Sample records for solitary small hepatitis

  1. A small solitary non-parasitic hepatic cyst causing an intra-hepatic bile duct stricture: a case report

    Hong Taeho


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report an unusual presentation of a small hepatic cyst causing cholangitis. Case presentation A 70-year-old Asian man was hospitalized for aggravated chronic pain in the right upper portion of his abdomen. Fever developed after admission. Laboratory tests revealed elevated hepatobiliary enzymes, inflammatory markers and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 without hyperbilirubinemia. Ultrasound and computed tomography demonstrated dilatation of the left intra-hepatic bile ducts. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed that the right intra-hepatic bile ducts were normally filled with contrast medium, but the left intra-hepatic bile ducts were not seen in the confluence. A left hepatectomy was performed because a hidden malignancy could not be excluded. The surgical findings showed no tumor around the bile duct but rather a 2 cm cyst in segment four of Couinaud's category of the liver around the hilum. The pathology report was a solitary non-parasitic hepatic cyst compressing the bile duct. Conclusion A very small solitary hepatic cyst might cause hepatic duct stricture if it is located near the hepatic hilum, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a hepatic duct stricture.

  2. [Solitary hepatic cyst. Presentation of a case diagnosed in neonatal period].

    Ruíz Jiménez, J I; Cuenca Burgos, M J; Vera Lorente, M; Espejo García, M P; Zambudio, G


    We reported one case of hepatic solitary cyst, in an infant seven days old. The precocious diagnostic was supported by the presence of an abdominal cyst mass in prenatal period. Different diagnostic and therapeutic consideration are made.

  3. Adenocarcinoma and infection in a solitary hepatic cyst: A case report

    Ching-Chung Lin; Shee-Chan Lin; Wen-Ching Ko; Kuo-Ming Chang; Shou-Chuan Shih


    Solitary non-parasitic liver cysts are being increasingly diagnosed due to the increased use of abdominal sonography. The majority of solitary liver cysts are asymptomatic; however, there are some complications which include infection, perforation, spontaneous hemorrhage, obstructive jaundice and neoplastic degeneration. In some cases a cystic liver lesion may mimic a tumor and is difficult to differentiate with standard imaging studies or fine needle aspiration cytology. Here in, we report a case of adenocarcinoma arising in a solitary hepatic cyst complicated with Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. High levels of CEA in the cyst fluid levels suggested malignancy, which was confirmed by pathology of the resected specimen.

  4. Percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of solitary small renal masses. A single center experience

    Pieper, C.C.; Fischer, S.; Strunk, H.; Meyer, C.; Thomas, D.; Willinek, W.A.; Schild, H. [Univ. Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Hauser, S. [Univ. Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Urology; Nadal, J. [Univ. Bonn (Germany). Inst. for Medical Biometry; Wilhelm, K. [Johanniter Hospital Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Radiology


    To analyze the outcome of patients undergoing percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of small renal masses (SRM) at a single center during a ten-year time period. Patient records of renal RFAs (07/2003 - 11/2013) were reviewed. Indications were SRM suspicious of malignancy on imaging and one of the following: severe comorbidity; old age; solitary kidney; impaired renal function; patient wish. Biopsy was performed at the time of RFA. Patients were excluded if no follow-up was available. Patient and procedural characteristics were recorded. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier's method and compared with log-rank or cox tests. 38 patients (16 females, mean age 70.0 years [range 52 - 87]) presenting with a solitary SRM were included in the study. Biopsy showed malignancy in 29 patients; 9 had benign tumors. 26 patients suffered from cardiovascular, respiratory or hepatic comorbidities. Technical success (complete ablation on first follow-up) was achieved in 95 % of cases. Two major complications (bowel perforation; hematothorax) occurred. The 3- and 7-year overall survival (OS) [any cause] rates were 73.4 ± 0.8 % and 50.3 ± 1.0 %, respectively (mean follow-up 54.6 months, range 1 - 127). 4 recurrences and 2 metastases were observed. The presence of comorbidities was the only independent predictor of OS. There was no difference in survival between patients with benign and malignant tumors. RFA of SRM is successful in a large percentage of cases with a low complication rate and durable local control. As RFA is typically performed in multimorbid patients, overall survival seems to depend primarily on comorbidities rather than cancer progression.

  5. Efficacy of hepatic resection vs transarterial chemoembolization for solitary huge hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Zhu, Shao-Liang; Zhong, Jian-Hong; Ke, Yang; Ma, Liang; You, Xue-Mei; Li, Le-Qun


    To compare the efficacy of hepatic resection (HR) and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for patients with solitary huge (≥ 10 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Records were retrospectively analyzed of 247 patients with solitary huge HCC, comprising 180 treated by HR and 67 by TACE. Long-term overall survival (OS) was compared between the two groups using the Kaplan-Meier method, and independent predictors of survival were identified by multivariate analysis. These analyses were performed using all patients in both groups and/or 61 pairs of propensity score-matched patients from the two groups. OS at 5 years was significantly higher in the HR group than the TACE group, across all patients (P = 0.002) and across propensity score-matched pairs (36.4% vs 18.2%, P = 0.039). The two groups showed similar postoperative mortality and morbidity. Multivariate analysis identified alpha-fetoprotein ≥ 400 ng/mL, presence of vascular invasion and TACE treatment as independent predictors of poor OS. Our findings suggest that HR can be safe and more effective than TACE for patients with solitary huge HCC.

  6. Small hepatic veins Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    Riggio, Oliviero; Marzano, Chiara; Papa, Alessia; Pasquale, Chiara; Gasperini, Maria Ludovica; Gigante, Antonietta; Valla, Dominique Charles; Plessier, Aurélie; Amoroso, Antonio


    Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by hepatic venous outflow obstruction at any level from the small hepatic veins to the atrio-caval junction, in the absence of heart failure or constrictive pericarditis. Various imaging modalities are available for investigating the gross hepatic vascular anatomy but there are rare forms of this disease where the obstruction is limited to the small intrahepatic veins, with normal appearance of the large hepatic veins at imaging. In this cases only a liver biopsy can demonstrate the presence of a small vessels outflow block. We report two cases of small hepatic veins Budd-Chiari syndrome.

  7. Small amplitude electron acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized superthermal plasma

    Devanandhan, S.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.; Bharuthram, R.


    The propagation of electron acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized plasma consisting of fluid cold electrons, electron beam and superthermal hot electrons (obeying kappa velocity distribution function) and ion is investigated in a small amplitude limit using reductive perturbation theory. The Korteweg-de-Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) equation governing the dynamics of electron acoustic solitary waves is derived. The solution of the KdV-ZK equation predicts the existence of negative potential solitary structures. The new results are: (1) increase of either the beam speed or temperature of beam electrons tends to reduce both the amplitude and width of the electron acoustic solitons, (2) the inclusion of beam speed and temperature pushes the allowed Mach number regime upwards and (3) the soliton width maximizes at certain angle of propagation (αm) and then decreases for α >αm . In addition, increasing the superthermality of the hot electrons also results in reduction of soliton amplitude and width. For auroral plasma parameters observed by Viking, the obliquely propagating electron-acoustic solitary waves have electric field amplitudes in the range (7.8-45) mV/m and pulse widths (0.29-0.44) ms. The Fourier transform of these electron acoustic solitons would result in a broadband frequency spectra with peaks near 2.3-3.5 kHz, thus providing a possible explanation of the broadband electrostatic noise observed during the Burst a.

  8. Surgical Treatment for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients with Synchronous Solitary Brain Metastasis

    Hao BAI


    Full Text Available Background and objective Brain metastases are common in non-small cell lung cancer. Usual treatments include radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, these methods result in poor patient prognosis. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of surgical resection in the multimodality management of non-small cell lung cancer patients with synchronous solitary brain metastasis. Methods The clinical data of 46 non-small cell lung cancer patients with synchronous solitary brain metastasis were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent surgical resection of primary lung tumor, followed by whole brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In addition, 13 out of the 46 patients underwent resection of brain metastasis, whereas the remaining 33 patients received stereotactic radiosurgery. Results The median survival time of the enrolled patients was 16.8 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 76.1%, 20.9%, and 4.7%, respectively. The median survival times of the patients with brain metastasis resection or stereotactic radiosurgery were 18.3 and 15.8 months, respectively (P=0.091,2. Conclusion Surgical resection of primary lung tumor and brain metastasis may improve prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer patients with synchronous solitary brain metastasis. However, the survival benefit of surgical resection over brain metastasis resection or stereotactic radiosurgery is uncertain.

  9. Small amplitude nonlinear electron acoustic solitary waves in weakly magnetized plasma

    Dutta, Manjistha; Khan, Manoranjan [Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032 (India); Ghosh, Samiran [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata-700 009 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar [Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata-700 108 (India); Chakrabarti, Nikhil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar Kolkata-700 064 (India)


    Nonlinear propagation of electron acoustic waves in homogeneous, dispersive plasma medium with two temperature electron species is studied in presence of externally applied magnetic field. The linear dispersion relation is found to be modified by the externally applied magnetic field. Lagrangian transformation technique is applied to carry out nonlinear analysis. For small amplitude limit, a modified KdV equation is obtained, the modification arising due to presence of magnetic field. For weakly magnetized plasma, the modified KdV equation possesses stable solitary solutions with speed and amplitude increasing temporally. The solutions are valid upto some finite time period beyond which the nonlinear wave tends to wave breaking.

  10. Intrahepatic transneedle inoculation of VX2 particles for obtaining a solitary hepatic tumor in an animal model

    Cho, Jin Han; Choi, Jong Cheol; Shin, Tae Beom; Park, Byeong Ho [Dong-A University, School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to develop a large animal (rabbit) model which has a proper solitary intrahepatic tumor with lower leakage rates through less traumatic methods. Consequently, we evaluated tumor progression following the intrahepatic inoculation of VX2 cells into New Zealand white rabbits to acquire baseline data on the progression of a VX2 tumor. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits, each weighting 2.5-3 kg, were selected for this study. A 1 mm{sup 3} VX2 tumor fragment was created and then minced to enable the particles to pass through a 21 G needle mounting in a tuberculin syringe with 0.1 ml of normal saline. The minced VX2 tumor particles were injected into the subcapsular parenchyma of the left hepatic lobe. A 21 G needle was used to avoid penetrating large hepatic vessels. In order to prevent hemorrhage or leakage of the VX2 tumor cells through the injection route, a purse-string suture around the puncture site was made using black silk 4-0. The tumor particles were then injected through the center of the suture. While removing the needle, the suture was tightened to prevent hemorrhage or leakage of the VX2 tumor cells through the injection route. Finally, the injection site was covered with a Surgical patch. The inoculated intrahepatic VX2 tumors were then imaged with a 16 channel multidetector CT every week for the duration of the study. The CT images covered from the lung apex to the pelvic floor. Two radiologists evaluated the size, location, and peritoneal seeding of the tumors as well as metastasis of other organs. Three rabbits were sacrificed as random beginning in the second week, and this process continued on a weekly basis for the duration of the study. The CT images and pathologic findings for the sacrificed rabbits were correlated. The inoculated intrahepatic VX2 tumors were not visible in the first week. By the second week 66.7% were visible on CT images and by the third week all tumors were visible. Of the twenty rabbits, three (15

  11. Well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with solitary hepatic metastasis presenting as a benign cystic mass: A case report

    Ahn, Su Joa; Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, Jeong Ho; Choi, Hye Young [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and their hepatic metastases have an inconsistent appearance with only a small percentage of lesions appearing as cystic masses in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Therefore, they can be mistaken as benign or infectious lesions, which can lead to a false diagnosis with delayed or inadequate treatment. We reported a patient with upper abdominal pain that lasted for several months, caused by a huge cystic neuroendocrine carcinoma of the liver. This was mistakenly interpreted as a complicated or hydatid cyst, and the findings in the CT and MRI was presented.


    Lindemann, Dana M; Carpenter, James W; Almes, Kelli M; Schumacher, Loni; Ryseff, Julia K; Hallman, Mackenzie


    A 13-yr-old male cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) presented for an acute history of lateral recumbency and anorexia. Upon physical examination under general anesthesia, severe icterus was noted. A serum biochemical profile confirmed markedly elevated total bilirubin and alanine transaminase. Based on ultrasound-guided liver aspirates and cytology, a presumptive diagnosis of large granular lymphocyte hepatic lymphoma was reached. Abdominal and thoracic radiographs did not assist in reaching an antemortem diagnosis. Postmortem examination and histopathology provided a definitive diagnosis of hepatic lymphoma with acute massive hepatocelluar necrosis and hemorrhage, as well as concurrent lesions of gastric ulcers, ulcerative and sclerosing enteritis, myocardial hypertrophy, and splenic myelolipomas. Immunohistochemistry of the liver yielded CD-3 positive and CD-20 negative results, confirming lymphocytes of a T-cell lineage. Due to concern for possible retrovirus-associated disease, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus were performed retrospectively on a banked serum sample and yielded negative results, thus diminishing concern for the male conspecific housed in the same exhibit.

  13. Bioinformatics Tools for Small Genomes, Such as Hepatitis B Virus

    Trevor G. Bell


    Full Text Available DNA sequence analysis is undertaken in many biological research laboratories. The workflow consists of several steps involving the bioinformatic processing of biological data. We have developed a suite of web-based online bioinformatic tools to assist with processing, analysis and curation of DNA sequence data. Most of these tools are genome-agnostic, with two tools specifically designed for hepatitis B virus sequence data. Tools in the suite are able to process sequence data from Sanger sequencing, ultra-deep amplicon resequencing (pyrosequencing and chromatograph (trace files, as appropriate. The tools are available online at no cost and are aimed at researchers without specialist technical computer knowledge. The tools can be accessed at, and the source code is available online at

  14. Comparison of whole brain radiation therapy and locally limited radiation therapy in the treatment of solitary brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer

    Ueki, Keisuke; Matsutani, Masao; Nakamura, Osamu; Tanaka, Yoshiaki [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan)


    The benefit and risk of whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) compared to locally limited radiation therapy was assessed in 61 patients with solitary brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer without an unresectable active primary lesion or systemic dissemination in the other organs. Twenty-three patients received local irradiation (Group A), and 38 patients received whole brain irradiation with or without local irradiation (Group B). The survival was significantly better in Group A than in Group B (p<0.05), with median survivals of 83.1 and 30.7 weeks, respectively. One-year local recurrence rates were 7% in Group A and 21% in Group B, but the difference was not statistically significant. The 1-year distant recurrence rate was similar at 18%. Radiation-induced dementia occurred in two patients in Group A (8.7%) and seven in Group B (18.4%), but was not statistically significant (p=0.30). There is no obvious benefit and possible disadvantages of WBRT compared to local irradiation for the population of patients investigated in this study. Intraoperative radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery without WBRT should be considered in the patients with solitary brain metastases. (author)

  15. Evolutionary origins of hepatitis A virus in small mammals.

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor M; Lukashev, Alexander N; van den Brand, Judith M A; Gmyl, Anatoly P; Brünink, Sebastian; Rasche, Andrea; Seggewiβ, Nicole; Feng, Hui; Leijten, Lonneke M; Vallo, Peter; Kuiken, Thijs; Dotzauer, Andreas; Ulrich, Rainer G; Lemon, Stanley M; Drosten, Christian


    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an ancient and ubiquitous human pathogen recovered previously only from primates. The sole species of the genus Hepatovirus, existing in both enveloped and nonenveloped forms, and with a capsid structure intermediate between that of insect viruses and mammalian picornaviruses, HAV is enigmatic in its origins. We conducted a targeted search for hepatoviruses in 15,987 specimens collected from 209 small mammal species globally and discovered highly diversified viruses in bats, rodents, hedgehogs, and shrews, which by pairwise sequence distance comprise 13 novel Hepatovirus species. Near-complete genomes from nine of these species show conservation of unique hepatovirus features, including predicted internal ribosome entry site structure, a truncated VP4 capsid protein lacking N-terminal myristoylation, a carboxyl-terminal pX extension of VP1, VP2 late domains involved in membrane envelopment, and a cis-acting replication element within the 3D(pol) sequence. Antibodies in some bat sera immunoprecipitated and neutralized human HAV, suggesting conservation of critical antigenic determinants. Limited phylogenetic cosegregation among hepatoviruses and their hosts and recombination patterns are indicative of major hepatovirus host shifts in the past. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest a Hepatovirus origin in small insectivorous mammals and a rodent origin of human HAV. Patterns of infection in small mammals mimicked those of human HAV in hepatotropism, fecal shedding, acute nature, and extinction of the virus in a closed host population. The evolutionary conservation of hepatovirus structure and pathogenesis provide novel insight into the origins of HAV and highlight the utility of analyzing animal reservoirs for risk assessment of emerging viruses.

  16. Solitary Polypoid Laryngeal Xanthoma

    Francisco Vera-Sempere


    Full Text Available We report the case of a 51-year-old male smoker with diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia and a long history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV infection treated with various antiretroviral regimes, who was referred to the otolaryngology department with progressive dysphonia. Fibre-optic laryngoscopy showed a solitary, yellowish-white pedunculated polyp on the anterior third of the left cord, with no other abnormality. Pathological analysis revealed a polypoid laryngeal xanthoma that was immunoreactive against CD68, perilipin, and adipophilin. This unusual laryngeal lesion in the clinical context of our patient suggests a possible role of antiretroviral treatment in the pathogenesis of these xanthomas.

  17. New therapeutic opportunities for Hepatitis C based on small RNA

    Qiu-wei Pan; Scot D Henry; Bob J Scholte; Hugo W Tilanus; Harry LA Janssen; Luc JW van der Laan


    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major causes of chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and liver cancer and is therefore, the most common indication for liver transplantation. Conventional antiviral drugs such as pegylated interferon-alpha, taken in combination with ribavirin, represent a milestone in the therapy of this disease. However, due to different viral and host factors, clinical success can be achieved only in approximately half of patients, making urgent the requirement of exploiting alternative approaches for HCV therapy. Fortunately, recent advances in the understanding of HCV viral replication and host cell interactions have opened new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. The most recent technologies, such as small interference RNA mediated gene-silencing, antisense oligonucleotides (ASO), or viral vector based gene delivery systems, have paved the way to develop novel therapeutic modalities for HCV. In this review, we outline the application of these technologies in the context of HCV therapy. Tn particular, we will focus on the newly defined role of cellular microRNA (miR-122) in viral replication and discuss its potential for HCV molecular therapy.

  18. Fulminant hepatic failure resulting from small-cell lung cancer and dramatic response of chemotherapy

    Kyoichi Kaira; Atsushi Takise; Rieko Watanabe; Masatomo Mori


    Prompt treatment in tumor-associated encephalopathy may prolong survival. We describe a 69-year-old male patient who was presented with fulminant hepatic failure, secondary to small-cell lung carcinoma with rapidly progressing encephalopathy. Both symptoms remitted following chemotherapy, suggesting swift diagnosis and administration of chemotherapy to be effective in treatment of fulminant hepatic failure and encephalopathy.

  19. Relationship between hepatitis B virus infection and hepatic metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer

    Fei Gao; Lin Jia; Xiaobo Du; Yun Wang; Jianjun Han


    Objective:The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infec-tion and hepatic metastasis in non-smal celllung cancer (NSCLC). Methods:Four hundred and eighty cases of NSCLC were retrospectively analyzed from January 2003 to January 2010, and the prevalence of hepatic metastasis of NSCLC in patients with and without hepatitis B virus infection were compared. Results:In the HBV carriers’ group, the prevalence of synchronous hepatic metastasis and metachronous hepatic metastasis were 13.2%and 5.9%, respectively. Meanwhile in the non-HBV group, those were 21.6%and 9.5%respectively. A significant dif erence between the two groups was found (P<0.05). Conclusion:The prevalence of synchronous hepatic metastasis and metachronous hepatic metastasis in non-smal celllung cancer with HBV infection are lower than those in non-HBV infection group. Hepatic metastasis is infrequent in HBV infected cases of NSCLC.

  20. Evolutionary origins of hepatitis A virus in small mammals

    J.-F. Drexler (Jan-Felix); V.M. Corman (Victor); A.N. Lukashev (Alexander); J.M.A. van den Brand (Judith); A. Gmyl (Anatoly); S. Brunink (Sebastian); A. Rasche (Andrea); N. Seggewi (Nicole); H. Feng (Hui); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); P. Vallo (Peter); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A. Dotzauer (Andreas); R.G. Ulrich (Rainer); S.M. Lemon (Stanley M.); C. Drosten (Christian)


    textabstractHepatitis A virus (HAV) is an ancient and ubiquitous human pathogen recovered previously only from primates. The sole species of the genus Hepatovirus, existing in both enveloped and nonenveloped forms, and with a capsid structure intermediate between that of insect viruses and mammalian

  1. Evolutionary origins of hepatitis A virus in small mammals

    J.-F. Drexler (Jan-Felix); V.M. Corman (Victor); A.N. Lukashev (Alexander); J.M.A. van den Brand (Judith); A. Gmyl (Anatoly); S. Brunink (Sebastian); A. Rasche (Andrea); N. Seggewi (Nicole); H. Feng (Hui); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); P. Vallo (Peter); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A. Dotzauer (Andreas); R.G. Ulrich (Rainer); S.M. Lemon (Stanley M.); C. Drosten (Christian)


    textabstractHepatitis A virus (HAV) is an ancient and ubiquitous human pathogen recovered previously only from primates. The sole species of the genus Hepatovirus, existing in both enveloped and nonenveloped forms, and with a capsid structure intermediate between that of insect viruses and mammalian

  2. Fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis following cytotoxic chemotherapy for small-cell lung cancer

    Jaime Ceballos-Viro; José M López-Picazo; José L Pérez-Gracia; Jesús J Sola; Gregorio Aisa; Ignacio Gil-Bazo


    Fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis (FCH) is a variant of viral hepatitis reported in hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus infected liver, renal or bone transplantation recipients and in leukemia and lymphoma patients after conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. FCH constitutes a well-described form of fulminant hepatitis having extensive fibrosis and severe cholestasis as its most characteristic pathological findings. Here, we report a case of a 49-year-old patient diagnosed with small-cell lung cancer who developed this condition following conventional chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression. This is the first reported case in the literature of FCH after conventional chemotherapy for a solid tumor. In addition to a detailed report of the case, a physiopathological examination of this potentially life-threatening condition and its treatment options are discussed.

  3. Solitary Lung Tumors and Their Spontaneous Metastasis in Athymic Nude Mice Orthotopically Implanted with Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Takeshi Yamaura


    Full Text Available We examined the tumorigenic and metastatic potentials of three human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines. PC-14, A549 or Lu-99 cell lines suspended in Matrigel-containing phosphate-buffered saline were orthotopically implanted into the lungs of nude mice. The formation of a solitary tumor nodule in the lung was observed after the implantation of all cell lines. Intrapulmonary implantation of PC-14 or Lu-99 cells resulted in spontaneous distant metastases. In contrast, A549 cells caused multiple intrapulmonary metastases to the right and left lobes of the lung without producing visible lymphatic metastasis. We also investigated the expression of matrix metal loproteinases (MMPs, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA, u-PA receptor (u-PAR and c-MET in these cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of MMP-2 and membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP was elevated in PC-14 as compared with the other two cell lines. In contrast, stronger expression of c-METwas observed in A549 than in PC-14 or Lu-99. These results indicate that differential patterns of metastasis of lung cancer might be associated with differential expression of metastasis-associated molecules. Our orthotopic implantation models display clinical features resembling those of NSCLC, may provide a useful basis for lung cancer research.

  4. Cholestatic Hepatitis with Small Duct Injury Associated with Celecoxib

    Suresh Kumar Nayudu


    Full Text Available Drug-induced liver injury (DILI is a common clinical entity but is underreported due to various reasons. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors like Celecoxib have been proven to be associated with lesser incidence of adverse drug reactions compared to other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID. However, Celecoxib has been rarely reported to be associated with cholestasis and hepatitis. We present a young Hispanic female presented with cholestatic liver chemistries who has been taking Celecoxib for 3 weeks. Extensive workup did not support diagnosis of viral, autoimmune, or metabolic liver diseases. Liver biopsy revealed findings suggestive of secondary sclerosing cholangitis. Imaging studies were negative for large duct involvement, and endoscopy ruled out inflammatory bowel disease. Liver chemistries normalized after cessation of medication. We recommend that physician should be aware of this rare complication when prescribing Celecoxib.

  5. Bumblebees and solitary bees

    Henriksen, Casper Christian I

    Summary: The effects of farming system, flower resources and semi-natural habitats on bumblebees and solitary bees in intensively cultivated landscapes in Denmark were investigated in two sets of studies, in 2011 and 2012. The pan trap colour preferences of bumblebees and solitary bees were also...... assessed. In 2011, bumblebees and solitary bees were trapped in road verges bordering 14 organic (organic sites) and 14 conventional (conventional sites) winter wheat fields. The quantity and quality of local flower resources in the road verge and adjacent field headland were estimated as overall density...... use as a proxy at four different scales (250, 500, 750 and 1000 m). In 2012, the effect of a four-fold larger area of organic arable fields in simple, homogeneous landscapes on bumblebees and solitary bees was investigated in eight circular landscapes (radius 1000 m). Bumblebees and solitary bees were...

  6. Safety and Efficacy of Thermal Ablation for Small Renal Masses in Solitary Kidney: Evidence from Meta-Analysis of Comparative Studies.

    Quancheng Yang

    Full Text Available To evaluate comparative renal functional preservation, perioperative and oncologic outcomes, and complications of thermal ablation (TA versus partial nephrectomy (PN in management of Small renal masses (SRMs in solitary kidney.Medline, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched. A meta-analysis for comparative studies comparing TA with PN was performed. According to predefined inclusion criteria, seven datasets were identified from 8 observational studies including a total of 628 patients. Cumulated data showed the changes of creatinine (p=0.02 and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR (p<0.0001 in TA arm were significantly less than these in PN arm. Significantly less new-set chronic kidney disease (CKD was observed in TA group (p=0.04. In terms of postoperative dialysis rate, the difference favoring TA was also noted, though there is no statistical significance (p=0.09. With regard to perioperative outcomes, our data demonstrated that patients who underwent TA had significantly shorter operation time (p=0.002, less blood loss (p<0.0001, shorter length of stay (p<0.00001, and less transfusion rate (p=0.01 than those underwent PN. In addition, patients underwent TA suffered less intra- and postoperative complications (p=0.007, p<0.00001; respectively. With regard to oncologic outcomes, disease-free survival (DFS (p<0.00001 and cancer-specific survival (CSS (p=0.01 in the PN arm were significantly better than these of the TA arm. But, TA yielded a comparable overall survival to PN (p=0.40. Sensitivity analyses led to very similar results with overall results, and confirmed its stability.Our analysis indicates that PN have advantage in controlling cancer recurrence. However, TA is associated with significantly better renal functional preservation and perioperative outcomes, and less complications without increasing overall death. Our data suggest that indication for TA may be extended to select younger

  7. Hepatitis


    930140 Hepatocyte stimulator peptide and itsclinical significance in viral hepatitis.ZHOUWeiping(周卫平),et al.Instit Viral Hepatitis,Chongqing Med Univ,630010.Chin J InternMed 1992;31(10):626-628.Hepatocyte stimulator peptide(HSP)is anewly developed hepatic stimulator substance.Its monoclonal antibodies have been obtained inour laboratory.In this study,HSP was deter-mined in the sera of 315 subjects including pa-

  8. Hepatitis


    2010349 Relationships between serum hepatitis B virus load in mothers,free maternal DNA in peripheral blood of newborns and hepatitis B virus infection of newborns. WEI Junni(魏俊妮),et al. Dept Epidemiol,Shanxi Med Univ,Taiyuan 030001. Chin J Infect Dis 2010;28(5):297-300. Objective To study the relationships between serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level

  9. Outcome of patients with hepatitis C virus-related single, small hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Sako, Katsumi; Komorizono, Yasuji; Oketani, Makoto; Hasegawa, Susumu; Yamasaki, Naruhiro; Shibatou, Toshihiko; Maeda, Masahiko; Kohara, Kazunori; Shigenobu, Shuhou; Yasunari, Hiramine; Sakurai, Kazuhiro; Hiwaki, Takuya; Ishibashi, Kazuaki; Arima, Terukatsu


    To clarify the cumulative recurrence-free interval and survival rate with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related single, small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we studied 32 patients with surgical resection, 61 with ablation therapy and 28 with transcatheter chemoembolization (TACE). A log-rank test revealed that there were no significant differences in the recurrence-free interval (p = 0.08) and survival (p = 0.279) between the resection and the ablation groups. Univariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards regression model showed initial treatment (p = 0.0051) was associated with recurrence-free interval. Platelet count (p = 0.009), indocianine green retention rate at 15 minutes (p = 0.003), Child-Pugh classification (p = 0.001), serum albumin level (p = 0.0012) and serum total bililubin (p = 0.015) were associated with survival. Hence patients with HCV-related single, small HCC should be treated according to their hepatic reserve.

  10. Hepatitis

    ... inflammation of the liver.” This inflammation can be caused by a wide variety of toxins, drugs, and metabolic diseases, as well as infection. There are at least 5 hepatitis viruses. Hepatitis A is contracted when a child eats food or drinks water that is contaminated with the virus or has ...

  11. Hepatitis


    970349 Primary structure and variability of partialsequences in nonstructural gene 5 region of hepatitis Gvirus, CHANG Jinhong(常锦红), et al. Hepatol Instis,People’s Hosp, Beijing Med Univ, Beijing, 100044. NatlMed J China 1997; 77(3): 178-182. Objective: To sequence partial genome of hepatitis G

  12. Hepatitis


    2009209 Effects of chronic hepatitis B virus infection on human hepatic cytochrome P450 2C9.ZHO Fuping(周福平),et al.Dept Infect Dis,Shanghai Changzheng Hosp,Shanghai 200003.Chin J Infect Dis,2009;27(2):94-98.

  13. Hepatitis


    920691 The determination of serum hepa-titis B virus DNA by polymerase chain rea-ction in hepatitis B patients treated withalpha-interferon. XU. Jianye(徐建业), et al.Centr Lab, Chongqing Cancer Instit, 630030.Chin J Intern Med, 1992; 31(5): 278-280. To clarify the status of HBV in serum of

  14. Adjustable solitary waves in electroactive rods

    Wang, Y. Z.; Zhang, C. L.; Dai, H.-H.; Chen, W. Q.


    This paper presents an asymptotic analysis of solitary waves propagating in an incompressible isotropic electroactive circular rod subjected to a biasing longitudinal electric displacement. Several asymptotic expansions are introduced to simplify the rod governing equations. The boundary conditions on the lateral surface of the rod are satisfied from the asymptotic point of view. In the limit of finite-small amplitude and long wavelength, a set of ten simplified one-dimensional nonlinear governing equations is established. To validate our approach and the derivation, we compare the linear dispersion relation with the one directly derived from the three-dimensional linear theory in the limit of long wavelength. Then, by the reductive perturbation method, we deduce the far-field equation (i.e. the KdV equation). Finally, the leading order of the electroelastic solitary wave solution is presented. Numerical examples are provided to show the influences of the biasing electric displacement and material constants on the solitary waves. It is found that the biasing electric displacement can modulate the velocity of solitary waves with a prescribed amplitude in the electroactive rod, a very interesting result which may promote the particular application of solitary waves in solids with multi-field coupling.

  15. Solitary Tibial Osteolytic Lesion

    Emilios E. Pakos


    Full Text Available We report an unusual case of solitary osteolytic tibial metastasis from a primary endometrial cancer in a 62-year-old woman. The primary cancer was treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy combined with postoperative external beam radiotherapy, while the tibial metastasis was treated with an above knee amputation. The rarity of the case lies on the fact that metastases distally to the elbow and knee are uncommon and endometrial cancer rarely gives distal bone metastases and particularly solitary to the extremities.

  16. Hepatitis


    2005226 Characteristics of peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in hepatitis B patients. FAN Zhen-ping(范振平),et al. Center Bio Ther, Instit Infect Dis, 302 Hosp Chin PLA, Beijing 100039. World Chin J Digestol, 2005;13(2): 194-197. Objective: To characterize the T-lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood of patients with acute and chronic hepatitis B, and to explore their relations with the disease state. Methods: Peripheral blood

  17. Hepatitis A among workers from a waste water treatment plant during a small community outbreak.

    De Serres, G; Laliberté, D


    OBJECTIVE: This is a case report describing the occurrence of hepatitis A in three workers at a waste water treatment plant during a small community outbreak involving 16 cases. CASE REPORT: The first case was a 26 year old operator who had worked in the plant for two years, the second was a 23 year old employee hired to add new biolite in the secondary treatment area. These two cases never worked together and only met two or three times before the onset of disease in the second case. The third case occurred three months later in a 34 year old ventilation mechanic. All three cases were confirmed by IgM serology and virus was recovered by polymerase chain reaction in the stools of the last two cases. Despite an extensive search for other risk factors for hepatitis A in these workers none was found. CONCLUSION: This report confirms that hepatitis A is an occupational hazard for sewage workers. The numerous potential sources of contamination associated with that occupation support the use of vaccine to provide effective prevention. PMID:9072036

  18. Hepatitis


    2008312 Impact of hepatitis B virus infection on the activity of hematopoietic stem cell.SHI Yanmei(石雁梅),et al.Dept Infect Dis,1st Clin Coll,Harbin Med Univ,Harbin 150001.Chin J Infect Dis 2008;26(4):197-201.Objective To study the impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV)infection on the activity of cord hematopoieticstem cells.Methods CD34+cells were isolated from healthy human cord blood by mini MACS.Cells were

  19. Solitary osseous metastasis of rectal carcinoma masquerading as osteogenic sarcoma on post-chemotherapy imaging: A case report

    Udare, Amar; Sable, Nilesh; Kumar, Rajiv; Thakur, Meenakshi; Juvekar, Shashikant [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)


    Solitary metastases from colorectal carcinoma in the absence of hepatic or pulmonary metastases are rare. These can have a diverse imaging appearance, particularly after chemotherapy. It is important identify patients with solitary skeletal metastases, as they have a better prognosis than those with multiple skeletal or visceral metastases. We describe an unusual case of a solitary metastasis to the femur in a case of colon carcinoma that went undiagnosed and later presented with imaging features of osteogenic sarcoma.

  20. Hepatitis


    2008449 A cross-sectional survey of occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-infected patients. MA Jianxin(马建新), et al.Dept Infect Dis, Shanghai Public Health Clin Center, Shanghai 201508. Chin J Intern Med 2008;47(7):574-577. Objective To assess the prevalence of occult HBV infection in HIV-infected patients.

  1. Analysis of the high-resolution computed tomographic diagnosis of small solitary pulmonary nodule using evaluation of edge and internal characteristics

    Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Awaya, Hitomi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Miura, Goji; Ariyoshi, Isao; Yoshimizu, Tazuko; Nomura, Satoshi; Nakanishi, Takashi (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)


    To improve the differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN), we analyzed the results of an observer test in 26 cases with non-calcified SPN less than 3cm in maximal diameter including 13 malignant and 13 benign cases. Using evaluation of the edge and internal characteristics of the nodule, eight observers made differential diagnoses with five levels of confidence for SPN on both high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and conventional tomography (TOMO). The results of HRCT diagnoses were compared with those of TOMO diagnoses. HRCT diagnosis of SPN (Az=0.897) was significantly better than TOMO diagnosis (Az=0.705) in the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve, because of the improvement in confidence level for malignant nodules in HRCT diagnosis. On the contrary, the diagnostic accuracy in benign nodules on HRCT was almost equal to that on TOMO. When one or more findings suggestive of malignancy, such as spicula or notching, were recognized, the nodules were diagnosed as possible malignancy. However, interindividual variations in interpretations of such findings were great among observers. In the differential diagnosis of SPN on HRCT, benign findings used were few compared with malignant findings. Our results indicate that (1) a method of handing interindividual variation of interpretations should be devised and (2) the diagnostic characteristics of each HRCT finding suggestive of benignity as well as malignancy, should be established in a larger series. (author).

  2. Peptide Toxins in Solitary Wasp Venoms

    Konno, Katsuhiro; Kazuma, Kohei; Nihei, Ken-ichi


    Solitary wasps paralyze insects or spiders with stinging venom and feed the paralyzed preys to their larva. Accordingly, the venoms should contain a variety of constituents acting on nervous systems. However, only a few solitary wasp venoms have been chemically studied despite thousands of species inhabiting the planet. We have surveyed bioactive substances in solitary wasp venoms found in Japan and discovered a variety of novel bioactive peptides. Pompilidotoxins (PMTXs), in the venoms of the pompilid wasps Anoplius samariensis and Batozonellus maculifrons, are small peptides consisting of 13 amino acids without a disulfide bond. PMTXs slowed Na+ channel inactivation, in particular against neuronal type Na+ channels, and were rather selective to the Nav1.6 channel. Mastoparan-like cytolytic and antimicrobial peptides are the major components of eumenine wasp venoms. They are rich in hydrophobic and basic amino acids, adopting a α-helical secondary structure, and showing mast cell degranulating, antimicrobial and hemolytic activities. The venom of the spider wasp Cyphononyx fulvognathus contained four bradykinin-related peptides. They are hyperalgesic and, dependent on the structure, differently associated with B1 or B2 receptors. Further survey led to the isolation of leucomyosuppressin-like FMRFamide peptides from the venoms of the digger wasps Sphex argentatus and Isodontia harmandi. These results of peptide toxins in solitary wasp venoms from our studies are summarized. PMID:27096870

  3. Peptide Toxins in Solitary Wasp Venoms

    Katsuhiro Konno


    Full Text Available Solitary wasps paralyze insects or spiders with stinging venom and feed the paralyzed preys to their larva. Accordingly, the venoms should contain a variety of constituents acting on nervous systems. However, only a few solitary wasp venoms have been chemically studied despite thousands of species inhabiting the planet. We have surveyed bioactive substances in solitary wasp venoms found in Japan and discovered a variety of novel bioactive peptides. Pompilidotoxins (PMTXs, in the venoms of the pompilid wasps Anoplius samariensis and Batozonellus maculifrons, are small peptides consisting of 13 amino acids without a disulfide bond. PMTXs slowed Na+ channel inactivation, in particular against neuronal type Na+ channels, and were rather selective to the Nav1.6 channel. Mastoparan-like cytolytic and antimicrobial peptides are the major components of eumenine wasp venoms. They are rich in hydrophobic and basic amino acids, adopting a α-helical secondary structure, and showing mast cell degranulating, antimicrobial and hemolytic activities. The venom of the spider wasp Cyphononyx fulvognathus contained four bradykinin-related peptides. They are hyperalgesic and, dependent on the structure, differently associated with B1 or B2 receptors. Further survey led to the isolation of leucomyosuppressin-like FMRFamide peptides from the venoms of the digger wasps Sphex argentatus and Isodontia harmandi. These results of peptide toxins in solitary wasp venoms from our studies are summarized.

  4. Solitary midbrain metastasis.

    Ongerboer de Visser, B W; Moffie, D


    The available clinical and pathological data of 5 cases with solitary midbrain metastasis including 2 of the present study are reviewed. Progressive dementia occurred in one case and mild dementia in another who also developed ocular symptoms. Ocular symptoms with sensory and coordination disturbances were seen in one, and only ocular symptoms in another case. Right-sided hemiplegia of 5 years duration occurred in the remaining case. Survival in tegmentum lesions is short.

  5. Hepatitis


    2008079 Relationship of HBV genotype and bcp and pc mutations with HBV DNA rebound after lamivudine therapy. SU Minghua(苏明华), et al. Dept Infect Dis Clin Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Nanning 530027. World Chin J Digestol 2007;15(33):3507-3513. Objective To investigate the relationship of HBV gene mutations with HBV DNA rebound after lamivudine therapy. Methods Twenty-seven hepatitis B patients with HBV DNA rebound after

  6. Solitary intraosseous neurofibroma of mandible.

    Vivek N


    Full Text Available Solitary intraosseous neurofibroma is a rare benign non-odontogenic tumor. Although neurofibromas occur predominantly as a feature of neurofibromatosis affecting the soft tissue, a few cases of solitary intraosseous neurofibromas of the jaw have been reported. We herewith report a case of solitary intraosseous neurofibroma of mandible in a middle-aged woman with a discussion on its clinical, radiological, and histopathological presentation along with review of cases.

  7. Asymptotic Linear Stability of Solitary Water Waves

    Pego, Robert L.; Sun, Shu-Ming


    We prove an asymptotic stability result for the water wave equations linearized around small solitary waves. The equations we consider govern irrotational flow of a fluid with constant density bounded below by a rigid horizontal bottom and above by a free surface under the influence of gravity neglecting surface tension. For sufficiently small amplitude waves, with waveform well-approximated by the well-known sech-squared shape of the KdV soliton, solutions of the linearized equations decay at an exponential rate in an energy norm with exponential weight translated with the wave profile. This holds for all solutions with no component in (that is, symplectically orthogonal to) the two-dimensional neutral-mode space arising from infinitesimal translational and wave-speed variation of solitary waves. We also obtain spectral stability in an unweighted energy norm.

  8. Hepatic small vessel neoplasm, a rare infiltrative vascular neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential☆,☆☆

    Gill, Ryan M.; Buelow, Benjamin; Mather, Cheryl; Joseph, Nancy M.; Alves, Venancio; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Makhlouf, Hala; Marginean, Celia; Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Sempoux, Christine; Snover, Dale C.; Thung, Swan N.; Yeh, Matthew M.; Ferrell, Linda D.


    Summary Characteristic but rare vascular neoplasms in the adult liver composed of small vessels with an infiltrative border were collected from an international group of collaborators over a 5-year period (N = 17). These tumors were termed hepatic small vessel neoplasm (HSVN), and the histologic differential diagnosis was angiosarcoma (AS). The average age of patients was 54 years (range, 24–83 years). HSVN was more common in men. The average size was 2.1 cm (range, 0.2–5.5 cm). Diagnosis was aided by immunohistochemical stains for vascular lineage (CD31, CD34, FLI-1), which were uniformly positive in HSVN. Immunohistochemical stains (p53, c-Myc, GLUT-1, and Ki-67) for possible malignant potential are suggestive of a benign/low-grade tumor. Capture-based next-generation sequencing (using an assay that targets the coding regions of more than 500 cancer genes) identified an activating hotspot GNAQ mutation in 2 of 3 (67%) tested samples, and one of these cases also had a hotspot mutation in PIK3CA. When compared with hepatic AS (n = 10) and cavernous hemangioma (n = 6), the Ki-67 proliferative index is the most helpful tool in excluding AS, which demonstrated a tumor cell proliferative index greater than 10% in all cases. Strong p53 and diffuse c-Myc staining was also significantly associated with AS but not with HSVN or cavernous hemangioma. There have been no cases with rupture/hemorrhage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, or Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. Thus far, there has been no metastasis or recurrence of HSVN, but complete resection and close clinical follow-up are recommended because the outcome remains unknown. PMID:27090685

  9. Large Amplitude Solitary Waves in a Fluid-Filled Elastic Tube



    By usign the potential method to a fluid filled elastic tube, we obtained a solitary wave solution.Compared with recluetive perturbation method, this method can be used for larger amplitude solitary waves. The result is in agreement with that of small amplitude approximation from reduetive perturbation method when the amplitude is small enough.

  10. Solitary brain metastasis of an occult and stable small-cell lung cancer in a schizophrenic patient: a 3-year control.

    Jesien-Lewandowicz, Emilia; Spych, Michal; Fijuth, Jacek; Kordek, Radzislaw


    Small-cell lung cancer is a highly aggressive carcinoma, with poorer prognosis in patients with brain metastases. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman diagnosed with a cerebellar tumour which, following surgery, was revealed to be a metastatic small-cell lung carcinoma. Subsequent CT and PET scanning showed a small, isolated 8 mm nodule in the upper lobe of the right lung. The patient was suffering from schizophrenia and has been treated with clozapine for 17 years. Because of the unusual presentation, there was no therapy given for the primary tumour at the time, and systemic therapy or surgery was discussed. However, 18 months later, the nodule was slightly larger (14 mm), and surgery was performed. On pathology examination, the tumour was presented as a typical small-cell carcinoma. Standard chest irradiation with systemic chemotherapy was given. At the time of writing, 39 months after diagnosis of metastatic small-cell carcinoma, the patient is disease free. However, this case is unusual in that a long-term observation of a small stable primary tumour in the lung took place without any therapy being given. This case strongly supports the thesis that small-cell lung cancer may comprise a heterogeneous group of tumours with different biological properties. The proapoptotic effect of clozapine may be also taken into account.

  11. Inhibition of full length Hepatitis C Virus particles of 1a genotype through small interference RNA

    Rehman Sidra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV, a member of the Flaviviridae family of viruses, is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently, the only treatment available consists of a combination of Pegylated interferon alpha (INF-α and ribavirin, but only half of the patients treated show a sufficient antiviral response. Thus there is a great need for the development of new treatments for HCV infections. RNA interference (RNAi represents a new promising approach to develop effective antiviral drugs and has been extremely effective against HCV infection. Results This study was design to assess or explore the silencing effect of small interference RNAs (siRNAs against full length HCV particles of genotype 1a. In the present study six 21-bp siRNAs were designed against different regions of HCV structural genes (Core, E1 and E2. Selected siRNAs were labeled as Csi 301, Csi 29, E1si 52, E1si 192, E2si 86 and E2si 493. Our results demonstrated that siRNAs directed against HCV core gene showed 70% reduction in viral titer in HCV infected liver cells. Moreover, siRNAs against E1 and E2 envelop genes showed a dramatic reduction in HCV viral RNA, E2si 86 exhibited 93% inhibition, while E1si 192, E2si 493 and E1si 52 showed 87%, 80%, and 66% inhibition respectively. No significant inhibition was detected in cells transfected with the negative control siRNA. Conclusion Our results suggested that siRNAs targeted against HCV structural genes efficiently silence full length HCV particles and provide an effective therapeutic option against HCV infection.

  12. Transition from Solitons to Solitary Waves in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Lattice

    Wen, Zhenying; Wei, Nian


    In this paper, we study the smooth transition from solitons to solitary waves in localization, relation between energy and velocity, propagation and scattering property in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice analytically and numerically. A soliton is a very stable solitary wave that retains its permanent structure after interacting with other solitary waves. A soliton exists when the energy is small, and it becomes a solitary wave when the energy increases to the threshold. The transition could help to understand the distinctly different heat conduction behaviors of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice at low and high temperature.

  13. Solitary eyelid schwannoma

    Renu M Magdum


    Full Text Available Schwannomas are rare benign tumors arising from Schwann cells of peripheral nerves that form the neural sheath. While there have been reports of such tumors in the orbit, solitary schwannomas arising from the eyelids are very rare. There are reports of schwannomas being erroneously diagnosed as chalazion, inclusion cysts or even eyelid malignancy. We are reporting a case of a 20-year-old female who presented with a painless, non-tender, slow-growing mass in the upper eyelid of the right eye. The external appearance of the mass was suggestive of an implantation cyst of the eyelid and it could be completely excised as it had a well-defined capsule. Histopathological examination showed characteristic hypercellular and hypocellular areas with fusiform nuclei that tended to form palisades. The purpose of reporting this case of schwannoma in a young female is to recommend the inclusion of this entity as a differential diagnosis of well-defined lid tumors.

  14. Solitary fibrous tumor

    Manlio Mencoboni


    Full Text Available Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm which may be found everywhere in the body. It is now distinguished into two forms, pleural and extrapleural, which morphologically resemble each other. Abdomi­nal localizations are quite rare, with 10 cases only reported in bladder; rarely they can be source of paraneoplastic syndromes (i.e., hypoglycemia secondary to insulin-like growth factor. In April 2006 a 74-year-old white male presented with chills, diaphoresis and acute abdominal pain with hematuria. At admission in emergency he underwent an abdominal X-ray (no pathological findings and an ultrasound examination of the kidneys and urinary tract, which revealed a pelvic hyperechogenic neoformation measuring approximately 10¥8¥7 cm, compressing the bladder. Blood chemistry at admission revealed only a mild neutrophilic leucocytosis (WBC 16600, N 80%, L 11%, elevated fibrinogen and ESR, and hypoglycemia (38 mg/dL. Macro­scopic hematuria was evident, while urinocolture was negative. Contrast enhanced CT scan of the abdomen and pelvic region revealed a large round neoformation dislocating the bladder, with an evident contrast-enhanced periphery and a central necrotic area. Continuous infusion of glucose 5% solution was necessary in order to maintain blood glucose levels above 50 mg/dL. The patient underwent complete surgical resection of an ovoidal mass coated by adipose tissue, with well delimited margins; histological findings were consistent with solitary fibrous tumor (SFT. Hypoglycemia resolved completely with removal of the growth. In this case report we describe a SFT growing in the bladder, a quite rare localization, which presented a unique hypoglycemia. In contrast to the majority of cases reported in the literature, the behavior of this SFT was not aggressive, and, since the patient is still alive, surgical resection was considered conclusive.

  15. High prevalence of hepatitis C associated with familial history of hepatitis in a small town of south Brazil: efficiency of the rapid test for epidemiological survey

    Cláudia Alexandra Pontes Ivantes


    Full Text Available This report describes a cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV in Tamboara, a small community in the northwest area from Paraná State, south of Brazil with a high rate of accumulated detection for HCV. Eight hundred and sixteen residents (17.87% from all the population, independently of the age and time living in Tamboara were included in this study by an epidemiologic questionnaire and by testing for anti-HCV. The rapid immuno-chromatographic test was applied for detection of HCV antibodies. The anti-HCV prevalence by rapid test was 4.28%. The median age for positive and negative test was 60.49 ± 14.14 and 41.67 ± 20.25, respectively (p < 0.001. By multivariate analysis, only familial history of hepatitis (p = 0.001; OR = 6.41; CI 95% = 2.08-19.78 and age (p = 0.007; OR 1.06;95% CI = 1.02-1.10 showed statistical significance for positive anti-HCV. The rapid test sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 92.7% respectively, with an accuracy of 95.8% (95% CI = 91-100. These findings demonstrated a high prevalence of anti-HCV in Tamboara. The familial history of hepatitis was a significant risk factor to the infection and HCV rapid test showed to be accurate and feasible for epidemiological survey

  16. Kinases required in hepatitis C virus entry and replication highlighted by small interference RNA screening.

    Trotard, Maud; Lepère-Douard, Charlotte; Régeard, Morgane; Piquet-Pellorce, Claire; Lavillette, Dimitri; Cosset, François-Loic; Gripon, Philippe; Le Seyec, Jacques


    The entry pathway of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major human pathogen, into the cell is incompletely defined. To better characterize this viral life cycle stage, we screened a small interfering RNA library dedicated to the membrane trafficking and remodeling with the infection model of Huh-7.5.1 cells by HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp). Results showed that the down-regulation of different factors implied in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) inhibits HCVpp cell infection. In addition, knockdown of the phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type III-alpha (PI4KIIIalpha) prevented infection by HCVpp or by cell-culture grown JFH-1-based HCV. Moreover, the replication activity of an HCV replicon was also affected by the PI4KIIIalpha knockdown. Additional investigations on the different members of the PI4K family revealed that the presence of PI4KIIIbeta in the host cells influenced their susceptibility to HCVpp infection and their capacity to sustain the HCV replication. The PI4KIII involvement during the HCV life cycle seemed to occur by other ways than the control of the CME or of the membranous expression of HCV receptors. Finally, our library screening completed data on the CME-dependant entry route of HCV and identified 2 kinases, PI4KIIIalpha and beta, as relevant potential therapeutic targets.

  17. Comparative study of the oxidation of propranolol enantiomers in hepatic and small intestinal microsomes from cynomolgus and marmoset monkeys.

    Shimizudani, Takeshi; Nagaoka, Kenjiro; Hanioka, Nobumitsu; Yamano, Shigeru; Narimatsu, Shizuo


    Oxidative metabolism of propranolol (PL) enantiomers (R-PL and S-PL) to 4-hydroxypropranolol (4-OH-PL), 5-OH-PL and N-deisopropylpropranolol (NDP) was examined in hepatic microsomes from cynomolgus and marmoset monkeys and in small intestinal microsomes from monkeys and humans. In hepatic microsomes, levels of oxidation activities were similar between the two monkey species, and substrate enantioselectivity (R-PLmicrosomes. In small intestinal microsomes, activity levels were much higher in cynomolgus monkeys than in marmosets and humans and reversed substrate enantioselectivity (R-PL>S-PL) was seen in the formation of NDP in cynomolgus monkeys and humans and in the formation of 5-OH-PL in marmosets. The formation of the three metabolites in cynomolgus monkeys and the formation of NDP in marmosets were biphasic, while the formation of 4-OH-PL in humans was monophasic. From the inhibition experiments using CYP antibodies, CYP2C9 and 2C19 were thought to be involved as N-deisopropylases and CYP2D6 and 3A4 as 4-hydroxylases in human small intestine. Furthermore, CYP1A, 2C and 3A enzymes could be involved in cynomolgus monkeys and CYP2C and 3A enzymes in marmosets. These results indicate that the oxidative profile of PL in hepatic and small intestinal microsomes differ considerably among cynomolgus monkeys, marmosets and humans.

  18. Large Amplitude Solitary Waves in a Fluid-Filled Elastic Tube

    DUAN Wen-Shan


    By using the potential method to a fluid filled elastic tube, we obtained a solitary wave solution. Comparedwith reductive perturbation method, this method can be used for larger amplitude solitary waves. The result is inagreement with that of small amplitude approximation from reductive perturbation method when the amplitude is smallenough.

  19. Hepatic transplantation outcomes for carefully selected cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: experience at a small- to medium-volume centre.

    Qasim, A


    BACKGROUND: Hepatic transplantation outcomes for cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at a small- to medium-volume centre are not fully known due to relative novelty of patient selection criteria. AIM: To determine hepatic transplantation outcomes for HCC at a small- to medium-volume centre. Patients and methods Hepatocellular carcinoma patients were listed for transplantation according to the International Guideline and further categorized as those fulfilling or exceeding Milan or University of San Francisco (UCSF) criteria on explanted liver morphology. Outcomes including mortality, retransplantation, and tumour recurrence rate were analysed. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients had HCC and on explanted liver morphology, Milan and UCSF criteria met 15 and 18 patients, respectively. Patients and graft survival at 3 months, 1 and 5 years were 100, 96, 84, and 88, 84, 77%, respectively. Outcomes favoured Milan criteria but did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic transplantation for HCC at a small-to medium-volume transplant centre had comparable survival outcomes to high-volume centres.

  20. Vlasov Simulation of Electrostatic Solitary Structures in Multi-Component Plasmas

    Umeda, Takayuki; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Pickett, Jolene S.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.


    Electrostatic solitary structures have been observed in the Earth's magnetosheath by the Cluster spacecraft. Recent theoretical work has suggested that these solitary structures are modeled by electron acoustic solitary waves existing in a four-component plasma system consisting of core electrons, two counter-streaming electron beams, and one species of background ions. In this paper, the excitation of electron acoustic waves and the formation of solitary structures are studied by means of a one-dimensional electrostatic Vlasov simulation. The present result first shows that either electron acoustic solitary waves with negative potential or electron phase-space holes with positive potential are excited in four-component plasma systems. However, these electrostatic solitary structures have longer duration times and higher wave amplitudes than the solitary structures observed in the magnetosheath. The result indicates that a high-speed and small free energy source may be needed as a fifth component. An additional simulation of a five-component plasma consisting of a stable four-component plasma and a weak electron beam shows the generation of small and fast electron phase-space holes by the bump-on-tail instability. The physical properties of the small and fast electron phase-space holes are very similar to those obtained by the previous theoretical analysis. The amplitude and duration time of solitary structures in the simulation are also in agreement with the Cluster observation.

  1. Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Following Surgical Resection or Radiosurgery Plus Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients With Synchronous Solitary Brain Metastasis: A Curative Approach

    Parlak, Cem, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baskent University, Adana Medical Faculty, Adana (Turkey); Mertsoylu, Hüseyin [Department of Medical Oncology, Baskent University, Adana Medical Faculty, Adana (Turkey); Güler, Ozan Cem; Onal, Cem; Topkan, Erkan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baskent University, Adana Medical Faculty, Adana (Turkey)


    Purpose/Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of definitive thoracic chemoradiation therapy following surgery or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) on the outcomes of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with synchronous solitary brain metastasis (SSBM). Methods and Materials: A total of 63 NSCLC patients with SSBM were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were staged using positron emission tomography-computed tomography in addition to conventional staging tools. Thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) with a total dose of 66 Gy in 2 Gy fractions was delivered along with 2 cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy following either surgery plus 30 Gy of WBRT (n=33) or SRS plus 30 Gy of WBRT (n=30) for BM. Results: Overall, the treatment was well tolerated. All patients received planned TRT, and 57 patients (90.5%) were also able to receive 2 cycles of chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 25.3 months (7.1-52.1 months), the median months of overall, locoregional progression-free, neurological progression-free, and progression-free survival were 28.6, 17.7, 26.4, and 14.6, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that patients with a T1-T2 thoracic disease burden (P=.001), a nodal stage of N0-N1 (P=.003), and no weight loss (P=.008) exhibited superior survival. Conclusions: In the present series, surgical and radiosurgical treatments directed toward SSBM in NSCLC patients were equally effective. The similarities between the present survival outcomes and those reported in other studies for locally advanced NSCLC patients indicate the potentially curative role of definitive chemoradiation therapy for highly selected patients with SSBM.

  2. Post-transcriptional inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication through small interference RNA

    Rehman Sidra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infection is a major health problem throughout world that causes acute and chronic infection which resulted in liver fibrosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. The only therapy currently available for HCV infection is the combination of pegylated interferon alpha (PEG-IFN α and ribavirin. This therapy can effectively clear the virus infection in only 50% of infected individuals. Hence, there is a dire need to develop antiviral agents against HCV. Results This study was design to examine the ability of exogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs to block the replication of HCV in human liver cells. In the present study six 21-bp siRNAs were designed against different regions of HCV non-structural genes (NS2, NS3 serine protease/helicase, NS4Band NS5B RNA dependent RNA polymerase. siRNAs were labeled as NS2si241, NS3si-229, NS3si-858, NS4Bsi-166, NS5Bsi-241 and NS5Bsi-1064. We found that siRNAs against HCV NS2- NS5B efficiently inhibit HCV replication in Huh-7 cells. Our results demonstrated that siRNAs directed against HCV NS3 (NS3si-229 and NS3si-858 showed 58% and 88% reduction in viral titer respectively. Moreover, NS4Bsi-166 and NS5Bsi-1064 exhibited a dramatic reduction in HCV viral RNA and resulted in greater than 90% inhibition at a 20 μM concentration, while NS2si-241 showed 27% reduction in viral titer. No significant inhibition was detected in cells transfected with the negative control siRNA. Conclusion Our results suggest that siRNAs targeting against HCV non-structural genes (NS2-NS5B efficiently inhibit HCV replication and combination of these siRNAs of different targets and interferon will be better option to treat HCV infection throughout the world.

  3. Novel microRNA-like viral small regulatory RNAs arising during human hepatitis A virus infection.

    Shi, Jiandong; Sun, Jing; Wang, Bin; Wu, Meini; Zhang, Jing; Duan, Zhiqing; Wang, Haixuan; Hu, Ningzhu; Hu, Yunzhang


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), including host miRNAs and viral miRNAs, play vital roles in regulating host-virus interactions. DNA viruses encode miRNAs that regulate the viral life cycle. However, it is generally believed that cytoplasmic RNA viruses do not encode miRNAs, owing to inaccessible cellular miRNA processing machinery. Here, we provide a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identification of miRNAs that were derived from hepatitis A virus (HAV; Hu/China/H2/1982), which is a typical cytoplasmic RNA virus. Using deep-sequencing and in silico approaches, we identified 2 novel virally encoded miRNAs, named hav-miR-1-5p and hav-miR-2-5p. Both of the novel virally encoded miRNAs were clearly detected in infected cells. Analysis of Dicer enzyme silencing demonstrated that HAV-derived miRNA biogenesis is Dicer dependent. Furthermore, we confirmed that HAV mature miRNAs were generated from viral miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs) in host cells. Notably, naturally derived HAV miRNAs were biologically and functionally active and induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Genomic location analysis revealed novel miRNAs located in the coding region of the viral genome. Overall, our results show that HAV naturally generates functional miRNA-like small regulatory RNAs during infection. This is the first report of miRNAs derived from the coding region of genomic RNA of a cytoplasmic RNA virus. These observations demonstrate that a cytoplasmic RNA virus can naturally generate functional miRNAs, as DNA viruses do. These findings also contribute to improved understanding of host-RNA virus interactions mediated by RNA virus-derived miRNAs.

  4. Drug-induced hepatitis

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  5. Small rodent models of hepatitis B and C virus replication and pathogenesis

    Mark A.Feitelson; Alla Arzumanyan; Marcia M.Clayton


    The narrow host range of infection supporting the long-term propagation of hepatitis B and C viruses is a major limitation that has prevented a more thorough understanding of persistent infection and the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease (CLD).With hepatitis B virus (HBV),this has been partially overcome by the discovery and characterization of HBV-like viruses in wild animals.With hepatitis C virus (HCV),related Fiaviviruses have been used as surrogate systems for such studies.Independent work has developed various mouse strains for the transplantation of human hepatocytes,which are then susceptible to infection with HBV and HCV.Other laboratories have developed transgenic mice that express virus gene products and/or support virus replication.Some HBV transgenic mouse models develop fulminant hepatitis,acute hepatitis,or CLD following adoptive transfer,while others spontaneously develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC),as in human infections.Among HCV transgenic mice,most develop no disease,but acute hepatitis has been observed in one model,while HCC appears in another.Other mouse models include the introduction of xenographs that replicate HBV or HCV.Although mice are not susceptible to these viruses,their ability to support virus replication and to develop liver disease characteristic of human infections,provides new opportunities to study pathogenesis and develop novel therapeutics.

  6. A rare gigantic solitary cysticercosis pseudotumour of the neck

    Seif J Uledi


    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is one of the ancient parasitic infections and endemic in many parts of the developing world. Humans acquire cysticercosis when they ingest pork tapeworm eggs either through faecal-oral route by eating faecally contaminated food or by auto infection.The clinical picture largely depends on the location of larval encystment. Neurocysticercosis is the most common form of presentation. Solitary extra neural lesions are quite rare and fairly small in size.We present a very unique case of 56 year old Malawian female with a very rare, long standing gigantic solitary cysticercosis pseudo tumour of the neck. By far, there is no documented report on incorrigible cysticercosis lesion with such a sheer size.Solitary extraneural cysticercosis lesions may mimic other soft tissue masses; therefore it is important for clinicians working in endemic regions to consider cysticercosis as a differential diagnosis when evaluating patients with soft tissue lesions.

  7. Quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves in weak relativistic plasma

    Biswajit Sahu


    Small amplitude quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves are studied in an unmagnetized twospecies relativistic quantum plasma system, comprised of electrons and ions. The one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic model (QHD) is used to obtain a deformed Korteweg–de Vries (dKdV) equation by reductive perturbation method. A linear dispersion relation is also obtained taking into account the relativistic effect. The properties of quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves, obtained from the deformed KdV equation, are studied taking into account the quantum mechanical effects in the weak relativistic limit. It is found that relativistic effects significantly modify the properties of quantum ion-acoustic waves. Also the effect of the quantum parameter on the nature of solitary wave solutions is studied in some detail.

  8. New developments in small molecular compounds for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy

    Jing TONG; You-wei WANG; Yuan-an LU


    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects approximately 170 million people worldwide.However,no vaccine or immunoglobulin is currently available for the prevention of HCV infection.The standard of care (SOC)involving pegylated intenrferon-α (PEG-IFN α) plus ribavirin (RBV) for 48 weeks results in a sustained virologic response in less than 50% of patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1,the most prevalent type of HCV in North America and Europe.Recently,reliable in vitro culture systems have been developed for accelerating antiviral therapy research,and many new specifically targeted antiviral therapies for hepatitis C (STAT-C) and treatment strategies are being evaluated in clinical trials.These new antiviral agents are expected to improve present treatment significantly and may potentially shorten treatment duration.The aim of this review is to summarize the current developments in new anti-HCV drugs.

  9. Electrostatic Korteweg-deVries solitary waves in a plasma with Kappa-distributed electrons

    Choi, C.-R.; Min, K.-W. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, T.-N. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)


    The Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation that describes the evolution of nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in plasmas with Kappa-distributed electrons is derived by using a reductive perturbation method in the small amplitude limit. We identified a dip-type (negative) electrostatic KdV solitary wave, in addition to the hump-type solution reported previously. The two types of solitary waves occupy different domains on the {kappa} (Kappa index)-V (propagation velocity) plane, separated by a curve corresponding to singular solutions with infinite amplitudes. For a given Kappa value, the dip-type solitary wave propagates faster than the hump-type. It was also found that the hump-type solitary waves cannot propagate faster than V = 1.32.

  10. Small-angle neutron scattering study of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particle

    Sato, M.; Ito, Y.; Kameyama, K.; Imai, M.; Ishikawa, N.; Takagi, T.


    The overall and internal structure of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particles was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering using the contrast variation method. The vaccine is a nearly spherical particle, and its contrast-matching point was determined to be at about 24% D 2O content, indicating that a large part of the vaccine particle is occupied by lipids and carbohydrates from the yeast. The Stuhrmann plot suggests that the surface antigens exist predominantly in the peripheral region of the particle, which is favorable to the induction of anti-virus antibodies.

  11. Bulk solitary waves in elastic solids

    Samsonov, A. M.; Dreiden, G. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Shvartz, A. G.


    A short and object oriented conspectus of bulk solitary wave theory, numerical simulations and real experiments in condensed matter is given. Upon a brief description of the soliton history and development we focus on bulk solitary waves of strain, also known as waves of density and, sometimes, as elastic and/or acoustic solitons. We consider the problem of nonlinear bulk wave generation and detection in basic structural elements, rods, plates and shells, that are exhaustively studied and widely used in physics and engineering. However, it is mostly valid for linear elasticity, whereas dynamic nonlinear theory of these elements is still far from being completed. In order to show how the nonlinear waves can be used in various applications, we studied the solitary elastic wave propagation along lengthy wave guides, and remarkably small attenuation of elastic solitons was proven in physical experiments. Both theory and generation for strain soliton in a shell, however, remained unsolved problems until recently, and we consider in more details the nonlinear bulk wave propagation in a shell. We studied an axially symmetric deformation of an infinite nonlinearly elastic cylindrical shell without torsion. The problem for bulk longitudinal waves is shown to be reducible to the one equation, if a relation between transversal displacement and the longitudinal strain is found. It is found that both the 1+1D and even the 1+2D problems for long travelling waves in nonlinear solids can be reduced to the Weierstrass equation for elliptic functions, which provide the solitary wave solutions as appropriate limits. We show that the accuracy in the boundary conditions on free lateral surfaces is of crucial importance for solution, derive the only equation for longitudinal nonlinear strain wave and show, that the equation has, amongst others, a bidirectional solitary wave solution, which lead us to successful physical experiments. We observed first the compression solitary wave in the

  12. Solitary mastocytoma in an adult

    Jain V


    Full Text Available A 24-year old female developed late onset solitary mastocytoma on the left forearm. She complained of intense pruritus off and on which was not associated with flushing of face and blister formation over the nodule. Darier′s sign was positive. Excisional biopsy was done and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis.

  13. Solitary waves and homoclinic orbits

    Balmforth, N.J.


    The notion that fluid motion often organizes itself into coherent structures has increasingly permeated modern fluid dynamics. Such localized objects appear in laminar flows and persist in turbulent states; from the water on windows on rainy days, to the circulations in planetary atmospheres. This review concerns solitary waves in fluids. More specifically, it centres around the mathematical description of solitary waves in a single spatial dimension. Moreover, it concentrates on strongly dissipative dynamics, rather than integrable systems like the KdV equation. One-dimensional solitary waves, or pulses and fronts as they are also called, are the simplest kinds of coherent structure (at least from a geometrical point of view). Nevertheless, their dynamics can be rich and complicated. In some circumstances this leads to the formation of spatio-temporal chaos in the systems giving birth to the solitary waves, and understanding that phenomenon is one of the major goals in the theory outlined in this review. Unfortunately, such a goal is far from achieved to date, and the author assess its current status and incompleteness.

  14. Adrenalectomy for solitary metastasis of Hepatocellular carcinoma post liver transplantation: Case report and literature review.

    Jalbani, Imran Khan; Nazim, Syed M; Tariq, Muhammad Usman; Abbas, Farahat


    Liver transplantation (LT) is the treatment of choice for localized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with cirrhosis. Extra hepatic metastasis is the most common cause of death in these patients. There is very little evidence regarding the natural history and treatment options for patients developing HCC recurrence after LT. Surgical resection offers a unique opportunity for solitary metastasis. We report a 61 year old male with solitary right adrenal metastasis 15 months post LT which was managed with open adrenalectomy. The patient is alive and disease free 24 months after the surgery. The case, histo-pathological findings and literature review is discussed.

  15. Solitary pulmonary nodule

    ... Chest x-ray Granulomatosis with polyangiitis Histoplasmosis Lung cancer - small cell Pulmonary tuberculosis Skin nodules Valley fever Review Date 8/1/2015 Updated by: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, ... Cancer Lung Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  16. Solitary Pulmonary Nodule


    needle aspiration biopsy can also determine if a mass is malignant. It has an 80-95 percent sensitivity for malignant lesions. Even with small...depending upon the size and location of the lesion. When a bronchus leads to the mass, the sensitivity increases to 70 percent. Transthoracic fine

  17. Effect of adiabatic variation of dust charges on dust acoustic solitary waves in magnetized dusty plasmas

    Duan Wen-Shan


    The effect of dust charging and the influence of its adiabatic variation on dust acoustic waves is investigated. By employing the reductive perturbation technique we derived a Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation for small amplitude dust acoustic waves. We have analytically verified that there are only rarefactive solitary waves for this system. The instability region for one-dimensional solitary wave under transverse perturbations has also been obtained. The obliquely propagating solitary waves to the z-direction for the ZK equation are given in this paper as well.

  18. Different Types of Solitary Wave Scattering in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Model

    WEN Zhen-Ying; ZHAO Hong


    @@ We show that the scattering between two solitary waves in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model with interaction potential V(x) = αx2/2 + x4/4 can be classified into four types according to the configurations of the solitary waves. For three of the four types, the large solitary wave can lose energy and the small one can gain in average by collision.For the other one type in a special parameter region we encounter an anomalous scattering, i.e. the large solitary wave gains energy and the small one loses energy. Numerical investigations are performed for the anharmonic limit case of α = 0 and the general case of α≠ 0 and comparisons between them are made.

  19. Solitary waves of the splitted RLW equation

    Zaki, S. I.


    A combination of the splitting method and the cubic B-spline finite elements is used to solve the non-linear regularized long wave (RLW) equation. This approach involves a Bubnov-Galerkin method with cubic B-spline finite elements so that there is continuity of the dependent variable and its first derivative throughout the solution region. Time integration of the resulting systems is effected using a Crank-Nicholson approximation. In simulations of the migration of a single solitary wave this algorithm is shown to have higher accuracy and better conservation than a recent splitting difference scheme based on cubic spline interpolation functions, for different amplitudes ranging from a very small ( ⩾0.03) to a considerably high amplitudes ( ⩽0.3). The development of an undular bore is modeled.

  20. Solitary angiokeratoma of the tongue.

    Sion-Vardy, Netta; Manor, Esther; Puterman, Max; Bodner, Lipa


    Angiokeratoma is a rare cutaneous lesion. It can be either a generalized systemic form, presenting as multiple asymptomatic papules on the skin, associated with metabolic diseases or a solitary cutaneous form. Oral cavity involvement is more common in the systemic form, as a part of a more generalized cutaneous disease, but very rare in the localized form of angiokeratoma. A 45-year-old female presented with a painless lesion on the tongue of one months duration, which bled occasionally. On clinical examination, a lesion of approximately 5 mm in diameter was observed on the left surface of the tongue. The lesion was purple in color with a granulomatous appearance. There were no other changes in the oral mucosa. On dermatologic examination, no angiokeratomas were found, anywhere on the skin. The lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The histologic diagnosis was angiokeratoma. A case of a solitary angiokeratoma of the tongue is reported. We report here the third intra-oral case and the second case in the tongue with solitary angiokeratoma.

  1. Solitary wave solution to a singularly perturbed generalized Gardner equation with nonlinear terms of any order



    This paper is concerned with the existence of travelling wave solutions to a singularly perturbed generalized Gardner equation with nonlinear terms of any order. By using geometric singular perturbation theory and based on the relation between solitary wave solution and homoclinic orbits of the associated ordinary differential equations, the persistence of solitary wave solutions of this equation is proved when the perturbation parameter is sufficiently small. The numerical simulations verify our theoretical analysis.

  2. Multi-component optical solitary waves

    Kivshar, Y. S.; Sukhorukov, A. A.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.


    We discuss several novel types of multi-component (temporal and spatial) envelope solitary waves that appear in fiber and waveguide nonlinear optics. In particular, we describe multi-channel solitary waves in bit-parallel-wavelength fiber transmission systems for highperformance computer networks......, multi-color parametric spatial solitary waves due to cascaded nonlinearities of quadratic materials, and quasiperiodic envelope solitons due to quasi-phase-matching in Fibonacci optical superlattices. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. Transmission of Hepatitis A Virus through Combined Liver–Small Intestine–Pancreas Transplantation

    Weil, Lauren M.; Jin, Sherry; Johnson, Thomas; Hayden-Mixson, Tonya R.; Khudyakov, Yury; Annambhotla, Pallavi D.; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.; Kamili, Saleem; Ritter, Jana M.; Nelson, Noele; Mazariegos, George; Green, Michael; Himes, Ryan W.; Kuhar, David T.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Wiseman, Rachel; Moorman, Anne C.


    Although transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) through blood transfusion has been documented, transmission through organ transplantation has not been reported. In August 2015, state health officials in Texas, USA, were notified of 2 home health nurses with HAV infection whose only common exposure was a child who had undergone multi–visceral organ transplantation 9 months earlier. Specimens from the nurses, organ donor, and all organ recipients were tested and medical records reviewed to determine a possible infection source. Identical HAV RNA sequences were detected from the serum of both nurses and the organ donor, as well as from the multi–visceral organ recipient’s serum and feces; this recipient’s posttransplant liver and intestine biopsy specimens also had detectable virus. The other organ recipients tested negative for HAV RNA. Vaccination of the donor might have prevented infection in the recipient and subsequent transmission to the healthcare workers. PMID:28322704

  4. Disrupted small world networks in patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy: A resting state fMRI study

    Zhang, Long Jiang, E-mail: [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Zheng, Gang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Zhang, Liping [College of Natural Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Zhong, Jianhui [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Li, Qiang [College of Natural Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Zhao, Tie Zhu [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China)


    Purpose: To explore changes in functional connectivity and topological organization of brain functional networks in cirrhotic patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and non hepatic encephalopathy (nonHE) and their relationship with clinical markers. Materials and methods: Resting-state functional MR imaging was acquired in 22 MHE, 29 nonHE patients and 33 healthy controls. Functional connectivity networks were obtained by computing temporal correlations between any pairs of 90 cortical and subcortical regions. Graph analysis measures were quantitatively assessed for each subject. One-way analysis of covariance was applied to identify statistical differences of functional connectivity and network parameters among three groups. Correlations between clinical markers, such as Child–Pugh scores, venous blood ammonia level, and number connection test type A (NCT-A)/digit symbol test (DST) scores, and connectivity/graph metrics were calculated. Results: Thirty functional connectivities represented by edges were found to be abnormal (P < 0.05, FDR corrected) in cirrhotic patients, in which 16 edges (53.3%) were related with sub-cortical regions. MHE patients showed abnormal small-world attributes in the functional connectivity networks. Cirrhotic patients had significantly reduced nodal degree in 8 cortical regions and increased nodal centrality in 3 cortical regions. Twenty edges were correlated with either NCT-A or DST scores, in which 13 edges were related with sub-cortical regions. No correlation was found between Child–Pugh scores and graph theoretical measures in cirrhotic patients. Conclusion: Disturbances of brain functional connectivity and small world property loss are associated with neurocognitive impairment of cirrhotic patients. Reorganization of brain network occurred during disease progression from nonHE to MHE.

  5. Solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis

    Cui-yun SUN


    Full Text Available Objective To report the diagnosis and treatment of one case of solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis and investigate the clinicopathological features combined with literatures. Methods and Results The patient was a 46-year-old woman. She suffered from weakness of both lower limbs, unsteady gait and numbness of toes for 20 d. MRI examination revealed an irregular mass behind the spinal cord at T5-7 level and T6-7 vertebral body accessory. The enhanced MRI showed obvious heterogeneous enhancement. The border was clear and spinal dura mater was compressed to shift forward. During operation, T5-7 processus spinosus and vertebral laminae were eroded, and the cortex of bone showed "moth-eaten" erosion. The intraspinal and extradural lesion had rich blood supply, loose bone structure and intact spinal dura mater. Histologically, tumor cells were composed of intensive small cells, and focal plasmacytoid cells were seen. Flake pink staining substance was among them. Artificial cracks were common and multinuclear giant tumor cells were scatteredly distributed. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the cytoplasm of tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD138, CD38 and vimentin (Vim,scatteredly positive for leukocyte common antigen (LCA, and negative for immune globulin κ light chain(IgGκ and λ light chain (IgGλ, CD99, S-100 protein (S-100, pan cytokeratin (PCK, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, HMB45 and CD34. The Ki-67 labeling index was 1.25%. Congo red staining showed the pink staining substance was brownish red. Hybridization in situ examination showed the DNA content of IgGκ was more than that of IgGλ. The final pathological diagnosis was solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis. The patient was treated with postoperative chemotherapy, and there was no recurrence or metastasis during 18-month follow-up period. Conclusions Solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis is a rare tumor. The imaging features can offer a few

  6. The risk-return trade-off between solitary and eusocial reproduction.

    Fu, Feng; Kocher, Sarah D; Nowak, Martin A


    Social insect colonies can be seen as a distinct form of biological organisation because they function as superorganisms. Understanding how natural selection acts on the emergence and maintenance of these colonies remains a major question in evolutionary biology and ecology. Here, we explore this by using multi-type branching processes to calculate the basic reproductive ratios and the extinction probabilities for solitary vs. eusocial reproductive strategies. We find that eusociality, albeit being hugely successful once established, is generally less stable than solitary reproduction unless large demographic advantages of eusociality arise for small colony sizes. We also demonstrate how such demographic constraints can be overcome by the presence of ecological niches that strongly favour eusociality. Our results characterise the risk-return trade-offs between solitary and eusocial reproduction, and help to explain why eusociality is taxonomically rare: eusociality is a high-risk, high-reward strategy, whereas solitary reproduction is more conservative.

  7. [Solitary plasmocytoma of the mandible].

    Laurent, F; Chausse, J M; Toccanier, M F; Kuffer, R


    The authors present a case of solitary bony plasmocytoma of the mandibule, with local amyloid deposition. Diagnosis was made at extemporaneous pathological examination, then confirmed by the examination of the fixed surgical sample. Immunoenzymologically the proliferation proved to be monoclonal, with secretion of kappa light chain. The patient was treated by surgical curettage and homologous cancelous bone filling, followed by 5,500 rads of electrontherapy. He was then regularly controlled during 8 years and remained free from local recurrence. All investigations in search of dissemination (Kahler disease) remained negative.

  8. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Stomach

    Hussain, Qulsoom; Shafique, Khurram; Hurairah, Abu; Grossman, Evan B.


    Solitary fibrous tumor is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that usually originates from the pleura, but has been reported in other extrapleural locations. We report a rare case of a solitary fibrous tumor of the stomach, which was successfully treated with endoscopic mucosal resection. PMID:28286800

  9. Solitary intraosseous neurofibroma of the tibia

    Huang, Guo-Shu; Chang, Wei-Chou; Juan, Chun-Jung; Chen, Cheng-Yu. [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Neihu 114, Taipei (Taiwan); Lee, Chian-Her [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, Neihu 114, Taipei (Taiwan); Lee, Herng-Sheng [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Neihu 114, Taipei (Taiwan)


    A solitary intraosseous neurofibroma is rare and mostly occurs in the mandible. We report a case of a solitary intraosseous neurofibroma of the tibia. The radiographic findings were nonspecific and showed an eccentrically located, osteolytic lesion with a thin sclerotic border in the diaphysis of the left proximal tibia. The entity of intraosseous neurofibroma is briefly reviewed. (orig.)

  10. Solitary Waves in Relativistic Electromagnetic Plasma

    XIE Bai-Song; HUA Cun-Cai


    Solitary waves in relativistic electromagnetic plasmas are obtained numerically. The longitudinal momentum of electrons has been taken into account in the problem. It is found that in the moving frame with electromagnetic field propagating the solitary waves can exist in both cases, where the vector potential frequency is larger or smaller than the plasma characteristic frequency.

  11. Effects of ion mobility and positron fraction on solitary waves in weak relativistic electron-positron-ion plasma

    Lu, Ding; Xie, Bai-Song


    Effects of ion mobility and positron fraction on solitary waves of envelop of laser field and potential of electrostatic field in weak relativistic electron-positron-ion plasma are investigated. The parameter region for the existence of solitary waves is obtained analytically, and the reasonable choice of parameters is clarified. Both cases of mobile and immobile ions are considered. It is found that the amplitudes of solitary waves in the former case are larger compared to the latter case. For small plasma density, the localized solitary wave solutions in terms of approximate perturbation analytical method are consistent well with that by exact numerical calculations. However as the plasma density increases the analytical method loses its validity more and more. The influence of the positron fraction on the amplitudes of solitary waves shows a monotonous increasing relation. Implication of our results to the particle acceleration is also discussed briefly.

  12. Effects of ion mobility and positron fraction on solitary waves in weak relativistic electron-positron-ion plasma

    Lu, Ding; Li, Zi-Liang; Xie, Bai-Song


    The effects of ion mobility and positron fraction on the solitary waves of the laser field envelope and the potential of the electrostatic field in weak relativistic electron-positron-ion plasma are investigated. The parameter region for the existence of solitary waves is obtained analytically, and a reasonable choice of parameters is clarified. Both cases of mobile and immobile ions are considered. It is found that the amplitudes of solitary waves in the former case are larger compared to the latter case. For small plasma density, the localized solitary wave solutions in terms of the approximate perturbation analytical method are very consistent with those by exact numerical calculations. However, as the plasma density increases the analytical method loses its validity more and more. The influence of the positron fraction on the amplitudes of solitary waves shows a monotonous increasing relation. The implications of our results to particle acceleration are also discussed briefly.

  13. Hepatitis C virus G1b infection decreases the number of small low-density lipoprotein particles.

    Kinoshita, Chika; Nagano, Tomohisa; Seki, Nobuyoshi; Tomita, Yoichi; Sugita, Tomonori; Aida, Yuta; Itagaki, Munenori; Satoh, Kenichi; Sutoh, Satoshi; Abe, Hiroshi; Tsubota, Akihito; Aizawa, Yoshio


    To investigate how hepatitis C virus (HCV) G1b infection influences the particle number of lipoproteins. The numbers of lipoprotein particles in fasting sera from 173 Japanese subjects, 82 with active HCV G1b infection (active HCV group) and 91 with cleared HCV infection (SVR group), were examined. Serum lipoprotein was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography into twenty fractions. The cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in each fraction were measured using LipoSEARCH. The number of lipoprotein particles in each fraction was calculated using a newly developed algorithm, and the relationship between chronic HCV G1b infection and the lipoprotein particle number was determined by multiple linear regression analysis. The median number of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles was significantly lower in the active HCV group [1182 nmol/L, interquartile range (IQR): 444 nmol/L] than in the SVR group (1363 nmol/L, IQR: 472 nmol/L, P lipoprotein (HDL) particles (14168 nmol/L vs 15054 nmol/L, IQR: 4114 nmol/L vs 3385 nmol/L, P = 0.042). The number of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles was similar between the two groups. Among the four LDL sub-fractions, the number of large LDL particles was similar between the two groups. However, the numbers of medium (median: 533.0 nmol/L, IQR: 214.7 nmol/L vs median: 633.5 nmol/L, IQR: 229.6 nmol/L, P < 0.001), small (median: 190.9 nmol/L, IQR: 152.4 nmol/L vs median: 263.2 nmol/L, IQR: 159.9 nmol/L; P < 0.001), and very small LDL particles (median: 103.5 nmol/L, IQR: 66.8 nmol/L vs median: 139.3 nmol/L, IQR: 67.3 nmol/L, P < 0.001) were significantly lower in the active HCV group than in the SVR group, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated an association between HCV G1b infection and the decreased numbers of medium, small, and very small LDL particles. However, active HCV infection did not affect the number of large LDL particles or any sub-fractions of VLDL and HDL particles. HCV

  14. Obstructive jaundice caused by secondary pancreatic tumor from malignant solitary fibrous tumor of pleura: A case report

    Norie Yamada; Hiroshi Yotsuyanagi; Michihiro Suzuki; Fumio Itoh; Chiaki Okuse; Masahito Nomoto; Mayu Orita; Yoshiki Katakura; Toshiya Ishii; Takuo Shinmyo; Hiroaki Osada; Ichiro Maeda


    A 77-year-old man on systemic chemotherapy against postoperative bilateral multiple lung metastases of malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura suffered from pruritus and jaundice. Blood examination showed elevated levels of hepatobiliary enzymes. Abdominal computed tomography showed a tumor with peripheral enhancement in the pancreatic head, accompanied with the dilatation of intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts. He was diagnosed as having obstructive jaundice caused by a pancreatic head tumor. The pancreatic head tumor was presumably diagnosed as the metastasis of malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura, because the findings on the pancreatic head tumor on abdominal CT were similar to those on the primary lung lesion of malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura. The pancreatic tumor grew rapidly after the implantation of metallic stent in the inferior part of the common bile duct. The patient died of lymphangitis carcinomatosa of the lungs. Autopsy revealed a tumor that spread from the pancreatic head to the hepatic hilum. Microscopically, spindle-shaped cells exhibiting nuclear atypicality or division together with collagen deposition were observed. Immunohistochemically the pancreatic head tumor cells were negative for staining of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) or CD117, but positive for vimentin, CD34 and CD99. These findings are consistent with thoseon malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura. We report the first case of obstructive jaundice caused by a secondary pancreatic tumor from malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura.

  15. Immunohistochemical characterization of cellular proliferation in small intestinal hyperplasia of rats with hepatic Strobilocercus fasciolaris infection.

    Lagapa, J T; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M


    Rats infected with the larvae of Taenia taeniaeformis harbour the intermediate stage of the parasite Strobilocercus fasciolaris within the liver. Affected animals also develop gastric and intestinal hyperplasia. The pathogenesis of the gastric hyperplasia has been extensively investigated, but few studies have addressed the nature of the intestinal changes. This study characterizes the proliferation of small intestinal epithelial cells by immunohistochemical labelling for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake. At 6 weeks post-infection (wpi) there was an increase in villous length but crypt depth was normal. At 9 wpi there was evidence of epithelial hyperplasia, increased villous length and crypt depth, and expansion of zones of epithelial proliferation. Immunohistochemical labelling indicated that an increase in the number of proliferating cells produced a greater number of progeny cells. Intestinal hyperplasia during experimental infection with T. taeniaeformis larvae is likely to be related to the associated gastropathy, although the mechanisms underlying both changes remain undefined.

  16. Light microscopic immunocytochemical localization of hepatic and intestinal types of fatty acid-binding proteins in rat small intestine.

    Shields, H M; Bates, M L; Bass, N M; Best, C J; Alpers, D H; Ockner, R K


    Monospecific antisera to purified hepatic fatty acid-binding protein (hFABP) and gut fatty acid-binding protein (gFABP) have been used to localize these two proteins in the small intestine of fed rats at the light microscopic level. Pieces of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were removed from 4-, 10-, 20-, 22-, and 60-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Both cryostat and paraffin sections were studied for the presence of hFABP or gFABP by the avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase method. Slides were graded blind for the intensity of staining. Despite the structural and immunological differences between these two proteins, we showed no major differences between their staining patterns or their staining intensity throughout the intestine during postnatal development. The staining for both fatty acid-binding proteins was cytoplasmic. No brush border staining was found. Staining was more intense in the proximal rather than distal intestine, in the villus rather than crypt cells, and in the apex rather than the base of intestinal cells. Shifts in staining patterns, and staining intensity occurring during development may be related to variations in dietary fat intake, rates of cell proliferation, intestinal anatomy, and mechanisms for fat absorption.

  17. Combination of small interfering RNAs mediates greater inhibition of human hepatitis B virus replication and antigen expression

    CHEN Zhe; XU Ze-feng; YE Jing-jia; YAO Hang-ping; ZHENG Shu; DING Jia-yi


    Objectives: To evaluate the inhibitory effect mediated by combination of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting different sites of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcripts on the viral replication and antigen expression in vitro. Methods: (1) Seven siRNAs targeting surface (S), polymerase (P) or precore (PreC) region ofHBV genome were designed and chemically synthesized.(2) HBV-producing HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with or without siRNAs for 72 h. (3) HBsAg and HBeAg in the cell culture medium were detected by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay. (4) Intracellular viral DNA was quantified by real-time PCR(Polymerase Chain Reaction). (5) HBV viral mRNA was reverse transcribed and quantified by real-time PCR. (6) The change of cell cycle and apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. Results: Our data demonstrated that synthetic small interfering RNAs(siRNAs) targeting S and PreC gene could efficiently and specifically inhibit HBV replication and antigen expression. The expression of HBsAg and HBeAg and the replication of HBV could be specifically inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by siRNAs.Furthermore, our results showed that the combination of siRNAs targeting various regions could inhibit HBV replication and antigen expression in a more efficient way than the use of single siRNA at the same final concentration. No apoptotic change was observed in the cell after siRNA treatment. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that siRNAs exerted robust and specific inhibition on HBV replication and antigen expression in a cell culture system and combination of siRNAs targeting different regions exhibited more potency.

  18. Effects of nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation on maternal and foetal hepatic and small intestinal energy utilization.

    Prezotto, L D; Lemley, C O; Camacho, L E; Doscher, F E; Meyer, A M; Caton, J S; Awda, B J; Vonnahme, K A; Swanson, K C


    To determine how nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation influence ewe and foetal hepatic and small intestinal energy use, 32 primiparous ewes on d 50 of gestation were fed 60% (RES) or 100% (ADQ) of NRC recommendations with 0 (CON) or 5 mg/d (MEL) of dietary melatonin. On d 130 of gestation, small intestine and liver were weighed and collected. Data were analysed as a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Liver weight (g/kg EBW) decreased (p = 0.02) in RES ewes. Jejunum weight (g/kg BW) increased (interaction p = 0.04) in ADQ-MEL ewes compared with all other treatments. Total in vitro O2 consumption (mol/min/tissue) and total citrate synthase activity (mol/min/tissue and mol/min/kg EBW) in liver decreased (p ≤ 0.03) in RES ewes. Oxygen consumption (mol/min/kg EBW) increased (interaction p = 0.02) in jejunum of ADQ-CON versus RES-MEL and ADQ-CON. Citrate synthase activity (mol/min/kg of EBW) increased (interaction p = 0.03) in jejunum of ADQ-MEL compared with RES-MEL and ADQ-CON. Foetal liver weight (g/kg BW) decreased (p = 0.02) in RES versus ADQ. Foetal small intestine weight (g/kg BW) decreased (interaction p = 0.05) in RES-MEL versus ADQ-MEL. Total O2 consumption (mol/min/tissue) and total citrate synthase activity (mol/min/kg of BW) in foetal liver decreased (p ≤ 0.05) in RES versus ADQ. Foetal small intestinal O2 consumption (mol/min/kg of BW) was greater (interaction p = 0.03) in RES-CON and ADQ-MEL than RES-MEL and ADQ-CON. Maternal nutrient restriction had a greater effect than melatonin supplementation on liver and jejunum mass and energy utilization in dams and foetuses. Because intestinal mass and energy utilization were more responsive to melatonin supplementation in ewes fed adequate nutrition compared with restricted ewes, melatonin may have limited use as a therapeutic supplement to help overcome potential negative effects of nutrient restriction.

  19. Conditional Stability of Solitary-Wave Solutions for Generalized Compound KdV Equation and Generalized Compound KdV-Burgers Equation

    ZHANG Wei-Guo; DONG Chun-Yan; FAN En-Gui


    In this paper, we discuss conditional stability of solitary-wave solutions in the sense of Liapunov for the generalized compound KdV equation and the generalized compound KdV-Burgers equations. Linear stability of the exact solitary-wave solutions is proved for the above two types of equations when the small disturbance of travellingwave form satisfies some special conditions.

  20. Hepatitis C

    ... Events Follow Us Home Health Information Liver Disease Hepatitis (Viral) Hepatitis C Related Topics English English Español Section Navigation Hepatitis (Viral) What Is Viral Hepatitis? Hepatitis A Hepatitis B ...

  1. Cationic Lipid-Formulated DNA Vaccine against Hepatitis B Virus : Immunogenicity of MIDGE-Th1 Vectors Encoding Small and Large Surface Antigen in Comparison to a Licensed Protein Vaccine

    Endmann, Anne; Klunder, Katharina; Kapp, Kerstin; Riede, Oliver; Oswald, Detlef; Talman, Eduard G.; Schroff, Matthias; Kleuss, Christiane; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; Juhls, Christiane


    Currently marketed vaccines against hepatitis B virus (HBV) based on the small (S) hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) fail to induce a protective immune response in about 10% of vaccinees. DNA vaccination and the inclusion of PreS1 and PreS2 domains of HBsAg have been reported to represent feasible

  2. Transversally periodic solitary gravity–capillary waves

    Milewski, Paul A.; Wang, Zhan


    When both gravity and surface tension effects are present, surface solitary water waves are known to exist in both two- and three-dimensional infinitely deep fluids. We describe here solutions bridging these two cases: travelling waves which are localized in the propagation direction and periodic in the transverse direction. These transversally periodic gravity–capillary solitary waves are found to be of either elevation or depression type, tend to plane waves below a critical transverse period and tend to solitary lumps as the transverse period tends to infinity. The waves are found numerically in a Hamiltonian system for water waves simplified by a cubic truncation of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator. This approximation has been proved to be very accurate for both two- and three-dimensional computations of fully localized gravity–capillary solitary waves. The stability properties of these waves are then investigated via the time evolution of perturbed wave profiles. PMID:24399922

  3. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Uterus

    Po-Wei Chu


    Conclusion: The behavior of solitary fibrous tumors arising from the uterus is difficult to evaluate; therefore, complete surgical excision featuring clear margins and comprehensive follow-up is recommended.

  4. Management of the Solitary Pulmonary Nodule.

    Chan, Edward Y; Gaur, Puja; Ge, Yimin; Kopas, Lisa; Santacruz, Jose F; Gupta, Nakul; Munden, Reginald F; Cagle, Philip T; Kim, Min P


    Context .- Optimal management of the patient with a solitary pulmonary nodule entails early diagnosis and appropriate treatment for patients with malignant tumors, and minimization of unnecessary interventions and procedures for those with ultimately benign nodules. With the growing number of high-resolution imaging modalities and studies available, incidentally found solitary pulmonary nodules are an increasingly common occurrence. Objective .- To provide guidance to clinicians involved in the management of patients with a solitary pulmonary nodule, including aspects of risk stratification, workup, diagnosis, and management. Data Sources .- Data for this review were gathered from an extensive literature review on the topic. Conclusions .- Logical evaluation and management pathways for a patient with a solitary pulmonary nodule will allow providers to diagnose and treat individuals with early stage lung cancer and minimize morbidity from invasive procedures for patients with benign lesions.

  5. Conservative numerical methods for solitary wave interactions

    Duran, A; Lopez-Marcos, M A [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Computacion, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)


    The purpose of this paper is to show the advantages that represent the use of numerical methods that preserve invariant quantities in the study of solitary wave interactions for the regularized long wave equation. It is shown that the so-called conservative methods are more appropriate to study the phenomenon and provide a dynamic point of view that allows us to estimate the changes in the parameters of the solitary waves after the collision.

  6. Simple and robust diagnosis of early, small and AFP-negative primary hepatic carcinomas: an integrative approach of serum fluorescence and conventional blood tests.

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Kun-He; Hu, Piao-Ping; Huang, Zeng-Yong; Zhang, Pan; Wan, Qin-Si; Huang, De-Qiang; Lv, Nong-Hua


    The diagnosis of early, small and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-negative primary hepatic carcinomas (PHCs) remains a significant challenge. We developed a simple and robust approach to noninvasively detect these PHCs. A rapid, high-throughput and single-tube method was firstly developed to measure serum autofluorescence and cell-free DNA (cfDNA)-related fluorescence using a real-time PCR system, and both types of serum fluorescence were measured and routine laboratory data were collected in 1229 subjects, including 353 PHC patients, 331 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients, 213 chronic hepatitis (CH) patients and 332 normal controls (NC). The results showed that fluorescence indicators of PHC differed from those of NC, CH and LC to various extents, and all of them were not associated with age, gender, or AFP level. The logistic regression models established with the fluorescence indicators alone and combined with AFP, hepatic function tests and blood cell analyses were valuable for distinguishing early, small, AFP-negative and all PHC from LC, CH, NC and all non-PHC, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves 0.857-0.993 and diagnostic accuracies 80.2-97.7%. Conclusively, serum autofluorescence and cfDNA-related fluorescence are able to be rapidly and simultaneously measured by our simple method and valuable for diagnosing early, small and AFP-negative PHCs, especially integrating with AFP and conventional blood tests.

  7. PD 404,182 Is a Virocidal Small Molecule That Disrupts Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Chamoun, Ana Maria; Chockalingam, Karuppiah; Bobardt, Michael; Simeon, Rudo; Chang, Jinhong


    We describe a virucidal small molecule, PD 404,182, that is effective against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The median 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) for the antiviral effect of PD 404,182 against HCV and HIV in cell culture are 11 and 1 μM, respectively. The antiviral activity of PD 404,182 is due to the physical disruption of virions that is accompanied to various degrees (depending on the virus and exposure temperature/time) by the release of viral nucleic acids into the surrounding medium. PD 404,182 does not directly lyse liposomal membranes even after extended exposure, and it shows no attenuation in antiviral activity when preincubated with liposomes of various lipid compositions, suggesting that the compound inactivates viruses through interaction with a nonlipid structural component of the virus. The virucidal activity of PD 404,182 appears to be virus specific, as little to no viral inactivation was detected with the enveloped Dengue and Sindbis viruses. PD 404,182 effectively inactivates a broad range of primary isolates of HIV-1 as well as HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and it does not exhibit significant cytotoxicity with multiple human cell lines in vitro (50% cytotoxic concentration, >300 μM). The compound is fully active in cervical fluids, although it exhibits decreased potency in the presence of human serum, retains its full antiviral potency for 8 h when in contact with cells, and is effective against both cell-free and cell-associated HIV. These qualities make PD 404,182 an attractive candidate anti-HIV microbicide for the prevention of HIV transmission through sexual intercourse. PMID:22083468

  8. Modulators of hepatic lipoprotein metabolism identified in a search for small-molecule inducers of tribbles pseudokinase 1 expression.

    Marek M Nagiec

    Full Text Available Recent genome wide association studies have linked tribbles pseudokinase 1 (TRIB1 to the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD. Based on the observations that increased expression of TRIB1 reduces secretion of VLDL and is associated with lower plasma levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, higher plasma levels of HDL cholesterol and reduced risk for myocardial infarction, we carried out a high throughput phenotypic screen based on quantitative RT-PCR assay to identify compounds that induce TRIB1 expression in human HepG2 hepatoma cells. In a screen of a collection of diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS-derived compounds, we identified a series of benzofuran-based compounds that upregulate TRIB1 expression and phenocopy the effects of TRIB1 cDNA overexpression, as they inhibit triglyceride synthesis and apoB secretion in cells. In addition, the compounds downregulate expression of MTTP and APOC3, key components of the lipoprotein assembly pathway. However, CRISPR-Cas9 induced chromosomal disruption of the TRIB1 locus in HepG2 cells, while confirming its regulatory role in lipoprotein metabolism, demonstrated that the effects of benzofurans persist in TRIB1-null cells indicating that TRIB1 is sufficient but not necessary to transmit the effects of the drug. Remarkably, active benzofurans, as well as natural products capable of TRIB1 upregulation, also modulate hepatic cell cholesterol metabolism by elevating the expression of LDLR transcript and LDL receptor protein, while reducing the levels of PCSK9 transcript and secreted PCSK9 protein and stimulating LDL uptake. The effects of benzofurans are not masked by cholesterol depletion and are independent of the SREBP-2 regulatory circuit, indicating that these compounds represent a novel class of chemically tractable small-molecule modulators that shift cellular lipoprotein metabolism in HepG2 cells from lipogenesis to scavenging.

  9. Solitary waves observed in the auroral zone: the Cluster multi-spacecraft perspective

    J. S. Pickett


    Full Text Available We report on recent measurements of solitary waves made by the Wideband Plasma Wave Receiver located on each of the four Cluster spacecraft at 4.5-6.5RE (well above the auroral acceleration region as they cross field lines that map to the auroral zones. These solitary waves are observed in the Wideband data as isolated bipolar and tripolar waveforms. Examples of the two types of pulses are provided. The time durations of the majority of both types of solitary waves observed in this region range from about 0.3 up to 5ms. Their peak-to-peak amplitudes range from about 0.05 up to 20mV/m, with a few reaching up to almost 70mV/m. There is essentially no potential change across the bipolar pulses. There appears to be a small, measurable potential change, up to 0.5V, across the tripolar pulses, which is consistent with weak or hybrid double layers. A limited cross-spacecraft correlation study was carried out in order to identify the same solitary wave on more than one spacecraft. We found no convincing correlations of the bipolar solitary waves. In the two cases of possible correlation of the tripolar pulses, we found that the solitary waves are propagating at several hundred to a few thousand km/s and that they are possibly evolving (growing, decaying as they propagate from one spacecraft to the next. Further, they have a perpendicular (to the magnetic field width of 50km or greater and a parallel width of about 2-5km. We conclude, in general, however, that the Cluster spacecraft at separations along and perpendicular to the local magnetic field direction of tens of km and greater are too large to obtain positive correlations in this region. Looking at the macroscale of the auroral zone at 4.5-6.5RE, we find that the onsets of the broadband electrostatic noise associated with the solitary waves observed in the spectrograms of the WBD data are generally consistent with propagation of the solitary waves up the field lines (away from Earth, or with

  10. Solitary Fibrous Tumor in Bladder:A Case Report

    王涛; 陈瑞宝; 乔建坤; 胡涛; 刘继红; 杨为民; 叶章群


    Solitary fibrous tumor(SFT) in bladder is extremely rare.In this study,we reported one case of bladder SFT and reviewed the only ten cases of the disease that had been reported so far.The patient suffered from residual urine sensation and urethral pain.Cystoscopy revealed a 7-cm protruding mass at the dome of the bladder,and bladder mucosa biopsy showed normal differentiation of the bladder mucosa with a small amount of inflammatory cells.Radical resection of the tumor was performed in this patient.Patholog...

  11. Solitary fibrous tumor arising in an intrathoracic goiter

    Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise


    . CONCLUSION: The histological appearance and immunohistochemical reaction pattern of SFT is characteristic. The entity should be considered when dealing with a spindle cell lesion in the thyroid gland. All cases of this site of origin reported have had a benign clinical course. As only a small number of cases......BACKGROUND: Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumor most often found in the mediastinal pleura. Nineteen cases of SFT arising in the thyroid gland have been reported. We report a case of SFT of the thyroid gland with immunohistochemical and cytogenetic investigation. SUMMARY: A 58...

  12. Dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma with two-temperature nonthermal ions

    Zhi-Jian Zhou; Hong-Yan Wang; Kai-Biao Zhang


    By using reductive perturbation method, the nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a dusty plasma (containing a negatively charged dust fluid, Boltzmann distributed electrons and two-temperature nonthermal ions) is investigated. The effects of two-temperature nonthermal ions on the basic properties of small but finite amplitude nonlinear dust-acoustic waves are examined. It is found that two-temperature nonthermal ions affect the basic properties of the dust-acoustic solitary waves. It is also observed that only compressive solitary waves exist in this system.

  13. CT findings of solitary fibromatosis in the colon: A case report

    Heo, So Young; Lim, Jae Hoon; Kang, Kyung A; Lee, Jeong Ju [Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)


    Fibromatosis is a rare benign neoplasm that appears as a sporadic lesion or is found in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Fewer than 7 cases of intraabdominal solitary fibromatosis arising from the colon have been reported in the English literature. This small number of reported cases may be not only because of the low incidence of the disease but also because of the difficulty in making proper diagnosis. We present here a case of histologically confirmed intraabdominal solitary fibromatosis arising from the colon, with an emphasis on computed tomography findings.

  14. [Sclerosing hemangioma presenting as a solitary lung nodule. Report of one case].

    Cardemil, Gonzalo; Fernández, Eduardo; Riffo, Paola; Reyes, Diego; Ledezma, Rodrigo; Mira, Magdalena; Morales, Claudia; Salguero, Jorge


    Lung sclerosing hemangioma is an uncommon tumor that presents as a solitary asymptomatic nodule and that affects middle age women. It derives from type II pneumocytes. We report a 52 years old female with a solitary lung nodule detected in a chest X ray requested for the diagnosis of an acute respiratory disease. The nodule was excised by video thoracoscopy and the frozen section biopsy was informed as a non small cell undifferentiated carcinoma. Therefore an inferior right lobectomy with lymph node resection was performed. The definitive biopsy was informed as a lung sclerosing hemangioma.

  15. Colloidal solitary waves with temperature dependent compressibility

    Azmi, A.; Marchant, T. R.


    Spatial solitary waves which form in colloidal suspensions of dielectric nanoparticles are considered. The interactions, or compressibility, of the colloidal particles, is modelled using a series in the particle density, or packing fraction, where the virial, or series, coefficients depend on the type of particle interaction model. Both the theoretical hard disk and sphere repulsive models, and a model with temperature dependent compressibility, are considered. Experimental results show that particle interactions can be temperature dependent and either repulsive or attractive in nature, so we model the second virial coefficient using a physically realistic temperature power law. One- and two-dimensional semi-analytical colloidal solitary wave solutions are found. Trial functions, based on the form of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation soliton, are used, together with averaging, to develop the semi-analytical solutions. When the background packing fraction is low, the one-dimensional solitary waves have three solutions branches (with a bistable regime) while the two-dimensional solitary waves have two solution branches, with a single stable branch. The temperature dependent second virial coefficient results in changes to the solitary wave properties and the parameter space, in which multiple solutions branches occur. An excellent comparison is found between the semi-analytical and numerical solutions.

  16. Solitary Spinal Epidural Metastasis from Gastric Cancer

    Taisei Sako


    Full Text Available Solitary epidural space metastasis of a malignant tumor is rare. We encountered a 79-year-old male patient with solitary metastatic epidural tumor who developed paraplegia and dysuria. The patient had undergone total gastrectomy for gastric cancer followed by chemotherapy 8 months priorly. The whole body was examined for suspected metastatic spinal tumor, but no metastases of the spine or important organs were observed, and a solitary mass was present in the thoracic spinal epidural space. The mass was excised for diagnosis and treatment and was histopathologically diagnosed as metastasis from gastric cancer. No solitary metastatic epidural tumor from gastric cancer has been reported in English. Among the Japanese, 3 cases have been reported, in which the outcome was poor in all cases and no definite diagnosis could be made before surgery in any case. Our patient developed concomitant pneumonia after surgery and died shortly after the surgery. When a patient has a past medical history of malignant tumor, the possibility of a solitary metastatic tumor in the epidural space should be considered.

  17. Solitary waves in a self-gravitating opposite polarity dust-plasma medium

    Mamun, A. A.; Schlickeiser, R. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV, Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)


    A more general and realistic dusty plasma model, namely, self-gravitating opposite polarity dust-plasma system (containing inertial positive and negative dust, and inertialess ions and electrons following Maxwellian distribution) is considered. The possibility for the formation of solitary electrostatic and self-gravitational potential structures in such a dust-plasma system is thoroughly examined. The standard reductive perturbation method, which is valid for small but finite amplitude solitary structures, is employed. The parametric regimes for the existence of solitary electrostatic and self-gravitational potential structures, and their basic properties (viz., polarity, amplitude, width, and speed) are found to be significantly modified by the combined effects of positively charged dust component and self-gravitational field. The applications of the present investigation in different space dusty plasma environments and laboratory dusty plasma devices are briefly discussed.

  18. Ion acoustic solitary waves in plasmas with nonextensive electrons, Boltzmann positrons and relativistic thermal ions

    Hafez, M. G.; Talukder, M. R.


    This work investigates the theoretical and numerical studies on nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of nonextensive electrons, Boltzmann positrons and relativistic thermal ions. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived by using the well known reductive perturbation method. This equation admits the soliton like solitary wave solution. The effects of phase velocity, amplitude of soliton, width of soliton and electrostatic nonlinear propagation of weakly relativistic ion-acoustic solitary waves have been discussed with graphical representation found in the variation of the plasma parameters. The obtained results can be helpful in understanding the features of small but finite amplitude localized relativistic ion-acoustic waves for an unmagnetized three component plasma system in astrophysical compact objects.

  19. Properties of cylindrical and spherical heavy ion-acoustic solitary and shock structures in a multispecies plasma with superthermal electrons

    Shah, M. G.; Rahman, M. M.; Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.


    A theoretical investigation on heavy ion-acoustic (HIA) solitary and shock structures has been accomplished in an unmagnetized multispecies plasma consisting of inertialess kappa-distributed superthermal electrons, Boltzmann light ions, and adiabatic positively charged inertial heavy ions. Using the reductive perturbation technique, the nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) Kortewg-de Vries (KdV) and Burgers equations have been derived. The solitary and shock wave solutions of the KdV and Burgers equations, respectively, have been numerically analyzed. The effects of superthermality of electrons, adiabaticity of heavy ions, and nonplanar geometry, which noticeably modify the basic features (viz. polarity, amplitude, phase speed, etc.) of small but finite amplitude HIA solitary and shock structures, have been carefully investigated. The HIA solitary and shock structures in nonplanar geometry have been found to distinctly differ from those in planar geometry. Novel features of our present attempt may contribute to the physics of nonlinear electrostatic perturbation in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.

  20. Intraoral solitary neurofibroma in an infant

    Narwal Anjali


    Full Text Available Neurofibroma is a non-circumscribed, thick and irregular benign tumor of the peripheral nerve sheath. On the skin, the diffuse and soft nature of neurofibroma often resembles "a bag of worms". It can develop at any point along a nerve and often form by late adolescence. Although neurofibromas occur predominantly as a feature of neurofibromatosis affecting the soft tissue, a few cases of solitary intraoral neurofibromas have also been reported. Solitary intraosseous neurofibroma in the oral cavity is a rare benign tumor with very few cases reported in literature. This case report presents a case of intraosseous solitary neurofibroma of maxilla in a 5-month-old male child due to the rarity of this tumor at this site in very early age, along with a discussion of its clinical, radiological, and histopathological presentation.

  1. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska


    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  2. Morganella morganii causing solitary liver abscess complicated by pyopericardium and left pleural effusion in a nondiabetic patient.

    Tsai, Wen-Cheng; Chang, Liang-Kai


    Morganella morganii is a rare cause of solitary liver abscess in Taiwan. The complication of pyopericardium and pleural effusion in nondiabetic patient with solitary liver abscess are also rare. We present a case of a 48-year-old nondiabetic woman who experienced with epigastric discomfort 1 month prior to admission. Chills and fever developed 2 weeks before admission. Physical examination on admission revealed engorgement of the jugular vein over the right neck, precordial friction rubs, and tenderness over the right upper quadrant of abdomen. Chest film showed mild cardiomegaly and left pleural effusion. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed liver abscess, left hepatic lobe, pyopericardium, and left pleural effusion. M. morganii was isolated from 2 sets of blood cultures, one set of hepatic pus culture, and one set of pericardial pus culture. After pigtail drainage of liver abscess, pyopericardium for 12 days, and ceftriaxone intravenous administration for 19 days, the patient was discharged in stable condition.

  3. A radiographic study of solitary bone cysts

    Kim, Kyung Rak; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Division of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, radiographic and histopathologic features of 23 cases of solitary bone cyst by means of the analysis of radiographs and biopsy specimens in 23 persons visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University and Chunbuk National University. The obtained results were as follows; 1. The incidence of solitary bone cyst was almost equal in males (52.2%) and in females(42.8%) and the prevalent age of the solitary bone cyst were the second decade (47.8%) and the third decade (21.7%). 2. In the signs and symptoms of solitary bone cyst, pain or tenderness revealed in 17.4%, swelling revealed in 13.0%, pain and swelling revealed in 21.7%, paresthesia revealed in 4.4% and 43.5% were a symptom and the tooth vitality involved in the solitary bone cyst, 76.5% were posterior and 23.5% were either positive or negative. 3. In the location of the solitary bone cyst, 47.8% present posterior region, 21.7% present anterior region, 21.6% present anterior and posterior region, 4.4% present condylar process area. 4. In the hyperostotic border of the solitary bone cyst, 47.8% were seen entirely, 21.8% were seen partially, and 30.4% were not seen. 5. In the change of tooth, 59.1% were loss of the alveolar lamina dura, 13.6% were root resorption 4.55% were tooth displacement, 4.55% were root resorption and tooth displacement. 6. In the change of cortical bone of the solitary bone cyst, 39.1% were intact and 60.9% were thinning and expansion of cortical bone. 7. In the histopathologic findings of 9 cases, 33.3% were thin connective tissue wall, 11.1% were thickened myxo-fibromatous wall, 55.6% were thickened myxofibromatous wall with dysplastic bone formation.

  4. Uphill solitary waves in granular flows

    Martínez, E.; Pérez-Penichet, C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.; Ramos, O.; Måløy, K. J.; Douady, S.; Altshuler, E.


    We have experimentally observed uphill solitary waves in the surface flow on a granular material. A heap is constructed by injecting sand between two vertical glass plates separated by a distance much larger than the average grain size, with an open boundary. As the heap reaches the open boundary, solitary fluctuations appear on the flowing layer and move “up the hill” (i.e., against the direction of the flow). We explain the phenomenon in the context of stop-and-go traffic models.



    SOLITARY PARAGANGLIOMA OF THE HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE:: Case Report BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE:: We report the case history of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma in a 64-year-old woman. The surgical difficulties encountered in the removal of this challenging tumour are discussed with literature review. CLINICAL PRESENTATION:: A 64-year-old woman presented with a short history of dysphonia, occasional dysphagia, tinnitus, altered taste, and unilateral left sided tongue wasting. On examination there was left lower motor hypoglossal paralysis. Imaging showed a discrete enhancing lobulated mass, measuring 2cm x 2cm, in the region of the hypoglossal nerve extending into the hypoglossal canal suggestive of hypoglossal paraganglioma. A left dorsolateral sub occipital craniotomy was carried out in the sitting position. The hypoglossal nerve appeared to be enlarged and the jugular foramen was normal. Complete surgical debulking of the tumour was not attempted due to its vascular nature. The nerve was decompressed and neuropathology confirmed a low grade paraganglioma arising from the hypoglossal nerve. The patient is scheduled to receive stereotactic radiation for further management. CONCLUSION:: When a case of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma is encountered in clinical practice, the aim of management should be mainly focussed on achieving a diagnosis and preserving the hypoglossal nerve function. If there is evidence of vascularity in the lesion noted in the MRI scan, a pre-operative angiogram should be performed with a view for embolisation.We decompressed the hypoglossal canal and achieved a good improvement in the patient\\'s symptoms. We recommend stereotactic radiosurgery for remnant and small hypoglossal tumours and regular follow up with MRI scans.


    Raza, Kazim


    SOLITARY PARAGANGLIOMA OF THE HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE:: Case Report BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE:: We report the case history of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma in a 64-year-old woman. The surgical difficulties encountered in the removal of this challenging tumour are discussed with literature review. CLINICAL PRESENTATION:: A 64-year-old woman presented with a short history of dysphonia, occasional dysphagia, tinnitus, altered taste, and unilateral left sided tongue wasting. On examination there was left lower motor hypoglossal paralysis. Imaging showed a discrete enhancing lobulated mass, measuring 2cm x 2cm, in the region of the hypoglossal nerve extending into the hypoglossal canal suggestive of hypoglossal paraganglioma. A left dorsolateral sub occipital craniotomy was carried out in the sitting position. The hypoglossal nerve appeared to be enlarged and the jugular foramen was normal. Complete surgical debulking of the tumour was not attempted due to its vascular nature. The nerve was decompressed and neuropathology confirmed a low grade paraganglioma arising from the hypoglossal nerve. The patient is scheduled to receive stereotactic radiation for further management. CONCLUSION:: When a case of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma is encountered in clinical practice, the aim of management should be mainly focussed on achieving a diagnosis and preserving the hypoglossal nerve function. If there is evidence of vascularity in the lesion noted in the MRI scan, a pre-operative angiogram should be performed with a view for embolisation.We decompressed the hypoglossal canal and achieved a good improvement in the patient\\'s symptoms. We recommend stereotactic radiosurgery for remnant and small hypoglossal tumours and regular follow up with MRI scans.

  7. From bell-shaped solitary wave to W/M-shaped solitary wave solutions in an integrable nonlinear wave equation

    Aiyong Chen; Jibin Li; Chunhai Li; Yuanduo Zhang


    The bifurcation theory of dynamical systems is applied to an integrable non-linear wave equation. As a result, it is pointed out that the solitary waves of this equation evolve from bell-shaped solitary waves to W/M-shaped solitary waves when wave speed passes certain critical wave speed. Under different parameter conditions, all exact explicit parametric representations of solitary wave solutions are obtained.

  8. The solitary sellar plasmacytoma: a diagnostic challenge

    Soejbjerg, Anne; Dyve, Suzan; Baerentzen, Steen


    UNLABELLED: Solitary sellar plasmacytomas are exceedingly rare and difficult to distinguish from other pituitary tumors. We report a case of a 62-year-old woman presenting with blurred vision of the right eye and tenderness of the right temporal region, which was interpreted as temporal arteritis...

  9. Clinical implications of the solitary functioning kidney

    Westland, R.; Schreuder, M.F.; Goudoever, J.B. van; Sanna-Cherchi, S.; Wijk, J.A. van


    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract are the major cause of ESRD in childhood. Children with a solitary functioning kidney form an important subgroup of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract patients, and a significant fraction of these children is at risk for progress

  10. Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. I

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.


    Acoustic waves on elastic rods with circular cross section are governed by improved Boussinesq equations when transverse motion and nonlinearity in the elastic medium are taken into account. Solitary wave solutions to these equations have been found. The present paper treats the interaction between...

  11. Shallow Water Waves and Solitary Waves

    Hereman, Willy


    Encyclopedic article covering shallow water wave models used in oceanography and atmospheric science. Sections: Definition of the Subject; Introduction and Historical Perspective; Completely Integrable Shallow Water Wave Equations; Shallow Water Wave Equations of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Computation of Solitary Wave Solutions; Numerical Methods; Water Wave Experiments and Observations; Future Directions, and Bibliography.

  12. Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. II

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.


    In continuation of an earlier study of propagation of solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods, numerical investigations of blowup, reflection, and fission at continuous and discontinuous variation of the cross section for the rod and reflection at the end of the rod are presented. The results...

  13. Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the liver

    T. Terkivatan (Türkan); M. Kliffen (Mike); J.H.W. de Wilt (Johannes); A.N. van Geel (Albert); A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander); C. Verhoef (Kees)


    textabstractBackground: Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that most frequently affects the pleura, although it has been reported with increasing frequency in various other sites such as in the peritoneum, pericardium and in non-serosal sites such as lung parenchyma,

  14. Solitary Wave Solutions for Zoomeron Equation

    Amna IRSHAD


    Full Text Available Tanh-Coth Method is applied to find solitary wave solutions of the Zoomeron equation which is of extreme importance in mathematical physics. The proposed scheme is fully compatible with the complexity of the problem and is highly efficient. Moreover, suggested combination is capable to handle nonlinear problems of versatile physical nature.

  15. Solitary fibrous tumour of the vagus nerve.

    Scholsem, Martin; Scholtes, Felix


    We describe the complete removal of a foramen magnum solitary fibrous tumour in a 36-year-old woman. It originated on a caudal vagus nerve rootlet, classically described as the 'cranial' accessory nerve root. This ninth case of immunohistologically confirmed cranial or spinal nerve SFT is the first of the vagus nerve.

  16. Solitary Wave Propagation Influenced by Submerged Breakwater

    王锦; 左其华; 王登婷


    The form of Boussinesq equation derived by Nwogu (1993) using velocity at an arbitrary distance and surface elevation as variables is used to simulate wave surface elevation changes. In the numerical experiment, water depth was divided into five layers with six layer interfaces to simulate velocity at each layer interface. Besides, a physical experiment was carried out to validate numerical model and study solitary wave propagation.“Water column collapsing”method (WCCM) was used to generate solitary wave. A series of wave gauges around an impervious breakwater were set-up in the flume to measure the solitary wave shoaling, run-up, and breaking processes. The results show that the measured data and simulated data are in good agreement. Moreover, simulated and measured surface elevations were analyzed by the wavelet transform method. It shows that different wave frequencies stratified in the wavelet amplitude spectrum. Finally, horizontal and vertical velocities of each layer interface were analyzed in the process of solitary wave propagation through submerged breakwater.

  17. Solitary wave interactions of the GRLW equation

    Ramos, J.I. [Room I-320-D, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Malaga, Plaza El Ejido, s/n 29013 Malaga (Spain)]. E-mail:


    An approximate quasilinearization method for the solution of the generalized regularized long-wave (GRLW) equation based on the separation of the temporal and spatial derivatives, three-point, fourth-order accurate, compact difference equations, is presented. The method results in a system of linear equations with tridiagonal matrices, and is applied to determine the effects of the parameters of the GRLW equation and initial conditions on the formation of undular bores and interactions/collisions between two solitary waves. It is shown that the method preserves very accurately the first two invariants of the GRLW equation, the formation of secondary waves is a strong function of the amplitude and width of the initial Gaussian conditions, and the collision between two solitary waves is a strong function of the parameters that appear in the GRLW equation and the amplitude and speed of the initial conditions. It is also shown that the steepening of the leading and trailing waves may result in the formation of multiple secondary waves and/or an undular bore; the former interacts with the trailing solitary wave which may move parallel to or converge onto the leading solitary wave.

  18. The run-up of weakly-two-dimensional solitary pulses

    M. Brocchini


    Full Text Available The run-up of solitary-type pulses propagating at a small angle with respect to the shore normal is analysed by means of a weakly-two-dimensional extension of a solution of the nonlinear shallow water equations for a non-breaking, solitary pulse incident and reflecting on an inclined plane beach similar to that of Synolakis (1987. A simple analytic expression for the longshore velocity of the solitarytype pulse is given along with examples of computations. The proposed solution can be employed in modelling run-up flow properties of solitary-type pulses (e.g. tsunamis, primary waves of wave groups propagating in shallow waters, .... The hodograph transformation that is used and the flow properties are illustrated in terms of contour plots. A limiting pulse amplitude is defined such that breakdown of the solution occurs. A solution for the run-up of multiplesolitary-pulses in shallow waters is also described. Some of the salient characteristics are illustrated and discussed. Breakdown conditions are analytically defined also for the multiple-solitary-pulses solution. A strong condition is given which couples information on both pulses amplitudes and distances. An easier (but weaker version of the criterion is given in terms of a pair of decoupled formulae one for the Pulses amplitudes and the second for their initial positions. Very large run-up is achieved because of the merging of two or more solitary pulses which are smaller than the limiting Pulse. The role of pulse separation within a group of solitary Pulses is also analysed in terms of both a 'nonlinearity parameter' N and a 'groupiness parameter' G. It is found that a critical distance exists between two pulses which minimizes the back-wash velocity and, as a consequence, the nonlinearity parameter N.

  19. Doege-Potter syndrome presenting with hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia in a patient with a malignant extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor: a case report

    Schutt Robert C


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Doege-Potter syndrome is a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia secondary to a solitary fibrous tumor. This tumor causes hypoglycemia by the secretion of a prohormone form of insulin-like growth factor II. We describe the diagnosis and management of Doege-Potter syndrome and the use of transarterial chemoembolization in a patient with a malignant extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor. Case presentation Our patient was a 64-year-old Caucasian woman who initially presented with urinary incontinence and was found to have a 14.5×9.0×9.0cm retroperitoneal solitary fibrous tumor compressing her bladder. Her tumor was surgically resected but recurred with multiple hepatic metastatic lesions. The hepatic metastases progressed despite systemic chemotherapy and treatment with doxorubicin transarterial chemoembolization. Her course was complicated by the development of recurrent fasting hypoglycemia, most likely secondary to Doege-Potter syndrome. Her hypoglycemia was managed with corticosteroid therapy and frequent scheduled nutrient intake overnight. Conclusions The rarity of hepatic solitary fibrous tumors and consequent lack of controlled trials make this report significant in that it describes the diagnostic approach to Doege-Potter syndrome, describes our experience with the use of doxorubicin transarterial chemoembolization, and presents management options for tumor-associated hypoglycemia in the case of extensive disease not amenable to surgical resection.

  20. On the Dynamics of Two-Dimensional Capillary-Gravity Solitary Waves with a Linear Shear Current

    Dali Guo


    Full Text Available The numerical study of the dynamics of two-dimensional capillary-gravity solitary waves on a linear shear current is presented in this paper. The numerical method is based on the time-dependent conformal mapping. The stability of different kinds of solitary waves is considered. Both depression wave and large amplitude elevation wave are found to be stable, while small amplitude elevation wave is unstable to the small perturbation, and it finally evolves to be a depression wave with tails, which is similar to the irrotational capillary-gravity waves.

  1. Role and pitfalls of hepatic helical multi-phase CT scanning in differential diagnosis of small hemangioma and small hepatocellular carcinoma

    Yan, Fu-Hua; Zeng, Meng-su; Zhou, Kang-Rong


    AIM: To compare and analyze the contrast enhancement appearance of small hemangioma (SHHE) and small hepatocellular carcinoma (SHCC) with helical multi-phase CT scanning so as to determine their roles and pitfalls in the differential diagnosis of SHHE and SHCC.

  2. On the solitary wave paradigm for tsunamis

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas


    Since the 1970s, solitary waves have commonly been used to model tsunamis especially in experimental and mathematical studies. Unfortunately, the link to geophysical scales is not well established, and in this work we question the geophysical relevance of this paradigm. In part 1, we simulate...... of finite amplitude solitary wave theory in laboratory studies of tsunamis. We conclude that order-of-magnitude errors in effective temporal and spatial duration occur when this theory is used as an approximation for long waves on a sloping bottom. In part 3, we investigate the phenomenon of disintegration...... of long waves into shorter waves, which has been observed e.g. in connection with the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. This happens if the front of the tsunami becomes sufficently steep, and as a result the front turns into an undular bore. We discuss the importance of these very short waves in connection...

  3. A Solitary Plasmocytoma Case Causing Horner Syndrome

    Mustafa Vayvada


    Full Text Available Solitary plasmacytoma is a rare plasma cell tumour, when seen in the chest wall, it is important to diagnose since the treatment scheme and prognosis will vary, compared to primary malignant tumours of the chest wall. A 60-year-old male presented to our clinic with left shoulder pain radiating to the left axilla. Horner%u2019s syndrome symptoms were present, in further examination a chest wall mass located in the left upper lung lobe region was detected. Histopathologic diagnosis was solitary plasmocytoma via video-assisted thoracoscopy. The primary tumor of the rib malignancy causing Horner%u2019s syndrome is discussed with reference to the relevant literature.

  4. Hypokalemia associated with a solitary pulmonary nodule

    Saeian, Samira; Ghayumi, Seiyed Mohammad Ali; Shams, Mesbah


    Abstract Background: Differential diagnosis of hypokalemia and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome often presents challenging in endocrinology and requires careful clinical, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations. Hypokalemia is a common abnormality and systematic approach is required to avoid delays in diagnosis of important underlying causes. Case Summary: A 49-year-old woman presented with moderate hypokalemia. Further evaluation showed hypercortisolism due to ectopic ACTH secretion. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed a peripheral solitary pulmonary nodule. Excision biopsy of the nodule showed carcinoid tumor. After excision biopsy, all of the patient's symptoms improved and electrolytes and ACTH levels also became normal. Conclusion: Carciniod tumors should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with hypokalemia and ectopic ACTH syndrome. Carcinoid tumor often present as solitary pulmonary nodule and excision biopsy can be curative. PMID:27977570

  5. From solitary wave to traveling surge



    The solution of kinetic Alfven wave under action of anomalous resistance has two branches: the slow wave, VPVA cosθ will be in a wave-broken state. Such traveling surge structure is a typical self-organization phenomenon and its wave form is determined by parameter β which represents the magnitude of resistance. High β leads to shock-like structure and low β to the appearance of some solitary waves in front of the shock. According to the study on solitary wave, shock wave and traveling surge in conjunction with self-organization of nonlinear dynamics, a general definition of wave can be given.

  6. Partial Differential Equations and Solitary Waves Theory

    Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid


    "Partial Differential Equations and Solitary Waves Theory" is a self-contained book divided into two parts: Part I is a coherent survey bringing together newly developed methods for solving PDEs. While some traditional techniques are presented, this part does not require thorough understanding of abstract theories or compact concepts. Well-selected worked examples and exercises shall guide the reader through the text. Part II provides an extensive exposition of the solitary waves theory. This part handles nonlinear evolution equations by methods such as Hirota’s bilinear method or the tanh-coth method. A self-contained treatment is presented to discuss complete integrability of a wide class of nonlinear equations. This part presents in an accessible manner a systematic presentation of solitons, multi-soliton solutions, kinks, peakons, cuspons, and compactons. While the whole book can be used as a text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in applied mathematics, physics and engineering, Part II w...

  7. Solitary cutaneous histiocytosis with granular cell changes: a morphological variant of reticulohistiocytoma?

    Caltabiano, Rosario; Magro, Gaetano; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Lanzafame, Salvatore


    We first report a case of granular cell histiocytosis occurring as a solitary polypoid lesion of the nipple in a 15-year-old girl. Histologically, the lesion was composed of a dermal population of medium- to large-sized, short spindle- to round- to epithelioid-shaped cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm containing numerous and small diastase-resistant periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive granules. No associated inflammatory cells were observed. Immunohistochemical studies, revealing immunoreactivity exclusively to vimentin and CD68, were consistent with their histiocytic profile. Based on clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical features, the diagnosis of 'solitary cutaneous histiocytosis with granular cell changes' was proposed. The absence of an inflammatory cell component, such as lymphocytes and leucocytes, along with no history of a previous trauma or medical treatment, suggest that the present lesion could fit into the morphological spectrum of the so-called solitary epithelioid histiocytoma, also known as reticulohistiocytoma. Alternatively, the possibility of a histiocytic reaction to unknown stimuli cannot be completely ruled out. Nevertheless, awareness of solitary cutaneous histiocytosis with granular cell changes is useful to avoid confusion with other dermal tumors, especially 'granular cell tumor' and 'dermal non-neural granular cell tumor'.

  8. Experimental observation of gravity-capillary solitary waves generated by a moving air-suction

    Park, Beomchan; Cho, Yeunwoo


    Gravity-capillary solitary waves are generated by a moving "air-suction" forcing instead of a moving "air-blowing" forcing. The air-suction forcing moves horizontally over the surface of deep water with speeds close to the minimum linear phase speed cmin = 23 cm/s. Three different states are observed according to forcing speed below cmin. At relatively low speeds below cmin, small-amplitude linear circular depressions are observed, and they move steadily ahead of and along with the moving forcing. As the forcing speed increases close to cmin, however, nonlinear 3-D gravity-capillary solitary waves are observed, and they move steadily ahead of and along with the moving forcing. Finally, when the forcing speed is very close to cmin, oblique shedding phenomena of 3-D gravity-capillary solitary waves are observed ahead of the moving forcing. We found that all the linear and nonlinear wave patterns generated by the air-suction forcing correspond to those generated by the air-blowing forcing. The main difference is that 3-D gravity-capillary solitary waves are observed "ahead of" the air-suction forcing, whereas the same waves are observed "behind" the air-blowing forcing. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2014R1A1A1002441).

  9. Ion acoustic solitary waves in plasmas with nonextensive distributed electrons, positrons and relativistic thermal ions

    Hafez, M. G.; Talukder, M. R.; Sakthivel, R.


    The theoretical and numerical studies have been investigated on nonlinear propagation of weakly relativistic ion acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized plasma system consisting of nonextensive electrons, positrons and relativistic thermal ions. To study the characteristics of nonlinear propagation of the three-component plasma system, the reductive perturbation technique has been applied to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equation, which divulges the soliton-like solitary wave solution. The ansatz method is employed to carry out the integration of this equation. The effects of nonextensive electrons, positrons and relativistic thermal ions on phase velocity, amplitude and width of soliton and electrostatic nonlinear propagation of weakly relativistic ion acoustic solitary waves have been discussed taking different plasma parameters into consideration. The obtained results can be useful in understanding the features of small amplitude localized relativistic ion acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized three-component plasma system for hard thermal photon production with relativistic heavy ions collision in quark-gluon plasma as well as for astrophysical plasmas.

  10. [Solitary fibrous tumours of the kidney].

    Gres, Pascal; Avances, Christophe; Ben Naoum, Kamel; Chapuis, Héliette; Costa, Pierre


    Solitary fibrous tumours (SFT) are mesenchymal tumours that usually arise from the pleura. Renal SFT are exceptional (9 cases reported in the literature). The authors report a new case discovered during assessment of HT and treated by radical right nephrectomy. The histological appearance is characteristic: a tumour with a fibrous centre, composed of a monomorphic proliferation of spindle cells, with positive CD 34, CD 99, and bcl 2 labelling. The prognosis after complete resection is generally favourable.

  11. Solitary vascular malformation of the clitoris.

    Haritharan, T; Islah, M; Zulfiqar, A; Thambi Dorai, C R


    Isolated involvement of the clitoris by vascular malformation (VM) is very rare. Clinically, the lesion simulates female pseudohermaphroditism. A five-year-old girl presented with clitoromegaly and a clinical diagnosis of solitary VM of the clitoris was made. Magnetic resonance imaging showed characteristic features and confirmed the diagnosis and the extent of the VM. This is the first reported case of isolated involvement of the clitoris by VM to be diagnosed preoperatively.

  12. Two-color walking Peregrine solitary waves.

    Baronio, Fabio; Chen, Shihua; Mihalache, Dumitru


    We study the extreme localization of light, evolving upon a non-zero background, in two-color parametric wave interaction in nonlinear quadratic media. We report the existence of quadratic Peregrine solitary waves, in the presence of significant group-velocity mismatch between the waves (or Poynting vector beam walk-off), in the regime of cascading second-harmonic generation. This finding opens a novel path for the experimental demonstration of extreme rogue waves in ultrafast quadratic nonlinear optics.

  13. Solitary-like waves in a liquid foam microchannel

    Bouret, Yann; Cohen, Alexandre; Fraysse, Nathalie; Argentina, Médéric; Raufaste, Christophe


    Plateau borders (PBs) are liquid microchannels located at the contact between three bubbles in liquid foams. They are stable, deformable, and can be thought of as quasi-one-dimensional model systems to study surface waves in fluid dynamics. We show that the burst of a bubble trapped in a PB produces local constrictions which travel along the liquid channel at constant velocity, without significant change in shape. These patterns are reminiscent of the depression solitary waves encountered in nonlinear systems. By coupling flow inertia to capillary stresses, we derive a simple model that admits solitonic solutions, which we characterized numerically and analytically in the limit of small deformation. These solutions capture most of the features observed experimentally.

  14. Small Versus Large-Sized Drug-Eluting Beads (DEBIRI) for the Treatment of Hepatic Colorectal Metastases: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    Akinwande, Olaguoke K., E-mail: [University of Louisville Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Philips, Prejesh, E-mail: [University of Louisville, Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery (United States); Duras, Petr, E-mail: [Fakultní nemocnice Plzeň (Czech Republic); Pluntke, Stefan, E-mail: [Onkologe bei Kliniken Essen-Mitte (Germany); Scoggins, Charles, E-mail:; Martin, Robert C. G., E-mail: [University of Louisville, Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery (United States)


    PurposeTo compare the feasibility, safety, and efficacy with small and large irinotecan drug-eluting beads (DEBIRI) for treating hepatic colorectal metastases.MethodsUsing our prospectively maintained, multi-center, intra-arterial therapy registry, we identified 196 patients treated with a combination of large beads (100–300 to 500–700 μm) and patients treated with a combination of small beads (70–150 to 100–300 μm). To minimize selection bias, a propensity score analysis was performed to compare both groups.ResultsUnadjusted analysis consisted of 196 and 30 patients treated with large and small beads, respectively. The adjusted analysis consisted of 19 patients each. Unadjusted analysis showed decreased all-grade (p = <0.001) and high-grade adverse effects (p = 0.02) in the small bead group, with a persisting trend toward decreased overall side effects in the adjusted analysis favoring small beads (p = 0.09) The adjusted analysis showed the percentage dose delivered (delivered dose/intended dose) was significantly greater in the small bead group compared to the large bead group (96 vs 79 %; p = 0.005). There were also a lower percentage of treatments terminating in complete stasis in the adjusted analysis (0.0035). Adjusted analysis also showed increased objective response rate (ORR) at 12 months (p = 0.04), with a corresponding trend also seen in the unadjusted analysis (0.09).ConclusionSmaller beads result in increased dose delivery probably due to less propensity to reach complete stasis. It may also lead to more durable long-term efficacy. Smaller beads also demonstrate similarly low toxicity compared to large-sized beads with a trend toward less toxicity.

  15. Application of dual phase imaging of 11C-acetate positron emission tomography on differential diagnosis of small hepatic lesions.

    Li Huo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previously we observed that dual phase 11C-acetate positron emission tomography (AC-PET could be employed for differential diagnosis of liver malignancies. In this study, we prospectively evaluated the effect of dual phase AC-PET on differential diagnosis of primary hepatic lesions of 1-3 cm in size. METHODS: 33 patients having primary hepatic lesions with size of 1-3 cm in diameter undertook dual phase AC-PET scans. Procedure included an early upper-abdomen scan immediately after tracer injection and a conventional scan in 11-18 min. The standardized uptake value (SUV was calculated for tumor (SUVT and normal tissue (SUVB, from which 11C-acetate uptake ratio (as lesion against normal liver tissue, SUVT/SUVB in early imaging (R1, conventional imaging (R2, and variance between R2 and R1 (ΔR were derived. Diagnoses based on AC-PET data and histology were compared. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0. RESULTS: 20 patients were found to have HCC and 13 patients had benign tumors. Using ΔR>0 as criterion for malignancy, the accuracy and specificity were significantly increased comparing with conventional method. The area under ROC curve (AUC for R1, R2, and ΔR were 0.417, 0.683 and 0.831 respectively. Differential diagnosis between well-differentiated HCCs and benign lesions of FNHs and hemangiomas achieved 100% correct. Strong positive correlation was also found between R1 and R2 in HCC (r2 = 0.55, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Dual phase AC-PET scan is a useful procedure for differential diagnosis of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma and benign lesions. The dynamic changes of 11C-acetate uptake in dual phase imaging provided key information for final diagnosis.

  16. Stability of solitary manifold near critical solitary wave

    Comech, Andrew


    We consider even solutions of a nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation (NLS) in one dimension. We assume that for $\\omega$ varying in an interval and $\\gamma$ varying in $\\mathbb{R}$, the NLS has a surface $M=\\{e^{i\\gamma}\\phi_\\omega(x)\\}$ of ground states. Let $\\omega_*$ be a local minimum of $q(\\omega)=||\\phi_\\omega||_{L^2}^2$, and assume that $q(\\omega)$ is strictly convex. It is known that $\\phi_\\omega(x)$ is unstable for any $\\omega \\le \\omega_*$. We show that there is an open set $U\\subset H^1_r(\\mathbb{R})$ (finite energy even functions) containing in its boundary the part of $M$ for $\\omega_*-\\epsilon_00$ a small number, such that for any solution $u(t)$ of the NLS which at some given time $t=0$ is in $U$, there are $t_1>0$ and $\\omega_+ >\\omega_*$ with $\\omega_+ -\\omega_*\\approx\\omega_* -\\omega_0$, with $\\phi_{\\omega_0}(x)$ the ground state "closest" to $u(0)$ in a sense discussed below, such that for all $t>t_1$ the solution $u(t)$ has distance $\\le (\\omega_+ -\\omega_*)^{3/2}$ from the orbit of $\\phi_{\\om...

  17. Amino acid similarities and divergences in the small surface proteins of genotype C hepatitis B viruses between nucleos(t)ide analogue-naïve and lamivudine-treated patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Ding, Hai; Liu, Baoming; Zhao, Chengyu; Yang, Jingxian; Yan, Chunhui; Yan, Ling; Zhuang, Hui; Li, Tong


    Entire C-genotype small hepatitis B surface (SHBs) sequences were isolated from 139 nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA)-naïve and 74 lamivudine (LMV)-treated chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. The conservation and variability of total 226 amino acids (AAs) within the sequences were determined individually, revealing significant higher mutant isolate rate and mutation frequency in LMV-treated cohort than those in the NA-naïve one (P=0.009 and 0.0001, respectively). Three absolutely conserved fragments (s16-s19, s176-s181 and s185-s188) and seven moderately conserved regions (a few AA sites acquiring increased variability after LMV-treatment) were identified. The significant mutation rate increase after LMV-treatment occurred primarily in major hydrophilic region (except 'a' determinant) and transmembrane domain 3/4, but not in other upstream functional regions of SHBs. With little influence on immune escape-associated mutation frequencies within 'a' determinant, LMV-monotherapy significantly induced classical LMVr-associated mirror changes sE164D/rtV173L, sI195M/rtM204V and sW196L/S/rtM204I, as well as non-classical ones sG44E/rtS53N, sT47K/A/rtH55R/Q and sW182stop/rtV191I outside 'a' determinant. Interestingly, another newly-identified truncation mutation sC69stop/rtS78T decreased from 7.91% (11/139) in NA-naïve cohort to 2.70% (2/74) in LMV-treated one. Altogether, the altered AA conservation and diversity in SHBs sequences after LMV-treatment in genotype-C HBV infection might shed new insights into how LMV-therapy affects the SHBs variant evolution and its antigenicity.

  18. Added value of arterial enhancement fraction color maps for the characterization of small hepatic low-attenuating lesions in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Mina Park

    Full Text Available To assess the added value of arterial enhancement fraction (AEF color maps for the differentiation of small metastases from hepatic benign lesions.We retrospectively analyzed 46 patients with colorectal cancer who underwent multiphasic liver CT imaging and had low-attenuating liver lesions smaller than 3 cm (123 total lesions; metastasis: benign = 32:91. AEF color maps of the liver were created from multiphasic liver CT images using dedicated software. Two radiologists independently reviewed multiphasic CT image sets alone and in combination with image sets with AEF color maps using a five-point scale. The additional diagnostic value of the color maps was assessed by means of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC analysis.The area under the ROC curve (Az increased when multiphasic CT images were combined with AEF color map analysis as compared with evaluation based only on multiphasic CT images (from 0.698 to 0.897 for reader 1, and from 0.825 to 0.945 for reader 2; P < 0.001 and 0.002, respectively. The increase Az was especially significant for lesions less than 1 cm (from 0.702 to 0.888 for reader 1, and from 0.768 to 0.958 for reader 2; P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively. The mean AEF of tumor-adjacent parenchyma (35.07 ± 27.2 was significantly higher than that of tumor-free liver parenchyma (27.3 ± 20.6 (P = 0.04.AEF color mapping can improve the diagnostic performance for small hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer and may allow for the elimination of additional examinations.

  19. Stable complex solitary waves of Sasa Satsuma equation

    Sasanka Ghosh


    Existence of a new class of complex solitary waves is shown for Sasa Satsuma equation. These solitary waves are found to be stable in a certain domain of the parameter and become chaotic if the parameter exceeds the value 2.4. Significantly, the complex solitary waves propagate at higher bit rate over the most stable solitons under the same conditions of the input parameters.

  20. Numerical Study on Breaking Criteria for Solitary Waves

    Chung-ren CHOU; Ruey-syan SHIH; John Z. YIM


    Studies of the breaking criteria for solitary waves on a slope are presented in this paper. The boundary element method is used to model the processes of shoaling and breaking of solitary waves on various slopes. Empirical formulae that can be used to characterize the breaking of solitary waves are presented. These include the breaking index, the wave height, the water depth, and the maximum particle velocity at the point of breaking. Comparisons with the results of other researches are given.

  1. The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement

    Shaun eGallagher


    Full Text Available What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a cruel and unusual punishment, there is no consensus on the definition of the term ‘cruel’ in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we can find a moral consensus on the meaning of ‘cruelty’ by looking specifically at the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement.

  2. The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement.

    Gallagher, Shaun


    What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a "cruel and unusual punishment," there is no consensus on the definition of the term "cruel" in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we can find a moral consensus on the meaning of "cruelty" by looking specifically at the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement.


    Shivaji D


    Full Text Available Cylindroma is a rare tumour which originates from skin appendages. Cylindromas are of two types namely solitary and multiple. Malignant transformation of cylindroma is unusual and is extremely rare in solitary type. They show strong predilection for middle aged and elderly females. We report a case of a 70 year old male patient presented with nodular swelling along with surface ulceration in the right axillary region since six months, which on histopathological examination revealed a case of malignant transformation of benign solitary cylindroma. We report a rare case of malignant cylindroma arising in a patient with solitary cylindroma at an unusual site

  4. Hepatitis A FAQs

    ... Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis A Questions and Answers for the Public Recommend on ... Hepatitis C. What is the difference between Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C? Hepatitis A , Hepatitis ...

  5. Hepatitis A

    ... care, food, or sewage industry Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Hepatitis A is the least serious and mildest of these diseases. Symptoms ... most often show up 2 to 6 weeks after being exposed to the hepatitis A virus. They are most often mild, but may last ...

  6. Solitary paraganglioma of the hypoglossal nerve: case report.

    Raza, Kazim


    BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: We report the case history of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma in a 64-year-old woman. The surgical difficulties encountered in the removal of this challenging tumor are discussed and as a literature review provided. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old woman presented with a short history of dysphonia, occasional dysphagia, tinnitus, altered taste, and unilateral left-sided tongue wasting. On examination, there was left lower motor hypoglossal paralysis. Imaging showed a discrete enhancing lobulated mass, measuring 2 × 2 cm, in the region of the hypoglossal nerve extending into the hypoglossal canal suggestive of hypoglossal paraganglioma. A left dorsolateral suboccipital craniotomy was performed with the patient in the sitting position. The hypoglossal nerve appeared to be enlarged, and the jugular foramen was normal. Complete surgical debulking of the tumor was not attempted because of its vascular nature. The nerve was decompressed, and neuropathology confirmed a low-grade paraganglioma arising from the hypoglossal nerve. The patient was scheduled to receive stereotactic radiation for further management. CONCLUSION: When a case of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma is encountered in clinical practice, the aim of management should be mainly focused on achieving a diagnosis and preserving the hypoglossal nerve function. If there is evidence of vascularity in the lesion noted on magnetic resonance imaging, a preoperative angiogram should be obtained with a view for embolization. We decompressed the hypoglossal canal and achieved good improvement in the patient\\'s symptoms. We recommend stereotactic radiosurgery for remnant and small hypoglossal tumors and regular follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging scans.

  7. Numerical simulations of shoaling internal solitary waves of elevation

    Xu, Chengzhu; Subich, Christopher; Stastna, Marek


    We present high-resolution, two- and three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of large amplitude internal solitary waves of elevation on the laboratory scale, shoaling onto and over a small-amplitude shelf. The three-dimensional, mapped coordinate, spectral collocation method used for the simulations allows for accurate modelling of both the shoaling waves and the bottom boundary layer. The shoaling of the waves is characterized by the formation of a quasi-trapped core which undergoes a spatially growing stratified shear instability at its edge and a lobe-cleft instability in its nose. Both of these instabilities develop and three-dimensionalize concurrently, leading to strong bottom shear stress. We explore significant regions of Schmidt and Reynolds number space and demonstrate that the formation of shear instabilities during shoaling is robust and should be readily observable in a number of standard laboratory setups. In the experiments with a corrugated bottom boundary, boundary layer separation is found inside each of the corrugations during shoaling. This more complex boundary layer phenomenology precludes the formation of the lobe-cleft instability almost completely and hence provides a different mechanism for fluid and material exchange across the bottom boundary layer. Our analyses suggest that all of these wave-induced instabilities can lead to enhanced turbulence in the water column and increased shear stress on the bottom boundary. Through the generation and evolution of these instabilities, the shoaling of internal solitary waves of elevation is likely to provide systematic mechanisms for material mixing, cross-boundary layer transport, and sediment resuspension.

  8. Solitary paraganglioma of the hypoglossal nerve: case report.

    Raza, Kazim


    BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: We report the case history of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma in a 64-year-old woman. The surgical difficulties encountered in the removal of this challenging tumor are discussed and as a literature review provided. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old woman presented with a short history of dysphonia, occasional dysphagia, tinnitus, altered taste, and unilateral left-sided tongue wasting. On examination, there was left lower motor hypoglossal paralysis. Imaging showed a discrete enhancing lobulated mass, measuring 2 x 2 cm, in the region of the hypoglossal nerve extending into the hypoglossal canal suggestive of hypoglossal paraganglioma. A left dorsolateral suboccipital craniotomy was performed with the patient in the sitting position. The hypoglossal nerve appeared to be enlarged, and the jugular foramen was normal. Complete surgical debulking of the tumor was not attempted because of its vascular nature. The nerve was decompressed, and neuropathology confirmed a low-grade paraganglioma arising from the hypoglossal nerve. The patient was scheduled to receive stereotactic radiation for further management. CONCLUSION: When a case of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma is encountered in clinical practice, the aim of management should be mainly focused on achieving a diagnosis and preserving the hypoglossal nerve function. If there is evidence of vascularity in the lesion noted on magnetic resonance imaging, a preoperative angiogram should be obtained with a view for embolization. We decompressed the hypoglossal canal and achieved good improvement in the patient\\'s symptoms. We recommend stereotactic radiosurgery for remnant and small hypoglossal tumors and regular follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging scans.

  9. Possibilities of differentiation of solitary focal liver lesions by computed tomography perfusion

    Irmina Sefić Pašić


    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate possibilities of computed tomography (CT perfusion in differentiation of solitary focal liver lesions based on their characteristic vascularization through perfusion parameters analysis. Methods Prospective study was conducted on 50 patients in the period 2009-2012. Patients were divided in two groups: benign and malignant lesions. The following CT perfusion parameters were analyzed: blood flow (BF, blood volume (BV, mean transit time (MTT, capillary permeability surface area product (PS, hepatic arterial fraction (HAF, and impulse residual function (IRF. During the study another perfusion parameter was analyzed: hepatic perfusion index (HPI. All patients were examined on Multidetector 64-slice CT machine (GE with application of perfusion protocol for liver with i.v. administration of contrast agent. Results In both groups an increase of vascularization and arterial blood flow was noticed, but there was no significant statistical difference between any of 6 analyzed parameters. Hepatic perfusion index values were increased in all lesions in comparison with normal liver parenchyma. Conclusion Computed tomography perfusion in our study did not allow differentiation of benign and malignant liver lesions based on analysis of functional perfusion parameters. Hepatic perfusion index should be investigated in further studies as a parameter for detection of possible presence of micro-metastases in visually homogeneous liver in cases with no lesions found during standard CT protocol

  10. Hepatitis E

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Hepatitis E Fact sheet Updated July 2016 Key facts ... et al. Lancet 2012;380:2095-2128. World Hepatitis Day Know hepatitis - Act now Event notice Key ...

  11. Quasi-periodic behavior of ion acoustic solitary waves in electron-ion quantum plasma

    Sahu, Biswajit [Department of Mathematics, West Bengal State University Barasat, Kolkata-700126 (India); Poria, Swarup [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta Kolkata-700009 (India); Narayan Ghosh, Uday [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva Bharati University Santiniketan (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute Kolkata-700108 (India)


    The ion acoustic solitary waves are investigated in an unmagnetized electron-ion quantum plasmas. The one dimensional quantum hydrodynamic model is used to study small as well as arbitrary amplitude ion acoustic waves in quantum plasmas. It is shown that ion temperature plays a critical role in the dynamics of quantum electron ion plasma, especially for arbitrary amplitude nonlinear waves. In the small amplitude region Korteweg-de Vries equation describes the solitonic nature of the waves. However, for arbitrary amplitude waves, in the fully nonlinear regime, the system exhibits possible existence of quasi-periodic behavior for small values of ion temperature.

  12. Hepatitis C.

    Sharara, A I; Hunt, C M; Hamilton, J D


    To review the virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, natural history, clinical manifestations, and current treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The MEDLINE database (1966 to 1996) was searched for English-language articles and abstracts on HCV and non-A, non-B hepatitis. Papers cited in relevant primary articles were also reviewed. More than 500 original and review articles were evaluated, and the most relevant were selected. Data were extracted and reviewed by all authors. In most patients, HCV infection results in chronic hepatitis. The disease is insidious and subclinical but may progress over decades into end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, which makes HCV cirrhosis a leading indication for orthotopic liver transplantation. Current diagnostic methods are highly sensitive and specific, and quantitative assessment of viral load may help to predict and monitor response to treatment. The only available therapeutic option is interferon, and this agent is effective in only a small subset of patients. Infection with HCV is a significant public health problem that has important clinical and financial consequences. The tailoring of specific therapy according to viral load or genotype, better patient selection, and use of combination drug regimens may improve the chance of viral clearance and sustained biochemical and histologic response. Further understanding of the basic virology of HCV and the exact mechanisms of viral persistence and tissue injury is needed to help define future therapeutic and preventive strategies.

  13. Localization and solitary waves in solid mechanics

    Champneys, A R; Thompson, J M T


    This book is a collection of recent reprints and new material on fundamentally nonlinear problems in structural systems which demonstrate localized responses to continuous inputs. It has two intended audiences. For mathematicians and physicists it should provide useful new insights into a classical yet rapidly developing area of application of the rich subject of dynamical systems theory. For workers in structural and solid mechanics it introduces a new methodology for dealing with structural localization and the related topic of the generation of solitary waves. Applications range from classi

  14. Microtubules: A network for solitary waves

    Zdravković Slobodan


    Full Text Available In the present paper we deal with nonlinear dynamics of microtubules. The structure and role of microtubules in cells are explained as well as one of models explaining their dynamics. Solutions of the crucial nonlinear differential equation depend on used mathematical methods. Two commonly used procedures, continuum and semi-discrete approximations, are explained. These solutions are solitary waves usually called as kink solitons, breathers and bell-type solitons. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III45010

  15. Asymptotic Methods for Solitary Solutions and Compactons

    Ji-Huan He


    Full Text Available This paper is an elementary introduction to some new asymptotic methods for the search for the solitary solutions of nonlinear differential equations, nonlinear differential-difference equations, and nonlinear fractional differential equations. Particular attention is paid throughout the paper to giving an intuitive grasp for the variational approach, the Hamiltonian approach, the variational iteration method, the homotopy perturbation method, the parameter-expansion method, the Yang-Laplace transform, the Yang-Fourier transform, and ancient Chinese mathematics. Hamilton principle and variational principles are also emphasized. The reviewed asymptotic methods are easy to be followed for various applications. Some ideas on this paper are first appeared.

  16. Solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions in children

    Gardner, D.J.; Azouz, E.M.


    We evaluated retrospectively the varying radiographic appearances of 15 solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions occurring in children. Imaging modalities used included plain films, conventional tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and computed tomography. 40% of the lesions (6) were due to osteomyelitis. The remaining lesions included tuberculosis (1), foreign body granuloma (1), chondroblastoma (2), chondromyoxid fibroma (1), enchondroma (1), osteoid osteoma (2), and eosinophilic granuloma (1). Although the radiographic appearances of such lesions may be particularly characteristic, pathologic correlation is frequently necessary. The high incidence of osteomyelitis in our cases emphasizes its importance as a cause for a lucent epiphyseal lesion.

  17. [Solitary naso-sinusal fibrous tumor].

    Martínez, V; Jiménez, M L; Cuatrecasas, M; Jürgens, A; de Amesti, C; Orus, C; Fabra, J M


    Here we present two clinical cases of solitary naso-sinusal fibrous tumour. This tumour has a mesenchymal origin and has an evident pleural location, with well defined immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characteristics. The clinical manifestation is an apparent benign tumour with an inclination to local aggressiveness. The most effective treatment seems to be surgical removal, but given the low number of cases mentioned (there are only eight cases reported in international literature), and the tendency to eventual recurrence, called for cobalt therapy after surgery. The evolution of clinical cases is irregular.

  18. Study on Solitary Waves of a General Boussinesq Model


    In this paper, we employ the bifurcation method of dynamical systems to study the solitary waves and periodic waves of a generalized Boussinesq equations. All possible phase portraits in the parameter plane for the travelling wave systems are obtained. The possible solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions and cusp waves for the general Boussinesq type fluid model are also investigated.

  19. Electrostatic solitary waves in dusty pair-ion plasmas

    Misra, A. P. [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731 235, West Bengal (India); Adhikary, N. C. [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Vigyan Path, Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati-781035, Assam (India)


    The propagation of electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized collisionless pair-ion plasma with immobile positively charged dusts is studied for both large- and small-amplitude perturbations. Using a two-fluid model for pair-ions, it is shown that there appear two linear ion modes, namely the “fast” and “slow” waves in dusty pair-ion plasmas. The properties of these wave modes are studied with different mass (m) and temperature (T) ratios of negative to positive ions, as well as the effects of immobile charged dusts (δ). For large-amplitude waves, the pseudopotential approach is performed, whereas the standard reductive perturbation technique is used to study the small-amplitude Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons. The profiles of the pseudopotential, the large amplitude solitons as well as the dynamical evolution of KdV solitons, are numerically studied with the system parameters as above. It is found that the pair-ion plasmas with positively charged dusts support the propagation of solitary waves (SWs) with only the negative potential. The results may be useful for the excitation of SWs in laboratory dusty pair-ion plasmas, electron-free industrial plasmas as well as for observation in space plasmas where electron density is negligibly small compared to that of negative ions.

  20. Role and pitfalls of hepatic helical multi-phase CT scanning in differential diagnosis of small hemangioma and small hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Yan, Fu-Hua; Zeng, Meng-Su; Zhou, Kang-Rong


    AIM:To compare and analyze the contrast enhancement appearance of small hemangioma (SHHE) and small hepatocellular carcinoma (SHCC) with helical multi-phase CT scanning so as to determine their roles and pitfalls in the differential diagnosis of SHHE and SHCC.METHODS:The pre and postcontrast CT scanning of the liver in 73 cases (38 SHHE, 35 SHCC) were carried out. The first phase scan of the entire liver began at 30s after the injection of contrast medium, the second and third phases began at 70s, and 4min respectively. The contrast enhancement patterns and characteristics of all lesions were observed and compared.RESULTS In SHHE, 64.29% (27/42) had typical manifestations in two-phase dynamic scanning, such as peripheral dramatic high-density enhancement of the lesions with progressive opacification from the periphery toward the center, 30.95% (13/42) were hyperdense in both phases and 4.76% (2/42) were hypodense in both phases. In the third phase scanning, 96.67% (28/30) of SHHE were hyperdense and isodense.In SHCC 59.52% (25/42) presented typical appearances, such as hyperdense in the first phase and hypodense in the second phase, 23.81% (10/42) were hyperdense in the first phase and isodense in the second phase with 4.76% (2/42) of hypodense in both phases. In the third phase scanning, 85.71% (24/28) of SHCC were hypodense.CONCLUSION:According to the contrast enhancement patterns of SHHE and SHCC in the two-phase or multi-phase scanning by helical CT, diagnosis can be established in the majority of lesions, while some atypical cases needed MRI for further investigation.

  1. Role and pitfalls of hepatic helical multi-phase CT scanning in differential diagnosis of small hemangioma and small hepatocellular carcinoma


    AIM To compare and analyze the contrast enhancement appearance of small hemangioma (SHHE) and small hepatocellular carcinoma (SHCC) with helical multi-phase CT scanning so as to determine their roles and pitfalls in the differential diagnosis of SHHE and SHCC.METHODS The pre and postcontrast CT scanning of the liver in 73 cases (38 SHHE, 35 SHCC) were carried out. The first phase scan of the entire liver began at 30s after the injection of contrast medium, the second and third phases began at 70s, and 4min respectively. The contrast enhancement patterns and characteristics of all lesions were observed and compared.RESULTS In SHHE, 64.29% (27/42) had typical manifestations in two-phase dynamic scanning, such as peripheral dramatic high-density enhancement of the lesions with progressive opacification from the periphery toward the center, 30.95% (13/42) were hyperdense in both phases and 4.76% (2/42) were hypodense in both phases. In the third phase scanning, 96.67% (28/30) of SHHE were hyperdense and isodense. In SHCC 59.52% (25/42) presented typical appearances, such as hyperdense in the first phase and hypodense in the second phase, 23.81% (10/42) were hyperdense in the first phase and isodense in the second phase with 4.76% (2/42) of hypodense in both phases. In the third phase scanning, 85.71% (24/28) of SHCC were hypodense.CONCLUSION According to the contrast enhancement patterns of SHHE and SHCC in the two-phase or multi-phase scanning by helical CT, diagnosis can be established in the majority of lesions, while some atypical cases needed MRI for further investigation.

  2. Exact solitary wave solutions of nonlinear wave equations


    The hyperbolic function method for nonlinear wave equations ispresented. In support of a computer algebra system, many exact solitary wave solutions of a class of nonlinear wave equations are obtained via the method. The method is based on the fact that the solitary wave solutions are essentially of a localized nature. Writing the solitary wave solutions of a nonlinear wave equation as the polynomials of hyperbolic functions, the nonlinear wave equation can be changed into a nonlinear system of algebraic equations. The system can be solved via Wu Elimination or Grbner base method. The exact solitary wave solutions of the nonlinear wave equation are obtained including many new exact solitary wave solutions.

  3. The lifecycle of axisymmetric internal solitary waves

    J. M. McMillan


    Full Text Available The generation and evolution of solitary waves by intrusive gravity currents in an approximate two-layer fluid with equal upper- and lower-layer depths is examined in a cylindrical geometry by way of theory and numerical simulations. The study is limited to vertically symmetric cases in which the density of the intruding fluid is equal to the average density of the ambient. We show that even though the head height of the intrusion decreases, it propagates at a constant speed well beyond 3 lock radii. This is because the strong stratification at the interface supports the formation of a mode-2 solitary wave that surrounds the intrusion head and carries it outwards at a constant speed. The wave and intrusion propagate faster than a linear long wave; therefore, there is strong supporting evidence that the wave is indeed nonlinear. Rectilinear Korteweg-de Vries theory is extended to allow the wave amplitude to decay as r-p with p=½ and the theory is compared to the observed waves to demonstrate that the width of the wave scales with its amplitude. After propagating beyond 7 lock radii the intrusion runs out of fluid. Thereafter, the wave continues to spread radially at a constant speed, however, the amplitude decreases sufficiently so that linear dispersion dominates and the amplitude decays with distance as r-1.

  4. Radiation therapy for the solitary plasmacytoma

    Esengül Koçak


    Full Text Available Plasma-cell neoplasms are classically categorized into four groups as: multiple myeloma (MM, plasma-cell leukemias, solitary plasmacytomas (SP of the bone (SPB, and extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMP. These tumors may be described as localized or diffuse in presentation. Localized plasma-cell neoplasms are rare, and include SP of the skeletal system, accounting for 2-5% of all plasma-cell neoplasms, and EMP of soft tissue, accounting for approximately 3% of all such neoplasms. SP is defined as a solitary mass of neoplastic plasma cells either in the bone marrow or in various soft tissue sites. There appears to be a continuum in which SP often progresses to MM. The main treatment modality for SP is radiation therapy (RT. However, there are no conclusive data in the literature on the optimal RT dose for SP. This review describes the interrelationship of plasma-cell neoplasms, and attempts to determine the minimal RT dose required to obtain local control.

  5. Long solitary internal waves in stable stratifications

    W. B. Zimmerman


    Full Text Available Observations of internal solitary waves over an antarctic ice shelf (Rees and Rottman, 1994 demonstrate that even large amplitude disturbances have wavelengths that are bounded by simple heuristic arguments following from the Scorer parameter based on linear theory for wave trapping. Classical weak nonlinear theories that have been applied to stable stratifications all begin with perturbations of simple long waves, with corrections for weak nonlinearity and dispersion resulting in nonlinear wave equations (Korteweg-deVries (KdV or Benjamin-Davis-Ono that admit localized propagating solutions. It is shown that these theories are apparently inappropriate when the Scorer parameter, which gives the lowest wavenumber that does not radiate vertically, is positive. In this paper, a new nonlinear evolution equation is derived for an arbitrary wave packet thus including one bounded below by the Scorer parameter. The new theory shows that solitary internal waves excited in high Richardson number waveguides are predicted to have a halfwidth inversely proportional to the Scorer parameter, in agreement with atmospheric observations. A localized analytic solution for the new wave equation is demonstrated, and its soliton-like properties are demonstrated by numerical simulation.

  6. The solitary sellar plasmacytoma: a diagnostic challenge

    Anne Soejbjerg


    Full Text Available Solitary sellar plasmacytomas are exceedingly rare and difficult to distinguish from other pituitary tumors. We report a case of a 62-year-old woman presenting with blurred vision of the right eye and tenderness of the right temporal region, which was interpreted as temporal arteritis. MRI revealed a pituitary mass lesion (20mm×14mm×17mm without compression of the optic chiasm and her pituitary function was normal. Pituitary surgery was undertaken due to growth of the lesion, and histopathological examination showed a highly cellular neoplasm composed of mature monoclonal plasma cells. Subsequent examinations revealed no evidence of extrasellar myeloma. The patient received pituitary irradiation and has remained well and free of symptoms apart from iatrogenic central diabetes insipidus. Until now, only eight cases of solitary sellar plasmacytoma have been reported. Most frequent symptoms stem from compression of the cranial nerves in the cavernous sinus (III, IV, V, whereas the anterior pituitary function is mostly intact.

  7. Solitary fibrous tumor surrounding the carotid sheath.

    Gómez-Oliveira, Guillermo; Alvarez-Flores, Modesto; Arribas-García, Ignacio; Martínez-Gimeno, Carlos


    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare spindle cell neoplasms that are mostly found arising from the pleura. Although SFTs recently have been reported in other regions, they are rare in the head and neck and have often been misdiagnosed due to their rarity. SFTs are benign in most cases. Clinically, SFTs usually manifest as well-circumscribed, slow-growing, smooth and painless masses. Symptoms are often minimal, although they may include sore throat, difficulty in swallowing, change of voice or trismus. CT-Scan and MRI are the most sensitive imaging procedures used. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision of the lesion. Because recurrences have been noted up to 30 years after surgery, long-term follow up is mandatory. In this article, we present a case of a Solitary Fibrous Tumor arising in the parapharyngeal space in a 20-year-old man, involving the carotid sheath, treated by surgical excision with no recurrence after 1 year. The clinical presentation, surgical management and pathological findings are described.

  8. PIC simulation of compressive and rarefactive dust ion-acoustic solitary waves

    Li, Zhong-Zheng; Zhang, Heng; Hong, Xue-Ren; Gao, Dong-Ning; Zhang, Jie; Duan, Wen-Shan; Yang, Lei


    The nonlinear propagations of dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a collisionless four-component unmagnetized dusty plasma system containing nonextensive electrons, inertial negative ions, Maxwellian positive ions, and negatively charged static dust grains have been investigated by the particle-in-cell method. By comparing the simulation results with those obtained from the traditional reductive perturbation method, it is observed that the rarefactive KdV solitons propagate stably at a low amplitude, and when the amplitude is increased, the prime wave form evolves and then gradually breaks into several small amplitude solitary waves near the tail of soliton structure. The compressive KdV solitons propagate unstably and oscillation arises near the tail of soliton structure. The finite amplitude rarefactive and compressive Gardner solitons seem to propagate stably.

  9. The effect of stochastic perturbations on plankton transport by internal solitary waves

    M. Stastna


    Full Text Available Internal solitary and solitary-like waves are a commonly observed feature of density stratified natural waters, including lakes and the coastal ocean. Since such waves induce significant currents throughout the water column they can be responsible for significant transport of both passive and swimming biota. We consider simple models of moving zooplankton based on the Langevin equation. The small amplitude randomness significantly alters the nature of particle motion. In particular, passage through the wave leads to strongly non Gaussian particle distributions. When the plankton swims to return to its equilibrium photic level, a steady state that balances randomness, swimming and wave-induced motions is possible. We discuss possible implications of this steady state for organisms that feed on plankton.

  10. Solitary, explosive and rational solutions for nonlinear electron-acoustic waves with non-thermal electrons

    El-Wakil, S A; Abd-El-Hamid, H M; Abulwafa, E M


    A rigorous theoretical investigation has been made on electron acoustic wave propagating in unmagnetized collisionless plasma consisting of a cold electron fluid, non-thermal hot electrons and stationary ions. Based on the pseudo-potential approach, large amplitude potential structures and the existence of solitary waves are discussed. The reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for small but finite amplitude electrostatic waves. An algebraic method with computerized symbolic computation, which greatly exceeds the applicability of the existing tanh, extended tanh methods in obtaining a series of exact solutions of the KdV equation. Numerical studies have been made using plasma parameters close to those values corresponding to the dayside auroral zone reveals different solutions i.e., bell-shaped solitary pulses, rational pulses and solutions with singularity at a finite points which called blowup solutions in addition to the propagation of an explosive pu...

  11. Electrostatic solitary waves in dusty pair-ion plasmas

    Misra, A P


    The propagation of electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized collisionless pair-ion plasma with immobile positively charged dusts is studied for both large- and small-amplitude perturbations. Using a two-fluid model for pair-ions, it is shown that there appear two linear ion modes, namely the "fast" and "slow" waves in dusty pair-ion plasmas. The properties of these wave modes are studied with different mass $(m)$ and temperature $(T)$ ratios of negative to positive ions, as well as the effects of immobile charged dusts $(\\delta)$. For large-amplitude waves, the pseudopotential approach is performed, whereas the standard reductive perturbation technique (RPT) is used to study the small-amplitude Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons. The profiles of the pseudopotential, the large amplitude solitons as well as the dynamical evolution of KdV solitons are numerically studied with the system parameters as above. It is found that the pair-ion plasmas with positively charged dusts support the propagation of solitary waves ...

  12. Combination of small interfering RNAs mediates greater suppression on hepatitis B virus cccDNA in HepG2.2.15 cells

    Xiao-Min Xin; Gui-Qiu U; Ying-Yu Jin; Min Zhuang; Di Li


    AIM: To observe the inhibition of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and expression in HepG2.2.15 cells by combination of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs).METHODS: Recombinant plasmid psil-HBV was constructed and transfected into HepG2.2.15 cells.At 48 h,72 h and 96 h after transfection,culture media were collected and cells were harvested for HBV replication assay.HBsAg and HBeAg in the cell culture medium were detected by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA).Intracellular viral DNA and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA)were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).HBV viral mRNA was reverse transcribed and quantified by reverse-transcript PCR (RT-PCR).RESULTS: siRNAs showed marked anti-HBV effects.siRNAs could specifically inhibit the expression of HBsAg and the replication of HBV DNA in a dosedependent manner.Furthermore,combination of siRNAs,compared with individual use of each siRNA,exerted a stronger inhibition on antigen expression and viral replication.More importantly,combination of siRNAs significantly suppressed HBV cccDNA amplification.CONCLUSION: Combination of siRNAs mediates a stronger inhibition on viral replication and antigen expression in HepG2.2.15 cells,especially on cccDNA amplification.

  13. Small-molecule inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5A (NS5A): a patent review (2010-2015).

    Ivanenkov, Yan A; Aladinskiy, Vladimir A; Bushkov, Nikolay A; Ayginin, Andrey A; Majouga, Alexander G; Ivachtchenko, Alexandre V


    Non-structural 5A (NS5A) protein has achieved a considerable attention as an attractive target for the treatment of hepatitis C (HCV). A number of novel NS5A inhibitors have been reported to date. Several drugs having favorable ADME properties and mild side effects were launched into the pharmaceutical market. For instance, daclatasvir was launched in 2014, elbasvir is currently undergoing registration, ledipasvir was launched in 2014 as a fixed-dose combination with sofosbuvir (NS5B inhibitor). Areas covered: Thomson integrity database and SciFinder database were used as a valuable source to collect the patents on small-molecule NS5A inhibitors. All the structures were ranked by the date of priority. Patent holder and antiviral activity for each scaffold claimed were summarized and presented in a convenient manner. A particular focus was placed on the best-in-class bis-pyrrolidine-containing NS5A inhibitors. Expert opinion: Several first generation NS5A inhibitors have recently progressed into advanced clinical trials and showed superior efficacy in reducing viral load in infected subjects. Therapy schemes of using these agents in combination with other established antiviral drugs with complementary mechanisms of action can address the emergence of resistance and poor therapeutic outcome frequently attributed to antiviral drugs.

  14. Convergence of hepatoportal glucose-sensitive afferent signals to glucose-sensitive units within the nucleus of the solitary tract.

    Adachi, A; Shimizu, N; Oomura, Y; Kobáshi, M


    Units which are activated by ascending impulses from the liver within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) were identified by electrical stimulation delivered to the hepatic branch of the vagus. Responses of descending units were eliminated by a collision test. The units which showed decreased firing rates during portal infusion of isotonic glucose solution were also glucose-sensitive so that they showed decreased firing rates during topical application of glucose by means of micro-electro-osmotic techniques. It is concluded that glucose-sensitive neurons exist within the NTS and also that they are functionally linked with hepatoportal glucose-sensitive afferent units.

  15. Weak bond detection in composites using highly nonlinear solitary waves

    Singhal, Taru; Kim, Eunho; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Yang, Jinkyu


    We experimentally investigate a diagnostic technique for identifying a weak bond in composites using highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs). We set up a one-dimensional chain of granular crystals, consisting of spherical particles with nonlinear interactions, to generate HNSWs. These solitary wave packets are transmitted into an inspection area of composites by making a direct contact with the chain. We demonstrate that a strong type of solitary waves injected to the weak bond area can break the weak bond of laminates, thereby causing delamination. Then, to identify the creation of the delamination, we transmit a weak type of solitary waves by employing the same apparatus, and measure the solitary waves reflected from the specimens. By analyzing these reflected solitary waves, we differentiate the weak bond samples with the pristine bond ones in an efficient and fast manner. The diagnostic results based on the proposed method are compared with the strength and energy release rate at bond interfaces, which are measured via standard testing methods such as three point bending and end notched flexure tests. This study shows the potential of solitary wave-based detection of weak bonds for hot spot monitoring of composite-based structures.

  16. A solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney

    Anuruddha M Abeygunasekera


    Full Text Available A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT is an uncommon spindle cell neoplasm that usually occurs in the pleura, but may occur in extrapleural sites. Its occurrence in the kidney is rare. We report a SFT, clinically thought to be a renal cell carcinoma arising in the kidney of a 68-year-old female. The tumor was well-circumscribed and composed of a mixture of spindle cells and dense collagenous bands. Immunohistochemical studies revealed reactivity for CD34, CD99, and Bcl-2 protein, with no staining for keratin or muscle markers, confirming the diagnosis. The immunohistochemical study was the key to diagnosis. Several younger members of her family had colorectal and lung cancers suggesting the possibility of a familial or genetic susceptibility.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Solitary Kinetic Alfven Waves

    DING Jian; LI Yi; WANG Shui


    Using the two-fluid model in the case of α1 (α=β/2Q, β is the ratio of thermal pressure to magnetic pressure, and Q=m,e/m,I), we numerically investigate the interactions between two solitary kinetic Alfven waves (SKAWs) and between an SKAW and a density discontinuity. The results show that the two SKAWs would remain in their original shapes and propagate at their initiating speeds, which indicates that SKAWs behave just like standard solitons. The simulation also shows that SKAWs will reflect and refract when crossing a discontinuity and propagating into a higher density region. The transmission wave is an SKAW with increasing density, and the reverberation is a disturbance with lower amplitude.

  18. Benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Karstrup, Steen;


    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of ultrasonography (US)-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) on the volume of benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules and any nodule-related symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ILP was performed in 16 patients with normal thyroid function and a solid...... to evaluate the size of the untreated thyroid nodule. RESULTS: In the 16 patients treated with ILP, the mean thyroid nodule volume decreased from 10 to 5.4 mL (P .... Pressure symptoms were significantly reduced (P =.0002) after 6 months. The treatment was well-tolerated in all patients. No significant change in thyroid nodule volume was seen in the control group. CONCLUSION: US-guided ILP could become a useful nonsurgical alternative in the treatment of the benign...

  19. Solitary Plasmacytoma of the Chest Wall

    Servet Kayhan


    Full Text Available A previously healthy 55-year-old man with right sided lateral chest pain admitted to clinic. It was found a solid and painful mass at the right 4th rib in physical examination. Chest X-ray and thoracic computarized tomography showed an opacity measured 60x33 mm within the right chest wall destructing the 4th rib. Needle aspiration was performed from tumor and cytologic examination showed atypic plasma cell infiltration. The patient was scheduled for a chest wall resection and reconstructive surgery. Examination of a permanent section showed that the chest wall tumor was solitary plasmacytoma. There was no evidence of multiple myeloma recurrence after two years from the operation.

  20. Transparent lattices and their solitary waves.

    Sadurní, E


    We provide a family of transparent tight-binding models with nontrivial potentials and site-dependent hopping parameters. Their feasibility is discussed in electromagnetic resonators, dielectric slabs, and quantum-mechanical traps. In the second part of the paper, the arrays are obtained through a generalization of supersymmetric quantum mechanics in discrete variables. The formalism includes a finite-difference Darboux transformation applied to the scattering matrix of a periodic array. A procedure for constructing a hierarchy of discrete Hamiltonians is indicated and a particular biparametric family is given. The corresponding potentials and hopping functions are identified as solitary waves, pointing to a discrete spinorial generalization of the Korteweg-deVries family.

  1. Solitary vortex couples in viscoelastic Couette flow

    Groisman, A; Groisman, Alexander; Steinberg, Victor


    We report experimental observation of a localized structure, which is of a new type for dissipative systems. It appears as a solitary vortex couple ("diwhirl") in Couette flow with highly elastic polymer solutions. A unique property of the diwhirls is that they are stationary, in contrast to the usual localized wave structures in both Hamiltonian and dissipative systems which are stabilized by wave dispersion. It is also a new object in fluid dynamics - a couple of vortices that build a single entity somewhat similar to a magnetic dipole. The diwhirls arise as a result of a purely elastic instability through a hysteretic transition at negligible Reynolds numbers. It is suggested that the vortex flow is driven by the same forces that cause the Weissenberg effect. The diwhirls have a striking asymmetry between the inflow and outflow, which is also an essential feature of the suggested elastic instability mechanism.

  2. Clinical characteristics of the primary hepatic malignant fibrous histiocytoma in China: case report and review of the literature

    Yao Dianbo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A malignant fibrous histiocytoma is a soft tissue tumor that most commonly occurs in the extremities, but rarely involves the liver. The clinical characteristics and therapeutic experiences of primary hepatic malignant fibrous histiocytoma are still limited. Methods Two cases of primary hepatic malignant fibrous histiocytoma were analyzed retrospectively, and all the literature concerning primary hepatic malignant fibrous histiocytoma was analyzed. Results In China, a total of 76 cases had been reported, among which 50 were men, with a male to female ratio of 1.9:1. Mean age of the patients was 51.0 years old, and more than 85 percent were older than 40 years. 82.9 percent (63/76 of hepatic MFH were solitary lesions, with tumor size ranging from 2.5 to 23.5 cm (average 10.3 cm. Major clinical presentation (78.4% was abdominal pain or discomfort, accompanied with some other non-specific symptoms such as malaise, anorexia, weight loss, jaundice and fever, and small cases (14.9% were asymptomatic. Computed tomography and ultrasound usually revealed the location of lesions. The rate of pre-operative misdiagnosis was extremely high, and 14.9 percent of patients were even misdiagnosed as a benign liver cyst, liver abscess or hematoma. Integrated resection was performed among the most cases (49/68, among which only a few ones (12 cases were introduced to have no recurrence or metastasis or be still alive with no detail information provided, while among the cases with palliative operation or only a biopsy, the cases that were followed-up all died. Conclusions Hepatic malignant fibrous histiocytoma is a rare malignant mesenchymal tumor. The variable features of clinical presentations and images make the diagnosis difficult. Though the prognosis of primary hepatic malignant fibrous histiocytoma was rather poor, integrated resection might provide a few cases a good opportunity for surviving, suggesting that surgery might be an effective

  3. Physiological outflow boundary conditions methodology for small arteries with multiple outlets: a patient-specific hepatic artery haemodynamics case study.

    Aramburu, Jorge; Antón, Raúl; Bernal, Nebai; Rivas, Alejandro; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Sangro, Bruno; Bilbao, José Ignacio


    Physiological outflow boundary conditions are necessary to carry out computational fluid dynamics simulations that reliably represent the blood flow through arteries. When dealing with complex three-dimensional trees of small arteries, and therefore with multiple outlets, the robustness and speed of convergence are also important. This study derives physiological outflow boundary conditions for cases in which the physiological values at those outlets are not known (neither in vivo measurements nor literature-based values are available) and in which the tree exhibits symmetry to some extent. The inputs of the methodology are the three-dimensional domain and the flow rate waveform and the systolic and diastolic pressures at the inlet. The derived physiological outflow boundary conditions, which are a physiological pressure waveform for each outlet, are based on the results of a zero-dimensional model simulation. The methodology assumes symmetrical branching and is able to tackle the flow distribution problem when the domain outlets are at branches with a different number of upstream bifurcations. The methodology is applied to a group of patient-specific arteries in the liver. The methodology is considered to be valid because the pulsatile computational fluid dynamics simulation with the inflow flow rate waveform (input of the methodology) and the derived outflow boundary conditions lead to physiological results, that is, the resulting systolic and diastolic pressures at the inlet match the inputs of the methodology, and the flow split is also physiological.

  4. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Cerebello-Pontine Angle

    Biggs, Nigel D.; Fagan, Paul A.; Turner, Jennifer J.; Doust, Bruce


    A case is presented of solitary fibrous tumor occurring in the cerebello-pontine angle. There have been only two other reported cases of a solitary fibrous tumors in this region. Imaging studies showed the tumor to be characteristic in shape and position of an acoustic tumor. However, at surgery the tumor was found to have a “rock hard” consistency. Solitary fibrous tumor differs from acoustic schwannoma and meningioma in its histopathological features and in this case, regrowth, after incomplete excision, was extremely rapid. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:17171119

  5. Generation of Solitary Rossby Waves by Unstable Topography

    YANG Hong-Wei; YIN Bao-Shu; DONG Huan-He


    The effect of topography on generation of the solitary Rossby waves is researched. Here, the topography, as a forcing for waves generation, is taken as a function of longitude variable x and time variable t, which is called unstable topography. With the help of a perturbation expansion method, a forced mKdv equation governing the evolution of amplitude of the solitary Rossby waves is derived from quasi-geostrophic vortieity equation and is solved by the pseudo-spectral method. Basing on the waterfall plots, the generational features of the solitary Rossby waves under the influence of unstable topography and stable topography are compared and some conclusions are obtained.

  6. Surgical resection of a solitary liver metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma:a case report

    Spiros Delis; Ioannis Biliatis; Antonia Bourli; Nikolaos Kapranos; Christos Dervenis


    BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a propensity to develop distant metastases at a high rate and with poor prognosis. Metastatic sites are usually multifocal and involve bones, lungs, liver and distant lymph nodes. Management of metastatic disease is essentially palliative and is based on chemotherapy. METHODS:A 50-year-old man with a solitary liver metastasis from a newly diagnosed NPC was treated by segmentectomy. Prior to surgery, neoadjuvant chemo-therapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy was administered. RESULTS:Complete remission of the primary disease was achieved, although the size of the hepatic lesion was increased. After resection of the liver metastasis, no signs of local or distant recurrence was noted during the 6-month follow up. CONCLUSION:Although surgical treatment has a limited role in metastatic NPC, there are rare cases of localized disease with a reasonable outcome after resection.

  7. Metastatic extrapleural malignant solitary fibrous tumor presenting with hypoglycemia (Doege–Potter syndrome

    Andrew J. Degnan, MD, MPhil


    Full Text Available We report a rare case of metastatic malignant solitary fibrous tumor (SFT that presented with hypoglycemia because of insulin growth factor-2 production. Initial workup included computed tomography imaging that revealed a large, partially necrotic liver mass, a hypervascular pancreatic head lesion, and 2 renal lesions. Following hepatic resection, pancreatic head resection and nephrectomy, all these lesions demonstrated pathological findings that were consistent with SFT. The patient also had a history of an intracranial mass that had been previously resected and treated with gamma knife therapy at an outside institution, which was found to also be SFT. Six months after initial pancreatic head resection, the patient developed a new lesion involving the pancreatic tail that was found to represent recurrent metastatic SFT. This case emphasizes the highly aggressive nature of extrapleural SFT, while rare, and the role of imaging in follow-up for disease recurrence.

  8. Head-on collision and overtaking collision between an envelope solitary wave and a KdV solitary wave in a dusty plasma.

    Zhang, Heng; Duan, Wen-Shan; Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei


    Head-on collision and overtaking collision between a KdV solitary wave and an envelope solitary wave are first studied in present paper by using Particle-in-cell (PIC) method in a dusty plasma. There are phase shifts of the KdV solitary wave in both head-on collision and the overtaking collision, while no phase shift is found for the envelop solitary wave in any cases. The remarkable difference between head-on collision and the overtaking collision is that the phase shift of KdV solitary wave increases as amplitude of KdV solitary wave increases in head-on collision, while it decreases as amplitude of the KdV solitary wave increases in the overtaking collision. It is found that the maximum amplitude during the collision process is less than sum of two amplitudes of both solitary waves, but is larger than either of the amplitude.

  9. A plethora of generalised solitary gravity-capillary water waves

    Clamond, Didier; Duran, Angel


    The present study describes, first, an efficient algorithm for computing gravity-capillary solitary waves solutions of the irrotational Euler equations and, second, provides numerical evidences of the existence of (likely) an infinite number of generalised solitary waves (i.e. solitary waves with undamped oscillatory wings). Using conformal mapping, the unknown fluid domain (which is to be determined) is mapped into a uniform strip of the complex plane. A Babenko-like equation is then derived from a Lagrangian expressed in the transformed domain. The Babenko equation is then solved numerically using a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Various interesting solutions are computed, some of them being known, some seem to be new. The emergence of generalised solitary waves is shown when the Bond number is increased.

  10. Oblique solitary waves in a five component plasma

    Sijo, S.; Manesh, M.; Sreekala, G.; Venugopal, C., E-mail: [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686 560 Kerala (India); Neethu, T. W. [Department of Physics, CMS College, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686 001 Kerala (India); Renuka, G. [Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 004 Kerala (India)


    We investigate the influence of a second electron component on oblique dust ion acoustic solitary waves in a five component plasma consisting of positively and negatively charged dust, hydrogen ions, and hotter and colder electrons. Of these, the heavier dust and colder photo-electrons are of cometary origin while the other two are of solar origin; electron components are described by kappa distributions. The K-dV equation is derived, and different attributes of the soliton such as amplitude and width are plotted for parameters relevant to comet Halley. We find that the second electron component has a profound influence on the solitary wave, decreasing both its amplitude and width. The normalized hydrogen density strongly influences the solitary wave by decreasing its width; the amplitude of the solitary wave, however, increases with increasing solar electron temperatures.

  11. Solitary pulmonary granuloma with marked enhancement on dynamic CT scanning

    Stark, P.; Wong, V.; Gold, P.


    A patient is described who presented with a vividly enhancing solitary pulmonary nodule during dynamic CT scanning. This mass proved to represent a granuloma due to coccidioidomycosis. The presumptive mechanism of enhancement as well as the differential diagnosis are discussed.

  12. Solitary wave propagation through two-dimensional treelike structures.

    Falls, William J; Sen, Surajit


    It is well known that a velocity perturbation can travel through a mass spring chain with strongly nonlinear interactions as a solitary and antisolitary wave pair. In recent years, nonlinear wave propagation in 2D structures have also been explored. Here we first consider the propagation of such a velocity perturbation for cases where the system has a 2D "Y"-shaped structure. Here each of the three pieces that make up the "Y" are made of a small mass spring chain. In addition, we consider a case where multiple "Y"-shaped structures are used to generate a "tree." We explore the early time dynamical behavior associated with the propagation of a velocity perturbation initiated at the trunk and at the extremities for both cases. We are looking for the energy transmission properties from one branch to another of these "Y"-shaped structures. Our dynamical simulations suggest the following broad observations: (i) for strongly nonlinear interactions, mechanical energy propagation resembles pulse propagation with the energy propagation being dispersive in the linear case; (ii) for strong nonlinear interactions, the tree-like structure acts as an energy gate showing preference for large perturbations in the system while the behavior of the linear case shows no such preference, thereby suggesting that such structures can possibly act as switches that activate at sufficiently high energies. The study aspires to develop insights into the nature of nonlinear wave propagation through a network of linear chains.

  13. Solitary plasmacytoma of the rib: A rare case

    Rikki Singal


    Full Text Available Localized solitary plasmacytoma of the bone is a rare disease and is characterized by only one or two isolated bone lesions with no evidence of disease dissemination. We report a case of solitary plasmacytoma of the rib in a 43-year-old female. The patient underwent complete en-bloc resection of the chest wall including rib, muscle, and parietal pleura. Patient is asymptomatic without any recurrence after two and half years of follow up.

  14. Solitary mesenteric vascular anomaly presenting as acute abdomen

    Thambidorai C


    Full Text Available A 4-year-old girl with a solitary vascular anomaly of the mesentery presented with acute lower abdominal pain. Despite the use of ultrasound, computed tomography scan and image-guided core biopsies, the lesion was initially mistaken for an inflammatory intra-abdominal mass. The correct diagnosis was made at laparotomy. Solitary vascular anomaly of the mesentery is rare and its presentation as an acute abdomen has not been reported before.

  15. Solitary osteochondroma arising from cervical spina bifida occulta.

    Ofluoglu, Ali Ender; Abdallah, Anas; Gokcedag, Akin


    Solitary osteochondromas are common benign long bone tumors originating from cartilage. They may produce a wide variety of symptoms and complications depending on their spinal location. These may include compressive myelopathy, nerve root compression, pathologic fracture and malignant degeneration, or in some cases only pain. Solitary cervical spine osteochondromas have been reported mostly in the neural arch or vertebral body. This report describes a patient presenting with neck pain, with a benign osteochondroma arising in the right bifid C5 lamina.

  16. [Adenocarcinoma of lung cancer with solitary metastasis to the stomach].

    Koh, Sung Ae; Lee, Kyung Hee


    Although hematogenous metastasis of cancer to the gastrointestinal track is rare, it sometime has been reported in patients with malignant melanoma and breast cancer. However, it is extremely rare for lung cancer to metastasize to the stomach, not to mention solitary gastric metastasis. Herein, the authors report a case of a 69-year-old man who was initially diagnosed with lung cancer with synchronous primary gastric cancer which proved to be lung cancer with solitary gastric metastasis after the operation.

  17. Prognosis of small hepatocellular nodules detected only at the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging as hypointensity in cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis

    Higaki, Atsushi; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Sone, Teruki; Kanki, Akihiko; Noda, Yasufumi; Yasokawa, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Akira [Kawasaki Medical School, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki City, Okayama (Japan)


    To evaluate the prognosis of ''strict'' high-risk nodules (small hepatocellular nodules detected only in the hepatobiliary phase of initial Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR examination) in patients with cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis. The study included thirty-three patients with 60 ''strict'' high-risk nodules showing hypointensity at the hepatobiliary phase that was undetectable at the vascular phase and other conventional sequences of initial Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. These nodules were observed on follow-up MR examinations until hypervascularity was detected. The potential predictive factors for hypervascular transformation were compared between two groups (group A showing hypervascular transformation, group B not showing hypervascularization). Ten (16.7 %) of 60 ''strict'' high-risk nodules showed hypervascular transformation during follow-up periods (group A). The growth rates of the nodules in group A (6.3 ± 4.5 mm/year) were significantly higher than those in group B (3.4 ± 7.2 mm/year) (p = 0.003). Additionally, the median observation period in group A (177.5 ± 189.5 day) was significantly shorter than in group B (419 ± 372.2 day) (p = 0.045). The other predictive factors were not significantly correlated with hypervascularization. Subsets of ''strict'' high-risk nodules showed hypervascular transformation during follow-up periods in association with increased growth rates, indicating that nodule growth rate is an important predictive factor for hypervascularization. (orig.)

  18. Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus in Mice by a Small Interfering RNA Targeting a Highly Conserved Sequence in Viral IRES Pseudoknot.

    Jae-Su Moon

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES that directs cap-independent viral translation is a primary target for small interfering RNA (siRNA-based HCV antiviral therapy. However, identification of potent siRNAs against HCV IRES by bioinformatics-based siRNA design is a challenging task given the complexity of HCV IRES secondary and tertiary structures and association with multiple proteins, which can also dynamically change the structure of this cis-acting RNA element. In this work, we utilized siRNA tiling approach whereby siRNAs were tiled with overlapping sequences that were shifted by one or two nucleotides over the HCV IRES stem-loop structures III and IV spanning nucleotides (nts 277-343. Based on their antiviral activity, we mapped a druggable region (nts 313-343 where the targets of potent siRNAs were enriched. siIE22, which showed the greatest anti-HCV potency, targeted a highly conserved sequence across diverse HCV genotypes, locating within the IRES subdomain IIIf involved in pseudoknot formation. Stepwise target shifting toward the 5' or 3' direction by 1 or 2 nucleotides reduced the antiviral potency of siIE22, demonstrating the importance of siRNA accessibility to this highly structured and sequence-conserved region of HCV IRES for RNA interference. Nanoparticle-mediated systemic delivery of the stability-improved siIE22 derivative gs_PS1 siIE22, which contains a single phosphorothioate linkage on the guide strand, reduced the serum HCV genome titer by more than 4 log10 in a xenograft mouse model for HCV replication without generation of resistant variants. Our results provide a strategy for identifying potent siRNA species against a highly structured RNA target and offer a potential pan-HCV genotypic siRNA therapy that might be beneficial for patients resistant to current treatment regimens.

  19. Solitary Wave in One-dimensional Buckyball System at Nanoscale

    Xu, Jun; Zheng, Bowen; Liu, Yilun


    We have studied the stress wave propagation in one-dimensional (1-D) nanoscopic buckyball (C60) system by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and quantitative modeling. Simulation results have shown that solitary waves are generated and propagating in the buckyball system through impacting one buckyball at one end of the buckyball chain. We have found the solitary wave behaviors are closely dependent on the initial temperature and impacting speed of the buckyball chain. There are almost no dispersion and dissipation of the solitary waves (stationary solitary wave) for relatively low temperature and high impacting speed. While for relatively high temperature and low impacting speed the profile of the solitary waves is highly distorted and dissipated after propagating several tens of buckyballs. A phase diagram is proposed to describe the effect of the temperature and impacting speed on the solitary wave behaviors in buckyball system. In order to quantitatively describe the wave behavior in buckyball system, a simple nonlinear-spring model is established, which can describe the MD simulation results at low temperature very well. The results presented in this work may lay a solid step towards the further understanding and manipulation of stress wave propagation and impact energy mitigation at nanoscale. PMID:26891624

  20. On cusped solitary waves in finite water depth

    Liao, Shijun


    It is well-known that the Camassa-Holm (CH) equation admits both of the peaked and cusped solitary waves in shallow water. However, it was an open question whether or not the exact wave equations can admit them in finite water depth. Besides, it was traditionally believed that cusped solitary waves, whose 1st-derivative tends to infinity at crest, are essentially different from peaked solitary ones with finite 1st-derivative. Currently, based on the symmetry and the exact water wave equations, Liao [1] proposed a unified wave model (UWM) for progressive gravity waves in finite water depth. The UWM admits not only all traditional smooth progressive waves but also the peaked solitary waves in finite water depth: in other words, the peaked solitary progressive waves are consistent with the traditional smooth ones. In this paper, in the frame of the linearized UWM, we further give, for the first time, the cusped solitary waves in finite water depth, and besides reveal a close relationship between the cusped and p...

  1. Solitary mammals provide an animal model for autism spectrum disorders.

    Reser, Jared Edward


    Species of solitary mammals are known to exhibit specialized, neurological adaptations that prepare them to focus working memory on food procurement and survival rather than on social interaction. Solitary and nonmonogamous mammals, which do not form strong social bonds, have been documented to exhibit behaviors and biomarkers that are similar to endophenotypes in autism. Both individuals on the autism spectrum and certain solitary mammals have been reported to be low on measures of affiliative need, bodily expressiveness, bonding and attachment, direct and shared gazing, emotional engagement, conspecific recognition, partner preference, separation distress, and social approach behavior. Solitary mammals also exhibit certain biomarkers that are characteristic of autism, including diminished oxytocin and vasopressin signaling, dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system, increased Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity to social encounters, and reduced HPA activity to separation and isolation. The extent of these similarities suggests that solitary mammals may offer a useful model of autism spectrum disorders and an opportunity for investigating genetic and epigenetic etiological factors. If the brain in autism can be shown to exhibit distinct homologous or homoplastic similarities to the brains of solitary animals, it will reveal that they may be central to the phenotype and should be targeted for further investigation. Research of the neurological, cellular, and molecular basis of these specializations in other mammals may provide insight for behavioral analysis, communication intervention, and psychopharmacology for autism.

  2. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    HEPATITIS C & INCARCERATION What is hepatitis? “Hepatitis” means inflammation or swelling of the liver. The liver is an important ... viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They are all different from each other and ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... of terms Donate Today Enroll in 123 What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain ...

  4. Hepatitis A

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  5. Hepatitis B

    ... information on hepatitis, both in the context of HIV coinfection and as a separate illness. NATAP provides coverage of key conferences, maintains a selection of hepatitis articles, and features an ask-the-expert forum on ...

  6. Hepatitis B

    ... personal items (such as toothbrush, razor, and nail clippers) with a person who has the virus Were ... B virus Digestive system Aggressive hepatitis Gianotti-Crosti syndrome on the leg Hepatitis B References Kim DK, ...

  7. Hepatitis C

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  8. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura.

    Marak, Creticus P; Dorokhova, Olena; Guddati, Achuta K


    Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura (SFTP) is a rare tumor of mesenchymal origin which can grow to a large size and present with symptoms of cough and pleuritic chest pain. No specific etiological factors for SFTPs are known and they may grow undetected for several years. These tumors are usually benign and may mimic a variety of malignancies. SFTPs are often detected as peripheral opacities on chest X-ray. Unfortunately, fine needle aspiration rarely provides adequate information for a definitive diagnosis. Imaging with computed tomography provides details about the size and extent of any invasion into adjacent tissues. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment, and immunohistochemistry of the resected tumor often provides confirmation of the diagnosis. Some SFTPs have been observed to be malignant, and surgical intervention is often lifesaving. There is no adequate data to support the usage of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of SFTPs. This tumor exemplifies malignancies which require surgical resection to preempt worse outcomes. Awareness of their presentation and clinical course may help the clinician provide a prompt referral to the thoracic surgeon for resection.

  9. Food searching and superparasitism in solitary parasitoids

    Sirot, Etienne; Bernstein, Carlos

    Optimality theory predicts that, provided that a larva resulting from superparasitism has some chance of winning the competition with the other larvae present in the host, under certain conditions, solitatry parasitoids should resort to superparasitism. Both theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the life expectancy of the parasitoid has a strong influence on the decision to reject or to accept superparasitism. In many species, life expectancy on its turn depends on the feeding behaviour of the parasitoids, which have to forage for non-host food (mainly plant materials), for the maintenance of their energy reseves. As many solitary parasitoids do not find non-host food in their host patches, they have to choose at each instant whether to search for food or to search for hosts. In this paper, we develop a stochastic dynamic programming model to study the behavioural choice between host and food searching, and its consequences for the acceptance and rejection of superparasitism. We study the influence of habitat quality and parasitoid physiological state on the optimal choice. The model predicts that the crucial point determining the optimal strategy is the balance between egg-and time-limitation.

  10. Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor: Imaging findings

    Clarencon, Frederic, E-mail: [Department of Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, APHP, 75013 Paris (France); Bonneville, Fabrice [Department of Neuroradiology, Hopital Rangueil, Toulouse University Hospital, 31000 Toulouse (France); Rousseau, Audrey [Department of Neuropathology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital (France); Galanaud, Damien [Department of Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, APHP, 75013 Paris (France); Kujas, Michele [Department of Neuropathology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital (France); Naggara, Olivier [Department of Neuroradiology, St Anne Hospital, 75014 Paris (France); Cornu, Philippe [Department of Neurosurgery, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital (France); Chiras, Jacques [Department of Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, APHP, 75013 Paris (France)


    Objective: To study the neuroimaging features of intracranial solitary fibrous tumors (ISFTs). Materials and methods: Retrospective study of neuroimaging features of 9 consecutive histopathologically proven ISFT cases. Location, size, shape, density, signal intensity and gadolinium uptake were studied at CT and MRI. Data collected from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) (3 patients), perfusion imaging and MR spectroscopy (2 patients), and DSA (4 patients) were also analyzed. Results: The tumors most frequently arose from the intracranial meninges (7/9), while the other lesions were intraventricular. Tumor size ranged from 2.5 to 10 cm (mean = 6.6 cm). They presented multilobular shape in 6/9 patients. Most ISFTs were heterogeneous (7/9) with areas of low T2 signal intensity that strongly enhanced after gadolinium administration (6/8). Erosion of the skull was present in about half of the cases (4/9). Components with decreased apparent diffusion coefficient were seen in 2/3 ISFTs on DWI. Spectroscopy revealed elevated peaks of choline and myo-inositol. MR perfusion showed features of hyperperfusion. Conclusion: ISFT should be considered in cases of extra-axial, supratentorial, heterogeneous, hypervascular tumor. Areas of low T2 signal intensity that strongly enhance after gadolinium injection are suggestive of this diagnosis. Restricted diffusion and elevated peak of myo-inositol may be additional valuable features.

  11. Solitary magnetic perturbations at the ELM onset

    Wenninger, RP; Boom, JE; Burckhart, A; Dunne, MG; Dux, R; Eich, T; Fischer, R; Fuchs, C; Garcia-Munoz, M; Igochine, V; Hoelzl, M; Luhmann, NC; Lunt, T; Maraschek, M; Mueller, HW; Park, HK; Schneider, PA; Sommer, F; Suttrop, W; Viezzer, E


    Edge localised modes (ELMs) allow maintaining sufficient purity of tokamak H-mode plasmas and thus enable stationary H-mode. On the other hand in a future device ELMs may cause divertor power flux densities far in excess of tolerable material limits. The size of the energy loss per ELM is determined by saturation effects in the non-linear phase of the ELM, which at present is hardly understood. Solitary magnetic perturbations (SMPs) are identified as dominant features in the radial magnetic fluctuations below 100kHz. They are typically observed close (+-0.1ms) to the onset of pedestal erosion. SMPs are field aligned structures rotating in the electron diamagnetic drift direction with perpendicular velocities of about 10km/s. A comparison of perpendicular velocities suggests that the perturbation evoking SMPs is located at or inside the separatrix. Analysis of very pronounced examples showed that the number of peaks per toroidal turn is 1 or 2, which is clearly lower than corresponding numbers in linear stabil...

  12. Solitary caecum diverticulitis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    Hot, Semih; Eğin, Seracettin; Gökçek, Berk; Yeşiltaş, Metin; Alemdar, Ali; Akan, Arzu; Karahan, Servet Rüştü


    Solitary cecum diverticulum is a benign formation, but it can be complicated with inflammation, perforation and bleeding. Cecum diverticulitis (CD) is the most common complication of caecal diverticulum and it has the highest incidence among Asians, but it is a rare condition in the western world. The incidence of colonic diverticular disease can vary according to national origin, cultural structure and nutritional habits. CD is not common in our country, but it is an important situation because of its clinical similarity with the commonly seen acute right side abdominal diseases like acute appendicitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult, and hence, the actual frequency is not known. The treatment of CD can vary from medical therapy to right hemi colectomy. In this study, we presented ten CD cases on whom surgical resection was performed in our surgery unit during the last 8 years. Our purpose was to increase the awareness of surgeons about this situation, and so, make them pay attention for not having their first experience in the operating room.

  13. Nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in ion-beam plasma

    Das, G.C.; Karmakar, B. (Manipur Univ., Imphal (India). Dept. of Mathematics); Singh, K.I. (Modern Coll., Imphal, Manipur (India))


    The dynamics of solitary waves in an ion-beam plasma having multiple electron temperatures are investigated. The investigation is based on the derivation of the Korteweg-de Vries (Kd V) equation by applying the reductive perturbation technique to the basic equations governing the plasma dynamics. Fascinating results are derived first for a plasma with a small percentage of non-isothermality, then the soliton's behaviour is obtained for an isothermal as well as for a non-isothermal plasma, and finally a general comparison is made and conclusions given. (author).

  14. A rare case of renal hydatidosis in a child with congenital solitary kidney

    Livius Tirnea; Radu Minciu; Tudor Rares Olariu; Victor Dumitrascu; Adriana Maria Neghina; Raul Neghina


    Hydatid cyst of a solitary congenital kidney is a rare entity because of the small percentage of cases with renal hydatidosis and the reduced number of cases with this renal anomaly.We report a case presenting this extremely rare combination and having a favorable outcome.The diagnosis was confirmed based on an association of imagistic techniques and positive serology.The case was managed using a minimal invasive surgical technique(PAIR) that reduced the operative risks.Additionally, an antihelminthic agent(albendazole) was administered.To our knowledge, this is the first case with such comorbidity and treated through percutaneous approach.

  15. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt


    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  16. Transarterial embolization (TAE) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) - The diagnostic value of Lipodol CT for detection of small nodular HCC

    Park, Jae Hyung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Cho, Kil Ho; Kim, Seung Hyup; Lee, Won Jae; Do, Yeong Soo; Kim, Won Hong; Shin, Myung Jin; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In the Far East including Korea, the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is common and its prognosis is very poor unless the malignancy is detected early and resected radically. TAE of HCC was done in 136 patients, from February, 1987 to October, 1987, in the Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. Among these 136 patients 30 had pre-angiographic CT, angiography with lipiodol infusion in hepatic artery, and post-angiographic lipiodol CT. Authors compared the detectability of small tumor nodules (less than 1cm in diameter) between CT, angiography, and lipiodol CT in these 30 patients. The results were as follows: 1. The 30 cases are composed of 14 of solitary nodular, 10 of multinodular, and 6 of diffuse type viewed on pre-angiographic CT. 2. Lipiodol CT is superior in detection of small nodule to conventional CT in 10 cases. (1) Six among 14 cases of solitary nodular type show another nodules on lipiodol CT (2) Four in 10 cases of multinodular type represent additional nodules. 3. Lipiodol CT is also superior in small nodule detection to angiography in 7 cases, and is very useful in detection of tumors at subdiaphragmatic portion, resection margin, and periphery of the liver. 4. It is very difficult to compare the detectability of small nodules between CT, angiography, and lipiodol CT in diffuse type (6 cases). And there is no difference in number of detected nodules in 9 cases of nodular type (24 cases)

  17. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    ... Nutrition Clinical Trials Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  18. Solitary infantile myofibromatosis of the cranial vault: case report.

    Merciadri, Paolo; Pavanello, Marco; Nozza, Paolo; Consales, Alessandro; Ravegnani, Giuseppe Marcello; Piatelli, Gianluca; Gandolfo, Carlo; Cama, Armando


    Infantile myofibromatosis is a mesenchymal disorder of early childhood characterized by the formation of tumors in the skin, muscle, viscera, bone, and subcutaneous tissue. Although relatively rare overall, it represents the most common fibrous tumor of infancy. The etiology of this disorder is unknown. Infantile myofibromatosis can present as a solitary or multicentric form. With the multicentric form, bone is often involved, but solitary bone lesions account for only 10% of the cases. Imaging findings are not pathognomonic, and the differential diagnosis usually includes eosinophilic granuloma (Langerhans cell histiocytosis), osteomyelitis, metastasis, osteoblastoma, epidermoid cyst, hemangioma, fibrous dysplasia, fibrosarcoma, and meningioma. A histological pattern is typical, but there are no histopathological differences between the solitary and multicentric forms. Solitary lesions generally have a favorable prognosis if totally removed, with a 10% recurrence rate; incompletely resected lesions recur. We report the case of a 9-year-old boy who came to our attention with a solitary infantile myofibroma of the calvarium, appearing as a tight-elastic, lightly tender mass in the left frontal area, eroding both the inner and the outer tables. Histopathologically, the specimens showed a spindle-cell tumor with dense reticulin fiber network and expression of smooth muscle actin. Fifty-eight months MR follow-up after total removal showed no residual or relapse.

  19. Laparoscopic Rectopexy in Solitary Rectal Ulcer

    Hassan Salmanroughani


    Full Text Available Patients with Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome (SRUS come to a physician with passage of mucus and bloody liquid within defecation. The treatment for SRUS is depended to the severity of symptoms and the existance of rectal prolapse. This study is a report of the assessing of rectopexy as surgical modalities for 62 medical treatment resistant SRUS patients who were referred to the gastrointestinal department of Shahid Sadoughi Medical University and Mojibian hospital. The present non-randomized clinical trial was carried out in 62 SRUS patients from 1991 till 2005. In these patients SRUS was confirmed by histology. They were symptomatic after conservative therapy and referred for surgical intervention. All of them had been undergone abdominal rectopexy by two laparoscopic surgeons. In our study, rectal bleeding and history of digitalization had the highest and lowest frequency of symptoms and signs in our cases respectively. Abdominal rectopexy was done in 39 cases and complete recovery in our cases was 69.23%. Complete recovery rate in cases with dysplasia (63.8% was significantly higher than cases without that (P=0.04. Complete recovery rate in cases that had finger defecation (85% was significantly higher than cases without that (50% (P=0.03. Laparoscopic rectopexy is one of the main surgical techniques for treatment of SRUS. This technique can present complete recovery for SRUS patients. Some of them include topical medications, behavior modification supplemented by fiber and biofeedback and surgery were more available and studied. But it seems that education of SRUS patient conservative treatment remain cornerstone in the SRUS management.

  20. Solitary pancreas retransplant: Study of 22 cases

    Tércio Genzini


    Full Text Available Objective: To present our experience with pancreas retransplantin patients previously submitted to simultaneous pancreas-kidneytransplant, pancreas after kidney transplant and pancreastransplant alone. Methods: Between January/1996 and December/2005, 330 pancreas transplants were performed: 308 primarytransplants and 22 (6% retransplants of solitary pancreas. Thefollowing variables were analyzed: patient age; time elapsedbetween the first and the second transplant; causes of loss of thefirst graft; technical characteristics of the transplant andretransplant and the criteria for selecting donors for retransplant.These clinical data were submitted to statistical analysis. Results:The mean age of patients was 34.3 years and the mean elapsedtime between the first and second transplant was 19.3 months.The causes of the first graft loss were venous (8; 35% and arterial(5; 23% thrombosis, chronic rejection (4; 18%, ischemia/reperfusion injury (2, reflux pancreatitis (1, primary non-function(1 and sepsis (1. A second transplant was performed in thesame iliac fossa in 16 patients (72%. Venous drainage wasperformed in the iliac vein in 16 patients (72%, in the inferior venacava in 5 patients (22% and in the portal vein in one patient. 6 allbladder drainage was the technique used in 18 (82% cases andenteric drainage, in 4 patients (18%. Immunosuppressive regimenapplied to all cases was quadruple therapy with antilymphocyteinduction, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. Therewas one early death due to sepsis. One-year patient and pancreasgraft survival rates for retransplants were, respectively, 95% and85%. There was no additional risk for removing the pancreas graftat retransplant. Conclusion: Pancreas retransplant was technicallyfeasible in all cases and results similar to those described in theliterature were found for primary pancreas transplant.

  1. Clinicopathological analysis of solitary fibrous tumor

    Xiumei Zhang; Hai Wang; Shujing Wang; Jinfeng Miao; Zhengai Piao; Yingying Dong


    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, molecular genetics, treatment and prognosis of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Methods: The clinicopathological manifestations were analyzed retrospectively in 22 patients with surgically confirmed SFT. Results: There were 12 male patients and 10 female patients, with the age range 33–67 (mean 48.62) years. The SFTs originated from different from parts of the body, including 13 in the chest, 2 in the lungs, 3 in the abdomen, 1 in the lumbosacral area, 2 in the pelvis, and 1 in the left shoulder. There were 19 benign and 3 malignant tumors. Major clinical presentations were local masses and compression symptoms. Microscopy: the tumor was composed of areas of alternating hypercellularity and hypocellularity. The tumor cells were spindle to short-spindle shaped and arranged in fascicular or storiform pattern and hemangiopericytoma-like structure was presented. Immunohistochemically, Vimentin positive rate was 100% (22/22), Bcl-2 positive rate was 95.5% (21/22), CD99 positive rate was 86.4% (19/22), CD34 positive rate was 81.8 (18/22), focally positive for P53, as well as negative CK, S100 and Desmin. Ki67 labelling index was 2%–30%. Conclusion: SFT is a rare tumor which may be found in various parts of human body. SFT mostly is a benign tumor, but a few could be malignant. Its diagnosis mainly rely on its morphologic features and immunohistochemical profiles. The major treatment is to completely resect it by operation and long-term clinical follow-up is necessary.

  2. Gene expression profiling of solitary fibrous tumors.

    François Bertucci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs are rare spindle-cell tumors. Their cell-of-origin and molecular basis are poorly known. They raise several clinical problems. Differential diagnosis may be difficult, prognosis is poorly apprehended by histoclinical features, and no effective therapy exists for advanced stages. METHODS: We profiled 16 SFT samples using whole-genome DNA microarrays and analyzed their expression profiles with publicly available profiles of 36 additional SFTs and 212 soft tissue sarcomas (STSs. Immunohistochemistry was applied to validate the expression of some discriminating genes. RESULTS: SFTs displayed whole-genome expression profiles more homogeneous and different from STSs, but closer to genetically-simple than genetically-complex STSs. The SFTs/STSs comparison identified a high percentage (∼30% of genes as differentially expressed, most of them without any DNA copy number alteration. One of the genes most overexpressed in SFTs encoded the ALDH1 stem cell marker. Several upregulated genes and associated ontologies were also related to progenitor/stem cells. SFTs also overexpressed genes encoding therapeutic targets such as kinases (EGFR, ERBB2, FGFR1, JAK2, histone deacetylases, or retinoic acid receptors. Their overexpression was found in all SFTs, regardless the anatomical location. Finally, we identified a 31-gene signature associated with the mitotic count, containing many genes related to cell cycle/mitosis, including AURKA. CONCLUSION: We established a robust repertoire of genes differentially expressed in SFTs. Certain overexpressed genes could provide new diagnostic (ALDH1A1, prognostic (AURKA and/or therapeutic targets.

  3. Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI syndrome

    Hall Roger K


    Full Text Available Abstract Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s operating in utero about the 35th–38th day(s from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor, in that the crown form is symmetric; it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Congenital nasal malformation (choanal atresia, midnasal stenosis or congenital pyriform aperture stenosis is positively associated with SMMCI. The presence of an SMMCI tooth can predict associated anomalies and in particular the serious anomaly holoprosencephaly. Common congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI are: severe to mild intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate and less frequently, microcephaly, hypopituitarism, hypotelorism, convergent strabismus, oesophageal and duodenal atresia, cervical hemivertebrae, cervical dermoid, hypothyroidism, scoliosis, absent kidney, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Short stature is present in half the children. Diagnosis should be made by eight months of age, but can be made at birth and even prenatally at 18–22 weeks from the routine mid-trimester ultrasound scan. Management depends upon the individual anomalies present. Choanal stenosis requires emergency surgical treatment. Short stature may require growth hormone therapy. SMMCI tooth itself is mainly an aesthetic problem, which is ideally managed by combined orthodontic, prosthodontic and oral surgical treatment; alternatively, it can be left untreated.

  4. Sexual Reproductive Biology of a Colonial Rotifer Sinantherina socialis (Rotifera: Monogononta): Do mating strategies vary between colonial and solitary rotifer species?

    Rico-Martínez, Roberto; Walsh, Elizabeth J.


    In many aquatic invertebrates including monogonont rotifers, sex provides genetic variation and dormant stages that allows dispersal in time and space. While the reproductive biology of some solitary monogonont rotifer species is known, little is known concerning mating behaviors in colonial rotifers. Coloniality poses unique challenges to the typical mating behavior of solitary rotifers. For instance, most species engage in circling behavior, where the male swims in close proximity to the female. In colonial forms, access to a particular female may be hindered by nearby colony mates. Here we provide descriptions of (1) male morphology, (2) mating behavior, and (3) types of eggs of the widespread colonial rotifer Sinantherina socialis, and discuss modifications in mating strategies as a consequence of coloniality. Two important differences from mating patterns documented in solitary rotifers were found in S. socialis. First, duration of circling phase of mating is protracted for males encountering small colonies of females as compared to solitary females. Males encountering single females removed from their colonies behave similarly to those of solitary species. Second, duration of copulation in S. socialis is the shortest reported for any rotifer species. Endogamy might occur in this species as sons copulate with their sisters and mothers, at least under laboratory conditions. Examples of behaviour in linked video clips. PMID:24932095

  5. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A


    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants.

  6. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    Ostojić, Rajko


    Autoimmune hepatitis is an unresolving, hepatocellular inflammation of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of periportal hepatitis on histologic examination, tissue autoantibodies in serum, and hypergammaglobulinemia. By international consensus, the designation autoimmune hepatitis has replaced alternative terms for the condition. Three types of autoimmune hepatitis have been proposed based on immunoserologic findings. Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) (or both) in serum. Seventy percent of patients with type 1 of autoimmune hepatitis are women. This type is the most common form and accounts for at least 80% of cases. Type 2 is characterized by the presence of antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) in serum. Patients with this type of autoimmune hepatitis are predominantly children. Type 3 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antibodies to soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) in serum. There are no individual features that are pathognomonic of autoimmune hepatitis, and its diagnosis requires the confident exclusion of other conditions. The large majority of patients show satisfactory response to corticosteroid (usually prednisone or prednisolone) therapy. For the past 30 years it has been customary to add azathioprine as a "steroid sparing" agent to allow lower doses of steroids to be used and remission, once achieved, can be sustained in many patients with azathioprine alone after steroid withdrawal. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis who have decompensated during or after corticosteroid therapy are candidates for liver transplantation.

  7. The novel multi-solitary wave solution to the fifth-order KdV equation

    Zhang Yi; Chen Deng-Yuan


    By using Hirota's method, the novel multi-solitary wave solutions to the fifth-order KdV equation are obtained.Furthermore, various new solitary wave solutions are also derived by a reconstructed bilinear Backlund transformation.

  8. Diffractons: Solitary Waves Created by Diffraction in Periodic Media

    Ketcheson, David I.


    A new class of solitary waves arises in the solution of nonlinear wave equations with constant impedance and no dispersive terms. These solitary waves depend on a balance between nonlinearity and a dispersion-like effect due to spatial variation in the sound speed of the medium. A high-order homogenized model confirms this effective dispersive behavior, and its solutions agree well with those obtained by direct simulation of the variable-coefficient system. These waves are observed to be long-time stable, globally attracting solutions that arise in general as solutions to nonlinear wave problems with periodically varying sound speed. They share some properties with known classes of solitary waves but possess important differences as well.

  9. Shoaling Large Amplitude Internal Solitary Waves in a Laboratory Tank

    Allshouse, Michael; Larue, Conner; Swinney, Harry


    The shoaling of internal solitary waves onto the continental shelf can change both the wave dynamics and the state of the environment. Previous observations have demonstrated that these waves can trap fluid and transport it over long distances. Through the use of a camshaft-based wavemaker, we produce large amplitude shoaling waves in a stratified fluid in a laboratory tank. Simulations of solitary waves are used to guide the tuning of the wave generator to approximate solitary waves; thus nonlinear waves can be produced within the 4m long tank. PIV and synthetic schlieren measurements are made to study the transport of fluid by the wave as it moves up a sloping boundary. The results are then compared to numerical simulations and analyzed using finite time Lyapunov exponent calculations. This Lagrangian analysis provides an objective measure of barriers surrounding trapped regions in the flow. Supported by ONR MURI Grant N000141110701 (WHOI).

  10. Giant solitary trichoepithelioma with desmoplasia on histopathology: An unusual finding

    Sundeep Chowdhry


    Full Text Available Trichoepithelioma is a well-recognized hamartoma of hair germ clinically presenting as solitary or multiple papules. Uncommonly, it may present as a large solitary lesion, termed as giant solitary trichoepithelioma (GST. A 50-year old man presented with a large, pedunculated mass over the root of nose obstructing visual field. It was excised and sent for histopathological examination. H&E staining revealed in addition to characteristic features of trichoepithelioma, a desmoplastic hypocellular stroma. After taking into account the clinical and histopathological features, a diagnosis of GST was made. This case is the first case to the best of authors’ knowledge describing desmoplastic stroma in a case of GST. It is also noteworthy because it reports the largest GST described so far over the nose.

  11. On solitary patterns in Lotka-Volterra chains

    Zilburg, Alon; Rosenau, Philip


    We present and study a class of Lotka-Volterra chains with symmetric 2N-neighbors interactions. To identify the types of solitary waves which may propagate along the chain, we study their quasi-continuum approximations which, depending on the coupling between neighbors, reduce into a large variety of partial differential equations. Notable among the emerging equations is a bi-cubic equation {u}t={[{{bu}}2+2κ {{uu}}{xx}+{({u}{xx})}2]}x which we study in some detail. It begets remarkably stable topological and non-topological solitary compactons that interact almost elastically. They are used to identify discretons, their solitary discrete antecedents on the lattice, which decay at a doubly exponential rate. Many of the discrete modes are robust while others either decompose or evolve into breathers.

  12. Solitary calvarial metastases : An unusual presentation of thoracic neuroblastoma

    Grover S


    Full Text Available A primary thoracic origin occurs only in 20% of neuroblastomas, and their classical presentation is mediastinal or cord compression. Skeletal metastases of neuroblastomas are characteristically multiple, and calvarial deposits usually show simultaneous involvement of orbit. Solitary metastases in neuroblastoma, is an unusual entity and its presentation as a large calvarial mass, especially from a thoracic primary, is rare. Furthermore, calvarial metastases are relatively uncommon in children compared to adults. We discuss the clinical, radiographic, CT features, and differential diagnosis of a large calvarial mass with sunray spiculation in a child, which was due to a solitary metastases from an occult thoracic neuroblastoma. The possibility of neuroblastoma presenting in this unique fashion and the importance of considering a chemosensitive tumor such as neuroblastoma in the differential diagnosis of a solitary calvarial mass in a child is highlighted by our report.

  13. Solitary and freak waves in superthermal plasma with ion jet

    Abdelsalam, U. M.; Abdelsalam


    The nonlinear solitary and freak waves in a plasma composed of positive and negative ions, superthermal electrons, ion beam, and stationary dust particles have been investigated. The reductive perturbation method is used to obtain the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation describing the system. The latter admits solitary wave solution, while the dynamics of the modulationally unstable wavepackets described by the KdV equation gives rise to the formation of freak/rogue excitation described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. In order to show that the characteristics of solitary and freak waves are influenced by plasma parameters, relevant numerical analysis of appropriate nonlinear solutions are presented. The results from this work predict nonlinear excitations that may associate with ion jet and superthermal electrons in Herbig-Haro objects.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Cylindrical Solitary Waves in Periodic Media

    Quezada de Luna, Manuel


    We study the behavior of nonlinear waves in a two-dimensional medium with density and stress relation that vary periodically in space. Efficient approximate Riemann solvers are developed for the corresponding variable-coefficient first-order hyperbolic system. We present direct numerical simulations of this multiscale problem, focused on the propagation of a single localized perturbation in media with strongly varying impedance. For the conditions studied, we find little evidence of shock formation. Instead, solutions consist primarily of solitary waves. These solitary waves are observed to be stable over long times and to interact in a manner approximately like solitons. The system considered has no dispersive terms; these solitary waves arise due to the material heterogeneity, which leads to strong reflections and effective dispersion.

  15. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in Pregnancy

    ... and hepatitis C infections during pregnancy? • How is hepatitis B virus infection spread? • What is acute hepatitis B virus infection? • What is chronic hepatitis B virus infection? • Can ...

  16. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  17. Clinical analysis of bone scanning in solitary lesion


    A rational analysis procedure for solitary lesions on whole bone scan-ning was offered. This study was undertaken to analyze retrospectively solitary le-sions which obtained final diagnose through the following aspects: (1) diagnosis ofbone metastasis, (2) the incidence of bone metastasis in different tumor, (3) the mostpossible lesion sites indicating bone metastasis, (4) morphological analysis of solitarylesions. The results are: (1) The incidence of solitary lesions in 2465 cases on wholebone scanning is 15.3%. (2) The rate of bone metastasis is 24.8% in 282 patientswith primary malignancy. The rate of bone metastasis is 6.3% in 64 patients withoutprimary malignancy, and the total diagnostic rate of bone metastasis is 21.4% in 346patients. (3) In patients with primary malignancy, the incidence of bone metastasis ofsolitary lesions is as follows respectively: bronchi cancer 36.1%(22/61); breast cancer23.8%(20/84); prostate gland 17.2%(5/29); other urinary system cancer 22.2%(4/18):G.I. system cancer 16.9%(10/59); others 29.0%(9/31). There is no significant differ-ence in different cancer. (4) In patients without primary malignancy, 93.7%(60/64) ofsolitary lesions are benign. (5) From anatomical point of view, we found the diagnos-tic rate of bone metastasis is as follow: 30% in spine; 34.2% in pelvis; 36.4% in skull;10.8% in other bones. There are significant differences in four groups. It is concludedthat: (1) The diagnostic rate of bone metastasis in solitary lesions is 21.4%. (2) Themost possible solitary lesions indicating osseous tumor spread are at spine, pelvic andskull. (3) Special attention to "cold" and streak like lesions should be paid. (4) Aclinical analysis procedure for diagnosis of solitary lesions has been summarized outhere.``

  18. Serotonin enhances solitariness in phase transition of the migratory locust

    Xiaojiao eGuo


    Full Text Available The behavioral plasticity of locusts is a striking trait presented during the reversible phase transition between solitary and gregarious individuals. However, the results of serotonin as a neurotransmitter from the migratory locust Locusta migratoria in phase transition showed an alternative profile compared to the results from the desert locust Schistoserca gregaria. In this study, we investigated the roles of serotonin in the brain during the phase change of the migratory locust. During the isolation of gregarious nymphs, the concentration of serotonin in the brain increased significantly, whereas serotonin receptors (i.e. 5-HT1, 5-HT2 and 5-HT7 we identified here showed invariable expression patterns. Pharmacological intervention showed that serotonin injection in the brain of gregarious nymphs did not induced the behavior change toward solitariness, but injection of this chemical in isolated gregarious nymphs accelerated the behavioral change from gregarious to solitary phase. During the crowding of solitary nymphs, the concentration of serotonin in the brain remained unchanged, whereas 5-HT2 increased after 1 h of crowding and maintained stable expression level thereafter. Activation of serotonin-5-HT2 signaling with a pharmaceutical agonist inhibited the gregariousness of solitary nymphs in crowding treatment. These results indicate that the fluctuations of serotonin content and 5-HT2 expression are results of locust phase change. Overall, this study demonstrates that serotonin enhances the solitariness of the gregarious locusts. Serotonin may regulate the withdrawal-like behavioral pattern displayed during locust phase change and this mechanism is conserved in different locust species.

  19. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    ... of three viruses: the hepatitis A virus the hepatitis B virus the hepatitis C virus In some rare cases, ... also called serum hepatitis) is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV can cause a wide range of ...

  20. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    ... 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus (HCV), ... to child. Map 3-05. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 Disease ...

  1. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Hepatitis Print A A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Hepatitis About Hepatitis The word hepatitis simply means an inflammation of ...

  2. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B is ... their exposures. Map 3-04. Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection among adults PDF Version (printable) ...

  3. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus ( ... human blood Map 3-05. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  4. Solitary Eccrine Syringofibroadenoma and Successful Treatment with Cryotherapy.

    Ozkaya, Dilek Biyik; Su, Ozlem; Bahalı, Anıl Gülsel; Topukçu, Bugce; Dizman, Didem; Tosuner, Zeynep; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Onsun, Nahide


    First described in 1963, eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) is a rare benign tumor that proliferates with differentiation toward ductal eccrine structures. There are many clinical presentations, including plaques, papules, verrucous plaques, keratotic tumors, and solitary tumors. The age of onset varies, with presentation between 16 and 80 years; however, solitary lesions are seen most commonly in the seventh and eighth decades. Here, we present the case of a 72-year-old woman referred to our outpatient clinic with a nodule on her leg. The histopathology result was ESFA. The lesion regressed after six cryotherapy sessions. Physicians should consider the possibility of ESFA and must remember its malignant potential in elderly patients.

  5. A case of congenital solitary Langerhans cell histiocytoma.

    Ricciardo, Bernadette


    A newborn baby boy was referred to the Paediatric Dermatology Unit with a solitary asymptomatic nodule overlying his right nasolabial fold. Complete physical examination, full blood count, serum chemistry, liver function tests and baseline imaging were unremarkable. Histopathological examination showed an atypical dermal infiltrate of mononuclear cells that stained positive with CD1a and S100. A diagnosis of congenital solitary Langerhans cell histiocytoma was made. The lesion completely resolved by 4 months of age. The baby is now 15 months old and repeat systemic evaluation has remained normal.

  6. Measurement of velocity field in parametrically excited solitary waves

    Gordillo, Leonardo


    Paramerically excited solitary waves emerge as localized structures in high-aspect-ratio free surfaces subject to vertical vibrations. Herein, we provide the first experimental characterization of the hydrodynamics of thess waves using Particle Image Velocimetry. We show that the underlying velocity field of parametrically excited solitary waves is mainly composed by an oscillatory velocity field. Our results confirm the accuracy of Hamiltonian models with added dissipation in describing this field. Remarkably, our measurements also uncover the onset of a streaming velocity field which is shown to be as important as other crucial nonlinear terms in the current theory. The observed streaming pattern is particularly interesting due to the presence of oscillatory meniscii.

  7. Solitary structures with ion and electron thermal anisotropy

    Khusroo, Murchana


    Formation of electrostatic solitary structures are analysed for a magnetised plasma with ion and electron thermal anisotropies. The ion thermal anisotropy is modelled with the help of the Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) double adiabatic equations of state while the electrons are treated as inertia-less species with an anisotropic bi-Maxwellian velocity distribution function. A negative electron thermal anisotropy $(T_{e\\perp}/T_e{\\parallel}>1)$ is found to help form large amplitude solitary structures which are in agreement with observational data.

  8. Effect of nonthermal ion distribution and dust temperature on nonlinear dust-acoustic solitary waves

    K Annou; R Annou


    Dust-acoustic solitary waves in unmagnetized dusty plasma whose constituents are inertial charged dust grains, Boltzmannian electrons and nonthermal ions have been investigated by taking into account finite dust temperature. The pseudopotential has been used to study solitary solution. The existence of solitary waves having negative potential is reported.

  9. Single-peak solitary wave solutions for the variant Boussinesq equations

    Hong Li; Lilin Ma; Dahe Feng


    This paper presents all possible smooth, cusped solitary wave solutions for the variant Boussinesq equations under the inhomogeneous boundary condition. The parametric conditions for the existence of smooth, cusped solitary wave solutions are given using the phase portrait analytical technique. Asymptotic analysis and numerical simulations are provided for smooth, cusped solitary wave solutions of the variant Boussinesq equations.

  10. Existence,Orbital Stability and Instability of Solitary Waves for Coupled BBM Equations

    Li-wei Cui


    This paper is concerned with the orbital stability/instability of solitary waves for coupled BBM equations which have Hamiltonian form.The explicit solitary wave solutions will be worked out first.Then by detailed spectral analysis and decaying estimates of solutions for the initial value problem,we obtain the orbital stability/instability of solitary waves.

  11. Nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma with arbitrarily charged dust and trapped electrons

    O Rahman; A A Mamun


    A theoretical investigation of dust-acoustic solitary waves in three-component unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of trapped electrons, Maxwellian ions, and arbitrarily charged cold mobile dust was done. It has been found that, owing to the departure from the Maxwellian electron distribution to a vortex-like one, the dynamics of small but finite amplitude dust-acoustic (DA) waves is governed by a nonlinear equation of modified Korteweg–de Vries (mKdV) type (instead of KdV). The reductive perturbation method was employed to study the basic features (amplitude, width, speed, etc.) of DA solitary waves which are significantly modified by the presence of trapped electrons. The implications of our results in space and laboratory plasmas are briefly discussed.

  12. Solitary, explosive, rational and elliptic doubly periodic solutions for nonlinear electron-acoustic waves in the earth's magnetotail region

    El-Wakil, S A; El-Shewy, E K; Abd-El-Hamid, H M


    A theoretical investigation has been made of electron acoustic wave propagating in unmagnetized collisionless plasma consisting of a cold electron fluid and isothermal ions with two different temperatures obeying Boltzmann type distributions. Based on the pseudo-potential approach, large amplitude potential structures and the existence of Solitary waves are discussed. The reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for small but finite amplitude electrostatic waves. An algebraic method with computerized symbolic computation, which greatly exceeds the applicability of the existing tanh, extended tanh methods in obtaining a series of exact solutions of the KdV equation, is used here. Numerical studies have been made using plasma parameters close to those values corresponding to Earth's plasma sheet boundary layer region reveals different solutions i.e., bell-shaped solitary pulses and singularity solutions at a finite point which called "blowup" solutions, Jaco...

  13. Dust-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty plasma with nonthermal electrons and trapped ions

    Misra, A. P.; Wang, Yunliang


    The nonlinear propagation of electrostatic dust-acoustic (DA) waves in a magnetized dusty plasma consisting of negatively charged mobile dusts, nonthermal fast electrons and trapped ions with vortex-like distribution is studied. Using the reductive perturbation technique, a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV)-like equation is derived which governs the dynamics of the small-amplitude solitary waves in a magnetized dusty nonthermal plasma. It is found that due to the dust thermal pressure, there exists a critical value (βc) of the nonthermal parameter β (>1), denoting the percentage of energetic electrons, below which the DA solitary waves cease to propagate. The soliton solution (traveling wave) of the KdV-like equation is obtained, and is shown to be only of the rarefactive type. The properties of the solitons are analyzed numerically with the system parameters. It is also seen that the effect of the static magnetic field (which only modifies the soliton width) becomes significant when the dust gyrofrequency is smaller than one-tenth of the dust plasma frequency. Furthermore, the amplitude of the soliton is found to increase (decrease) when the ratio of the free to trapped ion temperatures (σ) is positive (negative). The effects of the system parameters including the obliqueness of propagation (lz) and σ on the dynamics of the DA solitons are also discussed numerically, and it is found that the soliton structures can withstand perturbations and turbulence during a considerable time. The results should be useful for understanding the nonlinear propagation of DA solitary waves in laboratory and space plasmas (e.g., Earth's magnetosphere, auroral region, heliospheric environments, etc.).

  14. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C


    Assessment of hepatic fibrosis is important for determining prognosis, guiding management decisions,and monitoring disease. Histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimens is currently considered the reference test for staging hepatic fibrosis. Since liver biopsy carries a small but significant risk, noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis are desirable. This editorial gives an overview on noninvasive methods currently available to determine hepatic fibrosis and their diagnostic accuracy for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C. Based on available data, the performance of simple tests derived from routine laboratory parameters appears to be similar to that of more complex and expensive fibrosis panels. Transient elastography seems more accurate than blood tests for diagnosing cirrhosis.

  15. Hepatitis A

    ... inflammation of the liver.” This inflammation can be caused by a wide variety of toxins, drugs, and metabolic diseases, as well as infection. There are at least 5 hepatitis viruses. Hepatitis A is contracted when a child eats food or drinks water that is contaminated with the virus or has ...

  16. Sectional localization of a small hepatocellular carcinoma in the right hepatic lobe by computed tomography: Comparison between the conventional and portal vein tracing methods

    Zhou, Chun-Gao [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jongro-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nanjing (China); Chung, Jin Wook; Hur, Saebeom; Lee, Myungsu; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun; Yin, Yong-Hu; Kim, Young Il [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jongro-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-bu [Dongnam Institution of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Baik Hwan [Chonbuk National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)


    To compare the accuracy of the conventional and portal vein tracing methods in the right hepatic lobe in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). This retrospective study included patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions in the right hepatic lobe who underwent multiphasic MDCT and C-arm CT hepatic arteriography (C-arm CTHA) for chemoembolization. The accuracies of the conventional and portal vein tracing methods were evaluated using C-arm CTHA as the gold standard. A total of 147 patients with 205 HCC nodules were included. The C-arm CTHA could identify all the tumour-feeding arteries and consequently demonstrated that 120 lesions were located in the anterior section, 78 in the posterior section, and 7 in the border zone. The accuracy rates of conventional vs. portal vein tracing methods were 71.7 % vs. 98.3 % for the anterior section lesions, 67.9 % vs. 96.2 % for the posterior section, and 28.6 % vs. 57.1 % for the border zone. The portal vein tracing method was more accurate than the conventional method (P<0.001). The portal vein tracing method should be used for sectional localization of HCCs in the right lobe, because it predicts the location more accurately than the conventional method. (orig.)

  17. Hepatic failure in a rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma of the liver: failure of embolotherapy

    Zenzen, Wendy; Alomari, Ahmad I. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Perez-Atayde, Antonio R. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Elisofon, Scott A. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Division of Gastroenterology, Boston, MA (United States); Bae Kim, Heung [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)


    We report the clinical course, imaging findings, and management of a rare case of rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma of the liver in a newborn girl. The baby presented with severe progressive hepatic dysfunction and cardiomegaly. Multimodality imaging demonstrated a large hypervascular solitary hepatic mass with marked transhepatic shunting, consistent with rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma. Because medical therapy failed, transarterial and transvenous embolization was performed with the main intention to improve the hepatic perfusion and function. Unfortunately, despite improvement in the cardiac overload, liver function continued to deteriorate. The baby eventually underwent successful liver transplantation. (orig.)

  18. Hepatic angiomyolipoma: Dynamic computed tomography features and clinical correlation

    Bin Yang; Wen-Hui Chen; Qiao-Yun Li; Jing-Jing Xiang; Ru-Jun Xu


    AIM: To study the dynamic computed tomography (CT) features of hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML) in patients with or without tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). METHODS: The clinical information, CT findings and histopathological results of hepatic AML were analyzed retrospectively in 10 patients. RESULTS: Hepatic AML was prone to occur in female patients (7/10), and most of the patients (8/10) had no specific symptoms. All tumors presented as welldefined, unenveloped nodules in the liver. Six patients with sporadic hepatic AML had a solitary hepatic nodule with a definite fat component. Non-fat components of the hepatic lesions were enhanced earlier and persistently. Prominent central vessels were noted in the portal venous phase in three patients. In four patients with hepatic AML and TSC, most of the nodules were within the peripheral liver. Seven fatdeficient nodules were found with earlier contrast enhancement and rapid contrast material washout in two patients. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis was found in one patient.CONCLUSION: Imaging features of hepatic AML are characteristic. Correct diagnosis preoperatively can be made in combination with clinical features.


    ZhuYanjuan; ZhangChunhua


    The solitary wave solutions of the combined KdV-mKdV-Burgers equation and the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation are obtained by means of the direct algebra method, which can be generalized to deal with high dimensional nonlinear evolution equations.

  20. Reconstructive surgery in eight children with solitary kidneys

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens


    Within a 10-year period reconstructive urinary tract surgery has been carried out in eight children with solitary kidneys. The children were 0-5 years old. Six had unilateral renal agenesis and two had unilateral multicystic kidney. In five children ureteroneocystostomy was performed, in two...

  1. Observations of Solitary Structures in a Magnetized, Plasma Loaded Waveguide

    Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans;


    Two types of solitary structure were investigated experimentally and numerically in a magnetized, plasma-loaded waveguide. One was identified as an ordinary KdV soliton and its properties were investigated with particular attention to the damping by resonant particles. The other type of pulse...


    王涛; 高天赋


    Remote sensing and in situ observations of internal tides, solitary waves and bores in shallow water are briefly reviewed in this paper. The emphasis is laid on interpreting SAR images based on oceanographic measurements, and analyzing characteristics of internal waves in the China Seas. Direc-tions for future research are discussed.



    Remote sensing and in situ observations of internal tides, solitary waves and bores in shallow water are briefly reviewed in this paper. The emphasis is laid on interpreting SAR images based on oceanographic measurements, and analyzing characteristics of internal waves in the China Seas. Directions for future research are discussed.

  4. Sound exposure of professional orchestral musicians during solitary practice.

    O'Brien, Ian; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen


    It is broadly acknowledged that professional orchestral musicians risk noise-induced hearing pathologies due to sound exposure in rehearsal and performance. While much has been published regarding orchestral sound levels, little is known of the sound exposure these musicians experience during solitary practice, despite the many hours they spend engaged in this activity. This study aimed to determine sound exposure during solitary practice of 35 professional orchestral musicians, representing players of most orchestral instruments. To allow cross-comparison, participants were assessed playing similar repertoire in a controlled environment, recording simultaneously at each ear to determine sound exposure levels. Sound levels were recorded between 60 and 107 dB L(Aeq), with peak levels between 101 and 130 dB L(C,peak). For average reported practice durations (2.1 h per day, five days a week) 53% would exceed accepted permissible daily noise exposure in solitary practice, in addition to sound exposure during orchestral rehearsals and performances. Significant inter-aural differences were noted in violin, viola, flute/piccolo, horn, trombone, and tuba. Only 40% used hearing protection at any time while practicing. These findings indicate orchestral musicians at risk of noise-induced hearing loss in ensemble face significant additional risks during solitary practice. Data presented will enable more effective and targeted management strategies for this population.

  5. Solitary waves in a nonintegrable Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain

    Truskinovsky, Lev; Vainchtein, Anna


    We present a family of exact solutions describing discrete solitary waves in a nonintegrable Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain. The family is sufficiently rich to cover the whole spectrum of known behaviors from delocalized quasicontinuum waves moving with near-sonic velocities to highly localized anticontinuum excitations with only one particle moving at a time.

  6. Transarterial Onyx Embolization of an Orbital Solitary Fibrous Tumor

    Hashemi, Nafiseh; Ling, Jeanie D.; Soparkar, Charles; Sami, Mirwat; Ellezam, Benjamin; Klucznik, Richard; Lee, Andrew G.; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia


    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm sometimes found in the orbit. We report a case of an aggressive orbital SFT with enlarged feeding vessels that was successfully resected immediately after transarterial embolization with Onyx (ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer). To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the histopathology of Onyx embolization material in an orbital SFT. PMID:27171911

  7. Solitary Wave in Linear ODE with Variable Coefficients

    LIU Shi-Da; FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Kuo; XIN Guo-Jun; LIANG Fu-Ming; FENG Bei-Ye


    In this paper, the linear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients are obtained from thecontrolling equations satisfied by wavelet transform or atmospheric internal gravity waves, and these linear equationscan be further transformed into Weber equations. From Weber equations, the homoclinic orbit solutions can be derived,so the solitary wave solutions to linear equations with variable coefficients are obtained.

  8. Solitary Wave and Wave Front as Viewed From Curvature

    LIU Shi-Kuo; FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Da; LIANG Fu-Ming; XIN Guo-Jun


    The solitary wave and wave front are two important behaviors of nonlinear evolution equations. Geometri cally, solitary wave and wave front are all plane curve. In this paper, they can be represented in terms of curvature c(s), which varies with arc length s. For solitary wave when s →±∞, then its curvature c(s) approaches zero, and when s = 0, the curvature c(s) reaches its maximum. For wave front, when s →±∞, then its curvature c(s) approaches zero, and when s = 0, the curvature c(s) is still zero, but c'(s) ≠ 0. That is, s = 0 is a turning point. When c(s) is given, the variance at some point (x, y) in stream line with arc length s satisfies a 2-order linear variable-coefficient ordinary differential equation. From this equation, it can be determined qualitatively whether the given curvature is a solitary wave or wave front.

  9. Solitary plane waves in an isotropic hexagonal lattice

    Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Savin, A.V.; Christiansen, Peter Leth


    Solitary plane-wave solutions in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice which can propagate in different directions on the plane are found by using the pseudospectral method. The main point of our studies is that the lattice model is isotropic and we show that the sound velocity is the same for diff...

  10. A Stylistic Appreciation of William Wordsworth's The Solitary Reaper



    This paper, based on the literary stylistic approach, is about the analysis of William Wordsworth's lyrics The Solitary Reaper. The features in its metrics, lexis and imagery explicitly reveal the poet's love for human, passion for nature and principle of simplicity.

  11. Exact Periodic Solitary Solutions to the Shallow Water Wave Equation

    LI Dong-Long; ZHAO Jun-Xiao


    Exact solutions to the shallow wave equation are studied based on the idea of the extended homoclinic test and bilinear method. Some explicit solutions, such as the one soliton solution, the doubly-periodic wave solution and the periodic solitary wave solutions, are obtained. In addition, the properties of the solutions are investigated.

  12. Internal solitary waves in the Red Sea: An unfolding mystery

    da Silva, J.C.B.; Magalhães, J.M.; Gerkema, T.; Maas, L.R.M.


    The off-shelf region between 16.0 degrees and 16.5 degrees N in the southern Red Sea is identified as a new hotspot for the occurrence of oceanic internal solitary waves. Satellite observations reveal trains of solitons that, surprisingly, appear to propagate from the center of the Red Sea, where it

  13. Solitary Wave and Wave Front as Viewed From Curvature

    LIUShi-Kuo; FUZun-Tao; LIUShi-Da; LIANGFu-Ming; XINGuo-Jun


    The solitary wave and wave front are two important behaviors of nonlinear evolution equations. Geometrically, solitary wave and wave front are all plane curve. In this paper, they can be represented in terms of curvature c(s),which varies with arc length s. For solitary wave when s→±∞, then its curvature c(s) approaches zero, and whens = 0, the curvature c(s) reaches its maximum. For wave front, when s→±∞, then its curvature c(s) approaches zero,and when s = 0, the curvature c(s) is still zero, but c'(s)≠0. That is, s = 0 is a turning point. When c(s) is given,the variance at some point (x, y) in stream line with arc length s satisfies a 2-order linear variable-coeffcient ordinary differential equation. From this equation, it can be determined qualitatively whether the given curvature is a solitary wave or wave front.

  14. Solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid with capsular invasion.

    Bohórquez, Concepción Lara; González-Cámpora, Ricardo; Loscertales, Miguel Congregado; Escudero, Antonio García; Mezquita, Jesús Congregado


    This report describes the clinical and pathologic findings of a peculiar case of solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland that showed capsular invasion. After four and a half years of follow-up, neither local recurrence nor metastasis has developed.

  15. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with a solitary kidney

    Tufan Süelözgen


    Full Text Available Material and method: The results of percutaneous nephrolithotomy applied to 716 patients in our clinic between January 2008 and January 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Age, gender, urinary calculi size (mm2, urinary calculi localization, ESWL history, operation duration (min, fluoroscopy duration (sec, access type, reason of solitary kidney, hemoglobin drawdown (g/dl and operation success of the patients with a solitary kidney were recorded. The patients having no preoperative and postoperative non contrast abdominal tomography were excluded from the study. Results: Fifteen of nineteen patients (79% were men and 4 of them (21% were women. The average age of the patients was 42.52 ± 16.72 (14-72. Ten patients had anatomical solitary kidney and nine patients had physiological solitary kidney. In fact counter kidney was non functional in 9 patients (47% whereas there was agenesis in 2 (11% and outcome of nephrectomy in 8 (42% patients. In our study, presence of residual stone less than 4 mm at 1st month postoperative non contrast abdominal tomography was accepted as a successful result and accordingly our success rate was detected as 84%. Mean urinary calculi size was 405 ± 252.9 mm2; urinary calculi localization was pelvic, lower pole, upper-middle pole, middle-lower pole and staghorn in 11 (58%, 4 (21%, 1 (5%, 1 (5% and 1 (5% patients, respectively; previous ESWL history was 16%; operation duration was 55.47-± 28.1 min and fluoroscopy duration 131.10 ± 87.6 sec; access type was subcostal in 79%, supracostal in 10.5% and multiple in 10.5%; hemoglobin drawdown was 1.75 ± 0.97 mg/dl. Conclusions: PNL can be effectively and safely administered for the treatment of solitary kidney. In the treatment of large urinary calculi in patients with a solitary kidney, PNL has some advantages such as short surgery duration, less complication, acceptable hemoglobin drawdown and high success rates. According to our study, PNL operation in patients with a

  16. Dissipative kinetic Alfvén solitary waves resulting from viscosity

    Choi, C.-R.; Kang, S.-B.; Min, K.-W. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, M.-H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, J.; Park, Y.-D. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)


    Nonlinear small-amplitude kinetic Alfvén solitary waves (KASWs) are investigated with their “anomalous” kinetic viscosity effect on electrons. It is found that the structure of a hump-type KASW solution develops into a shock-type (or double layer) KASW solution for large amplitude KASWs when viscosity exists. For small amplitude KASWs, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with an approximate pseudopotential was solved, and it is found that the hump-type KASWs develop into oscillating shock-type (kink-type) KASWs. It is also found that the oscillating scale of this structure is related to the propagation velocity and plasma beta, while the damping scale is inversely proportional to the viscosity.

  17. Quantum reflection of bright solitary matter-waves from a narrow attractive potential

    Marchant, A L; Yu, M M H; Rakonjac, A; Helm, J L; Polo, J; Weiss, C; Gardiner, S A; Cornish, S L


    We report the observation of quantum reflection from a narrow, attractive, potential using bright solitary matter-waves formed from a 85Rb Bose-Einstein condensate. We create narrow potentials using a tightly focused, red-detuned laser beam, and observe reflection of up to 25% of the atoms, along with the trapping of atoms at the position of the beam. We show that the observed reflected fraction is much larger than theoretical predictions for a narrow Gaussian potential well; a more detailed model of bright soliton propagation, accounting for the generic presence of small subsidiary intensity maxima in the red-detuned beam, suggests that these small intensity maxima are the cause of this enhanced reflection.

  18. Solitary Large Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Staging and Treatment Strategy.

    Po-Hong Liu

    Full Text Available Controversies exist on staging and management of solitary large (>5 cm hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. This study aims to evaluate the impact of tumor size on Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC staging and treatment strategy.BCLC stage A and B patients were included and re-classified as single tumor 2-5 cm or up to 3 tumors ≤3 cm (group A; n = 657, single tumor >5 cm (group SL; n = 224, and multiple tumors >3 cm (group B; n = 351. Alternatively, 240 and 229 patients with solitary large HCC regardless of tumor stage received surgical resection (SR and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE, respectively. The propensity score analysis identified 156 pairs of patients from each treatment arm for survival comparison.The survival was significantly higher for group A but was comparable between group SL and group B patients. Of patients with solitary large HCC, the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 88% versus 74%, 76% versus 44%, and 63% versus 35% between SR and TACE group, respectively (p<0.001. When baseline demographics were adjusted in the propensity model, the respective 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 87% versus 79%, 76% versus 46%, and 61% versus 36% (p<0.001. The Cox proportional hazards model identified TACE with a 2.765-fold increased risk of mortality compared with SR (95% confidence interval: 1.853-4.127, p<0.001.Patients with solitary large HCC should be classified at least as intermediate stage HCC. SR provides significantly better survival than TACE for solitary large HCC regardless of tumor stage. Further amendment to the BCLC classification is mandatory.

  19. Solitary waves of the EW and RLW equations

    Ramos, J.I. [Room I-320-D, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Malaga, Plaza El Ejido, s/n, 29013 Malaga (Spain)]. E-mail:


    Eight finite difference methods are employed to study the solitary waves of the equal-width (EW) and regularized long-wave (RLW) equations. The methods include second-order accurate (in space) implicit and linearly implicit techniques, a three-point, fourth-order accurate, compact operator algorithm, an exponential method based on the local integration of linear, second-order ordinary differential equations, and first- and second-order accurate temporal discretizations. It is shown that the compact operator method with a Crank-Nicolson discretization is more accurate than the other seven techniques as assessed for the three invariants of the EW and RLW equations and the L {sub 2}-norm errors when the exact solution is available. It is also shown that the use of Gaussian initial conditions may result in the formation of either positive or negative secondary solitary waves for the EW equation and the formation of positive solitary waves with or without oscillating tails for the RLW equation depending on the amplitude and width of the Gaussian initial conditions. In either case, it is shown that the creation of the secondary wave may be preceded by a steepening and an narrowing of the initial condition. The creation of a secondary wave is reported to also occur in the dissipative RLW equation, whereas the effects of dissipation in the EW equation are characterized by a decrease in amplitude, an increase of the width and a curving of the trajectory of the solitary wave. The collision and divergence of solitary waves of the EW and RLW equations are also considered in terms of the wave amplitude and the invariants of these equations.

  20. Solitary skull metastasis as the first symptom of hepatocellular carcinoma: case report and literature review

    Guo X


    Full Text Available Xieli Guo,1,2 Jiangliu Yin,3 Yugang Jiang11Department of Neurosurgery, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Jinjiang Hospital of Quanzhou Medical College, Jinjiang, Fujian, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Neurosurgery, Changsha Central Hospital, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Skull metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is reported rarely. In addition, solitary skull metastasis as the first symptom of HCC is reported even less. Here, we reported a case of solitary skull metastasis as the first symptom of HCC and reviewed the literature on skull metastasis. A 49-year-old male patient was admitted to Jinjiang Hospital of Quanzhou Medical College with a painless parietal-occipital scalp mass, and he denied any history of hepatic disease. A cranial computed tomography demonstrated a hypervascular enhancement with osteolytic change in the right parietal-occipital region, cranial magnetic resonance imaging indicated a highly enhanced and osteolytic skull tumor, and abdominal computed tomography showed a huge tumor in the liver. The other examinations showed no other metastases. Laboratory data showed no liver dysfunction while hepatitis B surface antigen was positive, and alpha fetal protein level was high. A craniectomy was performed and the mass was totally removed. The histological diagnosis was skull metastasis from HCC. The patient was subsequently treated by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. In a review of published literature, the incidence of skull metastasis from HCC in the period between 1990 and 2011 has significantly increased. The misdiagnosis rate of skull metastases as the first symptom from HCC was high. Therefore, it is necessary to give each patient with a scalp mass that has invaded the skull a liver ultrasound or computed tomography scan. On the other hand, we found that metastases that occurred

  1. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome: clinical features, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment strategies.

    Zhu, Qing-Chao; Shen, Rong-Rong; Qin, Huan-Long; Wang, Yu


    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is an uncommon benign disease, characterized by a combination of symptoms, clinical findings and histological abnormalities. Ulcers are only found in 40% of the patients; 20% of the patients have a solitary ulcer, and the rest of the lesions vary in shape and size, from hyperemic mucosa to broad-based polypoid. Men and women are affected equally, with a small predominance in women. SRUS has also been described in children and in the geriatric population. Clinical features include rectal bleeding, copious mucus discharge, prolonged excessive straining, perineal and abdominal pain, feeling of incomplete defecation, constipation, and rarely, rectal prolapse. This disease has well-described histopathological features such as obliteration of the lamina propria by fibrosis and smooth muscle fibers extending from a thickened muscularis mucosa to the lumen. Diffuse collage deposition in the lamina propria and abnormal smooth muscle fiber extensions are sensitive markers for differentiating SRUS from other conditions. However, the etiology remains obscure, and the condition is frequently associated with pelvic floor disorders. SRUS is difficult to treat, and various treatment strategies have been advocated, ranging from conservative management to a variety of surgical procedures. The aim of the present review is to summarize the clinical features, pathophysiology, diagnostic methods and treatment strategies associated with SRUS.

  2. [Stab wound to the left solitary kidney: report of a case].

    Rabii, R; Joual, A; Bennani, S; Hafiani, M; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S


    A forty-four-years old man with a left solitary kidney presented a stab wound in the left lumbar region. Upon admission, the patient was hemodynamically stable, the abdominal ultrasonography showed a small perirenal hematoma and the intravenous pyelography was normal. Two days later, he had no hematuria and was discharged from the hospital, with a computed tomography scan control two weeks later. Unfortunately, seven days later, the patient was admitted to emergency for left lumbar pain, a 40 degrees C fever and pyuria. The creatinine level was 72 ng/mL, and the computed tomography scan showed a large urohematoma. The patient was operated and required partial upper polar nephrectomy for distorted upper pole with infected hematoma. A large hematoma was removed and a nephrostomy tube was introduced. The renal function returned to normal six days postoperatively and the nephrostomy tube was removed after nephrostogram at 12 days. Concerning this uncommon case, we emphasize the advantage of the computed tomography scan and the necessity of emergency management in a patient with solitary traumatic kidney.

  3. Kinetic Alfv\\'{e}n solitary and rogue waves in superthermal plasmas

    Bains, A; Xia, L -D


    We investigate the small but finite amplitude solitary Kinetic Alfv\\'{e}n waves (KAWs) in low $\\beta$ plasmas with superthermal electrons modeled by a kappa-type distribution. A nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation describing the evolution of KAWs is derived by using the standard reductive perturbation method. Examining the dependence of the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients of the KdV equation on the superthermal parameter $\\kappa$, plasma $\\beta$ and obliqueness of propagation, we show that these parameters may change substantially the shape and size of solitary KAW pulses. Only sub-Alfv\\'enic, compressive solitons are supported. We then extend the study to examine kinetic Alfv\\'en rogue waves by deriving a nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation from {the KdV} equation. Rational solutions that form rogue wave envelopes are obtained. We examine how the behavior of rogue waves depends on the plasma parameters in question, finding that the rogue envelopes are lowered with increasing electron superthermal...

  4. Kinetic Alfvén solitary and rogue waves in superthermal plasmas

    Bains, A. S.; Li, Bo, E-mail:; Xia, Li-Dong [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, 264209 Weihai (China)


    We investigate the small but finite amplitude solitary Kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) in low β plasmas with superthermal electrons modeled by a kappa-type distribution. A nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation describing the evolution of KAWs is derived by using the standard reductive perturbation method. Examining the dependence of the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients of the KdV equation on the superthermal parameter κ, plasma β, and obliqueness of propagation, we show that these parameters may change substantially the shape and size of solitary KAW pulses. Only sub-Alfvénic, compressive solitons are supported. We then extend the study to examine kinetic Alfvén rogue waves by deriving a nonlinear Schrödinger equation from the KdV equation. Rational solutions that form rogue wave envelopes are obtained. We examine how the behavior of rogue waves depends on the plasma parameters in question, finding that the rogue envelopes are lowered with increasing electron superthermality whereas the opposite is true when the plasma β increases. The findings of this study may find applications to low β plasmas in astrophysical environments where particles are superthermally distributed.

  5. Dust-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty plasma with nonthermal electrons and trapped ions

    Misra, A P


    The nonlinear theory of electrostatic dust-acoustic (DA) waves in a magnetized dusty plasma consisting of negatively charged mobile dusts, nonthermal fast electrons and trapped ions with vortex-like distribution is revisited. Previous theory in the literature [Phys. Plasmas {\\bf 20}, 104505 (2013)] is rectified and put forward to include the effects of the external magnetic field, the adiabatic pressure of charged dusts as well as the obliqueness of propagation to the magnetic field. Using the reductive perturbation technique, a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV)-like equation is derived which governs the dynamics of the small-amplitude solitary waves in a magnetized dusty nonthermal plasma. It is found that due to the dust thermal pressure, there exists a critical value $(\\beta_c)$ of the nothermal parameter $\\beta (>1)$, denoting the percentage of energetic electrons, below which the DA solitary waves cease to propagate. The soliton solution (travelling wave) of the KdV-like equation is obtained, and is shown to be on...

  6. Dust-acoustic solitary waves and shocks in strongly coupled quantum plasmas

    Wang, Y


    We investigate the propagation characteristics of electrostatic dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves and shocks in a strongly coupled dusty plasma consisting of intertialess electrons and ions, and strongly coupled inertial charged dust particles. A generalized viscoelastic hydrodynamic model with the effects of electrostatic dust pressure associated with the strong coupling of dust particles, and a quantum hydrodynamic model with the effects of quantum forces associated with the Bohm potential and the exchange-correlation potential for electrons and ions are considered. Both the linear and weakly nonlinear theory of DA waves are studied by the derivation and analysis of dispersion relations as well as Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and KdV-Burgers (KdVB)-like equations. It is shown that in the kinetic regime ($\\omega\\tau_m\\gg1$, where $\\omega$ is the wave frequency and $\\tau_m$ is the viscoelastic relaxtation time), the amplitude of the DA solitary waves decays slowly with time with the effect of a small amount of dus...

  7. Generation of undular bores in the shelves of slowly-varying solitary waves.

    El, G. A.; Grimshaw, R. H. J.


    We study the long-time evolution of the trailing shelves that form behind solitary waves moving through an inhomogeneous medium, within the framework of the variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equation. We show that the nonlinear evolution of the shelf leads typically to the generation of an undular bore and an expansion fan, which form apart but start to overlap and nonlinearly interact after a certain time interval. The interaction zone expands with time and asymptotically as time goes to infinity occupies the whole perturbed region. Its oscillatory structure strongly depends on the sign of the inhomogeneity gradient of the variable background medium. We describe the nonlinear evolution of the shelves in terms of exact solutions to the KdV-Whitham equations with natural boundary conditions for the Riemann invariants. These analytic solutions, in particular, describe the generation of small "secondary" solitary waves in the trailing shelves, a process observed earlier in various numerical simulations. (c) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Organization and properties of GABAergic neurons in solitary tract nucleus (NTS).

    Bailey, Timothy W; Appleyard, Suzanne M; Jin, Young-Ho; Andresen, Michael C


    Cranial visceral afferents enter the brain at the solitary tract nucleus (NTS). GABAergic neurons are scattered throughout the NTS, but their relation to solitary tract (ST) afferent pathways is imprecisely known. We hypothesized that most GABAergic NTS neurons would be connected only indirectly to the ST. We identified GABAergic neurons in brain stem horizontal slices using transgenic mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression was linked to glutamic acid decarboxylase expression (GAD(+)). Finely graded electrical shocks to ST recruit ST-synchronized synaptic events with all-or-none thresholds and individual waveforms did not change with greater suprathreshold intensities--evidence consistent with initiation by single afferent axons. Most (approximately 70%) GAD(+) neurons received ST-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) that had minimally variant latencies (jitter, SD of latency 200 micros including inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs), indicating indirect connections (polysynaptic). Shocks of suprathreshold intensity delivered adjacent (50-300 microm) to the ST failed to excite non-ST inputs to second-order neurons, suggesting a paucity of axons passing near to ST that connected to these neurons. Despite expectations, we found similar ST synaptic patterns in GAD(+) and unlabeled neurons. Generally, ST information that arrived indirectly had small amplitudes (EPSCs and IPSCs) and frequency-dependent failures that reached >50% for IPSCs to bursts of stimuli. This ST afferent pathway organization is strongly use-dependent--a property that may tune signal propagation within and beyond NTS.

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  10. Hepatitis A

    ... Hepatitis A is more common in parts of Africa, Asia, Central and South America, and Eastern Europe ... la salud en español Health Statistics Healthy Moments Radio Broadcast Clinical Trials For Health Professionals Diabetes Discoveries & ...

  11. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    Heneghan, Michael A; Yeoman, Andrew D; Verma, Sumita; Smith, Alastair D; Longhi, Maria Serena


    Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease of the hepatic parenchyma that can present in acute or chronic forms. In common with many autoimmune diseases, autoimmune hepatitis is associated with non-organ-specific antibodies in the context of hepatic autoimmunity. This dichotomy has made definition of a unifying hypothesis in the pathophysiology of the disease difficult, although data from the past 8 years have drawn attention to the role of regulatory T cells. Several triggers have been identified, and the disease arises in genetically susceptible individuals. Clinical and biochemical remission is achievable in up to 85% of cases. For the remaining patients, alternative immunosuppression strategies are an option. Liver transplantation provides an excellent outcome for patients with acute liver failure or complications of end-stage liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Variant or overlapping syndromes are worthy of consideration when unexpected disease features arise.

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  14. Hepatitis B

    ... using an infected person’s razor, toothbrush, or nail clippers You can’t get hepatitis B from being ... personal items such as toothbrushes, razors, or nail clippers using a latex or polyurethane condom during sex ...

  15. Hepatic ischemia

    ... or oxygen, causing injury to liver cells. Causes Low blood pressure from any condition can lead to hepatic ischemia. ... leading to reduced blood flow (vasculitis) Symptoms If low blood pressure continues for a long time, you may feel ...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... the Stages of Hepatic Encephalopathy? What Triggers or Can Cause HE to Get Worse? How is HE ... liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. ...

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment ... treatment. Being a fully-informed participant in your medical care is an important factor in staying as ...

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2017 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  1. Hepatitis autoinmune.



    Three patients with autoinmune hepatitis type 1 diagnosed at the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza in Lima-Perú, between 1993 and 1995, are here reported, emphasis is made on the clinical, histological and therapeutical aspects.

  2. Differential regulation of hepatitis B virus core protein expression and genome replication by a small upstream open reading frame and naturally occurring mutations in the precore region.

    Zong, Li; Qin, Yanli; Jia, Haodi; Ye, Lei; Wang, Yongxiang; Zhang, Jiming; Wands, Jack R; Tong, Shuping; Li, Jisu


    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcribes two subsets of 3.5-kb RNAs: precore RNA for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) expression, and pregenomic RNA for core and P protein translation as well as genome replication. HBeAg expression could be prevented by mutations in the precore region, while an upstream open reading frame (uORF) has been proposed as a negative regulator of core protein translation. We employed replication competent HBV DNA constructs and transient transfection experiments in Huh7 cells to verify the uORF effect and to explore the alternative function of precore RNA. Optimized Kozak sequence for the uORF or extra ATG codons as present in some HBV genotypes reduced core protein expression. G1896A nonsense mutation promoted more efficient core protein expression than mutated precore ATG, while a +1 frameshift mutation was ineffective. In conclusion, various HBeAg-negative precore mutations and mutations affecting uORF differentially regulate core protein expression and genome replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepatitis B Foundation

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working on ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See More ...

  4. Hepatitis A Test

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis A Testing Share this page: Was this page ... HAV-Ab total; Anti-HAV Formal name: Viral Hepatitis A Antibody Related tests: Hepatitis B Testing ; Hepatitis ...

  5. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    ... Requirements for Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis and Young Persons Who Inject Drugs National Academies’ ... Sources for IG & HBIG About the Division of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback File Formats Help: How ...

  6. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

    ... 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Hepatitis A Noele P. Nelson, Trudy V. Murphy INFECTIOUS ... hepatitis/HAV Table 3-02. Vaccines to prevent hepatitis A VACCINE TRADE NAME (MANUFACTURER) AGE (Y) DOSE ...

  7. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Hepatitis D virus ... Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is found only in people who carry the hepatitis B virus. HDV may make liver ... B virus but who never had symptoms. Hepatitis D infects about 15 million people worldwide. It occurs ...

  8. Cationic lipid-formulated DNA vaccine against hepatitis B virus: immunogenicity of MIDGE-Th1 vectors encoding small and large surface antigen in comparison to a licensed protein vaccine.

    Anne Endmann

    Full Text Available Currently marketed vaccines against hepatitis B virus (HBV based on the small (S hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg fail to induce a protective immune response in about 10% of vaccinees. DNA vaccination and the inclusion of PreS1 and PreS2 domains of HBsAg have been reported to represent feasible strategies to improve the efficacy of HBV vaccines. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity of SAINT-18-formulated MIDGE-Th1 vectors encoding the S or the large (L protein of HBsAg in mice and pigs. In both animal models, vectors encoding the secretion-competent S protein induced stronger humoral responses than vectors encoding the L protein, which was shown to be retained mainly intracellularly despite the presence of a heterologous secretion signal. In pigs, SAINT-18-formulated MIDGE-Th1 vectors encoding the S protein elicited an immune response of the same magnitude as the licensed protein vaccine Engerix-B, with S protein-specific antibody levels significantly higher than those considered protective in humans, and lasting for at least six months after the third immunization. Thus, our results provide not only the proof of concept for the SAINT-18-formulated MIDGE-Th1 vector approach but also confirm that with a cationic-lipid formulation, a DNA vaccine at a relatively low dose can elicit an immune response similar to a human dose of an aluminum hydroxide-adjuvanted protein vaccine in large animals.

  9. Extension for Community Health Outcomes-hepatitis C:Small steps carve big footprints in the allocation of scarce resources for hepatitis C virus treatment to remote developing areas

    Veysel; Tahan; Ashraf; Almashhrawi; Ali; M; Kahveci; Rachel; Mutrux; Jamal; A; Ibdah


    Hepatitis C virus(HCV)infection is still a major health problem throughout the world.HCV patients living in rural areas are less fortunate than their counterparts residing in populous urbanized regions.The lack of medical resources and properly trained medical personnel in rural regions make it especially burdensome for HCV patients seeking treatment.Dr.Sanjeev Arora at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center took initiative to resolve the issue at hand by developing a model named Project Extension for Community Health Outcomes(ECHO).ECHO connects primary care providers(PCPs),usually family medicine physicians,in local communities with specialists.ECHO providers test the efficacy of treatment given using the ECHO model vs that at academic medical centers.The ECHO model has produced promising results such that the sustained virologic response rates for both types of sites were near-equivalent.Show Me ECHO was adapted from Project ECHO to train PCPs in Missouri and equip them with the tools and skills to properly treat and diagnose HCV in a timely manner.This healthcare model can be implemented for treating other common infections and chronic diseases.Telemedicine is the direction healthcare is headed for the next several decades.It has potential to be applied in developing countries to alleviate agony and despair resulting from limited resources and lack of access to expert medical care.

  10. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  11. Reconstructive surgery in eight children with solitary kidneys

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens


    Within a 10-year period reconstructive urinary tract surgery has been carried out in eight children with solitary kidneys. The children were 0-5 years old. Six had unilateral renal agenesis and two had unilateral multicystic kidney. In five children ureteroneocystostomy was performed, in two...... of them because of reflux. In two children pyeloureteroplasty was performed, and in one both ureteroneocystostomy and pyeloureteroplasty. The multicystic kidneys were removed. The renal function was poor preoperatively in five children; two of these also had urosepsis. These children were all under 15...... months of age. Postoperatively, the renal function was subnormal (although improved) in two children; in six it was normal. The most important prognostic factors in solitary kidneys with urinary tract obstruction are infection and developmental injury....

  12. Electron acoustic solitary waves with kappa-distributed electrons

    Devanandhan, S; Singh, S V; Lakhina, G S, E-mail: [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (West), Navi Mumbai (India)


    Electron acoustic solitary waves are studied in a three-component, unmagnetized plasma composed of hot electrons, fluid cold electrons and ions having finite temperatures. Hot electrons are assumed to have kappa distribution. The Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique is used to study the arbitrary amplitude electron-acoustic solitary waves. It is found that inclusion of cold electron temperature shrinks the existence regime of the solitons, and soliton electric field amplitude decreases with an increase in cold electron temperature. A decrease in spectral index, {kappa}, i.e. an increase in the superthermal component of hot electrons, leads to a decrease in soliton electric field amplitude as well as the soliton velocity range. The soliton solutions do not exist beyond T{sub c}/T{sub h}>0.13 for {kappa}=3.0 and Mach number M=0.9 for the dayside auroral region parameters.


    LU Ji; YU Xi-ping


    Solitary wave fission over an underwater step is numerically investigated. The numerical model is based on the enhanced Boussinesq equations, which appropriately represent both the nonlinearity and dispersivity of surface water waves. The finite difference method defined on the staggered grid in space with an implicit scheme for time stepping is employed for the numerical solution of the governing equations. It is demonstrated that Boussinesq type equations, though they are vertically integrated, can describe the details of the solitary wave fission process with very good accuracy. Numerical results of the reflected and transmitting wave heights, the number of solitons emitted from the transmitting wave and their amplitudes all agree very well with the analytical solution derived from KdV equation by virtue of a linear long wave approximation in the vicinity of the underwater step.

  14. [Solitary fibrous tumor of endometrium--a case report].

    Dvořák, O; Dvořáková, E; Laco, J; Spaček, J


    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon mesenchymal tumor. We present a case of SFT occurring in endometrium. Case report. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Fingerland Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty of Charles University and Faculty Hospital Hradec Králové. We report a case of 57 years old woman with SFT arising from the endometrium, which was diagnosed and treated at our department. Histological finding was supported by typical immunohistochemical profile of the tumor. Aggressive nature of the tumor wasnt showed. The patient underwent abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy and is followed up in regular periods. Occurence of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) in the female genital tract is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of SFT occurring in endometrium. Because of potencial aggressive behaviour of the tumor complete surgical excision and close follow-up is highly recommended.

  15. Cholangiocarcinoma presenting as a solitary epididymal metastasis: a case report and review of the literature

    Bailey David M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solid tumor metastasis to the epididymis is a rare occurrence and is mostly discovered incidentally at autopsy or after therapeutic orchidectomy for prostate cancer. Other primary carcinomas that have been demonstrated to metastasize to the paratesticular region include those originating in the stomach, kidney, ileum, and colon. Case presentation A 72-year-old gentleman presented with a firm and tender mass involving the right epididymis. On examination, he was jaundiced. Computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated an obstructive stricture of the extra-hepatic bile ducts, in keeping with a cholangiocarcinoma, through which a metal stent was endoscopically inserted for symptomatic relief. Subsequent right radical orchidectomy yielded a diffusely infiltrative adenocarcinoma obliterating the epididymis, extending into the rete testis, vas deferens and spermatic cord and showing widespread vascular and perineural invasion. Residual epididymal, rete, and testicular tubules showed no in situ neoplasia. Morphologically and immunohistochemically the features were in keeping with a metastasis from a primary cholangiocarcinoma. Conclusion Only two cases of bile duct carcinoma metastasising to the male genital tract have previously been reported in the literature, the testis being the main site of metastasis in both cases. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of cholangiocarcinoma metastasising primarily to the epididymis, and presenting as a solitary epididymal metastasis in the absence of disseminated disease. It serves to highlight the importance of performing a thorough examination of the male external genitalia both clinically, in the follow up of cancer patients, and at autopsy.

  16. Primary Intrapulmonary Thymoma Presenting as a Solitary Pulmonary Nodule

    Jung, Woohyun; Kang, Chang Hyun; Kim, Young Tae; Park, In Kyu


    Primary intrapulmonary thymoma (PIT) is a very rare lesion of uncertain pathogenesis. PIT should be considered when the histopathological appearance of a lung tumor shows features that are uncommon but similar to those of a thymoma. In this case report, we discuss the case of a 59-year-old female with a solitary pulmonary nodule that was confirmed to be PIT on the basis of pathological tests. Treatment with complete resection showed good results. PMID:28180106

  17. The frustrated Brownian motion of nonlocal solitary waves

    Folli, Viola


    We investigate the evolution of solitary waves in a nonlocal medium in the presence of disorder. By using a perturbational approach, we show that an increasing degree of nonlocality may largely hamper the Brownian motion of self-trapped wave-packets. The result is valid for any kind of nonlocality and in the presence of non-paraxial effects. Analytical predictions are compared with numerical simulations based on stochastic partial differential equation

  18. Exact Solitary Wave Solution in the ZK-BBM Equation

    Juan Zhao


    Full Text Available The traveling wave solution for the ZK-BBM equation is considered, which is governed by a nonlinear ODE system. The bifurcation structure of fixed points and bifurcation phase portraits with respect to the wave speed c are analyzed by using the dynamical system theory. Furthermore, the exact solutions of the homoclinic orbits for the nonlinear ODE system are obtained which corresponds to the solitary wave solution curve of the ZK-BBM equation.

  19. Existence of solitary waves in dipolar quantum gases

    Antonelli, Paolo


    We study a nonlinear Schrdinger equation arising in the mean field description of dipolar quantum gases. Under the assumption of sufficiently strong dipolar interactions, the existence of standing waves, and hence solitons, is proved together with some of their properties. This gives a rigorous argument for the possible existence of solitary waves in BoseEinstein condensates, which originate solely due to the dipolar interaction between the particles. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonlinear dynamics of DNA - Riccati generalized solitary wave solutions

    Alka, W.; Goyal, Amit [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Nagaraja Kumar, C., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India)


    We study the nonlinear dynamics of DNA, for longitudinal and transverse motions, in the framework of the microscopic model of Peyrard and Bishop. The coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for dynamics of DNA model, which consists of two long elastic homogeneous strands connected with each other by an elastic membrane, have been solved for solitary wave solution which is further generalized using Riccati parameterized factorization method.

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of DNA - Riccati generalized solitary wave solutions

    Alka, W.; Goyal, Amit; Nagaraja Kumar, C.


    We study the nonlinear dynamics of DNA, for longitudinal and transverse motions, in the framework of the microscopic model of Peyrard and Bishop. The coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for dynamics of DNA model, which consists of two long elastic homogeneous strands connected with each other by an elastic membrane, have been solved for solitary wave solution which is further generalized using Riccati parameterized factorization method.

  2. Phase modulated solitary waves controlled by bottom boundary condition

    Mukherjee, Abhik


    A forced KdV equation is derived to describe weakly nonlinear, shallow water surface wave propagation over non trivial bottom boundary condition. We show that different functional forms of bottom boundary conditions self-consistently produce different forced kdV equations as the evolution equations for the free surface. Solitary wave solutions have been analytically obtained where phase gets modulated controlled by bottom boundary condition whereas amplitude remains constant.

  3. Conjugate flows and amplitude bounds for internal solitary waves

    N. I. Makarenko


    Full Text Available Amplitude bounds imposed by the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for strongly nonlinear waves in stratified fluid are considered. We discuss the theoretical scheme which allows to determine broadening limits for solitary waves in the terms of a given upstream density profile. Attention is focused on the continuously stratified flows having multiple broadening limits. The role of the mean density profile and the influence of fine-scale stratification are analyzed.

  4. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome in children: A literature review

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Malekpour, Abdorrasoul; HAGHIGHAT, MAHMOOD


    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a benign and chronic disorder well known in young adults and less in children. It is often related to prolonged excessive straining or abnormal defecation and clinically presents as rectal bleeding, copious mucus discharge, feeling of incomplete defecation, and rarely rectal prolapse. SRUS is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and endoscopic and histological findings. The current treatments are suboptimal, and despite correct diagnosis, outcomes can ...

  5. Solitary Fibrous Tumors and So-Called Hemangiopericytoma

    Nicolas Penel


    Full Text Available We have reviewed the literature data regarding the spectrum of tumors including solitary fibrous tumor and hemangiopericytoma with special focus on definition of the disease, discussion of the criteria for malignancy, and the key elements of standard treatment of localized disease. We have discussed the emerging concepts on the tumor biology and the different systemic treatments (chemotherapy and molecular-targeted therapies.

  6. Turing patterns and solitary structures under global control

    Pismen, L M


    Striped Turing patterns and solitary band and disk structures are constructed using a three-variable multiscale model with cubic nonlinearity and global control. The existence and stability conditions of regular structures are analysed using the equation of motion of curved boundaries between alternative states of the short-range component. The combined picture of transitions between striped and spotted patterns with changing level of global control is in qualitative agreement with the results of the computer experiment by Middya and Luss

  7. Electron-acoustic solitary pulses and double layers in multi-component plasmas

    Mannan, A; Shukla, P K


    We consider the nonlinear propagation of fi?nite amplitude electron-acoustic waves (EAWs) in multi-component plasmas composed of two distinct groups of electrons (cold and hot components), and non-isothermal ions. We use the continuity and momentum equations for cold inertial electrons, Boltzmann law for inertialess hot electrons, non-isothermal density distribution for hot ions, and Poisson's equation to derive an energy integral with a modi?ed Sagdeev potential (MSP) for nonlinear EAWs. The MSP is analyzed to demonstrate the existence of arbitrary amplitude EA solitary pulses (EASPs) and EA double layers (EA-DLs). Small amplitude limits have also been considered and analytical results for EASPs and EA-DLs are presented. The implication of our results to space and laboratory plasmas is briely discussed.

  8. Solitary Wave Solutions of the Boussinesq Equation and Its Improved Form

    Reza Abazari


    Full Text Available This paper presents the general case study of previous works on generalized Boussinesq equations, (Abazari, 2011 and (Kılıcman and Abazari, 2012, that focuses on the application of G′/G-expansion method with the aid of Maple to construct more general exact solutions for the coupled Boussinesq equations. In this work, the mentioned method is applied to construct more general exact solutions of Boussinesq equation and improved Boussinesq equation, which the French scientist Joseph Valentin Boussinesq (1842–1929 described in the 1870s model equations for the propagation of long waves on the surface of water with small amplitude. Our work is motivated by the fact that the G′/G-expansion method provides not only more general forms of solutions but also periodic, solitary waves and rational solutions. The method appears to be easier and faster by means of a symbolic computation.

  9. Ion-acoustic solitary waves in ion-beam plasma with multiple-electron-temperatures

    Karmakar, B.; Das, G.C.; Singh, Kh.I.


    The solitary wave solution has been studied in an ion-beam plasma with multiple-electron-temperatures stemmed through the derivation of a modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The evolution of solitons shows that the existence and the behaviour depend effectively on the ion-beam as well as on the multiple-electron-temperatures. It has been shown that the solitons might be large amplitude waves with the addition of a small percentage of ion-beam concentration or by the increase of electron-temperatures. The present investigators believe and conclude that the solitons should also show experimentally these fascinating properties but one has to be careful about the range of the physical parameters in ion-beam plasma.

  10. Energetics of internal solitary waves in a background sheared current

    K. G. Lamb


    Full Text Available The energetics of internal waves in the presence of a background sheared current is explored via numerical simulations for four different situations based on oceanographic conditions: the nonlinear interaction of two internal solitary waves; an internal solitary wave shoaling through a turning point; internal solitary wave reflection from a sloping boundary and a deep-water internal seiche trapped in a deep basin. In the simulations with variable water depth using the Boussinesq approximation the combination of a background sheared current, bathymetry and a rigid lid results in a change in the total energy of the system due to the work done by a pressure change that is established across the domain. A final simulation of the deep-water internal seiche in which the Boussinesq approximation is not invoked and a diffuse air-water interface is added to the system results in the energy remaining constant because the generation of surface waves prevents the establishment of a net pressure increase across the domain. The difference in the perturbation energy in the Boussinesq and non-Boussinesq simulations is accounted for by the surface waves.

  11. Solitary wave shoaling and breaking in a regularized Boussinesq system

    Senthilkumar, Amutha


    A coupled BBM system of equations is studied in the situation of water waves propagating over decreasing fluid depth. A conservation equation for mass and a wave breaking criterion valid in the Boussinesq approximation is found. A Fourier collocation method coupled with a 4-stage Runge-Kutta time integration scheme is employed to approximate solutions of the BBM system. The mass conservation equation is used to quantify the role of reflection in the shoaling of solitary waves on a sloping bottom. Shoaling results based on an adiabatic approximation are analyzed. Wave shoaling and the criterion of breaking solitary waves on a sloping bottom is studied. To validate the numerical model the simulation results are compared with those obtained by Grilli et al.[16] and a good agreement between them is observed. Shoaling of solitary waves of two different types of mild slope model systems in [8] and [13] are compared, and it is found that each of these models works well in their respective regimes of applicability.

  12. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  13. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    ... Our Accomplishments Annual Reports Our Videos What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  14. Autoimmune hepatitis

    F Motamed


    Full Text Available Autoimmune hepatitis is (AIH is a chronic hepatitis that occurs in children and adults of all ages. It is characterized by immunologic and autoimmune features, including circulating auto antibodies and high serum globulin concentrations. It was first described in the 1950s by term of chronic active hepatitis. It has 2 types with different auto antibodies. Diagnosis is based upon serologic and histologic findings and exclusion of other forms of chronic liver disease.   A scoring system should be used in assessment based upon: 1 Auto anti bodie titer 2 Serum IgG level  3 Liver histology 4 Absence of viral and other causes of hepatitis. Clear indications for treatment: 1   rise of aminotrasferases 2   clinical symptoms of liver disease 3   histological features in liver biopsy 4   Children with AIH initial treatment involve glucocorticoid with or without azathioprine. For patients with fulminant hepatitis liver transplantation, should be kept in mind.   Remission is defined by: 1   Resolution of symptoms 2   Normalization of serum trasaminases 3   Normalization of serum bilirubin and gamma globuline levels. 4   Improvement in liver histology 5   Treatment is continued for at least 2-5 years, glucocorticoids are with drawn first, by tapering over six weeks. Azathioprine will be with drawn.  

  15. [Chronic hepatitis].

    Figueroa Barrios, R


    Medical literature about chronic hepatitis is reviewed. This unresolving disease caused by viruses, drugs or unknown factors may progress to in cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. A classification based on liver biopsy histology into chronic persistent and chronic active types has been largely abandoned and emphasis is placed on recognizing the etiology of the various types. One is associated with continuing hepatitis B virus infection; another is related to chronic hepatitis C virus infection and the third is termed autoinmune, because of the association with positive serum autoantibodies. A fourth type with similar clinical functional and morphologic features is found with some drug reactions. Long term corticoesteroid therapy is usually successful in autoinmune type. Associations between antibodies to liver-kidney microsomes and the hepatitis C virus can cause diagnostic difficulties. Antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C with interpheron alfa is employed, controlling symptoms and abnormal biochemistry and the progression to cirrhosis and liver cancer in 30 to 40% patients. Alternative therapies or combinations with interpheron are being evaluated waiting for final results.

  16. Numerical Modelling of Solitary Wave Experiments on Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    Guler, H. G.; Arikawa, T.; Baykal, C.; Yalciner, A. C.


    Performance of a rubble mound breakwater protecting Haydarpasa Port, Turkey, has been tested under tsunami attack by physical model tests conducted at Port and Airport Research Institute (Guler et al, 2015). It is aimed to understand dynamic force of the tsunami by conducting solitary wave tests (Arikawa, 2015). In this study, the main objective is to perform numerical modelling of solitary wave tests in order to verify accuracy of the CFD model IHFOAM, developed in OpenFOAM environment (Higuera et al, 2013), by comparing results of the numerical computations with the experimental results. IHFOAM is the numerical modelling tool which is based on VARANS equations with a k-ω SST turbulence model including realistic wave generation, and active wave absorption. Experiments are performed using a Froude scale of 1/30, measuring surface elevation and flow velocity at several locations in the wave channel, and wave pressure around the crown wall of the breakwater. Solitary wave tests with wave heights of H=7.5 cm and H=10 cm are selected which represent the results of the experiments. The first test (H=7.5 cm) is the case that resulted in no damage whereas the second case (H=10 cm) resulted in total damage due to the sliding of the crown wall. After comparison of the preliminary results of numerical simulations with experimental data for both cases, it is observed that solitary wave experiments could be accurately modeled using IHFOAM focusing water surface elevations, flow velocities, and wave pressures on the crown wall of the breakwater (Figure, result of sim. at t=29.6 sec). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe authors acknowledge developers of IHFOAM, further extend their acknowledgements for the partial supports from the research projects MarDiM, ASTARTE, RAPSODI, and TUBITAK 213M534. REFERENCESArikawa (2015) "Consideration of Characteristics of Pressure on Seawall by Solitary Waves Based on Hydraulic Experiments", Jour. of Japan. Soc. of Civ. Eng. Ser. B2 (Coast. Eng.), Vol 71, p I

  17. Characteristics of the breathers, rogue waves and solitary waves in a generalized (2+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation

    Wang, Xiu-Bin; Tian, Shou-Fu; Qin, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Tian-Tian


    Under investigation in this work is a generalized (2+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation, which can be used to describe the propagation of small-amplitude, long wave in shallow water. By virtue of Bell's polynomials, an effective way is presented to succinctly construct its bilinear form. Furthermore, based on the bilinear formalism and the extended homoclinic test method, the breather wave solution, rogue-wave solution and solitary-wave solution of the equation are well constructed. Our results can be used to enrich the dynamical behavior of the generalized (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear wave fields.

  18. Benjamin-Ono-Burgers-MKdV Equation for Algebraic Rossby Solitary Waves in Stratified Fluids and Conservation Laws

    Hongwei Yang


    Full Text Available In the paper, by using multiple-scale method, the Benjamin-Ono-Burgers-MKdV (BO-B-MKdV equation is obtained which governs algebraic Rossby solitary waves in stratified fluids. This equation is first derived for Rossby waves. By analysis and calculation, some conservation laws are derived from the BO-B-MKdV equation without dissipation. The results show that the mass, momentum, energy, and velocity of the center of gravity of algebraic Rossby waves are conserved and the presence of a small dissipation destroys these conservations.

  19. Bifurcation and Solitary-Like Solutions for Compound KdV-Burgers-Type Equation

    Yin Li


    Full Text Available Firstly, based on the improved sub-ODE method and the bifurcation method of dynamical systems, we investigate the bifurcation of solitary waves in the compound KdV-Burgers-type equation. Secondly, numbers of solitary patterns solutions are given for each parameter condition and numerical simulations are used to display the dynamical characteristics. Finally, we obtain twelve solitary patterns solutions under some parameter conditions, such as the trigonometric function solutions and the hyperbolic function solutions.

  20. Aggressive Trimodality Therapy for T1N2M1 Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer with Synchronous Solitary Brain Metastasis: Case Report and Rationale

    Timothy N. Showalter


    Full Text Available Aggressive treatment, including resection of both metastasis and primary tumor, has been studied for non-small cell lung cancer patients with synchronous solitary brain metastasis. Involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes is considered a poor prognostic factor and a contraindication to surgical resection of the primary lung tumor after treatment for brain metastasis. Here we present the case of a patient who presented with a Stage IV T1N2M1 non-small cell lung cancer with synchronous solitary brain metastasis. He is alive and without evidence of disease two years after aggressive, multimodality treatment that included craniotomy, whole-brain radiation therapy, thoracic surgery, chemotherapy, and mediastinal radiation therapy.

  1. Colliding solitary waves in quark gluon plasmas

    Rafiei, Azam; Javidan, Kurosh


    We study the head-on collision of propagating waves due to perturbations in quark gluon plasmas. We use the Massachusetts Institute of Technology bag model, hydrodynamics equation, and suitable equation of state for describing the time evolution of such localized waves. A nonlinear differential equation is derived for the propagation of small amplitude localized waves using the reductive perturbation method. We show that these waves are unstable and amplitude of the left-moving (right-moving) wave increases (decreases) after the collision, and so they reach the borders of a quark gluon plasma fireball with different amplitudes. Indeed we show that such arrangements are created because of the geometrical symmetries of the medium.

  2. Solitary electromechanical pulses in Lobster neurons

    Gonzalez-Perez, Alfredo; Budvytyte, Rima; Villagran-Vargas, Edgar; Jackson, Andrew D; Heimburg, Thomas


    Investigations of nerve activity have focused predominantly on electrical phenomena. Nerves, however, are thermodynamic systems, and changes in temperature and in the dimensions of the nerve can also be observed during the action potential. Measurements of heat changes during the action potential suggest that the nerve pulse shares many characteristics with an adiabatic pulse. In the past, experiments by Iwasa & Tasaki demonstrated small changes in nerve thickness and length during the action potential. Such findings have led to the suggestion that the action potential may be related to electromechanical solitons traveling without dissipation. Here, we present ultrasensitive AFM recordings of mechanical changes on the order of 0.2 - 1.2 nm in the giant axons of the lobster. When stimulated at opposite ends of the same axon, colliding action potentials pass through one another and do not annihilate. These observations are consistent with a mechanical interpretation of the nervous impulse.

  3. Clinical studies on inferior right hepatic veins

    Xue Xing; Hong Li; Wei-Guo Liu


    BACKGROUND:Many small veins are called accessory, short hepatic veins in addition to the right, middle and left hepatic veins. The size of these veins varied from a pinhole to 1 cm; the size of inferior right hepatic veins (IRHVs) is thicker than that of short hepatic veins or more than 1 cm occasionally. Adults have a higher incidence rate of the IRHV. DATA SOURCES:A literature search of the PubMed database was conducted and research articles were reviewed. RESULTS:The size of IRHVs is related to the size of the right hepatic vein, i.e. the larger the diameter of the right hepatic vein, the smaller the diameter of the IRHVs, and vice versa. The IRHVs are divided into superior, medial and inferior groups, separately named the superior, medial and inferior right hepatic veins according to the position of the IRHV entering the inferior vena cava. The superior right hepatic vein mainly drains the superior part of segmentⅦ, and the medial right hepatic vein drains the middle part of segmentⅦ. A thicker IRHV mainly drains segmentⅥ and the inferior part of segmentⅦ and a thinner IRHV drains the inferior part of segmentⅤ. CONCLUSIONS:The clinical signiifcance of these studies on IRHVs is varied: (1) Hepatic caudate lobe resection could be introduced after study on the veins of that lobe. (2) It is very important to identify the draining region of the IRHV for guiding hepatic segmentectomy. The postero-inferior area of the right lobe can be preserved along with the hypertrophic IRHV even if the entire main right hepatic vein is resected during segmentectomy ofⅦ andⅧwith right hepatic vein resection for patients with primary liver cancer. (3) The ligation of the major hepatic vein for the treatment of juxtahepatic vein injury is recommended because of severe hemorrhagic shock and dififculty in

  4. Experimental study of nonlinear dust acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma

    Bandyopadhyay, P; Sen, A; Kaw, P K


    The excitation and propagation of finite amplitude low frequency solitary waves are investigated in an Argon plasma impregnated with kaolin dust particles. A nonlinear longitudinal dust acoustic solitary wave is excited by pulse modulating the discharge voltage with a negative potential. It is found that the velocity of the solitary wave increases and the width decreases with the increase of the modulating voltage, but the product of the solitary wave amplitude and the square of the width remains nearly constant. The experimental findings are compared with analytic soliton solutions of a model Kortweg-de Vries equation.

  5. Solitary Plasmacytoma of the Cecum and the Ascending Colon: Surgical Resection as a Treatment Modality

    Dalgic, Tahsin; Bostanci, Erdal Birol; Cakir, Tebessum; Ozer, Ilter; Ulas, Murat; Aydog, Gulden; Akoglu, Musa


    Colonic solitary plasmacytoma is a rare disease, with few reports occurring in the literature. Solitary plasmacytoma is defined as a plasma cell tumour with no evidence of bone marrow infiltration. Plasmacytoma can present as a solitary tumour in bone or in other parts of the body. The gastrointestinal tract is rarely the site of the disease. We report on the case of a 51-year-old man presenting with a colonic symptomatic mass with unclear biopsy results. A resected specimen showed a solitary plasmacytoma. Surgical resection was an adequate treatment modality in this case. Endoscopic resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are also preferred treatments in selected gastrointestinal plasmacytoma cases. PMID:25954564

  6. Solitary Plasmacytoma of the Cecum and the Ascending Colon: Surgical Resection as a Treatment Modality

    Tahsin Dalgic


    Full Text Available Colonic solitary plasmacytoma is a rare disease, with few reports occurring in the literature. Solitary plasmacytoma is defined as a plasma cell tumour with no evidence of bone marrow infiltration. Plasmacytoma can present as a solitary tumour in bone or in other parts of the body. The gastrointestinal tract is rarely the site of the disease. We report on the case of a 51-year-old man presenting with a colonic symptomatic mass with unclear biopsy results. A resected specimen showed a solitary plasmacytoma. Surgical resection was an adequate treatment modality in this case. Endoscopic resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are also preferred treatments in selected gastrointestinal plasmacytoma cases.

  7. Calculation and analysis of solitary waves and kinks in elastic tubes


    The paper is devoted to analysis of different models that describe waves in fluid-filled and gas-filled elastic tubes and development of methods of calculation and numerical analysis of solutions with solitary waves and kinks for these models. Membrane model and plate model are used for tube. Two types of solitary waves are found. One-parametric families are stable and may be used as shock structures. Null-parametric solitary waves are unstable. The process of split of such solitary waves is ...

  8. Interaction of Submerged Breakwater by a Solitary Wave Using WC-SPH Method

    Afshin Mansouri


    Full Text Available Interaction of a solitary wave and submerged breakwater is studied in a meshless, Lagrangian approach. For this purpose, a two-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH code is developed. Furthermore, an extensive set of simulations is conducted. In the first step, the generated solitary wave is validated. Subsequently, the interaction of solitary wave and submerged breakwater is investigated thoroughly. Results of the interaction of solitary wave and a submerged breakwater are also shown to be in good agreement with published experimental studies. Afterwards, the effects of the inclination and length of breakwater as well as distance between two breakwaters are evaluated on damping ratio of breakwater.

  9. Results of surgical and nonsurgical treatment for small-sized hepatocellular carcinomas: a retrospective and nationwide survey in Japan. The Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan.

    Arii, S; Yamaoka, Y; Futagawa, S; Inoue, K; Kobayashi, K; Kojiro, M; Makuuchi, M; Nakamura, Y; Okita, K; Yamada, R


    Hepatic resection (HX), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), and transcatheter arterial embolization (TCAE) have all been used in the treatment of patients with small-sized hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). However, the indications for these therapeutic modalities remain unclear. Therefore, the first step to minimize the debate on these indications is to review the standard results from each treatment based on an extensive survey. The participants in this study were patients with HCCs less than 5 cm in diameter who were enrolled in The Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan. The survival rates in the HX (n = 8,010), PEI (n = 4,037), and TCAE (n = 841) groups were calculated in relation to the number of tumors and the clinical stage. In the clinical stage I cases with a solitary tumor less than 2 cm in diameter and in all clinical stages with a solitary tumor greater than 2 cm and in the clinical stage II cases with 2 tumors greater than 2 cm, the HX group showed higher survival rates than the nonsurgical groups. The HX group had a higher male/female ratio and a younger mean age than the PEI or TCAE group. The ratio of HBs antigen-positive cases/hepatitis C virus antibody-positive cases in the PEI group was lower than that in the corresponding HX group. In contrast, the PIVKA-II values in the HX group tended to be higher than in the PEI group. In conclusion, these findings will provide useful information for selection of a therapeutic modality for small-sized HCCs.

  10. Color Doppler sonography and angioscintigraphy in hepatic Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Mirjana V Stojkovi(c); Vera M Artiko; Irena B Radoman; Slavko J Kne(z)evi(c); Snezana M Luki(c); Mirko D Kerkez; Nebojsa S Leki(c); Andrija A Anti(c); Marinko M (Z)vela; Vitomir I Rankovi(c); Milorad N Petrovi(c); Dragana P (S)obi(c); Vladimir B Obradovi(c)


    AIM: To estimate the characteristics of Color Doppler findings and the results of hepatic radionuclide angiography (HRA) in secondary Hodgkin's hepatic lymphoma.METHODS: The research included patients with a diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma with metastatic focal lesions in the liver and controls. Morphologic characteristics of focal liver lesions and hemodynamic parameters were examined by pulsed and Color Doppler in the portal, hepatic and splenic veins were examined. Hepatic perfusion index (HPI) estimated by HRA was calculated.RESULTS: In the majority of patients, hepatomegaly was observed. Lesions were mostly hypoechoic and mixed, solitary or multiple. Some of the patients presented with dilated splenic veins and hepatofugal blood flow. A pulse wave was registered in the centre and at the margins of lymphoma. The average velocity of the pulse wave was higher at the margins ( P >0.05). A continuous venous wave was found only at the margins of lymphoma. There was no linear correlation between lymphoma size and velocity of pulse and continuous wave ( r = 390, P < 0.01). HPI was significantly lower in patients with lymphomas than in controls ( P < 0.05), pointing out increased arterial perfusion in comparison to portal perfusion.CONCLUSION: Color Doppler ultrasonography is a sensitive method for the detection of neovascularization in Hodgkin's hepatic lymphoma and estimation of its intensity. Hepatic radionuclide angiography can additionally help in the assesment of vascularisation of liver lesions.

  11. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    Strassburg, Christian P


    Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the liver with a dismal prognosis when left untreated. Key for the improvement of prognosis is a timely diagnosis before cirrhosis has developed. This is reached by the exclusion of other causes of hepatitis, elevated immunoglobulin G, autoantibody profile and histological assessment. Treatment achieves remission rates in 80% of individuals and consists of immunosuppression with corticosteroids and azathioprine. A recent randomised controlled multicenter trial has added budesonide to the effective treatment options in non-cirrhotic patients and leads to a reduction of unwanted steroid side effects. Autoimmune hepatitis is an autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology. Association studies of major histocompatibility complex and other genes demonstrate an influence of immunogenetics. However, apart from the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1, in which 10% of patients suffer from an autoantibody-positive autoimmune hepatitis linked to mutations of the autoimmune regulator gene, there is no clear evidence for a hereditary aetiology of this disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hepatitis A vaccine associated with autoimmune hepatitis

    PA Berry; G Smith-Laing


    To describe a case of probable relapsing autoimmune hepatitis associated with vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV). A case report and review of literature were written concerning autoimmune hepatitis in association with hepatitis A and other hepatotropic viruses. Soon after the administration of formalin-inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, a man who had recently recovered from an uncharacterized but self-limiting hepatitic illness,experienced a severe deterioration (AST 1687 U/L, INR 1.4). Anti-nuclear antibodies were detectable, and liver biopsy was compatible with autoimmune hepatitis. The observation supports the role of HAV as a trigger of autoimmune hepatitis. Studies in helper T-cell activity and antibody expression against hepatic proteins in the context of hepatitis A infection are summarized, and the concept of molecular mimicry with regard to other forms of viral hepatitis and autoimmunity is briefly explored.

  13. Inflammatory Hepatic Nodules Associated with Urinary Tract Infection in Two Pediatric Patients

    Kim, Ye Lim; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Jae Woong; Lee, Jong Mee; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Inflammatory nodule in the liver associated with acute urinary infection is an uncommon presentation. We recently experienced two pediatric patients, admitted for urinary tract infection, in whom a solitary hyperechoic nodule or multiple low echoic nodules in the liver were incidentally discovered. All patients complained of fever, and urine culture results were positive for Klebsiella, Streptococcus, and Escherichia coli. After receiving treatment with antibiotics, the hepatic nodules gradually decreased in size and completely disappeared

  14. Molecular biology of hepatitis B virus infection

    Seeger, Christoph; Mason, William S


    Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the prototype of a family of small DNA viruses that productively infect hepatocytes, the major cell of the liver, and replicate by reverse transcription of a terminally redundant viral RNA, the pregenome...

  15. Hepatic amebiasis

    José Maria Salles


    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  16. Encoded library technology screening of hepatitis C virus NS4B yields a small-molecule compound series with in vitro replicon activity.

    Arico-Muendel, Christopher; Zhu, Zhengrong; Dickson, Hamilton; Parks, Derek; Keicher, Jesse; Deng, Jianghe; Aquilani, Leah; Coppo, Frank; Graybill, Todd; Lind, Kenneth; Peat, Andrew; Thomson, Michael


    To identify novel antivirals to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS4B protein, we utilized encoded library technology (ELT), which enables purified proteins not amenable to standard biochemical screening methods to be tested against large combinatorial libraries in a short period of time. We tested NS4B against several DNA-encoded combinatorial libraries (DEL) and identified a single DEL feature that was subsequently progressed to off-DNA synthesis. The most active of the initial synthesized compounds had 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 50 to 130 nM in a NS4B radioligand binding assay and 300 to 500 nM in an HCV replicon assay. Chemical optimization yielded compounds with potencies as low as 20 nM in an HCV genotype 1b replicon assay, 500 nM against genotype 1a, and 5 μM against genotype 2a. Through testing against other genotypes and genotype 2a-1b chimeric replicons and from resistance passage using the genotype 1b replicon, we confirmed that these compounds were acting on the proposed first transmembrane region of NS4B. A single sequence change (F98L) was identified as responsible for resistance, and it was thought to largely explain the relative lack of potency of this series against genotype 2a. Unlike other published series that appear to interact with this region, we did not observe sensitivity to amino acid substitutions at positions 94 and 105. The discovery of this novel compound series highlights ELT as a valuable approach for identifying direct-acting antivirals to nonenzymatic targets.

  17. Intestinal, hepatic, splanchnic and hindquarter amino acid and metabolite partitioning during an established Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection in the small intestine of lambs fed fresh Sulla (Hedysarum coronarium).

    Bermingham, Emma N; McNabb, Warren C; Sutherland, Ian A; Sinclair, Bruce R; Treloar, Bryan P; Roy, Nicole C


    Increased partitioning of amino acids (AA) from skeletal muscle to the intestine and immune system during parasitic infection may be the cause of poor growth in parasitised animals. The effect of an established Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection (6000 L3 T. colubriformis larvae for 6 d (n 5) or kept as parasite-free controls (n 6)) on AA fluxes across the mesenteric-drained viscera, portal-drained viscera (PDV), liver, total splanchnic tissues (TSP) and hindquarters were determined in lambs fed fresh Sulla (Hedysarum coronarium; 800 g DM/d) 48 d post-infection. The lambs were infused with rho-aminohippuric acid (PAH; 723 mg/h) into the mesenteric vein for 8 h to measure TSP plasma flow. Concurrently, indocyanine green (ICG; 14.6 mg/h) was infused into the abdominal aorta to measure plasma flow across the hindquarters. Blood was continuously collected from the mesenteric, portal and hepatic veins, vena cava and the mesenteric artery and plasma harvested. PAH, ICG, AA, metabolite and insulin concentrations were measured. Intestinal worm burdens on day 48 post-infection were higher in the infected lambs (P 0.10). There was a 28 % reduction in the release of AA from the PDV of infected lambs (P < 0.05). The uptakes of most AA were similar in the liver; however, there was increased uptake (P < 0.10) of AA by the TSP of infected lambs. Despite this reduction in AA availability at the liver, there was no effect of parasitic infection on AA uptake across the hindquarters (P < 0.05).

  18. Discrete Solitary Waves in Systems with Nonlocal Interactions and the Peierls-Nabarro Barrier

    Jenkinson, M.; Weinstein, M. I.


    We study a class of discrete focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equations (DNLS) with general nonlocal interactions. We prove the existence of onsite and offsite discrete solitary waves, which bifurcate from the trivial solution at the endpoint frequency of the continuous spectrum of linear dispersive waves. We also prove exponential smallness, in the frequency-distance to the bifurcation point, of the Peierls-Nabarro energy barrier (PNB), as measured by the difference in Hamiltonian or mass functionals evaluated on the onsite and offsite states. These results extend those of the authors for the case of nearest neighbor interactions to a large class of nonlocal short-range and long-range interactions. The appearance of distinct onsite and offsite states is a consequence of the breaking of continuous spatial translation invariance. The PNB plays a role in the dynamics of energy transport in such nonlinear Hamiltonian lattice systems. Our class of nonlocal interactions is defined in terms of coupling coefficients, J m , where {min{Z}} is the lattice site index, with {J_m˜eq m^{-1-2s}, sin[1,∞)} and {J_m˜ e^{-γ|m|}, s=∞, γ > 0,} (Kac-Baker). For {s≥1}, the bifurcation is seeded by solutions of the (effective/homogenized) cubic focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS). However, for {1/4 equation, FNLS, with {(-Δ)^s} replacing {-Δ}. The proof is based on a Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction strategy applied to a momentum space formulation. The PN barrier bounds require appropriate uniform decay estimates for the discrete Fourier transform of DNLS discrete solitary waves. A key role is also played by non-degeneracy of the ground state of FNLS, recently proved by Frank, Lenzmann and Silvestrie.

  19. Interaction between the solitary bee Chelostoma florisomne and its nest parasite Sapyga clavicornis-empty cells reduce the impact of parasites

    Munster-Swendsen, Mikael; Calabuig, Isabel


    Chelostoma, empty cells, interaction, mortality, nest architecture, nest parasite, protection, Sapyga, solitary bee......Chelostoma, empty cells, interaction, mortality, nest architecture, nest parasite, protection, Sapyga, solitary bee...

  20. BGK electron solitary waves: 1D and 3D

    L.-J. Chen


    Full Text Available This paper presents new results for 1D BGK electron solitary wave (phase-space electron hole solutions and, based on the new results, extends the solutions to include the 3D electrical interaction (E ~ 1/r 2 of charged particles. Our approach for extending to 3D is to solve the nonlinear 3D Poisson and 1D Vlasov equations based on a key feature of 1D electron hole (EH solutions; the positive core of an EH is screened by electrons trapped inside the potential energy trough. This feature has not been considered in previous studies. We illustrate this key feature using an analytical model and argue that the feature is independent of any specific model. We then construct azimuthally symmetric EH solutions under conditions where electrons are highly field-aligned and ions form a uniform background along the magnetic field. Our results indicate that, for a single humped electric potential, the parallel cut of the perpendicular component of the electric field (E⊥ is unipolar and that of the parallel component (E|| bipolar, reproducing the multi-dimensional features of the solitary waves observed by the FAST satellite. Our analytical solutions presented in this article capture the 3D electric interaction and the observed features of (E|| and E⊥. The solutions predict a dependence of the parallel width-amplitude relation on the perpendicular size of EHs. This dependence can be used in conjunction with experimental data to yield an estimate of the typical perpendicular size of observed EHs; this provides important information on the perpendicular span of the source region as well as on how much electrostatic energy is transported by the solitary waves.

  1. Eady Solitary Waves: A Theory of Type B Cyclogenesis.

    Mitsudera, Humio


    Localized baroclinic instability in a weakly nonlinear, long-wave limit using an Eady model is studied. The resulting evolution equations have a form of the KdV type, including extra terms representing linear coupling. Baroclinic instability is triggered locally by the collision between two neutral solitary waves (one trapped at the upper boundary and the other at the lower boundary) if their incident amplitudes are sufficiently large. This characteristic is explained from the viewpoint of resonance when the relative phase speed, which depends on the amplitudes, is less than a critical value. The upper and lower disturbances grow in a coupled manner (resembling a normal-mode structure) initially, but they reverse direction slowly as the amplitudes increase, and eventually separate from each other.The motivation of this study is to investigate a type of extratropical cyclogenesis that involves a preexisting upper trough (termed as Type B development) from the viewpoint of resonant solitary waves. Two cases are of particular interest. First, the author examines a case where an upper disturbance preexists over an undisturbed low-level waveguide. The solitary waves exhibit behavior similar to that conceived by Hoskins et al. for Type B development; the lower disturbance is forced one sidedly by a preexisting upper disturbance initially, but in turn forces the latter once the former attains a sufficient amplitude, thus resulting in mutual reinforcement. Second, if a weak perturbation exists at the surface ahead of the preexisting strong upper disturbance, baroclinic instability is triggered when the two waves interact. Even though the amplitude of the lower disturbance is initially much weaker, it is intensified quickly and catches up with the amplitude of the upper disturbance, so that the coupled vertical structure resembles that of an unstable normal mode eventually. These results describe the observed behavior in Type B atmospheric cyclogenesis quite well.

  2. En Bloc Resection of Solitary Functional Secreting Spinal Metastasis.

    Goodwin, C Rory; Clarke, Michelle J; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Fisher, Charles; Laufer, Ilya; Weber, Michael H; Sciubba, Daniel M


    Study Design Literature review. Objective Functional secretory tumors metastatic to the spine can secrete hormones, growth factors, peptides, and/or molecules into the systemic circulation that cause distinct syndromes, clinically symptomatic effects, and/or additional morbidity and mortality. En bloc resection has a limited role in metastatic spine disease due to the current paradigm that systemic burden usually determines morbidity and mortality. Our objective is to review the literature for studies focused on en bloc resection of functionally active spinal metastasis as the primary indication. Methods A review of the PubMed literature was performed to identify studies focused on functional secreting metastatic tumors to the spinal column. We identified five cases of patients undergoing en bloc resection of spinal metastases from functional secreting tumors. Results The primary histologies of these spinal metastases were pheochromocytoma, carcinoid tumor, choriocarcinoma, and a fibroblast growth factor 23-secreting phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor. Although studies of en bloc resection for these rare tumor subtypes are confined to case reports, this surgical treatment option resulted in metabolic cures and decreased clinical symptoms postoperatively for patients diagnosed with solitary functional secretory spinal metastasis. Conclusion Although the ability to formulate comprehensive conclusions is limited, case reports demonstrate that en bloc resection may be considered as a potential surgical option for the treatment of patients diagnosed with solitary functional secretory spinal metastatic tumors. Future prospective investigations into clinical outcomes should be conducted comparing intralesional resection and en bloc resection for patients diagnosed with solitary functional secretory spinal metastasis.

  3. Research on consistency of identifying solitary pulmonary masses with CT

    Qiuping Wang; Gang Niu; Yun Zhang; Yongqian Qiang; Zicheng Li; Youmin Guo


    Objective:To research on consistency of identifying solitary pulmonary masses with CT.Methods:Three observers with different working backgrounds in imaging diagnosis individually interpreted the same group images of solitary pulmonary mass, by 12 indexes of objective signs.The differences in interpretation resulted in ante- and post-interpretations were assessed by the x2 test.The agreement of two interpretations from the same observer was confirmed with the kappa test.A double-blind method was adopted for analysis.Results:The agreement rates of ante- and post-interpreting from the three observers were respectively 82.65%(486/588) 80.27%(472/588) and 84.86% (499/588) while their interpreting results were generally accordant without significant difference(x2 = 4.975, df= 2,P = 0.083) however there was difference between the observer 2 and observer 3(x2 = 4.875, df= 1, P = 0.027).There were five indexes with k > 0.40 of ante- and post-interpreting results of the three observers, including clarity of nodule borderline, presence of sentus, uniformity of density, existence of cavity and calcification in pathological region, among them, the agreement rate of interpreting borderline and cavity was higher(k > 0.07); the blood vessel convergence poorer(0 < k ≤ 0.40); the other six CT signs of interpretation were slightly different.Conclusion:The ability to identify solitary pulmonary mass was inconsistent, and needs to be improved further.

  4. Breathing solitary-pulse pairs in a linearly coupled system

    Dana, Brenda; Bahabad, Alon


    It is shown that pairs of solitary pulses (SPs) in a linearly-coupled system with opposite group-velocity dispersions form robust breathing bound states. The system can be realized by temporal-modulation coupling of SPs with different carrier frequencies propagating in the same medium, or by coupling of SPs in a dual-core waveguide. Broad SP pairs are produced in a virtually exact form by means of the variational approximation. Strong nonlinearity tends to destroy the periodic evolution of the SP pairs.

  5. Blastomycosis presenting as solitary nodule: A rare presentation

    Ashish Dhamija


    Full Text Available Blastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous and suppurative mycosis, caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis, which in the great majority of cases presents as a primary pulmonary disease. Primary cutaneous blastomycosis is very rare. We present a 57-year-old female patient with a solitary, slowly progressive nodule over upper lip of 2½ months duration. Initially, differential diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis, pyoderma and deep mycoses were entertained. Slit smear preparation was suspicious of deep mycotic infection which was subsequently confirmed by biopsy and culture.

  6. Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 2. Solitary motion

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Jensen, Palle Martin; Sørensen, Lone B.;


    in an oscillating water tunnel. Two kinds of measurements were made: bed shear stress measurements and velocity measurements. The experiments show that the solitary-motion boundary layer experiences three kinds of flow regimes as the Reynolds number is increased: (i) laminar regime; (ii) laminar regime where...... the boundary-layer flow experiences a regular array of vortex tubes near the bed over a short period of time during the deceleration stage; and (iii) transitional regime characterized with turbulent spots, revealed by single/multiple, or, sometimes, quite dense spikes in the bed shear stress traces...

  7. A case report of reactive solitary eccrine syringofibroadenoma

    Tiwary, Anup K.; Firdous, J.; Mishra, Dharmendra K.; Chaudhary, Shyam S.


    Eccrine syringofibroadenoma is a very rare benign tumour of acrosyringium of eccrine sweat duct. Based on the evidences of known etiological factors, two forms have been proposed; reactive and nonreactive. Reactive forms are rarer, and on even rarer occasions, trauma complicated by secondary nonspecific infections may lead to the development of reactive eccrine syringofibroadenoma, as in our case. Here, we are documenting a case of reactive solitary eccrine syringofibroadenoma in a 65-year-old male presenting with coalescing, firm, pinkish, verrucous nodules and painful deep ulceration on the right sole preceded by trauma and secondary infection. Histopathologic revelation of distinctive microscopic findings confirmed the diagnosis in our case. PMID:28217470

  8. Metastatic melanoma mimicking solitary fibrous tumor: report of two cases.

    Bekers, Elise M; van Engen-van Grunsven, Adriana C H; Groenen, Patricia J T A; Westdorp, Harm; Koornstra, Rutger H T; Bonenkamp, Johannes J; Flucke, Uta; Blokx, Willeke A M


    Malignant melanomas are known for their remarkable morphological variation and aberrant immunophenotype with loss of lineage-specific markers, especially in recurrences and metastases. Hot spot mutations in BRAF, NRAS, GNAQ, and GNA11 and mutations in KIT are oncogenic events in melanomas. Therefore, genotyping can be a useful ancillary diagnostic tool. We present one case each of recurrent and metastatic melanoma, both showing histological and immunohistochemical features of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Mutational analysis detected BRAF and NRAS mutations in the primary and secondary lesions, respectively. This result confirmed the diagnosis of recurrent/metastastic melanoma.

  9. Experiments and computation of onshore breaking solitary waves

    Jensen, A.; Mayer, Stefan; Pedersen, G.K.


    This is a combined experimental and computational study of solitary waves that break on-shore. Velocities and accelerations are measured by a two-camera PIV technique and compared to theoretical values from an Euler model with a VOF method for the free surface. In particular, the dynamics of a so......-called collapsing breaker is scrutinized and the closure between the breaker and the beach is found to be akin to slamming. To the knowledge of the authors, no velocity measurements for this kind of breaker have been previously reported....

  10. [A solitary neurofibroma in the parotid gland from nervus vagus].

    Fagö-Olsen, Helena Anna; Hahn, Christoffer Holst


    A 37-year-old male, without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1, developed a firm mass below the right ear over several months without facial palsy. Clinical examination and ultra-sonography revealed a tumour in the parotid gland. Fine needle aspirationbiopsy was inconclusive. During complete resection, the tumour revealed an unusual anatomic location from the superficial lobe of the parotid to the deep and further into the parapharyngeal space. The pathological examination showed a solitary neurofibroma. In this case report, preoperative diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of this rare tumour in the parotid gland from n. vagus are discussed.


    LIU Zhi-fang; ZHANG Shan-yuan


    A new nonlinear wave equation of a finite deformation elastic circular rod simultaneously introducing transverse inertia and shearing strain was derived by means of Hamilton principle. The nonlinear equation includes two nonlinear terms caused by finite deformation and double geometric dispersion effects caused by transverse inertia and transverse shearing strain. Nonlinear wave equation and corresponding truncated nonlinear wave equation were solved by the hyperbolic secant function finite expansion method. The solitary wave solutions of these nonlinear equations were obtained. The necessary condition of these solutions existence was given also.

  12. Flow and sediment transport induced by a plunging solitary wave

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Sen, M.Berke; Karagali, Ioanna


    , and for observation of the morphological changes. The two experimental conditions were maintained as similar as possible. The experiments showed that the complete sequence of the plunging solitary wave involves the following processes: Shoaling and wave breaking; Runup; Rundown and hydraulic jump; and Trailing wave...... affected, by as much as a factor of 2, in the runup and hydraulic jump stages. The pore-water pressure measurements showed that the sediment at (or near) the surface of the bed experiences upward-directed pressure gradient forces during the downrush phase. The magnitude of this force can reach values...

  13. Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit presenting in pregnancy

    Das Jayanta


    Full Text Available A 32-year-old woman, three months pregnant, reported with the complaint of protrusion of the right eye for six months. She gave history of rapid protrusion of eyeball for the last two months along with the history of double vision for the last one month. Computer tomography (CT scan revealed a well-defined mass lesion in the intraconal space of the right orbit which was excised through a lateral orbitotomy approach. Histological examination and immunohistochemistry revealed a solitary fibrous tumor, which showed a rapid progression in pregnancy.



    Using direct algebraic method,exact solitary wave solutions are performed for a class of third order nonlinear dispersive disipative partial differential equations. These solutions are obtained under certain conditions for the relationship between the coefficients of the equation. The exact solitary waves of this class are rational functions of real exponentials of kink-type solutions.

  15. Laboratory Generation of Solitary Waves:An Inversion Technique to Improve Available Methods

    A.Romano; M.Guerrini; G.Bellotti; 琚烈红


    Solitary waves are often used in laboratory experiments to study tsunamis propagation and interaction with coasts. However, the experimental shape of the waves may differ from the theoretical one. In this paper, a correction technique aiming at minimizing the discrepancies between the two profiles is presented. Laboratory experiments reveal their effectiveness in correcting the experimental shape of solitary waves, mainly for low nonlinearities.

  16. Solitary Solution of Discrete mKdV Equation by Homotopy Analysis Method

    XU Xi-Xiang; WANG Zhen; YANG Hong-Xiang; ZOU Li; LU Rong-Wu; ZHANG Hong-Qing


    In this paper, we apply homotopy analysis method to solve discrete mKdV equation and successfully obtain the bell-shaped solitary solution to mKdV equation. Comparison between our solution and the exact solution shows that homotopy analysis method is effective and validity in solving hybrid nonlinear problems, including solitary solution of difference-differential equation.

  17. Solitary cysticercosis of the biceps brachii in a vegetarian: a rare and unusual pseudotumor

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry [Department of Radiology, New York Methodist Hospital Affiliated with Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 506 Sixth Street, Brooklyn, NY 11215 (United States); Klein, Michael J. [Department of Pathology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, 1 Gustave Levy Place, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Hermann, George [Department of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, 1 Gustave Levy Place, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Abdul-Quader, Mohammed [Department of Radiology, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, 177 Fort Washington Avenue, New York, NY 10032 (United States)


    We report a 40-year-old man with cysticercosis presenting as a solitary tumor in the biceps brachii muscle. Physical examination revealed an intramuscular mass and magnetic resonance imaging suggested a cyst. The histologic diagnosis was a cysticercus. Such solitary presentation of muscular cysticercosis is extremely rare with only a handful of sporadic reports in the literature. (orig.)

  18. A double optical solitary wave in a nonlinear Schr(o)dinger-type equation

    Yin Jiu-Li; Ding Shan-Yu


    A qualitative analysis method to efficiently solve the shallow wave equations is improved,so that a more complicated nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation can be considered.By using the detailed study,some quite strange optical solitary waves are obtained in which the bright and dark optical solitary waves are allowed to coexist.

  19. Solitary Wave Generation from Constant Continuous Wave in Asymmetric Oppositely Directed Waveguide Coupler

    Kazantseva E.V.


    Full Text Available In a model which describes asymmetric oppositely directed nonlinear coupler it was observed in numerical simulations a phenomenon of solitary wave generation from the input constant continuous wave set at the entrance of a waveguide with negative refraction. The period of solitary wave formation decreases with increase of the continuum wave amplitude.

  20. Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma in retroperitoneum: A case report and review of the literature

    Wei Hong; Xin-Min Yu; Ming-Qiang Jiang; Bo Chen; Xin-Bao Wang; Li-Tao Yang; Yi-Ping Zhang


    Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EPM) is a plasma cell tumor arising outside of the bone marrow. Solitary EMP is an uncommon neoplasm and rarely occurs in the retroperitoneum and lacks distinctive clinical manifestations. We report a 26-year-old man with a solitary EMP in the retroperitoneum and discuss its clinical features, diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Dispersal of solitary bees and bumblebees in a winter oilseed rape field

    Calabuig, Isabel


    Dispersal distributions of solitary bees and bumblebees were studied in a winter oilseed rape field. Window-traps were placed in the rape field along a line transect perpendicular to the field edge. 19 species of solitary bees were recorded and all but four species are polylectic, including...

  2. Differential Properties of Venom Peptides and Proteins in Solitary vs. Social Hunting Wasps

    Lee, Si Hyeock; Baek, Ji Hyeong; Yoon, Kyungjae Andrew


    The primary functions of venoms from solitary and social wasps are different. Whereas most solitary wasps sting their prey to paralyze and preserve it, without killing, as the provisions for their progeny, social wasps usually sting to defend their colonies from vertebrate predators. Such distinctive venom properties of solitary and social wasps suggest that the main venom components are likely to be different depending on the wasps’ sociality. The present paper reviews venom components and properties of the Aculeata hunting wasps, with a particular emphasis on the comparative aspects of venom compositions and properties between solitary and social wasps. Common components in both solitary and social wasp venoms include hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2, metalloendopeptidase, etc. Although it has been expected that more diverse bioactive components with the functions of prey inactivation and physiology manipulation are present in solitary wasps, available studies on venom compositions of solitary wasps are simply too scarce to generalize this notion. Nevertheless, some neurotoxic peptides (e.g., pompilidotoxin and dendrotoxin-like peptide) and proteins (e.g., insulin-like peptide binding protein) appear to be specific to solitary wasp venom. In contrast, several proteins, such as venom allergen 5 protein, venom acid phosphatase, and various phospholipases, appear to be relatively more specific to social wasp venom. Finally, putative functions of main venom components and their application are also discussed. PMID:26805885

  3. Stability of Solitary Waves for Three Coupled Long Wave - Short Wave Interaction Equations

    Borluk, H.; Erbay, S.


    In this paper we consider a three-component system of one dimensional long wave-short wave interaction equations. The system has two-parameter family of solitary wave solutions. We prove orbital stability of the solitary wave solutions using variational methods.

  4. Solitary central osteoma of mandible in a geriatric patient: Report and review

    Bhujbal, Ravi B.; Nayak, Ajay G.


    Solitary central osteomas of jaw are extremely rare lesions with only few previously documented cases. This paper reports a case of large solitary central osteoma involving mandible symphysis- parasymphysis region in an elderly female patient. A brief review of similar cases reported in the literature is also provided in this paper. Key words:Osteomas, osteogenic,bone, tumor, jaw, mandible. PMID:27034765

  5. Hepatic autoregulation

    Staehr, Peter; Hother-Nielsen, Ole; Beck-Nielsen, Henning


    The effect of increased glycogenolysis, simulated by galactose's conversion to glucose, on the contribution of gluconeogenesis (GNG) to hepatic glucose production (GP) was determined. The conversion of galactose to glucose is by the same pathway as glycogen's conversion to glucose, i.e., glucose 1......-phosphate --> glucose 6-phosphate --> glucose. Healthy men (n = 7) were fasted for 44 h. At 40 h, hepatic glycogen stores were depleted. GNG then contributed approximately 90% to a GP of approximately 8 Galactose, 9 g/h, was infused over the next 4 h. The contribution of GNG to GP...... declined from approximately 90% to 65%, i.e., by approximately 2 The rate of galactose conversion to blood glucose, measured by labeling the infused galactose with [1-(2)H]galactose (n = 4), was also approximately 2 The 41st h GP rose by approximately 1...

  6. Oceanic pycnocline depth retrieval from SAR imagery in the existence of solitary internal waves


    Oceanic pycnocline depth is usually inferred from in situ measurements. It is attempted to estimate the depth remotely. As solitary internal waves occur on oceanic pycnocline and propagate along it, it is possible to retrieve the depth indirectly in virtue of the solitary internal waves. A numerical model is presented for retrieving the pycnocline depth from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images where the solitary internal waves are visible and when ocean waters are fully stratified. This numerical model is constructed by combining the solitary internal wave model and a two-layer ocean model. It is also assumed that the observed groups of solitary internal wave packets on the SAR imagery are generated by local semidiurnal tides. A case study in the East China Sea shows a good agreement with in situ CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) data.

  7. Generation of internal solitary waves by frontally forced intrusions in geophysical flows.

    Bourgault, Daniel; Galbraith, Peter S; Chavanne, Cédric


    Internal solitary waves are hump-shaped, large-amplitude waves that are physically analogous to surface waves except that they propagate within the fluid, along density steps that typically characterize the layered vertical structure of lakes, oceans and the atmosphere. As do surface waves, internal solitary waves may overturn and break, and the process is thought to provide a globally significant source of turbulent mixing and energy dissipation. Although commonly observed in geophysical fluids, the origins of internal solitary waves remain unclear. Here we report a rarely observed natural case of the birth of internal solitary waves from a frontally forced interfacial gravity current intruding into a two-layer and vertically sheared background environment. The results of the analysis carried out suggest that fronts may represent additional and unexpected sources of internal solitary waves in regions of lakes, oceans and atmospheres that are dynamically similar to the situation examined here in the Saguenay Fjord, Canada.

  8. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the management of solitary pulmonary nodule: a review.

    Divisi, Duilio; Barone, Mirko; Zaccagna, Gino; Crisci, Roberto


    Solitary pulmonary nodules are common radiologic findings and their detection has increased due to the introduction and improvement of diagnostics. Since a nodule can be an expression of early lung cancers, a proper classification and management are required because its treatment might lead to decreased morbidity and mortality. In this regard, prominent guidelines are available although they are characterized sometimes by discordant and misleading evidences. Furthermore, the same results of studies in the literature appear conflicting. Aim of this work is to evaluate the role of imaging through an extensive literature review but focusing on 18-fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) in order to assess the limits and future perspectives of solitary pulmonary nodule characterization in early detection of lung cancer. Key messages Detection of solitary pulmonary nodules has increased. Management of solitary pulmonary nodules is still debated. Future perspectives of early solitary pulmonary nodule characterization.

  9. Generation of internal solitary waves by frontally forced intrusions in geophysical flows

    Bourgault, Daniel; Galbraith, Peter S.; Chavanne, Cédric


    Internal solitary waves are hump-shaped, large-amplitude waves that are physically analogous to surface waves except that they propagate within the fluid, along density steps that typically characterize the layered vertical structure of lakes, oceans and the atmosphere. As do surface waves, internal solitary waves may overturn and break, and the process is thought to provide a globally significant source of turbulent mixing and energy dissipation. Although commonly observed in geophysical fluids, the origins of internal solitary waves remain unclear. Here we report a rarely observed natural case of the birth of internal solitary waves from a frontally forced interfacial gravity current intruding into a two-layer and vertically sheared background environment. The results of the analysis carried out suggest that fronts may represent additional and unexpected sources of internal solitary waves in regions of lakes, oceans and atmospheres that are dynamically similar to the situation examined here in the Saguenay Fjord, Canada.

  10. Hepatitis C Test

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  11. HIV and Hepatitis B

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Hepatitis B (Last updated 8/31/2016; last reviewed ... should be treated for both diseases. What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused ...

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  14. Preventing hepatitis A

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

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  17. [Hepatitis E].

    Scotto, Gaetano; Bulla, Fabio; Campanale, Francesca; Tartaglia, Alessandra; Fazio, Vincenzina


    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) represents the main aetiological agent of enteric non-A hepatitis and is the only member of a new virus, Hepevirus, belonging to the family of Hepeviridae. HEV is the single most important cause of acute clinical hepatitis among adults in many areas of the developing world, specifically the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, where it is a common cause of sporadic and epidemic waterborne outbreaks and results in a high rate of morbidity and death, especially in pregnant women. Once thought of as an infection confined to developing countries, it is now recognized as a geographically widely distributed disease. In low-endemic regions (Western countries), sporadic cases of locally-acquired HEV infection are reported, acquired possibly through zoonotic transmission from pigs, wild boars or deer. In persons with pre-existing chronic liver disease, HEV superinfection can present as acute-on-chronic liver disease. In European countries, chronic infection, which may progress to liver cirrhosis, has been reported among immunosuppressed persons. Two testing vaccines proved to be highly effective in preventing the disease; these vaccines should be of particular use in groups that are at high risk of HEV infection.

  18. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    ... Requirements for Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis and Young Persons Who Inject Drugs National ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is Viral Hepatitis? The word "hepatitis" means inflammation of the liver . ...

  19. Dust Acoustic Solitary Waves in Saturn F-ring's Region

    E.K. El-Shewy; M.I. Abo el Maaty; H.G. Abdelwahed; M.A.Elmessary


    Effect of hot and cold dust charge on the propagation of dust-acoustic waves (DAWs) in unmagnetized plasma having electrons, singly charged ions, hot and cold dust grains has been investigated.The reductive perturbation method is employed to reduce the basic set of fluid equations to the Kortewege-de Vries (KdV) equation.At the critical hot dusty plasma density NhO, the KdV equation is not appropriate for describing the system.Hence, a set of stretched coordinates is considered to derive the modified KdV equation.It is found that the presence of hot and cold dust charge grains not only significantly modifies the basic properties of solitary structure, but also changes the polarity of the solitary profiles.In the vicinity of the critical hot dusty plasma density NhO, neither KdV nor mKdV equation is appropriate for describing the DAWs.Therefore, a further modified KdV (fmKdV) equation is derived, which admits both soliton and double layer solutions.

  20. Measurement of Ultra-Short Solitary Electromagnetic Pulses

    Eva Gescheidtova


    Full Text Available In connection with the events of the last few years and with the increased number of terrorist activities, the problem of identification and measurement of electromagnetic weapons or other systems impact occurred. Among these are also microwave sources, which can reach extensive peak power of up to Pmax = 100 MW. Solitary, in some cases several times repeated, impulses lasting from tp E <1, 60>ns, cause the destruction of semiconductor junctions. These days we can find scarcely no human activity, where semiconductor structures are not used. The problem of security support of the air traffic, transportation, computer nets, banks, national strategic data canter’s, and other applications crops up. Several types of system protection from the ultra-short electromagnetic pulses present itself, passive and active protection. The analysis of the possible measuring methods, convenient for the identification and measurement of the ultra-short solitary electromagnetic pulses in presented in this paper; some of the methods were chosen and used for practical measurement. This work is part of Research object MSM262200022 "Research of microelectronic systems".

  1. Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst: report of first case in China and review of literature

    蔡秀军; 黄迪宇; 梁霄; 虞洪; 李伟; 王先法; 彭淑牖


    Objective: To report the first case of ciliated hepatic foregut cyst in China, and review of literature to introduce the characteristics of this disease for doctors to recognize this disease.Method: Report the clinical procedure of diagnosis and treatment for the first case of ciliated hepatic foregut cyst in China, and to review the embryologic genesis, incidence,clinical manifestation, radiologic features and therapeutic principle of this disease. Results: We performed the resection for ciliated hepatic foregut cyst under laparoscopy; the patient recovered well after the procedure. Conclusion: Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst is quite rare clinically, belongs to non-parasitic,solitary and unilocular cystic lesion, is always less than 4cm in diameter, mostly seen in the left lobe, and has the tendency of malignant change. It should be removed as soon as diagnosed.

  2. Solitary infantile choriocarcinoma of the liver: MRI findings

    Hoef, Marianne van der; Willi, Ulrich V.; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Niggli, Felix K. [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Paediatrics, Zurich (Switzerland)


    Infantile hepatic choriocarcinoma is a rare, highly malignant germ-cell tumour believed to result from a choriocarcinoma of the placenta that spreads to the child. Most infants present with a characteristic clinical picture of anaemia, hepatomegaly and precocious puberty. Imaging findings, including conventional MRI, may be non-specific. To improve the accuracy of diagnosis, we present the imaging findings of contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI in a 4.5-month-old boy with infantile hepatic choriocarcinoma. (orig.)

  3. Hepatitis B Vaccine

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  4. Radiobiological restrictions and tolerance doses of repeated single-fraction hdr-irradiation of intersecting small liver volumes for recurrent hepatic metastases

    Wust Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess radiobiological restrictions and tolerance doses as well as other toxic effects derived from repeated applications of single-fraction high dose rate irradiation of small liver volumes in clinical practice. Methods Twenty patients with liver metastases were treated repeatedly (2 - 4 times at identical or intersecting locations by CT-guided interstitial brachytherapy with varying time intervals. Magnetic resonance imaging using the hepatocyte selective contrast media Gd-BOPTA was performed before and after treatment to determine the volume of hepatocyte function loss (called pseudolesion, and the last acquired MRI data set was merged with the dose distributions of all administered brachytherapies. We calculated the BED (biologically equivalent dose for a single dose d = 2 Gy for different α/β values (2, 3, 10, 20, 100 based on the linear-quadratic model and estimated the tolerance dose for liver parenchyma D90 as the BED exposing 90% of the pseudolesion in MRI. Results The tolerance doses D90 after repeated brachytherapy sessions were found between 22 - 24 Gy and proved only slightly dependent on α/β in the clinically relevant range of α/β = 2 - 10 Gy. Variance analysis showed a significant dependency of D90 with respect to the intervals between the first irradiation and the MRI control (p 90 and the pseudolesion's volume. No symptoms of liver dysfunction or other toxic effects such as abscess formation occurred during the follow-up time, neither acute nor on the long-term. Conclusions Inactivation of liver parenchyma occurs at a BED of approx. 22 - 24 Gy corresponding to a single dose of ~10 Gy (α/β ~ 5 Gy. This tolerance dose is consistent with the large potential to treat oligotopic and/or recurrent liver metastases by CT-guided HDR brachytherapy without radiation-induced liver disease (RILD. Repeated small volume irradiation may be applied safely within the limits of this study.

  5. Prolonged acute hepatitis A mimicking autoimmune hepatitis

    Rintaro Mikata; Osamu Yokosuka; Fumio Imazeki; Kenichi Fukai; Tatsuo Kanda; Hiromitsu Saisho


    AIM: We report a case with a prolonged course of hepatitisA, with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) higher than 500 IU/Lfor more than 2 mo.METHODS: A middle-aged woman had an elevated IgG level of more than 2 000 mg/dL, positive arti-nudear antibodies (ANA) and anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), but no evidence of persistent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. Liver biopsy findings were compatible with prolonged acute hepatitis, although acute onset of autoimmune hepatitis could not be ruled out.RESULTS: It was assumed that she developed a course of hepatitis similar to autoimmune hepatitis triggered by HAV infection. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment was initiated and a favorable outcome was obtained. CONCLUSION: We describe a case of a middle-aged woman who showed a prolonged course of acute hepatitis A mimicking autoimmune hepatitis. Treatment with UDCAproved to be effective.

  6. Territoriality and Conflict Avoidance Explain Asociality (Solitariness of the Endosymbiotic Pea Crab Tunicotheres moseri.

    Louis J Ambrosio

    Full Text Available Host monopolization theory predicts symbiotic organisms inhabiting morphologically simple, relatively small and scarce hosts to live solitarily as a result of territorial behaviors. We tested this prediction with Tunicotheres moseri, an endosymbiotic crab dwelling in the atrial chamber of the morphologically simple, small, and relatively scarce ascidian Styela plicata. As predicted, natural populations of T. moseri inhabit ascidian hosts solitarily with greater frequency than expected by chance alone. Furthermore, laboratory experiments demonstrated that intruder crabs take significantly longer to colonize previously infected compared to uninfected hosts, indicating as expected, that resident crabs exhibit monopolization behaviors. While territoriality does occur, agonistic behaviors employed by T. moseri do not mirror the overt behaviors commonly reported for other territorial crustaceans. Documented double and triple cohabitations in the field coupled with laboratory observations demonstrating the almost invariable success of intruder crabs colonizing occupied hosts, suggest that territoriality is ineffective in completely explaining the solitary social habit of this species. Additional experiments showed that T. moseri juveniles and adults, when searching for ascidians use chemical cues to avoid hosts occupied by conspecifics. This conspecific avoidance behavior reported herein is a novel strategy most likely employed to preemptively resolve costly territorial conflicts. In general, this study supports predictions central to host monopolization theory, but also implies that alternative behavioral strategies (i.e., conflict avoidance may be more important than originally thought in explaining the host use pattern of symbiotic organisms.

  7. Hepatitis C virus diversification in Argentina: comparative analysis between the large city of Buenos Aires and the small rural town of O'Brien.

    Marcelo D Golemba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The estimated prevalence of HCV infection in Argentina is around 2%. However, higher rates of infection have been described in population studies of small urban and rural communities. The aim of this work was to compare the origin and diversification of HCV-1b in samples from two different epidemiological scenarios: Buenos Aires, a large cosmopolitan city, and O'Brien, a small rural town with a high prevalence of HCV infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The E1/E2 and NS5B regions of the viral genome from 83 patients infected with HCV-1b were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis and Bayesian Coalescent methods were used to study the origin and diversification of HCV-1b in both patient populations. RESULTS: Samples from Buenos Aires showed a polyphyletic behavior with a tMRCA around 1887-1900 and a time of spread of infection approximately 60 years ago. In contrast, samples from ÓBrien showed a monophyletic behavior with a tMRCA around 1950-1960 and a time of spread of infection more recent than in Buenos Aires, around 20-30 years ago. CONCLUSION: Phylogenetic and coalescence analysis revealed a different behavior in the epidemiological histories of Buenos Aires and ÓBrien. HCV infection in Buenos Aires shows a polyphyletic behavior and an exponential growth in two phases, whereas that in O'Brien shows a monophyletic cluster and an exponential growth in one single step with a more recent tMRCA. The polyphyletic origin and the probability of encountering susceptible individuals in a large cosmopolitan city like Buenos Aires are in agreement with a longer period of expansion. In contrast, in less populated areas such as O'Brien, the chances of HCV transmission are strongly restricted. Furthermore, the monophyletic character and the most recent time of emergence suggest that different HCV-1b ancestors (variants that were in expansion in Buenos Aires had the opportunity to colonize and expand in O'Brien.

  8. Numerical study of interfacial solitary waves propagating under an elastic sheet

    Wang, Zhan; Părău, Emilian I.; Milewski, Paul A.; Vanden-Broeck, Jean-Marc


    Steady solitary and generalized solitary waves of a two-fluid problem where the upper layer is under a flexible elastic sheet are considered as a model for internal waves under an ice-covered ocean. The fluid consists of two layers of constant densities, separated by an interface. The elastic sheet resists bending forces and is mathematically described by a fully nonlinear thin shell model. Fully localized solitary waves are computed via a boundary integral method. Progression along the various branches of solutions shows that barotropic (i.e. surface modes) wave-packet solitary wave branches end with the free surface approaching the interface. On the other hand, the limiting configurations of long baroclinic (i.e. internal) solitary waves are characterized by an infinite broadening in the horizontal direction. Baroclinic wave-packet modes also exist for a large range of amplitudes and generalized solitary waves are computed in a case of a long internal mode in resonance with surface modes. In contrast to the pure gravity case (i.e without an elastic cover), these generalized solitary waves exhibit new Wilton-ripple-like periodic trains in the far field. PMID:25104909

  9. Clinical and radiographic features of solitary and cemento-osseous dysplasia-associated simple bone cysts.

    Chadwick, J W; Alsufyani, N A; Lam, E W N


    The simple bone cyst (SBC) is a pseudocyst that can occur as a solitary entity in the jaws or may occur in association with cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD). The purpose of this study was to review the clinical and radiographic features of solitary and COD-associated SBCs. Archived imaging reports from the Special Procedures Clinic in Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology at the Faculty of Dentistry at the University of Toronto between 1 January 1989 and 31 December 2009 revealed 23 COD-associated SBCs and 68 solitary SBCs. Almost all solitary and COD-associated SBCs were found in the mandible. Furthermore, 87.0% of COD-associated SBCs were found in females in their fifth decade of life (P < 0.001) while solitary SBCs were found in equal numbers in both sexes in their second decade of life (P < 0.005). COD-associated SBCs were also more likely to cause thinning of the endosteal cortex, bone expansion and scalloping of the superior border between teeth (all P < 0.001) than solitary SBCs that are classically described as having these characteristics. Finally, COD-associated SBC demonstrated a loss of lamina dura more often (P < 0.05) than solitary SBCs. Knowledge of the sporadic association between COD and SBC and their potential radiographic appearances should prevent inappropriate treatment and management of these patients.

  10. An experimental study on runup of two solitary waves on plane beaches

    XUAN Rui-tao; WU Wei; LIU Hua


    Experiments of the runup of two solitary waves on a plane beach are carried out in a wave flume.The two solitary waves with the same amplitude and the crest separating distances are generated by using an improved wave generation method.It is found that,with regard to the two solitary waves with same wave amplitude,the runup amplification of the second wave is less than that of the first wave if the relative crest separating distance is reduced to a certain threshold value.The rundown of the first solitary wave depresses the maximum runup of the second wave.If the leading solitary wave is of relatively smaller amplitude for the two solitary waves,the runup amplification is affected by the overtaking process of two solitary waves.It turns out that the runup amplification of the second wave is larger than that of the first wave if the similarity factor is approximately larger than 15,which means the larger wave overtakes the smaller one before the waves runup on a beach.

  11. Secondary chondrosarcoma arising from a solitary enchondroma at the index finger of the right hand: A case report

    Peyker DEMİRELİ


    Full Text Available Enchondromas are benign cartilaginous tumors and tend to present in small bones of hands and feet. Malignant transformation, though rare, is seen more often in multiple rather than solitary enchondromatous. A 70- year-old woman presented with swelling and pain lasting for years at the index finger of the right hand. Excisional curettage material of the mass revealed to be entirely an enchondroma. Seven months later, the lesion recurred at the same localization and amputation of the finger was performed. This time the tumor was found to be transformed into an intermediate grade (grade II which demonstrated chondrosarcoma intermingled with classical enchondromatous areas. Enchondromas arising at the hands and feet very rarely transform into chondrosarcomas. Since enchondromas at this site often show histological and clinical features suggestive of malignancy, it is often is difficult to make a histological distinction between benign cartilaginous tumors and chondrosarcomas. Detection of radiological as well as pathological findings are essential for differential diagnosis. This case is remarkable for she has a solitary enchondroma located at the index finger of the right hand that transformed into chondrosarcoma in seven months.

  12. Dust kinetic Alfvén solitary and rogue waves in a dusty plasma with two temperature nonextensive ions

    Saini, N. S.; Kaur, Barjinder; Singh, Manpreet; Bains, A. S.


    A theoretical investigation is carried out to study small amplitude dust kinetic Alfvén solitary waves (DKASWs) and rogue waves in a low-β, electron depleted plasma consisting of negatively charged dust grains and two temperature ions which are modelled by q-nonextensive distribution. A nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries equation, which governs the evolution of DKASWs, has been derived using the reductive perturbation method. Combined effects of the nonextensivity of ions, plasma beta, temperature ratio of low and high temperature ions, concentration of ions as well as dust, and angle of propagation (θ) have been studied in detail on the propagation properties of DKASWs. Only negative potential Alfvénic solitary waves are observed in the present study. Further, the study is extended for dust kinetic Alfvén rogue wave (DKARW) solutions. The properties of DKARWs, influenced by plasma parameters in question, are discussed in detail. The findings of this study may be useful to understand the formation of nonlinear coherent structures in Saturn's F-ring.

  13. Rotating solitary wave at the wall of a cylindrical container

    Amaouche, Mustapha


    This paper deals with the theoretical modeling of a rotating solitary surface wave that was observed during water drainage from a cylindrical reservoir, when shallow water conditions were reached. It represents an improvement of our previous study, where the radial flow perturbation was neglected. This assumption led to the classical planar Korteweg–de Vries equation for the wall wave profile, which did not account for the rotational character of the base flow. The present formulation is based on a less restricting condition and consequently corrects the last shortcoming. Now the influence of the background flow appears in the wave characteristics. The theory provides a better physical depiction of the unique experiment by predicting fairly well the wave profile at least in the first half of its lifetime and estimating the speed of the observed wave with good accuracy.

  14. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura: 3 case reports

    Elias Amorim


    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura (SFTP is a rare tumor arising from mesenchymatous cells in submesothelial pleural tissue which, unlike mesothelioma, is not related to asbestos or smoking. Methods: report of four patients who underwent surgical treatment for giant SFTP and review of the pertinent literature. Results: of the four patients operated, two presented symptoms including cough, chest pain and feeling of compression, whereas the other two subjects were asymptomatic. All patients underwent complete surgical resection by wide posterolateral thoracotomy, and surgical specimens removed with minimum bleeding. None of the cases required complementary lobectomy or segmentectomy. All tumors were histologically benign. Conclusion: complete resection of the lesion is the treatment of choice in all SFTP cases. Prognosis of the benign lesion is excellent, although close follow-up is necessary. In the rarer, more aggressive forms, treatment may be complemented by adjunctive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, the benefits of which have yet to be confirmed.

  15. Solitary Large Intestinal Diverticulitis in Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea).

    Stacy, B A; Innis, C J; Daoust, P-Y; Wyneken, J; Miller, M; Harris, H; James, M C; Christiansen, E F; Foley, A


    Leatherback sea turtles are globally distributed and endangered throughout their range. There are limited data available on disease in this species. Initial observations of solitary large intestinal diverticulitis in multiple leatherbacks led to a multi-institutional review of cases. Of 31 subadult and adult turtles for which complete records were available, all had a single exudate-filled diverticulum, as large as 9.0 cm in diameter, arising from the large intestine immediately distal to the ileocecal junction. All lesions were chronic and characterized by ongoing inflammation, numerous intralesional bacteria, marked attenuation of the muscularis, ulceration, and secondary mucosal changes. In three cases, Morganella morganii was isolated from lesions. Diverticulitis was unrelated to the cause of death in all cases, although risk of perforation and other complications are possible.

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus masquerading as solitary thyroid nodule

    Basu S


    Full Text Available Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary thyroid lesion is a rare finding, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. A case of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid (presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule, who had an unsuspected primary in the esophagus is described. Usually, multiple areas of the gland are involved in the secondary involvement of the thyroid. The clinical presentation of an apparently asymptomatic mass with neck lymphadenopathy, normal thyroid functions, and a cold nodule on 99mTcO4- thyroid scan can often lead to a misdiagnosis as primary thyroid neoplasm. The present case underscores the fact that due importance to the subtle signs and symptoms and a high degree of suspicion, whenever the histology is unusual for a thyroid primary, is needed and the workup should include ruling out other primary malignancies.

  17. [Solitary fibrous tumor of the pelvis: a rare extrathoracic manifestation].

    Gessmann, J; Seybold, D; Helwing, M; Muhr, G; Schildhauer, T A


    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) are rare spindle cell neoplasms. To date only very few cases of pelvic SFT have been reported in the literature. SFT are characterized by unique microscopic and immunohistochemical findings. Complete local resection is the treatment of choice. Recurrence and metastasis may be related to infrequent malignant histological features, but histology is not always a reliable predictor for prognosis. Therefore long-term follow-up is necessary.We report about a male patient with a malignant pelvic SFT. After complete resection the tumor recurred after a short period of 6 months posterior to the original location in the pelvis. The differential diagnoses and the therapy options are discussed with a review of the present literature.

  18. Solitary spinal metastasis of Hürthle cell thyroid carcinoma.

    Sciubba, Daniel M; Petteys, Rory J; Kang, Steven; Than, Khoi D; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Gallia, Gary L; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul


    Hürthle cell carcinoma is a rare variant of differentiated thyroid cancer that occasionally forms distant metastases. However, even in the presence of metastases, patients with Hürthle cell carcinoma have a relatively good prognosis. There are few reports of Hürthle cell carcinoma metastases to the vertebral column, and none describing aggressive resection of spinal metastases. Here, we report a 68-year-old woman with a solitary metastasis of Hürthle cell carcinoma to the T1 vertebral body causing severe kyphotic deformity, myelopathy, and pain. The patient was treated with aggressive excisional decompression of the spinal cord and T1 vertebral body resection from an entirely posterior approach. Reconstruction and stabilization of the anterior spine was accomplished with a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion allograft spacer and posterior instrumentation. We discuss aspects of the diagnosis, management, patient selection, and surgical treatment of metastatic Hürthle cell carcinoma in reference to the literature.

  19. Solitary osteosclerotic plasmacytoma: association with demyelinating polyneuropathy and amyloid deposition

    Voss, S.D.; Hall, F.M. [Dept. of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Murphey, M.D. [Dept. of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)


    A 51-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of polyneuropathy necessitating the use of a wheelchair. Initial diagnosis was idiopathic chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and associated monoclonal gammopathy. Investigations for multiple myeloma, including bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, were negative. What was initially felt to be an incidental osteosclerotic focus noted on the radiographic bone survey was eventually shown to be a solitary osteosclereotic plasmacytoma with associated amyloid. This dramatically altered treatment. This case emphasizes the importance of including osteosclerotic plasmacytoma in the differential diagnosis of a focal sclerotic bone lesion in the clinical setting of polyneuropathy. These lesions are less likely to progress to multiple myeloma than lytic plasma cell neoplasms, and the presence of polyneuropathy often results in earlier diagnosis and treatment with enhanced prospect of cure. The finding of amyloid deposition within the osteosclerotic lesion may be of prognostic importance. (orig.)

  20. Solitary plexiform neurofibroma determining pyloric obstruction: a case report

    Eduardo Cambruzzi


    Full Text Available Solitary gastric plexiform neurofibroma (PN is a very rare tumor that originates from the peripheral nerves. PN is a rare cause of pyloric obstruction. A 58 year-old man, reported epigastric discomfort, nausea, and vomiting for two months. Upper digestive endoscopy showed a moderate/accentuated pyloric stenosis. Computed tomography (CT and echoendoscopy revealed a pyloric nodule. The patient underwent to distal gastrectomy. Macroscopically, a gray nodule measuring 1.1 × 1.0 × 1.0 cm was identified. Using microscopy, a benign tumor composed of enlarged tortuous nerve fascicles showing a neurofibromatous proliferation with mild atypia and myxoid matrix was found. The lesion showed positive immunoexpression for S100, Leu7, and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, and was negative for CD117, DOG-1, desmin, and smooth muscle actin. The diagnosis of PN was then determined.

  1. The terminology of hepatitis*


    It is proposed that the diseases formerly known as “infectious hepatitis” and “serum hepatitis” be referred to as viral hepatitis type A and viral hepatitis type B, respectively. It is further recommended that the “Australia” antigen be referred to as hepatitis B antigen (HB Ag) and the corresponding antibody as hepatitis B antibody (HB Ab). PMID:4544683

  2. Hepatitis A and HIV

    ... Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis A and HIV Hepatitis A is preventable with a vaccine, and ... Notice Network • • HIV/AIDS Service Locator Locator Widgets • Instructions • API Find ...

  3. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis B (HBV) Print A A A What's in this ... poisons). There are several different types of hepatitis . Hepatitis B is a type that can move from one ...

  4. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis B (HBV) A A A What's in this article? ... poisons). There are several different types of hepatitis . Hepatitis B is a type that can move from one ...

  5. Solitary wave generation from continuum in asymmetric oppositely directed nonlinear waveguide coupler

    Kazantseva, E. V.; Maimistov, A. I.


    In a model which describes asymmetric oppositely directed nonlinear waveguide coupler it was observed in the numerical simulation a phenomenon of solitary wave formation from the input constant continuous wave set at the entrance of a waveguide with negative index of refraction. Threshold value of the amplitude of the constant continuous wave, which defines the condition of appearance of the first solitary wave, decreases with increasing of the parameter of nonlinearity. The period of solitary wave formation decreases with increasing of the continuum wave amplitude.

  6. Developing Serpent-Type Wave Generators to Create Solitary Wave Simulations with BEM

    Wen-Kai WENG; Ruey-Syan SHIH; Chung-Ren CHOU


    Developing serpent-type wave generators to generate solitary waves in a 3D-basin was investigated in this study. Based on the Lagrangian description with time-marching procedures and finite differences of the time derivative, a 3D multiple directional wave basin with multidirectional piston wave generators was developed to simulate ocean waves by using BEM with quadrilateral elements, and to simulate wave-caused problems with fully nonlinear water surface conditions. The simulations of perpendicular solitary waves were conducted in the first instance to verify this scheme. Furthermore, the comparison of the waveform variations confirms that the estimation of 3D solitary waves is a feasible scheme.

  7. Periodic Semifolded Solitary Waves for (2+1)-Dimensional Variable Coefficient Broer-Kaup System

    JI Jie; HUANG Wen-Hua


    Applying the extended mapping method via Riccati equation, many exact variable separation solutions for the (2+1)-dimensional variable coefficient Broer-Kaup equation are obtained. Introducing multiple valued function and Jacobi elliptic function in the seed solution, special types of periodic semifolded solitary waves are derived. In the long wave limit these periodic semifolded solitary wave excitations may degenerate into single semifolded localized soliton structures. The interactions of the periodic semifolded solitary waves and their degenerated single semifolded soliton structures are investigated graphically and found to be completely elastic.

  8. The Solitary Variant of Mandibular Intraosseous Neurofibroma: Report of a Rare Entity

    Pavan Kumar Gujjar


    Full Text Available Neurofibroma (NF is a benign neoplasm derived from peripheral nerve cells. NF may extend either as a solitary lesion or as part of a generalized syndrome of neurofibromatosis. Intraorally, the intraosseous variant of neurofibroma is a very rare tumor. The literature provides only few cases of solitary intraosseous neurofibroma of the mandible. We report a case of 28-year-old female who was diagnosed with a solitary intraosseous neurofibroma involving the lower left quadrant of the mandible. The present case is rare in regard to its dimensions and its location.

  9. Scabies presenting as solitary mastocytoma-like eruption in an infant.

    Salces, Inés García; Alfaro, Jorge; Sáenz DE Santamaría, Maria Carmen; Sanchez, Milagros


    We report a case in which the initial clinical finding was a solitary cutaneous nodule on the wrist of a young infant which urticated when rubbed, and was diagnosed as a solitary mastocytoma. Two months later, she had the onset of a new vesiculo-pustular eruption on the palms and soles, consistent with scabies infestation and treatment with topical permethrin 5% cream resulted in resolution of the entire eruption, including the primary nodule. While scabies has been reported to mimick a variety of conditions including urticaria pigmentosa, to our knowledge no previous cases masquerading as solitary mastocytoma have been reported.

  10. Bifurcation and Solitary Waves of the Combined KdV and KdV Equation

    HUA Cun-Cai; LIU Yan-Zhu


    Bifurcation, bistability and solitary waves of the combined KdV and mKdV equation are investigatedsystematically. At first, bifurcation and bistability are analyzed by selecting an integral constant as the bifurcationparameter. Then, different conditions expressed in terms of the bifurcation parameter are obtained for the existence ofbreather-like, algebraic, pulse-like solitary waves, and shock waves. All types of the solitary wave and shock wave solutionsare given by direct integration. Finally, an approximate analytic method by employing the interpolation polynomials iscomplete and the theoretical methods are the simplest hitherto.

  11. Bifurcation and solitary waves of the nonlinear wave equation with quartic polynomial potential

    化存才; 刘延柱


    For the nonlinear wave equation with quartic polynomial potential, bifurcation and solitary waves are investigated. Based on the bifurcation and the energy integral of the two-dimensional dynamical system satisfied by the travelling waves, it is very interesting to find different sufficient and necessary conditions in terms of the bifurcation parameter for the existence and coexistence of bright, dark solitary waves and shock waves. The method of direct integration is developed to give all types of solitary wave solutions. Our method is simpler than other newly developed ones. Some results are similar to those obtained recently for the combined KdV-mKdV equation.

  12. An ancillary CT finding of intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor: A case report

    Lee, Dong Jun; Rho, Ji Young; Kwon, Ah Young [CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)


    Intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor is extremely rare. A few reports have presented typical CT findings such as well-defined, variable—sized, heterogeneously or homogenously well-enhanced intrapulmonary nodules. We report herein a rare case of intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor that showed typical clinical and CT features, and we also provide an ancillary CT finding that shows a distinguishable tubular vascular structure within the nodule. The tubular vascular structure was conjoined to the proximal pulmonary vein. In this study, we highlight an ancillary CT finding reported for the first time for the diagnosis of a patient with intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor.

  13. Solitary SH waves in two-layered traction-free plates

    Djeran-Maigre, Irini; Kuznetsov, Sergey


    A solitary wave, resembling a soliton wave, is observed when analyzing the linear problem of polarized shear (SH) surface acoustic waves propagating in elastic orthotropic two-layered traction-free plates. The analysis is performed by applying a special complex formalism and the Modified Transfer Matrix (MTM) method. Conditions for the existence of solitary SH waves are obtained. Analytical expressions for the phase speed of the solitary wave are derived. To cite this article: I. Djeran-Maigre, S. Kuznetsov, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  14. VATS intraoperative tattooing to facilitate solitary pulmonary nodule resection

    Boutros Cherif


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS has become routine and widely accepted for the removal of solitary pulmonary nodules of unknown etiology. Thoracosopic techniques continue to evolve with better instruments, robotic applications, and increased patient acceptance and awareness. Several techniques have been described to localize peripheral pulmonary nodules, including pre-operative CT-guided tattooing with methylene blue, CT scan guided spiral/hook wire placement, and transthoracic ultrasound. As pulmonary surgeons well know, the lung and visceral pleura may appear featureless on top of a pulmonary nodule. Case description This paper presents a rapid, direct and inexpensive approach to peripheral lung lesion resection by marking the lung parenchyma on top of the nodule using direct methylene blue injection. Methods In two patients with peripherally located lung nodules (n = 3 scheduled for VATS, we used direct methylene blue injection for intraoperative localization of the pulmonary nodule. Our technique was the following: After finger palpation of the lung, a spinal 25 gauge needle was inserted through an existing port and 0.1 ml of methylene blue was used to tattoo the pleura perpendicular to the localized nodule. The methylene blue tattoo immediately marks the lung surface over the nodule. The surgeon avoids repeated finger palpation, while lining up stapler, graspers and camera, because of the visible tattoo. Our technique eliminates regrasping and repalpating the lung once again to identify a non marked lesion. Results Three lung nodules were resected in two patients. Once each lesion was palpated it was marked, and the area was resected with security of accurate localization. All lung nodules were resected in totality with normal lung parenchymal margins. Our technique added about one minute to the operative time. The two patients were discharged home on the second postoperative day, with no morbidity. Conclusion

  15. 螺旋CT多期扫描在肝小血管瘤与小肝癌诊断的临床应用%Clinical Application of More-phase Spiral CT in Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Small Hepatic Hemangioma



    目的:探讨小肝细胞癌和肝脏小血管瘤螺旋CT增强表现及其随时间延迟所致的CT征象的变化过程。材料与方法:50例患者(15例SHCC,35例SHHE),其中19例经手术病理标本证实,其余由临床表现和实验室检查诊断。采用Siemens Plus4C螺旋CT机,先作平扫,然后在肿瘤靶平面平衡期扫描。着重观察、分析不同CT扫描时相小肝细胞癌和肝脏小血管瘤CT表现特征的动态变化过程。结果,SHHE组发现病灶44个,30个病灶在动脉期边缘明显强化逐渐向中心填充,22个病灶在动脉期和门静脉期均为高密度,2个病灶在动脉期和门静脉期均为低密度,在平衡期42个病灶SHHE为高密度和等密度;SHCC组发现病灶18个,14个病灶SHCC显示动脉期呈高密度、门静脉期为低密度,3个病灶动脉期为高密度、门静脉期为等密度,1个病灶动脉期、门静脉期均为低密度,平衡期16个病灶的SHCC为低密度。结论:根据SHHE和SHCC在螺旋CT多期扫描的强化表现,大多数病例可明确两者诊断。%Objective: To investigate the enhanced spiral CT features of SHCC and SHHE,and the changing of these features with time. Materials and Methods: Of 50 cases with SHCC(15/50)and SHHE (35/50), 19 cases were surgically and pathologically proved, and the others were clinically diagnosed. Plain scanning, single-level dynamic scanning of the target section during hepatic arterial phase (delaying 25-30 sec.), portal venous phase scanning(delaying 60-70 sec.)of the whole liver, and equilibrium scanning of the target section here performed. The dynamic changes of CT features were observed and analyzed. Results: 35 cases with SHHE were found in 44 focuses. Peripheral enhancement significantly of the lesion were found 30(30/44) focuses on the arterial phase scan and to fill up by degrees from the periphery of the lesion to center. Hemogenous enhancement was seen in 22(22/44) focuses and 2

  16. 肺部孤立性结节的评估及诊断策略的选择%Evaluation and diagnostic strategies of solitary pulmonary nodules

    王辉; 解卫平; 陈亮


    随着胸部CT的广泛应用,肺部孤立性结节的发现率越来越高.如何确认发现的肺部孤立性结节的性质成为临床上亟待解决的问题.少数结节的性质可以通过患者的临床特征及胸部CT特点得到确认,但绝大多数的结节的性质需要通过进一步的检查,包括经验性抗感染治疗、胸部CT定期随访观察、PET/CT检查、纤维支气管镜榆查、CT引导下经胸针吸肺活检、电视胸腔镜手术等.随着对肺部孤立性结节认识的日益加深及诊断策略的日趋完善,肺部孤立性结节的诊治得到了较快的发展.%With the extensive use of chest CT, the detection rate of solitary pulmonary nodules is increasing. How to determine the nature of solitary pulmonary nodules is a urgent problem in clinic. The nature of a small number of nodules can be confirmed by clinical features of patients and characteristic of chest CT, but the nature of majority of nodules need to be further examined by empirical anti-infective therapy, regular follow-up observation of chest CT scan. PET/CT scan, bronchoscopy, CT-guided transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy,and video assisted thoracoscopy. With the deepening understanding of solitary pulmonary nodules and the gradual improvement of diagnostic strategies, diagnosis and treatment of solitary pulmonary nodules has rapid development.

  17. Hepatitis Delta Virus: A Peculiar Virus

    Carolina Alves; Cristina Branco; Celso Cunha


    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is distributed worldwide and related to the most severe form of viral hepatitis. HDV is a satellite RNA virus dependent on hepatitis B surface antigens to assemble its envelope and thus form new virions and propagate infection. HDV has a small 1.7 Kb genome making it the smallest known human virus. This deceivingly simple virus has unique biological features and many aspects of its life cycle remain elusive. The present review endeavors to gather the available ...

  18. SKLB70326, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of cell-cycle progression, induces G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest and apoptosis in human hepatic carcinoma cells

    Han, Yuanyuan; He, Haiyun [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Peng, Feng [Department of Thoracic Oncology of the Cancer Center and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Jiyan; Dai, Xiaoyun; Lin, Hongjun; Xu, Youzhi; Zhou, Tian; Mao, Yongqiu; Xie, Gang; Yang, Shengyong; Yu, Luoting; Yang, Li [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zhao, Yinglan, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SKLB70326 is a novel compound and has activity of anti-HCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SKLB70326 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SKLB70326 induces G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest via inhibiting the activity of CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SKLB70326 induces apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway. -- Abstract: We previously reported the potential of a novel small molecule 3-amino-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)thieno[2.3-b]pyridine-2-carboxamide (SKLB70326) as an anticancer agent. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer effects and possible mechanisms of SKLB70326 in vitro. We found that SKLB70326 treatment significantly inhibited human hepatic carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro, and the HepG2 cell line was the most sensitive to its treatment. The inhibition of cell proliferation correlated with G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest, which was followed by apoptotic cell death. The SKLB70326-mediated cell-cycle arrest was associated with the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, CDK4 and CDK6 but not cyclin D1 or cyclin E. The phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) was also observed. SKLB70326 treatment induced apoptotic cell death via the activation of PARP, caspase-3, caspase-9 and Bax as well as the downregulation of Bcl-2. The expression levels of p53 and p21 were also induced by SKLB70326 treatment. Moreover, SKLB70326 treatment was well tolerated. In conclusion, SKLB70326, a novel cell-cycle inhibitor, notably inhibits HepG2 cell proliferation through the induction of G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest and subsequent apoptosis. Its potential as a candidate anticancer agent warrants further investigation.

  19. Solitary Wave and Non-traveling Wave Solutions to Two Nonlinear Evolution Equations


    By applying the extended homogeneous balance method, we find some new explicit solutions to two nonlinear evolution equations, which include n-resonance plane solitary wave and non-traveling wave solutions.

  20. A Rare Case of Solitary Peutz Jeghers Type Hamartomatous Duodenal Polyp with Dysplasia!

    Rathi, Chetan Devendra; Solanke, Dattatray Balasaheb; Kabra, Nikita Lalitkumar; Ingle, Meghraj Ananda; Sawant, Prabha Dilip


    Solitary Peutz Jeghers (SPJ) type hamartomatous polyp is a rare and separate entity from classic Peutz Jeghers syndrome (PJS). A hamartomatous polyp without associated mucocutaneous pigmentations, any other gastrointestinal polyp or a family history of PJS is diagnosed as a SPJ type polyp. We described a case of 22-year-old young man in whom solitary duodenal polyp was incidentally detected and resected. Histopathological examination revealed PJ type hamartomatous polyp with foci of adenomatous and moderate dysplastic change. Very few cases of solitary duodenal PJ type hamartomatous polyps with malignant transformation have been reported. They can be treated with endoscopic or surgical resection. Endoscopic ultrasound can give an idea about the depth of involvement. This is a rare case of duodenal solitary PJ polyp with dysplasia in a young patient.

  1. Open Partial Nephrectomy in Solitary Kidney with Multiple Renal Cell Carcinoma: a Case Report

    Ji-rui Niu; Quan-zong Mao; Zhi-gang Ji


    RENAL cell carcinoma (RCC) in a solitary kidney presents a unique clinical challenge to urological surgeons.Partial nephrectomy (PN) or nephron-sparing surgery in this condition provides good oncological and renal fuctional outcomes with an acceptable complication rate.1,2 Long-term renal function remains stable in most patients with solitary kidneys after a reduction of more than 50% in renal mass.3 PN is a surgical procedure reserved for patients with a tumor in a solitary kidney,bilateral renal tumors,or renal function impairment.4 The challenge of preserving renal parenchyma is significantly complicated with the discovery of multiple masses in a solitary kidney because any subsequent complications may result in a significant decline in quality of life.Particularly in the case of postoperative renal failure,dialysis becomes necessary.

  2. Resource effects on solitary bee reproduction in a managed crop pollination system

    The number of solitary bees (Megachile rotundata) released for pollination in a managed system (Medicago sativa seed production) and the number of flowers available for brood provisioning may affect reproduction through maternal resource allocation and investment. Overwhelming, limited, or adequate...

  3. MR Imaging Features of a Solitary Subcutaneous Metastasis from a Gastric Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    Kim, Jung Im; Choi, Jung Ah; Choi, Ja Young; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Haeng; Oh, Joo Han [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seungnam (Korea, Republic of)


    Subcutaneous tissue is an unusual site for a metastasis from a gastric carcinoma. We present a case of a patient with a nodular solitary subcutaneous metastasis from a gastric cancer and describe its magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features

  4. Transformation of mode-2 internal solitary wave over a pseudo slope-shelf

    Cheng, Ming-Hung; Hsieh, Chih-Min; Hsu, John R.-C.; Hwang, Robert R.


    Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effect of wave amplitude in a numerical wave tank on the evolution of a convex mode-2 internal solitary wave (ISW) propagating over a pseudo slope-shelf. A finite volume method based on a Cartesian grid system is adopted to solve the Navier-Stokes equations using Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation model for the turbulent closure. Numerical results reveal three types of waveform during wave generation on the flat bottom: (1) pseudo vortex shedding in the case of very large initial amplitude; (2) PacMan phenomenon in large amplitude; and (3) smooth mode-2 ISW for small amplitude. During wave propagation on the plateau, the first type of waveform induces a quasi-elevated mode-1 ISW; the second generates chaotic internal waves with significant reduction in amplitude; while the third renders a slightly deformed mode-2 ISW across the plateau. Moreover, the decrease in the magnitude of leading trough is more intense than that in the leading crest due to strong wave-obstacle interaction in the case of very large initial wave amplitude.

  5. Left inguinal lymphadenopathy as the solitary metastatic presentation of primitive neuroectodermal tumor of unknown origin

    Tamojit Chaudhuri


    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET/ewing′s sarcoma is a rare neural crest tumor of central nervous system, thoracopulmonary regions, pelvis, and lower extremities. Visceral involvement by PNET is a rare phenomenon, with kidney being the most commonly involved organ. We report a 35-year-old Asian female presenting with left inguinal swelling, with computed tomography scan evidence of conglomerate lymph nodal mass in the left external iliac and inguinal region. A clinico-radiological diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorder was made. She subsequently underwent excision biopsy. Histopathology of the biopsy specimen revealed completely effaced lymph nodal architecture, which was replaced by a tumor composed of nests of small, round, blue cells. On immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were positive for CD99 and negative for CD3, CD20, leucocyte common antigen, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, desmin, vimentin, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A. Extensive search regarding any possible different site of involvement by the tumor was negative. The clinical presentation and histological, cytological, and immunohistochemical pattern, lead to the diagnosis of metastatic PNET of the left external iliac and inguinal lymph node with unknown primary origin. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first ever reported case of inguinal lymphadenopathy as the solitary metastatic presentation of PNET of unknown origin.

  6. Long-term evolution of strongly nonlinear internal solitary waves in a rotating channel

    J. C. Sánchez-Garrido


    Full Text Available The evolution of internal solitary waves (ISWs propagating in a rotating channel is studied numerically in the framework of a fully-nonlinear, nonhydrostatic numerical model. The aim of modelling efforts was the investigation of strongly-nonlinear effects, which are beyond the applicability of weakly nonlinear theories. Results reveal that small-amplitude waves and sufficiently strong ISWs evolve differently under the action of rotation. At the first stage of evolution an initially two-dimensional ISW transforms according to the scenario described by the rotation modified Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, namely, it starts to evolve into a Kelvin wave (with exponential decay of the wave amplitude across the channel with front curved backwards. This transition is accompanied by a permanent radiation of secondary Poincaré waves attached to the leading wave. However, in a strongly-nonlinear limit not all the energy is transmitted to secondary radiated waves. Part of it returns to the leading wave as a result of nonlinear interactions with secondary Kelvin waves generated in the course of time. This leads to the formation of a slowly attenuating quasi-stationary system of leading Kelvin waves, capable of propagating for several hundreds hours as a localized wave packet.

  7. A solitary pulmonary ground-glass nodule in adult systemic langerhans’ cell histiocytosis

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Yunyuan; Fan, Li; Liu, Shiyuan


    During a thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan, a 36-year-old male was diagnosed with a solitary oval pulmonary mixed ground-glass nodule in the right upper lobe of the lung. The edge of the nodule was well-defined, and its largest axial size was approximately 1.1×0.9 cm2. This nodule was slightly lobulated, but not obviously speculated. Solid components, micro-cystic lucency shadow, small high-density rings and tiny vascular branches were all visible in the nodule. During hospitalization, a technetium 99 m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99 m MDP) bone scan was performed, which showed a skeletal foci with abnormal uptake in the left iliac. A pulmonary lobectomy of the right upper lobe of the lung by video-assisted thoracoscopy was performed. In post-operative pathological photomicrographs, proliferative Langerhans’ cells, eosinophils and lymphocytes were found. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of S-100 protein, CD1a, and CD68 antigen all stained positive. Since Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis (LCH) that is also associated with isolated mixed ground-glass nodules is relatively rare, such a multi-systemic LCH case as identified herein, is reported. PMID:26722574


    LIN Zhen-hua; SONG Jin-bao


    In this study,an analysis on the internal wave generation via the gravity collapse mechanism is carried out based on the theoretical formulation and the numerical simulation.With the linear theoretical model,a rectangle shape wave is generated and propagates back and forth in the domain,while a two-dimensional non-hydrostatic numerical model could reproduce all the observed phenomena in the laboratory experiments conducted by Chen et al.(2007),and the related process realistically.The model results further provide more quantitative information in the whole domain,thus allowing an in depth understanding of the corresponding internal solitary wave generation and propagation.It is shown that the initial type of the internal wave is determined by the relative height between the perturbation and the environmental density interface,while the final wave type is related to the relative height of the upper and lower layers of the environmental fluid.The shape of the internal wave generated is consistent with that predicted by the KdV and EKdV theories if its amplitude is small,as the amplitude becomes larger,the performance of the EKdV becomes better after the wave adjusts itself to the ambient stratification and reaches an equilibrium state between the nonlinear and dispersion effects.The evolution of the mechanical energy is also analyzed.

  9. Large amplitude solitary waves in ion-beam plasmas with charged dust impurities

    Misra, A P


    The nonlinear propagation of large amplitude dust ion-acoustic (DIA) solitary waves (SWs) in an ion-beam plasma with stationary charged dusts is investigated. For typical plasma parameters relevant for experiments [J. Plasma Phys. \\textbf{60}, 69 (1998)], when the beam speed is larger than the DIA speed ($v_{b0}\\gtrsim1.7c_s$), three stable waves, namely the "fast" and "slow" ion-beam modes and the plasma DIA wave are shown to exist. These modes can propagate as SWs in the beam plasmas. However, in the other regime ($c_s0)$ is found to be limited by a critical value which typically depends on $M$, $v_{b0}$ as well as the ion/beam temperature. The conditions for the existence of DIA solitons are obtained and their properties are analyzed numerically in terms of the system parameters. While the system supports both the compressive and rarefactive large amplitude SWs, the small amplitude solitons exist only of the compressive type. The theoretical results may be useful for observation of soliton excitations in l...

  10. A unified approach in seeking the solitary wave solutions to sine-Gordon type equations

    Xie Yuan-Xi; Tang Jia-Shi


    By utilizing the solutions of an auxiliary ordinary differential equation introduced in this paper, we present a simple and direct method to uniformly construct the exact solitary wave solutions for sine-Gordon type equations.As illustrative examples, the exact solitary wave solutions of some physically significant sine-Gordon type equations,including the sine-Gordon equation, double sine-Gordon equation and mKdV-sine-Gordon equation, are investigated by means of this method.

  11. Contrast examination as a prognostic factor in the treatment of solitary bone cyst by cortisone injection

    Capanna, R.; Campanacci, M.; Albisinni, U.; Caroli, G.C.


    Local injection of radiopaque medium demonstrated the presence of intracystic fibrous septa in 13 patients with solitary bone cyst. Contrast examination was helpful in predicting the response of solitary bone cysts to treatment by injection of methylprednisolone-acetate (MPA). As the number of septa increased, an increased difficulty in obtaining an equal distribution of MPA inside the cyst and a higher incidence of incomplete healing of the cyst was encountered.

  12. Solitary myeloma with massive extracellular crystalline structures--a case report.

    Kim, Y. G.; Yang, K. H.; Gang, S. J.; Kim, B. K.; Kim, S. M.


    We describe a case of solitary myeloma showing cystic change filled with massive crystalline structures in a 54-year-old woman. A bone X-ray showed a solitary cystic osteolytic lesion in the right iliac bone. Serum and urine protein electrophoresis showed no demonstrable M-protein, and bone-marrow aspirates did not show any myeloma cells. Histologic examination of the tumor revealed aggregation of plasma cells with massive extracellular infiltration of the rhomboid-shaped crystalline structur...

  13. A rare cause of chronic rectal bleeding in children; solitary rectal ulcer: case report.

    Temiz, Abdulkerim; Tander, Burak; Temiz, Muhyittin; Barış, Sancar; Arıtürk, Ender


    Solitary rectal ulcer causing lower gastrointestinal bleeding is extremely rare in children. Rare presentation, non-specific symptoms, insufficient experience, and characteristics mimicking other rectal diseases may cause misdiagnosis or delay of diagnosis in some pediatric patients. Here, we report a 10-year-old boy with solitary rectal ulcer diagnosed two years after onset of the symptoms who responded well to the conservative therapy, including high-fiber diet, laxatives, defecation training, and sucralfate enema.

  14. Dust acoustic solitary and shock waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas with nonthermal ions

    Hamid Reza Pakzad; Kurosh Javidan


    The Korteweg–de Vries–Burgers (KdV–Burgers) equation and modified Korteweg–de Vries–Burgers equation are derived in strongly coupled dusty plasmas containing nonthermal ions and Boltzmann distributed electrons. It is found that solitary waves and shock waves can be produced in this medium. The effects of important parameters such as ion nonthermal parameter, temperature, density and velocity on the properties of shock waves and solitary waves are discussed.




    Full Text Available Plasma cell neoplasm’s constitute a group of disorders characterized by monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells and presence of monoclonal immunoglobulin in the serum. We report a case of solitary bone plasmacytoma of maxilla, a variant of PCNs. Because solitary bone plasmacytoma are quite rare in the oral cavity, they are often not commonly included i n the differential diagnosis of lesions occurring in the maxillary palatal region. The definitive diagnosis requires computed tomography scan, histopathological examination and immunoelectrophoresis.

  16. Polarized seismic and solitary waves run-up at the sea bed

    Dennis, L. C.C.; Zainal, A. A.; Faisal, S. Y. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)


    The polarization effects in hydrodynamics are studied. Hydrodynamic equation for the nonlinear wave is used along with the polarized solitary waves and seismic waves act as initial waves. The model is then solved by Fourier spectral and Runge-Kutta 4 methods, and the surface plot is drawn. The output demonstrates the inundation behaviors. Consequently, the polarized seismic waves along with the polarized solitary waves tend to generate dissimilar inundation which is more disastrous.

  17. Seizure recurrence in patients with solitary cystic granuloma or single parenchymal cerebral calcification: a comparative evaluation.

    Sharma, Laxmi Narayan; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Verma, Rajesh; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh


    Solitary cysticercus granuloma and single parenchymal calcified lesion are two common neuroimaging abnormalities in Indian patients with epilepsy. In this study, we evaluated the frequency and predictors of seizure recurrence in patients presenting with new onset epilepsy or single epileptic seizures and these two different imaging findings. We enrolled 115 patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. All patients were clinically evaluated and were treated with oxcarbazepine. No anti-helminthic treatment was prescribed. The patients were followed up for 6 months. In the solitary cystic granuloma group, repeat computed tomography was done after 6 months. The study included 80 patients with solitary cysticercus granuloma and 35 patients with a single calcified lesion. Twenty (25%) patients with solitary cysticercus granuloma and 12 (34.3%) patients with parenchymal calcified lesion had a seizure recurrence during the study period (p = 0.307). After 6 months, 57 (71.3%) patients in the solitary cysticercus granuloma group demonstrated complete resolution of the granuloma and in 21 (26.2%) patients the granuloma transformed into a calcified lesion. In the solitary cysticercus granuloma group, a family history of seizure, serial seizures and calcification on follow-up neuroimaging (p seizures. In patients with a single parenchymal calcified lesions, electroencephalographic abnormalities and serial seizures (p = seizure recurrence rate was insignificantly higher in patients with calcified lesions than in patients with solitary cysticercosis granulomas. In conclusion, in patients with solitary cysticercus granuloma, a family history of seizures, serial seizures and calcification of the granuloma, and in patients with a calcified brain lesion, electroencephalographic abnormalities, family history of epilepsy and serial seizures were associated with an increased risk of seizure recurrence. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. The superposition method in seeking the solitary wave solutions to the KdV-Burgers equation

    Yuanxi Xie; Jilashi Tang


    In this paper, starting from the careful analysis on the characteristics of the Burgers equation and the KdV equation as well as the KdV-Burgers equation, the superposition method is put forward for constructing the solitary wave solutions of the KdV-Burgers equation from those of the Burgers equation and the KdV equation. The solitary wave solutions for the KdV-Burgers equation are presented successfully by means of this method.

  19. Solitary fibrous tumor of the hard palate: a rare entity in oral cavity

    Pinto, Antonione Santos Bezerra; Department of Oral Pathology – São Leopoldo Mandic Institute and Research Center – Campinas – SP – Brazil.; De Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti; Department of Oral Pathology – São Leopoldo Mandic Institute and Research Center – Campinas – SP – Brazil.; Santos, Fabrício Passador; Department of Oral Pathology – São Leopoldo Mandic Institute and Research Center – Campinas – SP – Brazil.; Filho, José Ferreira de Menezes; Antonio Carlos Institute of Tocantins – Araguaína – TO – Brazil.; Siqueira, Viviane; Department of Oral Pathology – São Leopoldo Mandic Institute and Research Center – Campinas – SP – Brazil.; Soares, Andresa Borges; Department of Oral Pathology – São Leopoldo Mandic Institute and Research Center – Campinas – SP – Brazil.


    A case of solitary fibrous tumor is reported. Solitary fibrous tumor is a rare neoplasia characterized by the proliferation of fusiform cells of mesenchymal origin accounting for at least 2% of all soft tissue tumors. In this present case, the initial diagnosis was salivary gland tumor because of the location in the hard palate. Histologically, the tumor was composed by conjunctive tissue with proliferation of oval and fusiform cells. The immunohistochemical analysis was positive for CD34 and...

  20. Analytical solitary wave solutions of the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model in photonic structures.

    Kominis, Y


    A phase space method is employed for the construction of analytical solitary wave solutions of the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model in a photonic structure. This class of solutions is obtained under quite generic conditions, while the method is applicable to a large variety of systems. The location of the solutions on the spectral band gap structure as well as on the low dimensional space of system's conserved quantities is studied, and robust solitary wave propagation is shown.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of solitary infantile myofibromatosis of the skull: A case report

    Lee, Seung Eun; Cho, Kil Ho; Suh, Jang Ho; Choi, Joon Hyuk [College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Infantile myofibromatosis is a rare, benign mesenchymal disorder of early childhood characterized by solitary or multiple benign myofibroblastic tumors. The tumors may involve the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, bone and visceral organs. We report magnetic resonance imaging findings of solitary infantile myofibromatosis arising in the temporal bone of a ten-month-old boy, and the diagnosis was confirmed by surgical excision and histopathological examination.

  2. Nonhydrostatic Numerical Investigations of Oscillating Flow Over Sills: Generation of Internal Tides and Solitary Waves


    northern South China Sea in idealized settings, and 3) to provide information on wave characteristics to principal investigators in NLIWI (Nonlinear...Solitary Waves in the Northern South China Sea : a Nonhydrostatic Numerical Investigation.” The study of waves in a two-ridge system emphasizes the...Solitary Waves in the Northern South China Sea : a Nonhydrostatic Numerical Investigation.” IMPLICATION/APPLICATIONS See the report for

  3. Modeling population dynamics of solitary bees in relation to habitat quality

    Ulbrich, K.; Seidelmann, K.


    To understand associations between habitat, individual behaviour, and population development of solitary bees we developed an individual-based model. This model is based on field observations of Osmia rufa (L) (Apoideae: Megachilidae) and describes population dynamics of solitary bees. Model rules are focused on maternal investment, in particular on the female’s individual decisions about sex and size of progeny. In the present paper, we address the effect of habi...

  4. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A biopsy service’s experience with 104 solitary, multiple and recurrent lesions


    Background Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a clinically significant cystic lesion of odontogenic origin. This study aimed to retrospectively review and describe the clinicopathologic features of KCOT and to objectively compare the clinical and histological features of solitary, multiple and recurrent KCOT in a Saudi Arabian population. Material and Methods Biopsy request forms, pathology records and archival materials (all histological slides) of 104 cases of KCOT from 75 patients were retrieved. Demographic and clinical details as well as histological evaluation were analyzed and compared between the 3 groups using chi-squared or Mann-Whitney tests of association as appropriate. Results Significant differences were noted in the age of presentation, location and association with impaction between multiple and solitary cases. Histologically, there was a difference in the mitotic count, presence of satellite cysts and proliferating odontogenic epithelium between solitary and multiple lesions. There was no difference between the KCOT that later recurred and solitary lesion which did not recur even when matched clinically for age, sex and location. There were differences when solitary KCOT that later recurred or recurrent KCOT were compared with multiple lesions. Multiple lesions still had more significant proliferative activity parameters than solitary recurrence-related KCOT. Conclusions KCOTs in Saudi Arabians are not different from those reported from other parts of the world. Clinical and histological analyses showed multiple KCOT is different from its solitary recurrent or non-recurrent counterparts and has a higher proliferative activity than both. Clinicohistologic features alone cannot wholly explain the behavior of KCOT. Key words:Descriptive study, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontogenic keratocyst, solitary, multiple, recurrent. PMID:27475695

  5. Solitary luteinized follicle cyst of pregnancy complicated with persistent postpartum vaginal bleeding: case report

    ZHANG Song-ying; HUANG He-feng; TONG Xiao-mei


    @@ Solitary luteinized follicle cyst, a rare cause of ovarian enlargement during pregnancy and puerperium, is a self-limited disease that can regress spontaneously after labor. The complications of the disease include ovarian torsion, intracystic hemorrhage, and rupture; endocrine disturbances have not been reported.1-4 Here we report a case of solitary luteinized follicle cyst of pregnancy,which required surgical intervention owing to persistent postpartum vaginal bleeding.

  6. Prostate carcinoma, presenting with a solitary osteolytic bone lesion to the right hip

    Agheli, Aref; Patsiornik, Yelena; Chen, Yu; Chaudhry, M. Rashid; Gerber, Howard; Wang, Jen C.


    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer-associated mortality in males. Bone metastasis is frequent and generally multiple and osteoblastic. Presentation of a pure osteolytic and solitary metastasis from a prostate carcinoma is extremely rare. We report a case of prostate cancer in a 70-year-old man who presented with progressive severe right hip pain and stiffness with no urinary symptom. A whole-body bone scan revealed a solitary metastasis to...

  7. Anomalous width variation of rarefactive ion acoustic solitary waves in the context of auroral plasmas

    S. S. Ghosh


    Full Text Available The presence of dynamic, large amplitude solitary waves in the auroral regions of space is well known. Since their velocities are of the order of the ion acoustic speed, they may well be considered as being generated from the nonlinear evolution of ion acoustic waves. However, they do not show the expected width-amplitude correlation for K-dV solitons. Recent POLAR observations have actually revealed that the low altitude rarefactive ion acoustic solitary waves are associated with an increase in the width with increasing amplitude. This indicates that a weakly nonlinear theory is not appropriate to describe the solitary structures in the auroral regions. In the present work, a fully nonlinear analysis based on Sagdeev pseudopotential technique has been adopted for both parallel and oblique propagation of rarefactive solitary waves in a two electron temperature multi-ion plasma. The large amplitude solutions have consistently shown an increase in the width with increasing amplitude. The width-amplitude variation profile of obliquely propagating rarefactive solitary waves in a magnetized plasma have been compared with the recent POLAR observations. The width-amplitude variation pattern is found to fit well with the analytical results. It indicates that a fully nonlinear theory of ion acoustic solitary waves may well explain the observed anomalous width variations of large amplitude structures in the auroral region.

  8. Measuring blood delivery to solitary pulmonary nodules using perfusion magnetic resonance imaging

    Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zhifeng; Shen, Li; Gao, Ling; Ford, James C.; Makedon, Fillia S.; Pearlman, Justin D.


    With perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI), perfusion describes the amount of blood passing through a block of tissue in a certain period of time. In pMRI, the tissue having more blood passing through will show higher intensity value as more contrast-labeled blood arrives. Perfusion reflects the delivery of essential nutrients to a block of tissue, and is an important parameter for the tissue status. Considering solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN), perfusion differences between malignant and benign nodules have been studied by different techniques. Much effort has been put into its characterization. In this paper, we proposed and implemented extraction of the SPN time intensity profile to measure blood delivery to solitary pulmonary nodules, describing their perfusion effects. In this method, a SPN time intensity profile is created based on intensity values of the solitary pulmonary nodule in lung pMRI images over time. This method has two steps: nodule tracking and profile clustering. Nodule tracking aligns the solitary pulmonary nodule in pMRI images taken at different time points, dealing with nodule movement resulted from breathing and body movement. Profile clustering implements segmentation of the nodule region and extraction of the time intensity profile of a solitary pulmonary nodule. SPN time intensity profiles reflect patterns of blood delivery to solitary pulmonary nodules, giving us a description of perfusion effect and indirect evidence of tumor angiogenesis. Analysis on SPN time intensity profiles will help the diagnosis of malignant nodules for early lung cancer detection.

  9. Body Image in Dyadic and Solitary Sexual Desire: The Role of Encoding Style and Distracting Thoughts.

    Dosch, Alessandra; Ghisletta, Paolo; Van der Linden, Martial


    This study explored the link between body image and desire to engage in sexual activity (dyadic and solitary desire) in adult women living in a long-term couple relationship. Moreover, it considered two psychological factors that may underlie such a link: the occurrence of body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity and encoding style (i.e., the tendency to rely on preexisting internal schemata versus external information at encoding). A total of 53 women (29 to 47 years old) in heterosexual relationships completed questionnaires assessing sexual desire (dyadic, solitary), body image, body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity, and encoding style. Results showed that poor body image was associated with low dyadic and solitary sexual desire. Body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity mediated the link between body image and solitary (but not dyadic) sexual desire. Finally, the mediation of body-related distracting thoughts between body image and solitary sexual desire was moderated by encoding style. A negative body image promoted the occurrence of body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity, especially in internal encoders. Our study highlights the importance of body image, distracting thoughts, and encoding style in women's solitary sexuality and suggests possible factors that may reduce the impact of those body-related factors in dyadic sexual desire.

  10. Solitary cannabis use in adolescence as a correlate and predictor of cannabis problems.

    Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B; Martin, Christopher S


    Most adolescent cannabis use occurs in social settings among peers. Solitary cannabis use during adolescence may represent an informative divergence from normative behavior with important implications for understanding risk for cannabis problems. This longitudinal study examined associations of adolescent solitary cannabis use with levels of cannabis use and problems in adolescence and in young adulthood. Cannabis using-adolescents aged 12-18 were recruited from clinical programs (n=354; 43.8% female; 83.3% Caucasian) and community sources (n=93; 52.7% female; 80.6% Caucasian). Participants reported on cannabis use patterns and diagnostic symptoms at baseline and multiple follow-ups into young adulthood. Compared to social-only users, adolescent solitary cannabis users were more likely to be male and reported more frequent cannabis use and more DSM-IV cannabis use disorder (CUD) symptoms. Regression analyses showed that solitary cannabis use in adolescence predicted CUD symptom counts in young adulthood (age 25) after controlling for demographic variables and the frequency of adolescent cannabis use. However, solitary adolescent cannabis use was no longer predictive of age 25 CUD symptoms after additionally controlling for adolescent CUD symptoms. Solitary cannabis use is associated with greater cannabis use and problems during adolescence, but evidence is mixed that it predicts young adult cannabis problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling of modified electron-acoustic solitary waves in a relativistic degenerate plasma

    Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A. [Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)


    The modeling of a theoretical and numerical study on the nonlinear propagation of modified electron-acoustic (mEA) solitary waves has been carried out in an unmagnetized, collisionless, relativistic, degenerate quantum plasma (containing non-relativistic degenerate inertial cold electrons, both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate hot electron and inertial positron fluids, and positively-charged static ions). A reductive perturbation technique is used to derive the planar and the nonplanar Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equations, which admit a localized wave solution for the solitary profile. The solitary wave's characteristics are found to have been influenced significantly for the non-relativistic and the ultra-relativistic limits. The mEA solitary waves are also found to have been significantly modified due to the effects of the degenerate pressure and the number densities of this dense plasma's constituents. The properties of the planar K-dV solitary wave are quite different from those of the nonplanar K-dV solitary wave. The relevance of our results to astrophysical objects (like white dwarfs and neutron stars), which are of scientific interest, is briefly mentioned.

  12. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  13. AKNS eigenvalue spectrum for densely spaced envelope solitary waves

    Slunyaev, Alexey; Starobor, Alexey


    The problem of the influence of one envelope soliton to the discrete eigenvalues of the associated scattering problem for the other envelope soliton, which is situated close to the first one, is discussed. Envelope solitons are exact solutions of the integrable nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS). Their generalizations (taking into account the background nonlinear waves [1-4] or strongly nonlinear effects [5, 6]) are possible candidates to rogue waves in the ocean. The envelope solitary waves could be in principle detected in the stochastic wave field by approaches based on the Inverse Scattering Technique in terms of ‘unstable modes' (see [1-3]), or envelope solitons [7-8]. However, densely spaced intense groups influence the spectrum of the associated scattering problem, so that the solitary trains cannot be considered alone. Here we solve the initial-value problem exactly for some simplified configurations of the wave field, representing two closely placed intense wave groups, within the frameworks of the NLS equation by virtue of the solution of the AKNS system [9]. We show that the analogues of the level splitting and the tunneling effects, known in quantum physics, exist in the context of the NLS equation, and thus may be observed in application to sea waves [10]. These effects make the detecting of single solitary wave groups surrounded by other nonlinear wave groups difficult. [1]. A.L. Islas, C.M. Schober (2005) Predicting rogue waves in random oceanic sea states. Phys. Fluids 17, 031701-1-4. [2]. A.R. Osborne, M. Onorato, M. Serio (2005) Nonlinear Fourier analysis of deep-water random surface waves: Theoretical formulation and and experimental observations of rogue waves. 14th Aha Huliko's Winter Workshop, Honolulu, Hawaii. [3]. C.M. Schober, A. Calini (2008) Rogue waves in higher order nonlinear Schrödinger models. In: Extreme Waves (Eds.: E. Pelinovsky & C. Kharif), Springer. [4]. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, M. Taki (2009) Waves that appear from

  14. [Hepatitis E virus-associated aplastic anemia. Report of a case].

    Zylberman, Marcelo; Turdó, Karina; Odzak, Andrea; Arcondo, Florencia; Altabert, Nancy; Munné, Silvina


    Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAAA) is a well-recognized clinical syndrome in which marrow failure follows the development of hepatitis; it can be observed in up to 5% in the aplastic anemia in West Europe and North American countries and 10% in the East Asia. Although hepatotropic and other viruses were suspected of causing HAAA, this hypothesis was rarely confirmed. Currently, the infection with hepatitis E virus represents the first cause of acute hepatitis in the world. Its genotype 3, the most frequent in Argentina and other Latin American countries, was associated with extrahepatic complications (renal, pancreatic, neurologic and hematologic). To our knowledge, only one case of hepatitis E virus-associated aplastic anemia has been previously reported, in Pakistan; the case presented here would be the first in Argentina. The patient was treated with thymoglobulin, cyclosporine, corticosteroids, filgastrim and transfusional support. She developed fungemia due to Candida tropicalis that remitted with equinocandins and therefore fever, pulmonary infiltrates and a solitary nodular cerebral image with serum galactomannan (DO index > 1.0 ng/ml) that resolved with voriconazol. She was discharged three months after her admission without transfusion requirements and normal hepatic values.With this in mind, it would be advisable to investigate hepatitis E (HEV) as a cause of HAAA in Argentina.

  15. A unified intrinsic functional expansion theory for solitary waves

    Theodore Yaotsu Wu; John Kao; Jin E. Zhang


    A new theory is developed here for evaluating solitary waves on water, with results of high accuracy uniformly valid for waves of all heights, from the highest wave with a corner crest of 120° down to very low ones of diminishing height. Solutions are sought for the Euler model by employing a unified expansion of the logarithmic hodograph in terms of a set of intrinsic component functions analytically determined to represent all the intrinsic properties of the wave entity from the wave crest to its outskirts. The unknown coefficients in the expansion are determined by minimization of the mean-square error of the solution, with the minimization optimized so as to take as few terms as needed to attain results as high in accuracy as attainable. In this regard, Stokes's formula, F2μπ = tanμπ, relating the wave speed (the Froude number F) and the logarithmic decrement μ of its wave field in the outskirt, is generalized to establish a new criterion requiring (for minimizing solution error) the functional expansion to contain a finite power series in M terms of Stokes's basic term (singular inμ), such that 2Mμ is just somewhat beyond unity, i.e. 2Mμ (~-) 1. This fundamental criterion is fully validated by solutions for waves Dedicated to Zhemin Zheng for celebration of his Eightieth Anniversary It gives us a great pleasure to dedicate this study to Prof. Zhemin Zheng and join our distinguished colleagues and friends for the jubilant celebration of his Eightieth Anniversary. Warmest tribute is due from us, as from many others unlimited by borders and boundaries, for his contributions of great significance to science, engineering science and engineering, his tremendous influence as a source of inspiration and unerring guide to countless workers in the field, his admirable leadership in fostering the Institute of Mechanics of world renown, as well as for his untiring endeavor in promoting international interaction and cooperation between academies of various nations

  16. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk


    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  17. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk


    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  18. Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma presenting within a solitary anti-mesenteric dilated segment of ileum: a case report

    Storey Rowland


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is the third most common non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtype. Clinical presentation is often insidious as a low-grade lesion and disease tends to remain localised for a long period of time. Ileal involvement is rare and presentation within an area of focal anti-mesenteric ileal wall dilation simulating a large diverticulum has not been reported. Case presentation A 59-year-old man of Caucasian origin presented to a general surgical outpatients clinic with an 18-month history of intermittent upper abdominal pain following meals. Following normal gastroscopy and abdominal ultrasound, a focally dilated segment of ileum was seen on computed tomography and further clarified by barium investigation. Histology of this segment demonstrated MALT lymphoma of the small bowel. Conclusion A solitary focally dilated segment of ileal wall may be neoplastic in nature and surgical resection needs to be considered.

  19. Multi-dimensional instability of dust-ion-acoustic solitary structure with opposite polarity ions and non-thermal electrons

    Haider, M. M.; Rahman, O.


    An attempt has been made to study the multi-dimensional instability of dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) solitary waves (SWs) in magnetized multi-ion plasmas containing opposite polarity ions, opposite polarity dusts and non-thermal electrons. First of all, we have derived Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation to study the DIA SWs in this case using reductive perturbation method as well as its solution. Small- k perturbation technique was employed to find out the instability criterion and growth rate of such a wave which can give a guideline in understanding the space and laboratory plasmas, situated in the D-region of the Earth's ionosphere, mesosphere, and solar photosphere, as well as the microelectronics plasma processing reactors.

  20. Multidimensional Hall magnetohydrodynamics with isotropic or anisotropic thermal pressure: numerical scheme and its validation using solitary waves

    Strumik, Marek


    We present a numerical solver for plasma dynamics simulations in Hall magnetohydrodynamic (HMHD) approximation in one, two and three dimensions. We consider both isotropic and anisotropic thermal pressure cases, where a general gyrotropic approximation is used. Both explicit energy conservation equation and general polytropic state equations are considered. The numerical scheme incorporates second-order Runge-Kutta advancing in time and Kurganov-Tadmor scheme with van Leer flux limiter for the approximation of fluxes. A flux-interpolated constrained-transport approach is used to preserve solenoidal magnetic field in the simulations. The implemented code is validated using several test problems previously described in the literature. Additionally, we propose a new validation method for HMHD codes based on solitary waves that provides a possibility of quantitative rigorous testing in nonlinear (large amplitude) regime as an extension to standard tests using small-amplitude whistler waves. Quantitative tests of ...