility of iron in liquid lead which would also be indicative of the stability of these alloys. At the institute of reactor materials of KFA Juelich, investigations have been conducted to determine the solubility of iron in liquid lead up to a temperature of about 1000 0 C. In this presentation the data concerning the solubility of iron in liquid lead are brought up to date and discussed including the results of our previous investigations. (orig.)

  4. Equilibrium Solubility of CO2 in Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waseem Arshad, Muhammad; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; von Solms, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Equilibrium solubility of CO2 were measured in aqueous solutions of Monoethanolamine (MEA) and N,N-diethylethanolamine(DEEA). Equilibrium cells are generally used for these measurements. In this study, the equilibrium data were measured from the calorimetry. For this purpose a reaction calorimeter...... (model CPA 122 from ChemiSens AB, Sweden) was used. The advantage of this method is being the measurement of both heats of absorption and equilibrium solubility data of CO2 at the same time. The measurements were performed for 30 mass % MEA and 5M DEEA solutions as a function of CO2 loading at three...... different temperatures 40, 80 and 120 ºC. The measured 30 mass % MEA and 5M DEEA data were compared with the literature data obtained from different equilibrium cells which validated the use of calorimeters for equilibrium solubility measurements....

  5. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-10-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear because of limitations of the exposure data, inconsistent results across cohorts, and the presence of mixed exposures to water-insoluble nickel compounds and other confounders that are known or suspected carcinogens. Moreover, well-conducted animal inhalation studies, where exposures were solely to soluble nickel, failed to demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. Similar negative results were seen in animal oral studies. A model exists that relates respiratory carcinogenic potential to the bioavailability of nickel ion at nuclear sites within respiratory target cells. This model helps reconcile human, animal, and mechanistic data for soluble nickel compounds. For inhalation exposures, the predicted lack of bioavailability of nickel ion at target sites suggests that water-soluble nickel compounds, by themselves, will not be complete human carcinogens. However, if inhaled at concentrations high enough to induce chronic lung inflammation, these compounds may enhance carcinogenic risks associated with inhalation exposure to other substances. Overall, the weight of evidence indicates that inhalation exposure to soluble nickel alone will not cause cancer; moreover, if exposures are kept below levels that cause chronic respiratory toxicity, any possible tumor-enhancing effects (particularly in smokers) would be avoided.

  6. SITE-94. Radionuclide solubilities for SITE-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.; Apted, M. [QuantiSci, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    In this report, solubility constraints are evaluated on radioelement source-term concentrations supporting the SITE-94 performance assessment. Solubility models are based on heterogeneous-equilibrium, mass- and charge-balance constraints incorporated into the EQ3/6 geochemical software package, which is used to calculate the aqueous speciation behavior and solubilities of U, Th, Pu, Np, Am, Ni, Ra, Se, Sn, Sr, Tc and Zr in site groundwaters and near-field solutions. The chemical evolution of the near field is approximated using EQ3/6 in terms of limiting conditions at equilibrium, or steady state, in three closed systems representing fully saturated bentonite, Fe{sup o} corrosion products of the canister, and spent fuel. The calculations consider both low-temperature (15 deg C) and high-temperature (80 deg C) conditions in the near field, and the existence of either reducing or strongly oxidizing conditions in each of the bentonite, canister, and spent-fuel barriers. Heterogeneities in site characteristics are evaluated through consideration of a range of initial groundwaters and their interactions with engineered barriers. Aqueous speciation models for many radioelements are constrained by thermodynamic data that are estimated with varying degrees of accuracy. An important question, however, is how accurate do these models need to be for purposes of estimating source-term concentrations? For example, it is unrealistic to expect a high degree of accuracy in speciation models if such models predict solubilities that are below the analytical detection limit for a given radioelement. From a practical standpoint, such models are irrelevant if calculated solubilities cannot be tested by direct comparison to experimental data. In the absence of models that are both accurate and relevant for conditions of interest, the detection limit could define a pragmatic upper limit on radioelement solubility 56 refs, 25 tabs, 10 figs

  7. SITE-94. Radionuclide solubilities for SITE-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, R.; Apted, M.

    1996-12-01

    In this report, solubility constraints are evaluated on radioelement source-term concentrations supporting the SITE-94 performance assessment. Solubility models are based on heterogeneous-equilibrium, mass- and charge-balance constraints incorporated into the EQ3/6 geochemical software package, which is used to calculate the aqueous speciation behavior and solubilities of U, Th, Pu, Np, Am, Ni, Ra, Se, Sn, Sr, Tc and Zr in site groundwaters and near-field solutions. The chemical evolution of the near field is approximated using EQ3/6 in terms of limiting conditions at equilibrium, or steady state, in three closed systems representing fully saturated bentonite, Fe o corrosion products of the canister, and spent fuel. The calculations consider both low-temperature (15 deg C) and high-temperature (80 deg C) conditions in the near field, and the existence of either reducing or strongly oxidizing conditions in each of the bentonite, canister, and spent-fuel barriers. Heterogeneities in site characteristics are evaluated through consideration of a range of initial groundwaters and their interactions with engineered barriers. Aqueous speciation models for many radioelements are constrained by thermodynamic data that are estimated with varying degrees of accuracy. An important question, however, is how accurate do these models need to be for purposes of estimating source-term concentrations? For example, it is unrealistic to expect a high degree of accuracy in speciation models if such models predict solubilities that are below the analytical detection limit for a given radioelement. From a practical standpoint, such models are irrelevant if calculated solubilities cannot be tested by direct comparison to experimental data. In the absence of models that are both accurate and relevant for conditions of interest, the detection limit could define a pragmatic upper limit on radioelement solubility

  8. Differential effects of protein quality on postprandial lipemia in response to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes: comparison of whey, casein, gluten, and cod protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lene S; Hartvigsen, Merete L; Brader, Lea J

    2009-01-01

    ingestion of a test meal containing 100 g butter and 45 g carbohydrate in combination with 45 g casein (Cas-meal), whey (Whe-meal), cod (Cod-meal), or gluten (Glu-meal). We measured plasma concentrations of triglycerides, retinyl palmitate (RP), free fatty acids, insulin, glucose, glucagon, glucagon...... and higher after the Whe-meal than after Cod- and Glu-meals in the chylomicron-poor fraction. Free fatty acids were most pronouncedly suppressed after the Whe-meal. The glucose response was lower after the Whe-meal than after the other meals, whereas no significant differences were found in insulin, glucagon...

  9. Understanding and predicting size selection in diamond-mesh cod ends for danish seining: A study based on sea trials and computer simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Feekings, Jordan P.

    2016-01-01

    described by a double logistic selection curve, implying that two different size selection processes occur in the cod end. The double selection process could be explained by an additional selection process occurring through slack meshes. The results imply that the escapement of 46% and 34% of the larger...... Atlantic Cod and Haddock (those above 48 cm), respectively, would be through wide-open or slack meshes. Since these mesh states are only likely to be present in the latest stage of the fishing process (e.g., when the cod end is near the surface), a large fraction of the bigger fish probably escaped near...

  10. Testing of alkaline and enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatments for fat particles in slaughterhouse wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, L; Kennedy, K J; Chou, S

    2001-04-01

    Four pretreatments to hydrolyse and/or reduce the size of fat particles in slaughterhouse wastewater (SHW) were tested: sodium hydroxide and three lipases of plant, bacterial and animal (pancreatic) origin. Hydrolysing agents and SHW containing between 2.5 and 3 g/l of fat particles were mixed at room temperature for 4 h. Additions of 5-400 meq NaOH/l did not increase soluble COD (SCOD) in SHW, but the average particle size was reduced to 73% +/- 7% of the initial average particle size (D(in)) at NaOH concentrations ranging from 150 to 300 meq/l. Pretreatment with pancreatic lipase PL-250 reduced the average particle size to a maximum of 60% +/- 3% of D(in). As D(in) was decreased from 359 to 68 microns, the enzyme concentration required to obtain the maximum particle size reduction increased from 200 to 1000 mg/l. A 4-h pretreatment with PL-250 also increased the free long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) concentration to a maximum of 15.5 mg/l, indicating some solubilization of the pork fat particles in SHW. SCOD was not significantly increased by the pretreatment, but SCOD was not found to be a good indicator of enzymatic lipolysis because of enzyme adsorption on the fat particle surface. Pancreatic lipase appeared more efficient with beef fat than pork fat, possibly because beef fat contains less polyunsaturated fatty acids than pork fat. The bacterial lipase LG-1000 was also efficient in reducing average fat particle size, but high doses (> 1000 mg/l) were required to obtain a significant reduction after 4 h of pretreatment. SCOD was not increased by pretreatment with LG-1000. No particle size reduction or changes in SCOD were noted after 4 h of pretreatment with the plant lipase EcoSystem Plus. It was concluded that PL-250 was the best pretreatment to hydrolyse fat particles in SHW. However, its impact on the efficiency of a downstream anaerobic digestion process remains to be tested.

  11. Hydrogen solubility in austenite of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhirnova, V.V.; Mogutnov, B.M.; Tomilin, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen solubility in Fe-Ni-Cr alloys at 600-1000 deg C is determined. Hydrogen solubility in ternary alloys can not be predicted on the basis of the data on its solubility in binary Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr alloys. Chromium and nickel effect on hydrogen solubility in iron is insignificant in comparison with the effect of these elements on carbon or nitrogen solubility [ru

  12. Hydrogen terminal solubility in Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizcaino, Pablo; Banchik, Abrahan D.

    1999-01-01

    Terminal solubility temperature of hydrogen in zirconium and its alloys is an important parameter because hydrides precipitation embrittled these materials making them susceptible to the phenomenon known as retarded hydrogen cracking. This work continues the study presented in the 25 AATN Meeting. Within this framework, a study focused on determining these curves in recrystallized Zircaloy-4, using scanning differential calorimetric technique. Terminal solubility curves for Zircaloy-4 were constructed within a concentration range from 40 to 640 ppm in hydrogen weight and comparisons with results obtained by other authors were made. (author)

  13. Nitrogen solubility in nickel base multicomponent melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shov, L.A.; Stomakhin, A.Ya.; Sokolov, V.M.; Teterin, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    Applicability of various methods for calculation of nitrogen solubility in high-alloyed nickel base alloys, containing Cr, Fe, W, Mo, Ti, Nb, has been estimated. A possibility is shown to use the formUla, derived for the calculation of nitrogen solubility in iron on the basis of statistical theory for a grid model of solution which does not require limitations for the content of a solvent component. The calculation method has been used for nickel alloys, with the concentration of solvent, iron, being accepted equal to zero, and employing parameters of nitrogen interaction as determined for iron-base alloys

  14. Effect of amides on lithium tetraborate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsekhanskij, R S; Skvortsov, V C; Molodkin, A K; Sadetdi-pov, Sh V [Chuvashskij Gosudarstvennyj Pedagogicheskij Inst., Cheboksary (USSR); Universitet Druzhby Narodov, Moscow (USSR))

    1983-03-01

    Using the methods of solubility, densi- and refractometry at 25 deg C, it has been established that the systems lithium tetraborate-formamide (acetamide, dimethyl-formamide)-water are of a simple eutonic type. Amides decrease the salt solubility. Lyotropic effect, as calculated for molar concentrations (-Lsub(M)) relative to the absolute value, increases from formamide to dimethyl-formamide. The sequence is determined by the fact that, when there is one or two hydrophilic methyl groups in amide molecules which are in contact with tetraborate, they decrease the hydration energy of lithium cations.

  15. Effect of amides on sodium tetraborate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekhanskij, R.S.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Molodkin, A.K.; Sadetdinov, Sh.V.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of solubility and refractometry at 25 deg C were applied to investigate sodium tetraborate - formamide (dimethylformamide) - water systems. It is stated that they are of simple eutonic type as well as the earlier described sodium tetraborate-acetamide-water system. Amides reduce solubility of the salt. The effect of contact interaction between dissolved substances on salt cation hydration and thus on the value of liotropic amide effect is confirmed. This value is found to be also depend on the number of molecules of coordination water in the initial crystalline hydrate

  16. Effect of amides on lithium tetraborate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekhanskij, R.S.; Skvortsov, V.C.; Molodkin, A.K.; Sadetdi- pov, Sh.V.

    1983-01-01

    Using the methods of solubility, densi- and refractometry at 25 deg C, it has been established that the systemS lithium tetraborate-formamide (acetamide, dimethyl-formamide)-water are of a simple eutonic type. Amides decrease the salt solubility. Lyotropic effect, as calculated for molar concentrations (-Lsub(M)) relative to the absolute value, increases from formamide to dimethylformamide. The sequence is determined by the fact that, when there is one or two hydrophilic methyl groups in amide molecules which are in contact with tetraborate, they decrease the hydration energy of lithium cations

  17. Effect of amides on sodium tetraborate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsekhanskij, R S; Skvortsov, V G; Molodkin, A K; Sadetdinov, Sh V

    1986-11-01

    Methods of solubility and refractometry at 25 deg C were applied to investigate sodium tetraborate - formamide (dimethylformamide) - water systems. It is stated that they are of simple eutonic type as well as the earlier described sodium tetraborate-acetamide-water system. Amides reduce solubility of the salt. The effect of contact interaction between dissolved substances on salt cation hydration and thus on the value of liotropic amide effect is confirmed. This value is found to be also depend on the number of molecules of coordination water in the initial crystalline hydrate.

  18. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...

  19. Underwater sound from vessel traffic reduces the effective communication range in Atlantic cod and haddock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jenni A; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Hatch, Leila T

    2017-11-07

    Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary is located in Massachusetts Bay off the densely populated northeast coast of the United States; subsequently, the marine inhabitants of the area are exposed to elevated levels of anthropogenic underwater sound, particularly due to commercial shipping. The current study investigated the alteration of estimated effective communication spaces at three spawning locations for populations of the commercially and ecologically important fishes, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Both the ambient sound pressure levels and the estimated effective vocalization radii, estimated through spherical spreading models, fluctuated dramatically during the three-month recording periods. Increases in sound pressure level appeared to be largely driven by large vessel activity, and accordingly exhibited a significant positive correlation with the number of Automatic Identification System tracked vessels at the two of the three sites. The near constant high levels of low frequency sound and consequential reduction in the communication space observed at these recording sites during times of high vocalization activity raises significant concerns that communication between conspecifics may be compromised during critical biological periods. This study takes the first steps in evaluating these animals' communication spaces and alteration of these spaces due to anthropogenic underwater sound.

  20. KEMAMPUAN SISTEM SARINGAN PASIR-TANAMAN MENURUNKAN NILAI BOD DAN COD AIR TERCEMAR LIMBAH PENCELUPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I W. Budiarsa Suyasa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Colored of clothes has developed as concentrated in Denpasar area. The process has a negativeeffect because of waste, the resulting organic toxicants and heavy metal into aquatic system. The effect ofthe pollution including the river, well water and organism that live there. The research of bioremedialeffectiveness of herb-sand treatment system on laboratory simulation were studied in Denpasar, from June2004 to September 2004.For laboratory simulation, the plants were cultured in 25 cm sand bed, in between 5 cm palmfiber ofwhich were in between 10 cm pumicestone for the top and 5 cm gravel for the bottom with surface area of 25x 50 cm2.The result of treatment system showed that effective for decrease biological oxygen demandcompared to those of chemical oxygen demand parameters. The treatment system reduced significantly BODlevel respectively to 13,15 for 3 days, 11,19 for 10 days and 5,79 for 20 days with 85,55 – 93,63 effectively.While COD level respectively to 76,68 for 3 days, 61,38 for 10 days and 58,57 for 20 days with 42,78 – 56,50effectively. Time of treatment for 3, 10 and 20 days showed a little increase of pH from 6,87 to 7,00.