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Sample records for solidago macrophylla asteraceae

  1. An updated distribution of Solidago × niederederi (Asteraceae in Poland

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    Pliszko Artur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an updated map of the distribution of Solidago ×niederederi, a natural hybrid between S. canadensis and S. virgaurea, in Poland is presented using the ATPOL cartogram method. A compiled list of 55 localities of the hybrid within 40 cartogram units (10-km squares is provided and its negative impact on S. virgaurea is highlighted.

  2. Next-generation sampling: Pairing genomics with herbarium specimens provides species-level signal in Solidago (Asteraceae).

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    Beck, James B; Semple, John C

    2015-06-01

    The ability to conduct species delimitation and phylogeny reconstruction with genomic data sets obtained exclusively from herbarium specimens would rapidly enhance our knowledge of large, taxonomically contentious plant genera. In this study, the utility of genotyping by sequencing is assessed in the notoriously difficult genus Solidago (Asteraceae) by attempting to obtain an informative single-nucleotide polymorphism data set from a set of specimens collected between 1970 and 2010. Reduced representation libraries were prepared and Illumina-sequenced from 95 Solidago herbarium specimen DNAs, and resulting reads were processed with the nonreference Universal Network-Enabled Analysis Kit (UNEAK) pipeline. Multidimensional clustering was used to assess the correspondence between genetic groups and morphologically defined species. Library construction and sequencing were successful in 93 of 95 samples. The UNEAK pipeline identified 8470 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and a filtered data set was analyzed for each of three Solidago subsections. Although results varied, clustering identified genomic groups that often corresponded to currently recognized species or groups of closely related species. These results suggest that genotyping by sequencing is broadly applicable to DNAs obtained from herbarium specimens. The data obtained and their biological signal suggest that pairing genomics with large-scale herbarium sampling is a promising strategy in species-rich plant groups.

  3. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci from the invasive plant Solidago canadensis (Asteraceae).

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    Zhao, S-Y; Sun, S-G; Guo, Y-H; Chen, J-M; Wang, Q-F

    2012-02-17

    Solidago canadensis, a clonal herb originally from North America (common name: Canada goldenrod), is an invasive species in many countries. We developed microsatellite primers for this species. Eleven polymorphic loci were generated and primers were designed. Polymorphism of these 11 loci was assessed in 35 plants from two populations (Wuhan and Shanghai) in China. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 14. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.0732 to 0.7391 and from 0.1177 to 0.8687, respectively. These microsatellite markers will be useful tools for studies of population genetics in the native and invasive range of this species.

  4. Physiological response and differential leaf proteome pattern in the European invasive Asteraceae Solidago canadensis colonizing a former cokery soil.

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    Immel, Françoise; Renaut, Jenny; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2012-02-02

    Derelict contaminated sites are often colonized spontaneously by plant species leading to a vegetal cover thought to limit particle dispersal and polluted water infiltration. Those plants must cope with soil pollutants through tolerance mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Here, we focused our attention on a particular Asteraceae plant, Solidago canadensis, considered as invasive in Europe. S. canadensis spontaneously growing on either polluted (NM soil) or control soils dumped on experimental plots were studied for their physiological status, oxidative stress and 2D-DIGE of leaf extracts. S. canadensis tolerance to soil pollutants was demonstrated since growth rates, allocation to reproduction ratios and Fv/Fm ratios were similar in plants from control and NM soil. At the cell level, the catalase activity level was increased in plants collected on NM soil while lipoperoxidation was unaffected. Also, the leaf proteomic study revealed thirty down-regulated and sixty-six up-regulated proteins. Abundances of proteins related to oxidative stress, carbohydrate metabolism, ion transport were mainly up-regulated while those of proteins involved in cell cycle and transcription/translation were mostly down-regulated. Proteins associated to protein metabolism were either down- or up-regulated. Considered altogether, we highlighted that S. canadensis exhibited a complex proteome response when experiencing a multicontaminated soil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Repeated monitoring as an effective early detection means: first records of naturalised Solidago gigantea Aiton (Asteraceae) in southern Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalwij, Jesse; Steyn, C.; le Roux, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 93, Jul 2014 (2014), s. 204-206 ISSN 0254-6299 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Solidago * early detection * invasive species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2014

  6. A New Record from Mount Uludağ for Turkey: Solidago gigantea Aiton

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    Yılmaz, Özer

    2017-01-01

    Solidago gigantea Aiton (Asteraceae) is reported for the first time (Uludağ, Bursa) for theFlora of Turkey. Solidago gigantea isclosely related to S. canadensis L.,however, it is differs in having glabrous stems, sparse inflorescence andoblanceolate achenes that are black or fawn coloured. A new identification keyfor Solidago species in Turkey isgiven. Also the distributions of these species are mapped.

  7. Solidago canadensis und Solidago gigantea in Frankfurt am Main

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    Ottich, Indra

    2015-01-01

    Die beiden nordamerikanischen Goldruten-Arten Solidago canadensis und S. gigantea sind in Mitteleuropa weit verbreitet. Häufig wird nicht zwischen den beiden Arten unterschieden, die Angaben zur Ökologie scheinen für beide Arten weitgehend identisch. Durch eine Rasterkartierung des Stadtgebietes von Frankfurt am Main wird gezeigt, dass die Arten jedoch unterschiedliche Ansprüche haben. Während Solidago canadensis sehr häufig ist und alle typisch städtischen Bereiche besiedelt, wird Solidago g...

  8. Constituents of the essential oil in Solidago canadensis L. from Eurasia

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    Olga Shelepova; Yulia Vinogradova; Boris Zaitchik; Alexander Ruzhitsky; Olga Grygorieva; Ján Brindza

    2018-01-01

    Hydro distilled essential oils in air-dry samples of aerial parts of Solidago canadensis L., (Asteraceae) from eight local invasive populations were investigated by GC-MS analysis. A comparative study on quantity and composition of the essential oils obtained from plants, growing in different ecological and climatic conditions, ontogenesis phase and different plant organs was carried out The major compounds detected in oil samples of S. canadensis were α-pinene (1.3 - 61.27%), limonene ...

  9. [HPLC investigation of antioxidant components in Solidago herba].

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    Apáti, Pál; Houghton, Peter J; Kéry, Agnes

    2004-01-01

    Representatives of Solidago species have been used in European phytotheraphy for centuries as a component of urological and antiphlogistical remedies. Solidago canadensis L. (Asteraceae) contains a wide range of active ingredients, such as flavonoids, saponins, hydroxycinnamates and mineral elements, which are responsible for its characteristic anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic and diuretic properties. Quality control of collected Solidaginis herba were performed according to the instructions of the X. German Pharmacopoea, while different LC-MS technologies were applied to evaluate the exact phenoloid composition. Three flavonol aglycons (quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin) connected to several sugar components (glucose, rhamnose, galactose and rutinose), caffeoylquinic acid and a caffeoyl-shikimic acid glycoside were identified in the samples. Quercetin-3-O-beta-glucoside (isoquercitrin), quercetin-3-O-beta-galactoside (hyperoside), quercetin-3-O-beta-rhamnoside (quercitrin), quercetin-3-O-beta-rutinoside (rutin), kaempferol-3-O-beta-rhamnoside (afzelin), kaempferol-3-O-beta-rutinoside (nicotiflorin), caffeoil-quinic acid (chlorogenic acid) were identified in sample "A", while the presence of quercetin, quercetin-3-O-beta-glucoside (isoquercitrin), quercetin-3-/6"-O-acetyl-/-beta-glucopiranoside, quercetin-3-O-beta-rutinoside (rutin), kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-beta-glucoside (astragalin), kaempferol-3-/6"-O-acetyl-/-beta-glucopiranoside, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin-3-/6"-O-acetyl-/-beta-glucopiranoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-rutinoside (narcissin), caffeoil-quinic acid (chlorogenic acid), caffeoil-shikimic acid-glucoside (dattelic acid-glucoside) were confirmed in sample "B". According to the occurrence of acetyl-glycosides and the diversity of sugar component of flavonoid glycosides Solidaginis herba samples chemotaxonomically were classified into different varieties. Incidence of acetyl-glycosidic flavonoids and absence of flavonoid galactosides and rhamnosides

  10. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of solidago canadensis linn. Root essential oil.

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    Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

    2010-06-01

    The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by α-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli whereas it showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans.

  11. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOLIDAGO CANADENSIS LINN. ROOT ESSENTIAL OIL

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    Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by α-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli wher...

  12. Flemingia macrophylla in goat feeding

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    Isabel das Neves Oiticica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of Fabaceae Flemingia macrophylla (Willd. Kuntze ex Merr. in the diet of lactating dairy goats arranged in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The diets were composed of 40% of concentrate and 60% of roughage, and the dietary treatments were defined by the level of Flemingia hay inclusion (0%, 8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% in the diet dry matter replacing Cynodon dactyloncv. Tifton 85 hay. The diets were isonitrogenous, with 14% crude protein. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, feeding behavior, and ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen were evaluated. There was no difference in dry matter intake with the inclusion of Flemingia hay in the diet. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total carbohydrates decreased with the inclusion of Flemingia in the diet. The diet did not change rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration or ruminal pH. There were no differences in the feeding behavior or feed and rumination efficiencies. Flemingia macrophylla can be used up to the level of 32% in the dry matter in diets for lactating goats.

  13. Продуктивность Solidago canadensis L. (Asteraceae) в условиях Ставропольской возвышенности

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    ПЕЩАНСКАЯ ЕКАТЕРИНА ВЛАДИМИРОВНА

    2012-01-01

    В статье содержатся результаты исследований продуктивности растений Solidago сanadensis, полученных при вегетативном размножении (отрезками корневищ) при разной площади питания (0,7.0,2 м2, 0,7.0,4 м2, 0,7.0,6 м2) и сроках посадки (осенний, весенний и поздневесенний).

  14. New lupane triterpenoids from Solidago canadensis that inhibit the lyase activity of DNA polymerase beta.

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    Chaturvedula, V S Prakash; Zhou, Bing-Nan; Gao, Zhijie; Thomas, Shannon J; Hecht, Sidney M; Kingston, David G I

    2004-12-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of a methyl ethyl ketone extract of Solidago canadensis L. (Asteraceae), using an assay to detect the lyase activity of DNA polymerase beta, resulted in the isolation of the four new lupane triterpenoids 1-4 and the seven known compounds lupeol, lupeyl acetate, ursolic acid, cycloartenol, cycloartenyl palmitate, alpha-amyrin acetate, and stigmasterol. The structures of the new compounds were established as 3beta-(3R-acetoxyhexadecanoyloxy)-lup-20(29)-ene (1), 3beta-(3-ketohexadecanoyloxy)-lup-20(29)-ene (2), 3beta-(3R-acetoxyhexadecanoyloxy)-29-nor-lupan-20-one (3), and 3beta-(3-hetohexadecanoyloxy)-29-nor-lupan-20-one (4), respectively, on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic interpretation and chemical modification studies. All 11 compounds were inhibitory to the lyase activity of DNA polymerase beta.

  15. Constituents of the essential oil in Solidago canadensis L. from Eurasia

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    Olga Shelepova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydro distilled essential oils in air-dry samples of aerial parts of Solidago canadensis L., (Asteraceae from eight local invasive populations were investigated by GC-MS analysis. A comparative study on quantity and composition of the essential oils obtained from plants, growing in different ecological and climatic conditions, ontogenesis phase and different plant organs was carried out The major compounds detected in oil samples of S. canadensis were α-pinene (1.3 - 61.27%, limonene (0.5 - 22.5%, bornyl acetat (3.4 - 29.8% and germacrene D (1.8 - 39.2%. Samples from inflorescences contained the maximal percentage of monoterpene hydrocarbons, while the leaves' samples showed the maximal cumulative percentage of sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons. Data obtained from our studies confirm the availability of alien invasive species Solidago canadensis for medicine and many other purposes. The variability of the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils in different geographical locations will allow futher selection of form containing the maximum amount of active substances.

  16. Biological Activities and Phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla King

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    Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae is an endangered and medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of the World. S. macrophylla has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The review reveals that limonoids and its derivatives are the major constituents of S. macrophylla. There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of S. macrophylla, which exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, antimutagenic, anticancer, antitumor and antidiabetic activities. Various other activities like anti-nociceptive, hypolipidemic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-infective, antiviral, antimalarial, acaricidal, antifeedant and heavy metal phytoremediation activity have also been reported. In view of the immense medicinal importance of S. macrophylla, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of S. macrophylla, showing its importance.

  17. epi-Cubebanes from Solidago canadensis.

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    Kasali, Adeleke A; Ekundayo, Olusegun; Paul, Claudia; König, Wilfried A

    2002-04-01

    GC-MS of the essential oil prepared by hydrodistillation of the green parts of a specimen of Solidago canadensis collected near Katowice, Poland, revealed two new sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Their EI mass spectra resembled the mass spectrum of beta-ylangene (1) but the retention indices of the new compounds differed markedly from this known compound. After isolation of the new compounds by preparative GC their investigation by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques resulted in the identification of 6-epi-alpha-cubebene (2) (minor constituent, 1.5%) and 6-epi-beta-cubebene (3) (major constituent, 20.5%).

  18. Antiproliferative Activities of Bouea Macrophylla Seed Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arapoc, D.J.; Mohamed Zaffar Ali Mohamed Amiroudine; Zainah Adam; Rosniza Razali; Shafii Khamis

    2016-01-01

    Bouea macrophylla or commonly known as kundang fruit in Malaysia is a tropical fruit tree native to Southeast Asia. This plant belongs to the family Anacardiaceae which are cultivated for their edible fruits, seeds and medicinal compounds. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti proliferation activities of aqueous, methanolic, chloroform and hexane extracts from the seed of B. macrophylla. The extracts were screened on human squamous cell carcinoma (HTB-43), breast cancer (MCF7) and (MDA-MB-231) cell lines by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Most effective concentration were screened for apoptosis induction in cells using Hoechst stain. Our present study has shown that aqueous, methanolic, chloroform dan hexane extracts exhibited promising inhibition activity against HTB43 cell lines with the IC50 values were 29.32±5.80, 18.65±2.94, 21.14±6.97 and 34.36±16.50 μg/ mL, respectively. Meanwhile, only hexane extract showed inhibition against MCF7 (59.07±5.76) and MDA-MB-231(123.35±28.65). Besides that, the results also indicate that promising anticancer activity and causes loss in cancer cell viability by activating the apoptotic process. These findings suggest that B. macrophylla may have novel therapeutic applications for the treatment of different cancer types. (author)

  19. Four major saponins from Solidago canadensis.

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    Reznicek, G; Jurenitsch, J; Plasun, M; Korhammer, S; Haslinger, E; Hiller, K; Kubelka, W

    1991-01-01

    Four new bisdesmosidic saponins each containing eight carbohydrate units were isolated from Solidago canadensis. GC, GC-MS, FABMS analysis and mainly the use of 2D NMR techniques allowed their identification as bayogeninglycosides (canadensissaponins 1-4) 3-O- [beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1----3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-[alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1----3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1----4)-[beta-D- xylopyranosyl-(1----3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----2)-[beta-D- apio-D-furanosyl-(1----3)]-beta-D-6-deoxyglucopyranosyl- (1----]-bayogenin; -(1----2)-[beta-D-apio-D-furanosyl-(1----3)]-ara- binopyranosyl-(1----]-bayogenin; -[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----3)]-beta- D-6-deoxyglucopyranosyl-(1----]-bayogenin and - [alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1----3)]-arabinopyranosyl-(1----]-bayogenin.

  20. New labdane diterpenes from Solidago canadensis.

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    Wangensteen, Helle; Phan, Thi T; Rise, Frode; Halvorsen, Trine G; Malterud, Karl E

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol extract of roots of Solidago canadensis yielded eight labdane-type diterpenes. Five of those were new natural compounds (9,13,15,16-bisepoxy-labdane-7-ene-6,15-dione (3a), 13-epi-9,13,15,16-bisepoxy-labdane-7-ene-6,15-dione (3b), 15,16-epoxy-labdane-7,13-diene-6,16-dione (5), 15-ethoxy-9,13,15,16-bisepoxy-labdane-7-ene-6-one (6a) and 13-epi-15-ethoxy-9,13,15,16-bisepoxy-labdane-7-ene-6-one (6b). The known labdane diterpenes deoxysolidagenone (1), solidagenone (2) and 15,16-epoxy-labdane-7,13-diene-6,15-dione (4) were also isolated. Chemical structures were determined using 1D and 2D NMR techniques and MS analysis.

  1. Influencia del fotoperiodo en el desarrollo floral de plantas de Solidago chilensis, Aster ericoides ev. 'Monteeasino' y Solidago x luteus Influenee of photoperiod on floral development in plants of Solidago chilensis, Aster ericoides ev. 'Monteeasino' and Solidago x tuteus

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    Flórez Roncancio Victor J.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Solidago x luteus es un híbrido interespecífico entre Solidago ptarmicoides y Solidago canadensis. Este híbrido, Solidago chilensis y Aster ericoides cv. 'Montecasino' son las especies objeto del presente estudio. Son plantas típicas de días largos, las cuales crecen como rosetas en días cortos y son explotadas para flor de corte. Se observaron características vegetativas y reproductivas de estas especies en condiciones fotoperiódicas de 8h y 20h y, en Solidago x luteus, por su mejor performance en cuanto a la inducción floral, se realizaron estudios de comportamiento fotoperiódico del desarrollo desde el botón floral hasta antesis. En forma general, en las tres especies estudiadas, los fotoperíodos largos promueven inducción floral y aumento en el número de ramificaciones laterales y de hojas. En días cortos, las
    plantas de Solidago chilensis permanecieron en roseta, en las de Solidago x luteus hubo inducción y antesis floral, en tanto que, en Aster ericoides, había plantas en roseta y plantas inducidas. La evidencia de que los días cortos aceleraban la antesis floral en plantas de Solidago x luteus, inducidas en
    días largos, se fortaleció con el experimento de diferente duración en días cortos (5; 10 y 15 días; lo cual se confirmó en experimentos subsecuentes, en donde se comprobó que la planta responde a los fotoperíodos cortos (8h; 10h y 12h, acelerando la antesis y a los fotoperíodos largos (16h y 20h, retardándola y los fotoperiódos entre 12h y 16h (14h  estarían en una situación de transición entre días cortos y días largos, caracterizando, así, una respuesta cuantitativa con el aumento del fotoperíodo.
    Solidago x luteus is a hybrid between Solidago ptarmicoides and Solidago canadensis. This hybrid, Solidago chilensis and Aster ericoides cv. 'Montecasino' are the subject of the present work. They are typically long-day plants which grow as rosettes in short days and are exploited as cut

  2. Antimicrobial Potency of Pentaclethra Macrophylla Seed Extract on

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    ABSTRACTS: The antimicrobial efficacy of extracts of Pentaclethra macrophylla in ethanol, methanol and water was determined against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella species, Salmonella typhi,. Aspergills niger and Candida albican using paper disc and hole diffusion ...

  3. Aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae)

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    Pabon, Ludy Cristina; Cuca, Luis Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Four aporphine alkaloids from the wood of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) were isolated and characterized as (S)-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (1), (S)-N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (2), (S)-N-formyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (3) and (S)-N-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (4); alkaloids 2-4 are being report for the first time. The structure the isolated compounds were determined based on their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in literature. The alkaloid fraction and compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and also compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis as well. (author)

  4. Aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae)

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    Pabon, Ludy Cristina; Cuca, Luis Enrique, E-mail: lcpabonb@unal.edu.c [Universidad Nacional de Bogota (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Four aporphine alkaloids from the wood of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) were isolated and characterized as (S)-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (1), (S)-N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (2), (S)-N-formyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (3) and (S)-N-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (4); alkaloids 2-4 are being report for the first time. The structure the isolated compounds were determined based on their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in literature. The alkaloid fraction and compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and also compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis as well. (author)

  5. Aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae

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    Ludy Cristina Pabon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four aporphine alkaloids from the wood of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae were isolated and characterized as (S-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (1, (S-N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (2, (S-N-formyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (3 and (S-N-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (4; alkaloids 2-4 are being report for the first time. The structure the isolated compounds were determined based on their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in literature. The alkaloid fraction and compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and also compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis as well.

  6. Meiotic analysis of the germoplasm of three medicinal species from Asteraceae family Análise meiótica do germoplasma de três espécies medicinais da família Asteraceae

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    Denise Olkoski

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic characterization was carried out on 12 accessions from Aster squamatus (Spreng. Hieron., Pterocaulon polystachyum DC, and Solidago microglossa DC by studying their meiotic behavior and pollen viability. These species are from the Asteraceae family, native to Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and are important for medicinal use. Young inflorescences with four accessions of each species were collected, fixed in ethanol-acetic acid (3:1, and conserved in ethanol 70% until use. The method used was that of squashing the anthers and coloring with acetic orcein 2%. Meiosis was regular in all accessions, presenting chromosomal associations preferentially bivalent, where n=10 was found for Aster squamatus and n=9 for Pterocaulon polystachyum, and Solidago microglossa. The studied accessions presented a Meiotic Index (MI that varied from 65% to 87% in Aster squamatus, 85% to 92% in Pterocaulon polystachyum, and 64% to 92% in Solidago microglossa, indicating meiotic stability, although irregularities appeared during the cellular division. The pollen viability estimative was high in all studied accessions. These results indicate that the studied species can be included in future studies of genetic breeding.Foi realizada a caracterização citogenética de doze acessos de Aster squamatus, Pterocaulon polystachyum e Solidago microglossa, espécies da família Asteraceae, nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, por meio do estudo do comportamento meiótico e da viabilidade polínica, que possuem grande importância para uso medicinal. Inflorescências jovens de quatro acessos de cada espécie foram fixadas em álcool-ácido acético (3:1 e conservadas em álcool 70% até o uso. O método utilizado foi o de esmagamento de anteras e a coloração com orceína acética 2%. A meiose foi regular em todos os acessos, apresentando associações cromossômicas preferencialmente em bivalentes, encontrando-se n=10 para Aster squamatus e n=9 para Pterocaulon

  7. [Ecology suitability study of Chinese materia medica Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, You-Yuan; Yang, Yan-Mei; Ma, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Jin, Ling

    2016-09-01

    This paper is aimed to predict ecology suitability distribution of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix and search the main ecological factors affecting the suitability distribution. The 313 distribution information about G. macrophylla, 186 distribution information about G. straminea, 343 distribution information about G. dauricaand 131 distribution information about G. crasicaulis were collected though investigation and network sharing platform data . The ecology suitable distribution factors for production Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix was analyzed respectively by the software of ArcGIS and MaxEnt with 55 environmental factors. The result of MaxEnt prediction was very well (AUC was above 0.9). The results of predominant factors analysis showed that precipitation and altitude were all the major factors impacting the ecology suitable of Getiana Macrophylla Radix production. G. macrophylla ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in south of Gansu, Shanxi, central of Shaanxi and east of Qinghai provinces. G. straminea ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in southwest of Gansu, east of Qinghai, north and northwest of Sichuan, east of Xizang province. G. daurica ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in south and southwest of Gansu, east of Qinghai, Shanxi and north of Shaanxi province. G. crasicaulis ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in Sichuan and north of Yunnan, east of Xizang, south of Gansu and east of Qinghai province. The ecological suitability distribution result of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix was consistent with each species actual distribution. The study could provide reference for the collection and protection of wild resources, meanwhile, provide the basis for the selection of cultivation area of Gentiana Macrophylla Radix. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Analysis of the Essential Oil of Solidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemba, D; Góra, J; Kurowska, A

    1990-04-01

    The analysis of the volatile compounds in the essential oil of SOLIDAGO CANADENSISL. sensu lato (Compositae) GC and GC-MS demonstrated the presence of at least 36 compounds, 18 of which were identified. The Major comonenets are gamma (2)- and delta-cadinenes.

  9. Weed Alert: Goldenrods (Solidago spp.) in KwaZulu-Natal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalwij, Jesse; Cheek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, č. 34 (2014), s. 4-5 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Solidago * early detection * invasive species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics http://www. invasive s.org.za/resources/downloadable-resources/viewcategory/41-sapia-newsletters.html

  10. Decomposition of Phragmites australis litter retarded by invasive Solidago canadensis in mixtures: an antagonistic non-additive effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Yaojun; Zou, Jianwen; Siemann, Evan

    2014-06-01

    Solidago canadensis is an aggressive invader in China. Solidago invasion success is partially attributed to allelopathic compounds release and more benefits from AM fungi, which potentially makes the properties of Solidago litter different from co-occurring natives. These properties may comprehensively affect litter decomposition of co-occurring natives. We conducted a field experiment to examine litter mixing effects in a Phragmites australis dominated community invaded by Solidago in southeast China. Solidago had more rapid mass and N loss rate than Phragmites when they decomposed separately. Litter mixing decreased N loss rate in Phragmites litter and increased that of Solidago. Large decreases in Phragmites mass loss and smaller increases in Solidago mass loss caused negative non-additive effect. Solidago litter extracts reduced soil C decomposition and N processes, suggested an inhibitory effect of Solidago secondary compounds. These results are consistent with the idea that nutrient transfer and secondary compounds both affected litter mixtures decomposition.

  11. Direct somatic embryogenesis in Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Collado

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King is difficult to be propagated by tissue culture and there is not an efficient system via organogenesis, due to problems of microbial contamination, phenolic oxidation and death of tissue in the phase of in vitro establishment of explants. In order to establish a protocol for obtaining somatic embryos, zygotic embryos were used as initial plant material. Three combinations of 2,4-D with kinetin were studied, to obtain the formation of somatic embryos. After six weeks of culture, the number of explants with high and low somatic embryogenesis frequency were determined. So that the somatic embryos in globular stage reach the final stages of torpedo and cotyledonal, these were placed in three treatments with 6-BAP (0.2, 0.4 y 0.6 mg.l-1. The number of somatic embryos that reached the torpedo and cotyledonal stages were evaluated after 30 days of culture. Results demonstrated that direct somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos is obtained in the culture medium composed by MS salts with 4.0 mg.l-1 of 2,4-D and 1.0 mg.l-1 of kinetin. Higher percentage of somatic embryos in cotiledonal stage (91.7 %, was obtained with 0.4 mg.l-1 of 6-BAP. Key word: forestry, growth regulator, mahogany, somatic embryo, tissue culture

  12. Evidence for enhanced mutualism hypothesis: Solidago canadensis plants from regular soils perform better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhen-Kai; He, Wei-Ming

    2010-11-03

    The important roles of plant-soil microbe interactions have been documented in exotic plant invasion, but we know very little about how soil mutualists enhance this process (i.e. enhanced mutualism hypothesis). To test this hypothesis we conducted two greenhouse experiments with Solidago canadensis (hereafter Solidago), an invasive forb from North America, and Stipa bungeana (hereafter Stipa), a native Chinese grass. In a germination experiment, we found soil microbes from the rhizospheres of Solidago and Stipa exhibited much stronger facilitative effects on emergence of Solidago than that of Stipa. In a growth and competition experiment, we found that soil microbes strongly facilitated Solidago to outgrow Stipa, and greatly increased the competitive effects of Solidago on Stipa but decreased the competitive effects of Stipa on Solidago. These findings from two experiments suggest that in situ soil microbes enhance the recruitment potential of Solidago and its ability to outcompete native plants, thereby providing strong evidence for the enhanced mutualism hypothesis. On the other hand, to some extent this outperformance of Solidago in the presence of soil microbes seems to be unbeneficial to control its rapid expansion, particularly in some ranges where this enhanced mutualism dominates over other mechanisms.

  13. Evidence for enhanced mutualism hypothesis: Solidago canadensis plants from regular soils perform better.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Kai Sun

    Full Text Available The important roles of plant-soil microbe interactions have been documented in exotic plant invasion, but we know very little about how soil mutualists enhance this process (i.e. enhanced mutualism hypothesis. To test this hypothesis we conducted two greenhouse experiments with Solidago canadensis (hereafter Solidago, an invasive forb from North America, and Stipa bungeana (hereafter Stipa, a native Chinese grass. In a germination experiment, we found soil microbes from the rhizospheres of Solidago and Stipa exhibited much stronger facilitative effects on emergence of Solidago than that of Stipa. In a growth and competition experiment, we found that soil microbes strongly facilitated Solidago to outgrow Stipa, and greatly increased the competitive effects of Solidago on Stipa but decreased the competitive effects of Stipa on Solidago. These findings from two experiments suggest that in situ soil microbes enhance the recruitment potential of Solidago and its ability to outcompete native plants, thereby providing strong evidence for the enhanced mutualism hypothesis. On the other hand, to some extent this outperformance of Solidago in the presence of soil microbes seems to be unbeneficial to control its rapid expansion, particularly in some ranges where this enhanced mutualism dominates over other mechanisms.

  14. [Isolation and structure elucidation of further new saponins from Solidago canadensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznicek, G; Jurenitsch, J; Freiler, M; Korhammer, S; Haslinger, E; Hiller, K; Kubelka, W

    1992-02-01

    Four new main saponins (canadensis-saponins 5-8) (compounds 5-8) were isolated from Solidago canadensis L. (Asteraceae). Using GC/MS, FAB-MS, and mainly 2D-NMR techniques their structures were identified as 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1----3)-beta-D- glucopyranosyl]-28-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1----2)-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1----3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1----4)-[beta-D- xylopyranosyl-(1----3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----2)-[beta-D-apio -D- furanosyl-(1----3)]-beta-D-6-deoxyglucopyranosyl-(1----)]-bayog enin(5),3-O- [beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1----3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-[beta-D- galactopyranosyl-(1----2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----3)-beta-D- xylopyranosyl-(1----4)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1----3)]-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1----2)-[beta-D-apio-D-furanosyl-(1----3)]- arabinopyranosyl-(1----)]bayogenin(6),3-O-[beta-D-glucopy ran osyl-(1----3)- beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1----2)- alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1----4)-[beta-D- xylopyranosyl-(1----3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----2)-[alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1----3)]-beta-D-6-deoxyglucopyranosyl-(1----)]-++ +bayogenin (7), and 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1----3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-[O- beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1----2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----3)-beta-D - xylopyranosyl-(1----4)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1----3)]-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1----2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----3)]arabinopyr anosyl - (1----)[-bayogenin (8).

  15. Silviculture enhances the recovery of overexploited mahogany Swietenia macrophylla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, C.C.; Peña-Claros, M.; Staak, van der D.; Ohlson-kiehn, K.; Sterck, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Big leaf mahogany Swietenia macrophylla is the most valuable timber species in the tropics but its future as a commercial timber species is at risk. This study evaluates whether recovery of overexploited mahogany populations is enhanced by actively managing the species and its surrounding forest. We

  16. In vitro effects of aqueous extracts of Zanthoxylum macrophylla roots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro effects of aqueous extracts of Zanthoxylum macrophylla roots on the activities of three ATPases (Na+, K+- ; Ca2+- ; and Mg2+-ATPases) were investigated in membrane preparations from human erythrocytes of HbAA, HbAS and HbSS bloods. The activities of these membrane-bound enzymes were determined in ...

  17. Decomposition of Phragmites australis litter retarded by invasive Solidago canadensis in mixtures: an antagonistic non-additive effect

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Yaojun; Zou, Jianwen; Siemann, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Solidago canadensis is an aggressive invader in China. Solidago invasion success is partially attributed to allelopathic compounds release and more benefits from AM fungi, which potentially makes the properties of Solidago litter different from co-occurring natives. These properties may comprehensively affect litter decomposition of co-occurring natives. We conducted a field experiment to examine litter mixing effects in a Phragmites australis dominated community invaded by Solidago in southe...

  18. Flemingia macrophylla Extract Ameliorates Experimental Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ya Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flemingia macrophylla (Leguminosae, a native plant of Taiwan, is used as folk medicine. An in vitro study showed that a 75% ethanolic extract of F. macrophylla (FME inhibited osteoclast differentiation of cultured rat bone marrow cells, and the active component, lespedezaflavanone A (LDF-A, was isolated. It was found that oral administration of FME for 13 weeks suppressed bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an experimental model of osteoporosis. In addition, FME decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations but did not inhibit serum alkaline phosphatase activities, indicating that it ameliorated bone loss via inhibition of bone resorption. These results suggest that FME may represent a useful remedy for the treatment of bone resorption diseases, such as osteoporosis. In addition, LDF-A could be used as a marker compound to control the quality of FME.

  19. Hypsipyla grandella in Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla): Current Situation and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Lunz, Alexandre Mehl; Thomazini, Marcílio José Thomazini; Moraes, Maria Carolina Blassioli; Neves, Edinelson José Maciel; Batista, Telma Fátima Coelho; Degenhardt, Juliana; Sousa, Lindáurea Alves de; Ohashi, Orlando Shigueo

    2010-01-01

    The mahogany wood, Swietenia macrophylla King, is valued in the international trade market forits beauty and durability for noble uses like furniture and decoration. Any attempt of commercial plantation ofthis specie to diminish the pressure made by its selective exploration fail due to the incidence of the mahoganyshoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller). Although some works have had relative success in presenting controltechniques over the punctual aspects, a strategy of economic, an econo...

  20. A new phenolic glycoside from the aerial parts of Solidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, JinSong; Zhang, XinQin; Lei, GuangQing; Li, Bo; Chen, JiaKuan; Zhou, TongShui

    2007-01-01

    A new phenolic glycoside, 2'-hydroxy-4',6'-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-butyrrophenone (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Solidago canadensis. The structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods.

  1. Evidence for Enhanced Mutualism Hypothesis: Solidago canadensis Plants from Regular Soils Perform Better

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Zhen-Kai; He, Wei-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The important roles of plant-soil microbe interactions have been documented in exotic plant invasion, but we know very little about how soil mutualists enhance this process (i.e. enhanced mutualism hypothesis). To test this hypothesis we conducted two greenhouse experiments with Solidago canadensis (hereafter Solidago), an invasive forb from North America, and Stipa bungeana (hereafter Stipa), a native Chinese grass. In a germination experiment, we found soil microbes from the rhizospheres of...

  2. A new labdane diterpene from the flowers of Solidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradette-Hébert, Marie-Eve; Legault, Jean; Lavoie, Serge; Pichette, André

    2008-01-01

    A new labdane diterpene, 9alpha,16xi-dihydroxy-6-oxo-7,13-labdadien-15,16-olide (solicanolide, 1) and six known compounds identified as quercetin (2), 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3, neochlorogenic acid), 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4, chlorogenic acid), 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (6) and 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (7) were isolated from the flowers of Solidago canadensis. To our knowledge, compound 7 was isolated for the first time in S. canadensis. This work describes the isolation of compounds 1-7 and the structure elucidation of a new compound identified as compound 1. Solicanolide (1) showed cytotoxic activity against A549 (IC(50): 13+/-2 microM), DLD-1 (IC(50): 26+/-2 microM) and WS1 (IC(50): 17+/-1 microM) cell lines.

  3. Characterization and biological activity of Solidago canadensis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šutovská, M; Capek, P; Kocmálová, M; Fraňová, S; Pawlaczyk, I; Gancarz, R

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenolic-polysaccharide-protein complex has been isolated from flowers of Solidago canadensis L. by hot alkaline extraction procedure. Compositional analyses of S canadensis complex revealed the presence of carbohydrates (43 wt%), protein (27 wt%), phenolics (12 wt%), uronic acids (10 wt%) and inorganic material (8 wt%). The carbohydrate part was rich in neutral sugars (81 wt%) while uronids were determined in lower amount (19 wt%). Monosaccharide analysis of carbohydrate part revealed the presence of five main sugar components, i.e. rhamnose (~23 wt%), arabinose (~20 wt%), uronic acids (~19 wt%), galactose (~17 wt%) and glucose (~14 wt%), and indicated thus the presence of rhamnogalacturonan and arabinogalactan in S. canadensis complex. HPLC analysis of complex showed one single peak of molecule mass at 11.2 kDa. Antitussive activity tests, performed in three doses of Solidago complex, showed the reduction of the number of cough efforts in the dose-dependent manner. Higher doses (50 and 75 mg/kg b.w.) were shown to be by 15 and 20% more effective than that of lower one (25mg/kg b.w.). However, the antitussive effect of the highest dose (75 mg/kg b.w.) was by 10% lower in comparison with that of codeine, the strongest antitussive agent. Besides, the highest dose of the complex (75 mg/kg b.w.) significantly decreased values of specific airways resistance and their effect remained longer as that of salbutamol, a representative of classic antiasthmatic drugs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Phytochemical prospection and biological activity of Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae is endemic from the Amazon Rainforest. Aims: To perform phytochemical profile of Duroia macrophylla extracts and to evaluate them as antioxidant, insecticidal and cytotoxic. Methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves and branches (collected three times were subjected to phytochemical screening by comparative thin layer chromatography and NMR analyses. The extracts were assayed to antioxidant (DPPH and Fe-phenanthroline, at 10 μg/mL, insecticidal on Sitophilus zeamais (by ingestion of stored grains and contact, both at 10 mg/mL and toxic activities on Artemia salina (1000 μg/mL. Results: There were found evidences of terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids and alkaloids, with differences between the vegetal part, collection period and solvent used. Antioxidant evaluations showed three of twelve were active and two were considered moderately active, with a relationship dependently of concentration. All methanol extracts showed the presence of phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids but one showed only phenols. For insecticidal activity, there were three most active extracts, two of which showed only presence of terpenes and the other, besides terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids. For Artemia salina toxicity assay, the five most active were all from the 2nd and 3rd collections. Conclusions: The active extracts of D. macrophylla in each test were different. Three methanol extracts showed antioxidant activity; three extracts showed insecticidal activity and the presence of terpenic substances and five extracts presented cytotoxic activity, but it was not possible to correlate it with any specific secondary metabolite.

  5. Flavonoids and a neolignan glucoside from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Cristiane; Barreto Junior, Cleber Bomfim; Kuster, Ricardo Machado; Simas, Naomi Kato; Sakuragui, Cassia Monica; Porzel, Andrea; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the phytochemical study of the methanol extract obtained from leaves of Guarea macrophylla, leading to the isolation and identification of three flavonoid glycosides (quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and a neolignan glucoside, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-b-D-glucoside. All compounds were identified by a combination of spectroscopic methods ( 1 H, 1D, 2D NMR, 13 C and UV), ESI-MS and comparison with the literature data. This is the first report of flavonoids in the genus Guarea and of a neolignan glucoside in the Meliaceae family. (author)

  6. Flavonoids and a neolignan glucoside from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Cristiane; Barreto Júnior, Cleber Bomfim; Kuster, Ricardo Machado; Simas, Naomi Kato; Sakuragui, Cassia Mônica; Porzel, Andrea; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the phytochemical study of the methanol extract obtained from leaves of Guarea macrophylla, leading to the isolation and identification of three flavonoid glycosides (quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and a neolignan glucoside, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-β-D-glucoside. All compounds were identified by a combination of spectroscopic methods (¹H, 1D, 2D NMR, 13C and UV), ESI-MS and com...

  7. Flavonoids and a neolignan glucoside from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phytochemical study of the methanol extract obtained from leaves of Guarea macrophylla, leading to the isolation and identification of three flavonoid glycosides (quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and a neolignan glucoside, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-β-D-glucoside. All compounds were identified by a combination of spectroscopic methods (¹H, 1D, 2D NMR, 13C and UV, ESI-MS and comparison with the literature data. This is the first report of flavonoids in the genus Guarea and of a neolignan glucoside in the Meliaceae family.

  8. The growth and phosphorus acquisition of invasive plants Rudbeckia laciniata and Solidago gigantea are enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Marta L; Rola, Kaja; Zubek, Szymon

    2017-02-01

    While a number of recent studies have revealed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can mediate invasive plant success, the influence of these symbionts on the most successful and high-impact invaders is largely unexplored. Two perennial herbs of this category of invasive plants, Rudbeckia laciniata and Solidago gigantea (Asteraceae), were thus tested in a pot experiment to determine whether AMF influence their growth, the concentration of phosphorus in biomass, and photosynthesis. The following treatments, including three common AMF species, were prepared on soils representative of two habitats that are frequently invaded by both plants, namely fallow and river valley: (1) control-soil without AMF, (2) Rhizophagus irregularis, (3) Funneliformis mosseae, and (4) Claroideoglomus claroideum. The invaders were strongly dependent on AMF for their growth. The mycorrhizal dependency of R. laciniata was 88 and 63 % and of S. gigantea 90 and 82 % for valley and fallow soils, respectively. The fungi also increased P concentration in their biomass. However, we found different effects of the fungal species in the stimulation of plant growth and P acquisition, with R. irregularis and C. claroideum being the most and least effective symbionts, respectively. None of AMF species had an impact on the photosynthetic performance indexes of both plants. Our findings indicate that AMF have a direct effect on the early stages of R. laciniata and S. gigantea growth. The magnitude of the response of both plant species to AMF was dependent on the fungal and soil identities. Therefore, the presence of particular AMF species in a site may determine the success of their invasion.

  9. A test of genotypic variation in specificity of herbivore-induced responses in Solidago altissima L. (Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uesugi, A.; Poelman, E.H.; Kessler, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant-induced responses to multiple herbivores can mediate ecological interactions among herbivore species, thereby influencing herbivore community composition in nature. Several studies have indicated high specificity of induced responses to different herbivore species. In addition, there may be

  10. [Allelopathic effects of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lingxiao; Chen, Xin; Tang, Jianjun

    2005-12-01

    With growth chamber method, this paper studied the allelopathic potential of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plant species. Different concentration S. canadensis root and rhizome extracts were examined, and the test plants were Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense, Medicago lupulina, Lolium perenne, Suaeda glauca, Plantago virginica, Kummerowia stipulacea, Festuca arundinacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea, and Amaranthus spinosus. The results showed that the allelopathic inhibitory effect of the extracts from both S. canadensis root and rhizome was enhanced with increasing concentration, and rhizome extracts had a higher effect than root extracts. At the lowest concentration (1:60), root extract had little effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of T. repens, but rhizome extract could inhibit the germination of all test plants though the inhibitory effect varied with different species. The inhibition was the greatest for grass, followed by forb and legume. 1:60 (m:m) rhizome extract had similar effects on seed germination and radicel growth, but for outgrowth, the extract could inhibit Kummerowia stipulacea, Amaranthus spinosus and Festuca arundinacea, had no significant impact on Lolium perenne, Plantago virginica, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea and Amaranthus spinosus, and stimulated Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense and Medicago lupulina.

  11. Dissecting Solidago canadensis-soil feedback in its real invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Jia; Yang, Jian-Xia; Yu, Hong-Wei; He, Wei-Ming

    2017-04-01

    The importance of plant-soil feedback (PSF) has long been recognized, but the current knowledge on PSF patterns and the related mechanisms mainly stems from laboratory experiments. We aimed at addressing PSF effects on community performance and their determinants using an invasive forb Solidago canadensis . To do so, we surveyed 81 pairs of invaded versus uninvaded plots, collected soil samples from these pairwise plots, and performed an experiment with microcosm plant communities. The magnitudes of conditioning soil abiotic properties and soil biotic properties by S. canadensis were similar, but the direction was opposite; altered abiotic and biotic properties influenced the production of subsequent S. canadensis communities and its abundance similarly. These processes shaped neutral S. canadensis -soil feedback effects at the community level. Additionally, the relative dominance of S. canadensis increased with its ability of competitive suppression in the absence and presence of S. canadensis -soil feedbacks, and S. canadensis -induced decreases in native plant species did not alter soil properties directly. These findings provide a basis for understanding PSF effects and the related mechanisms in the field conditions and also highlight the importance of considering PSFs holistically.

  12. Atractylosides in Callilepis laureola (Asteraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, K.B.; Candy, H.A.; Pegel, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    In addition to the previously reported atractyloside, three more kaurenoid glucosides have been found in the root-stock of Callilepis laureola. These are carboxyatractyloside and the 6'-isovaleryl esters of atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the two 6'-isovalerates. The #betta#-glucosidic nature of these poisonous Asteraceae atractylosides has been confirmed by 1 H and 13 C n.m.r. spectroscopic and molecular rotation evidence

  13. Soil preferences and morphological diversity of goldenrods (Solidago L. from south-western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szymura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Invasive plants in their new range can differ from their ancestors, including traits ultimately influencing habitat preferences, competitiveness and dispersal ability. In Europe Solidago species are considered as one of the worst invaders of American origin. In this study the frequency of occurrence of Solidago species, their soil preferences and morphological diversity, in Silesia (south-western Poland, Central Europe were surveyed. On the basis of phytosociological relevés, made using the Braun-Blanquet method, in 75 plots, we determined the composition of species co-occurring with particular Solidago species. The height of ramets, as well as length and width of inflorescences of Solidago species were measured. We also determined the basic soil properties and noted the presence of trees overshading the ground vegetation. The compositional variation of vegetation and its relation to environmental traits: soil properties (texture, pH, percentage of organic matter, total nitrogen, nitrate, phosphorus, potassium and calcium content and presence of canopy were analyzed by multivariate ordination methods (CA and CCA. Goldenrod species, in most cases (74.3% occurred singly, two on one plot – rather rarely (mostly S. canadensis with S. altissima, whereas three Solidago species co-occurred only in three plots. Particular species differed in the height of the plant and inflorescence size, the exception was lack of difference between S. altissima and S. canadensis. S. virgaurea often occurred under trees canopy and the populations were separated from other goldenrod species. The species co-occurring with S. altissima and S. canadensis were the ruderal species, whereas plants from wet meadows occurred in plots with S. gigantea. The distribution of S. graminifolia was very limited, but inside its range it was able to occupy different habitats. The plots, where particular Solidago species occurred, did not differ significantly with respect to soil

  14. Estudo fitoquímico da madeira de Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae Phytochemical study of the wood from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Henrique G. Lago

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the crude ethanol extract from wood of G. macrophylla was submitted to liquid/liquid partition between hexane, CH2Cl2, EtOAc and n-BuOH. Each phase was individually chromatographed over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 or Amberlite XAD-2 to give eight terpene derivatives, such as five sesquiterpenoids (caryophyllene oxide, guai-6-en-10β-ol, spathulenol, aromadendrane-4β,10α-diol and aloaromadendrane-4α,10β-diol as well as three triterpenoids (cicloart-24-ene-3β,23(R*-diol, cicloart-24-ene-3β,23(S*-diol, and cicloart-23E-ene-3β,25-diol. Additionally, were isolated three fatty acids (linolenic, linoleic and stearic, two steroids (sitosterol and stigmasterol and sacarose. The structures of all these compounds were characterized by spectrometric analysis, mainly mass spectrometry and NMR and comparison of these data described in the literature.

  15. Phytochemicals Content, Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase Inhibition Activity of Bouea Macrophylla Griff Seed Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainah Adam; Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Rosniza Razali

    2016-01-01

    Bouea macrophylla Griff or locally known as kundang is one of the common fruit plant available in Malaysia. This plant from Anacardiaceae family is native to Southeast Asia particularly in Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. Medicinal values of this plant is not yet been explored. The present study was done to evaluate phytochemicals constituents in B. macrophylla seed extract qualitatively and quantitatively. Biological evaluations focusing on antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition were also performed. Qualitative phytochemicals screening revealed the presence of anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavanoids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, reducing sugar, steroids, triterpenes, phenolic, coumarine and proteins in B. macrophylla seed extract. Quantitative determination showed that B. macrophylla seed extract contains high amount of phenolic compounds (689.17±37.50 mg GAE/ g extract), but low amount of flavonoids (2.78±0.01 mg QE/ g extract), suggesting that most of the phenolics in B. macrophylla seed extract were non-flavonoids. Antioxidant assays showed that the extract possesses strong reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC_5_0: 4.73±0.51 μg/ ml). These activities were almost comparable to that of vitamin C. α-Glucosidase inhibition study showed that the extract inhibited alpha-glucosidase activity potently with the IC_5_0 value of 0.55±0.04 mg/ ml, suggesting the ability of the plant to delay glucose absorption in small intestine, hence reduces hyperglycemia in diabetic condition. Potent antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the extract might be attributed to the presence of high amount of phenolic compounds. In conclusion, this study showed that B. macrophylla seed extract contains various phytochemicals, possess strong antioxidant property and showed promising antidiabetic activity. These results indicate that B. macrophylla might have the potential to be developed as new pharmacological agent targeting on oxidative stress

  16. Physiological acclimation to drought stress in Solidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolf, Markus; Pagitz, Konrad; Mayr, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    Solidago canadensis is an invasive species from North America that is spreading across Europe, Australia and temperate Asia. We hypothesized that the species' wide ecological amplitude is also based on its potential in hydraulic acclimation, and analyzed hydraulic and anatomical properties along a transect with decreasing soil humidity. Stem hydraulic conductivity, vulnerability to drought-induced embolism, stomatal closure during dehydration and xylem-anatomical parameters were quantified at three sites. At the humid site, specific hydraulic conductivity of stems (1.0 ± 0.2 kg m(-1)  MPa(-1)  s(-1)) was about twofold higher, and leaf-specific conductivity about 1.5 times higher (3.1 ± 0.5 kg m(-1)  MPa(-1)  s(-1)) than at the dry site. Water potential (Ψ) at 50% loss of conductivity was -3.7 ± 0.1 MPa at the dry site and -3.1 ± 0.2 MPa at the humid site (September). Vulnerability to drought-induced embolism decreased along the transect and over the vegetation period. At drier sites, stomata started closing at lower Ψ while complete stomatal closure was reached at less negative Ψ (12% of maximum stomatal conductance: -2.5 ± 0.0 and -3.0 ± 0.2 MPa at the dry and humid site). The safety margin between stomatal closure and 50% loss of conductivity was 1.2 and 0.2 MPa at the dry and humid sites. The observed variability indicated an efficient acclimation in hydraulic conductivity and safety: plants at dry sites exhibited lower specific hydraulic conductivity, higher embolism resistance and broader safety margins, signifying a trade-off between the hydraulic safety and efficiency. The observed intraspecific plasticity in hydraulic and anatomical traits may help to explain the invasive potential of this species. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. Potent PPARγ Ligands from Swietenia macrophylla Are Capable of Stimulating Glucose Uptake in Muscle Cells

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    Wai Kwan Lau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous documented ethnopharmacological properties have been associated with Swietenia macrophylla (Meliaceae, with its seed extract reported to display anti-hypoglycemic activities in diabetic rats. In the present study, three compounds isolated from the seeds of S. macrophylla were tested on a modified ELISA binding assay and showed to possess PPARγ ligand activity. They were corresponded to PPARγ-mediated cellular response, stimulated adipocyte differentiation but produced lower amount of fat droplets compared to a conventional anti-diabetic agent, rosiglitazone. The up-regulation of adipocytes was followed by increased adipocyte-related gene expressions such as adiponectin, adipsin, and PPARγ. The S. macrophylla compounds also promoted cellular glucose uptake via the translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporter.

  18. Inhibitory effects of Swietenia macrophylla on myotoxic phospholipases A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Pereañez

    Full Text Available Activity-guided fractionation of an ethanol-soluble extract of the leaves of Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae, led to several fractions. As a result, sample Sm13-16, 23 had the most promising activity against phospholipases A2 (PLA2, Asp49 and Lys49 types. This fraction inhibited PLA2 activity of the Asp49 PLA2, when aggregated substrate was used. On the other hand, this activity was weakly neutralized when monodispersed substrate was used. In addition, Sm13-16, 23 inhibited, in a dose dependent manner, the cytotoxicity, myotoxicity and edema induced by PLA2s, as well as the anticoagulant activity of Asp49 PLA2. Overall, this fraction exhibited a better inhibition of the toxic activities induced by the Lys49 PLA2than those caused by the Asp49 PLA2. The spectral data of Sm13-16, 23 suggested the presence of aromatic compounds (UV λ max (nm 655, 266, and 219; IR λ max KBr (cm-1: ~ 3600-3000 (OH, 2923.07 and 1438.90 (C-H, 1656.69 (C = O, 1618.63 and 1607.67 (C-O, 1285.47772.60. We suggest that phenolic compounds could interact and inhibit the toxins by several mechanisms. Further analysis of the compounds present in the active fraction could be a relevant contribution in the treatment of accidents caused by snake envenomation.

  19. Conservative nutrient use by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) planted under contrasting environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Medina; E. Cuevas; A.E. Lugo; E. Terezo; J. Jimenez-Osornio; P.A. Macario-Mendoza; P. Montanez

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the nutritional composition and isotope ratios (C and N) of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) leaves in plantations established on contrasting soils and climates in Central America (State of Quintana Roo, Yucatan, Mexico) and South America (State of Para, Brazil). The objective was to determine the adaptability of this species to large...

  20. Biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene germacrene D in Solidago canadensis: 13C and (2)H labeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis; Wüst, Matthias; Adam, Klaus-Peter; Mosandl, Armin

    2002-05-01

    The biogenetic origin of the isoprenoid building blocks of the sesquiterpene germacrene D was studied in Solidago canadensis. Feeding experiments were carried out with 1-[5,5-D(2)]deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (D(2)-DOXP), [5-13C]mevalonolactone (13C-MVL) and [1-13C]-D-glucose. The hydrodistillate of a cut shoot fed with D(2)-DOXP was investigated by enantio-MDGC-MS and the volatile fraction of a shoot supplied with 13C-MVL was examined by GC-C-IRMS. The incorporation of [1-13C]-D-glucose was analyzed by quantitative 13C NMR spectroscopy after isolation of germacrene D from the essential oil. Our labeling studies revealed that the biosynthesis of the C-15 skeleton of sesquiterpene germacrene D in Solidago canadensis proceeds predominantly via the methylerythritol phosphate pathway.

  1. Correlations between genet architecture and some life history features in three species of Solidago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, B; Puttick, G M; Burgess, K H; Bazzaz, F A

    1988-04-01

    Members of the genus Solidago are among the most widely studied model systems in plant population biology. A comparative study of Solidago canadensis, S. altissima, and S. gigantea in an experimental garden showed that the three species had different patterns of shoot growth and development, leaf morphology and physiology, and biomass allocation at harvest. These differences were also found in the field. Contrary to some current taxonomic usage, our results show that S. canadensis should ecologically be treated as a separate taxon distinct from S. altissima, and that the latter may be grouped together with S. gigantea. Many of the biological differences between S. canadensis and the other two taxa, such as differential investment into sexual reproduction versus clonal growth, may be explained by differences in genet architecture. These architectures concern high compared to lower within-genet shoot density resulting from differences in rhizome lengths among the taxa (shorter in S. canadensis than in S. altissima and S. gigantea).

  2. Reduced pollen viability and achene development in Solidago ×niederederi Khek from Poland

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    Grzegorz Migdałek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pollen and achene characters of natural interspecific hybrid Solidago ×niederederi Khek were analyzed and compared with putative parental species S. virgaurea L. and S. canadensis L. to estimate the level of disturbances in generative reproduction resulting from its hybrid nature. Pollen viability (stainability of Solidago ×niederederi from one newly discovered locality in NE Poland was evidently reduced to ~65% in both viability tests (acetocarmine and Alexander. The diameter of viable pollen (median 21.11 µm fell between S. canadensis (median 19.52 µm and S. virgaurea (median 23.48 µm. Both parental species produced normally developed achenes with high frequency (~90% whereas in the hybrid, the seed set was dramatically low (6%. The results clearly indicated that sexual reproduction of hybridogenous taxon S. ×niederederi is disturbed, and its potential impact as an invasive species depends mainly on vegetative propagation.

  3. Chemical constituents from Solidago canadensis with hypolipidemic effects in HFD-fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Hao, Yan-Li; Mai, Xiao-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Two new compounds, 8-dehydroxymethylvisanol (1) and 9-O-[3-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (4), together with two known lignans, visanol (2) and 9-aldehydevibsanol (3), were isolated from the 80% EtOH extract of Solidago canadensis. The structures of the two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR, and mass spectral analysis. All the lignans exhibited moderate hypolipidemic activity in high-fat diet-fed hamsters.

  4. [Effect of flavonoid fractions of Solidago virgaurea L on diuresis and levels of electrolytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodera, A; Dabrowska, K; Sloderbach, A; Skrzypczak, L; Budzianowski, J

    1991-01-01

    The flavonoid fractions of Solidago virgaurea L.S. gigantea Ait., S. canadensis var. canadensis and S. canadensis var. "scabra" flowers were administrated p.o. to rats and showed diuretic activity. Increase in overnight diuresis reached 57-88%. Decrease of overnight excretion of potassium and sodium also occurred after administration of form examined fractions. The flavonoids from S. virgaurea and S. canadensis var. canadensis caused increased excretion of calcium with urine.

  5. Hypsipyla grandella em Mogno (Swietenia macrophylla: Situação Atual e Perspectivas Hypsipyla grandella in Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla: Current Situation and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mehl Lunz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A madeira de mogno, Swietenia macrophylla King, é valorizada no mercado internacional por sua beleza e durabilidade para fins nobres, como mobiliários e decoração. Quaisquer tentativas de plantios comerciais dessa espécie de modo a reduzir a pressão exercida pela sua exploração seletiva invariavelmente fracassam devido à incidência da broca do ponteiro do mogno, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller. Embora alguns trabalhos tenham obtido relativo sucesso em apresentar técnicas de controle sob aspectos pontuais, ainda não foi estabelecida uma estratégia de manejo integrado que seja prática, econômica e eficiente para H. grandella no Brasil. Este trabalho tem como objetivo rever e atualizar informações sobre o inseto e seu hospedeiro, além de indicar as áreas de pesquisa mais promissoras para o seu controle em plantios de S. macrophylla no País. As estratégias de controle de H. grandella mais recomendadas são o uso da resistência da planta, manejo silvicultural, uso de semioquímicos e controle biológico, nas quais há necessidade de incentivos a pesquisas de longo prazo. Ensaios de resistência natural de procedências de S. macrophylla devem ser incentivados, devido às extensas áreas com reservas naturais no Brasil.

     

    Doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.59.45

    The mahogany wood, Swietenia macrophylla King, is valued in the international trade market for
    its beauty and durability for noble uses like furniture and decoration. Any attempt of commercial plantation of
    this specie to diminish the pressure made by its selective exploration fail due to the incidence of the mahogany
    shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller. Although some works have had relative success in presenting control
    techniques over the punctual aspects, a strategy of economic, an economic strategy for efficient and integrated
    management practice was not established yet for H. grandella in Brazil. This study objective is to update

  6. Hypsipyla grandella em Mogno (Swietenia macrophylla): Situação Atual e Perspectivas Hypsipyla grandella in Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla): Current Situation and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Mehl Lunz; Marcílio José Thomazini Thomazini; Maria Carolina Blassioli Moraes; Edinelson José Maciel Neves; Telma Fátima Coelho Batista; Juliana Degenhardt; Lindáurea Alves de Sousa; Orlando Shigueo Ohashi

    2010-01-01

    A madeira de mogno, Swietenia macrophylla King, é valorizada no mercado internacional por sua beleza e durabilidade para fins nobres, como mobiliários e decoração. Quaisquer tentativas de plantios comerciais dessa espécie de modo a reduzir a pressão exercida pela sua exploração seletiva invariavelmente fracassam devido à incidência da broca do ponteiro do mogno, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller). Embora alguns trabalhos tenham obtido relativo sucesso em apresentar técnicas de controle sob...

  7. Transcriptional Responses and Gentiopicroside Biosynthesis in Methyl Jasmonate-Treated Gentiana macrophylla Seedlings.

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    Xiaoyan Cao

    Full Text Available Gentiana macrophylla, a medicinal plant with significant pharmacological properties, contains the bioactive compound gentiopicroside. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA is an effective elicitor for enhancing the production of such compounds. However, little is known about MeJA-mediated biosynthesis of gentiopicroside. We investigated this phenomenon as well as gene expression profiles to determine the molecular mechanisms for MeJA-mediated gentiopicroside biosynthesis and regulation in G. macrophylla. Our HPLC results showed that Gentiana macrophylla seedlings exposed to MeJA had significantly higher concentrations of gentiopicroside when compared with control plants. We used RNA sequencing to compare transcriptional profiles in seedlings treated for 5 d with either 0 μmol L-1 MeJA (C or 250 μmol L-1 MeJA (M5 and detected differentially expressed genes (DEGs. In total, 77,482 unique sequences were obtained from approximately 34 million reads. Of these, 48,466 (57.46% sequences were annotated based on BLASTs performed against public databases. We identified 5,206 DEGs between the C and M5 samples, including genes related to the α-lenolenic acid degradation pathway, JA signaling pathway, and gentiopicroside biosynthesis. Expression of numerous enzyme genes in the glycolysis pathway was significantly up-regulated. Many genes encoding transcription factors (e.g. ERF, bHLH, MYB, and WRKY also responded to MeJA elicitation. Rapid acceleration of the glycolysis pathway that supplies precursors for IPP biosynthesis and up-regulates the expression of enzyme genes in that IPP pathway are probably most responsible for MeJA stimulation of gentiopicroside synthesis. Our qRT-PCR results showed that the expression profiles of 12 gentiopicroside biosynthesis genes were consistent with the RNA-Seq data. These results increase our understanding about how the gentiopicroside biosynthesis pathway in G. macrophylla responds to MeJA.

  8. PROPAGATION OF KHAYA ANTHOTHECA: INTERSPECIFIC GRAFTING WITH SWIETENIA MACROPHYLLA AND AIR LAYERING

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    Joamir Barbosa Filho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla yields high-quality wood; however, its vulnerability to extinction coupled with challenges for its cultivation have brought attention to its replacement for alternative species such as the Khaya anthotheca. The species has been recently introduced to South America, with potential for the production of high-quality wood. However, limited background on breeding and efficient strategies for its vegetative propagation exist. Here, we achieved significant results with the application of cleft grafting and air layering for the propagation of K. anthotheca plants grown from seeds. First, we analyzed the compatibility of scions and rootstocks for intraspecific and interspecific cleft grafting combinations of K. anthotheca and S. macrophylla. Second, air layering was performed in K. anthotheca seedlings irrigated with three nutrient solution (100%, 50% and 25% of the initial concentration of nutrients combined with the application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA to evaluate adventitious rooting. From cleft grafting, we achieved an overall graft compatibility and survival of 48% after 200 days. However, the interspecific combination of S. macrophylla (scion and K. anthotheca (rootstock implicated in no compatibility, while the reciprocal resulted in 52% of compatibility. Through air layering, the irrigation with the nutrient solution with at least 50% of the nutrients concentration and with IBA (3.0 or 8.0 g.L-1 resulted in the best adventitious rooting. Overall, we recommend cleft grafting, except for the combination S. macrophylla(scion and K. anthotheca (rootstock, with no compatibility. Air layering might also be useful for the propagation of K. anthotheca genotypes in breeding programs.

  9. PROPAGATION OF KHAYA ANTHOTHECA: INTERSPECIFIC GRAFTING WITH SWIETENIA MACROPHYLLA AND AIR LAYERING

    OpenAIRE

    Joamir Barbosa Filho; Maria Angélica Di Carvalho; Leandro Silva de Oliveira; Enéas Ricardo Konzen; Wellington Ferreira Campos; Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2016-01-01

    Swietenia macrophylla yields high-quality wood; however, its vulnerability to extinction coupled with challenges for its cultivation have brought attention to its replacement for alternative species such as the Khaya anthotheca. The species has been recently introduced to South America, with potential for the production of high-quality wood. However, limited background on breeding and efficient strategies for its vegetative propagation exist. Here, we achieved significant results wit...

  10. Seed shadow of Swietenia macrophylla remnant trees in a Mexican rainforest: Implications for forest management

    OpenAIRE

    Alcalá, Raúl E.; Alonso, Roxalma L.; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of processes affecting the regeneration and coexistence of tree species is of high concern in tropical landscapes disturbed by anthropogenic activities. In this study, we evaluated the seed shadow of eight small remnant Swietenia macrophylla trees to determine the possible consequences of selective logging on the first stages of natural regeneration. We expected to find a restricted dispersal ability and a marked loss of seeds due to biotic interactions. To test this, seed s...

  11. Como acelerar uniformemente Ia floración en solidaster (Solidago x luteus.

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    Víctor J. Flórez-Roncancio y

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Solidaster (Solidago x luteus es un híbrido interespecífico entre Solidago ptarmicoides y Solidago canadensis. Son plantas típicas de dias largos (DL, las cuales, dependiendo de la temperatura, crecen como rosetas en dias curtos (DC. Estas plantas son cultivadas para flor de corte. Se observaron características vegetativas y reproductivas de este híbrido en condiciones fotoperiódicas de 8h y 20h y se realizaron estudios de comportamiento fotoperiódico del desarrollo desde el botón floral hasta antesis. Tanto en DL como en DC se observó inducción y antesis floral; mientras que, en DL se verifico mayor altura de planta y aumento en el número de ramificaciones laterales, en DC se observó antesis floral más rápida. La evidencia de que los DC aceleraban la antesis floral, en plantas inducidas en días largos, se fortalecia con el experimento de diferente duración en días cortos (5; 10 y 15 días; lo cual se confirmó en experimentos subsecuentes, cuando se comprobó que la planta responde a los fotoperíodos cortos (8h; 10h y 12h, acelerando Ia antesis y a los fotoperíodos largos (16h y 20h, retardándoIa. Los fotoperíodos entre 12h y 16h (14h estarían en una situación de transición entre DC y DL, caracterizando, así, una respuesta cuantitativa con el aumento del fotoperíodo.

  12. Bioactive Properties of Eremostachys macrophylla Montbr. & Auch. Rhizomes Growing in Iran

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    Parina Asgharian, Abbas Delazar, Farzaneh Lotfipour. Solmaz Asnaashari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study was assigned to evaluate the antioxidant, general toxicity, anti-proliferative and antimicrobial activities of different extracts obtained from rhizomes of Eremostachys macrophylla (Lamiaceae. Methods: All activities were evaluated by obtaining extracts of E. macrophylla in n-hexane, DCM (dichloromethane and MeOH (methanol by soxhlet apparatus. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated in terms of FRST (free radical scavenging activity test by DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. BSLT (Brine shrimp lethality tests, MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and disc diffusion method were carried out to determine the general toxicity, anti-proliferative and antibacterial activities of the different extracts, respectively. Results: The findings of the study for antioxidant, anti-proliferative and antibacterial effects showed that DCM extract was the most active fraction, but n-hexane extract indicated the most potent effect against Artemia salina. Conclusion: The results revealed strong bioactive effects of nonpolar fractions of E. macrophylla rhizomes. Thus, it is possible to suggest some new potential antioxidant, cytotoxic and antibacterial agents with no harmful effects on noncancerous cells.

  13. Antioxidative and hypolipidemic efficacy of alcoholic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana, Kalaivanan; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2011-06-17

    The present study was designed to examine the antioxidative potential and antihyperlipidemic activity of Swietenia macrophylla in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The experimental groups were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg body weight, BW). Rats with glucose levels >200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and were divided into five groups. Three groups of diabetic animals were orally administered daily with seed extract (SME) at a dosage of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW. One group of STZ rats was treated as diabetic control and another group orally administered 600 μg/kg BW glibenclamide daily. Repeated daily oral administration of S. macrophylla significantly reduced blood glucose levels after 45 days of treatment. The lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides of SME treated rats decreased in the plasma, liver and kidney. Glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity were significantly increased in SME treated rats. Antioxidants such as reduced glutathione level in the plasma, liver and kidney and vitamins C and E levels in the plasma increased in SME treated rats. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids and lipoproteins levels increased. Altered lipid profile of treated rats lead to normality with treatment of S. macrophylla. Thus, our results indicate that the administration of 100 mg/kg BW SME restores near normal blood glucose, redox status and lipid profile in STZ-diabetic rats.

  14. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial potential of Actinodaphne macrophylla leaves oils from East Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, A. S.; Purba, F. F.; Kusuma, I. W.; Kuspradini, H.

    2018-04-01

    Essential oils producing plants comprises about 160-200 species, one of which belongs to Lauraceae family. Actinodaphne macrophylla is a plant of the Lauraceae family and widely spread on Kalimantan island. For humans, essential oils are used in cosmetics industry, food industry, and pharmaceutical industry. This research aimed to analyze the characteristics of essential oil and potential of antimicrobial activity from A. macrophylla leaves oils. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation method. Antimicrobial activity was assayed using agar diffusion method which compared with two synthetic standards including chlorhexidine and chloramphenicol. Four microorganisms were used in this study were Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sobrinus. The obtained oil was determined for its characteristics including the yield, refractive index, and chemical components. The attained components were analyzed using GC-MS. The results of this study showed that essential oils of A. macrophylla leaves contained 0.1051% of yield, clearless, and refractive index was 1.425. Based on GC-MS analysis result, it showed chemical components including spathulenol, 2-monopalmitin, (+)-sabinene, copaen, camphene, and β-pinene. This plant potentially can inhibit the growth of S. aureus, C. albicans, S. sobrinus, and S. mutans with inhibition zones of 17.22, 20.89, 22.34 and 22.89 mm, respectively.

  15. Species diversity, vegetation pattern and conservation of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. communities in Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadia, S.; Zhang, J.T.; Bai, X.; Shedayi, A.A.; Tariq, A.

    2017-01-01

    Gentiana macrophylla, native to mountainous areas of Central and Southern Asia, is most popular remedy for rheumatism and pains in Traditional Chinese Medicine with an extensive demand in local market. Our study aimed to classify G. macrophylla communities and to find out the impact of topographic and soil factors on their diversity and distribution in Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China. Seventy five samples in 15 transects separated by 50m distance in altitude along an elevation gradient (1592-2298m) were established by quadrate method. TWINSAPN and CCA were used for classification and ordination, respectively. Six diversity indices (Species richness, Shannon-Weiner heterogeneity, Simpson’s index, Hill’s index, Pielou evenness and McIntosh evenness) were used to analyze the pattern of species diversity and polynomial regression analysis was used to establish their relationship with environmental variables. TWINSPAN classified G. macrophylla communities into 8 types and CCA indicated that soil pH, soil temperature, soil type, disturbance, total N, total K, Mg and Zn were significantly related to these communities. Elevation was the most significant factor that affecting the diversity and distribution of G. macrophylla communities. Significant effect of environment, topography and disturbance to meadow communities of G. macrophylla highly suggests some important measures such as uprooting restriction, tourism limitation in meadow area, monitoring of functional diversity, fertilization, irrigation, cloning and cultivation to protect and conserve it and its communities to be used in medicine industry. (author)

  16. Morphological and cytological diversity of goldenrods (Solidago L. and Euthamia Nutt. from south-western Poland

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    Szymura Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between the morphology and cytology of invasive species and the effectiveness of invasion are among the most interesting questions in invasion ecology. Amongst exceptionally successful worldwide plant invaders, species of goldenrod (Solidago and Euthamia are considered. The main aim of the study was to compare the morphology (concerning life traits and cytology of the selected goldenrods occurring in south-western Poland with the effectiveness of their invasion. The results of the study, conducted in south-western Poland, showed that life traits of invasive Solidago and Euthamia taxa were clearly not connected with the effectiveness of invasion. The most widespread species, S. gigantea and S. altissima, had the highest ramets and uncommon species such as Euthamia graminifolia and S. virgaurea had short ramets. However, S. canadensis, which is tall, is also uncommon. The most frequent species (S. gigantea produced smaller inflorescence than less frequent species (S. altissima, S. canadensis and Euthamia graminifolia. The spread of particular taxa was also not connected with the ploidy level and DNA content.

  17. Isolation and structure elucidation of some compounds of Solidago gigantea var. serotina (O. Kuntze) Cronquist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberger, E.

    1985-03-01

    Studies on plants of the genus Solidago used in folk medicine as a remedy against diseases of the urinary-system induced the investigation of Solidago gigantea Aiton var. serotina (O. Kuntze) Cronquist = S. serotina. A methanolic extract of the aerial parts was examined for the biologically active saponin complex. The most effective constituents were found to be a mixture of closely related triterpene glycosides named saponin G, H, I and saponin K. Fractionation over a series of silicagel columns and droplet countercurrent chromatographies resulted in pure saponin G and saponin H. The screening of the hydrolized glycosides afforded the genins bayogenin as major compound, oleanolic acid and three additional aglycones in trace quantities. The identy of bayogenin, oleanolic acid and bayogeninglucosid was established by mass-, 1 H-NMR- and 13 C-NMR-measurements and by direct comparison with authentic samples. Gas chromatographic analysis of the sugar moiety yielded rhamnose, xylose, glucose and 6-desoxyglucose after KILIANI-degradation in a ratio 3:3:1:1. Beside the triterpene derivatives, mentioned above, we found a diterpene, sterol and sterolglycosed as well. The diterpene structure was confirmed by UV-, IR-, mass-, 1 H-NMR- and 13 C-NMR-spectroscopy. This diterpene was not previously known to be present in S. serotina. The sterol-compounds could be determined as α-spinasterol and the respective hexosid. (Author)

  18. Species groups occupying different trophic levels respond differently to the invasion of semi-natural vegetation by Solidago canadensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de M.; Kleijn, D.; Jogan, N.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the impact of the invasive plant species Solidago canadensis on the species richness of vascular plants and the abundance, species richness and diversity of butterflies, hoverflies and carabid beetles in herbaceous semi-natural habitats near Ljubljana, Slovenia. The species groups were

  19. Selective alteration of soil food web components by invasive Giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea) in two distinct habitat types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quist, C.W.; Vervoort, M.T.W.; Megen, van H.H.B.; Gort, G.; Bakker, J.; Putten, van der W.H.; Helder, J.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from relatively well-studied aboveground effects, invasive plant species will also impact the soil food web. So far, most research has been focusing on primary decomposers, while studies on effects at higher trophic levels are relatively scarce. Giant goldenrod Solidago gigantea, native to

  20. Selective alteration of soil food web components by invasive giant goldenrod Solidago gigantea in two distinct habitat types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quist, C.W.; Vervoort, M.T.W.; Van Megen, H.; Gort, G.; Bakker, J.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Helder, J.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from relatively well-studied aboveground effects, invasive plant species will also impact the soil food web. So far, most research has been focusing on primary decomposers, while studies on effects at higher trophic levels are relatively scarce. Giant goldenrod Solidago gigantea, native to

  1. (asteraceae nativas no rio grande do sul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Silveira de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the wood anatomy of Heterothalamus alienus and Heterothalamus rupestris (Astereae - Asteraceae, as part of the secondary xylem study in the named genus. For the two species it was recorded some features usually mentioned in the literature for the Asteraceae, as typically small vessels, grouped in a dendritic pattern, the presence of only simple perforation plates and of paratracheal parenchyma. Heterothalamus alienus shows spiral thickenings in the wood vessels and storied vasicentric axial parenchyma. Heterothalamus rupestris differs itself by the absence of spiral thickenings in wood vessels and by no storied axial parenchyma, in paratracheal vasicentric to unilateral patterns. Photomicrographs, quantitative data of anatomical features and a comparison between the two species of wood are also provided.

  2. Notas taxonómicas en Asteraceae

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    Adriana Bartoli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva variedad para Grindelia anethifolia y se amplía el área de distribución de Bidens andicola, Grindelia coronensis y Proustia cuneifolia var. mendocina.Taxonomic notes on Asteraceae. A new variety for Grindelia anethifolia is described, and the known area of Bidens andicola, Grindelia coronensis and Proustia cuneifolia var. mendocina is extended.

  3. Phytotoxic Potential of Onopordum acanthium L. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Novaes, Paula; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Varela Montoya, Rosa; González Molinillo, José María; Macías Domínguez, Francisco Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Onopordum acanthium L. (Asteraceae) is a plant native to southern Europe and southwestern Asia, but it is invasive in disturbed areas and agricultural fields around the world, causing many agronomic problems by interfering with crops or preventing animals from grazing on pastures. Allelopathy could be one of the reasons that this plant has spread over different continents. The aim of the present study was to bioprospect O. acanthium leaf extracts through the isolation and purification of alle...

  4. Preparative Separation of Six Rhynchophylla Alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla Wall by pH-Zone Refining Counter-Current Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qinghai; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Aiqin

    2013-01-01

    pH-Zone refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to the preparative isolation and purification of six alkaloids from the ethanol extracts of Uncaria macrophylla Wall. Because of the low content of alkaloids (about 0.2%, w/w) in U. macrophylla Wall, the target compounds were enriched by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–isopropanol–water (2:6:3:9, v/v), adding 10 mM triethylamine ...

  5. Evaluation of Saponin Extract from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla for Antibacterial Activity

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    Nneoma E. Akaniro-Ejim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are pharmacologically active compounds that have been shown to ameliorate abnormal physiological processes and be aptly applied in folklore for the treatment of maladies occasioned by infectious agents. Consequently, saponins from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla were evaluated for antibacterial properties, as these herbs are used in folk medicine. Dried pulverized plant materials were defatted, and solvents with varying polarity were applied at varying ratios for the extraction of saponins. Phyto-chemistry was in accordance with standard methods, while an antibacterial assay was made through the agar well diffusion and micro broth dilution techniques. Phytochemical quantitation showed high concentrations of tannins, 231 ± 0.6 CE/g, and saponins, 58% from V. doniana. Similarly, P. macrophylla stem bark extract also showed high concentrations of tannins, 309 ± 2.42 CE/g, alkaloids, 71% ± 0.5%, and saponins, 87% ± 3.4%. The ethanol extracts of V. doniana inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 11775 and a clinical strain with inhibition zone ranges of 15.5 ± 2.12 to 7.0 ± 0.0 (mm against leaf extracts and 20.0 ± 1.41 to 7.0 ± 0.0 (mm against stem bark extracts. Conversely, saponin extract from V. doniana showed a broad spectrum of activity, as it inhibited both Gram-negative and -positive test strains, E. coli clinical strain (20.0 ± 1.41 mm, P. aeruginosa clinical strain (18.5 ± 0.71 mm, E. coli ATCC 11775 (17.0 ± 0 mm, and S. aureus clinical strain (13.0 ± 1.41 mm. However, a broad spectrum was similarly achieved with P. macrophylla extracts, as all test bacteria genus was susceptible. Saponin fractions showed a high potency and broad spectrum antibacterial activity and thus a validation of the folklore applications and the potential for use as a drug or drug scaffold.

  6. Molecular Reconstruction of an Old Pedigree of Diploid and Triploid Hydrangea macrophylla Genotypes

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    Peter Hempel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ornamental crop species Hydrangea macrophylla exhibits diploid and triploid levels of ploidy and develops lacecap (wild type or mophead inflorescences. In order to characterize a H. macrophylla germplasm collection, we determined the inflorescence type and the 2C DNA content of 120 plants representing 43 cultivars. We identified 78 putative diploid and 39 putative triploid plants by flow cytometry. In our collection 69 out of 98 flowering plants produced lacecap inflorescences, whereas 29 plants developed mophead inflorescences. Surprisingly, 12 cultivars included diploid as well as triploid plants, while 5 cultivars contained plants with different inflorescence types. We genotyped this germplasm collection using 12 SSR markers that detected 2–7 alleles per marker, and identified 51 different alleles in this collection. We detected 62 distinct fingerprints, revealing a higher genetic variation than the number of cultivars suggested. Only one genotype per cultivar is expected due to the vegetative propagation of Hydrangea cultivars; however we identified 25 cultivars containing 2–4 different genotypes. These different genotypes explained the variation in DNA content and inflorescence type. Diploid and triploid plants with the same cultivar name were exclusively mix-ups. We therefor assume, that 36% of the tested plants were mislabeled. Based on the “Wädenswil” pedigree, which includes 31 of the tested cultivars, we predicted cultivar-specific fingerprints and identified at least 21 out of 31 cultivars by SSR marker-based reconstruction of the “Wädenswil” pedigree. Furthermore, we detected 4 putative interploid crosses between diploid and triploid plants in this pedigree. These interploid crosses resulted in diploid or/and triploid offspring, suggesting that crosses with triploids were successfully applied in breeding of H. macrophylla.

  7. PROPAGACIÓN CLONAL in vitro DE Swietenia macrophylla King (CAOBA)

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Susana Carranza Patiño; Ariel Escobar Troya; Héctor Reyes Morán; Jaime Morante Carriel; José Enrique Nieto Rodríguez; Maria Lorena Cadme; Orly Fernando Cevallos Falquez; Washington Fernando Mora Silva

    2014-01-01

    La caoba (Swietenia macrophylla) es una especie forestal maderable de múltiples usos, apreciada por su dureza, resistencia, belleza y calidad. La explotación intensiva y un inadecuado sistema de aprovechamiento de la especie han ocasionado la disminución de la variabilidad genética, haciendo imposible la aplicación de programas de mejoramiento genético de caoba en el Ecuador. El cultivo in vitro es una técnica que ayudaría a disminuir este problema mediante la producción de plantas con alta r...

  8. First report of powdery mildew caused by Golovinomyces sp. (Euoidium sp. on the exotic ornamental plant Solidago canadensis (Asterales: Asteraceae in India

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    Sachin V. Thite

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In September 2013, leaves of Solidagocanadensis with typical symptoms of powdery mildew were collected in the Botanical Garden of Yashvantrao Chavan Institute of Science, Satara (M.S, India. The pathogen was identified as Euoidiumanamoph of Golovinomyces. This is the first report of powdery mildew on S. canadensis in India.

  9. Evolutionary origin of the Asteraceae capitulum: Insights from Calyceraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozner, Raúl; Zanotti, Christian; Johnson, Leigh A

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenies based on molecular data are revealing that generalizations about complex morphological structures often obscure variation and developmental patterns important for understanding the evolution of forms, as is the case for inflorescence morphology within the well-supported MGCA clade (Menyanthaceae + Goodeniaceae + Calyceraceae + Asteraceae). While the basal families share a basic thyrsic/thyrsoid structure of their inflorescences, Asteraceae possesses a capitulum that is widely interpreted as a racemose, condensed inflorescence. Elucidating the poorly known inflorescence structure of Calyceraceae, sister to Asteraceae, should help clarify how the Asteraceae capitulum evolved from thyrsic/thyrsoid inflorescences. The early development and structure of the inflorescence of eight species (five genera) of Calyceraceae were studied by SEM, and patterns of evolutionary change were interpreted via phylogenetic character mapping. The basic inflorescence structure of Calyceraceae is a cephalioid (a very condensed botryoid/thyrsoid). Optimization of inflorescence characters on a DNA sequence-derived tree suggests that the Asteraceae capitulum derives from a simple cephalioid through two morphological changes: loss of the terminal flower and suppression of the cymose branching pattern in the peripheral branches. Widely understood as a condensed raceme, the Asteraceae capitulum is the evolutionary result of a very reduced, condensed thyrsoid. Starting from that point, evolution worked separately only on the racemose developmental control/pattern within Asteraceae and mainly on the cymose developmental control/pattern within Calyceraceae, producing head-like inflorescences in both groups but with very different diversification potential. We also discuss possible remnants of the ancestral cephalioid structure in some Asteraceae.

  10. Development of an HPLC post-column antioxidant assay for Solidago canadensis radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marksa, Mindaugas; Radušienė, Jolita; Jakštas, Valdas; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Marksienė, Rūta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to modify and validate the post-column high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ABTS and DPPH methods for evaluating the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of Solidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod) leaves and flowers. Separation of the analytes was performed via the HPLC-PDA method on a YMC analytical column using a gradient elution program. Three compounds with antioxidant properties - chlorogenic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin - and two unidentified antioxidants were established. The research showed that the coil temperature regimes and loop length combinations influence the optimised post-column assay method for detecting the antioxidant activity of goldenrod radical scavengers. Investigations established that the temperature in the reaction coil was a substantial factor contributing to the signal strength of the analytes after reacting with the DPPH and ABTS radicals.

  11. Regenerating mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) from seed in Quintana Roo, Mexico: the effects of sowing method and clearing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Negreros-Castilloa; Laura K. Snookb; Carl W. Mize

    2003-01-01

    Honduras or bigleaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) is the most commercially important timber species in the Neotropics, but it often does not regenerate successfully after harvesting. Effective methods are needed to sustain or increase mahogany yields by increasing regeneration. This study evaluates the effects of three treatments (slash, fell and burn; slash,...

  12. Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) seedling survival and growth across a topographic gradient in southeast Pará, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Grogana; Mark S. Ashtona; Galv& atilde; Jurandir oc

    2003-01-01

    Adult populations of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) occur in aggregations along seasonal streams in transitional evergreen forests of southeast Pará, Brazil. To test whether variable seedling survival and growth across topography may underlie this observed distribution pattern, we planted nursery-grown seedlings in the...

  13. Survival, growth and reproduction by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in open clearing vs. forested conditions in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Grogan; Mark Schulze; Jurandir Galvao

    2010-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) trees are often retained in agricultural fields and pastures for seed and timber production after selective logging and forest clearing in the Brazilian Amazon. At a forest management site in southeast Para´, we censused trees growing scattered across a large open clearing after forest removal and in heavily disturbed forest...

  14. Efficient methods for isolating five phytochemicals from Gentiana macrophylla using high-performance countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Taewoong; Jung, Mila; Lee, Min Won; Chin, Young-Won; Yoon, Kee Dong

    2016-12-01

    Efficient high-performance countercurrent chromatography methods were developed to isolate five typical compounds from the extracts of Gentiana macrophylla. n-Butanol-soluble extract of G. macrophylla contained three hydrophilic iridoids, loganic acid (1), swertiamarin (2) and gentiopicroside (3), and a chromene derivative, macrophylloside D (4) which were successfully isolated by flow rate gradient (1.5 mL/min in 0-60 min, 5.0 mL/min in 60-120 min), and consecutive flow rate gradient HPCCC using n-butanol/0.1% aqueous trifluoroacetic acid (1:1, v/v, normal phase mode) system. The yields of 1-4 were 22, 16, 122, and 6 mg, respectively, with purities over 97% in a flow rate gradient high-performance countercurrent chromatography, and consecutive flow rate gradient high-performance countercurrent chromatography gave 1, 2, 3 (54, 41, 348 mg, respectively, purities over 97%) and 4 (13 mg, purity at 95%) from 750 mg of sample. The main compound in methylene chloride soluble extract, 2-methoxyanofinic acid, was successfully separated by n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (4:6:4:6, v/v/v/v, flow-rate: 4 mL/min, reversed phase mode) condition. The structures of five isolates were elucidated by 1 H, 13 C NMR and ESI-Q-TOF-MS spectroscopic data which were compared with previously reported values. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Phytochemical standardization, antioxidant, and antibacterial evaluations of Leea macrophylla: A wild edible plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Apurva; Prasad, Satyendra K; Joshi, Vinod Kumar; Hemalatha, Siva

    2016-04-01

    In Ayurveda, Leea macrophylla Roxb. ex Hornem. (Leeaceae) is indicated in worm infestation, dermatopathies, wounds, inflammation, and in symptoms of diabetes. The present study aims to determine the antioxidant and antibacterial potential of ethanolic extract and its different fractions of Leea macrophylla root tubers using phytochemical profiling which is still unexplored. Quantitative estimations of different phytoconstituents along with characterization of ethanol extract using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were performed using chlorogenic acid as a marker compound for the first time. The extract and its successive fractions were also evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity using different models. The extract was further tested against a few Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria for its antibacterial activity. Phytochemical screening and quantitative estimations revealed the extract to be rich in alkaloid, flavonoid, phenols, and tannins, whereas chlorogenic acid quantified by HPLC in ethanol extract was 9.01% w/w. The results also indicated potential antioxidant and antibacterial activity, which was more prominent in the extract followed by its butanol fraction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Welcome to the neighbourhood: interspecific genotype by genotype interactions in Solidago influence above- and belowground biomass and associated communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genung, Mark A; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A

    2012-01-01

    Intra- and interspecific plant-plant interactions are fundamental to patterns of community assembly and to the mixture effects observed in biodiversity studies. Although much research has been conducted at the species level, very little is understood about how genetic variation within and among interacting species may drive these processes. Using clones of both Solidago altissima and Solidago gigantea, we found that genotypic variation in a plant's neighbours affected both above- and belowground plant traits, and that genotype by genotype interactions between neighbouring plants impacted associated pollinator communities. The traits for which focal plant genotypic variation explained the most variation varied by plant species, whereas neighbour genotypic variation explained the most variation in coarse root biomass. Our results provide new insight into genotypic and species diversity effects in plant-neighbour interactions, the extended consequences of diversity effects, and the potential for evolution in response to competitive or to facilitative plant-neighbour interactions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  17. Complex investigation of extraction techniques applied for cyclitols and sugars isolation from different species of Solidago genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratiu, Ileana-Andreea; Al-Suod, Hossam; Ligor, Magdalena; Ligor, Tomasz; Railean-Plugaru, Viorica; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2018-03-15

    Cyclitols are phytochemicals naturally occurring in plant material, which attracted an increasing interest due to multiple medicinal attributes, among which the most important are the antidiabetic, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. Due to their valuable properties, sugars are used in the food industry as sweeteners, preservatives, texture modifiers, fermentation substrates, and flavoring and coloring agents. In this study, we report for the first time the quantitative analysis of sugars and cyclitols isolated from Solidago virgaurea L., which was used for the selection of the optimal solvent and extraction technique that can provide the best possible yield. Moreover, the quantities of sugars and cyclitols extracted from two other species, Solidago canadensis and Solidago gigantea, were investigated using the best extraction method and the most appropriate solvent. Comparative analysis of natural plant extracts obtained using five different techniques-maceration, Soxhlet extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction-was performed in order to decide the most suitable, efficient, and economically convenient extraction method. Three different solvents were used. Analysis of samples has been performed by solid-phase extraction for purification and pre-concentration, followed by derivation and GC-MS analysis. Highest efficiency for the total amount of obtained compounds has been reached by PLE, when water was used as a solvent. d-pinitol amount was almost similar for every solvent and for all the extraction techniques involved. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Kołodziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-12-01

    Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic

  19. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. and Gentiana straminea Maxim., and identification of their active constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Na; Li, Yuwen; Wu, Yin; Xi, Miaomiao; Hur, Gangmin; Zhang, Xinxin; Cui, Jia; Sun, Wenji; Wen, Aidong

    2012-12-18

    Tibetan medicine get used to use the flowers of Gentiana straminea Maxim. to cure inflammation of stomach and intestines, hepatitis, cholecystitis, etc. The flowers of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. have been traditionally treated as an anti-inflammatory agent to clear heat in Mongolian medicine. In traditional Chinese medicine, Gentiana macrophylla Pall. and Gentiana straminea Maxim. have also been used under the name "Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix" and prescribed for the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. The present study evaluated the pharmacological effects of two species of "Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae" in experimental inflammation and pain models, and determined the chemical compounds that may correlate with their pharmacological activities. The comparison is needed to identify whether the two related plants can be used interchangeably. We evaluated the pharmacological effects of the flowers of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. and Gentiana straminea Maxim. in experimental inflammation and pain models. An HPLC-MS method was developed to analyze the chemical composition. The effects of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. and Gentiana straminea Maxim. on the p65 and p50 phosphorylation were examined by immunblotting. NF-κB transcriptional activity was measured using the luciferase assay, in vitro kinase assay and Griess reaction. The extracts of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. and Gentiana straminea Maxim. possessed significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Flavonoids, secoiridoid glycosides and triterpines were determined in the extracts and may be the basis of the observed pharmacological effects. Nuclear translocation of p65, p50 and NF-κB transcriptional activity induced by LPS were suppressed by Gentiana macrophylla Pall. and Gentiana straminea Maxim. The results clearly demonstrated that the chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the two herbs were similar, which support the interchangeability among the two herbs when using them

  20. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Aster spathulifolius (Asteraceae); genomic features and relationship with Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Su; Park, SeonJoo

    2015-11-10

    Aster spathulifolius, a member of the Asteraceae family, is distributed along the coast of Japan and Korea. This plant is used for medicinal and ornamental purposes. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of A. sphathulifolius consists of 149,473 bp that include a pair of inverted repeats of 24,751 bp separated by a large single copy region of 81,998 bp and a small single copy region of 17,973 bp. The chloroplast genome contains 78 coding genes, four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. When compared to other cpDNA sequences of Asteraceae, A. spathulifolius showed the closest relationship with Jacobaea vulgaris, and its atpB gene was found to be a pseudogene, unlike J. vulgaris. Furthermore, evaluation of the gene compositions of J. vulgaris, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and A. spathulifolius revealed that 13.6-kb showed inversion from ndhF to rps15, unlike Lactuca of Asteraceae. Comparison of the synonymous (Ks) and nonsynonymous (Ka) substitution rates with J. vulgaris revealed that synonymous genes related to a small subunit of the ribosome showed the highest value (0.1558), while nonsynonymous rates of genes related to ATP synthase genes were highest (0.0118). These findings revealed that substitution has occurred at similar rates in most genes, and the substitution rates suggested that most genes is a purified selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Proposal of commercialization of Swietenia macrophylla King seeds genetic improved in the UCTB Experiment Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Puig Pérez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted at the Agroforestry Experimental Station of Guise in 2013, with the aim of establishing a proposal for the marketing of seed of Swietenia macrophylla with high added value. A brief characterization of the entity and description of the species under study was carried out. Internal and external environment was also characterized by identifying strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, noting that the station should take advantage of opportunities and mitigate weaknesses and threats. The macro market segmentation and the action plan for marketing programs of the seeds were performed. With the marketing of seed of high added value of this valuable plantations will increase and latifolia seed growths will be greater.

  2. New genera and species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae Novos gêneros e espécies de mosquitos galhadores (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associados com Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Three distinct leaf galls are recorded on Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae. The galling species were identified as Neolasioptera sp., Guareamyia purpura gen. nov. and sp. nov.; Sphaeramyia flava gen. nov. and sp.nov. The new genera and species are described and illustrated based on material collected at restinga areas in Bertioga (São Paulo, Brazil.Três galhas foliares distintas são registradas em Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae. As espécies galhadoras foram identificadas como Neolasioptera sp., Guareamyia purpura gen. nov. e sp. nov..; Sphaeramyia flava gen. nov. e sp. nov. Os gêneros e espécies novas são descritos e ilustrados com base em material coletado em áreas de restinga em Bertioga (São Paulo, Brasil.

  3. Phytochemistry of the fossilized-cuticle frond Macroneuropteris macrophylla (Pennsylvanian seed fern, Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodrow, Erwin L. [Palaeobotanical Laboratory, Cape Breton University, Sydney, Nova Scotia, B1P 6L2 (Canada); D' Angelo, Jose A. [IANIGLA, CCT-CONICET-Mendoza, Avda. Ruiz Leal s/n Parque Gral. San Martin (5500) Mendoza (Argentina); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 47405-2208 (United States); Cleal, Christopher J. [Department of Biodiversity and Systematic Biology, National Museum of Wales, Cathays Park, Cardiff, CF10 3NP (United Kingdom); Keefe, Dale [Molecular Spectroscopy Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Cape Breton University, Sydney, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2010-11-01

    In Canada's Sydney Coalfield, specimens of the extinct Carboniferous seed fern Macroneuropteris macrophylla (Brongniart) invariably show preservation stages intermediate between compression and fossilized-cuticle, even concerning a single pinnule. In this interdisciplinary approach, we study a ca. 300 to 350 mm long fossilized-cuticle-preserved frond section of M. macrophylla (Brongniart) that represents about one third of the length of a frond that was originally 1 m long. Size and preservation allow us to study the phytochemistry of the cuticle biomacropolymers over the length of the frond to assess what impact, if any, results would have on Carboniferous palaeophytochemotaxonomy. For comparison, the phytochemistry of compressions with their extracted cuticles from the same species and the same sample locality is also investigated. We use solid- and liquid-state, semi-quantitative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical characterization of the frond. Based on our results, we infer an essentially uniform phytochemistry over the fossilized-cuticle frond, suggesting that only a single pinnule needs to be analyzed to get an overall phytochemical picture of the frond, which has been our long-time working hypothesis. We distinguish between phytochemistry and cutinization. The latter is much less pronounced above than below the frond dichotomy, and we suggest a palaeoecological cause, rather than differing pathways of organic matter transformation. Moreover, cuticles below and above the frond dichotomy have essentially the same epidermal pattern, but those from below have features that may have been an adaptation to prevent stomatal flooding during the tropical, rainy season. This study suggests that chemically the fossilized-cuticle is more similar to the compression than to the cuticle obtained from that compression of the same species which invites reevaluation of the classical compression concept. (author)

  4. Phytochemistry of the fossilized-cuticle frond Macroneuropteris macrophylla (Pennsylvanian seed fern, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodrow, E.L.; D'Angelo, J. A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Cleal, C.J.; Keefe, D.

    2010-01-01

    In Canada's Sydney Coalfield, specimens of the extinct Carboniferous seed fern Macroneuropteris macrophylla (Brongniart) invariably show preservation stages intermediate between compression and fossilized-cuticle, even concerning a single pinnule. In this interdisciplinary approach, we study a ca. 300 to 350 mm long fossilized-cuticle-preserved frond section of M. macrophylla (Brongniart) that represents about one third of the length of a frond that was originally 1 m long. Size and preservation allow us to study the phytochemistry of the cuticle biomacropolymers over the length of the frond to assess what impact, if any, results would have on Carboniferous palaeophytochemotaxonomy. For comparison, the phytochemistry of compressions with their extracted cuticles from the same species and the same sample locality is also investigated. We use solid- and liquid-state, semi-quantitative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical characterization of the frond.Based on our results, we infer an essentially uniform phytochemistry over the fossilized-cuticle frond, suggesting that only a single pinnule needs to be analyzed to get an overall phytochemical picture of the frond, which has been our long-time working hypothesis. We distinguish between phytochemistry and cutinization. The latter is much less pronounced above than below the frond dichotomy, and we suggest a palaeoecological cause, rather than differing pathways of organic matter transformation. Moreover, cuticles below and above the frond dichotomy have essentially the same epidermal pattern, but those from below have features that may have been an adaptation to prevent stomatal flooding during the tropical, rainy season.This study suggests that chemically the fossilized-cuticle is more similar to the compression than to the cuticle obtained from that compression of the same species which invites reevaluation of the classical compression concept. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  5. In vitro evaluation of potential bitterness-masking terpenoids from the Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Pan, Li; Fletcher, Joshua N; Lv, Wei; Deng, Ye; Vincent, Michael A; Slack, Jay P; McCluskey, T Scott; Jia, Zhonghua; Cushman, Mark; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2014-07-25

    In a screening of extracts of selected plants native to Ohio against the human bitterness receptor hTAS2R31, a chloroform-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Solidago canadensis (Canada goldenrod) was determined to have hTAS2R31 antagonistic activity and, thus, was fractionated for isolation of potential bitterness-masking agents. One new labdane diterpenoid, solidagol (1), and six known terpenoids, including two labdane diterpenoids (2 and 3), three clerodane diterpenoids (6β-angeloyloxykolavenic acid, 6β-tigloyloxykolavenic acid, and crotonic acid), and a triterpenoid (longispinogenin), were isolated. Among these compounds, 3β-acetoxycopalic acid (2) was found to be the first member of the labdane diterpene class shown to have inhibitory activity against hTAS2R31 activation (IC50 8 μM). A homology model of hTAS2R31 was constructed, and the molecular docking of 2 to this model indicated that this diterpenoid binds well to the active site of hTAS2R31, whereas this was not the case for the closely structurally related compound 3 (sempervirenic acid). The content of 2 in the chloroform-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of S. canadensis was up to 2.24 g/100 g dry weight, as determined by HPLC.

  6. Population genetics and adaptation to climate along elevation gradients in invasive Solidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Emily V; Reid, Andrea; Levine, Jonathan M

    2017-01-01

    Gene flow between populations may either support local adaptation by supplying genetic variation on which selection may act, or counteract it if maladapted alleles arrive faster than can be purged by selection. Although both such effects have been documented within plant species' native ranges, how the balance of these forces influences local adaptation in invasive plant populations is less clear, in part because introduced species often have lower genetic variation initially but also tend to have good dispersal abilities. To evaluate the extent of gene flow and adaptation to local climate in invasive populations of Solidago canadensis, and the implications of this for range expansion, we compared population differentiation at microsatellite and chloroplast loci for populations across Switzerland and assessed the effect of environmental transfer distance using common gardens. We found that while patterns of differentiation at neutral genetic markers suggested that populations are connected through extensive pollen and seed movement, common-garden plants nonetheless exhibited modest adaptation to local climate conditions. Growth rate and flower production declined with climatic distance from a plant's home site, with clones from colder home sites performing better at or above the range limit. Such adaptation in invasive species is likely to promote further spread, particularly under climate change, as the genotypes positioned near the range edge may be best able to take advantage of lengthening growing seasons to expand the range.

  7. In-vitro effect of flavonoids from Solidago canadensis extract on glutathione S-transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apáti, Pál; Houghton, Peter J; Kite, Geoffrey; Steventon, Glyn B; Kéry, Agnes

    2006-02-01

    Solidago canadensis is typical of a flavonoid-rich herb and the effect of an aqueous ethanol extract on glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity using HepG2 cells was compared with those of the flavonol quercetin and its glycosides quercitrin and rutin, found as major constituents. The composition of the extract was determined by HPLC and rutin was found to be the major flavonoidal component of the extract. Total GST activity was assessed using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as a substrate. The glycosides rutin and quercitrin gave dose-dependent increases in GST activity, with a 50% and 24.5% increase at 250 mM, respectively, while the aglycone quercetin inhibited the enzyme by 30% at 250 mM. The total extract of the herb gave an overall dose-dependent increase, the fractions corresponding to the flavonoids showed activating effects while those containing caffeic acid derivatives were inhibitory. The activity observed corresponds to that reported for similar compounds in-vivo using rats, thus the HepG2 cell line could serve as a more satisfactory method of assessing the effects of extracts and compounds on GST.

  8. Isolation, characterization, and mechanistic studies of (-)-alpha-gurjunene synthase from Solidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C O; Bouwmeester, H J; Bülow, N; König, W A

    1999-04-15

    The leaves of the composite Solidago canadensis (goldenrod) were shown to contain (-)-alpha-gurjunene synthase activity. This sesquiterpene is likely to be the precursor for cyclocolorenone, a sesquiterpene ketone present in high amounts in S. canadensis leaves. (-)-alpha-Gurjunene synthase was purified to apparent homogeneity (741-fold) by anion-exchange chromatography (on several matrices), dye ligand chromatography, hydroxylapatite chromatography, and gel filtration. Chromatography on a gel filtration matrix indicated a native molecular mass of 48 kDa, and SDS-PAGE showed the enzyme to be composed of one subunit with a denatured mass of 60 kDa. Its maximum activity was observed at pH 7.8 in the presence of 10 mM Mg2+ and the KM value for the substrate farnesyl diphosphate was 5.5 microM. Over a range of purification steps (-)-alpha-gurjunene and (+)-gamma-gurjunene synthase activities copurified. In addition, the product ratio of the enzyme activity under several different assay conditions was always 91% (-)-alpha-gurjunene and 9% (+)-gamma-gurjunene. This suggests that the formation of these two structurally related products is catalyzed by one enzyme. For further confirmation, we carried out a number of mechanistic studies with (-)-alpha-gurjunene synthase, in which an enzyme preparation was incubated with deuterated substrate analogues. Based on mass spectrometry analysis of the products formed, a cyclization mechanism was postulated which makes it plausible that the synthase catalyzes the formation of both sesquiterpenes. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Numerical relationships of the Solidago altissima stem gall insect-parasitoid guild food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Warren G; Armbruster, Paulette O; Maddox, G David

    1983-06-01

    The field site conditions (soil pH, soil moisture, soil nutrient availability, etc.) and abundances of Solidago altissima (often included in S. canadensis sensu lato), three S. altissima specific stem gall formers, and the parasitepredator guilds for two of the three gall insects were investigated. It was found that S. altissima is tolerant of a wide range of site conditions. Herbivore (stem gall insects) occurrences were positively correlated with plant occurrence, in a linear fashion. However, there was no disproportionate increase in stem gall insect densities with plant density as might be predicted by the resource concentration hypothesis. Parasitoid guilds were exploiting stem gall insect populations over a wide range of occurrence, but were under-utilizing fields of higher herbivore occurrences. Path analysis showed a high degree of predictability in the causal models, with all but 14% of the ball gall parasitoid guild and all but 43% of the elliptical gall parasitoid guild occurrences explained by the direct influences of stem gall insect occurrence and the indirect influences of goldenrod occurrence and site conditions. The numerical relations of this three trophic level system suggest a well-integrated and well-controlled food chain.

  10. Effects of metal lead on growth and mycorrhizae of an invasive plant species (Solidago canadensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruyi; Yu, Guodong; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2008-01-01

    It is less known whether and how soil metal lead (Pb) impacts the invasion of exotic plants. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to estimate the effects of lead on the growth and mycorrhizae of an invasive species (Solidago canadensis L.) in a microcosm system. Each microcosm unit was separated into HOST and TEST compartments by a replaceable mesh screen that allowed arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal hyphae rather than plant roots to grow into the TEST compartments. Three Pb levels (control, 300, and 600 mg/kg soil) were used in this study to simulate ambient soil and two pollution sites where S. canadensis grows. Mycorrhizal inoculum comprised five indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species (Glomus mosseae, Glomus versiform, Glomus diaphanum, Glomus geosporum, and Glomus etunicatum). The 15N isotope tracer was used to quantify the mycorrhizally mediated nitrogen acquisition of plants. The results showed that S. canadensis was highly dependent on mycorrhizae. The Pb additions significantly decreased biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization (root length colonized, RLC%) but did not affect spore numbers, N (including total N and 15N) and P uptake. The facilitating efficiency of mycorrhizae on nutrient acquisition was promoted by Pb treatments. The Pb was mostly sequestered in belowground of plant (root and rhizome). The results suggest that the high efficiency of mycorrhizae on nutrient uptake might give S. canadensis a great advantage over native species in Pb polluted soils.

  11. Allelopathic effects of the extracts from an invasive species Solidago canadensis L. on Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Bai, Y; Wang, Y; Kong, H

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated allelopathic effects of Solidago canadensis L. on Microcystis aeruginosa. The results showed that S. canadensis L. extracts could significantly inhibit the growth of M. aeruginosa. The inhibition ratios of samples with 0·3 and 0·5 g l(-1) extracts were over 90% after 7 days, and the transmission electron microscopy images showed the damage of M. aeruginosa cells during the incubation. In physiological and biochemical measurements, the membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content rapidly increased with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the content of antioxidant molecules (ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH)) increased. Although the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT)) increased at low extracts concentrations, the effects were inhibitory when the extracts concentration increased. In conclusion, this study provided a new idea to utilize the detrimental weed S. canadensis L. to control harmful cyanobacteria. The alterations in physiology and biochemistry of M. aeruginosa cell were not in isolation, but with the stimulation of intracellular ROS that could play a fundamental role in inhibitory effects of S. canadensis L. extracts. It was inferred that terrestrial plants could have the same algistatic mechanisms as hydrophytes. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. What determines positive, neutral, and negative impacts of Solidago canadensis invasion on native plant species richness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Jia; Yu, Hong-Wei; He, Wei-Ming

    2015-11-17

    Whether plant invasions pose a great threat to native plant diversity is still hotly debated due to conflicting findings. More importantly, we know little about the mechanisms of invasion impacts on native plant richness. We examined how Solidago canadensis invasion influenced native plants using data from 291 pairs of invaded and uninvaded plots covering an entire invaded range, and quantified the relative contributions of climate, recipient communities, and S. canadensis to invasion impacts. There were three types of invasion consequences for native plant species richness (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative impacts). Overall, the relative contributions of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate to invasion impacts were 71.39%, 21.46% and 7.15%, respectively; furthermore, the roles of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate were largely ascribed to plant diversity, density and cover, and precipitation. In terms of direct effects, invasion impacts were negatively linked to temperature and native plant communities, and positively to precipitation and soil microbes. Soil microbes were crucial in the network of indirect effects on invasion impacts. These findings suggest that the characteristics of recipient communities are the most important determinants of invasion impacts and that invasion impacts may be a continuum across an entire invaded range.

  13. Population genetics and adaptation to climate along elevation gradients in invasive Solidago canadensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily V Moran

    Full Text Available Gene flow between populations may either support local adaptation by supplying genetic variation on which selection may act, or counteract it if maladapted alleles arrive faster than can be purged by selection. Although both such effects have been documented within plant species' native ranges, how the balance of these forces influences local adaptation in invasive plant populations is less clear, in part because introduced species often have lower genetic variation initially but also tend to have good dispersal abilities. To evaluate the extent of gene flow and adaptation to local climate in invasive populations of Solidago canadensis, and the implications of this for range expansion, we compared population differentiation at microsatellite and chloroplast loci for populations across Switzerland and assessed the effect of environmental transfer distance using common gardens. We found that while patterns of differentiation at neutral genetic markers suggested that populations are connected through extensive pollen and seed movement, common-garden plants nonetheless exhibited modest adaptation to local climate conditions. Growth rate and flower production declined with climatic distance from a plant's home site, with clones from colder home sites performing better at or above the range limit. Such adaptation in invasive species is likely to promote further spread, particularly under climate change, as the genotypes positioned near the range edge may be best able to take advantage of lengthening growing seasons to expand the range.

  14. The origin of the bifurcating style in Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katinas, Liliana; Hernández, Marcelo P; Arambarri, Ana M; Funk, Vicki A

    2016-05-01

    The plant family Asteraceae (Compositae) exhibits remarkable morphological variation in the styles of its members. Lack of studies on the styles of the sister families to Asteraceae, Goodeniaceae and Calyceraceae, obscures our understanding of the origin and evolution of this reproductive feature in these groups. The aim of this work was to perform a comparative study of style morphology and to discuss the relevance of important features in the evolution of Asteraceae and its sister families. The histochemistry, venation and general morphology of the styles of members of Goodeniaceae, Calyceraceae and early branching lineages of Asteraceae were analysed and put in a phylogenetic framework to discuss the relevance of style features in the evolution of these families. The location of lipophilic substances allowed differentiation of receptive from non-receptive style papillae, and the style venation in Goodeniaceae and Calyceraceae proved to be distinctive. There were several stages of style evolution from Goodeniaceae to Asteraceae involving connation and elongation of veins, development of bilobation from an initially cup-shaped style, and a redistribution of the receptive and non-receptive papillae. These developments resulted in bifurcation in the styles of Asteraceae, with each branch face having a different function, and it is suggested here as a mechanism that promoted outcrossing, which in turn led to the great diversification in the family. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Germination et croissance initiale de Neocarya macrophylla (Sabine Prance, une espèce oléagineuse du Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Guimbo, I.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination and Initial Growth of Neocarya macrophylla (Sabine Prance, a oleaginous Species of Niger. The study conducted in parallel in the real environment, nursery and laboratory to better understand the characteristics of germination and seedling development Neocarya macrophylla, a species of oleaginous Niger. The treatments applied to seed have a waiting time shorter than the untreated seeds. The control has a staggered germination (30 days and shelling of nuts influenced seed germination bundled (16 days. Unprocessed nuts are the best germination rate (89.53%. Soaking nuts during 72 h and 120 h is fatal for germination. The shelf life has significant effects on the germination of walnuts and almonds. The observation shows a germinating seed cryptogeal. The low germination rates nuts without water shows that water is a limiting factor to the spread of this tree species. The seedlings are very sensitive to dampingoff and tolerant enough to transplantation with a survival rate of 79%.

  16. Genetic structure and genetic diversity of Swietenia macrophylla in areas subjected to selective logging in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alcalá, Raúl Ernesto; Cruz, Silvia De la; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis that selective logging has a negative effect by altering the genetic parameters of tropical tree species was evaluated. The genetic diversity and genetic structure between adult trees (N = 47) and saplings (N = 50) of Swietenia macrophylla were contrasted within an area subjected to selective logging in the Mayan zone. Although differences in the number of alleles and in their frequencies were detected between both groups, the observed and expected heterozygosity and the coeffi...

  17. Determinación de necesidades nutrimentales para las especies Swietenia macrophylla y Cupressus lusitanica en prueba de invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paniagua Vásquez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los requerimientos nutrimentales de Swietenia macrophylla y Cupressus lusitanica en un Inceptisol y Ultisol provenientes de la región Huetar Norte de Costa Rica, en una prueba de invernadero utilizando una metodología que involucra tres pasos fundamentales: a análisis preliminar de la muestra original, b estudios de Sorción, c técnicas de invernadero. La muestra del suelo se recolectó en sitios representativos a una profundidad de 0-25 cm. En Inceptisol los requerimentos para Sweitenia macrophylla en orden según las pruebas de invernadero fueron: P> Cu> B> Fe> N, para Cupressus lusitanica fueron: P> K> Mn> Cu> Zn> Fe. En Ultisol los requerimentos nutrimentales para Sweitenia macrophylla fueron: B> Fe> Mn> Zn> N> P> K> Cu. Es importante considerar que son los elementos menores los que tienen mayor respuesta a la aplicación, con las variables de crecimiento los mayores valores se obtuvieron en orden K> N> P, para Cupressus lusitanica resultados fueron: N> P> Mn> Fe> Zn. Con las variables de crecimiento los mayores valores se obtuvieron en orden K> N> P.

  18. Effect of substrates for in vitro germination of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King); Efeito de substratos na germinação in vitro de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lameira, Osmar Alves; Da Cunha Lopes, Sebastião; Martins Leão, Noemi Vianna; Castro Coimbra Cordeiro, Iracema Maria; Sousa Reis, Lana Roberta

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work was to verify the effect of substrates and different light conditions and temperature on in vitro germination of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) seeds for the production of explants for the initialprocess of micropropagation. In the first experiment the seeds were inoculatedintwosubstrates: 7gL{sup -1} agar and vermiculite,maintained at temperature of 25±1°C with photoperiod of 16 hours and 52 mmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}irradiance. MS medium supplementedwith sucrose (10; 20; and 30g L{sup -1}) was used. For the second experiment the seeds were submitted to light conditions (presence and absence)and temperature (25 and 30 °C) and inoculated in MS medium supplementedwith 30g L{sup -1} sucrose +vermiculite. The vermiculite was more efficient than agar as substrate for the in vitro seed germination of mahogany. The MS medium, supplemented with 30g L{sup -1} sucrose + vermiculite, was more efficient for the in vitro seed germination of mahogany. The temperatures of 25 and 30 °C independent of the presence or absence of light had no influence in the number and time for the in vitro germination of these seeds. (author) [Portuguese] Realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de substratos e diferentes condições de luz e temperatura na germinação de sementes de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King) in vitro visando à produção de explantes para iniciar o processo de micropropagação. No primeiro experimento, as sementes foram inoculadas em dois substratos: ágar a 7g.L{sup -1} e vermiculita, e mantidas em temperatura de 25±1°C sob fotoperíodo de 16 horas de luz e 25 mmol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1} de irradiância. O meio de cultura utilizado foi o MS, suplementado com sacarose (10; 20; e 30g.L{sup -1}). Para o segundo experimento, as sementes foram submetidas às condições de luz (presença e ausência) e temperatura (25 e 30 °C), sendo utilizado o meio de cultura MS com 30g.L{sup -1} de sacarose + vermiculita. A

  19. Specialist bees collect Asteraceae pollen by distinctive abdominal drumming (Osmia) or tapping (Melissodes, Svastra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species of western US Osmia (Cephalosmia) bees that are Asteraceae specialists (oligoleges) were observed to employ a heretofore unappreciated, stereotypical means of collecting pollen, abdominal drumming, to gather pollen from 19 flowering species representing nine tribes of Asteraceae. Abdom...

  20. Asteraceae Pollen Provisions Protect Osmia Mason Bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from Brood Parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Dakota M; Silverman, Sarah; Forrest, Jessica R K

    2016-06-01

    Many specialist herbivores eat foods that are apparently low quality. The compensatory benefits of a poor diet may include protection from natural enemies. Several bee lineages specialize on pollen of the plant family Asteraceae, which is known to be a poor-quality food. Here we tested the hypothesis that specialization on Asteraceae pollen protects bees from parasitism. We compared rates of brood parasitism by Sapyga wasps on Asteraceae-specialist, Fabeae-specialist, and other species of Osmia bees in the field over several years and sites and found that Asteraceae-specialist species were parasitized significantly less frequently than other species. We then tested the effect of Asteraceae pollen on parasites by raising Sapyga larvae on three pollen mixtures: Asteraceae, Fabeae, and generalist (a mix of primarily non-Asteraceae pollens). Survival of parasite larvae was significantly reduced on Asteraceae provisions. Our results suggest that specialization on low-quality pollen may evolve because it helps protect bees from natural enemies.

  1. Propagation of goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L. from leaf and nodal explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L. is an invasive plant species in many countries except North America but a cut-flower species worldwide. There is a need to generate and propagate goldenrod clones efficiently for research and commercial purposes. A callus induction and plantlet regeneration system was developed by studying the influence of explant type and different concentrations of plant growth regulators. The highest callus production from leaf segments was obtained on Murashige and Skoog’s medium (MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and 1.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BA. Adventitious shoots could be regenerated directly from leaf explants without an intermediate callus phase with the highest shoot induction percentage of 87.2%. The largest number of adventitious shoots per leaf explant (3.2 was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.4 mg/L NAA and 2.0 mg/L BA. MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L NAA and 1.0 mg/L BA was the best medium for axillary shoot regeneration from nodal segments. The highest root number and longest roots occurred on half-strength MS without the addition of any growth regulator. Rooted plantlets were then transferred to a soil-based growth medium, placed in a greenhouse, and acclimatized with 100% success. All surviving plants grew normally without showing any morphological varia­tion when compared to those grow from seed. This regeneration protocol may be used to produce certain biotypes of goldenrod suitable for genetic transformation rapid propagation of goldenrod for commercial purposes or for screening fungi and toxins as potential biocontrol agents against this weed.

  2. Individual Plasticity of the Shade Response of the Invasive Solidago canadensis in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leshan Du

    Full Text Available To evaluate the population variation, individual plasticity, and local adaptability of Solidago canadensis in response to shade treatment, we conducted a common pots experiment with a total of 150 ramets (5 genets, 15 populations, and 2 treatments subjected to both control (natural light and shady treatment (10% of natural light. Shade treatment significantly reduced growth and content of defense metabolites in S. canadensis. Compared to control, shading led to increased height, decreased basal diameter, increased leaf width, increased leaf length, increased chlorophyll content, stronger photosynthetic rate (Pn, stronger stomatal conductance (gs, and lower root to shoot ratio. Three-way analysis of variance revealed geographical origin to significantly affect the basal diameter of S. canadensis, while genotype significantly affected plant height, intercelluar CO2 concentration (Ci, transpiration rate (Tr, and proline content. Significant interactive effects between shade and geographic origin were prevalent for most traits. The phenotypic differentiation coefficient of the plasticity of all traits was below 0.4, indicating that most of all variations can be found among individuals within populations. Phenotypic selection analysis revealed that fitness was significantly positively related to plant height, basal diameter, Ci, total flavonoid content, as well as the plasticity of plant height, leaf length, leaf width, gs, Ci, total flavonoid content, and malondialdehyde content under the control condition. However, subjected to shade, fitness was only significantly positively related to plant height, basal diameter, and the plasticity of basal diameter. Rather than local adaption, these results suggest that individual plasticity played a more prominent role in the shade response of the invasive S. canadensis.

  3. Individual Plasticity of the Shade Response of the Invasive Solidago canadensis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Leshan; Liu, Haiyan; Yan, Ming; Li, Junmin; Li, Junsheng

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the population variation, individual plasticity, and local adaptability of Solidago canadensis in response to shade treatment, we conducted a common pots experiment with a total of 150 ramets (5 genets, 15 populations, and 2 treatments) subjected to both control (natural light) and shady treatment (10% of natural light). Shade treatment significantly reduced growth and content of defense metabolites in S. canadensis. Compared to control, shading led to increased height, decreased basal diameter, increased leaf width, increased leaf length, increased chlorophyll content, stronger photosynthetic rate (Pn), stronger stomatal conductance (gs), and lower root to shoot ratio. Three-way analysis of variance revealed geographical origin to significantly affect the basal diameter of S. canadensis, while genotype significantly affected plant height, intercelluar CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), and proline content. Significant interactive effects between shade and geographic origin were prevalent for most traits. The phenotypic differentiation coefficient of the plasticity of all traits was below 0.4, indicating that most of all variations can be found among individuals within populations. Phenotypic selection analysis revealed that fitness was significantly positively related to plant height, basal diameter, Ci, total flavonoid content, as well as the plasticity of plant height, leaf length, leaf width, gs, Ci, total flavonoid content, and malondialdehyde content under the control condition. However, subjected to shade, fitness was only significantly positively related to plant height, basal diameter, and the plasticity of basal diameter. Rather than local adaption, these results suggest that individual plasticity played a more prominent role in the shade response of the invasive S. canadensis.

  4. [Allelopathic interactions between invasive plant Solidago canadensis and native plant Phragmites australis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Zhe; Fan, Jiang-Wen; Yin, Xin; Yang, En-Yi; Wei, Wei; Tian, Zhi-Hui; Da, Liang-Jun

    2011-05-01

    Taking the seeds of invasive plant Solidago canadensis and native plant Phragmites australis from their mono- and co-dominant communities as allelopathic acceptors, this paper analyzed the differences in the seed germination rate and sprout length after treated with five level (12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg x mL(-1)) S. canadensis and P. australis extracts, aimed to understand the allelopathic interactions between the two species. The 1000-grain weight and seed germination rate under distilled water treatment of the two species in co-dominated community were greater than those in mono-dominant community. Low level (12.5 and 25 mg x mL(-1)) S. canadensi extracts slightly promoted the seed germination rates of S. canadensis in both mono- and co-dominant communities, but high level (50, 100, and 200 mg x mL(-1)) S. canadensi extracts had strong inhibition effect, especially for the S. canadensis in co-dominated community. No significant patterns were observed about the effects of P. australis extract on S. canadensis seed germination. The sprout length of S. canadensis seeds in both mono- and co-dominant communities decreased with increasing level of S. canadensis extract, but decreased in a fluctuation way with increasing level of P. australis extract. After treated with the extracts of P. australis or S. canadensis, the seed germination rate of P. australis in mono-dominant community was significantly greater than that in co-dominant community (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between these two extracts.

  5. [Effects of Cuscuta australis parasitism on the growth, reproduction and defense of Solidago canadensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei-fen; Du, Le-shan; Li, Jun-min

    2015-11-01

    In order to find out how parasitic Cuscuta australis influences the growth and reproduction of Solidago canadensis, the effects of the parasitism of C. australis on the morphological, growth and reproductive traits of S. canadensis were examined and the relationships between the biomass and the contents of the secondary metabolites were analyzed. The results showed that the parasitism significantly reduced the plant height, basal diameter, root length, root diameter, root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, total biomass, number of inflorescences branches, axis length of inflorescence, and number of inflorescence. In particular, plant height, number of inflorescence and the stem biomass of parasitized S. canadensis were only 1/2, 1/5 and 1/8 of non-parasitized plants, respectively. There was no significant difference of plant height, root length, stem biomass and total biomass between plants parasitized with high and low intensities. But the basal diameter, root volume, leaf biomass, root biomass, the number of inflorescences branches, axis length of inflorescence and number of inflorescence of S. canadensis parasitized with high intensity were significantly lower than those of plants parasitized with low intensity. The parasitism of C. australis significantly increased the tannins content in the root and the flavonoids content in the stem of S. canadensis. The biomass of S. canadensis was significantly negatively correlated with the tannin content in the root and the flavonoids content in the stem. These results indicated that the parasitism of C. australis could inhibit the growth of S. canadensis by changing the resources allocation patterns as well as reducing the resources obtained by S. canadensis.

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi facilitate the invasion of Solidago canadensis L. in southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruyi; Zhou, Gang; Zan, Shuting; Guo, Fuyu; Su, Nannan; Li, Jing

    2014-11-01

    The significance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the process of plant invasion is still poorly understood. We hypothesize that invasive plants would change local AMF community structure in a way that would benefit themselves but confer less advantages to native plants, thus influencing the extent of plant interactions. An AMF spore community composed of five morphospecies of Glomus with equal density (initial AMF spore community, I-AMF) was constructed to test this hypothesis. The results showed that the invasive species, Solidago canadensis, significantly increased the relative abundance of G. geosperum and G. etunicatum (altered AMF spore community, A-AMF) compared to G. mosseae, which was a dominant morphospecies in the monoculture of native Kummerowia striata. The shift in AMF spore community composition driven by S. canadensis generated functional variation between I-AMF and A-AMF communities. For example, I-AMF increased biomass and nutrient uptake of K. striata in both monocultures and mixtures of K. striata and S. canadensis compared to A-AMF. In contrast, A-AMF significantly enhanced root nitrogen (N) acquisition of S. canadensis grown in mixture. Moreover, mycorrhizal-mediated 15N uptake provided direct evidence that I-AMF and A-AMF differed in their affinities with native and invading species. The non-significant effect of A-AMF on K. striata did not result from allelopathy as root exudates of S. canadensis exhibited positive effects on seed germination and biomass of K. striata under naturally occurring concentrations. When considered together, we found that A-AMF facilitated the invasion of S. canadensis through decreasing competitiveness of the native plant K. striata. The results supported our hypothesis and can be used to improve our understanding of an ecosystem-based perspective towards exotic plant invasion.

  7. Protocolo para la micropropagación de Furcraea macrophylla Baker

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    Martínez María A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Del género Furcraea hacen parte especies textiles de gran importancia en los mercados nacionales e internacionales, tanto por las características de la fibra como por el contenido de precursores de hormonas, corticoides, azúcares, ácidos grasos y biopesticidas que se encuentran en sus jugos. En esta investigación se desarrolló un protocolo para la micropropagación de Furcraea macrophylla B. a partir de ápices caulinares procedentes de bulbillos. Los cultivos in vitro se realizaron en medio MS modificado y suplementado con BA, TDZ, KIN y 2-IP en forma individual o en combinación con 2,69 μM de ANA. Después de 12 semanas de iniciados los cultivos, en la mayoría de los tratamientos ensayados los explantes desarrollaron brotes axilares. 100% de los brotes producidos enraizaron después de 30 d en medio MS modificado suplementado con  11,42 μM de AIA, con 2,46 μM de AIB o en ausencia de reguladores de crecimiento. Después de la etapa de endurecimiento, 94% de las plántulas sobrevivieron en condiciones ex vitro. El protocolo establecido para la  micropropagación de F. macrophylla es un procedimiento efectivo con el que se podría suplir la demanda comercial de material vegetal seleccionado, en óptimo estado fitosanitario, en periodos relativamente  cortos y a bajos costos.

  8. Phytotoxic potential of Onopordum acanthium L. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Novaes, Paula; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-08-01

    Onopordum acanthium L. (Asteraceae) is a plant native to southern Europe and southwestern Asia, but it is invasive in disturbed areas and agricultural fields around the world, causing many agronomic problems by interfering with crops or preventing animals from grazing on pastures. Allelopathy could be one of the reasons that this plant has spread over different continents. The aim of the present study was to bioprospect O. acanthium leaf extracts through the isolation and purification of allelopathic secondary metabolites with phytotoxicity to explain their invasive behavior. Phytotoxic activity was tested using etiolated wheat coleoptiles. The most active extract was selected to perform a bioassay-guided isolation of two flavonoids, pectolarigenin (1) and scutellarein 4'-methyl ether (2), and two sesquiterpene lactones, elemanolide 11(13)-dehydromelitensin β-hydroxyisobutyrate (3) and acanthiolide (4). All compounds were isolated for the first time from O. acanthium, and acanthiolide (4) is described for the first time. Compound 3 strongly inhibited the growth of wheat coleoptiles and 1 showed an intermediate effect. The results indicate that these compounds could contribute to the invasion of O. acanthium in ecological systems and agricultural fields. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  9. Verifying the geographic origin of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) with DNA-fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, B; Ward, S E; Lemes, M R; Navarro, C; Cavers, S; Sebbenn, A M

    2013-01-01

    Illegal logging is one of the main causes of ongoing worldwide deforestation and needs to be eradicated. The trade in illegal timber and wood products creates market disadvantages for products from sustainable forestry. Although various measures have been established to counter illegal logging and the subsequent trade, there is a lack of practical mechanisms for identifying the origin of timber and wood products. In this study, six nuclear microsatellites were used to generate DNA fingerprints for a genetic reference database characterising the populations of origin of a large set of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) samples. For the database, leaves and/or cambium from 1971 mahogany trees sampled in 31 stands from Mexico to Bolivia were genotyped. A total of 145 different alleles were found, showing strong genetic differentiation (δ(Gregorious)=0.52, F(ST)=0.18, G(ST(Hedrick))=0.65) and clear correlation between genetic and spatial distances among stands (r=0.82, P<0.05). We used the genetic reference database and Bayesian assignment testing to determine the geographic origins of two sets of mahogany wood samples, based on their multilocus genotypes. In both cases the wood samples were assigned to the correct country of origin. We discuss the overall applicability of this methodology to tropical timber trading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic diversity in mesoamerican populations of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), assessed using RAPDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, A C; Navarro, C; Lowe, A J; Newton, A C; Hernández, M; Wilson, J; Cornelius, J P

    1999-12-01

    Swietenia macrophylla King, a timber species native to tropical America, is threatened by selective logging and deforestation. To quantify genetic diversity within the species and monitor the impact of selective logging, populations were sampled across Mesoamerica, from Mexico to Panama, and analysed for RAPD DNA variation. Ten decamer primers generated 102 polymorphic RAPD bands and pairwise distances were calculated between populations according to Nei, then used to construct a radial neighbour-joining dendrogram and examine intra- and interpopulation variance coefficients, by analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA). Populations from Mexico clustered closely together in the dendrogram and were distinct from the rest of the populations. Those from Belize also clustered closely together. Populations from Panama, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Honduras, however, did not cluster closely by country but were more widely scattered throughout the dendrogram. This result was also reflected by an autocorrelation analysis of genetic and geographical distance. Genetic diversity estimates indicated that 80% of detected variation was maintained within populations and regression analysis demonstrated that logging significantly decreased population diversity (P = 0.034). This study represents one of the most wide-ranging surveys of molecular variation within a tropical tree species to date. It offers practical information for the future conservation of mahogany and highlights some factors that may have influenced the partitioning of genetic diversity in this species across Mesoamerica.

  11. Effect of substrates for in vitro germination of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lameira, Osmar Alves; Da Cunha Lopes, Sebastião; Martins Leão, Noemi Vianna; Castro Coimbra Cordeiro, Iracema Maria; Sousa Reis, Lana Roberta

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to verify the effect of substrates and different light conditions and temperature on in vitro germination of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) seeds for the production of explants for the initialprocess of micropropagation. In the first experiment the seeds were inoculatedintwosubstrates: 7gL -1 agar and vermiculite,maintained at temperature of 25±1°C with photoperiod of 16 hours and 52 mmol m -2 s -1 irradiance. MS medium supplementedwith sucrose (10; 20; and 30g L -1 ) was used. For the second experiment the seeds were submitted to light conditions (presence and absence)and temperature (25 and 30 °C) and inoculated in MS medium supplementedwith 30g L -1 sucrose +vermiculite. The vermiculite was more efficient than agar as substrate for the in vitro seed germination of mahogany. The MS medium, supplemented with 30g L -1 sucrose + vermiculite, was more efficient for the in vitro seed germination of mahogany. The temperatures of 25 and 30 °C independent of the presence or absence of light had no influence in the number and time for the in vitro germination of these seeds. (author) [pt

  12. The Root Extract of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. Alleviates Cardiac Apoptosis in Lupus Prone Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yang Huang

    Full Text Available The roots of the perennial herb Gentiana macrophylla Pall. (GM are known as Qinjiao, which has been used for centuries to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. However, little is known about the effects of GM on cholesterol-aggravated cardiac abnormalities in SLE, and the mechanisms thereof. This study investigates whether GM exhibits anti-apoptotic effects, focusing on the left ventricle (LV of NZB/W F1 mice fed with high-cholesterol diet. The morphology and apoptotic status of ventricular tissues were determined by microscopy and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay. Levels of apoptotic biomarkers were determined by immunoblotting. The results thus obtained revealed that GM significantly reduced the cholesterol-aggravated apoptosis of LV in NZB/W F1 mice by suppressing both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Additionally, GM significantly increased the cardiac insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 survival signaling and anti-apoptotic proteins in LV tissues. Accordingly, GM is considered to be beneficial in alleviating cholesterol-aggravated cardiac damage in SLE, and therefore constitute an alternative treatment for SLE patients with cardiac abnormalities.

  13. Mechanical Properties of Mahogany (Swietenia Macrophylla and Araba (Ceiba Pentandra Dusts Reinforced Polyester Composites

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    Isiaka Oluwole OLADELE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of the reinforcement efficiency of hardwood and softwood dusts on the mechanical properties of polyester composites was investigated. Chemical treatment of the wood saw dusts were also carried out in order to further consider the possibility of surface modification of the saw dusts. Mahogany (Swietenia Macrophylla, a species of hard wood and Araba (Ceiba Pentandra, a species of soft wood saw dusts were selected and treated with a mixture of 1.0 M of NaOH and HCl at elevated temperature of 70°C for 3 hours followed by washing with distilled water and sieving before sun drying. The dried wood saw dusts was further oven dried at 60°C for 1 hour and pulverized with laboratory ball mill before being sieved with a mesh of grain size of 150 µm. The composites were produced by mixing the particulate fibres and the polyester matrix in predetermined proportions. Mechanical tests were carried out on the cured samples in order to determine properties such as: tensile, hardness and flexural. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM was used to observe the miscibility or otherwise between the fibre and matrix at the fractured surfaces. From the analysis, treated hardwood saw dust samples gave possess better tensile properties while soft wood saw dusts in the treated and untreated reinforced composites produced the best results in flexural. The hardness result revealed a marginal improvement in the untreated hardwood dust sample.

  14. Functional characterization of Citrus macrophylla BOR1 as a boron transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañon, Paola; Aquea, Felipe; Rodríguez-Hoces de la Guardia, Amparo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2013-11-01

    Plants have evolved to develop an efficient system of boron uptake and transport using a range of efflux carriers named BOR proteins. In this work we isolated and characterized a boron transporter of citrus (Citrus macrophylla), which was named CmBOR1 for its high homology to AtBOR1. CmBOR1 has 4403 bp and 12 exons. Its coding region has 2145 bp and encodes for a protein of 714 amino acids. CmBOR1 possesses the molecular features of BORs such as an anion exchanger domain and the presence of 10 transmembrane domains. Functional analysis in yeast indicated that CmBOR1 has an efflux boron transporter activity, and transformants have increased tolerance to excess boron. CmBOR1 is expressed in leaves, stem and flowers and shows the greatest accumulation in roots. The transcript accumulation was significantly increased under boron deficiency conditions in shoots. In contrast, the accumulation of the transcript did not change in boron toxicity conditions. Finally, we observed that constitutive expression of CmBOR1 was able to increase tolerance to boron deficiency conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that CmBOR1 is a xylem loading boron transporter. Based on these results, it was determined that CmBOR1 encodes a boric acid/borate transporter involved in tolerance to boron deficiency in plants. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. and Antioxidant Activity of Endophytic Fungi from Mahogoni Plant (Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J Dompeipen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a degenerative disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to insulin insulin deficiency either absoluteor relative. This study was conducted to isolate endophytic fungi from plant twigs mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King which active as antidiabetic and antioxidant. Antidiabetic activity conducted by using the α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activity using free radical reduction method with reagent 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Isolation of microbes conducted in the media Corn Meal Malt Agar (CMMA and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA which 7 isolates of fungus in total. Inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase to extract the filtrate and biomass of the isolates A.Sm.2F (72.59 and 92.22%, A.Sm.3F (81.87 and 79.37%, B.Sm.1F (63.40 and 98.84%, B.Sm.2F (65.60 and 62.72%, B.Sm.3F (93.91 and 51.48%, B.Sm.4F (87.48 and 74.64% thus has potential as an antidiabetic activity. B.Sm.1F was the only isolates active as antioxidants with IC50 of 84.41.

  16. Phenology of Guarea macrophylla Vahl (Meliaceae in subtropical riparian forest in southern Brazil

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    A. Müller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Climate is one of the main factors that affect plant behavior. The phenology of Guarea macrophylla Vahl, which is a small tree used for reforestation of degraded areas, was monitored for 18 months in a riparian forest at the Schmidt Stream, Campo Bom, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Vegetative (leaf fall and leaf flushing and reproductive events were observed, with the latter divided into flowering (flower buds and anthesis and fruiting (unripe, ripening and ripe fruit. Phenological events were related to temperature, photoperiod and precipitation and their seasonality was verified by circular statistical analysis. Vegetative phenophases were continuous; they were not related to climate factors and presented low intensity, emphasizing the perennial aspect of the species. Flowering occurred during spring and summer. Both flower buds and anthesis were related to temperature and photoperiod. Fruiting was constant and went through all stages of development. Unripe fruits developed during the months with the lowest photoperiod and ripen more intensely in winter, on colder days. Ripe fruit became available for dispersal in spring, in times of longer photoperiod and higher temperatures. Except for leaf fall, all other phenological events showed seasonality in their manifestation. The one-month difference between the onsets of the flowering phases observed in this study indicated that local climate changes induced the early occurrence of this phenophase.

  17. Morphology and anatomy of the flower of Guarea kunthiana A. Juss. and Guarea macrophylla Vahl. (Meliaceae Morfo-anatomia da flor de Guarea kunthiana A. Juss. e de Guarea macrophylla Vahl. (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Souza

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Guarea kunthiana A. Juss. and G. macrophylla Vahl. belong to Meliaceae, an arboreal family that occurs in forest fragments in the Northwest of Paraná, Brazil. The flowering time for G. kunthiana is from November to December and for G. macrophylla is from September to November. Flowers of the species are unisexual and they present similar structure. The male flowers present pistillode and anthers with epidermis, endothecium, two median layers and binucleate secretory tapetum. The female flowers present antherode and pistil, whose stigma has secretory lateral portion, the style is solid and the ovary presents parenchymatous mesophyll and meristematic inner epidermis; the ovules are hemianatropous, bitegmic and crassinucelate. The flowers are nectar-secreting.Guarea kunthiana A. Juss. e G. macrophylla Vahl. são espécies pertencentes à família Meliaceae, de hábito arbóreo que ocorrem em remanescentes florestais da região noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A primeira floresce de novembro a dezembro e a segunda, de setembro a novembro. As flores das espécies são diclinas e apresentam semelhança estrutural. As flores masculinas têm pistilódio e anteras com epiderme, endotécio, duas camadas médias e tapete secretor com células binucleadas. As femininas apresentam anteródio e pistilo, cujo estigma tem porção secretora lateral; o estilete é sólido; o ovário apresenta mesofilo parenquimático e epiderme interna meristemática; os óvulos são hemianátropos, bitegumentados e crassinucelados. As flores são nectaríferas.

  18. Warionia (Asteraceae: a relict genus of Cichorieae?

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    Katinas, Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.El género Warionia, y su única especie, W. saharae, es endémico del noroeste del desierto africano del Sahara. Es una planta semejante a un cardo, aromática, con látex blanco y hojas carnosas, pinnatipartidas. Warionia es tan diferente de otros géneros de Asteraceae que fue ubicada en las tribus Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae y Mutisieae. Hasta ahora, no existía un estudio global de Warionia como contexto para discutir su posición taxonómica. Se ha investigado aquí su morfología, anatomía, palinología y n

  19. Cytotoxic activity of different polarity fractions obtained from methanolic extracts of Vismia baccifera and Vismia macrophylla (Hypericaceae collected in Venezuela

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    Janne del C. Rojas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cancer is a complex disease involving numerous changes in cell physiology and abnormal cell growth, which lead to malignant tumors. Many investigations are still carrying on in different areas including, natural products, to find a possible break point to this pathology. Aims: To evaluate the cytotoxic activity on different polar extracts from Vismia baccifera and Vismia macrophylla collected in two locations of the Venezuelan Andes. Methods: Cytotoxic activity assay was carried out following the colorimetric (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay. Human tumor cell Lines from breast carcinoma without gene over-expression (MCF-7, breast carcinoma with overexpressed gene (SKBr3, prostate carcinoma (PC3 and cervix epithelial carcinoma (HeLa were tested with different polarity solvent extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol, water from the two species under investigation. Human dermis fibroblasts were used as control cells. Mean inhibitory concentration (IC50 was calculated. Results: Extracts from V. macrophylla showed significant inhibition of cervix epithelial carcinoma with values ranging from 6.09 µg/mL to 17.51 µg/mL; breast carcinoma with an overexpressed gene with values from 12.14 µg/mL to 16.90 µg/mL and prostate carcinoma from 10.91 µg/mL to 17.70 µg/mL. V. baccifera extracts showed the strongest activity against prostate carcinoma with an IC50 value of 2.92 µg/mL. Conclusions: The present study showed evidence for the anticancer activity of Vismia baccifera and Vismia macrophylla extracts since caused growth inhibition in different cell lines at low concentrations, thus, it is considered not only an important contribution to the natural products research but bring supportive data for further investigations on cancer research.

  20. Avaliação das atividades antifúngica, antimicobacteriana e larvicida de Duroia macrophylla e D. saccifera

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    Ana Júlia Reis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa e objetivos: A vasta biodiversidade amazônica tem sido apontada como uma fonte de produtos naturais candidatos a diversas atividades farmacológicas, principalmente no combate a doenças infecciosas. Algumas espécies, tais como as pertencentes ao gênero Duroia, da família Rubiaceae, têm sido caracterizadas pela produção de metabólitos secundários com propriedades biológicas importantes, porém são escassos os estudos com espécies deste gênero. Desta forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicobacteriana, antifúngica e antiparasitária de extratos de D. macrophylla e D. saccifera. Métodos: Foram coletados materiais vegetais de D. macrophylla e D. saccifera na Reserva Florestal A. Ducke em Manaus- AM, a partir dos quais foram preparados extratos diclorometânico, metanólico e aquoso e determinada a concentração inibitória e concentração larvicida mínima. Resultados: No que diz respeito aos extratos de D. saccifera¸ o extrato diclorometânico dos galhos foi o mais ativo frente às espécies fúngicas e as cepas micobacterianas avaliadas. Por outro lado, o extrato metanólico e o diclorometânico das folhas de D. macrophylla, foram os mais ativos frente a Candida sp. e Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectivamente, porém, nenhum dos seis extratos avaliados apresentaram atividade antiparasitária frente a Toxocara canis. Conclusão: Esses resultados demonstram as propriedades antimicrobianas dessas plantas amazônicas para o desenvolvimento de novas alternativas terapêuticas no tratamento de doenças infecciosas, tais como a tuberculose e candidíase.

  1. EL ÁCIDO ABSCÍSICO ACELERA EL DESARROLLO FLORAL DE SOLIDAGO EN DÍAS CORTOS ABSCISIC ACID SPEED UP FLORAL DEVELOPMENT OF SOLIDAGO UNDER SHORT DAYS

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    Víctor Julio Flórez Roncancio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Solidago x luteus (M. L. Greene Broulliet y Semple (= x Solidaster hybridus, x S. luteus es una planta que responde a días cortos (DC para el desarrollo floral. En este proceso se ha establecido la participación de varias fitohormonas, entre éstas, la presencia del ácido abscísico (ABA en zonas y periodos específicos durante el desarrollo de la flor lo cual sugiere su acción promotora en la velocidad de antesis floral de esta especie en DC. En este trabajo se buscaron nuevos indicios de la participación de fitohormonas presentes en la fracción ácida con el proceso de floración. En una primera etapa, extractos foliares provenientes de hojas de plantas en días largos (caracterizadas por menor velocidad de antesis floral se aplicaron en botones florales de plantas en días cortos (caracterizadas por una mayor velocidad de antesis floral. Se realizaron ocho aplicaciones con diferentes frecuencias totalizando un periodo de tratamiento de 25 días. Los resultados mostraron que las sustancias presentes en los extractos de la fracción ácida, no alteran la velocidad promedio de antesis floral en los botones florales de plantas en DC. En la segunda etapa del experimento, la cuantificación de los extractos por ELISA, permitió establecer una mayor concentración de ABA en los extractos de hojas y de botones florales de plantas en DC y de botones florales en el inicio del tratamiento. Estos resultados confirman la relación del ABA con la mayor velocidad de antesis floral en plantas de Solidago x luteus en condiciones de DC.Solidago x luteus (M.L. Greene Broulliet & Semple (= x Solidaster hybridus, x S. luteus is a plant that respond to short days (SD for flower development. In this process, there has been established the involvement of many phytohormones, between these, the presence of the abscisic acid (ABA in zones and specific periods during flower development, suggests its promoter roll on the floral anthesis period of this species under

  2. Structural studies of chemical constituents of Thithonia Tagetiflora Desv (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngoc Huynh, Vinh; Nguyen Thi Hoai, Thu; Phi Phung Nguyen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Tithonia tagetiflora Desv. (Asteraceae) is a widespread plant in Vietnam, and the species of Tithonia are known as plants containing many biologically active compounds. However, T. tagetiflora's chemical composition remains mostly unknown. Therefore, we now report the structural elucidation of tw...

  3. Pharmacognostical study of achenes of some plants from Asteraceae family

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    Y.O. Bychkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper are represented morphological studies on determination of weight of 1000 achenes, and sieve analysis of fruits of some plants from Asteraceae family (Arctium lappa L., Leuzea carthamoides (Willd. D.C, Inula helenium L., Echinacea purpurea Moench., Calendula officinalis L.. Lipid, alcohol-soluble and water-soluble complexes in fruits of C. officinalis were studied.

  4. Cytogeography and chromosome evolution of subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Stewart C. Sanderson

    1999-01-01

    The subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) is composed of 11 species of various taxonomic and geographic complexities. It is centered on Artemisia tridentata with its three widespread common subspecies and two more geographically confined ones. Meiotic chromosome counts on pollen mother cells...

  5. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  6. The Anthelmintic Activity of Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal worms affect a host of individuals resulting in malnutrition, stunted growth, intellectual retardation and cognitive deficits. The aim of this study is to investigate the antihelminthic activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae) and Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae) using earth-worms (Lumbricus terretris).

  7. Taxonomic position and identity of Stenocephalum monticola (Vernonieae, Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dematteis, M.; Angulo, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Stenocephalum (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) includes six South American species that have cylindrical heads, 4–11 florets by capitula, cymose inflorescences and type ‘C’ pollen. Until now, Stenocephalum monticola has been considered as a synonym of S. apiculatum. However, the analysis of the

  8. Taxonomic novelties in Mikania (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) from Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges, R.A.X.; Forzza, R.C.; Fraga, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    During studies of Brazilian Atlantic Forest Asteraceae, a new species and a replacement name were determined: Mikania amorimii from Bahia State and Mikania capixaba from Espírito Santo State. The former is a new species related to M. ternata but distinct by its leaves, involucral bracts and cypsela

  9. Biochemical Conservation and Evolution of Germacrene A Oxidase in Asteraceae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Don Trinh; Göpfert, Jens Christian; Ikezawa, Nobuhiro; MacNevin, Gillian; Kathiresan, Meena; Conrad, Jürgen; Spring, Otmar; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2010-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic natural products in Asteraceae, which constitutes ∼8% of all plant species. Despite their physiological and pharmaceutical importance, the biochemistry and evolution of sesquiterpene lactones remain unexplored. Here we show that germacrene A oxidase (GAO), evolutionarily conserved in all major subfamilies of Asteraceae, catalyzes three consecutive oxidations of germacrene A to yield germacrene A acid. Furthermore, it is also capable of oxidizing non-natural substrate amorphadiene. Co-expression of lettuce GAO with germacrene synthase in engineered yeast synthesized aberrant products, costic acids and ilicic acid, in an acidic condition. However, cultivation in a neutral condition allowed the de novo synthesis of a single novel compound that was identified as germacrene A acid by gas and liquid chromatography and NMR analyses. To trace the evolutionary lineage of GAO in Asteraceae, homologous genes were further isolated from the representative species of three major subfamilies of Asteraceae (sunflower, chicory, and costus from Asteroideae, Cichorioideae, and Carduoideae, respectively) and also from the phylogenetically basal species, Barnadesia spinosa, from Barnadesioideae. The recombinant GAOs from these genes clearly showed germacrene A oxidase activities, suggesting that GAO activity is widely conserved in Asteraceae including the basal lineage. All GAOs could catalyze the three-step oxidation of non-natural substrate amorphadiene to artemisinic acid, whereas amorphadiene oxidase diverged from GAO displayed negligible activity for germacrene A oxidation. The observed amorphadiene oxidase activity in GAOs suggests that the catalytic plasticity is embedded in ancestral GAO enzymes that may contribute to the chemical and catalytic diversity in nature. PMID:20351109

  10. Macroevolutionary dynamics in the early diversification of Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panero, Jose L; Crozier, Bonnie S

    2016-06-01

    Spatial and temporal differences in ecological opportunity can result in disparity of net species diversification rates and consequently uneven distribution of taxon richness across the tree of life. The largest eudicotyledonous plant family Asteraceae has a global distribution and at least 460 times more species than its South American endemic sister family Calyceraceae. In this study, diversification rate dynamics across Asteraceae are examined in light of the several hypothesized causes for the family's evolutionary success that could be responsible for rate change. The innovations of racemose capitulum and pappus, and a whole genome duplication event occurred near the origin of the family, yet we found the basal lineages of Asteraceae that evolved in South America share background diversification rates with Calyceraceae and their Australasian sister Goodeniaceae. Instead we found diversification rates increased gradually from the origin of Asteraceae approximately 69.5Ma in the late Cretaceous through the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum at least. In contrast to earlier studies, significant rate shifts were not strongly correlated with intercontinental dispersals or polyploidization. The difference is due primarily to sampling more backbone nodes, as well as calibrations placed internally in Asteraceae that resulted in earlier divergence times than those found in most previous relaxed clock studies. Two clades identified as having transformed rate processes are the Vernonioid Clade and a clade within the Heliantheae alliance characterized by phytomelanic fruit (PF Clade) that represents an American radiation. In Africa, subfamilies Carduoideae, Pertyoideae, Gymnarrhenoideae, Cichorioideae, Corymbioideae, and Asteroideae diverged in a relatively short span of only 6.5millionyears during the Middle Eocene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PENGOLAHAN BIJI MAHONI (Swietenia Macrophylla King SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU ALTERNATIF BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrilia Damayanti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan kebutuhan minyak bumi yang terus menerus akan mengakibatkan kelangkaan bahan bakar minyak. Sumber energi alternatif yang ramah lingkungan, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Bahan baku potensial untuk memproduksi biodiesel yang tidak bersaing dengan bahan baku pangan contohnya adalah biji mahoni (swietenia macrophylla king. Tahapan yang diperlukan dalam percobaan biodiesel adalah proses pengambilan minyak biji mahoni dengan proses penyangraian, degumming, dan proses transesterifikasi. Alat yang diperlukan dalam pembuatan biodiesel yaitu: labu alas bulat dilengkapi kondensor, gelas ukur, pengaduk magnetik, alat-alat gelas lab, dan lain sebagainya. Proses pengambilan minyak dilakukan dengan penyangraian yang hasilnya di degumming dengan asam fosfat 5% b/b pada suhu 80ºC selama 15 menit. Degumming bertujuan untuk menghilangkan getah, lendir, protein, resin dan gum. Proses kedua yaitu transesterifikasi dengan metanol 1:6 (minyak dan mtanol dengan KOH 0,1 N pada suhu 60ºC selama 1 jam. Setelah diperoleh metil ester, dilakukan proses pencucian atau penetralan metil ester pada suhu pemanasan 104ºC untuk menghilangkan kadar airnya. Dari hasil percobaan diperoleh rendemen minyak sebesar 86,92%, uji densitas 874,08 kg/m³, viskositas 3,07 mm2/s, dan bilangan asam 0,5601 mg KOH/g. Metil ester yang dihasilkan telah sesuai dengan SNI-04-7182-2006. An increased demand of the fossil fuel would lead to scarcity of the fossil fuel in the future. An alternative of environmentally friendly energy sources is biodiesel. It is accounted that the resources for producing biodiesel should not compete with food raw materials, such as mahogany grain, (swietenia macrophylla king. The necessary steps in the experiment of producing biodiesel are process of taking the mahogany seed-oil by using roasting method, degumming, and transesterification process. The required equipments for producing biodiesel were round-bottom flask equipped with condenser

  12. (+)-(10R)-Germacrene A synthase from goldenrod, Solidago canadensis; cDNA isolation, bacterial expression and functional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Ian; Phillips, Andy L; Gittings, Simon; Lewis, Mervyn J; Hooper, Antony M; Pickett, John A; Beale, Michael H

    2002-08-01

    Profiling of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in extracts of goldenrod, Solidago canadensis, by GC-MS revealed the presence of both enantiomers of germacrene D and lesser amounts of germacrene A, alpha-humulene, and beta-caryophyllene. A similarity-based cloning strategy using degenerate oligonucleotide primers, based on conserved amino acid sequences in known plant sesquiterpene synthases and RT-PCR, resulted in the isolation of a full length sesquiterpene synthase cDNA. Functional expression of the cDNA in E. coli, as an N-terminal thioredoxin fusion protein using the pET32b vector yielded an enzyme that was readily purified by nickel-chelate affinity chromatography. Chiral GC-MS analysis of products from of (3)H- and (2)H-labelled farnesyl diphosphate identified the enzyme as (+)-(10R)-germacrene A synthase. Sequence analysis and molecular modelling was used to compare this enzyme with the mechanistically related epi-aristolochene synthase from tobacco.

  13. Foliar potassium nitrate application improves the tolerance of Citrus macrophylla L. seedlings to drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, V; Díaz-López, L; Simón-Grao, S; Martínez, V; Martínez-Nicolás, J J; García-Sánchez, F

    2014-10-01

    Scarcity of water is a severe limitation in citrus tree productivity. There are few studies that consider how to manage nitrogen (N) nutrition in crops suffering water deficit. A pot experiment under controlled-environment chambers was conducted to explore if additional N supply via foliar application could improve the drought tolerance of Citrus macrophylla L. seedlings under dry conditions. Two-month-old seedlings were subjected to a completely random design with two water treatments (drought stress and 100% water/field capacity). Plants under drought stress (DS) received three different N supplies via foliar application (DS: 0, DS + NH4NO3: 2% NH4NO3, DS + KNO3: 2% KNO3). KNO3-spraying increased leaf and stem DW as compared with DS + NH4NO3 and DS treatments. Leaf water potential (Ψw) was decreased by drought stress in all the treatments. However, in plants from DS + NH4NO and DS + KNO3, this was due to a decrease in the leaf osmotic potential, whereas the decrease in those from the DS treatment was due to a decrease in the leaf turgor potential. These responses were correlated with the leaf proline and K concentrations. DS + KNO3-treated plants had a higher leaf proline and K concentration than DS-treated plants. In terms of leaf gas exchange parameters, it was observed that net assimilation of CO2 [Formula: see text] was decreased by drought stress, but this reduction was much lower in DS + KNO3-treated plants. Thus, when all results are taken into account, it can be concluded that a 2% foliar-KNO3 application can enhance the tolerance of citrus plants to water stress by increasing the osmotic adjustment process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Phytochemical Evaluation, Antioxidant Activity and Toxicity of Paeonia daurica ssp. macrophylla Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyde Nargess Sadati Lamardi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Paeonia daurica ssp. macrophylla, is an herbaceous and perennial plant which belongs to Paeoniaceae family. Two species of this plant grow in northern parts of Iran. The roots in powder form have been used in Persian traditional medicine for treatment of epilepsy, nightmares and gynecological diseases. Several biological activities such as antioxidant and anti-tumor effects of Paeonia species have been reported. Methods: methanol-water (80-20 extract (total extract was fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. Antioxidant activity of the total extract and fractions were evaluated using DPPH and FRAP assays. Total phenolics content of the extracts was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. In addition, cytotoxic activity of the fractions was determined against brine shrimp larvae. Column chromatography with normal phase silica gel and preparative TLC were also used for the isolation and purification of compounds. Results: Evaluation of the results indicated that the ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions with IC50 values of 16.55, 23.9 µg/mL, respectively showed potent radical scavenging activity. As well, the ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions indicated the highest antioxidant power by FRAP assay. Due to the potent antioxidant activity, the chloroform fraction was chosen for further investigations. Three compounds were identified as benzoic acid, veratric acid and oleanolic acid by different spectroscopic methods. Conclusion: According to our findings in this study, the root of Paeonia daurica ssp. macrophyla has beneficial antioxidant activity without toxicity and the therapeutic use of this plant in traditional medicine can be somewhat justifiable.

  15. PROPAGACIÓN CLONAL in vitro DE Swietenia macrophylla King (CAOBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Susana Carranza Patiño

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available La caoba (Swietenia macrophylla es una especie forestal maderable de múltiples usos, apreciada por su dureza, resistencia, belleza y calidad. La explotación intensiva y un inadecuado sistema de aprovechamiento de la especie han ocasionado la disminución de la variabilidad genética, haciendo imposible la aplicación de programas de mejoramiento genético de caoba en el Ecuador. El cultivo in vitro es una técnica que ayudaría a disminuir este problema mediante la producción de plantas con alta robustez genética. El objetivo de esta investigación fue establecer un método que facilite la propagación in vitro de caoba a partir de segmentos nodales, empleados en la fase de establecimiento con diferentes concentraciones de Ca(ClO2 y tiempos de exposición. La contaminación por microorganismos fue controlada con 15 g de Ca(ClO2 durante 20 min, alcanzando el 95% de sobrevivencia. Los explantes sanos fueron transferidos a un medio de cultivo MS/2 con distintos niveles de bencilaminopurina (BAP y ácido indolbutírico (AIB para su multiplicación in vitro, obteniéndose 70% de brotes con 2 mg L-1 de BAP en combinación con 1 mg L-1 de AIB. Los mejores brotes de la fase de multiplicación se colocaron en medio de cultivo MS/2 con diferentes concentraciones de ANA para facilitar su enraizamiento, ninguno de los tratamientos ensayados permitió generar raíces a los 21 días de su evaluación, aunque el mayor porcentaje de sobrevivencia (65% se obtuvo al combinar 2 mg L-1 BAP + 1 mg L-1 ANA.

  16. Assays for the in vitro establishment of Swietenia macrophylla and Cedrela odorata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Pérez Flores

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Título en español: Ensayos para el establecimiento in vitro de Swietenia macrophylla y Cedrela odorata Abstract: Recalcitrance and contamination in Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King and Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata L. stem tissues are the main causes of its ineffective in vitro propagation. The objectives of this research were: a to evaluate sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and plant preservative mixture (PPM® as surface disinfectants and/or added to the culture medium for the in vitro establishment of nodal explants taken from 10-year-old Mahogany and Spanish cedar plants, and b to evaluate the in vitro response of such explants treated with N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP (0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8, 17.7 μM, silver nitrate (AgNO3 (0, 3 mg l-1, activated charcoal (0, 1 g l-1 and vented caps. All the experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design. The NaOCl at 15%, for 20 min, as a surface sterilization or PPM® at 2 ml l-1  into the culture medium, were the best treatments to reduce contamination for both species. For Mahogany explants, BAP at 17.7 μM resulted in higher percentages of bud breaks than Spanish cedar (64% and 25%, respectively. Leaves on elongated shoots dropped off by 20 days after starting the explants in culture and neither the activated charcoal nor the AgNO3 alone or combined prevented leaf abscission. The AgNO3 decreased contamination, but also increased leaf abscission. Bud breaks was two-fold higher for nodal explants established in vessels with vented caps than with normal caps. Mahogany nodal explants were easier to surface sterilize and more buds broke from BAP treated explants than Spanish cedar treated explants in the in vitro establishment. Key words: Spanish cedar, Mahogany, Mature plants, Surface sterilization, in vitro response Resumen: La contaminación y la recalcitrancia de tejidos de tallo de Caoba (Swietenia macrophylla King y Cedro español (Cedrela odorata L. son las causas principales de su inefectiva

  17. Assays for the in vitro establishment of Swietenia macrophylla and Cedrela odorata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Pérez Flores

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Título en español: Ensayos para el establecimiento in vitro de Swietenia macrophylla y Cedrela odorata Abstract: Recalcitrance and contamination in Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King and Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata L. stem tissues are the main causes of its ineffective in vitro propagation. The objectives of this research were: a to evaluate sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and plant preservative mixture (PPM® as surface disinfectants and/or added to the culture medium for the in vitro establishment of nodal explants taken from 10-year-old Mahogany and Spanish cedar plants, and b to evaluate the in vitro response of such explants treated with N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP (0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8, 17.7 μM, silver nitrate (AgNO3 (0, 3 mg l-1, activated charcoal (0, 1 g l-1 and vented caps. All the experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design. The NaOCl at 15%, for 20 min, as a surface sterilization or PPM® at 2 ml l-1  into the culture medium, were the best treatments to reduce contamination for both species. For Mahogany explants, BAP at 17.7 μM resulted in higher percentages of bud breaks than Spanish cedar (64% and 25%, respectively. Leaves on elongated shoots dropped off by 20 days after

  18. Evaluation of plasma H2S levels and H2S synthesis in streptozotocin induced Type-2 diabetes-an experimental study based on Swietenia macrophylla seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Dutta

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Although considering a small sample size, it can conclude that the fasting blood glucose levels are inversely related to plasma H2S levels as well as H2S synthesis activity in plasma and the extract of S. macrophylla is associated with increased plasma H2S levels with effective lowering of blood glucose in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  19. Growth response by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) advance seedling regeneration to overhead canopy release in southeast Pará, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Grogana; R. Matthew Landisc; Mark S. Ashtona; Jurandir Galva˜od

    2005-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) is a valuable neotropical timber species whose seedling survival and growth dynamics in natural forests are poorly understood. To document regeneration dynamics of mahogany in seasonal transitional evergreen forests of southeast Pará, Brazil, we followed naturally established seedlings in the forest understory...

  20. Growth history and crown vine coverage are principal factors influencing growth and mortality rates of big-leaf mahogany Swietenia macrophylla in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Grogan; R. Matthew Landis

    2009-01-01

    1. Current efforts to model population dynamics of high-value tropical timber species largely assume that individual growth history is unimportant to population dynamics, yet growth autocorrelation is known to adversely affect model predictions. In this study, we analyse a decade of annual census data from a natural population of big-leaf mahogany Swietenia macrophylla...

  1. Preparative Separation of Six Rhynchophylla Alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla Wall by pH-Zone Refining Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available pH-Zone refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to the preparative isolation and purification of six alkaloids from the ethanol extracts of Uncaria macrophylla Wall. Because of the low content of alkaloids (about 0.2%, w/w in U. macrophylla Wall, the target compounds were enriched by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–isopropanol–water (2:6:3:9, v/v, adding 10 mM triethylamine in organic stationary phase and 5 mM hydrochloric acid in aqueous mobile phase. Then pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using the other two-phase solvent system was used for final purification. Six target compounds were finally isolated and purified by following two-phase solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE–acetonitrile–water (4:0.5:5, v/v, adding triethylamine (TEA (10 mM to the organic phase and HCl (5 mM to aqueous mobile phase. The separation of 2.8 g enriched total alkaloids yielded 36 mg hirsutine, 48 mg hirsuteine, 82 mg uncarine C, 73 mg uncarine E, 163 mg rhynchophylline, and 149 mg corynoxeine, all with purities above 96% as verified by HPLC Their structures were identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS and 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

  2. Acute toxicity profiling of the ethyl acetate fraction of Swietenia macrophylla seeds and in-vitro neuroprotectio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustak Sayyad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla (SM is a medicinally important plant found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The ethyl acetate fraction of the seeds of S. macrophylla (SMEAF is reported to exhibit potent anticancer, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antifeedant activities. Till date, there have been no studies reported on the acute oral toxicity profile of the ethyl acetate fraction of the seeds of SM. The objective of the present study was to determine the acute toxicity of SMEAF and evaluate the in-vitro neuroprotective activity of SMEAF using primary neuronal cell cultures. In acute oral toxicity study, the SMEAF did not produce any lethal signs of morbidity and mortality. Histo-pathological findings, support the safety of SMEAF, as there were no significant changes observed in any of the parameters studied. Based on the results obtained in MTT assay, we infer that SMEAF has a significant neuroprotective effect, as it increased the cell viability and exhibited protection to the neuronal cells against TBHP induced oxidative stress. Thus, SMEAF can be suggested for use in the development of herbal drug formulations with neuroprotective potential.

  3. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Vismia macrophylla leaves and fruits collected in Táchira-Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Alexis; Rojas, Janne; Rojas, Luis; Velasco, Judith; Morales, Antonio; Peñaloza, Yonel; Díaz, Clara

    2015-02-01

    Hydrodistillation of Vismia macrophylla Kunth (Hypericaceae) leaves (L) and fruits (F) yielded 1.3%, v/w, and 5.6%, v/w, of essential oil, respectively. GC and GC-MS analyses showed the presence of twenty-four (96.4%, L) and thirty-one (96.6%, F) components, respectively. Major compounds identified in the leaf oil were γ-bisabolene (44.4%) and β-bisabolol (14.9%), while those in the fruit oil were germacrene-D (12.1%), 6-cadinene (10.7%) and γ-bisabolene (22.3 %). Oil obtained from the fruits of V. macrophylla showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (S. aureus ATCC 25923 and E. faecalis ATCC 29212) as well as Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli ATCC 25922), with MIC values ranging from 150 μL/mL to 740 μL/mL. Oil obtained from leaves were active only on the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus (100 μL/mL) and E. faecalis (500 μL/mL), but also showed antiyeast activity against Candida albicans CDC-B385 and C. krusei ATCC 6258 (600 μL/mL, each).

  4. Preparative separation of six rhynchophylla alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla wall by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghai; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Aiqin

    2013-12-12

    pH-Zone refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to the preparative isolation and purification of six alkaloids from the ethanol extracts of Uncaria macrophylla Wall. Because of the low content of alkaloids (about 0.2%, w/w) in U. macrophylla Wall, the target compounds were enriched by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-isopropanol-water (2:6:3:9, v/v), adding 10 mM triethylamine in organic stationary phase and 5 mM hydrochloric acid in aqueous mobile phase. Then pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using the other two-phase solvent system was used for final purification. Six target compounds were finally isolated and purified by following two-phase solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-acetonitrile-water (4:0.5:5, v/v), adding triethylamine (TEA) (10 mM) to the organic phase and HCl (5 mM) to aqueous mobile phase. The separation of 2.8 g enriched total alkaloids yielded 36 mg hirsutine, 48 mg hirsuteine, 82 mg uncarine C, 73 mg uncarine E, 163 mg rhynchophylline, and 149 mg corynoxeine, all with purities above 96% as verified by HPLC Their structures were identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

  5. Solidago canadensis L essential oil vapor effectively inhibits Botrytis cinerea growth and preserves postharvest quality of strawberry as a food model system

    OpenAIRE

    Shumin Liu; Xingfeng Shao; Yanzhen Wei; Yonghua Li; Feng Xu; Hongfei Wang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-fungal properties of Solidago canadensis L essential oil (SCLEO) against Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits. SCLEO exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and profoundly altered mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, and membrane permeability as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. SCLEO vapo...

  6. Solidago canadensis L. Essential Oil Vapor Effectively Inhibits Botrytis cinerea Growth and Preserves Postharvest Quality of Strawberry as a Food Model System

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shumin; Shao, Xingfeng; Wei, Yanzhen; Li, Yonghua; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hongfei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-fungal properties of Solidago canadensis L. essential oil (SCLEO) against Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits. SCLEO exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and profoundly altered mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, and membrane permeability as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. SCLEO vap...

  7. NOTES FOR FLORA OF MATO GROSSO STATE: THE ASTERACEAE FAMILY

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    L. Cavalheiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposed work aimed to survey the Asteraceae species contained in the collection of the Herbarium UFMT for purposes of performing the preliminary version to compose the Flora of Mato Grosso State. Allied to this was held to update the number of species as well as the nomenclatural verification of all scientific names. Were found 150 species in 82 genera of which 33 are new records for the state and 16 are framed in IUCN categories. The species are distributed over all biomes: Cerrado, Pantanal and the Amazon forest, but the forest environment showed low number of samples, probably due to the difficulties of access by researchers. Finally, when we combine the analysis of the collection of UFMT to other herbaria that have herbarium collections in the state, we actually have a very real composition survey of Asteraceae for Mato Grosso State.

  8. Physiological and Molecular Responses to Excess Boron in Citrus macrophylla W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Quiñones, Ana; Ruiz, Marta; Iglesias, Domingo J; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Forner-Giner, M Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    This work provides insight into several mechanisms involved in boron (B) regulation pathway in response to high B conditions in Citrus. The study was carried out in Citrus macrophylla W. (Cm) seedlings cultured "in vitro" in media with 50 or 400 μM H3BO3 (control, Ct, and B-excess, +B, plants, respectively). Growth parameters, B concentration, leaf chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, the expression of the main putative genes involved in B transport and distribution, and leaf and root proline and malonaldehyde (MDA) concentrations, were assessed. Excess B led to high B concentration in +B plants (3.8- and 1.4-fold in leaves and roots, respectively) when compared with Ct ones. However, a minor effect was recorded in the plant (incipient visual symptoms, less than 27% reduction in root growth and 26% decrease in Chl b concentration). B toxicity down-regulated by half the expression level of putative B transporter genes NIP5 and PIP1. CmBOR1 gene was not repressed in +B plants and B accumulated in the shoots. High B level increased the transcripts of putative gene TIP5, involved in B transport across the tonoplast, by 3.3- and 2.4-fold in leaves and roots, respectively. The activity of V-PPiase proton pump, related with the electrochemical gradient in the vacuole, was also enhanced in +B organs. B toxicity up-regulated putative BOR4 gene (2.1- and 2.7-fold in roots and leaves, respectively), which codifies for an active efflux B transporter. Accordingly, B was located in +B plants preferently in an insoluble form on cell walls. Finally, excess B caused a significant rise in proline concentration (51% and 34% in roots and leaves, respectively), while the MDA level did not exceed 20%. In conclusion, Cm tolerance to a high B level is likely based on the synergism of several specific mechanisms against B toxicity, including: 1/ down-regulation of NIP5 and PIP1 boron transporters; 2/ activation of B efflux from cells due to the up-regulation of putative BOR4 gene; 3

  9. Physiological and Molecular Responses to Excess Boron in Citrus macrophylla W.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Rus Martínez-Cuenca

    Full Text Available This work provides insight into several mechanisms involved in boron (B regulation pathway in response to high B conditions in Citrus. The study was carried out in Citrus macrophylla W. (Cm seedlings cultured "in vitro" in media with 50 or 400 μM H3BO3 (control, Ct, and B-excess, +B, plants, respectively. Growth parameters, B concentration, leaf chlorophyll (Chl concentration, the expression of the main putative genes involved in B transport and distribution, and leaf and root proline and malonaldehyde (MDA concentrations, were assessed. Excess B led to high B concentration in +B plants (3.8- and 1.4-fold in leaves and roots, respectively when compared with Ct ones. However, a minor effect was recorded in the plant (incipient visual symptoms, less than 27% reduction in root growth and 26% decrease in Chl b concentration. B toxicity down-regulated by half the expression level of putative B transporter genes NIP5 and PIP1. CmBOR1 gene was not repressed in +B plants and B accumulated in the shoots. High B level increased the transcripts of putative gene TIP5, involved in B transport across the tonoplast, by 3.3- and 2.4-fold in leaves and roots, respectively. The activity of V-PPiase proton pump, related with the electrochemical gradient in the vacuole, was also enhanced in +B organs. B toxicity up-regulated putative BOR4 gene (2.1- and 2.7-fold in roots and leaves, respectively, which codifies for an active efflux B transporter. Accordingly, B was located in +B plants preferently in an insoluble form on cell walls. Finally, excess B caused a significant rise in proline concentration (51% and 34% in roots and leaves, respectively, while the MDA level did not exceed 20%. In conclusion, Cm tolerance to a high B level is likely based on the synergism of several specific mechanisms against B toxicity, including: 1/ down-regulation of NIP5 and PIP1 boron transporters; 2/ activation of B efflux from cells due to the up-regulation of putative BOR4 gene

  10. New species of Ophryosporus (Eupatorieae Asteraceae from Peru

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    Abundio Sagástegui Alva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ophryosporus marchii Sagást. & E. Rodr. is described as a new species of Ophryosporus Meyen (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae from the Department of Cajamarca, Peru. This new species is apparently endemic to the province of Contumaza and closest relative to O. sagasteguii H. Rob. It is critically compared with this species and data on its geographical distribution, ecology and conservation status are provided.

  11. Molecular evolution across the Asteraceae: micro- and macroevolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Nolan C; Barker, Michael S; Zhan, Shing H; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2011-12-01

    The Asteraceae (Compositae) is a large family of over 20,000 wild, weedy, and domesticated species that comprise approximately 10% of all angiosperms, including annual and perennial herbs, shrubs and trees, and species on every continent except Antarctica. As a result, the Asteraceae provide a unique opportunity to understand the evolutionary genomics of lineage radiation and diversification at numerous phylogenetic scales. Using publicly available expressed sequence tags from 22 species representing four of the major Asteraceae lineages, we assessed neutral and nonneutral evolutionary processes across this diverse plant family. We used bioinformatic tools to identify candidate genes under selection in each species. Evolution at silent and coding sites were assessed for different Gene Ontology functional categories to compare rates of evolution over both short and long evolutionary timescales. Our results indicate that patterns of molecular change across the family are surprisingly consistent on a macroevolutionary timescale and much more so more than would be predicted from the analysis of one (or many) examples of microevolution. These analyses also point to particular classes of genes that may be crucial in shaping the radiation of this diverse plant family. Similar analyses of nuclear and chloroplast genes in six other plant families confirm that many of these patterns are common features of the plant kingdom.

  12. Novedades sobre el género Pilosella Hill.: (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) en España, II

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Sanz, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Se comunica la presencia de diversas especies nuevas del género Pilosella Hill. (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) en España. Novelties on the genus Pilosella Hill (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) in Spain, II. Several species of Pilosella Hill (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) found in Spain.

  13. Antibacterial Effects of Afzelin Isolated from Cornus macrophylla on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, A Leading Cause of Illness in Immunocompromised Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yeol Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The crude ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of Cornus macrophylla showed antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a leading cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals. Bioactivity-guided separation led to the isolation of kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (afzelin. The structure was determined based on evaluation of its spectroscopic (UV, MS, and NMR data. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of afzelin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be 31 µg/mL. In addition, the results indicated that a hydroxyl group at C3 of the C-ring of the flavone skeleton and the rhamnose group may act as a negative factor and an enhancing factor, respectively, in the antibacterial activities of afzelin.

  14. Supercritical fluid chromatography for separation and preparation of tautomeric 7-epimeric spiro oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Yibei; Pan, Huiqin; Yao, Changliang; Hou, Jinjun; Yao, Shuai; Cai, Luying; Feng, Ruihong; Wu, Wanying; Guo, Dean

    2017-02-05

    Increasing challenge arising from configurational interconversion in aqueous solvent renders it rather difficult to isolate high-purity tautomeric reference standards and thus largely hinders the holistic quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Spiro oxindole alkaloids (SOAs), as the markers for the medicinal Uncaria herbs, can easily isomerize in polar or aqueous solvent via a retro-Mannich reaction. In the present study, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is utilized to separate and isolate two pairs of 7-epimeric SOAs, including rhynchophylline (R) and isorhynchophylline (IR), corynoxine (C) and corynoxine B (CB), from Uncaria macrophylla. Initially, the solvent that can stabilize SOA epimers was systematically screened, and acetonitrile was used to dissolve and as the modifier in SFC. Then, key parameters of ultra-high performance SFC (ultra-performance convergence chromatography, UPC 2 ), comprising stationary phase, additive in modifier, column temperature, ABPR pressure, and flow rate, were optimized in sequence. Two isocratic UPC 2 methods were developed on the achiral Torus 1-AA and Torus Diol columns, suitable for UV and MS detection, respectively. MCI gel column chromatography fractionated the U. macrophylla extract into two mixtures (R/IR and C/CB). Preparative SFC, using a Viridis Prep Silica 2-EP OBD column and acetonitrile-0.2% diethylamine in CO 2 as the mobile phase, was finally employed for compound purification. As a result, the purity of four SOA compounds was all higher than 95%. Different from reversed-phase HPLC, SFC, by use of water-free mobile phase (inert CO 2 and aprotic modifier), provides a solution to rapid analysis and isolation of tautomeric reference standards for quality control of TCM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Panorama de la familia Asteraceae (= Compositae en la Republica Argentina An overview of the plant family Asteraceae ( = Compositae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Katinas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un panorama de la familia Asteraceae en la República Argentina , que incluye una breve historia taxonómica, datos numéricos de tribus, géneros y especies, ejemplos de endemismos y daptaciones ecológicas y una reseña sobre la hipótesis del origen de la familia en Patagonia. En la Argentina, las asteráceas representan la familia más numerosa con 227 géneros (cinco son endémicos y ca. 1400 especies (92 son adventicias y 382 son endémicas. En términos de taxones nativos, se hallan representadas en nuestro país todas las tribus de Asteraceae excepto Inuleae (sensu Bremer. Las tribus Arctoteae y Calenduleae están representadas por taxones adventicios exclusivamente y Cardueae posee sólo una especie nativa. Barnadesieae y Mutisieae son las únicas tribus con géneros endémicos de Argentina y también presentan el porcentaje más alto de géneros y especies en el país en comparación con el resto de las tribus. El mayor número de especies nativas, endémicas y no endémicas, se da en las provincias fitogeográficas Altoandina y Patagónica. La tribu más representada en número de géneros es Heliantheae, y en número de especies nativas es Senecioneae.An overview of the family Asteraceae in Argentina that includes a brief taxonomic history, numerical data of tribes, genera and species, examples of endemisms and ecological adaptations, and a discussion on the hypothesis on the origin of the family in Patagonia is given. Asteraceae is the most numerous family in Argentina , with 227 genera (five are endemic and ca. 1400 species (92 are adventitious and 382 are endemic. In relation to the native taxa, all tribes of Asteraceae occur in Argentina excepting Inuleae (sensu Bremer. Tribes Arctoteae and Calenduleae are represented exclusively by adventitious taxa, and Cardueae has only one native species. Barnadesieae and Mutisieae are the only tribes with endemic genera in Argentina and they also present the highest percentage of

  16. The effects of size of opening in vegetation and litter cover on seedling establishment of goldenrods (Solidago spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Deborah E; Werner, Patricia A

    1983-11-01

    We investigated the effects of size of opening in the vegetation and litter cover on seedling establishment of two species of goldenrods (Solidago spp.) in an abandoned field in southwestern Michigan, U.S.A. Seeds of S. canadensis and S. juncea were sown into clipped plots, ranging from 0 cm (control, unclipped) to 100 cm in diameter, with and without litter. Seedling emergence, survival and growth were followed for one year. Soil moisture was not significantly different among the opening sizes, but, within a size, tended to be lower when litter was removed. Light intensity at the soil surface was positively related to opening size early in the growing season, but later in the growing season reached a maximum in intermediate-sized openings and then leveled off.Litter strongly inhibited seedling emergence in both species. Emergence of S. canadensis seedlings was lower in 0 and 10 cm openings than in the larger openings, while emergence of S. juncea seedlings was lower in the largest openings (100 cm) than in all the smaller openings. In contrast, seedling growth and probability of survival increased with diameter of opening for both species. Some seedlings of S. juncea did survive in complete vegetation cover (controls, 0 cm openings) while seedlings of S. canadensis survived only in openings of at least 30 cm diameter. Thus, S. juncea had a smaller minimum opening size for seedling establishment than S. canadensis, although both species grew and survived best in the largest openings made in the experiment.

  17. Variations of selected soil properties in the grass fields invaded and uninvaded by invasive goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranová Beáta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the invasion of exotic plants has been recognised as the serious cause of the biodiversity loss and natural habitats degradation and threat to the ecosystems functions, just the little attention has been paid to the potential impacts of the goldenrod invasion on the soil properties. Equally, currently obtained results are contrary and ambiguous. We tested whether the grass fields invaded and uninvaded by Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L. differ in pH, soil moisture, organic carbon (Cox, humus and P, K and Mg contents and related the variations to the chosen environmental variables. We did not find significant distinctions of the studied types of habitats in the selected physico-chemical soil properties as well as the relation between the goldenrod invasion and the changes in soil properties. Nevertheless, whereas the soil reaction, soil moisture and Mg content were higher in the invaded soils, the Cox, humus and P and K contents were higher in the uninvaded ones. Doubtless, further attention need to be paid to this problem.

  18. Antibacterial properties of extracts of Solidago canadensis and their potential use as dietary supplements in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manhong YE,Lei ZHANG,Jiaqi GE,Haifeng SUN,Jingjing NI,Shengmei YANG,Wanhong WEI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis is one of the most destructive invasive weeds in South-eastern China. To evaluate its potential application as dietary supplement in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, the antibacterial properties of aqueous and ethanol extracts of this plant against three major pathogenic bacteria in crayfish aquaculture were examined. Inhibition zone tests and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration revealed that the extracts had lower antibacterial activity than extracts from two traditional medicinal plants that possess antibacterial properties, garlic (Allium sativum and cortex phellodendri (Phellodendron chinense. However, they did exhibit greater antibacterial effects than extracts from another widely used medicinal plant, Sophora flavescens, and an aquatic weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides. Aqueous extracts of Canadian goldenrod gave greater inhibition than the ethanol extracts. Crayfish fed a diet with 2% these aqueous extracts exhibited significantly higher enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, catalase and phenoloxidase (P<0.05. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that aqueous extracts of Canadian goldenrod are highly promising for the development of new dietary supplement for use in crayfish aquaculture.

  19. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE EXTRACT OF THE BARKS OF Licania macrophylla BENTH: PHYTOCHEMICALS AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan da Silva Ramos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o perfil fitoquímico, físico-químico da espécie vegetal e determinar a toxicidade do extrato bruto etanólico de L. macrophylla Benth frente às larvas de Artemia salina L. A análise fitoquímica foi realizado por meio do extrato bruto etanólico das cascas do caule e a determinação físico-química foi realizada de acordo com a Farmacopeia Brasileira. As análises fitoquímicas detectaram a presença de saponinas, ácidos orgânicos, açúcares redutores, taninos, antraquinonas, depsídios e depsidonas. Em relação aos parâmetros físico-químicos a planta apresentou pH=4,64, pela ocorrência de saponinas, ácidos orgânicos e taninos; Lipídeos= 0,55% indica que o material vegetal apresenta poucos lipídios de baixo peso molecular; Umidade= 12,09%±0,12, o que relaciona a pouca quantidade de água, fator indispensável para a não ocorrência de desenvolvimento de microrganismo ou degradação enzimática. Os resíduos por incineração (cinzas da espécie se encontra dentro dos padrões farmacognósticos de 8,30%±0,54. O extrato bruto segundo o teste de toxicidade é atóxico com CL50=1253µg/mL, isto é, confirma-se a relação estabelecida entre a taxa de mortalidade e CL50 deve ser superior a 1000µg/mL para serem considerados atóxicos. As análises fitoquímicas confirmaram em parte a utilização da espécie para fins fitoterápicos, porém a forma de tratamento e acondicionamento pode influenciar na determinação de metabólitos secundários. Os parâmetros físico-químicos adotados mostraram que espécie encontra-se livre de agentes decompositores. Palavras-chave: Fitoquímica, L. macrophilla Benth, Toxicidade, Físico-Química. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n1p94-99

  20. The genus cicerbita wallr. (cichorieae- asteraceae) in Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, R.; Qaiser, M.; Roohi, B.

    2010-01-01

    The genus Cicerbita Wallr. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is revised for Pakistan and Kashmir. A broader generic concept of the genus is accepted and in all 11 species have been recognized including 3 new species viz. Cicerbita astorensis, Roohi Bano and Qaiser, C. alii, Roohi Bano and Qaiser and C. gilgitensis Roohi Bano and Qaiser. 5 new combinations, including 3 at species and 2 at varietal level have also been proposed. An artificial key to all the species is provided. Latin diagnosis, illustrations of newly described species, world wide and local distribution and ecological notes of all the species are also furnished. (author)

  1. Las citoquininas están asociadas al desarrollo floral de plantas de solidago x luteus en días cortos

    OpenAIRE

    Flórez, Víctor Julio

    2010-01-01

    En Solidago × luteus (M.L. Greene) Brouillet y Semple (= × Solidaster hybridus,× S. luteus), planta comercializada principalmente para flor de corte, el proceso de inducción floral es dependiente de las condiciones fotoperiódicas ambientales. Con el objetivo de determinar la acción de las citoquininas en este proceso, se analizó su presencia en condiciones fotoperiódicas opuestas: días largos (DL) de 18 h y días cortos (DC) de 8 h. En la primera fase del ensayo, con el fin de analizar ...

  2. Seed characters and their usefulness in the separation of Asteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Fernandes Batista

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on seed structure of Asteraceae have received little attention of botanists. Seed structure in Asteraceae is analyzed to evaluate the usefulness of characters in the separation of species through the analysis of nine weedy species. Seeds originate from anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate ovules. The partial collapse of the developing seed coat is a common characteristic in the Asteraceae species studied. The testa consists of crushed and thin-walled cells in almost all of the species studied herein, except for Elephantopus mollis and Parthenium hysterophorus, which showed exotesta cells with U-shaped thickening. The analysis revealed high uniformity in seed characters.

  3. Solidago canadensis invasion affects soil N-fixing bacterial communities in heterogeneous landscapes in urban ecosystems in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Jiang, Kun; Zhou, Jiawei; Wu, Bingde

    2018-03-12

    Soil nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities (SNB) can increase the level of available soil N via biological N-fixation to facilitate successful invasion of several invasive plant species (IPS). Meanwhile, landscape heterogeneity can greatly enhance regional invasibility and increase the chances of successful invasion of IPS. Thus, it is important to understand the soil micro-ecological mechanisms driving the successful invasion of IPS in heterogeneous landscapes. This study performed cross-site comparisons, via metagenomics, to comprehensively analyze the effects of Solidago canadensis invasion on SNB in heterogeneous landscapes in urban ecosystems. Rhizospheric soil samples of S. canadensis were obtained from nine urban ecosystems [Three replicate quadrats (including uninvaded sites and invaded sites) for each type of urban ecosystem]. S. canadensis invasion did not significantly affect soil physicochemical properties, the taxonomic diversity of plant communities, or the diversity and richness of SNB. However, some SNB taxa (i.e., f_Micromonosporaceae, f_Oscillatoriaceae, and f_Bacillaceae) changed significantly with S. canadensis invasion. Thus, S. canadensis invasion may alter the community structure, rather than the diversity and richness of SNB, to facilitate its invasion process. Of the nine urban ecosystems, the diversity and richness of SNB was highest in farmland wasteland. Accordingly, the community invasibility of farmland wasteland may be higher than that of the other types of urban ecosystem. In brief, landscape heterogeneity, rather than S. canadensis invasion, was the strongest controlling factor for the diversity and richness of SNB. One possible reason may be the differences in soil electrical conductivity and the taxonomic diversity of plant communities in the nine urban ecosystems, which can cause notable shifts in the diversity and richness of SNB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of simulated root herbivory and fertilizer application on growth and biomass allocation in the clonal perennialSolidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, B; Miao, S L; Bazzaz, F A

    1990-08-01

    Compensatory growth in response to simulated belowground herbivory was studied in the old-field clonal perennialSolidago canadensis. We grew rootpruned plants and plants with intact root systems in soil with or without fertilizer. For individual current shoots (aerial shoot with rhizome and roots) and for whole clones the following predictions were tested: a) root removal is compensated by increased root growth, b) fertilizer application leads to increased allocation to aboveground plant organs and increased leaf turnover, c) effects of fertilizer application are reduced in rootpruned plants. When most roots (90%) were removed current shoots quickly restored equilibrium between above-and belowground parts by compensatory belowground growth whereas the whole clone responded with reduced aboveground growth. This suggests that parts of a clone which are shared by actively growing shoots act as a buffer that can be used as source of material for compensatory growth in response to herbivory. Current shoots increased aboveground mass and whole clones reduced belowground mass in response to fertilizer application, both leading to increased allocation to aboverground parts. Also with fertilizer application both root-pruned and not root-pruned plants increased leaf and shoot turnover. Unfertilized plants, whether rootpruned or not, showed practically no aboveground growth and very little leaf and shoot turnover. Effects of root removal were as severe or more severe under conditions of high as under conditions of low nutrients, suggesting that negative effects of belowground herbivory are not ameliorated by abundant nutrients. Root removal may negate some effects of fertilizer application on the growth of current shoots and whole clones.

  5. No evidence for local adaptation to salt stress in the existing populations of invasive Solidago canadensis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junmin; Liu, Haiyan; Yan, Ming; Du, Leshan

    2017-01-01

    Local adaptation is an important mechanism underlying the adaptation of plants to environmental heterogeneity, and the toxicity of salt results in strong selection pressure on salt tolerance in plants and different ecotypes. Solidago canadensis, which is invasive in China, has spread widely and has recently colonized alkali sandy loams with a significant salt content. A common greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the role of local adaptation in the successful invasion of S. canadensis into salty habitats. Salt treatment significantly decreased the growth of S. canadensis, including rates of increase in the number of leaves and plant height; the root, shoot, and total biomass. Furthermore, salt stress significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and relative chlorophyll content but significantly increased peroxidase activity and the proline content of S. canadensis and the root/shoot ratio. Two-way analysis of variance showed that salt treatment had a significant effect on the physiological traits of S. canadensis, except for the intercellular CO2 concentration, whereas the population and the salt × population interaction had no significant effect on any physiological traits. Most of the variation in plasticity existed within and not among populations, excep for the root/shoot ratio. S. canadensis populations from soil with moderate/high salt levels grew similarly to S. canadensis populations from soils with low salt levels. No significant correlation between salt tolerance indices and soil salinity levels was observed. The plasticity of the proline content, intercellular CO2 concentration and chlorophyll content had significant correlations with the salt tolerance index. These findings indicate a lack of evidence for local adaption in the existing populations of invasive S. canadensis in China; instead, plasticity might be more important than local adaptation in influencing the physiological traits and salt

  6. No evidence for local adaptation to salt stress in the existing populations of invasive Solidago canadensis in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmin Li

    Full Text Available Local adaptation is an important mechanism underlying the adaptation of plants to environmental heterogeneity, and the toxicity of salt results in strong selection pressure on salt tolerance in plants and different ecotypes. Solidago canadensis, which is invasive in China, has spread widely and has recently colonized alkali sandy loams with a significant salt content. A common greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the role of local adaptation in the successful invasion of S. canadensis into salty habitats. Salt treatment significantly decreased the growth of S. canadensis, including rates of increase in the number of leaves and plant height; the root, shoot, and total biomass. Furthermore, salt stress significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and relative chlorophyll content but significantly increased peroxidase activity and the proline content of S. canadensis and the root/shoot ratio. Two-way analysis of variance showed that salt treatment had a significant effect on the physiological traits of S. canadensis, except for the intercellular CO2 concentration, whereas the population and the salt × population interaction had no significant effect on any physiological traits. Most of the variation in plasticity existed within and not among populations, excep for the root/shoot ratio. S. canadensis populations from soil with moderate/high salt levels grew similarly to S. canadensis populations from soils with low salt levels. No significant correlation between salt tolerance indices and soil salinity levels was observed. The plasticity of the proline content, intercellular CO2 concentration and chlorophyll content had significant correlations with the salt tolerance index. These findings indicate a lack of evidence for local adaption in the existing populations of invasive S. canadensis in China; instead, plasticity might be more important than local adaptation in influencing the physiological

  7. Few effects of invasive plants Reynoutria japonica, Rudbeckia laciniata and Solidago gigantea on soil physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanowicz, Anna M; Stanek, Małgorzata; Nobis, Marcin; Zubek, Szymon

    2017-01-01

    Biological invasions are an important problem of human-induced changes at a global scale. Invasive plants can modify soil nutrient pools and element cycling, creating feedbacks that potentially stabilize current or accelerate further invasion, and prevent re-establishment of native species. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Reynoutria japonica, Rudbeckia laciniata and Solidago gigantea, invading non-forest areas located within or outside river valleys, on soil physical and chemical parameters, including soil moisture, element concentrations, organic matter content and pH. Additionally, invasion effects on plant species number and total plant cover were assessed. The concentrations of elements in shoots and roots of invasive and native plants were also measured. Split-plot ANOVA revealed that the invasions significantly reduced plant species number, but did not affect most soil physical and chemical properties. The invasions decreased total P concentration and increased N-NO 3 concentration in soil in comparison to native vegetation, though the latter only in the case of R. japonica. The influence of invasion on soil properties did not depend on location (within- or outside valleys). The lack of invasion effects on most soil properties does not necessarily imply the lack of influence of invasive plants, but may suggest that the direction of the changes varies among replicate sites and there are no general patterns of invasion-induced alterations for these parameters. Tissue element concentrations, with the exception of Mg, did not differ between invasive and native plants, and were not related to soil element concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A cryptic taxon rather than a hybrid species of Tragopogon (Asteraceae) from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mavrodiev, E. V.; Krahulec, František; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2013), s. 133-141 ISSN 0075-5974 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : DNA-sequence polyformism * nuclear ribosomal DNA * miscellus Asteraceae * evolution * fertility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  9. Identificación de fructooligosacáridos e inulinas en residuos de hojas de fique - Furcraea macrophylla Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sofia Guevara Apraez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Colombia es un importante productor de cabuya, fibra natural extraída de fique (Furcraea macrophylla Baker. La explotación de esta planta se caracteriza por productos y procesos tradicionales, poco tecnificados, de bajo valor agregado y con un aprovechamiento limitado de la planta de fique, lo que se traduce en baja rentabilidad. No obstante, en los residuos de este proceso agroindustrial se encuentran muchas sustancias de interés, aun sin explorar, entre ellas los carbohidratos, específicamente los fructanos, como la inulina y los fructooligosacaridos (FOS que son polímeros de fructosa considerados fibra dietaría y que por sus características se clasifican como prebióticos. En esta investigación se evidenció la presencia de FOS e inulinas en los residuos obtenidos durante el proceso de desfibrado de las hojas de fique a través de técnicas enzimáticas y espectro-fotométricas. Debido a las amplias aplicaciones en el sector alimentario se recomienda su cuantificación, extracción y caracterización con el fin de proporcionar valor agregado a través de la explotación de estos compuestos.

  10. Bioactive metabolites produced by Penicillium sp. 1 and sp. 2, two endophytes associated with Alibertia macrophylla (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Camila M; Silva, Geraldo H; Regasini, Luis O; Zanardi, Lisinéia M; Evangelista, Alana H; Young, Maria C M; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Araujo, Angela R

    2009-01-01

    In the course of our continuous search for bioactive metabolites from endophytic fungi living in plants from the Brazilian flora, leaves of Alibertia macrophylla (Rubiaceae) were submitted to isolation of endophytes, and two species of Penicillium were isolated. The acetonitrile fraction obtained in corn from a culture of Penicillium sp. 1 afforded orcinol (1). On the other hand, Penicillium sp. 1 cultivated in potato-dextrose-broth furnished two different compounds, cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Val) (2) and uracil (3). The chromatographic fractionation of the acetonitrile fraction obtained from Penicillium sp. 2 led to three dihydroisocoumarins, 4-hydroxymellein (4), 8-methoxymellein (5) and 5-hydroxymellein (6). Compounds 5 and 6 were obtained from the Penicillium genus for the first time. Additionally, metabolites 1-6 were evaluated for their antifungal and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. The most active compounds 1 and 4 exhibited detection limits of 5.00 and 10.0 microg against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, respectively. Compound 2 showed a detection limit of 10.0 microg, displaying potent AChE inhibitory activity.

  11. Flowering phenology and its implications for management of big-leaf mahogany Swietenia macrophylla in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, James; Loveless, Marilyn D

    2013-11-01

    Flowering phenology is a crucial determinant of reproductive success and offspring genetic diversity in plants. We measure the flowering phenology of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla, Meliaceae), a widely distributed neotropical tree, and explore how disturbance from logging impacts its reproductive biology. We use a crown scoring system to estimate the timing and duration of population-level flowering at three forest sites in the Brazilian Amazon over a five-year period. We combine this information with data on population structure and spatial distribution to consider the implications of logging for population flowering patterns and reproductive success. Mahogany trees as small as 14 cm diam flowered, but only trees > 30 cm diam flowered annually or supra-annually. Mean observed flowering periods by focal trees ranged from 18-34 d, and trees flowered sequentially during 3-4 mo beginning in the dry season. Focal trees demonstrated significant interannual correlation in flowering order. Estimated population-level flowering schedules resembled that of the focal trees, with temporal isolation between early and late flowering trees. At the principal study site, conventional logging practices eliminated 87% of mahogany trees > 30 cm diam and an estimated 94% of annual pre-logging floral effort. Consistent interannual patterns of sequential flowering among trees create incompletely isolated subpopulations, constraining pollen flow. After harvests, surviving subcommercial trees will have fewer, more distant, and smaller potential partners, with probable consequences for post-logging regeneration. These results have important implications for the sustainability of harvesting systems for tropical timber species.

  12. Efeito de ácido giberélico, GA3, e GA4 + GA7 em pós-colheita de crisântemo e solidago.

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    Denise Laschii

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado no laboratório do Departamento de Horticultura da FCA/ UNESP, no período de 14 de novembro a 3 de dezembro de 1998. As hastes de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev e solidago (Solidago canadensis L. foram selecionadas e colocadas em solução de "pulsing", por 24 horas, visando avaliar as respostas aos seguintes tratamentos: Água (testemunha, GA3 10 mg.L-1 (Pro-Gibb; GA3 20 mg.L-I; GA3 30 mg.L-I; GA4 + GA7 10 mg.L-1 (Pro-Vibe, GA4 + GA7 20 mg.L-1 e GA4 + GA7 30 mg.L-1. Após os tratamentos de "pulsing", as hastes foram colocadas em recipientes contendo 1.000 mL de água, que foi trocada a cada dois dias. Avaliou-se o número de dias até o descarte, tanto para hastes de solidago quanto para crisântemo, para cada tratamento testado. Avaliou--se também a qualidade das folhas de solidago conforme o seguinte critério: índice de qualidade (IQ = 3 (folhas verdes, IQ = 2 (folhas em início de amarelecimento e IQ = 1 (folhas amarelas ou queimadas. Pelos resultados concluiu-se que: hastes cortadas de solidago e crisântemo diferiram quanto às respostas aos tratamentos pós-colheita, em relação ao tipo de giberelina utilizada; GA4 + GA7 10 mg.L-1 foi eficiente na manutenção da qualidade de hastes cortadas de solidago, e GA3 nas concentrações utilizadas no experimento apresentaram efeito deletério nas folhas de solidago; GA3 10 e 20 mg.L-1 foram mais eficientes na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de hastes de crisântemo.

  13. Terpenoids, flavonoids and other constituents of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R.; Pires, Andreza Maria L.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica Organica]. E-mail: opessoa@ufc.br

    2006-01-15

    A new acylated kaurene diterpene, characterized as 15{alpha}-decanoyloxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, along with nine known compounds: pentacosanoic acid, 24{alpha}-ethyl-5{alpha}-cholesta-7,22E-dien-3{beta}-ol, 15{alpha}-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, 8{beta}-angeloyloxy-9{beta},10{beta}-dihydroxy-1-oxogermacra-4E,11(13)dien-12,6{alpha}-olide, 3{beta}-hydroxyeicosan-1,5{beta}-olide, taraxasteryl acetate, 7-Omethylkaempferol, kaempferol, and nepetin were isolated from the flowers of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae). In addition, from the aerial parts were isolated taraxasteryl acetate and {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrin, while the mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol, and 6-acetyl-2,2-dimethylchroman-4-one were isolated from the roots. The structure elucidation of all compounds was performed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published data from literature. (author)

  14. Terpenoids, flavonoids and other constituents of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R.; Pires, Andreza Maria L.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Silveira, Edilberto R.

    2006-01-01

    A new acylated kaurene diterpene, characterized as 15α-decanoyloxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, along with nine known compounds: pentacosanoic acid, 24α-ethyl-5α-cholesta-7,22E-dien-3β-ol, 15α-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, 8β-angeloyloxy-9β,10β-dihydroxy-1-oxogermacra-4E,11(13)dien-12,6α-olide, 3β-hydroxyeicosan-1,5β-olide, taraxasteryl acetate, 7-Omethylkaempferol, kaempferol, and nepetin were isolated from the flowers of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae). In addition, from the aerial parts were isolated taraxasteryl acetate and α- and β-amyrin, while the mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, and 6-acetyl-2,2-dimethylchroman-4-one were isolated from the roots. The structure elucidation of all compounds was performed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published data from literature. (author)

  15. Die Plantfamilie Asteraceae: 4 Interessante groeivorme en ekonomies belangrike soorte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P.J. Herman

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Die plantfamilie Asteraceae bevat ’n ryke verskeidenheid en interessante groeivorme soos eenjarige en meerjarige kruide, dwergstruike, struike, bome, slingerplante, sukkulente, waterplante, rosetplante, kussingplante, heide-agtige plante, platgroeiend, grasagtig  en doringrig. Die blare vertoon ook baie variasie in vorm en ander kenmerke byvoorbeeld afwisselend, teenoorstaande, saamgepak, sittend, gesteeld, enkelvoudig, gaafrandig, getand, gelob of diep verdeeld, saamgesteld, met drie tot vyf hoofare, gereduseer of heeltemal afwesig, glad of baie harig op die boonste of onderste oppervlakke. Soms is melksap teenwoordig en sommiges is aromaties. Sommige verteenwoordigers van die familie is ekonomies belangrik; sommiges is eetbaar of word vir medisyne gebruik terwyl ander giftig is, sommiges word as veevoer benut maar ander is onkruide en die hout van sommiges is in die verlede gebruik.

  16. First report of fasciation in Pitcher's Thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Korte, Megan K; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Grundel, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We document the first reported occurrence of fasciation in the federally threatened Pitcher’s thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae). In 2013, we discovered two adult plants of Pitcher’s thistle out of a total of 176 plants at West Beach, near Miller, Indiana, USA, that exhibited both normal and fasciated growth. Unlike plants with normal growth, a portion of the upper stems of these plants was flattened, and some flower heads were elongated into a fan-like shape. Each plant had one large fasciated terminal seed head and several less severely fasciated ancillary heads. The fasciated terminal head on one of the plants found produced an estimated 1153 seeds, whereas normal terminal heads typically produced 80 ± 9 viable seeds. The cause of this fasciation is unclear, but may be due to infection with phytoplasma

  17. Research of polysaccharide complexes from asteraceae family plants

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    Світлана Михайлівна Марчишин

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. Depth study of polysaccharides in some little-known plant species of Asteraceae family is pressing question, considering that polysaccharides are important biologically active compounds widely used in pharmaceutical and medical practice as remedies and preventive medications. The aim of research was to determinate both quantitative content and monomeric composition of polysaccharide complexes from Asteraceae family plant species – Tagetes genus, Arnica genus, and Bellis genus.Materials and methods. Determination of polysaccharides was carried out by the precipitation reaction, using 96 % ethyl alcohol P and Fehling's solution after acid hydrolysis; quantitative content of this group of compounds was determined by gravimetric analysis. On purpose to identify the monomeric composition hydrolysis under sulfuric acid conditions was conducted. Qualitative monomeric composition of polysaccharides after hydrolysis was carried out by paper chromatography method in n-Butanol – Pyridine – Distilled water P (6:4:3 system along with saccharides reference samples.Results. Polysaccharide complexes from Tagetes erecta, Tagetes patula, Tagetes tenuifolia, Arnica montana, Arnica foliosa, wild and cultivated Bellis perennis herbs were studied. Water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin fractions were isolated from studied objects; their quantitative content and monomeric composition were determined.Conclusion. The highest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides was found in cultivated Bellis perennis herb (10,13 %, the highest amount of pectin compounds – in Tagetes tenuifolia herb (13,62 %; the lowest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin compounds was found in Arnica montana herb (4,61 % and Tagetes patula herb (3,62 %, respectively. It was found that polysaccharide complexes from all studied species include glucose and arabinose

  18. Aprovechamiento del subproducto sólido de la digestión anaerobia del bagazo de fique (furcraea macrophylla) para el acondicionamiento de suelos

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera González, Dayana; Plata Martínez, Lorena; Castro Molano, Liliana; Guzmán Luna, Carolina; Escalante Hernández, Humberto

    2012-01-01

    La digestión anaerobia del bagazo de fique (Furcraea macrophylla) genera 0,3m³ CH4/kg sólidos volátiles (SV) y 7L de lodo efluente por kg de bagazo tratado. El lodo efluente (LE) puede ser empleado en agricultura. El objetivo de este trabajo de investigación fue producir un biosólido a partir de la estabilización alcalina del LE y evaluar el efecto reparador en un suelo franco-arenoso de Mogotes -Santander. El desarrollo metodológico consistió en caracterizar fisicoquímica y microbiológicamen...

  19. Embriogénesis somática de Citrus macrophylla Wester con el empleo del Pectimorf® y análogos de brasinoesteroides

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Bao Fundora; Reina M. Hernández Ortiz; Esther Diosdado Salces; María Isabel Román; Clara González Arencibia; Alejandro Rojas Álvarez; Alianny Rodríguez Valdés

    2013-01-01

    Título en ingles: Somatic embryogenesis of Citrus macrophylla Wester using Pectimorf® and analogues of brassinosteroids Resumen Los cítricos son frutales muy utilizados como patrones de injerto. Para incrementar la cantidad de estos cultivos en las plantaciones citrícolas, se pueden usar técnicas de propagación in vitro como la embriogénesis somática, que requiere medios de cultivos artificiales y fitohormonas. Debido a los altos costos de las fitohormonas, una alternativa cubana es e...

  20. An extinct Eocene taxon of the daisy family (Asteraceae): evolutionary, ecological and biogeographical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Viviana D; Palazzesi, Luis; Katinas, Liliana; Crisci, Jorge V; Tellería, María C; Bremer, Kåre; Passalia, Mauro G; Passala, Mauro G; Bechis, Florencia; Corsolini, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Morphological, molecular and biogeographical information bearing on early evolution of the sunflower alliance of families suggests that the clade containing the extant daisy family (Asteraceae) differentiated in South America during the Eocene, although palaeontological studies on this continent failed to reveal conclusive support for this hypothesis. Here we describe in detail Raiguenrayun cura gen. & sp. nov., an exceptionally well preserved capitulescence of Asteraceae recovered from Eocene deposits of northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. The fossil was collected from the 47·5 million-year-old Huitrera Formation at the Estancia Don Hipólito locality, Río Negro Province, Argentina. The arrangement of the capitula in a cymose capitulescence, the many-flowered capitula with multiseriate-imbricate involucral bracts and the pappus-like structures indicate a close morphological relationship with Asteraceae. Raiguenrayun cura and the associated pollen Mutisiapollis telleriae do not match exactly any living member of the family, and clearly represent extinct taxa. They share a mosaic of morphological features today recognized in taxa phylogenetically close to the root of Asteraceae, such as Stifftieae, Wunderlichioideae and Gochnatieae (Mutisioideae sensu lato) and Dicomeae and Oldenburgieae (Carduoideae), today endemic to or mainly distributed in South America and Africa, respectively. This is the first fossil genus of Asteraceae based on an outstandingly preserved capitulescence that might represent the ancestor of Mutisioideae-Carduoideae. It might have evolved in southern South America some time during the early Palaeogene and subsequently entered Africa, before the biogeographical isolation of these continents became much more pronounced. The new fossil represents the first reliable point for calibration, favouring an earlier date to the split between Barnadesioideae and the rest of Asteraceae than previously thought, which can be traced back at least 47·5

  1. Global Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Distinct Aluminum-Tolerance Pathways in the Al-Accumulating Species Hydrangea macrophylla and Marker Identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Chen

    Full Text Available Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla is a well known Al-accumulating plant, showing a high level of aluminum (Al tolerance and accumulation. Although the physiological mechanisms for detoxification of Al and the roles of Al in blue hydrangea sepals have been reported, the molecular mechanisms of Al tolerance and accumulation are poorly understood in hydrangea. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Al-response genes in the roots and leaves of hydrangea by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq. The assembly of hydrangea transcriptome provides a rich source for gene identification and mining molecular markers, including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and simple sequence repeat (SSR. A total of 401,215 transcripts with an average length of 810.77 bp were assembled, generating 256,127 unigenes. After annotation, 4,287 genes in the roots and 730 genes in the leaves were up-regulated by Al exposure, while 236 genes in the roots and 719 genes in the leaves were down-regulated, respectively. Many transporters, including MATE and ABC families, were involved in the process of Al-citrate complex transporting from the roots in hydrangea. A plasma membrane Al uptake transporter, Nramp aluminum transporter was up-regulated in roots and leaves under Al stress, indicating it may play an important role in Al tolerance by reducing the level of toxic Al. Although the exact roles of these candidate genes remain to be examined, these results provide a platform for further functional analysis of the process of detoxification of Al in hydrangea.

  2. Solidago canadensis L. Essential Oil Vapor Effectively Inhibits Botrytis cinerea Growth and Preserves Postharvest Quality of Strawberry as a Food Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shumin; Shao, Xingfeng; Wei, Yanzhen; Li, Yonghua; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hongfei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-fungal properties of Solidago canadensis L. essential oil (SCLEO) against Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits. SCLEO exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and profoundly altered mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, and membrane permeability as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. SCLEO vapor at 0.1 mL/L maintained higher sensory acceptance and reduced decay of fresh strawberry fruit, and also reduced gray mold in artificially inoculated fruit. SCLEO treatment did not, however, stimulate phenylalanin ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, or chitinase, enzymes related to disease resistance. This suggests that SCLEO reduces gray mold by direct inhibition of pathogen growth. SCLEO vapor may provide a new and effective strategy for controlling postharvest disease and maintaining quality in strawberries.

  3. Solidago canadensis L essential oil vapor effectively inhibits Botrytis cinerea growth and preserves postharvest quality of strawberry as a food model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the anti-fungal properties of Solidago canadensis L essential oil (SCLEO against Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits. SCLEO exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and profoundly altered mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, and membrane permeability as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. SCLEO vapor at 0.1 mL/L maintained higher sensory acceptance and reduced decay of fresh strawberry fruit, and also reduced gray mold in artificially inoculated fruit. SCLEO treatment did not however, stimulate phenylalanin ammonia-lyase (PAL, polyphenol oxidase (POD, or chitinase (CHI, enzymes related to disease resistance. This suggests that SCLEO reduces gray mold by direct inhibition of pathogen growth. SCLEO vapor may provide a new and effective strategy for controlling postharvest disease and maintaining quality in strawberries.

  4. Assessment of an Impact of Mechanical Regulation on Selected Morphometric and Productive Parameters of Invasive Species Solidago Canadensis Population in Agricultural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Končeková Lýdia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Repeated mowing is considered as one of the effective control methods against species of the genus Solidago. This paper evaluates the impact of the repeated mowing on selected morphometric and productive characteristics of the invasive neophyte Solidago canadensis in the district of Rimavská Sobota in Central Slovakia. Permanent research plots (PRPs were established within anthropogenic habitat on an abandoned land that was divided into two variants. In the first variant, the mechanical regulation - mowing was applied. The second variant was without the regulation. The mechanical regulation of the populations was carried out in June and August during the growing season 2011. The results showed that the mechanical regulation did not have a clear impact on the population density. The decreasing trend of the number of shoots within the mowed variant was found only in one research plot (PRP3. The other plots showed an increase in the number of individuals by 2.7 and 32.7% between the mowings. Statistically highly significant differences in terms of the mowing impact on the height of the individuals were found in all PRPs. The difference in the weight of dry aboveground biomass between the mowings was 221.87 g, which represents 36.41%. Double the difference (48.8% was recorded in the dry weight of the underground biomass in the regulated stand compared with the unregulated stand (165.1 and 322.5 g/m2, respectively. Although there was a short-term success achieved by the application of the two mowings during the growing period, the pursued objective was not reached.

  5. Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda Sujogya Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further.

  6. Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Luyten, Walter

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a) literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b) description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c) antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further. PMID:29528842

  7. Evaluating the feasibility of using candidate DNA barcodes in discriminating species of the large Asteraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ting; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Zhu, Yingjie; Liu, Chang; Chen, Shilin

    2010-10-26

    Five DNA regions, namely, rbcL, matK, ITS, ITS2, and psbA-trnH, have been recommended as primary DNA barcodes for plants. Studies evaluating these regions for species identification in the large plant taxon, which includes a large number of closely related species, have rarely been reported. The feasibility of using the five proposed DNA regions was tested for discriminating plant species within Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants. Among these markers, ITS2 was the most useful in terms of universality, sequence variation, and identification capability in the Asteraceae family. The species discriminating power of ITS2 was also explored in a large pool of 3,490 Asteraceae sequences that represent 2,315 species belonging to 494 different genera. The result shows that ITS2 correctly identified 76.4% and 97.4% of plant samples at the species and genus levels, respectively. In addition, ITS2 displayed a variable ability to discriminate related species within different genera. ITS2 is the best DNA barcode for the Asteraceae family. This approach significantly broadens the application of DNA barcoding to resolve classification problems in the family Asteraceae at the genera and species levels.

  8. Evaluating the feasibility of using candidate DNA barcodes in discriminating species of the large Asteraceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Five DNA regions, namely, rbcL, matK, ITS, ITS2, and psbA-trnH, have been recommended as primary DNA barcodes for plants. Studies evaluating these regions for species identification in the large plant taxon, which includes a large number of closely related species, have rarely been reported. Results The feasibility of using the five proposed DNA regions was tested for discriminating plant species within Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants. Among these markers, ITS2 was the most useful in terms of universality, sequence variation, and identification capability in the Asteraceae family. The species discriminating power of ITS2 was also explored in a large pool of 3,490 Asteraceae sequences that represent 2,315 species belonging to 494 different genera. The result shows that ITS2 correctly identified 76.4% and 97.4% of plant samples at the species and genus levels, respectively. In addition, ITS2 displayed a variable ability to discriminate related species within different genera. Conclusions ITS2 is the best DNA barcode for the Asteraceae family. This approach significantly broadens the application of DNA barcoding to resolve classification problems in the family Asteraceae at the genera and species levels.

  9. Fire tolerance of a resprouting Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S.L.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Goad, C.L.; Davis, C.A.; Hickman, K.R.; Leslie, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In North America, most Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub species lack the ability to resprout after disturbances that remove aboveground biomass. We studied the response of one of the few resprouting Artemisia shrubs, Artemisia filifolia (sand sagebrush), to the effects of prescribed fires. We collected data on A. filifolia density and structural characteristics (height, canopy area, and canopy volume) in an A. filifolia shrubland in the southern Great Plains of North America. Our study sites included areas that had not been treated with prescribed fire, areas that had been treated with only one prescribed fire within the previous 5 years, and areas that had been treated with two prescribed fires within the previous 10 years. Our data were collected at time periods ranging from 1/2 to 5 years after the prescribed fires. Density of A. filifolia was not affected by one or two fires. Structural characteristics, although initially altered by prescribed fire, recovered to levels characteristic of unburned areas in 3-4 years after those fires. In contrast to most non-sprouting North American Artemisia shrub species, our research suggested that the resprouting A. filifolia is highly tolerant to the effects of fire. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): A Promising Source of Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe+3, phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11 g/100 g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100 g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10 µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe+3 was 19.98 to 336.48 μg/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987

  11. Larvicidal potential of Asteraceae family endophytic actinomycetes against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan is blessed with plants of Asteraceae family with known medicinal background used for centuries by Hakims (traditional physicians). Keeping in mind the background of their anti-larval potential, a total of 21 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from four Asteraceae plants and screened against the first and fourth instar stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquito larvae. Of the 21 isolates, 6 of them gave strong larvicidal activity (80-100% mortality) in the screening results and 4 isolates gave a potent larvicidal activity (100% mortality) at the fourth instar stage. These isolates belonged to different species within the actinomycetes group, namely Streptomyces albovinaceus and Streptomyces badius. This communication reports the larvicidal potential of endophytic actinomycetes residing within the native Asteraceae plants in Pakistan. The study suggests further exploration through large-scale productions leading to the identification of the larvicidal compounds.

  12. Floral Visitors of Three Asteraceae Species in a Xeric Environment in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Castro, Dulce María; González-Tochihuitl, Guadalupe; Rivas-Arancibia, Sombra Patricia; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela

    2016-12-01

    We describe the spatial variation in the structure and composition of the communities of insects visiting the inflorescences of Flaveria ramosissima Klatt, Florestina pedata (Cav.) Cass., and Parthenium bipinnatifidum (Ort.) Rollins (Asteraceae) in a xeric environment in Central Mexico. Inflorescences of the three Asteraceae were visited by a total of 96 species of Hymenoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Hemiptera. Total species richness of floral visitors to the three Asteraceae and total abundance of insects of Fl. pedata and P. bipinnatifidum did not differ between low and high vegetation cover sites. Total abundance of insects visiting the inflorescences of F. ramosissima and abundance of Hymenoptera in all three Asteraceae were higher at the low vegetation coverage (LVC) site than at the high vegetation coverage (HVC) one. Diversity of insects of Fl. pedata and P. bipinnatifidum was higher at the HVC site. However, in F. ramosissima diversity was higher at the LVC site. The communities of insects of each Asteraceae were dissimilar between sites. These differences can be attributed to variation in the abundance of Lepidophora (Diptera: Bombyliidae), Miridae (Hemiptera), Melyridae (Coleoptera), Tiphiidae (Hymenoptera), Myrmecocystus mexicanus Wesmael, and Dorymyrmex grandulus (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The first three insect groups were sensitive to LVC, high temperature, and low humidity, whereas the last three tolerated those same environmental conditions. Changes in temperature, humidity, and resources associated with vegetation coverage seem to differentially affect each species of floral visitors of the three Asteraceae species studied. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Phylogeny and biogeography of the genus Stevia (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae): an example of diversification in the Asteraceae in the new world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Akiko; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Takayama, Izumi; Kawahara, Takayuki; Watanabe, Kuniaki; Nakazawa, Miyuki; Mishima, Misako; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2017-11-01

    The genus Stevia comprises approximately 200 species, which are distributed in North and South America, and are representative of the species diversity of the Asteraceae in the New World. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships using sequences of ITS and cpDNA and estimated the divergence times of the major clade of this genus. Our results suggested that Stevia originated in Mexico 7.0-7.3 million years ago (Mya). Two large clades, one with shrub species and another with herb species, were separated at about 6.6 Mya. The phylogenetic reconstruction suggested that an ancestor of Stevia was a small shrub in temperate pine-oak forests and the evolutionary change from a shrub state to a herb state occurred only once. A Brazilian clade was nested in a Mexican herb clade, and its origin was estimated to be 5.2 Mya, suggesting that the migration from North America to South America occurred after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. The species diversity in Mexico appears to reflect the habitat diversity within the temperate pine-oak forest zone. The presence of many conspecific diploid-polyploid clades in the phylogenetic tree reflects the high frequency of polyploidization among the perennial Stevia species.

  14. Nuevas citas de Asteraceae para la provincia de Catamarca (Argentina New records of Asteraceae for the province of Catamarca (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana E. Freire

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se mencionan los siguientes nuevos registros de Asteráceas para la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribu Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribu Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribu Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribu Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribu Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribu Senecioneae. Se citan además el hábitat de los taxones y las provincias fitogeográficas que integran. Se propone una nueva combinación, Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.The following Asteraceae are mentioned for the province of Catamarca: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribe Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribe Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribe Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribe Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribe Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribe Senecioneae. The habitat and phytogeographic provinces of the taxa are mentioned. The following new combination is proposed: Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.

  15. Herbarium collection-based phylogenetics of the ragweeds (Ambrosia, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael D; Quiroz-Claros, Elva; Brush, Grace S; Zimmer, Elizabeth A

    2018-03-01

    Ambrosia (Asteraceae) is a taxonomically difficult genus of weedy, wind-pollinated plants with an apparent center of diversity in the Sonoran Desert of North America. Determining Ambrosia's evolutionary relationships has been the subject of much interest, with numerous studies using morphological characters, cytology, comparative phytochemistry, and chloroplast restriction site variation to produce conflicting accounts the relationships between Ambrosia species, as well as the classification of their close relatives in Franseria and Hymenoclea. To resolve undetermined intra-generic relationships within Ambrosia, we used DNA extracted from tissues obtained from seed banks and herbarium collections to generate multi-locus genetic data representing nearly all putative species, including four from South America. We performed Bayesian and Maximum-Likelihood phylogenetic analyses of six chloroplast-genome and two nuclear-genome markers, enabling us to infer monophyly for the genus, resolve major infra-generic species clusters, as well as to resolve open questions about the evolutionary relationships of several Ambrosia species and former members of Franseria. We also provide molecular data supporting the hypothesis that A. sandersonii formed through the hybridization of A. eriocentra and A. salsola. The topology of our chloroplast DNA phylogeny is almost entirely congruent with the most recent molecular work based on chloroplast restriction site variation of a much more limited sampling of 14 North American species of Ambrosia, although our improved sampling of global Ambrosia diversity enables us to draw additional conclusions. As our study is the first direct DNA sequence-based phylogenetic analyses of Ambrosia, we analyze the data in relation to previous taxonomic studies and discuss several instances of chloroplast/nuclear incongruence that leave the precise geographic center of origin of Ambrosia in question. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The explosive radiation of Cheirolophus (Asteraceae, Cardueae) in Macaronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitales, Daniel; Garnatje, Teresa; Pellicer, Jaume; Vallès, Joan; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Sanmartín, Isabel

    2014-06-02

    Considered a biodiversity hotspot, the Canary Islands have been the key subjects of numerous evolutionary studies concerning a large variety of organisms. The genus Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) represents one of the largest plant radiations in the Canarian archipelago. In contrast, only a few species occur in the Mediterranean region, the putative ancestral area of the genus. Here, our main aim was to reconstruct the phylogenetic and biogeographic history of Cheirolophus with special focus on explaining the origin of the large Canarian radiation. We found significant incongruence in phylogenetic relationships between nuclear and plastid markers. Each dataset provided resolution at different levels in Cheirolophus: the nuclear markers resolved the backbone of the phylogeny while the plastid data provided better resolution within the Canarian clade. The origin of Cheirolophus was dated in the Mid-Late Miocene, followed by rapid diversification into the three main Mediterranean lineages and the Macaronesian clade. A decrease in diversification rates was inferred at the end of the Miocene, with a new increase in the Late Pliocene concurrent with the onset of the Mediterranean climate. Diversification within the Macaronesian clade started in the Early-Mid Pleistocene, with unusually high speciation rates giving rise to the extant insular diversity. Climate-driven diversification likely explains the early evolutionary history of Cheirolophus in the Mediterranean region. It appears that the exceptionally high diversification rate in the Canarian clade was mainly driven by allopatric speciation (including intra- and interisland diversification). Several intrinsic (e.g. breeding system, polyploid origin, seed dispersal syndrome) and extrinsic (e.g. fragmented landscape, isolated habitats, climatic and geological changes) factors probably contributed to the progressive differentiation of populations resulting in numerous microendemisms. Finally, hybridization events and

  17. Medicinal flowers. XXXX . Structures of dihydroisocoumarin glycosides and inhibitory effects on aldose reducatase from the flowers of Hydrangea macrophylla var.thunbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Nakamura, Seikou; Zhuang, Yan; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Hussein, Ghazi Mohamed Eisa; Matsuo, Kyohei; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    Six dihydroisocoumarin glycosides, florahydrosides I and II, thunberginol G 8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, thunberginol C 8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, 4-hydroxythunberginol G 3'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and thunberginol D 3'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, have been isolated from the flowers of Hydrangea macrophylla Seringe var. thunbergii Makino (Saxifragaceae) together with 20 known compounds. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Among the constituents, acylated quinic acid analog, neochlorogenic acid, was shown to substantially inhibit aldose reductase [IC50=5.6 µm]. In addition, the inhibitory effects on aldose reductase of several caffeoylquinic acid analogs were examined for structure-activity relationship study. As the results, 4,5-O-trans-p-dicaffeoyl-d-quinic acid was found to exhibit a potent inhibitory effect [IC50=0.29 µm].

  18. [Discover potential inhibitors of 5-LOX and LTA4H from Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix and Genitana Macrophyllae Radix based on molecular simulation methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Yan-Kun; Zhao, Bo-Wen; Zhang, Yan-Ling

    2017-12-01

    5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), as the major targets of 5-LOX branch in the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic pathway, play an important role in the treatment of inflammation. Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix and Genitana Macrophyllae Radix have clear anti-inflammation activities. In this paper, the targets of 5-LOX and LTA4H were used as the research carrier, and Hiphop module in DS4.0 (Discovery studio) was used to construct ingredients database for preliminary screening of three traditional Chinese medicines based on target inhibitor pharmacophore, so as to obtain 5-LOX and LTA4H potential active ingredients. The ingredients obtained in initial pharmacophore screening were further screened by using CDOCKER module, and the screening rules were established based on the score of initial compound and the key amino acids to obtain 12 potential 5-LOX inhibitors and 7 potential LTA4H inhibitors. To be more specific, the potential 5-LOX inhibitors included 6 ingredients in Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, such as procyanidins B2-3,3'-O-double gallate and revandchinone 2; four ingredients in notopterygium, such as dodecanoic acid and so on. On the other hand, potential LTA4H inhibitors included revandchinone 1, revandchinone 4 in Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, tridecanoic acid, tetracosanoic acid and methyl eicosanoate in Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix, montanic acid methyl ester and N-docosanoyl-O-aminobenzoate in Genitana Macrophyllae Radix and so on. The molecular simulation methods were highly efficient and time-saving to obtain the potential inhibitors of 5-LOX and LTA4H, which could provide assistance for discovering the chemical quality indicators of anti-inflammatory efficacy of three Chinese herbs, and may be helpful to promote the whole-process quality control of three Chinese herbs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Variation in chromosome numbers and nuclear DNA contents in genetic resources of Lactuca L. species (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležalová, I.; Lebeda, A.; Janeček, J.; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Křístková, E.; Vránová, O.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2002), s. 385-397 ISSN 0925-9864 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038204; GA AV ČR IBS5038104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Asteraceae * Chromosome number * Flow cytometry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.579, year: 2002

  20. Offspring diversity in Hieracium subgen. Pilosella (Asteraceae): new cytotypes from hybridization experiments and from open pollination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 45, 1-2 (2000), s. 239-255 ISSN 0015-931X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005803; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Asteraceae * Hieracium subgen. Pilosella * aneuploids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  1. Helichrysum yurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  2. Studies of a new hybrid taxon in the Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather D. Garrison; Leila M. Shultz; E. Durant McArthur

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Artemisia tridentata complex (ASTERACEAE: Anthemideae: Artemisia subgen. Tridentatae) have adapted to changing environmental conditions through geographic migration, introgression, and hybridization. These processes have resulted in morphologic and genetic variation. A presumed hybrid ("Bonneville" big sagebrush) of the complex occurs in the...

  3. Host range of Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), and potential for biological control of Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Ramadan; K. T. Murai; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Madagascar fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae), which has invaded over 400 000 acres of rangeland in the Hawaiian Islands and is toxic to cattle and horses. The moth was introduced from southeastern Madagascar...

  4. Evolutionary transitions in the Asteraceae coincide with marked shifts in transposable element abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, S Evan; Burke, John M

    2015-08-20

    The transposable element (TE) content of the genomes of plant species varies from near zero in the genome of Utricularia gibba to more than 80% in many species. It is not well understood whether this variation in genome composition results from common mechanisms or stochastic variation. The major obstacles to investigating mechanisms of TE evolution have been a lack of comparative genomic data sets and efficient computational methods for measuring differences in TE composition between species. In this study, we describe patterns of TE evolution in 14 species in the flowering plant family Asteraceae and 1 outgroup species in the Calyceraceae to investigate phylogenetic patterns of TE dynamics in this important group of plants. Our findings indicate that TE families in the Asteraceae exhibit distinct patterns of non-neutral evolution, and that there has been a directional increase in copy number of Gypsy retrotransposons since the origin of the Asteraceae. Specifically, there is marked increase in Gypsy abundance at the origin of the Asteraceae and at the base of the tribe Heliantheae. This latter shift in genome composition has had a significant impact on the diversity and abundance distribution of TEs in a lineage-specific manner. We show that the TE-driven expansion of plant genomes can be facilitated by just a few TE families, and is likely accompanied by the modification and/or replacement of the TE community. Importantly, large shifts in TE composition may be correlated with major of phylogenetic transitions.

  5. Jurinea micevskii (Asteraceae), a new species from the Republic of Macedonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir; Matevski, Vlado; Tan, Kit

    2010-01-01

    Jurinea micevskii (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated as a new species endemic to Mt Galicica in the southwestern Republic of Macedonia. It resembles J. taygetea, a narrow endemic of Mt Taigetos in the Peloponnese, southern Greece and J. bocconei from Mt Madoníe in north central Sicily...

  6. Cirsium nuttallii (Asteraceae: Cynareae) new to North Carolina and an illustrated key to southeastern congeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, A.; Westbrooks, R.; Lloyd, J.

    2002-01-01

    Cirsium nuttallii (Asteraceae) is documented for North Carolina. The species had previously been known from Florida to South Carolina and from disjunct populations in Virginia. An illustrated key is provided to aid others in the diagnosis of Cirsium in North Carolina and the southeast.

  7. Baselines to detect population stability of the threatened alpine plant Packera franciscana (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Shaula Hedwall

    2015-01-01

    Population size and density estimates have traditionally been acceptable ways to track species’ response to changing environments; however, species' population centroid elevation has recently been an equally important metric. Packera franciscana (Greene) W.A. Weber and A. Love (Asteraceae; San Francisco Peaks ragwort) is a single mountain endemic plant found only...

  8. On the distribution of Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) in the Balkan Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuka, Lulezim; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) are reported for the first () and () are reported for the first time in C and NE Albania. These two taxa were previously considered serpentine endemics restricted to a few localities in NW Greece and the extension...

  9. Comparative analysis of complete chloroplast genome sequence and inversion variation in Lasthenia burkei (Madieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joseph F; Zanis, Michael J; Emery, Nancy C

    2014-04-01

    Complete chloroplast genome studies can help resolve relationships among large, complex plant lineages such as Asteraceae. We present the first whole plastome from the Madieae tribe and compare its sequence variation to other chloroplast genomes in Asteraceae. We used high throughput sequencing to obtain the Lasthenia burkei chloroplast genome. We compared sequence structure and rates of molecular evolution in the small single copy (SSC), large single copy (LSC), and inverted repeat (IR) regions to those for eight Asteraceae accessions and one Solanaceae accession. The chloroplast sequence of L. burkei is 150 746 bp and contains 81 unique protein coding genes and 4 coding ribosomal RNA sequences. We identified three major inversions in the L. burkei chloroplast, all of which have been found in other Asteraceae lineages, and a previously unreported inversion in Lactuca sativa. Regions flanking inversions contained tRNA sequences, but did not have particularly high G + C content. Substitution rates varied among the SSC, LSC, and IR regions, and rates of evolution within each region varied among species. Some observed differences in rates of molecular evolution may be explained by the relative proportion of coding to noncoding sequence within regions. Rates of molecular evolution vary substantially within and among chloroplast genomes, and major inversion events may be promoted by the presence of tRNAs. Collectively, these results provide insight into different mechanisms that may promote intramolecular recombination and the inversion of large genomic regions in the plastome.

  10. Composite aster Inula L. (Asteraceae: a new generic record for Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathinam Sathiyaseelan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new generic record for the flora of Nicobar Islands, Inula L. (Asteraceae represented by the species Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don DC., collected from Chowra Island, Great Nicobar Islands.  

  11. Three new caespitose species of Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) from South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) belonging to S. ser. Suffruticosi subser. Caespitosi were discovered in the tributaries of the upper Tambo River, Moquegua Department, South Peru. Descriptions, diagnoses and discussions about their distribution, a table with the

  12. In vivo and in vitro effects of Bidens pilosa l. (asteraceae) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo and in vitro effects of Bidens pilosa l. (asteraceae) leaf aqueous and ethanol extracts on primed-oestrogenized rat uterine muscle. ... In vitro isometric contraction measurement of oestrogen-primed rat uterine strips showed a significant high aqueous extract-induced contractile effect from 0.03-1.97mg/ml: on the ...

  13. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4(2-) and NO3(-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects of

  14. Complete chloroplast genome of the multifunctional crop globe artichoke and comparison with other Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Pasquale L; De Paola, Domenico; Danzi, Donatella; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    With over 20,000 species, Asteraceae is the second largest plant family. High-throughput sequencing of nuclear and chloroplast genomes has allowed for a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships within large plant families. Here, the globe artichoke chloroplast (cp) genome was obtained by a combination of whole-genome and BAC clone high-throughput sequencing. The artichoke cp genome is 152,529 bp in length, consisting of two single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,155 bp, representing the longest IRs found in the Asteraceae family so far. The large (LSC) and the small (SSC) single-copy regions span 83,578 bp and 18,641 bp, respectively. The artichoke cp sequence was compared to the other eight Asteraceae complete cp genomes available, revealing an IR expansion at the SSC/IR boundary. This expansion consists of 17 bp of the ndhF gene generating an overlap between the ndhF and ycf1 genes. A total of 127 cp simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) were identified in the artichoke cp genome, potentially suitable for future population studies in the Cynara genus. Parsimony-informative regions were evaluated and allowed to place a Cynara species within the Asteraceae family tree. The eight most informative coding regions were also considered and tested for "specific barcode" purpose in the Asteraceae family. Our results highlight the usefulness of cp genome sequencing in exploring plant genome diversity and retrieving reliable molecular resources for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies, as well as for specific barcodes in plants.

  15. Identification and validation of Asteraceae miRNAs by the expressed sequence tag analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monavar Feshani, Aboozar; Mohammadi, Saeed; Frazier, Taylor P; Abbasi, Abbas; Abedini, Raha; Karimi Farsad, Laleh; Ehya, Farveh; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Mardi, Mohsen

    2012-02-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that play a vital role in the regulation of gene expression. Despite their identification in hundreds of plant species, few miRNAs have been identified in the Asteraceae, a large family that comprises approximately one tenth of all flowering plants. In this study, we used the expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis to identify potential conserved miRNAs and their putative target genes in the Asteraceae. We applied quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) to confirm the expression of eight potential miRNAs in Carthamus tinctorius and Helianthus annuus. We also performed qRT-PCR analysis to investigate the differential expression pattern of five newly identified miRNAs during five different cotyledon growth stages in safflower. Using these methods, we successfully identified and characterized 151 potentially conserved miRNAs, belonging to 26 miRNA families, in 11 genus of Asteraceae. EST analysis predicted that the newly identified conserved Asteraceae miRNAs target 130 total protein-coding ESTs in sunflower and safflower, as well as 433 additional target genes in other plant species. We experimentally confirmed the existence of seven predicted miRNAs, (miR156, miR159, miR160, miR162, miR166, miR396, and miR398) in safflower and sunflower seedlings. We also observed that five out of eight miRNAs are differentially expressed during cotyledon development. Our results indicate that miRNAs may be involved in the regulation of gene expression during seed germination and the formation of the cotyledons in the Asteraceae. The findings of this study might ultimately help in the understanding of miRNA-mediated gene regulation in important crop species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Онтогенез Solidago canadensis L. при интродукции в условиях Ставропольской возвышенности

    OpenAIRE

    ПЕЩАНСКАЯ ЕКАТЕРИНА ВЛАДИМИРОВНА; ЦИЦИЛИН АНДРЕЙ НИКОЛАЕВИЧ

    2010-01-01

    В онтогенезе Solidago canadensis L. (Asteraceae) при интродукции в условиях Ставропольской возвышенности отмечены периоды: латентный, виргинильный, генеративный и сенильный. Латентный период представлен одним возрастным состоянием ребристыми семянками с хохолками. В виргинильном периоде выделены следующие возрастные состояния: всходы, ювенильные растения, виргинильные растения. В условиях культуры не отмечено имматурное возрастное состояние. В генеративном периоде отмечены молодые, средне-и с...

  17. Calogênese e rizogênese em explantes de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King cultivados in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cruz da Rocha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A exploração de árvores tropicais realizada de forma indiscriminada, buscando espécies de alto valor econômico, tem levado várias espécies, como o mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King, ao perigo de extinção. O desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de regeneração de gemas, direta ou indireta, poderia auxiliar na obtenção de um grande número de mudas e constituir uma perspectiva à propagação sexuada. Essa última é limitada pelo fato das sementes perderem rapidamente a capacidade germinativa. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dois tipos de explantes: fragmentos foliares e de raízes de plantas cultivadas in vitro. Após desinfestação, os explantes foram colocados em meio de cultura de Murashige e Skoog (1962 contendo três quartos da concentração de sais, vitaminas do mesmo meio, 30g.L-1 de sacarose, auxina (ácido naftaleno-acético, ANA, 0,11 µM e 0,54 µM, citocinina (cinetina, CIN, 1,2 µM, 2,3 µM, 4,7 µM e 9,3 µM; 6-benziladenina, BA, 2,2 µM, 4,4 µM e 8,8 µM ou 2-isopenteniladenina, 2-iP, 2,5 µM e 7g.L-1 de ágar. As variáveis testadas foram a concentração e o tipo de regulador de crescimento e a origem dos explantes. A cada 30 dias, os explantes foram avaliados pela contagem do número de explantes formando calos ou raízes e a consistência dos calos. Foram obtidos calos a com base nos dois tipos de explantes. Nos explantes foliares, 90% deles formaram calos em meios de cultura contendo BA 4,4 µM com ANA 0,54 µM e BA 8,9 µM com ANA 0,11 ou 0,54 µM. Nos explantes de raízes, a maior percentagem de explantes com calos foi de 55%, no meio de cultura com BA 2,2 µM e ANA 0,54 µM. Raízes adventícias foram obtidas partindo de calos e do limbo dos explantes foliares, em meios de cultura com CIN e ANA. Não foi observada a formação de gemas adventícias.

  18. Synergistic effect of Eugenia jambolana Linn. and Solidago canadensis Linn. leaf extracts with deltamethrin against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti Linn. at Mysore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, B S; Prathibha, K P; Vijayan, V A

    2013-06-01

    With the goal in mind to minimize the application of environmentally hazardous chemical insecticides, the larvicidal activity of two plant extracts along with deltamethrin was studied at University of Mysore. The extracts of Solidago canadensis and Eugenia jambolana were employed for working out the synergistic efficacy against Aedes aegypti larvae, as the extracts of both the plants exhibited high efficacy when applied individually. The deltamethrin when analyzed separately, LC50 and LC90 values were 0.00045 and 0.00148 ppm, respectively. Synergistic studies with two plant extracts on deltamethrin revealed S. canadensis as more effective with synergistic factor(SF) of 4.090 for LC50 value and 4.781 for LC90 followed by E. jambolana with SF 1.80 for LC50 and 2.467 for LC90 at 1:1 ratio of the phytoextracts and deltamethrin. Thus, S. canadensis was found to be a better larvicidal and synergistic agent. Combination of phytochemical and insecticide were found to be more effective than insecticides or phytochemicals alone which could be a good ecofriendly and cost-effective approach to reduce the dose of chemicals with high residual effect to be applied in vector control programs.

  19. Synthesis of nanoparticles composed of silver and silver chloride for a plasmonic photocatalyst using an extract from a weed Solidago altissima (goldenrod)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vemu Anil; Uchida, Takashi; Mizuki, Toru; Nakajima, Yoshikata; Katsube, Yoshihiro; Hanajiri, Tatsuro; Maekawa, Toru

    2016-03-01

    Phytosynthesis of nanomaterials is advantageous since it is economical, ecofriendly, and simple, and, what is more, in the synthetic protocols, nontoxic chemicals and biocompatible materials are used. Here, a green synthetic methodology of nanoparticles (NPs) composed of silver (Ag) and silver chloride (AgCl) NPs is developed using a leaf extract of Solidago altissima as a reducing agent for the first time. Utilization of a terrestrial weed for the synthesis of Ag and AgCl NPs is a novel environmentally friendly approach considering that no toxic chemicals, external halide source, or elaborate experimental procedures are included in the process. The optical properties and elemental compositions of as-synthesized Ag and AgCl NPs are well characterized, and the degradation of an organic dye, i.e., rhodamine B (RhB), is investigated using the Ag and AgCl NPs. We find that degradation of RhB is effectively achieved thanks to both surface plasmon resonance and semiconductor properties of Ag and AgCl NPs. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering and antibacterial activities are also examined. The present approach to the synthesis of NPs using a weed may encourage the utilization of hazardous plants for the creation of novel nanomaterials.

  20. Synthesis of nanoparticles composed of silver and silver chloride for a plasmonic photocatalyst using an extract from a weed Solidago altissima (goldenrod)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vemu Anil; Uchida, Takashi; Mizuki, Toru; Nakajima, Yoshikata; Katsube, Yoshihiro; Hanajiri, Tatsuro; Maekawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Phytosynthesis of nanomaterials is advantageous since it is economical, ecofriendly, and simple, and, what is more, in the synthetic protocols, nontoxic chemicals and biocompatible materials are used. Here, a green synthetic methodology of nanoparticles (NPs) composed of silver (Ag) and silver chloride (AgCl) NPs is developed using a leaf extract of Solidago altissima as a reducing agent for the first time. Utilization of a terrestrial weed for the synthesis of Ag and AgCl NPs is a novel environmentally friendly approach considering that no toxic chemicals, external halide source, or elaborate experimental procedures are included in the process. The optical properties and elemental compositions of as-synthesized Ag and AgCl NPs are well characterized, and the degradation of an organic dye, i.e., rhodamine B (RhB), is investigated using the Ag and AgCl NPs. We find that degradation of RhB is effectively achieved thanks to both surface plasmon resonance and semiconductor properties of Ag and AgCl NPs. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering and antibacterial activities are also examined. The present approach to the synthesis of NPs using a weed may encourage the utilization of hazardous plants for the creation of novel nanomaterials. (paper)

  1. Development of novel low-copy nuclear markers for Hieraciinae (Asteraceae) and their perspective for other tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krak, Karol; Alvarez, Inés; Caklová, Petra; Costa, Andrea; Chrtek, Jindrich; Fehrer, Judith

    2012-02-01

    The development of three low-copy nuclear markers for low taxonomic level phylogenies in Asteraceae with emphasis on the subtribe Hieraciinae is reported. Marker candidates were selected by comparing a Lactuca complementary DNA (cDNA) library with public DNA sequence databases. Interspecific variation and phylogenetic signal of the selected genes were investigated for diploid taxa from the subtribe Hieraciinae and compared to a reference phylogeny. Their ability to cross-amplify was assessed for other Asteraceae tribes. All three markers had higher variation (2.1-4.5 times) than the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) in Hieraciinae. Cross-amplification was successful in at least seven other tribes of the Asteraceae. Only three cases indicating the presence of paralogs or pseudogenes were detected. The results demonstrate the potential of these markers for phylogeny reconstruction in the Hieraciinae as well as in other Asteraceae tribes, especially for very closely related species.

  2. Asteraceae visited by honeybees in Argentina: a record from entomopalynological studies Asteraceae visitadas por abejas melíferas en Argentina: un registro a partir de estudios entomopalinológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Telleria

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Entomopalynological studies of Asteraceae in Argentina revealed that 64 taxa occurred in food stored by honeybees. The most visited plant tribes were classified according to both the type of reward provided by the different taxa and the intensity that such reward is collected by honeybees. Exotic plant taxa were intensely visited inside the disturbed areas (e.g. Cardueae and Cichorieae tribes, whereas native taxa (e.g. Barnadesioideae, Mutisieae, Astereae and Eupatorieae were intensely visited in less disturbed areas. A large number of identified taxa of Asteraceae and the evaluation of its importance to honeybee nutrition were presented. The present study contributes to the knowledge of relationship between Asteraceae and honeybees.A partir de estudios entomopalinológicos se encontró que 64 taxa pertenecientes a la familia Asteraceae están presentes en los alimentos almacenados por las abejas melíferas. Los representantes exóticos fueron intensamente visitados en las áreas más alteradas (e.g. Cardueae and Cichorieae, mientras que algunos representantes nativos (e.g. Barnadesioideae, Mutisieae, Astereae y Eupatorieae fueron intensamente visitados en áreas menos alteradas. Se presenta un importante número de taxa de Asteraceae relevantes para la nutrición de las abejas melíferas. El presente trabajo contribuye a conocer la relación entre Asteraceae y abejas melíferas.

  3. Resolution of deep nodes yields an improved backbone phylogeny and a new basal lineage to study early evolution of Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panero, Jose L; Freire, Susana E; Ariza Espinar, Luis; Crozier, Bonnie S; Barboza, Gloria E; Cantero, Juan J

    2014-11-01

    A backbone phylogeny that fully resolves all subfamily and deeper nodes of Asteraceae was constructed using 14 chloroplast DNA loci. The recently named genus Famatinanthus was found to be sister to the Mutisioideae-Asteroideae clade that represents more than 99% of Asteraceae and was found to have the two chloroplast inversions present in all Asteraceae except the nine genera of Barnadesioideae. A monotypic subfamily Famatinanthoideae and tribe Famatinantheae are named herein as new. Relationships among the basal lineages of the family were resolved with strong support in the Bayesian analysis as (Barnadesioideae (Famatinanthoideae (Mutisioideae (Stifftioideae (Wunderlichioideae-Asteroideae))))). Ancestral state reconstruction of ten morphological characters at the root node of the Asteraceae showed that the ancestral sunflower would have had a woody habit, alternate leaves, solitary capitulescences, epaleate receptacles, smooth styles, smooth to microechinate pollen surface sculpturing, white to yellow corollas, and insect-mediated pollination. Herbaceous habit, echinate pollen surface, pubescent styles, and cymose capitulescences were reconstructed for backbone nodes of the phylogeny corresponding to clades that evolved shortly after Asteraceae dispersed out of South America. No support was found for discoid capitula, multiseriate involucres or bird pollination as the ancestral character condition for any node. Using this more resolved phylogenetic tree, the recently described Raiguenrayun cura+Mutisiapollis telleriae fossil should be associated to a more derived node than previously suggested when time calibrating phylogenies of Asteraceae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential Asteraceae Invaders in Taiwan: Insights from the Flora and Herbarium Records of Casual and Naturalized Alien Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Huah Wu

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Naturalization has been shown to be one of the primary stages of plant invasions; therefore, studies on naturalized plant species may generate valuable insights of possible invaders and invasions. Background information of casual and naturalized Asteraceae species provided by a comprehensive list of casual and naturalized species in Taiwan was examined to estimate the basic biological traits and geological origins of potential invasive species in this study. Besides, herbarium records were collected and analyzed to predict the invasiveness of casual and naturalized Asteraceae species. Our results showed that 44.0% out of the 51 casual and naturalized Asteraceae species were classified as invasive in the field, and a notable portion of these species were probably introduced accidently. Tropical Americas were the most important origins of casual and naturalized Asteraceae species, followed by Europe and temperate Americas. Most of the casual and naturalized Asteraceae species were annual herbs, and a few perennial species categorized as invasive may cause profound environmental problems. The herbarium record showed that species possessed different numbers of localities within the same time frame. We suggested that casual and naturalized Asteraceae species collected in more localities are more invasive than those species found in fewer localities within the same period of time.

  5. Embriogénesis somática de Citrus macrophylla Wester con el empleo del Pectimorf® y análogos de brasinoesteroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Bao Fundora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Somatic embryogenesis of Citrus macrophylla Wester using Pectimorf® and analogues of brassinosteroids Resumen Los cítricos son frutales muy utilizados como patrones de injerto. Para incrementar la cantidad de estos cultivos en las plantaciones citrícolas, se pueden usar técnicas de propagación in vitro como la embriogénesis somática, que requiere medios de cultivos artificiales y fitohormonas. Debido a los altos costos de las fitohormonas, una alternativa cubana es el uso de biorreguladores del crecimiento de producción nacional como: los análogos de brasinoesteroides: 25(R 2α, 3α, dihidroxi 5α espirostan- 6-ona (Biobras-6 y C: 25(R 2α, 3α, 5α, trihidroxiespirostan-6-ona (MH-5 y una mezcla de oligogalacturónido de grado de polimerización entre 10-14 (Pectimorf®.  Estos biorreguladores son efectivos en los procesos morfogenéticos como sustitutos o complemento de las auxinas y citoquininas. El presente trabajo estuvo dirigido a determinar el efecto del Pectimorf® y los brasinoesteroides como sustitutos de las fitohormonas tradicionales en el desarrollo de la embriogénesis somática y en la obtención de una línea celular embriogénica de Citrus macrophylla Wester. Se utilizó el medio de cultivo de Murashige y Skoog (MS (1962, suplementado con los biorreguladores del crecimiento MH-5, Biobras-6 y Pectimorf®. Mediante la embriogénesis somática se obtuvieron embriones, raíces y plántulas, en todos los tratamientos. En la formación de plántulas estos biorreguladores fueron muy efectivos. Palabras clave: cultivo in vitro; Citrus; biorreguladores del crecimiento. Abstract Citrus fruits are widely used as rootstock. To increase the amount of these crops in plantations, in vitro propagation techniques such as somatic embryogenesis can be used, which requires artificial culture media and plant hormones. Due to the high cost of the plant hormone, a Cuban alternative is the use of cuban bioregulators growth

  6. Atlas palinológico de la Amazonia Colombiana II. Familia Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Bulla Luis Carlos

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe pollen from 26 genera of Asteraceae which belong to six tribes: Heliantheae (10, Eupatorieae (6, Vernonieae (6, Senecioneae (2, Mutisieae (1 and Inulineae (1. Tricolporate grains were dominant, but tetracolporate grains also appears. All grains are tectate and the most common sculpture type was echinate.Se describen 26 palinomorfos pertenecientes a los géneros más importantes en cuanto a número de especies de la familia Asteraceae y dentro de esta a las tribus Heliantheae (10, Eupatorieae (6, Vernonieae (6, Senecioneae (2, Mutisieae (1, Inulineae (1. Las aberturas son tricolporadas o tetracolporadas, los granos son tectados y el tipo de escultura que más se repite es la equinada.

  7. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Cury, Graziela

    2011-01-01

    In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna), the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. ...

  8. Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae by Hiroshi Nakano*a)b)c), Abbas...larvicides against Aedes aegypti. Structural differences among compounds 3, 5, and 8 consisted in differing AcO and OH groups attached to C(3’’) and C(4...serious human diseases including malaria, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue, and filariasis. The urban-adapted Aedes aegypti mosquito has become

  9. Herbivoria por insetos galhadores mediada pelo sexo em Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Marco Antonio A.; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson; Souza, Og F. F. de; Souza, Wyller Vicente M.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction patterns between the dioecious shrub Baccharis concinna Barroso (Asteraceae) and its speciose galling insect community were studied in southeastern Brazil. Two hypotheses were tested in this study: "the differential reproduction and growth hypothesis" that predicts that male plants present fewer reproductive structures and are larger than female plants; and the 'sex-biased herbivory hypothesis' that predicts that male plants support a larger abundance of insect galls than fema...

  10. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepar...

  11. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Cury, Graziela

    2011-09-01

    In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna), the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell.) Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam.) DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng.), to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  12. Eupatorium capilifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae, REKAMAN BARU UNTUK FLORA JAWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Surya Dwipa Irsyam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Sebanyak 227 jenis tumbuhan Asteraceae terdapat di Pulau Jawa berdasarkan Flora of Java. Namun, suku Asteraceae di Pulau Jawa belum banyak ditinjau kembali sejak buku tersebut terbit 51 tahun yang lalu, sehingga memungkinkan adanya jenis-jenis tambahan yang belum terekam. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi adanya jenis tambahan yang terdapat di Pulau Jawa. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metode jelajah di Labuan (Banten, Bogor (Jawa Barat, Malang, dan Situbondo (Jawa Timur. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton merupakan rekaman baru yang dapat melengkapi flora Jawa. Jenis tersebut dikelompokkan ke dalam puak Eupatorieae. Abstract There are 227 species of Asteraceae in Java Island recorded in the Flora of Java. However, only few review of this family for Java since Flora of Java has published 51 years ago. Some possibilities of unrecorded species may occur after this Flora of Java published. This research was conducted to provide information on additional species in Java Island. This research was carried out using exploration method in Labuan (Banten, Bogor (West Java, Malang and Situbondo (East Java. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton is a new record for completing the flora of Java Island. This species belongs to Eupatorieae tribe.   

  13. Analytical Method for the Validation of Three Polyphenols as a Marker Compound for the Standardization of Solidago virgaurea subsp. gigantea Extracts and Antiadipogenesis of Harvesting Time and Location

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    Seung Hwan Hwang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocatechuic acid (PC, chlorogenic acid (CA, and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (K-O-R, isolated from the Solidago virgaurea subsp. gigantea (SV extract, were quickly and efficiently separated using HPLC. Our chromatographic method was found to effectively separate PC, CA, and K-O-R at retention times of 5.36, 8.22, and 17.04 min, respectively. Linearity of PC, CA, and K-O-R was found to be in the range of 4.85–485.00, 47.5–1900.00, and 8.50–850.00 μg/ml. Recoveries ranged between 101.32 and 103.30%, 95.82 and 100.25%, and 96.18 and 99.37%, for PC, CA, and K-O-R, respectively. The antiadipogenesis activity of SV extracts collected from five different months and from seven different regions was evaluated using an Oil Red O staining assay in 3T3-L1 cells. Extract from SV collected in April from the Ulleung Island produced over 106.89% inhibition of adipogenesis without cytotoxicity at 50 μg/ml. This extract had a high amount of PC and K-O-R. The developed HPLC method was found to be fast, accurate, precise, and reproducible and could be applied to qualitative and quantitative analysis of three bioactive compounds in SV extracts. The SV extract collected in April from Ulleung Island can be used as a functional food ingredient preventing obesity.

  14. Distribución y uso tradicional de Sagittaria macrophylla Zucc. y S. latifolia Willd. en el Estado de México

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    Carmen Zepeda Gómez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sagittaria macrophylla y S. latifolia son plantas acuáticas emergentes que crecen en las orillas y zonas poco profundas de los cuerpos de agua limpios y de poca corriente. La primera es endémica de México, su distribución se restringe a la región del río Lerma y valle de México y está en peligro de extinción. Sagittarial latifolia se distribuye desde Canadá hasta el noroeste de Sudamérica. En México se localiza al menos en 11 estados. El análisis de la distribución de ambas especies muestra una disminución en el Estado de México; los factores que aparentemente están contribuyendo a este fenómeno son, en general, la explosión demográfica, la pérdida del hábitat y la sobreexplotación. No había registros del uso de S. latifolia en México, actualmente se reconoce que sus tubérculos o ‘papas de agua’ tienen importancia económica en la región del río Lerma. El uso tradicional de ambas especies indica que podrían ser una alternativa más en la dieta humana y animal.

  15. Evaluación ecólogico - silvicultural y socio-económica de las plantaciones de caoba (Swietenia macrophylla King) en la comunidad indigena Sinchi Roca – Ucayali

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra Muñoz, Luis Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Bosques y Gestión de Recursos Forestales Durante los años 2000 y 2001, el Ex Comité de Reforestación de Pucallpa estableció en la CC.II. Sinchi Roca un total de 720 ha de plantaciones forestales en fajas de enriquecimiento con la especie “caoba” Swietenia macrophylla, las mismas que estuvieron divididas en dos sectores, el sector Unihuaqui con 220 ha y el sector Guacamayo con 500 ha respectivamente, con el objeto de b...

  16. Controle biológico de Hypsipyla grandella Zeller (lepidoptera: pyralidae) e novos relatos de ácaros e fungos em mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King) em Brasília/DF

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Marcelo Tavares de

    2017-01-01

    O mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King) é uma espécie florestal extremamente apreciada pela qualidade de sua madeira, plasticidade silvicultural e beleza ornamental. O seu corte em áreas naturais foi tão abusivo que atualmente é uma espécie protegida e ameaçada de extinção. Apesar disso, o cultivo do mogno tem se estabelecido em diversas partes do mundo, inclusive no Brasil, tanto em plantios comerciais, quanto na arborização de diversas cidades. Porém, um dos principais entraves para o estabele...

  17. Potencial antioxidante e antimicrobiano de espécies da família Asteraceae Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Asteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L Fabri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies da família Asteraceae são amplamente utilizadas na medicina popular para diversos fins terapêuticos. Neste contexto, este estudo teve por objetivo averiguar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante in vitro de extratos metanólicos de plantas pertencentes a Asteraceae, a maioria comumente utilizada na medicina tradicional. A prospecção química dos extratos também foi realizada. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de susceptibilidade em microdiluição em caldo e a atividade antioxidante determinada pelo ensaio com o radical DPPH. O extrato da folha de Baccharis dracunculifolia apresentou significativa atividade antimicrobiana para Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bacillus cereus e Cryptococcus neoformans (CIM = 0,005; 0,005 e 0,039 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Os extratos das folhas de Bidens segetum e Matricaria chamomilla foram seletivos para Shigella sonnei e P. aeruginosa (CIM = 0,005 e 0,078 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Já as folhas de Acanthospermun australe e Baccharis trimera apresentaram atividade significativa apenas para Candida albicans (CIM = 0,039 mg mL-1 enquanto as folhas de Taraxacum officinale foram ativos contra ambas leveduras com CIM 0,039 mg mL-1. Em relação à atividade antioxidante, os extratos das folhas de B. dracunculifolia, T. officinale e das inflorescências de B. segetum apresentaram significativa atividade com CI50 de 5, 5 e 4 µg mL-1, respectivamente. A prospecção química dos extratos identificou presença de compostos como flavonoides, terpenos e outros que podem ser responsáveis pelas atividades observadas.Asteraceae species have been largely used in folk medicine for several therapeutic purposes. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from plants belonging to the Asteraceae family, most of which are commonly used in traditional medicine. Chemical prospecting of extracts was also performed. The

  18. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna, the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell. Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam. DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng., to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.No Cerrado brasileiro (savana neotropical, o desenvolvimento de sistemas subterrâneos que produzem gemas, como estruturas adaptativas contra o fogo e períodos de seca, pode compreender um importante suprimento de gemas para esse ecossistema, como já demonstrado nos campos brasileiros e nas pradarias norte-americanas. Espécies de Asteraceae tanto do estrato lenhoso, quanto do herbáceo têm órgãos que acumulam carboidratos, reforçando a estratégia adaptativa dessas plantas a diferentes condições ambientais. Este estudo tem o objetivo de analisar a morfo

  19. Seasonal changes of fructans in dimorphic roots of Ichthyothere terminalis (Spreng.) Blake (Asteraceae) growing in Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Lorrayne Veloso; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; Seraphin, José Carlos; de Moraes, Moemy Gomes

    2017-11-15

    Cerrado is a floristically rich savanna in Brazil, whose vegetation consists of a physiognomic mosaic, influenced by rainfall seasonality. In the dry season rainfall is substantially lower and reduces soil water supply, mainly for herbs and subshrubs. Climatic seasonal variations may well define phenological shifts and induce fluctuations of plant reserve pools. Some Cerrado native species have thickened underground organs that bear buds and store reserves, as adaptive features to enable plant survival following environmental stresses. Asteraceae species accumulate fructans in storage organs, which are not only reserve, but also protecting compounds against the effects of cold and drought. Ichthyothere terminalis is one Asteraceae species abundant in cerrado rupestre, with underground organs consisting of thickened orthogravitropic and diagravitropic roots. The objectives of this study were to analyze how abiotic environmental factors and plant phenology influence fructan dynamics in field grown plants, and verify if fructan metabolism differs in both root types for one year. I. terminalis accumulates inulin-type fructans in 10-40% of the dry mass in both root types. Fructan dynamics have similar patterns described for other Asteraceae species, exhibiting a proportional increase of polysaccharides with the senescence of the aerial organs. Multivariate analyzes showed that, as rainfall decreased, environmental factors had a stronger influence on metabolite levels than phenological shifts in both root types. Only slight differences were found in fructan dynamics between orthogravitropic and diagravitropic roots, suggesting they may have similar fructan metabolism regulation. However, these small differences may reflect distinct microclimatic conditions in both root types and also represent the influence of sink strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative genomics in the Asteraceae reveals little evidence for parallel evolutionary change in invasive taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Bock, Dan G; Hahn, Min A; Heredia, Sylvia M; Turner, Kathryn G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-05-01

    Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has given rise to many notorious invasive species. Using publicly available transcriptome assemblies from 35 Asteraceae, including six major invasive species, we examined evidence for micro- and macro-evolutionary genomic changes associated with invasion. To detect episodes of positive selection repeated across multiple introductions, we conducted comparisons between native and introduced genotypes from six focal species and identified genes with elevated rates of amino acid change (dN/dS). We then looked for evidence of positive selection at a broader phylogenetic scale across all taxa. As invasive species may experience founder events during colonization and spread, we also looked for evidence of increased genetic load in introduced genotypes. We rarely found evidence for parallel changes in orthologous genes in the intraspecific comparisons, but in some cases we identified changes in members of the same gene family. Using among-species comparisons, we detected positive selection in 0.003-0.69% and 2.4-7.8% of the genes using site and stochastic branch-site models, respectively. These genes had diverse putative functions, including defence response, stress response and herbicide resistance, although there was no clear pattern in the GO terms. There was no indication that introduced genotypes have a higher proportion of deleterious alleles than native genotypes in the six focal species, suggesting multiple introductions and admixture mitigated the impact of drift. Our findings provide little evidence for common genomic responses in invasive taxa of the Asteraceae and hence suggest that multiple evolutionary pathways may lead to adaptation during introduction and spread in these species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Vinicia tomentosa, new genus and species of Lychnophorinae (Vernonieae, Asteraceae from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Dematteis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of the tribe Vernonieae (Asteraceae from the cerrado and campo rupestre vegetation of Minas Gerais (Brazil is described and illustrated. The new taxon, Vinicia tomentosa Dematt. is closely related to Chronopappus DC. and Lychnophora Mart., but differs in having pedunculate glomerules and the narrowly cylindrical involucre. The other two genera always have sessile glomerules and the involucre is turbinate to cylindrical in Lychnophora and ovoid in Chronopappus.

  2. Complete chloroplast genomes from apomictic Taraxacum (Asteraceae): Identity and variation between three microspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeský, Ľuboš; Schwarzacher, Trude; Gornall, Richard; Heslop-Harrison, Pat

    2017-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA sequences show substantial variation between higher plant species, and less variation within species, so are typically excellent markers to investigate evolutionary, population and genetic relationships and phylogenies. We sequenced the plastomes of Taraxacum obtusifrons Markl. (O978); T. stridulum Trávniček ined. (S3); and T. amplum Markl. (A978), three apomictic triploid (2n = 3x = 24) dandelions from the T. officinale agg. We aimed to characterize the variation in plastomes, define relationships and correlations with the apomictic microspecies status, and refine placement of the microspecies in the evolutionary or phylogenetic context of the Asteraceae. The chloroplast genomes of accessions O978 and S3 were identical and 151,322 bp long (where the nuclear genes are known to show variation), while A978 was 151,349 bp long. All three genomes contained 135 unique genes, with an additional copy of the trnF-GGA gene in the LSC region and 20 duplicated genes in the IR region, along with short repeats, the typical major Inverted Repeats (IR1 and IR2, 24,431bp long), and Large and Small Single Copy regions (LSC 83,889bp and SSC 18,571bp in O978). Between the two Taraxacum plastomes types, we identified 28 SNPs. The distribution of polymorphisms suggests some parts of the Taraxacum plastome are evolving at a slower rate. There was a hemi-nested inversion in the LSC region that is common to Asteraceae, and an SSC inversion from ndhF to rps15 found only in some Asteraceae lineages. A comparative repeat analysis showed variation between Taraxacum and the phylogenetically close genus Lactuca, with many more direct repeats of 40bp or more in Lactuca (1% larger plastome than Taraxacum). When individual genes and non-coding regions were for Asteraceae phylogeny reconstruction, not all showed the same evolutionary scenario suggesting care is needed for interpretation of relationships if a limited number of markers are used. Studying genotypic diversity in

  3. A new polyacetylene from Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers. (Asteraceae) and its in vitro antitumoral activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buskuhl, Humberto; Freitas, Rilton A.; Biavatti, Maique W. [Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Itajai, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude], e-mail: maique@ccs.ufsc.br; Monache, Franco Delle [Universita ' La Sapienza' , Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Tecnologia delle Sostanze Biologicamente Attive; Barison, Andersson; Campos, Francinete R. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Dept. de Quimica; Corilo, Yuri E.; Eberlin, Marcos N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The dichloromethane fraction obtained from hydroalcoholic crude extract of leaves and flowers of Vernonia scorpioides (Asteraceae) was investigated, resulting in the isolation and structure elucidation of a new polyacetylene namely 5-octa-2,4,6-triynyl-furan-2(5H)-one. The structure of the isolated compound was determined based on IR, NMR (1D and 2D) and MS spectrometric data. The antitumor potential, including cytotoxicity to tumor cells and genotoxicity, was investigated. The results suggest that apoptotic cell death may have occurred, at least in part, via a caspase-dependent mechanism. (author)

  4. Taxonomical studies on endemic scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans stat. nov. (asteraceae) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, O.; Kus, G.

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu and Yaylac, stat. nov. (author)

  5. Hepatoprotective Role of Hydrangea macrophylla against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Mitochondrial-Dependent Oxidative Stress via the Inhibition of MAPK/Caspase-3 Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rashedunnabi Akanda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 has been recognized as a worldwide health concern. Hydrangea macrophylla (HM is used as traditional Chinese medicine possessing antioxidant activities. The study was performed to investigate the therapeutic role and underlying molecular mechanism of HM on NaAsO2-induced toxicity in human liver cancer (HepG2 cells and liver in mice. The hepatoprotective role of HM in HepG2 cells was assessed by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assays. Histopathology, lipid peroxidation, serum biochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR and Western blot analyses were performed to determine the protective role of HM against NaAsO2 intoxication in liver tissue. In this study, we found that co-treatment with HM significantly attenuated the NaAsO2-induced cell viability loss, intracellular ROS, and LDH release in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Hepatic histopathology, lipid peroxidation, and the serum biochemical parameters alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were notably improved by HM. HM effectively downregulated the both gene and protein expression level of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade. Moreover, HM well-regulated the Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax/B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2 ratio, remarkably suppressed the release of cytochrome c, and blocked the expression of the post-apoptotic transcription factor caspase-3. Therefore, our study provides new insights into the hepatoprotective role of HM through its reduction in apoptosis, which likely involves in the modulation of MAPK/caspase-3 signaling pathways.

  6. Assemblages of endophagous insects on Asteraceae in São Paulo cerrados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Adriana M; Fonseca, Carlos R; Prado, Paulo I; Almeida-Neto, Mário; Diniz, Soraia; Kubota, Umberto; Braun, Marina R; Raimundo, Rafael L G; Anjos, Luciano A; Mendonça, Tehra G; Futada, Silvia M; Lewinsohn, Thomas M

    2006-01-01

    A survey of the endophagous insects fauna associated to Asteraceae capitula was carried out from 2000 to 2002 in eight cerrado sensu stricto sites located in the Brazilian state of Sdo Paulo. Sixty-four endophagous species of Diptera and Lepidoptera were recorded from 49 asteracean host plants. Approximately half of the species were obtained from a single locality, with a large proportion emerging from a single sample (unicates). Thirty percent of the species were singletons (i.e. only one individual was recorded). The large proportion of rare species suggests a high species turnover among localities. Lepidopteran species were recorded on more host species than dipterans, confirming their more polyphagous food habit, also observed in other Brazilian biomes and in Europe. We conclude that the studied cerrado localities, all within São Paulo State, are isolated with its invertebrate fauna composed of many rare and exclusive species. We suggest that the maintenance of Asteraceae biodiversity and their endophagous insects depend on the conservation of all cerrado remnants in the state.

  7. Species richness in natural and disturbed habitats: Asteraceae and Flower-head insects (Tephritidae: Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Soraia; Prado, Paulo I; Lewinsohn, Thomas M

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in the landscape result in an environmental mosaic with serious consequences for biodiversity. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the anthropogenic changes on Asteraceae richness and abundance, and to evaluate the consequences for the richness of Tephritidae assemblages in five sampling sites, with three sampled habitats in each: cerrado (Brazilian savanna), eucalyptus stands and pasture. Sampling was carried out in 15 random transects (cerrados and one pasture) and in 30 transects (eucalyptus stands and the remaining pastures). Composition, species richness and insect abundance in each habitat type was estimated by sampling the flower heads for each species of host plant, collected by four people for 1h. Differences in mean abundance of plant population between habitats and sites were tested by two-way ANOVA. Differences in plant species richness between habitats and sites and effects of habitat, site and host plant richness on insect richness were tested using a generalized linear model with Poisson errors. Within each sampling site, cerrados showed higher species richness of Asteraceae than pastures and eucalyptus stands. There were also significant differences in plant richness among sites. Mean population abundance values were significantly different among habitats, but not among sites. Increased host plant richness led to significant insect species richness. There were no additional significant effects of habitat on insect richness. Therefore, anthropogenic alterations in landscape determined the impoverishment of plant assemblages and therefore of insect assemblages, because of the positive relationship between host plant richness and insect richness.

  8. Surface microstructures of daisy florets (Asteraceae) and characterization of their anisotropic wetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kerstin; Bennemann, Michael; Bohn, Holger F; Albach, Dirk C; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2013-09-01

    The surface microstructures on ray florets of 62 species were characterized and compared with modern phylogenetic data of species affiliation in Asteraceae to determine sculptural patterns and their occurrence in the tribes of Asteraceae. Their wettability was studied to identify structural-induced droplet adhesion, which can be used for the development of artificial surfaces for water harvesting and passive surface water transport. The wettability was characterized by contact angle (CA) and tilt angle measurements, performed on fresh ray florets and their epoxy resin replica. The CAs on ray florets varied between 104° and 156°, but water droplets did not roll off when surface was tilted at 90°. Elongated cell structures and cuticle folding orientated in the same direction as the cell elongation caused capillary forces, leading to anisotropic wetting, with extension of water droplets along the length axis of epidermis cells. The strongest elongation of the droplets was also supported by a parallel, cell-overlapping cuticle striation. In artificial surfaces made of epoxy replica of ray florets, this effect was enhanced. The distribution of the identified four structural types exhibits a strong phylogenetic signal and allows the inference of an evolutionary trend in the modification of floret epidermal cells.

  9. Early evolution of the angiosperm clade Asteraceae in the Cretaceous of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Viviana D; Palazzesi, Luis; Tellería, Maria C; Olivero, Eduardo B; Raine, J Ian; Forest, Félix

    2015-09-01

    The Asteraceae (sunflowers and daisies) are the most diverse family of flowering plants. Despite their prominent role in extant terrestrial ecosystems, the early evolutionary history of this family remains poorly understood. Here we report the discovery of a number of fossil pollen grains preserved in dinosaur-bearing deposits from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica that drastically pushes back the timing of assumed origin of the family. Reliably dated to ∼76-66 Mya, these specimens are about 20 million years older than previously known records for the Asteraceae. Using a phylogenetic approach, we interpreted these fossil specimens as members of an extinct early diverging clade of the family, associated with subfamily Barnadesioideae. Based on a molecular phylogenetic tree calibrated using fossils, including the ones reported here, we estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the family lived at least 80 Mya in Gondwana, well before the thermal and biogeographical isolation of Antarctica. Most of the early diverging lineages of the family originated in a narrow time interval after the K/P boundary, 60-50 Mya, coinciding with a pronounced climatic warming during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene, and the scene of a dramatic rise in flowering plant diversity. Our age estimates reduce earlier discrepancies between the age of the fossil record and previous molecular estimates for the origin of the family, bearing important implications in the evolution of flowering plants in general.

  10. Investigation of plant latices of Asteraceae and Campanulaceae regarding proteolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytwala, Sonja; Domsalla, André; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-12-01

    Occurrence of plant latices is widespread, there are more than 40 families of plants characterized to establish lactiferous structures. The appearance of hydrolytic active proteins, incorporated in latices is already characterized, and hydrolytic active proteins are considerable, and for several plant families, the occurrence of hydrolytic active proteins is already specified e.g. Apocynaceae Juss., Caricaceae Dumort, Euphorbiaceae Juss., Moraceae Gaudich and Papaveraceae Juss. In our investigation, focused on latex bearing plants of order Asterales, Asteraceae and Campanulaceae in particular. The present outcomes represent a comprehensive study, relating to the occurrence of proteolytic active enzymes of order Asterales for the first time. 131 different species of Asteraceae and Campanulaceae were tested, and the appearance of plant latex proteases were determined in different quantities. Proteolytic activity was investigated by inhibitory studies and determination of residual activity in the following, enable us to characterize the proteases. Most of the considered species exhibit a serine protease activity and a multiplicity of species exhibited two or more subclasses of proteases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Roles of mucilage in Emilia fosbergii, a myxocarpic Asteraceae: Efficient seed imbibition and diaspore adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Paula, Orlando C; Marzinek, Juliana; Oliveira, Denise M T; Paiva, Élder A S

    2015-09-01

    Several angiosperm families have myxodiaspory, such as the Asteraceae in which cypselae are frequently wind-dispersed. The roles of mucilage in cypselae remain misunderstood, and the route of water uptake from substrate to embryo remains unknown. In this work, we analyze the fruits of Emilia fosbergii aiming to clarify how the water is absorbed and how the structure of the pericarp can be related to the processes of diaspore adhesion and seed imbibition. The anatomy and ultrastructure of the cypselae of Emilia fosbergii were analyzed with histochemical tests and light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We assessed the roles of mucilage in seed imbibition using apoplasmic tracing with Lucifer yellow and epifluorescence microscopy and in adhesion with a sand assay. We describe structural and ultrastructural aspects of the exocarpic cells, especially the mucilaginous twin hairs. Lucifer yellow was absorbed only by the twin hairs, the cells where water primarily enters the seed during seed imbibition. In the sand assay, the mucilage was adhesive. The twin hairs on the surface of the cypselae can play a dual role in the establishment of new plants of this species. First, these trichomes constitute the main passage for water intake, which is essential for seed imbibition and germination, and after imbibition, they release mucilage that can adhere the diaspore. Therefore, the presence of myxocarpy in Asteraceae could be important in anemochoric species to avoid secondary dispersal. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  12. Surface microstructures of daisy florets (Asteraceae) and characterization of their anisotropic wetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Kerstin; Bennemann, Michael; Bohn, Holger F; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Albach, Dirk C

    2013-01-01

    The surface microstructures on ray florets of 62 species were characterized and compared with modern phylogenetic data of species affiliation in Asteraceae to determine sculptural patterns and their occurrence in the tribes of Asteraceae. Their wettability was studied to identify structural-induced droplet adhesion, which can be used for the development of artificial surfaces for water harvesting and passive surface water transport. The wettability was characterized by contact angle (CA) and tilt angle measurements, performed on fresh ray florets and their epoxy resin replica. The CAs on ray florets varied between 104° and 156°, but water droplets did not roll off when surface was tilted at 90°. Elongated cell structures and cuticle folding orientated in the same direction as the cell elongation caused capillary forces, leading to anisotropic wetting, with extension of water droplets along the length axis of epidermis cells. The strongest elongation of the droplets was also supported by a parallel, cell-overlapping cuticle striation. In artificial surfaces made of epoxy replica of ray florets, this effect was enhanced. The distribution of the identified four structural types exhibits a strong phylogenetic signal and allows the inference of an evolutionary trend in the modification of floret epidermal cells. (paper)

  13. COROTIPOS PRELIMINARES DE PERÚ BASADOS EN LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE LA FAMILIA ASTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berni Britto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se basa en el concepto de categorías corológicas o corotipos para formular una nueva hipótesis de clasificación biogeográfica del Perú basado en la distribución de la familia Astera - ceae. La información recabada dio como resultado que existen 1669 especies de Asteraceae registradas en Perú (hasta el año 2008, distribuidas en 255 géneros. El territorio peruano se dividió en 218 Distritos de Reporte que representan a los 24 departamentos divididos en franjas de 500 m de altitud. La base de datos biogeográficos de Asteraceae se obtuvo cruzando los registros de distribución actualizados con los Distritos de Reporte, expresándose en una matriz de presencia-ausencia. El análisis de datos dio como resultado un total de 14 corotipos preliminares para el Perú: Abiseo, Amotape, Andino, Apurímac-Huan - cavelica, Chachapoyas-Huánuco, Huancabamba, Huascarán, Ica, Lima-Piura, Loreto-Ucayali, Manu, Pasco, Sandia y Tacna.

  14. The application of multiplex fluorimetric sensor for the analysis of flavonoids content in the medicinal herbs family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Sytar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of our research work was to quantify total flavonoid contents in the leaves of 13 plant species family Asteraceae, 8 representatives of family Lamiaceae and 9 plant species belonging to familyRosaceae, using the multiplex fluorimetric sensor. Fluorescence was measured using optical fluorescence apparatus Multiplex(R 3 (Force-A, France for non-destructive flavonoids estimation. The content of total flavonoids was estimated by FLAV index (expressed in relative units, that is deduced from flavonoids UV absorbing properties. RESULTS: Among observed plant species, the highest amount of total flavonoids has been found in leaves ofHelianthus multiflorus (1.65 RU and Echinops ritro (1.27 RU, Rudbeckia fulgida (1.13 RU belonging to the family Asteraceae. Lowest flavonoid content has been observed in the leaves of marigold (Calendula officinalis (0.14 RU also belonging to family Asteraceae. The highest content of flavonoids among experimental plants of family Rosaceae has been estimated in the leaves of Rosa canina (1.18 RU and among plant species of family Lamiaceae in the leaves of Coleus blumei (0.90 RU. CONCLUSIONS: This research work was done as pre-screening of flavonoids content in the leaves of plant species belonging to family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae. Results indicated that statistically significant differences (P > 0.05 in flavonoids content were observed not only between families, but also among individual plant species within one family.

  15. ASPECTOS TAXONÔMICOS, FITOGEOGRÁFICOS E USOS DE Pectis uniaristata DC. var. jangadensis (S.Moore) Keil (ASTERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    PEREIRA, ARILDO GONÇALO; NETO, GERMANO GUARIM

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho discute os aspectos taxonômicos, fitogeográficos e outros relacionados à Pectis uniaristata var. jangadensis (S. Moore) Keil (Asteraceae) uma planta de ocorrência na vegetação do cerrado e do pantanal de Mato Grosso.

  16. Sesquiterpenoids in subtribe Centaureinae (Cass.) Dumort (tribe Cardueae, Asteraceae): distribution, (13)C NMR spectral data and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Maurizio; Bancheva, Svetlana; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella

    2013-11-01

    Asteraceae Bercht. & J. Presl is one of the biggest and most economically important plant families. The taxonomy and phylogeny of Asteraceae is rather complex and according to the latest and most reliable taxonomic classification of Panero & Funk, based on the analysis of nine chloroplast regions, the family is divided into 12 subfamilies and 35 tribes. One of the largest tribes of Asteraceae is Cardueae Cass. with four subtribes (Carlininae, Echinopinae, Carduinae and Centaureinae) and more than 2500 species. Susanna & Garcia-Jacas have organized the genera of Centaureinae (about 800 species) into seven informal groups, which recent molecular studies have confirmed: 1. Basal genera; 2. Volutaria group; 3. Rhaponticum group; 4. Serratula group; 5. Carthamus group; 6. Crocodylium group; 7. Centaurea group. This review summarizes reports on sesquiterpenoids from the Centaureinae subtribe of the Asteraceae family, as well as the (13)C NMR spectral data described in the literature. It further reviews studies concerning the biological activities of these metabolites. For this work, literature data on sesquiterpenes from the Centaureinae subtribe were retrieved with the help of the SciFinder database and other similar data banks. All entries from 1958 until the end of 2011 were considered. This review is addressed to scientists working in the metabolomics field such as chemists, botanists, etc., the spectroscopic data reported make this work a good tool for structural elucidation, the biological section gives useful information to those who wish to study the structure activity relationships. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Deep sequencing of amplicons reveals widespread intraspecific hybridization and multiple origins of polyploidy in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Justin T. Page; Prabin Bajgain; Stewart C. Sanderson; Joshua A. Udall

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Hybridization has played an important role in the evolution and ecological adaptation of diploid and polyploid plants. Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) tetraploids are extremely widespread and of great ecological importance. These tetraploids are often taxonomically identified as A. tridentata subsp. wyomingensis or as autotetraploids of diploid...

  18. Evolution and Expression Patterns of CYC/TB1 Genes in Anacyclus: Phylogenetic Insights for Floral Symmetry Genes in Asteraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, María A.; Cubas, Pilar; Álvarez, Inés; Sanjuanbenito, Guillermo; Fuertes-Aguilar, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Homologs of the CYC/TB1 gene family have been independently recruited many times across the eudicots to control aspects of floral symmetry The family Asteraceae exhibits the largest known diversification in this gene paralog family accompanied by a parallel morphological floral richness in its specialized head-like inflorescence. In Asteraceae, whether or not CYC/TB1 gene floral symmetry function is preserved along organismic and gene lineages is unknown. In this study, we used phylogenetic, structural and expression analyses focused on the highly derived genus Anacyclus (tribe Anthemidae) to address this question. Phylogenetic reconstruction recovered eight main gene lineages present in Asteraceae: two from CYC1, four from CYC2 and two from CYC3-like genes. The species phylogeny was recovered in most of the gene lineages, allowing the delimitation of orthologous sets of CYC/TB1 genes in Asteraceae. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that in Anacyclus three of the four isolated CYC2 genes are more highly expressed in ray flowers. The expression of the four AcCYC2 genes overlaps in several organs including the ligule of ray flowers, as well as in anthers and ovules throughout development. PMID:28487706

  19. The application of multiplex fluorimetric sensor for the analysis of flavonoids content in the medicinal herbs family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytar, Oksana; Bruckova, Klaudia; Hunkova, Elena; Zivcak, Marek; Konate, Kiessoun; Brestic, Marian

    2015-01-16

    The aim of our research work was to quantify total flavonoid contents in the leaves of 13 plant species family Asteraceae, 8 representatives of family Lamiaceae and 9 plant species belonging to family Rosaceae, using the multiplex fluorimetric sensor. Fluorescence was measured using optical fluorescence apparatus Multiplex(R) 3 (Force-A, France) for non-destructive flavonoids estimation. The content of total flavonoids was estimated by FLAV index (expressed in relative units), that is deduced from flavonoids UV absorbing properties. Among observed plant species, the highest amount of total flavonoids has been found in leaves of Helianthus multiflorus (1.65 RU) and Echinops ritro (1.27 RU), Rudbeckia fulgida (1.13 RU) belonging to the family Asteraceae. Lowest flavonoid content has been observed in the leaves of marigold (Calendula officinalis) (0.14 RU) also belonging to family Asteraceae. The highest content of flavonoids among experimental plants of family Rosaceae has been estimated in the leaves of Rosa canina (1.18 RU) and among plant species of family Lamiaceae in the leaves of Coleus blumei (0.90 RU). This research work was done as pre-screening of flavonoids content in the leaves of plant species belonging to family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae. Results indicated that statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in flavonoids content were observed not only between families, but also among individual plant species within one family.

  20. Podospermic acid, 1,3,5-tri-O-(7,8-dihydrocaffeoyl) quinic acid from Podospermum laciniatum (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zidorn, Christian; Petersen, Bent O.; Udovicic ́, Vedrana

    2005-01-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Podospermum laciniatum (L.) DC. (Asteraceae) yielded the new quinic acid derivative podospermic acid (1,3,5-tridihydrocaffeoylquinic acid), which was named after the genus it was isolated from. The structure was established by HR mass spectrometry and extensive 1D...

  1. Ribosomal DNA, heterochromatin, and correlation with genome size in diploid and polyploid North American endemic sagebrushes (Artemisia, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia Garcia; Teresa Garnatje; Jaume Pellicer; E. Durant McArthur; Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev; Joan Valles

    2009-01-01

    Subgenus Tridentatae (Artemisia, Asteraceae) can be considered a polyploid complex. Both polyploidy and hybridization have been documented in the Tridentatae. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and fluorochrome banding were used to detect and analyze ribosomal DNA changes linked to polyploidization in this group by studying four diploidpolyploid species pairs. In...

  2. Morfoanatomia, tricomas glandulares e fitoquímica de Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker (ASTERACEAE - EUPATORIEAE) - uma planta endêmica do Cerrado de Goiás

    OpenAIRE

    Trindade, Luma Mota Palmeira

    2013-01-01

    Morfoanatomia, tricomas glandulares e fitoquímica de Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker (Asteraceae - Eupatorieae) – Uma planta endêmica do cerrado de Goiás - A família Asteraceae é amplamente distribuída, possuindo 24.000 espécies e 1.600 a 1700 gêneros, constituindo uma das maiores famílias de fanerógamas. No Cerrado, dentre as fanerógamas, é a segunda maior família em quantidade de espécies. Dentre as inúmeras espécies de Asteraceae está presente Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker, pertence à tr...

  3. Photosynthetic Water Use Efficiency in it Sorghastrum nutans (C4) and it Solidago canadensis (C3) in Three Soils Along a CO2 Concentration Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, P. A.; Hui, D.; Procter, A.; Johnson, H. B.; Polley, H. W.; Jackson, R. B.

    2006-12-01

    The water use efficiency (WUE) of leaf photosynthetic carbon uptake is a key regulator of ecosystem carbon cycles and is strongly sensitive to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations [CO2]. However WUE responses to [CO2] typically differ between C3 and C4 species and may differ on varying soil types because of differences in soil moisture retention and plant uptake efficiency. We measured leaf-level photosynthesis (ACO2), stomatal conductance (gS), and transpiration (E) with an infrared gas analyzer to estimate WUE for the C4 grass Sorghastrum nutans and the C3 forb Solidago canadensis in constructed grassland species assemblages growing in three soils arrayed along a 200 560 ppm [CO2] gradient in the LYCOG Experiment, in central Texas, USA. LYCOG consists of eighty intact soil monoliths (1 m X 1 m X 1.5 m) representing 3 soil series, Austin (Udorthentic Haplustolls, a mollisol), Bastrop (Udic Paleustalfs, a sandy loam alfisol) and Houston Black (Udic Haplusterts, a vertisol). The monoliths were vegetated by transplanting 8 native perennial prairie species (5 grasses and 3 forbs), including S. nutans and S. canadensis. Both are abundant and widespread; S. nutans is a dominant species throughout much of North American tallgrass prairie, and S. canadensis is one of the most abundant and widespread forbs in North America. ACO2, gS, and E were measured three times during the growing season. Dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence (FvFm) was measured concurrently to assess photosynthetic capacity, and leaf water potential (Ψ leaf) and soil water content were measured to assess plant water status and soil moisture availability. WUE increased strongly (p< 0.0001) at higher [CO2], due to a combination of decreasing E due to decreased gS (p ≤ 0.0005) and increasing ACO2 (p = 0.0055). This pattern was the same in both species (species x [CO2] ns). There was a corresponding increase in Ψ leaf (p = 0.01) at higher [CO2], but no [CO2] effect on FvFm. E and gS were lower on

  4. Las citoquininas están asociadas al desarrollo floral de plantas de Solidago x luteus en días cortos

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    Flórez Víctor Julio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    En Solidago × luteus (M.L. Greene Brouillet y Semple (= × Solidaster hybridusS. luteus, planta comercializada principalmente para flor de corte, el proceso de inducción floral es dependiente de las condiciones fotoperiódicas ambientales. Con el objetivo de determinar la acción de las citoquininas en este proceso, se analizó su presencia en condiciones fotoperiódicas opuestas: días largos (DL de 18 h y días cortos (DC de 8 h. En la primera fase del ensayo, con el fin de analizar la respuesta de las plantas a fitohormonas con frecuencia semanal de aplicación, se realizaron los siguientes tratamientos: 1 ácido giberélico (GA3 10-4M, 6-benzilaminopurina (6-BA 4x10-4 M y GA3 10-4 M más 6-BA 4x10-4 M; 2 GA3 10-4M, kinetina (KI 4x10-4 M y GA3 10-4 M más KI 4x10-4 M y 3 KI 4x10-4 M. Con el objeto de conocer la concentración endógena de hormonas, en la segunda fase los extractos vegetales se analizaron a través de cromatografía en capa fina y cuantificados por el ensayo inmunoenzimático de Elisa, previa separación por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia. Los resultados permitieron determinar la actividad citoquinínica en extractos provenientes de hojas y de botones florales de plantas en el inicio de los tratamientos, en DL y en DC. Se demostró que la aplicación de KI acelera la antesis floral, evidenciando la relación de citoquininas endógenas con el proceso de desarrollo floral. Por último, de los resultados obtenidos de los extractos sometidos a Elisa se sugiere la participación de las citoquininas en el proceso de antesis floral de S.× luteus, donde la iPA (isopentenil adenosina tendría una acción importante al ser transportada rápidamente de la hoja al botón floral en DC, posibilitando tal vez la mayor

  5. Pollen morphology of the genus Eremanthus Less. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae Morfologia polínica de espécies do gênero Eremanthus Less. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BenoÎt Loeuille

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the significance of the pollen morphology for generic and infrageneric taxonomy of the genus Eremanthus (Vernonieae, Asteraceae, and to provide additional data for its phylogenetic reconstruction, the pollen of 20 of the 23 species of the genus was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Acetolysed pollen grains were measured, described, and illustrated using light microscopy, while non-acetolysed pollen grains were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains of these species are isopolar, oblate-spheroidal in most of the species, more rarely prolate spheroidal or suboblate, subtriangular amb, tricolporate and subechinolophate. The variation among quantitative characters does not correlate with the macromorphological subdivision of the genus or with the generic or specific limits.Com a finalidade de avaliar a importância da morfologia polínica para a taxonomia de Eremanthus (Vernonieae, Asteraceae em nível genérico e infragenérico e fornecer dados adicionais para a sua reconstrução filogenética, os grãos de pólen de 20 das 23 espécies do gênero foram examinados usando a microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscópio de luz. Para a análise em microscópio eletrônico de varredura foram utilizados grãos de pólen com e/ou sem tratamento químico. As espécies apresentaram grãos de pólen isopolares, oblato-esferoidais, na maioria dos táxons, mais raramente prolato-esferoidais ou suboblatos, âmbito subtriangular, tricolporados e subechinolofados. A variação entre os caracteres quantitativos não se correlacionam com a subdivisão macromorfológica do gênero nem com os limites genéricos ou específicos.

  6. A Comparison of the First Two Sequenced Chloroplast Genomes in Asteraceae: Lettuce and Sunflower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timme, Ruth E.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2006-01-20

    Asteraceae is the second largest family of plants, with over 20,000 species. For the past few decades, numerous phylogenetic studies have contributed to our understanding of the evolutionary relationships within this family, including comparisons of the fast evolving chloroplast gene, ndhF, rbcL, as well as non-coding DNA from the trnL intron plus the trnLtrnF intergenic spacer, matK, and, with lesser resolution, psbA-trnH. This culminated in a study by Panero and Funk in 2002 that used over 13,000 bp per taxon for the largest taxonomic revision of Asteraceae in over a hundred years. Still, some uncertainties remain, and it would be very useful to have more information on the relative rates of sequence evolution among various genes and on genome structure as a potential set of phylogenetic characters to help guide future phylogenetic structures. By way of contributing to this, we report the first two complete chloroplast genome sequences from members of the Asteraceae, those of Helianthus annuus and Lactuca sativa. These plants belong to two distantly related subfamilies, Asteroideae and Cichorioideae, respectively. In addition to these, there is only one other published chloroplast genome sequence for any plant within the larger group called Eusterids II, that of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae, 156,318 bps, AY582139). Early chloroplast genome mapping studies demonstrated that H. annuus and L. sativa share a 22 kb inversion relative to members of the subfamily Barnadesioideae. By comparison to outgroups, this inversion was shown to be derived, indicating that the Asteroideae and Cichorioideae are more closely related than either is to the Barnadesioideae. Later sequencing study found that taxa that share this 22 kb inversion also contain within this region a second, smaller, 3.3 kb inversion. These sequences also enable an analysis of patterns of shared repeats in the genomes at fine level and of RNA editing by comparison to available EST sequences. In addition, since

  7. Clave interactiva para los géneros de la familia Asteraceae (Compositae presentes en la reserva municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gómez

    2005-01-01

    Asteraceae presentes en la reserva, utilizando solamente los caracteres de tipo vegetativo, con escaso uso de los caracteres de inflorescencia, y nulo requerimiento de caracteres florales. Esto es un resultado asombroso y no esperado para la familia Asteraceae, cuyas claves tradicionales requieren, desde el comienzo caracteres reproductivos. Es posible apreciar así la alta efectividad de la clave y la gran utilidad del programa DELTA.

  8. A new genus and species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of gall midge, Haplopappusmyia gregaria, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, and female. This species induces apical galls on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae, an endemic shrub from central Chile. The specimens were collected at La Ligua Municipality, Petorca Province, Valparaiso region, Chile, during spring of 2011–2014. This area corresponds to one of the fifth Mediterranean Matorral biome, considered among Earth's biodiversity hotspots. The new genus is characterized by presenting lateral margin of antennal scape with a mesal reentrance; four-segmented palpus, one-toothed tarsal claws, R5 straight, reaching C anterior to wing apex; male seventh and eighth tergites lacking sclerotization mesally, beyond proximal margin; presence of trichoid sensilla on the abdominal terga and sterna of both sexes, protrusible ovipositor with elongate fused cerci, and larva with 4 pairs of setose terminal papillae. Keywords: Gall midge, Morphology, Neotropical, Taxonomy

  9. A new genus and species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new genus and species of gall midge, Haplopappusmyia gregaria, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, and female. This species induces apical galls on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae, an endemic shrub from central Chile. The specimens were collected at La Ligua Municipality, Petorca Province, Valparaiso region, Chile, during spring of 2011-2014. This area corresponds to one of the fifth Mediterranean Matorral biome, considered among Earth's biodiversity hotspots. The new genus is characterized by presenting lateral margin of antennal scape with a mesal reentrance; four-segmented palpus, one-toothed tarsal claws, R5 straight, reaching C anterior to wing apex; male seventh and eighth tergites lacking sclerotization mesally, beyond proximal margin; presence of trichoid sensilla on the abdominal terga and sterna of both sexes, protrusible ovipositor with elongate fused cerci, and larva with 4 pairs of setose terminal papillae.

  10. A taxonomic revision of the genus lactuca L. (cicihorieae- asteraceae) from Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiser, M.; Bano, R.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Lactuca L. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is taxonomically revised from Pakistan and Kashmir. The revision is based on study of large number of herbarium specimens. In few cases plants have also been studied in their natural habitat. A total of 13 species are recognized from Pakistan and Kashmir including 1 new species i.e. Lactuca erostrata Roohi Bano and Qaiser. A new combination Lactuca orientalis subsp. nuristanica (Podlech) Roohi Bano and Qaiser is also proposed. All the taxa valid or synonyms have been typified with the help of type specimens and literature. Key to the species along with detailed morphological description and ecological notes of each taxon are also given. (author)

  11. Heme-binding activity of methoxyflavones from Pentzia monodiana Maire (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Sergio; Dali-Yahia, Kamel; Vasquez-Ocmin, Pedro; Grougnet, Raphaël; Grellier, Philippe; Michel, Sylvie; Maciuk, Alexandre; Boutefnouchet, Sabrina

    2017-04-01

    A heme-binding assay based on mass spectrometry was performed on P. monodiana Maire (Asteraceae) extracts to identify metabolites able to form adducts with heminic part of haemoglobin, as potential antimalarial drugs. Main adducts were characterized and their stability was measured. Isolation of main constituents of P. monodiana Maire lead to identification of the two methoxyflavones 3'-O-methyleupatorin (7) and artemetin (8) involved in the adducts formation. Four seco-tanapartholides (1-4), a guaianolide (5), a germacranolide (6) and two other methoxyflavones (9, 10) were also characterized. Evaluation of isolated compounds on P. falciparum and T. brucei brucei showed a moderate antiprotozoal activity of the two methoxyflavones. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. A new acylated flavonol from the aerial parts of Asteriscus maritimus (L.) Less (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Marwa I; Ezzat, Shahira M; El Deeb, Kadriya S; El Fishawy, Ahlam M; El-Toumy, Sayed A

    2016-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the flowering aerial parts of Asteriscus maritimus (L.) Less (Asteraceae) led to the isolation of a new compound: patuletin 7-O-β-D-[(2″'S) 6″(3″'-hydroxy-2″'-methyl-propanoyl)] glucopyranoside, together with five known metabolites; β-sitosterol 2, chlorogenic acid 3, P-hydroxy -methylbenzoate 4, luteolin 5 and protocatechuic acid 6. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by comprehensive analyses of its 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and compared with previously known analogues. The ethanolic extract of the flowering aerial parts of A. maritimus was found to be safe (LD50 = 4.6 mg/kg) and possess significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and this was in accordance with its high phenolic content (107.36 ± 0.051 mg GAE/g extract).

  13. Microsatellite primers for a species of South African everlasting daisy (Helichrysum odoratissimum; Gnaphalieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Kelsey L; Cron, Glynis V

    2016-05-01

    Microsatellites were developed for the widespread Helichrysum odoratissimum (Asteraceae) to estimate gene flow across diploid populations and to test if gene flow occurs among other closely related lineages within this genus. Ten primer pairs were developed and tested using populations across South Africa; however, only seven primer pairs were polymorphic for the target species. The seven polymorphic primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with up to 16 alleles per locus among 125 diploid individuals used for analyses. These markers can be used to estimate gene flow among populations of known ploidy level of H. odoratissimum to test evolutionary hypotheses. Furthermore, these markers amplify successfully in other Helichrysum species, including the other three taxonomic Group 4 species, and therefore can be used to inform taxonomic work on these species.

  14. Microsatellite primers for a species of South African everlasting daisy (Helichrysum odoratissimum; Gnaphalieae, Asteraceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Kelsey L.; Cron, Glynis V.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellites were developed for the widespread Helichrysum odoratissimum (Asteraceae) to estimate gene flow across diploid populations and to test if gene flow occurs among other closely related lineages within this genus. Methods and Results: Ten primer pairs were developed and tested using populations across South Africa; however, only seven primer pairs were polymorphic for the target species. The seven polymorphic primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with up to 16 alleles per locus among 125 diploid individuals used for analyses. Conclusions: These markers can be used to estimate gene flow among populations of known ploidy level of H. odoratissimum to test evolutionary hypotheses. Furthermore, these markers amplify successfully in other Helichrysum species, including the other three taxonomic Group 4 species, and therefore can be used to inform taxonomic work on these species. PMID:27213125

  15. Synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae), including a new species from northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael O; Luebert, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided.

  16. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ak; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC-MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin.

  17. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the Asteraceae halophyte Karelinia caspica under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Liao, Maoseng; Chang, Dan; Zhang, Fuchun

    2014-12-17

    Much attention has been given to the potential of halophytes as sources of tolerance traits for introduction into cereals. However, a great deal remains unknown about the diverse mechanisms employed by halophytes to cope with salinity. To characterize salt tolerance mechanisms underlying Karelinia caspica, an Asteraceae halophyte, we performed Large-scale transcriptomic analysis using a high-throughput Illumina sequencing platform. Comparative gene expression analysis was performed to correlate the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation at the molecular level. Total sequence reads generated by pyrosequencing were assembled into 287,185 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 652 bp. Using the BLAST function in the Swiss-Prot, NCBI nr, GO, KEGG, and KOG databases, a total of 216,416 coding sequences associated with known proteins were annotated. Among these, 35,533 unigenes were classified into 69 gene ontology categories, and 18,378 unigenes were classified into 202 known pathways. Based on the fold changes observed when comparing the salt stress and control samples, 60,127 unigenes were differentially expressed, with 38,122 and 22,005 up- and down-regulated, respectively. Several of the differentially expressed genes are known to be involved in the signaling pathway of the plant hormone ABA, including ABA metabolism, transport, and sensing as well as the ABA signaling cascade. Transcriptome profiling of K. caspica contribute to a comprehensive understanding of K. caspica at the molecular level. Moreover, the global survey of differentially expressed genes in this species under salt stress and analyses of the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation will contribute to the identification and characterization of genes and molecular mechanisms underlying salt stress responses in Asteraceae plants.

  18. Capitate glandular trichomes in Aldama discolor (Heliantheae - Asteraceae): morphology, metabolite profile and sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombo, A B; Appezzato-da-Glória, B; Aschenbrenner, A-K; Spring, O

    2016-05-01

    The capitate glandular trichome is the most common type described in Asteraceae species. It is known for its ability to produce various plant metabolites of ecological and economic importance, among which sesquiterpene lactones are predominant. In this paper, we applied microscopy, phytochemical and molecular genetics techniques to characterise the capitate glandular trichome in Aldama discolor, a native Brazilian species of Asteraceae, with pharmacological potential. It was found that formation of trichomes on leaf primordia of germinating seeds starts between 24 h and 48 h after radicle growth indicates germination. The start of metabolic activity of trichomes was indicated by separation of the cuticle from the cell wall of secretory cells at the trichome tip after 72 h. This coincided with the accumulation of budlein A, the major sesquiterpene lactone of A. discolor capitate glandular trichomes, in extracts of leaf primordia after 96 h. In the same timeframe of 72-96 h post-germination, gene expression studies showed up-regulation of the putative germacrene A synthase (pGAS2) and putative germacrene A oxidase (pGAO) of A. discolor in the transcriptome of these samples, indicating the start of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Sequencing of the two genes revealed high similarity to HaGAS and HaGAO from sunflower, which shows that key steps of this pathway are highly conserved. The processes of trichome differentiation, metabolic activity and genetic regulation in A. discolor and in sunflower appear to be typical for other species of the subtribe Helianthinae. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Influência de diferentes tipos de estacas e substratos na propagação assexuada de hortênsia [Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Ser.] Influence of different types of stem cuttings and substrates on the asexual reproduction of hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Ser.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petterson Baptista da Luz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A hortênsia (Hydrangea macrophylla é um arbusto semilenhoso de 1,0 a 2,5 m de altura, de folhagem e florescimento decorativos, muito utilizados como flor de vaso e planta para paisagismo. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estudar o enraizamento de estacas de três partes da planta: apical, mediana e basal; em três tipos de substratos: terra, areia e vermiculita, para a formação de mudas. As estacas foram retiradas das plantas matrizes e divididas em segmentos apical, mediano e basal, os quais foram colocados para enraizar em bandejas de isopor, nos substratos areia, terra e vermiculita, em estufa com nebulização. As estacas que apresentaram melhor qualidade de raízes foram as originadas da parte basal do ramo, sendo que o melhor enraizamento foi observado nas estacas colocadas em areia. As estacas obtidas de diferentes partes da planta não se diferenciaram quanto à porcentagem de enraizamento e quanto ao número de brotos formados. Já os substratos que proporcionaram o maior número de brotações foram a areia e a terra. Algumas estacas apresentaram formação de flores, ocorrendo com maior freqüência nas estacas apicais, sem efeito dos substratos. A areia foi o substrato que proporcionou os melhores resultados quanto à qualidade das raízes e porcentagem de enraizamento. O substrato terra foi superior apenas para o número de brotos por estaca, porém não diferenciou estatisticamente da areia. Mudas formadas de estaca da parte basal da planta se mostraram com qualidade superior.The Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla is a semi-ligneous shrub measuring 1.0m to 2.5m in height with decorative foliage and flat-topped or rounded clusters of white, pink, or blue flowers widely used as vase or pot flower as well as landscaping plant. The objective of this research work was to study the rooting of stem cuttings obtained from three different parts of the plant: apical, median and basal portions of the stems, in three different

  20. Sex-mediated herbivory by galling insects on Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae Herbivoria por insetos galhadores mediada pelo sexo em Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae

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    Marco Antonio A. Carneiro

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction patterns between the dioecious shrub Baccharis concinna Barroso (Asteraceae and its speciose galling insect community were studied in southeastern Brazil. Two hypotheses were tested in this study: "the differential reproduction and growth hypothesis" that predicts that male plants present fewer reproductive structures and are larger than female plants; and the 'sex-biased herbivory hypothesis' that predicts that male plants support a larger abundance of insect galls than female plants. Plants did not show sexual dimorphism in growth (= mean leaf number. However, male plants had longer shoots and a lower average number of inflorescences than female plants. These results corroborate the hypothesis that male plants grow more and reproduce less than female plants. No statistically significant difference was found in the number of galls between male and female plants, but a sex by environmental effect on gall number was detected. When each species of galling insect was individually analyzed per population of the host plant, the rates of attack varied between sex and population of the host plant, and they were highly variable among the species of galling insects. These results highlight the importance of the interaction between sex and environment in the community structure of galling insects and indicate that other variables besides host sex may influence the patterns of attack by galling herbivores.Os padrões de interação entre o arbusto dióico Baccharis concinna Barroso (Asteraceae e sua diversa comunidade de insetos galhadores foram estudados na região sudeste do Brasil. Duas hipóteses foram testadas neste estudo: "a hipótese do crescimento e reprodução diferenciais", que prevê que plantas masculinas apresentam menos estruturas reprodutivas e são maiores do que plantas femininas; e a "hipótese da herbivoria mediada pelo sexo" que prevê que plantas masculinas sustentam uma maior abundância de insetos galhadores do que

  1. Anatomia e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos de Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae Anatomy and histochemistry of the vegetative organs of Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Aguilera

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se a anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis, em estrutura primária, enfatizando a caracterização e histoquímica de suas estruturas secretoras. Folhas, caules e raízes foram fixados em FAA50 e em sulfato ferroso e estocados em etanol 70%. Cortes transversais e longitudinais foram submetidos ao azul-de-toluidina pH 4,0, ao vermelho-de-rutênio, à reação de PAS, ao reativo Xylidine Ponceau, ao Sudan Black B e ao reativo Dragendorff. Anatomicamente, os órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis são semelhantes aos caracteres descritos para Asteraceae. As raízes laterais são triarcas e o caule, um eustelo. Ductos estão ausentes na raiz e presentes no caule e na folha. Estas estruturas são de pequeno diâmetro, sendo delimitadas por quatro a cinco células epiteliais. No caule, os ductos estavam presentes no córtex, próximos à endoderme e na medula; nas folhas, associados aos feixes vasculares, tanto para o lado do xilema quanto para o do floema. As folhas são dorsiventrais e anfiestomáticas. Três tipos de estruturas secretoras foram observados: ductos, hidatódios e tricomas glandulares. Os testes histoquímicos aplicados demonstraram a presença de compostos fenólicos e alcalóides nos ductos e, nos tricomas, de compostos lipofílicos e fenólicos. Esses resultados indicam a complexidade da secreção produzida pelas estruturas secretoras na espécie.The anatomy of the vegetative organs of S. orientalis in primary structure was described, emphasizing the characterization and histochemistry of its secretory structures. Leaves, stems and roots were fixed in FAA50 and ferrous sulphate and stored in 70% ethanol. Cross and longitudinal sections were submitted to toluidine blue pH 4.0, ruthenium red, PAS reaction, Ponceau Xylidine reactive, Sudan Black B and Dragendorff reactive. Anatomically, S. orientalis vegetative organs are similar to the characters described for the Asteraceae. The lateral roots are triarches and

  2. Discovery of germacrene A synthases in Barnadesia spinosa: The first committed step in sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in the basal member of the Asteraceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Faraldos, Juan A.; Vardakou, Maria; Salmon, Melissa; O'Maille, Paul E.; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    The Andes-endemic Barnadesioideae lineage is the oldest surviving and phylogenetically basal subfamily of the Asteraceae (Compositae), a prolific group of flowering plants with world-wide distribution (∼24,000 species) marked by a rich diversity of sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). Intriguingly, there is no evidence that members of the Barnadesioideae produce STLs, specialized metabolites thought to have contributed to the adaptive success of the Asteraceae family outside South America. The biosynthesis of STLs requires the intimate expression and functional integration of germacrene A synthase (GAS) and germacrene A oxidase (GAO) to sequentially cyclize and oxidize farnesyl diphosphate into the advanced intermediate germacrene A acid leading to diverse STLs. Our previous discovery of GAO activity conserved across all major subfamilies of Asteraceae, including the phylogenetically basal lineage of Barnadesioideae, prompted further investigation of the presence of the gateway GAS in Barnadesioideae. Herein we isolated two terpene synthases (BsGAS1/BsGAS2) from the basal Barnadesia spinosa (Barnadesioideae) that displayed robust GAS activity when reconstituted in yeast and characterized in vitro. Despite the apparent lack of STLs in the Barnadesioideae, this work unambiguously confirms the presence of GAS in the basal genera of the Asteraceae. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the two BsGASs fall into two distinct clades of the Asteraceae's GASs, and BsGAS1 clade is only retained in the evolutionary closer Cichorioideae subfamily, implicating BsGAS2 is likely the ancestral base of most GASs found in the lineages outside the Barnadesioideae. Taken together, these results show the enzymatic capacities of GAS and GAO emerged prior to the subsequent radiation of STL-producing Asteraceae subfamilies. - Highlights: • Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites in Asteraceae family. • Barnadesioideae is the basal lineage of all Asteraceae plants

  3. WOOD ANATOMY OF TWO SPECIES OF THE GENUS Heterothalamus Lessing (ASTERACEAE FROM RIO GRANDE DO SUL (BRAZIL

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    Anabela Silveira de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the wood anatomy of Heterothalamus alienus and Heterothalamus rupestris (Astereae - Asteraceae, as part of the secondary xylem study in the named genus. For the two species it was recorded some features usually mentioned in the literature for the Asteraceae, as typically small vessels, grouped in a dendritic pattern, the presence of only simple perforation plates and of paratracheal parenchyma. Heterothalamus alienus shows spiral thickenings in the wood vessels and storied vasicentric axial parenchyma. Heterothalamus rupestris differs itself by the absence of spiral thickenings in wood vessels and by no storied axial parenchyma, in paratracheal vasicentric to unilateral patterns. Photomicrographs, quantitative data of anatomical features and a comparison between the two  species of wood are also provided.

  4. Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Phoma sorghina, an endophyte found in association with the medicinal plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Warley de Souza; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico

    2006-01-01

    Three known anthraquinones (1,7-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 1,6-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone), one new anthraquinone (1,7-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone), and two new hexahydroanthraquinone derivatives, dendryols E and F, were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Phoma sorghina, found in association with Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic da...

  5. Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera (Asteraceae) changes in leaf structure due to differences in light and edaphic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rossatto,Davi Rodrigo; Kolb,Rosana Marta

    2010-01-01

    Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera is a widespread Asteraceae species found in different physiognomies of cerrado (Neotropical savanna) and in forest formations of southeast Brazil. This study describes some leaf anatomy characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in relation to different environments, as well as under different light conditions. We found quantitative differences in all anatomical parameters analyzed. The results demonstrate that high leaf anatomy plas...

  6. Multiple Polyploidization Events across Asteraceae with Two Nested Events in the Early History Revealed by Nuclear Phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Zhang, Caifei; Liu, Mian; Hu, Yi; Gao, Tiangang; Qi, Ji; Ma, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Biodiversity results from multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic variation and natural selection. Whole-genome duplications (WGDs), or polyploidizations, provide opportunities for large-scale genetic modifications. Many evolutionarily successful lineages, including angiosperms and vertebrates, are ancient polyploids, suggesting that WGDs are a driving force in evolution. However, this hypothesis is challenged by the observed lower speciation and higher extinction rates of recently formed polyploids than diploids. Asteraceae includes about 10% of angiosperm species, is thus undoubtedly one of the most successful lineages and paleopolyploidization was suggested early in this family using a small number of datasets. Here, we used genes from 64 new transcriptome datasets and others to reconstruct a robust Asteraceae phylogeny, covering 73 species from 18 tribes in six subfamilies. We estimated their divergence times and further identified multiple potential ancient WGDs within several tribes and shared by the Heliantheae alliance, core Asteraceae (Asteroideae-Mutisioideae), and also with the sister family Calyceraceae. For two of the WGD events, there were subsequent great increases in biodiversity; the older one proceeded the divergence of at least 10 subfamilies within 10 My, with great variation in morphology and physiology, whereas the other was followed by extremely high species richness in the Heliantheae alliance clade. Our results provide different evidence for several WGDs in Asteraceae and reveal distinct association among WGD events, dramatic changes in environment and species radiations, providing a possible scenario for polyploids to overcome the disadvantages of WGDs and to evolve into lineages with high biodiversity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Development of novel low-copy nuclear markers for Hieraciinae (Asteraceae) and their perspective for other tribes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Álvarez, I.; Caklová, Petra; Costa, A.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fehrer, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 2 (2012), s. 74-77 ISSN 0002-9122 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363; GA ČR GA206/05/0657 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Asteraceae * Hieraciinae * low-copy nuclear markers Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.586, year: 2012

  8. Rapid Identification of Asteraceae Plants with Improved RBF-ANN Classification Models Based on MOS Sensor E-Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qin Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants from Asteraceae family are widely used as herbal medicines and food ingredients, especially in Asian area. Therefore, authentication and quality control of these different Asteraceae plants are important for ensuring consumers’ safety and efficacy. In recent decades, electronic nose (E-nose has been studied as an alternative approach. In this paper, we aim to develop a novel discriminative model by improving radial basis function artificial neural network (RBF-ANN classification model. Feature selection algorithms, including principal component analysis (PCA and BestFirst + CfsSubsetEval (BC, were applied in the improvement of RBF-ANN models. Results illustrate that in the improved RBF-ANN models with lower dimension data classification accuracies (100% remained the same as in the original model with higher-dimension data. It is the first time to introduce feature selection methods to get valuable information on how to attribute more relevant MOS sensors; namely, in this case, S1, S3, S4, S6, and S7 show better capability to distinguish these Asteraceae plants. This paper also gives insights to further research in this area, for instance, sensor array optimization and performance improvement of classification model.

  9. Hydrolase and fructosyltransferase activities implicated in the accumulation of different chain size fructans in three Asteraceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaya, Nair M; Asega, Amanda F; Carvalho, Maria Angela M; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L

    2007-09-01

    Fructans are widely distributed in Asteraceae from floras with seasonal growth and are thought to be involved in drought and freezing tolerance, in addition to storage function. Reserve organs of Vernonia herbacea and Viguiera discolor, from the cerrado, and of the perennial herb Smallanthus sonchifolius, endemic to Andean region, store over 80% inulin, with different DP (35, 150, and 15, respectively). The fructan pattern in Asteraceae species could be explained by characteristics of their respective 1-FFTs. Hydrolases and fructosyltransferases from S. sonchifolius, V. herbacea and V. discolor were analyzed in plants at the same environmental conditions. The higher 1-FEH activities found in the species with lower DP, S. sonchifolius and V. herbacea reinforce the hypothesis of the involvement of 1-FEH in fructan profile and suggest that the high DP fructan of V. discolor is a consequence of the low affinity of its 1-FEH to the native long chain inulin. Long term incubation with sucrose suggested that the affinity of 1-FFT of V. discolor for 1-kestose is low when compared to that of V. herbacea. Indeed 1-FFT from V. discolor was shown to be an hDP 1-FFT, preferring longer inulins as acceptors. Conversely, 1-FFT from V. herbacea seems to have a higher affinity for short fructo-oligosaccharides, including 1-kestose, as acceptor substrates. Differences in fructan enzymes of the three Asteraceae provide new information towards the understanding of fructan metabolism and control of carbon flow between low and high DP fructans.

  10. Parasitoid Wasps in Flower Heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian Cerrado: Taxonomical Composition and Determinants of Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, A R; Almeida-Neto, M; Almeida, A M; Fonseca, C R; Lewinsohn, T M; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2014-08-01

    This study provides the first survey of the parasitoid fauna reared in flower heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian cerrado. We investigated the relative importance of herbivore richness and plant species commonness to differences in parasitoid species richness among the plant species. A total of 15,372 specimens from 192 morphospecies belonging to 103 genera of Hymenoptera were reared from the flower heads of 74 Asteraceae species. Chalcidoidea and Ichneumonoidea were the most common superfamilies, with Eulophidae and Braconidae as the main families of parasitoid wasps. Singletons and doubletons accounted for 45% of total parasitoid species richness. The number of parasitoid species per plant species ranged from 1 to 67, and the variation in parasitoid species richness among plants was mainly explained by the number of sites in which the plants were recorded. This study shows that there is a highly diversified fauna of Hymenoptera parasitoids associated with flower heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian cerrado. Our findings suggest that the accumulation of parasitoid species on plants is mainly determined by the regional commonness of plant species rather than the number of herbivore species associated with the plants.

  11. Evolutionary Co-Option of Floral Meristem Identity Genes for Patterning of the Flower-Like Asteraceae Inflorescence1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broholm, Suvi K.; Tähtiharju, Sari

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary success of Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has been attributed to the unique inflorescence architecture of the family, which superficially resembles an individual flower. Here, we show that Asteraceae inflorescences (flower heads, or capitula) resemble solitary flowers not only morphologically but also at the molecular level. By conducting functional analyses for orthologs of the flower meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) in Gerbera hybrida, we show that GhUFO is the master regulator of flower meristem identity, while GhLFY has evolved a novel, homeotic function during the evolution of head-like inflorescences. Resembling LFY expression in a single flower meristem, uniform expression of GhLFY in the inflorescence meristem defines the capitulum as a determinate structure that can assume floral fate upon ectopic GhUFO expression. We also show that GhLFY uniquely regulates the ontogeny of outer, expanded ray flowers but not inner, compact disc flowers, indicating that the distinction of different flower types in Asteraceae is connected with their independent evolutionary origins from separate branching systems. PMID:27382139

  12. Evolutionary Co-Option of Floral Meristem Identity Genes for Patterning of the Flower-Like Asteraceae Inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yafei; Zhang, Teng; Broholm, Suvi K; Tähtiharju, Sari; Mouhu, Katriina; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2016-09-01

    The evolutionary success of Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has been attributed to the unique inflorescence architecture of the family, which superficially resembles an individual flower. Here, we show that Asteraceae inflorescences (flower heads, or capitula) resemble solitary flowers not only morphologically but also at the molecular level. By conducting functional analyses for orthologs of the flower meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) in Gerbera hybrida, we show that GhUFO is the master regulator of flower meristem identity, while GhLFY has evolved a novel, homeotic function during the evolution of head-like inflorescences. Resembling LFY expression in a single flower meristem, uniform expression of GhLFY in the inflorescence meristem defines the capitulum as a determinate structure that can assume floral fate upon ectopic GhUFO expression. We also show that GhLFY uniquely regulates the ontogeny of outer, expanded ray flowers but not inner, compact disc flowers, indicating that the distinction of different flower types in Asteraceae is connected with their independent evolutionary origins from separate branching systems. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Biological Activities of Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Risco, Mónica R; Mouhid, Lamia; Salas-Pérez, Lilia; López-Padilla, Alexis; Santoyo, Susana; Jaime, Laura; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) extracts were obtained by applying two sequential extraction processes: supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, followed by ultrasonic assisted extraction using green solvents (ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50). The extracts were analyzed in terms of the total content of phenolic compounds and the content of flavonoids; the volatile oil composition of supercritical extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and the antioxidant capacity and cell toxicity was determined. Lamiaceae plant extracts presented higher content of phenolics (and flavonoids) than Asteraceae extracts. Regardless of the species studied, the supercritical extracts presented the lowest antioxidant activity and the ethanol:water extracts offered the largest, following the order Origanum majorana > Melissa officinalis ≈ Achillea millefolium > Calendula officinalis. However, concerning the effect on cell toxicity, Asteraceae (especially Achillea millefolium) supercritical extracts were significantly more efficient despite being the less active as an antioxidant agent. These results indicate that the effect on cell viability is not related to the antioxidant activity of the extracts.

  14. Is it possible to rapidly and noninvasively identify different plants from Asteraceae using electronic nose with multiple mathematical algorithms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qin Zou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many plants originating from the Asteraceae family are applied as herbal medicines and also beverage ingredients in Asian areas, particularly in China. However, they may be confused due to their similar odor, especially when ground into powder, losing their typical macroscopic characteristics. In this paper, 11 different multiple mathematical algorithms, which are commonly used in data processing, were utilized and compared to analyze the electronic nose (E-nose response signals of different plants from Asteraceae family. Results demonstrate that three-dimensional plot scatter figure of principal component analysis with less extracted components could offer the identification results more visually; simultaneously, all nine kinds of artificial neural network could give classification accuracies at 100%. This paper presents a rapid, accurate, and effective method to distinguish Asteraceae plants based on their response signals in E-nose. It also gives insights to further studies, such as to find unique sensors that are more sensitive and exclusive to volatile components in Chinese herbal medicines and to improve the identification ability of E-nose. Screening sensors made by other novel materials would be also an interesting way to improve identification capability of E-nose.

  15. Primer reporte de empleo de marcadores AFLP en Asteraceae en Cuba

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    Grecia Montalvo Fernández

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: First report of the employment of AFLP markers in Asteraceae in Cuba. Resumen: Rhodogeron coronopifolius Griseb., es una especie vegetal de la familia Asteraceae, que se encuentra en peligro crítico de extinción. Es endémico de la provincia Villa Clara en la región central de Cuba. Habita en el matorral xeromorfo sub espinoso sobre serpentina. Existen solo cinco poblaciones naturales dentro de un área protegida, la principal causa de amenaza es la fragmentación de su hábitat por acciones antrópicas. Debido a su situación de conservación, se hace necesario realizar estudios de la diversidad genética de las poblaciones naturales para así generar información básica y diseñar una estrategia de conservación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar de manera preliminar la diversidad genética de cuatro poblaciones de esta especie utilizando marcadores AFLP (Polimorfismo de Longitud de Fragmentos Amplificados. Se emplearon dos combinaciones de iniciadores y se evaluó el porcentaje de polimorfismo así como la similitud entre los individuos.  Se obtuvieron 165 loci de los cuales el 78,7 % fueron polimórficos. La población de mayor polimorfismo fue Corojito con 85,2%, de manera general el polimorfismo fue alto con valores entre 75 y  87%. La similitud entre los individuos también fue alta con un promedio de 0,74. El agrupamiento genético fue independiente a la población de procedencia, lo que sugiere que existe intercambio genético entre las poblaciones y que estas comparten más del 80 % de los alelos que fueron analizados. Los resultados obtenidos son importantes para el mantenimiento in situ de la especie y para tomar decisiones en aras de su conservación. Palabras clave: Rhodogeron coronopifolius, peligro de extinción, polimorfismo, conservación. Abstract: Rhodogeron coronopifolius Griseb., is a specie of Asteraceae family, in critical danger of extinction. It is an endemic of Villa Clara city in the

  16. Cheirolophus intybaceus (Asteraceae, Centaureinae or the constancy of 2C value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Jiménez, I.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cheirolophus intybaceus (Asteraceae, Centaureinae or the constancy of 2C value.- Cheirolophus intybaceus is a heliophyte growing in thermal Mediterranean scrublands along a coastal belt of 50 km large, stretching from Toulon (France to the Southern part of the Iberian Peninsula, occurring also in the Balearic Islands (with the exception of Minorca. Moreover, this species is also growing in high and sunny lands in the Mediterranean river basins, constituting a complex of taxa closely related among them. The objectives of this work are: i to provide new genome size data for some Asteraceae species; ii to study the variation of DNA amount along a species distribution area; iii to evaluate the discrimination capability of this parameter at low taxonomic levels. A signicantly positive correlation between the DNA amount and the latitude has been found, that is, in drier and warmer habitats genome size tends to decrease in this species. The variation in the whole distribution area of Ch. intybaceus is 1.15-fold. This low variability supports the constancy of 2C-value.

    Cheirolophus intybaceus es una especie heliófila propia de los matorrales mediterráneos termófilos que crece en una franja litoral de unos 50 km de anchura que va desde Tolón (Var, Francia hasta el sur de la península Ibérica, estando también presente en las islas Baleares (excepto en Menorca. Se encuentra también en las zonas elevadas y soleadas de las cuencas fluviales mediterráneas, formando un complejo de táxones estrechamente relacionados entre sí. Los objetivos de este trabajo son: i contribuir a la aportación de datos de tamaño del genoma para diversas especies de Asteraceae; ii estudiar la variación de la cantidad de ADN a lo largo del área de distribución de una especie; iii evaluar la capacidad de discriminación de este parámetro a niveles taxonómicos bajos. Se ha encontrado una correlación positiva y significativa entre la

  17. Anatomy of the underground system in Vernonia grandiflora Less. and V. brevifolia Less. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Hissae Hayashi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This work dealt with the anatomy of the underground system in Vernonia grandiflora Less. and V. brevifolia Less. (Vernonieae; Asteraceae, two perennial geophytes, to elucidate their ability to sprout in the Brazilian Cerrado conditions. V. grandiflora, a subshrubby species, possessed a thickened underground system constituted by a xylopodium and many tuberous roots. The xylopodium had stem and root structure and its buds were axillary or originated from the cortical parenchyma proliferation. The tuberous roots produced by this organ were adventitious and accumulated inulin-type fructans mainly in the cortical parenchyma. The thickened underground system of V. brevifolia, an herbaceous species, was a tuberous primary root whose buds originated from the proliferated pericycle. The occurrence of these bud-forming underground systems, which stored reserve compounds, enabled these plants to survive throughout unfavourable environmental conditions in the Cerrado, such as dry season and frequent fires in the winter.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a anatomia dos sistemas subterrâneos de Vernonia grandiflora Less. e V. brevifolia Less. (Vernonieae; Asteraceae, duas geófitas perenes, a fim de esclarecer sua capacidade para brotar em condições de Cerrado. O sistema subterrâneo espessado de V. grandiflora, uma espécie subarbustiva, é constituído pelo xilopódio e por várias raízes tuberosas. O xilopódio possui estrutura mista (radicular e caulinar e suas gemas são de origem axilar ou se originam a partir da proliferação do parênquima cortical. As raízes tuberosas produzidas por este órgão são adventícias e acumulam frutanos do tipo inulina, principalmente no parênquima cortical. Em V. brevifolia, uma espécie herbácea, o sistema subterrâneo espessado é constituído pela raiz primária cujas gemas são originadas a partir do periciclo proliferado. A ocorrência destes sistemas subterrâneos gemíferos, que armazenam compostos

  18. Comparative Anatomical Investigations on six Endemic Tanacetum (Asteraceae) Taxa from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekin, M.; Kartal, C.

    2016-01-01

    Tanacetum is one of the large genera, belonging to the Anthemideae tribe of Asteraceae family and has numerous medicinal plants and widely usage in folk medicine. In this study, anatomical features of six endemic species to Turkey viz. Tanacetum albipannosum, T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, T. cappadocicum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, were investigated for the first time. The specimens were collected from their natural habitats in Sivas province (Turkey). Transverse sections of root, stem, petiole and leaflet were observed under light microscope for various anatomical features. The results showed that, root included periderm in the outer. There were parenchymatous cortex, endodermis and pericycle under the periderm respectively. Primary xylem ridges were triarch in T. albipannosum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, pentarch in T. cappadocicum and hexarch in T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, and pith was filled with xylem elements. Stem was made up epidermis, parenchymatous cortex, endodermis, vascular bundles and parenchymatous pith from exterior to interior. T. heterotomum had a cavity formed by the disintegration of the cells in the center. The amphistomatic leaflets had a single layered epidermis with usually silvery or whitish tomentose indumentum and equifacial mesophyll. Stomata are anomocytic. There were significant difference among examined taxa in respect to contour of petiole, structure of cortex parenchyma and organization of vascular bundles. The anatomical characteristic features of petiole proved to be a useful tool for the taxonomic discrimination of the six studied taxa. (author)

  19. Phytochemical and Cytogenetic Characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carev, Ivana; Ruščić, Mirko; Skočibušić, Mirjana; Maravić, Ana; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Politeo, Olivera

    2017-02-01

    The cytogenetic characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) showed a chromosome number of 2n = 16. Karyotype is composed by four pairs of metacentric, two pairs of submetacentric and two pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. Physical mapping of two rDNA probes revealed two loci of 35S and one locus of 5S rRNA genes. Chromomycin fluorochrome banding revealed that all rDNA loci were GC rich. The genome size (2C-value) of 1.95 pg classes this species in the group of very small genomes. Chemical composition of C. solstitialis volatile oil (VO) from Croatia, studied with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed dominant components as it follows: hexadecanoic acid, α-linolenic acid, germacrene D and heptacosane. Antioxidant capacity, measured by ferric reducing power assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods, as well as inhibition of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase of VO was lower comparing to a standard solutions. Volatile oil tested with disc diffusion method showed good inhibitory potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and all tested fungi: Candida albicans, Penicillium funiculosum and Aspergillus fumigatus. The microdilution method showed best activity against Chronobacter sakazakii and A. fumigatus. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  20. Embryology of Ageratum conyzoides L. and A. fastigiatum R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Oliveira Franca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageratum has a complex circumscription, and recent studies have indicated its polyphyletism. The genus has been placed in the tribe Eupatorieae whose embryology is not fully known. Embryological data are conservative and important indicators of phylogenetic relationships and can improve family relationships. This study presents, for the first time in Eupatorieae, embryological data for Ageratum conyzoides and A. fastigiatum. Both species have common features of the family such as a unitegmic anatropous ovule, basal placentation, secretory tapetum, Polygonum megagametophyte, and Asterad embryogenesis. The data obtained reinforce the heterogeneity of the family embryology and show, for the first time, the anther wall development of the monocotyledonous type for Asteraceae. The species studied show also differences between themselves. A. conyzoides has bisporangiated and introrse anthers, conspicuous pappus, and cypselae with trichomes on the ribs, whereas A. fastigiatum has tetrasporangiate and latrorse anthers, pappus absent at maturity, and glabrous cypselae. The data presented support recent phylogenetic molecular studies, suggesting the replacement of A. fastigiatum to another genus along with Gyptidinae.

  1. Anti-inflammatory intestinal activity of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) in TNBS colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Ana Beatriz Albino; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Martín, Antonio Ramón; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson; Trigo, José Roberto; Vilegas, Wagner; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Souza-Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro; de la Lastra, Catalina Alarcón

    2013-03-07

    In Brazilian traditional medicine, Arctium lappa (Asteraceae), has been reported to relieve gastrointestinal symptoms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lactone sesquiterpene onopordopicrin enriched fraction (ONP fraction) from Arctium lappa in an experimental colitis model induced by 2,4,6 trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and performed experiments to elucidate the underlying action mechanisms involved in that effect. ONP fraction (25 and 50 mg/kg/day) was orally administered 48, 24 and 1 h prior to the induction of colitis and 24 h after. The inflammatory response was assessed by gross appearance, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels and a histological study of the lesions. We determined cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 protein expressions by western blotting and immunohistochemistry assays. TNBS group was characterized by increased colonic wall thickness, edema, diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration, increased MPO activity and TNF-α levels. On the contrary, ONP fraction (25 and 50 mg/kg) treatment significantly reduced the macroscopic inflammation scores (pArctium lappa exert marked protective effects in acute experimental colitis, confirming and justifying, at least in part, the popular use of this plant to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Lizzeth Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. Materials and Methods: All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Results: Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Conclusion: Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei, comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei, hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.

  3. Isolation and structural elucidation of secondary metabolites of plants of the families asteraceae and urticaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagra Quesada, E.

    2002-01-01

    A phytochemistry study of plant's species of the Asteraceae and Urticaceae family is proposed in order to isolate and to elucidate the structure of active principles; due to the fact that several studies have found that some of these families have compounds with anti-inflammatory activity, mainly lactonas sesquiterpenicas . The phytochemistry study was carried out through the application of chromatography techniques, for the separation and purification of the compounds. Includes chromatography of column, fine and liquid layer of high resolution. On the other hand, spectroscopic techniques were used for the elucidation, mainly of nuclear magnetic resonance (RMN) as much of one as of two dimensions. In this way, it was possible to isolate 14 compounds in Decachaeta thieleana and 10 in Phenax mexicanus, from which 6 correspond compounds of innovative structure. The comparison of the results obtained in Decachaeta thieleana (with previous studies) evidences that specimens, orphologically identical (the same species, but different locations), possess totally different compounds. This suggests that the studied specimens do not correspond to the same species. However, the determination of such a cause not only evade the objectives of this work but also the area of study of Chemistry [es

  4. Key processes for Cheirolophus (Asteraceae diversification on oceanic islands inferred from AFLP data.

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    Daniel Vitales

    Full Text Available The radiation of the genus Cheirolophus (Asteraceae in Macaronesia constitutes a spectacular case of rapid diversification on oceanic islands. Twenty species - nine of them included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species - have been described to date inhabiting the Madeiran and Canarian archipelagos. A previous phylogenetic study revealed that the diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia started less than 2 Ma. As a result of such an explosive speciation process, limited phylogenetic resolution was reported, mainly due to the low variability of the employed molecular markers. In the present study, we used highly polymorphic AFLP markers to i evaluate species' boundaries, ii infer their evolutionary relationships and iii investigate the patterns of genetic diversity in relation to the potential processes likely involved in the radiation of Cheirolophus. One hundred and seventy-two individuals representing all Macaronesian Cheirolophus species were analysed using 249 AFLP loci. Our results suggest that geographic isolation played an important role in this radiation process. This was likely driven by the combination of poor gene flow capacity and a good ability for sporadic long-distance colonisations. In addition, we also found some traces of introgression and incipient ecological adaptation, which could have further enhanced the extraordinary diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia. Last, we hypothesize that current threat categories assigned to Macaronesian Cheirolophus species do not reflect their respective evolutionary relevance, so future evaluations of their conservation status should take into account the results presented here.

  5. Aspectos de la biología reproductiva de Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae

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    Irene Caponio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El género SteviaCav. (Asteraceae presenta alrededor de 200 especies en el continente americano. Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, originaria de Paraguay, es la única especie cultivada. Ha sido ampliamente estudiada desde el punto de vista químico, por los principios activos que poseen sus hojas. Sin embargo existe controversia respecto a su sistema reproductivo, ya que es considerada apomíctica obligada por algunos autores, mientras otros la consideran de reproducción sexual. A los efectos de clarificar esta cuestión se realizaron estudios de: megasporogénesis, megagametogénesis, fenología de la floración, viabilidad de polen y receptividad estigmática en tres ecotipos en condiciones de autopolinización y polinización cruzada. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, las plantas analizadas se reproducen sexualmente y poseen un sistema de autoincompatibilidad que impide la autofertilización.

  6. The genus Pterocaulon (Asteraceae) - A review on traditional medicinal uses, chemical constituents and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros-Neves, Bruna; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira; von Poser, Gilsane Lino

    2018-06-15

    Species of the genus Pterocaulon (Asteraceae) are used in different parts of the world for mainly to treat skin and liver diseases, as well as disorders of the respiratory system, among others. This review aims to discuss the present state of the art concerning the ethnobotanical uses, secondary metabolites and biological effects of Pterocaulon species and their chemical components. The available information on the genus Pterocaulon was gathered from scientific databases (Web of Science, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, ChemSpider, SciFinder ACS Publications, Wiley Online Library). Information was also obtained from local publications, M.Sc. and Ph.D. dissertations. All studies on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the plants until December 2017 were included in this review. Approximately 40 coumarins and 30 flavonoids have been isolated from Pterocaulon species. Coumarins have been considered the chemotaxonomic markers in the genus and the most active components. Pharmacological studies carried out with extracts and isolated compounds revealed in vitro bioactivities that include antifungal, antiviral, and cytotoxicity. Most of the pharmacological investigations were not correlated with traditional uses of the plants. Pterocaulon species, a rich source of coumarins, have great ethnomedical potential. Nevertheless, further studies into the pharmacological activities are necessary since none of the purported effects of these plants was fully assessed. In-depth research regarding the toxicity are also required to ensure the safety of these medicinal plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Morpho-anatomy and ontogeny of the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less. Dematt. (Asteraceae

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    Vanessa S. Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of thickened underground systems in Asteraceae is widely reported in the literature. Given the great complexity of underground systems, which may originate from roots, stems, or both, morpho-anatomical analyses are essential to ensure the use of correct terminology. The goals of this study were to describe the morpho-anatomy and ontogeny, investigate the occurrence of secondary metabolites and evaluate the effects of seasonality on the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less. Dematt. Samples were studied using standard protocols of plant anatomy, scanning electron microscopy, histochemical and phytochemical. The underground system of C. simplex was categorised as a rhizophore which started from cotyledonary node. In adult individuals, with rhizophores completely developed, the primary roots degenerated and adventitious radicular systems are formed. The buds in the subterranean portions promote the rhizophore growing, and form aerial stems when exposed to light. Lipophilic droplets were evident in the parenchymatous cells of the cortex and pith, endodermis and buds. Inulin-type fructans were observed in the stem axis and buds of the rhizophore. The presence of buds, secondary metabolites and the storage of fructans and lipids in the rhizophore can be seen as adaptive traits.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of Subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae), including Artemisia and its allied and segregate genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Linda E; Bates, Paul L; Evans, Timothy M; Unwin, Matthew M; Estes, James R

    2002-01-01

    Background Subtribe Artemisiinae of Tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae) is composed of 18 largely Asian genera that include the sagebrushes and mugworts. The subtribe includes the large cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated genus Artemisia, as well as several smaller genera and Seriphidium, that altogether comprise the Artemisia-group. Circumscription and taxonomic boundaries of Artemisia and the placements of these small segregate genera is currently unresolved. Results We constructed a molecular phylogeny for the subtribe using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA analyzed with parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian criteria. The resulting tree is comprised of three major clades that correspond to the radiate genera (e.g., Arctanthemum and Dendranthema), and two clades of Artemisia species. All three clades have allied and segregate genera embedded within each. Conclusions The data support a broad concept of Artemisia s.l. that includes Neopallasia, Crossostephium, Filifolium, Seriphidium, and Sphaeromeria. However, the phylogeny excludes Elachanthemum, Kaschgaria, and Stilnolepis from the Artemisia-group. Additionally, the monophyly of the four subgenera of Artemisia is also not supported, with the exception of subg. Dracunculus. Homogamous, discoid capitula appear to have arisen in parallel four to seven times, with the loss of ray florets. Thus capitular morphology is not a reliable taxonomic character, which traditionally has been one of the defining characters. PMID:12350234

  9. Polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family as potential radioprotectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbikowska, Halina Malgorzata; Szejk, Magdalena; Saluk, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Graja, Izabela; Gancarz, Roman; Olejnik, Alicja Klaudia

    2016-05-01

    Polyphenolic-polysaccharide macromolecular, water-soluble glycoconjugates, isolated from the selected medicinal plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family: from leaves of Fragaria vesca L., Rubus plicatus Whe. et N. E., and from flowering parts of Sanguisorba officinalis L., and Erigeron canadensis L., were investigated for their ability to protect proteins and lipids of human plasma against γ-radiation-induced oxidative damage. Treatment of plasma with plant conjugates (6, 30, 150 μg/ml) prior exposure to 100 Gy radiation resulted in a significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation, evaluated by TBARS levels; conjugates isolated from E. canadensis and R. plicatus and a reference flavonoid quercetin showed similar high potential (approx. 70% inhibition, at 6 μg/ml). The conjugates prevented radiation-induced oxidation of protein thiols and significantly improved plasma total antioxidant capacity, estimated with Ellman's reagent and ABTS(.+) assay, respectively. The results demonstrate by the first time a significant radioprotective capability of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates isolated from E. canadensis, R. plicatus, S. officinalis and to the less extent from F. vesca. The abilities of these substances to inhibit radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and thiol oxidation in plasma seems to be mediated, but not limited to ROS scavenging activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Morpho-anatomy and ontogeny of the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vanessa S; Souza, Vinicius P; Vilhalva, Divina A A; Ferreira, Fernanda P S; Paula, José R; Rezende, Maria Helena

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of thickened underground systems in Asteraceae is widely reported in the literature. Given the great complexity of underground systems, which may originate from roots, stems, or both, morpho-anatomical analyses are essential to ensure the use of correct terminology. The goals of this study were to describe the morpho-anatomy and ontogeny, investigate the occurrence of secondary metabolites and evaluate the effects of seasonality on the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. Samples were studied using standard protocols of plant anatomy, scanning electron microscopy, histochemical and phytochemical. The underground system of C. simplex was categorised as a rhizophore which started from cotyledonary node. In adult individuals, with rhizophores completely developed, the primary roots degenerated and adventitious radicular systems are formed. The buds in the subterranean portions promote the rhizophore growing, and form aerial stems when exposed to light. Lipophilic droplets were evident in the parenchymatous cells of the cortex and pith, endodermis and buds. Inulin-type fructans were observed in the stem axis and buds of the rhizophore. The presence of buds, secondary metabolites and the storage of fructans and lipids in the rhizophore can be seen as adaptive traits.

  11. Flower structure and developmental stages of the capitulum of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae): reproductive implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, M S; Mercado, M I; Coll Aráoz, M V; Zannier, M L; Grau, A; Ponessa, G I

    2017-03-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) is an ancient andean crop that has numerous dietary and medicinal properties. Morphological and anatomical features and developmental changes of the capitulum were studied. A ray floret is a pistillate, female flower, while a disc floret is a staminate male flower, and the former opens before the latter, being pseudanthium protogynous. The capitulum presents interesting attributes for pollinators such as flower structure, nectaries and pollenkitt. Gynoecial nectaries were found on undeveloped ovary in the disc floret, but not in the ray floret. Glandular trichomes were observed on the abaxial epidermis of corolla in the ray floret, but not in the disc floret. Capitulum development was divided into eight stages. Stigma receptivity varied with these stages. Pollen viability was low (15%). In accordance with low viability, pollen grains exhibit diverse sizes and shapes, reduction in length of spines, and abnormal protoplasm. Examination of ovary development in the ray floret showed that a mature ovule was formed, but fertilization did not occur. In advanced developmental stages, the capitulum showed proliferation of the endothelium, degeneration of the embryo sac, and all harvested cypselae had aborted seeds. Problems found in pollen viability and aborted cypselae could be the result of a history of vegetative propagation in the domestication process.

  12. Key processes for Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) diversification on oceanic islands inferred from AFLP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitales, Daniel; García-Fernández, Alfredo; Pellicer, Jaume; Vallès, Joan; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Cowan, Robyn S; Fay, Michael F; Hidalgo, Oriane; Garnatje, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The radiation of the genus Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) in Macaronesia constitutes a spectacular case of rapid diversification on oceanic islands. Twenty species - nine of them included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species - have been described to date inhabiting the Madeiran and Canarian archipelagos. A previous phylogenetic study revealed that the diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia started less than 2 Ma. As a result of such an explosive speciation process, limited phylogenetic resolution was reported, mainly due to the low variability of the employed molecular markers. In the present study, we used highly polymorphic AFLP markers to i) evaluate species' boundaries, ii) infer their evolutionary relationships and iii) investigate the patterns of genetic diversity in relation to the potential processes likely involved in the radiation of Cheirolophus. One hundred and seventy-two individuals representing all Macaronesian Cheirolophus species were analysed using 249 AFLP loci. Our results suggest that geographic isolation played an important role in this radiation process. This was likely driven by the combination of poor gene flow capacity and a good ability for sporadic long-distance colonisations. In addition, we also found some traces of introgression and incipient ecological adaptation, which could have further enhanced the extraordinary diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia. Last, we hypothesize that current threat categories assigned to Macaronesian Cheirolophus species do not reflect their respective evolutionary relevance, so future evaluations of their conservation status should take into account the results presented here.

  13. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Dendranthema morifolium (Asteraceae) using next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W-J; Ye, S; Du, L-H; Li, S-M; Miao, X; Shang, F-D

    2016-10-05

    Dendranthema morifolium (Asteraceae) is a perennial herbaceous plant native to China. A long history of artificial crossings may have resulted in complex genetic background and decreased genetic diversity. To protect the genetic diversity of D. morifolium and enabling breeding of new D. morifolium cultivars, we developed a set of molecular markers. We used pyrosequencing of an enriched microsatellite library by Roche 454 FLX+ platform, to isolate D. morifolium simple sequence repeats (SSRs). A total of 32,863 raw reads containing 2251 SSRs were obtained. To test the effectiveness of these SSR markers, we designed primers by randomly selecting 100 novel SSRs, and amplified them across 60 cultivars representing five different petal shape groups. Sixteen SSRs were polymorphic with the number of alleles ranging from 6 to 19, and their expected and observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.477 to 0.848, and 0.250 to 0.804, respectively. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.459 to 0.854 and the inbreeding coefficient ranged from -0.119 to 0.759. An unweighted pair-group method arithmetic average analysis was performed to survey the phylogenetic relationships of these 60 cultivars and five clusters were identified. These markers can be used for investigating genetic relationships and identifying elite alleles through linkage and association analyses.

  14. Volatiles and Nonvolatiles in Flourensia campestris Griseb. (Asteraceae), How Much Do Capitate Glandular Trichomes Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Leonardo A; López, Daniela; Silva, Mariana P; López Rivilli, Marisa J; Tourn, Mónica G; Cantero, Juan J; Scopel, Ana L

    2018-03-01

    The distribution and ultrastructure of capitate glandular trichomes (GTs) in Flourensia species (Asteraceae) have been recently elucidated, but their metabolic activity and potential biological function remain unexplored. Selective nonvolatile metabolites from isolated GTs were strikingly similar to those found on leaf surfaces. The phytotoxic allelochemical sesquiterpene (-)-hamanasic acid A ((-)-HAA) was the major constituent (ca. 40%) in GTs. Although GTs are quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs)-accumulating species, glycine betaine was not found in GTs; it was only present in the leaf mesophyll. Two (-)-HAA accompanying surface secreted products: compounds 4-hydroxyacetophenone (piceol; 1) and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxyacetophenone (2), which were isolated and fully characterized (GC/MS, NMR), were present in the volatiles found in GTs. The essential oils of fresh leaves revealed ca. 33% monoterpenes, 26% hydrocarbon- and 30% oxygenated sesquiterpenes, most of them related to cadinene and bisabolene derivatives. Present results suggest a main role of GTs in determining the volatile and nonvolatile composition of F. campestris leaves. Based on the known activities of the compounds identified, it can be suggested that GTs in F. campestris would play key ecological functions in plant-pathogen and plant-plant interactions. In addition, the strikingly high contribution of compounds derived from cadinene and bisabolene pathways, highlights the potential of this species as a source of high-valued bioproducts. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  15. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of some wild Saudi Arabian Asteraceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Ibrahim, Abeer Y; Elsaid, Mansour S

    2014-07-01

    To study the antioxidant properties of crude extract of different Asteraceae plants. The antioxidant properties of six extracts were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, including free radical scavenging, reducing power, metal chelation, superoxide anion radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activities. Picris cyanocarpa (P. cyanocarpa) and Anthemis deserti (A. deserti) had powerful antioxidant properties as radical scavenger, reducing agent and superoxide anion radical scavenger while Achillia fragrantissima (A. fragrantissima) and Artemissia monosperma (A. monosperma) were the most efficient as ion chelator (100% at 100, 200 and 400 μg/mL) A. fragrantissima and Rhantarium appoposum (R. appoposum) showed 100% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 200 and 400 μg/mL, while butylatedhydroxy toluene and ascorbic acid showed 100 and 95% inhibition percentage at 400 μg/mL, respectively. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyl toluene and ascorbic acid. In most tests P. cyanocarpa and A. deserti had powerful antioxidant properties as radical scavenger, reducing agent and superoxide anion radical scavenger. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Patterns of MADS-box gene expression mark flower-type development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae

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    Teeri Teemu H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflorescence of the cut-flower crop Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae consists of two principal flower types, ray and disc, which form a tightly packed head, or capitulum. Despite great interest in plant morphological evolution and the tractability of the gerbera system, very little is known regarding genetic mechanisms involved in flower type specification. Here, we provide comparative staging of ray and disc flower development and microarray screening for differentially expressed genes, accomplished via microdissection of hundreds of coordinately developing flower primordia. Results Using a 9K gerbera cDNA microarray we identified a number of genes with putative specificity to individual flower types. Intrestingly, several of these encode homologs of MADS-box transcription factors otherwise known to regulate flower organ development. From these and previously obtained data, we hypothesize the functions and protein-protein interactions of several gerbera MADS-box factors. Conclusion Our RNA expression results suggest that flower-type specific MADS protein complexes may play a central role in differential development of ray and disc flowers across the gerbera capitulum, and that some commonality is shared with known protein functions in floral organ determination. These findings support the intriguing conjecture that the gerbera flowering head is more than a mere floral analog at the level of gene regulation.

  17. Anatomy and fructan distribution in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae) from the campos rupestres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Taiza M; Vilhalva, Divina A A; Moraes, Moemy G; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L

    2015-01-01

    Among the compounds stored by plants, several functions are assigned to fructans, such as source of energy and protection against drought and extreme temperatures. In the present study we analyzed the anatomy and distribution of fructans in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae), an endemic species from the Brazilian campos rupestres. D. vestitumhas amphistomatic and pubescent leaves, with both glandular and non-glandular trichomes. In the basal aerial stem the medulla has two types of parenchyma, which differ from the apical portion. The xylopodium has mixed anatomical origin. Interestingly, although inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization were found in all analyzed organs except the leaves, the highest amount and maximum degree of polymerization were detected in the xylopodium. Inulin sphero-crystals were visualized under polarized light in the medulla and in the vascular tissues mainly in the central region of the xylopodium, which has abundant xylem parenchyma. Secretory structures accumulating several compounds but not inulin were identified within all the vegetative organs. The presence of these compounds, in addition to inulin, might be related to the strategies of plants to survive adverse conditions in a semi-arid region, affected seasonally by water restriction and frequently by fire.

  18. Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae) Endemic to Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Muscolo, Camilla; Zorzetto, Christian; Sánchez-Mateo, Candelaria C; Rabanal, Rosa M; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Damiano, Silvia; Iannarelli, Romilde; Lupidi, Giulio; Papa, Fabrizio; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2016-07-01

    Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae) is a halophytic shrub endemic to the Canary Islands and traditionally employed as analgesic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, and vulnerary. A comprehensive phytochemical investigation was conducted on the flowering aerial parts by analyzing both essential oil constituents and polar compounds. The essential oil was dominated by p-cymene, with the noteworthy occurrence of β-pinene and thymol esters. From the EtOH extract, eight compounds were isolated and structurally elucidated. Essential oil, polar fractions, and isolates (2), (4), and (5) were separately in vitro assayed for antiproliferative activity on human tumor cell lines (A375, MDA-MB 231, and HCT116) by MTT assay, for antioxidant potential by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays, and for antimicrobial activity by the agar disk diffusion method. Results revealed that essential oil and compounds 1 and 2 exert a strong inhibition on tumor cells, and in some cases, higher than that of cisplatin. Fractions containing thymol derivatives (1 and 2) and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives 4 and 5 displayed antioxidant activity comparable to that of Trolox, making S. sericea extract an interesting natural product with potential applications as preservative or in the treatment of diseases in which oxidative stress plays an important role. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  19. Cytonuclear Coordination Is Not Immediate upon Allopolyploid Formation in Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae) Allopolyploids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrish, Tina; Symonds, V. Vaughan; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Tate, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Allopolyploids, formed by hybridization and chromosome doubling, face the immediate challenge of having duplicated nuclear genomes that interact with the haploid and maternally inherited cytoplasmic (plastid and mitochondrial) genomes. Most of our knowledge of the genomic consequences of allopolyploidy has focused on the fate of the duplicated nuclear genes without regard to their potential interactions with cytoplasmic genomes. As a step toward understanding the fates of nuclear-encoded subunits that are plastid-targeted, here we examine the retention and expression of the gene encoding the small subunit of Ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco; rbcS) in multiple populations of allotetraploid Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae). These polyploids formed recently (~80 years ago) and repeatedly from T. dubius and T. pratensis in the northwestern United States. Examination of 79 T. miscellus individuals from 10 natural populations, as well as 25 synthetic allotetraploids, including reciprocally formed plants, revealed a low percentage of naturally occurring individuals that show a bias in either gene (homeolog) loss (12%) or expression (16%), usually toward maintaining the maternal nuclear copy of rbcS. For individuals showing loss, seven retained the maternally derived rbcS homeolog only, while three had the paternally derived copy. All of the synthetic polyploid individuals examined (S0 and S1 generations) retained and expressed both parental homeologs. These results demonstrate that cytonuclear coordination does not happen immediately upon polyploid formation in Tragopogon miscellus. PMID:26646761

  20. Anatomy and fructan distribution in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae from the campos rupestres

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    Taiza M. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the compounds stored by plants, several functions are assigned to fructans, such as source of energy and protection against drought and extreme temperatures. In the present study we analyzed the anatomy and distribution of fructans in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae, an endemic species from the Brazilian campos rupestres. D. vestitum has amphistomatic and pubescent leaves, with both glandular and non-glandular trichomes. In the basal aerial stem the medulla has two types of parenchyma, which differ from the apical portion. The xylopodium has mixed anatomical origin. Interestingly, although inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization were found in all analyzed organs except the leaves, the highest amount and maximum degree of polymerization were detected in the xylopodium. Inulin sphero-crystals were visualized under polarized light in the medulla and in the vascular tissues mainly in the central region of the xylopodium, which has abundant xylem parenchyma. Secretory structures accumulating several compounds but not inulin were identified within all the vegetative organs. The presence of these compounds, in addition to inulin, might be related to the strategies of plants to survive adverse conditions in a semi-arid region, affected seasonally by water restriction and frequently by fire.

  1. Concomitant chemopreventive and antibacterial effects of some Iranian plants from the genus Cousinia (Asteraceae

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    Ahmad Reza Shahverdi

    Full Text Available During the past several years, various species of Cousinia (Asteraceae have been authenticated in Iran. However, data concerning their biological activities remain limited. The main purpose of this research was to assess potential cytotoxicity and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP inhibitory effects of seven ethanol extracts of Cousinia using a cell line model (Fibrosarcoma-WEHI 164. We further investigated the antibacterial activity of these Cousinia ethanol extracts, using disk diffusion method. Among the ethanol extracts, the total extract of C. sulabadensis elicited significant inhibition of MMP activity in a dose-response fashion (49.2 ± 0.51, p < 0.05. However, this extract exhibited the lowest cytotoxicity effect at all tested concentrations. The concentration necessary to produce a 50% cell death rate (IC50 with C. shulabadensis was 304.5 ± 0.61 µg/mL. The calculated IC50 for cytotoxicity of the other Cousinia species extracts ranged between 18.4 ± 0.59 to 87.9 ± 0.58 µg/mL. The highest antibacterial activity was observed for the total extract of Cousinia phyllocephala. In conclusion, this study supports that Cousinia species display a remarkable inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases activity. The concomitant MMP-inhibitory and low cytotoxicity effects observed in C. sulabadensis might coin this extract for future potential anti-invasive herbal medicine studies.

  2. Antioxidant activities of extracts from Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Asteraceae) and Penstemon gentianoides (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Mariana; Nieto, Antonio; Marin, Juan C; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Céspedes, Carlos L

    2005-07-27

    Various extracts of the aerial parts of Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Asteraceae) and Penstemon gentianoides (Scrophulariaceae) have been used in folk medicine to treat many ailments, particularly inflammation and migraine. Neither the bioactive components responsible nor the mechanisms involved have been evaluated. Here are reported antioxidant activities of their methanol, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts. Samples were evaluated for oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and inhibition of the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant activities were strongly correlated with total polyphenol content. The most active extracts from P. gentianoides in scavenging DPPH radicals and inhibiting TBARS formation were the methanol extract (A) and a further ethyl acetate extract of this (E). Partition E was further divided into eight fractions, and both E and the fractions were compared for activity against butylated hydroxytoluene, quercetin, and tocopherol. Partition E and the most active fractions, 5 and 6, were found to have I(50) values of 14.1, 38.6, and 41.8 ppm, respectively, against DPPH and 18.5, 26.0, and 12.7 ppm, respectively, against TBARS formation. Consistent with this finding, partition E and fractions 4-6 had the greatest ORAC and FRAP values. These results show that these plants could be useful antioxidant sources.

  3. Recent assembly of the global herbaceous flora: evidence from the paper daisies (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ze-Long; Funk, Vicki A; Meng, Ying; Deng, Tao; Sun, Hang; Wen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The global flora is thought to contain a large proportion of herbs, and understanding the general spatiotemporal processes that shaped the global distribution of these communities is one of the most difficult issues in biogeography. We explored patterns of world-wide biogeography in a species-rich herbaceous group, the paper daisy tribe Gnaphalieae (Asteraceae), based on the hitherto largest taxon sampling, a total of 835 terminal accessions representing 80% of the genera, and encompassing the global geographic range of the tribe, with nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS) sequences. Biogeographic analyses indicate that Gnaphalieae originated in southern Africa during the Oligocene, followed by repeated migrations into the rest of Africa and the Mediterranean region, with subsequent entries into other continents during various periods starting in the Miocene. Expansions in the late Miocene to Pliocene appear to have been the driving force that shaped the global distribution of the tribe as forests were progressively broken up by the mid-continent aridification and savannas and grasslands expanded into the interior of the major continents. This pattern of recent colonizations may explain the world-wide distribution of many other organisms in open ecosystems and it is highlighted here as an emerging pattern in the evolution of the global flora. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Anatomy and ultrastructure of floral nectary of lnula helenium L (Asteraceae

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Floral nectaries of Inula helenium L. only occurred in disc florets and were situated above the inferior ovary. The shape of the investigated glands (five-armed star with rounded tips and deep incisions - observed from above clearly differed from the shape of the nectaries of other Asteraceae, also the height of nectary was much lower (129 µm. The glandular tissue of the nectaries of elecampane was composed of a single-layered epidermis and 5--9 layers of secretory cells. Nectar was released through modified stomata, mainly arranged in the top part of the gland. The secretory cells were characterised by granular cytoplasm and the presence of a large, often lobate, cell nucleus. In the cytosol, numerous amoeboid plastids, mitochondria, Golgi bodies and ribosomes were present. In small vacuoles, myelin-like structures, fibrous material and vesicles with the content of substances which can be secretion, were observed. The plastid stroma showed different electron density and the presence of internal tubules and plastoglobules. Vesicular extensions forming bright zones were visible between the membranes of the nuclear envelope. Adjacent to the plasmalemma, as well as between the plasmalemma and the cell wall, secretory vesicles occurred, indicating the granulocrine mechanism of nectar secretion.

  5. Biotechnological potential of endophytic actinomycetes associated with Asteraceae plants: isolation, biodiversity and bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-04-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes from five Asteraceae plants were isolated and evaluated for their bioactivities. From Parthenium hysterophorus, Ageratum conyzoides, Sonchus oleraceus, Sonchus asper and Hieracium canadense, 42, 45, 90, 3, and 2 isolates, respectively, were obtained. Of the isolates, 86 (47.2 %) showed antimicrobial activity. Majority of the isolates were recovered from the roots (n = 127, 69.7 %). The dominant genus was Streptomyces (n = 96, 52.7 %), while Amycolatopsis, Pseudonocardia, Nocardia and Micromonospora were also recovered. Overall, 36 of the 86 isolates were significantly bioactivity while 18 (20.9 %) showed strong bioactivity. In total, 52.1 and 66.6 % showed potent cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities. The LC50 for 15 strains was <20 μg/ml. Compared to the ascorbate standard (EC50 0.34 μg/ml), all isolates gave impressive results with notable EC50 values of 0.65, 0.67, 0.74 and 0.79 μg/ml.

  6. Estudio de la propagación sexual del arboloco Montanoa quadrangularis Schultz Bipontianus Asteraceae

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    William Escobar-Torres

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual propagation of arboloco Montanoa quadrangularis Schultz Bipontianus (Asteraceae. Objective. To develop sexual propagationmethodologies for Montanoa quadrangularis Schultz Bipontianus (arboloco. Materials and methods. Seeds were harvested from treesgrown at the Chilaca environmental station (Geoambiente Ltda. located in Pacho, Cundinamarca, Colombia. The study was carried out intwo phases: firstly, substrate effect on germination responses was evaluated in seedbed conditions. Substrates evaluated were: local soil,local soil mixed with worm humus, and peat. Additionally, two spatial arrangements were assessed: seeds sown at random and at 0.5 cmin depth. Secondly, in nursery conditions the effect of the substrates local soil, local soil mixed with worm humus and peat, as well as theeffect of developmental stages of the plants (with 2, 4, and 6 leaves on their further growth and development were evaluated. Results. Inseedbed conditions, the germination capacity was highly influenced by peat substrate (83.67% whereas in local soil the germinationcapacity was 40.83%. In nursery conditions, 6-leaf plants grown in local soil mixed with worm humus showed the best responses onparameters such as plant total length (9.51 cm, leaf area (36.69 cm2, and total dry weight (0.10 g. Conclusions. The type of substrateused in seedbed conditions influenced the germination capacity of M. quadrangularis seeds. The substrate and the developmental stage ofthe plant had a significant influence on the growth and development of arboloco plants.

  7. Home at Last II: Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini (Mutisieae, Asteraceae is really a Chaptalia

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    Xiaodan Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini of the Gerbera-complex (Mutisieae, Asteraceae/Compositae is distributed in Ecuador and Peru. This perennial herb was first named as Onoseris hieracioides Kunth and was later recognised as Trichocline hieracioides (Kunth Ferreyra. Now it is generally treated as Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini but it has never been included in any section of Gerbera. In this study, the position of Gerbera hieracioides is assessed based on morphology and a molecular phylogeny that includes G. hieracioides and 28 other species from the Gerbera-complex. Morphologically, G. hieracioides bears leaves with the adaxial epidermal surface without stomates but with soft thin trichomes, bracteate scapes, trimorphic capitula and inner ray florets with the corolla shorter than the style. These characters suggest that the species is most closely related to Chaptalia rather than to Gerbera or Trichocline. Furthermore, the phylogenetic results based on two nuclear (ITS and ETS and two chloroplast (trnL–trnF and trnL–rpl32 sequences strongly support the placement of G. hieracioides nested within Chaptalia. As both morphological characters and the molecular phylogenetic results support the transfer of G. hieracioides to Chaptalia, this enigmatic taxon is recognised as Chaptalia hieracioides (Kunth X.-D. Xu & W. Zheng.

  8. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of various leaf extracts of Amphoricarpos vis. (Asteraceae taxa

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    Gavrilović Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of diethyl ether, 80% methanol and 50% acetone extracts of the leaves of three Amphoricarpos taxa (Asteraceae; A. neumayerianus, A. autariatus ssp. autariatus and A. autariatus ssp. bertisceus from the Balkan Peninsula were investigated. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the broth microdilution assay against eight bacterial and eight fungal species. The in vitro antioxidative activity was assessed by the DPPH assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined. The most sensitive bacterial species were Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The best antibacterial potential was obtained for the methanol extract of A. neumayerianus, while the diethyl ether extract of this species showed the lowest effect. In general, the tested extracts showed higher activity than the commercial antibiotics streptomycin and ampicillin. Also, all micromycetes were sensitive to the tested extracts. The most sensitive was Trichoderma viride. The highest and lowest antifungal effect was determined in A. a. ssp. autariatus for the diethyl ether and acetone extracts, respectively. The highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined in the methanol extract of A. a. autariatus. The best antioxidative activity was demonstrated by the methanol extract of A. a. ssp. autariatus as comparing to matching extracts from the other two taxa.

  9. Control of Three Stored−Product Beetles with Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae Essential Oil

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    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.

  10. Caracterização morfoanatômica de Ageratum fastigiatum (Asteraceae

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    Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira

    Full Text Available Ageratum fastigiatum (Gardn. R. M. King et H. Rob. (Asteraceae, conhecido como "matapasto", é uma planta usada na medicina popular como cicatrizante e antimicrobiano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar caracterização morfoanatômica da folha, dos ramos e da raiz de A. fastigiatum. Secções transversais e paradérmicas, coradas com safranina/azul de astra e azul de toluidina foram analisadas ao microscópio. As folhas são alternas ou fasciculadas; a inflorescência é constituída de capítulos; as flores com corola lilás; ausência de pápus. A raiz apresenta crescimento secundário na zona de ramificação com estruturas secretoras. O caule possui epiderme uniestratificada, estômatos, tricomas tectores simples e tricomas glandulares capitados. O pecíolo exibe contorno côncavo-convexo e a epiderme é unisseriada. A lâmina foliar é anfiestomática e o mesófilo dorsiventral. A epiderme possui células de contorno sinuoso e os estômatos são do tipo anomocítico. Os caracteres morfoanatômicos permitiram estabelecer parâmetros para identificação do A. fastigiatum.

  11. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lizzeth; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Morales, Antonio; Nieves, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD 50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD 90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD 95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD 99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD 50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD 90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD 95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD 99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei , comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei , hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.

  12. Discovery of germacrene A synthases in Barnadesia spinosa: The first committed step in sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in the basal member of the Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Faraldos, Juan A; Vardakou, Maria; Salmon, Melissa; O'Maille, Paul E; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2016-10-28

    The Andes-endemic Barnadesioideae lineage is the oldest surviving and phylogenetically basal subfamily of the Asteraceae (Compositae), a prolific group of flowering plants with world-wide distribution (∼24,000 species) marked by a rich diversity of sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). Intriguingly, there is no evidence that members of the Barnadesioideae produce STLs, specialized metabolites thought to have contributed to the adaptive success of the Asteraceae family outside South America. The biosynthesis of STLs requires the intimate expression and functional integration of germacrene A synthase (GAS) and germacrene A oxidase (GAO) to sequentially cyclize and oxidize farnesyl diphosphate into the advanced intermediate germacrene A acid leading to diverse STLs. Our previous discovery of GAO activity conserved across all major subfamilies of Asteraceae, including the phylogenetically basal lineage of Barnadesioideae, prompted further investigation of the presence of the gateway GAS in Barnadesioideae. Herein we isolated two terpene synthases (BsGAS1/BsGAS2) from the basal Barnadesia spinosa (Barnadesioideae) that displayed robust GAS activity when reconstituted in yeast and characterized in vitro. Despite the apparent lack of STLs in the Barnadesioideae, this work unambiguously confirms the presence of GAS in the basal genera of the Asteraceae. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the two BsGASs fall into two distinct clades of the Asteraceae's GASs, and BsGAS1 clade is only retained in the evolutionary closer Cichorioideae subfamily, implicating BsGAS2 is likely the ancestral base of most GASs found in the lineages outside the Barnadesioideae. Taken together, these results show the enzymatic capacities of GAS and GAO emerged prior to the subsequent radiation of STL-producing Asteraceae subfamilies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Selective advantage of ray florets in Scalesia affinis and S. pedunculata (Asteraceae), two endemic species from the Galápagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Philipp, Marianne; Siegismund, Hans R.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of neuter ray florets in species within Asteraceae is generally believed to increase pollinator attraction. In the endemic Galápagos genus Scalesia (Asteraceae) a natural variation in the presence/absence of neuter ray florets is found. To evaluate whether the presence of ray florets...... plays a selective role on female reproductive success we chose two species of Scalesia, Scalesia affinis that carries ray florets and S. pedunculata that is rayless. On Santa Cruz Island capitula of S. pedunculata were equipped with fake ray florets while others were untouched. On Isabela Island ray...

  14. Functional diversification of duplicated CYC2 clade genes in regulation of inflorescence development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntheikki-Palovaara, Inka; Tähtiharju, Sari; Lan, Tianying; Broholm, Suvi K; Rijpkema, Anneke S; Ruonala, Raili; Kale, Liga; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2014-09-01

    The complex inflorescences (capitula) of Asteraceae consist of different types of flowers. In Gerbera hybrida (gerbera), the peripheral ray flowers are bilaterally symmetrical and lack functional stamens while the central disc flowers are more radially symmetrical and hermaphroditic. Proteins of the CYC2 subclade of the CYC/TB1-like TCP domain transcription factors have been recruited several times independently for parallel evolution of bilaterally symmetrical flowers in various angiosperm plant lineages, and have also been shown to regulate flower-type identity in Asteraceae. The CYC2 subclade genes in gerbera show largely overlapping gene expression patterns. At the level of single flowers, their expression domain in petals shows a spatial shift from the dorsal pattern known so far in species with bilaterally symmetrical flowers, suggesting that this change in expression may have evolved after the origin of Asteraceae. Functional analysis indicates that GhCYC2, GhCYC3 and GhCYC4 mediate positional information at the proximal-distal axis of the inflorescence, leading to differentiation of ray flowers, but that they also regulate ray flower petal growth by affecting cell proliferation until the final size and shape of the petals is reached. Moreover, our data show functional diversification for the GhCYC5 gene. Ectopic activation of GhCYC5 increases flower density in the inflorescence, suggesting that GhCYC5 may promote the flower initiation rate during expansion of the capitulum. Our data thus indicate that modification of the ancestral network of TCP factors has, through gene duplications, led to the establishment of new expression domains and to functional diversification. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Self-organizing maps of molecular descriptors for sesquiterpene lactones and their application to the chemotaxonomy of the Asteraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Marcus T; Emerenciano, Vicente; Ferreira, Marcelo J P; Scotti, Luciana; Stefani, Ricardo; da Silva, Marcelo S; Mendonça Junior, Francisco Jaime B

    2012-04-20

    The Asteraceae, one of the largest families among angiosperms, is chemically characterised by the production of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). A total of 1,111 SLs, which were extracted from 658 species, 161 genera, 63 subtribes and 15 tribes of Asteraceae, were represented and registered in two dimensions in the SISTEMATX, an in-house software system, and were associated with their botanical sources. The respective 11 block of descriptors: Constitutional, Functional groups, BCUT, Atom-centred, 2D autocorrelations, Topological, Geometrical, RDF, 3D-MoRSE, GETAWAY and WHIM were used as input data to separate the botanical occurrences through self-organising maps. Maps that were generated with each descriptor divided the Asteraceae tribes, with total index values between 66.7% and 83.6%. The analysis of the results shows evident similarities among the Heliantheae, Helenieae and Eupatorieae tribes as well as between the Anthemideae and Inuleae tribes. Those observations are in agreement with systematic classifications that were proposed by Bremer, which use mainly morphological and molecular data, therefore chemical markers partially corroborate with these classifications. The results demonstrate that the atom-centred and RDF descriptors can be used as a tool for taxonomic classification in low hierarchical levels, such as tribes. Descriptors obtained through fragments or by the two-dimensional representation of the SL structures were sufficient to obtain significant results, and better results were not achieved by using descriptors derived from three-dimensional representations of SLs. Such models based on physico-chemical properties can project new design SLs, similar structures from literature or even unreported structures in two-dimensional chemical space. Therefore, the generated SOMs can predict the most probable tribe where a biologically active molecule can be found according Bremer classification.

  16. Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Phoma sorghina, an endophyte found in association with the medicinal plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Warley de Souza; Pupo, Monica Tallarico

    2006-01-01

    Three known anthraquinones (1,7-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 1,6-dihydroxy- 3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone), one new anthraquinone (1,7-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone), and two new hexahydro anthraquinone derivatives, dendryols E and F, were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Phoma sorghina, found in association with Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. (author)

  17. Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Phoma sorghina, an endophyte found in association with the medicinal plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Warley de Souza; Pupo, Monica Tallarico [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: mtpupo@fcfrp.usp.br

    2006-09-15

    Three known anthraquinones (1,7-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 1,6-dihydroxy- 3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone), one new anthraquinone (1,7-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone), and two new hexahydro anthraquinone derivatives, dendryols E and F, were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Phoma sorghina, found in association with Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. (author)

  18. Morphogenesis of galls induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves

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    M. Arduin

    Full Text Available The commonest insect gall on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves is induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera, Psyllidae. The gall-inducing insect attacks young leaves in both the unfolded and the fully expanded stages. Four developmental phases were observed in this type of gall: 1 A folding phase, during which the leaf lamina folded upward alongside the midrib and the edges of the upper portion of the leaf approached each other, forming a longitudinal slit. A single chamber was formed on the adaxial surface of the leaf; 2 A swelling phase, in which the folded leaf tissues thickened and the edges of the leaf drew closer together, narrowing the slit. In this phase the gall matured, turning succulent, fusiform and pale green. The single nymphal chamber was lined with white wax and was able to house from one to several nymphs; 3 A dehiscence phase, characterized by the opening of the slit to release inducers; and 4 A senescence phase, when the gall turned dark and dry. The dermal system of the mature gall was composed of a single-layered epidermis. The mesophyll was swollen, and the swelling was due mainly to hyperplasia of the parenchyma. The vascular tissues along the midrib vein were conspicuous and the perivascular fibers resembled parenchymal cells. The hypertrophied secretory cavities contained low lipophylic content. This gall does not form nutritive tissue, but salivary sheaths left by the inducers were observed near the parenchyma, vascular bundles and secretory cavities. This study complements our current knowledge of gall biology and sheds further light on the plasticity of plant tissues stimulated by biotic factors.

  19. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndihokubwayo, Noel; Nguyen, Viet-Thang; Cheng, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae), a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north-eastern and south-western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C), seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP) and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT) was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C) and seasons (in summer or autumn) were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6%) was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C), and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations.

  20. ent-Pimarane and ent-Kaurane Diterpenes from Aldama discolor (Asteraceae and Their Antiprotozoal Activity

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    Mauro S. Nogueira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aldama discolor (syn.Viguiera discolor is an endemic Asteraceae from the Brazilian “Cerrado”, which has not previously been investigated for its chemical constituents and biological activity. Diterpenes are common secondary metabolites found in Aldama species, some of which have been reported to present potential antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, the known ent-3-α-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-18-ol (1, as well as three new diterpenes, namely, ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-18-ol (2, ent-2S,4S-2-19-epoxy-pimara-8(3,15-diene-7β-ol (3 and ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-3β-ol (4, were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of A. discolor leaves and identified by means of MS and NMR. The compounds were assayed in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum and also tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian cells (L6 cell line. The ent-kaurane 1 showed significant in vitro activity against both P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.5 μ M and L. donovani (IC 50 = 2.5 μ M and ent-pimarane 2 against P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.8 μ M. Both compounds returned high selectivity indices (SI >10 in comparison with L6 cells, which makes them interesting candidates for in vivo tests. In addition to the diterpenes, the sesquiterpene lactone budlein A (5, which has been reported to possess a strong anti-T. b. rhodesiense activity, was identified as major compound in the A. discolor extract and explains its high activity against this parasite (100% growth inhibition at 2 μ g/mL.

  1. Phylogeography and disjunct distribution in Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae), an endangered cerrado shrub species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Rabelo, Suelen Gonçalves; Vieira, Roberto F

    2009-09-01

    Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae) presents disjunct geographical distribution in cerrado rupestre in the south-east and central Brazil. The phylogeography of the species was investigated to understand the origin of the disjunct geographical distribution. Populations in the south and centre of Serra do Espinhaço, south-east Brazil and on ten other localities in Federal District and Goiás in central Brazil were sampled. Analyses were based on the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnL intron and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. From 12 populations, 192 individuals were sequenced. Network analysis, AMOVA and the Mantel test were performed to understand the relationships among haplotypes and population genetic structure. To understand better the origin of disjunct distribution, demographic parameters and time to most recent common ancestor (T(MRCA)) were estimated using coalescent analyses. A remarkable differentiation between populations from the south-east and central Brazil was found and no haplotype was shared between these two regions. No significant effect of isolation by distance was detected. Coalescent analyses showed that some populations are shrinking and others are expanding and that gene flow between populations from the south-east and central Brazil was probably negligible. The results strongly support that the disjunct distribution of L. ericoides may represent a climatic relict and that long-distance gene flow is unlikely. With an estimated time to most recent common ancestor (T(MRCA)) dated from approx. 790,655 +/- 36,551 years bp (chloroplast) and approx. 623,555 +/- 55,769 years bp (ITS), it was hypothesized that the disjunct distribution may be a consequence of an expansion of the geographical distribution favoured by the drier and colder conditions that prevailed in much of Brazil during the Kansan glaciation, followed by the retraction of the distribution due to the extinction of populations in some areas as climate

  2. Atividades antiúlcera e antioxidante Baccharis trimera (Less DC (Asteraceae

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    Larissa Funabashi de Toledo Dias

    Full Text Available A "carqueja", Baccharis trimera (Less DC (Asteraceae, é uma espécie vegetal característica de regiões tropicais, muito utilizada na medicina popular como antiinflamatória, hipoglicemiante e em tratamento de problemas digestivos. A avaliação da atividade antiúlcera do extrato bruto liofilizado e do extrato liofilizado da "resina" (porção que durante a concentração dos extratos ficava depositada no fundo do recipiente com aspecto viscoso e pegajoso foi realizada através de indução aguda por etanol acidificado. O extrato bruto liofilizado, na dose de 400 mg/ kg, reduziu a área de lesão em 90%, 200 mg/kg, 87%, 100 mg/kg, 66% e o fármaco controle (lansoprazol, 66%. O extrato liofilizado da "resina", administrado na dose de 400 mg/kg, reduziu a área de lesão em 82%, 200 mg/kg, 82%, 100 mg/kg, 53% e o fármaco controle (lansoprazol, 70%. A atividade antioxidante foi ensaiada com extrato bruto liofilizado, extrato liofilizado da "resina", pó da droga e frações clorofórmica, acetato de etila, etanol e etanol 50% através do método que reduz o radical 2,2'-difenil-1-picril-hidrazil (DPPH, permitindo após o equilíbrio da reação, calcular a quantidade de antioxidante gasta para reduzir 50% do DPPH, apresentando resultado evidente, comparado à vitamina E. Não foram verificados sinais de alteração aparente no ensaio de toxicidade na dose única de 5g/kg, em camundongos.

  3. Relation between flower head traits and florivory in Asteraceae: a phylogenetically controlled approach.

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    Oguro, Michio; Sakai, Satoki

    2015-03-01

    • While much research has examined the relation between leaf traits and herbivory, very little is known about the interaction between floral traits, particularly biochemical traits, and florivory. We investigated patterns between floral traits and florivory across multiple species using phylogenetic comparative approaches to enhance our understanding of the evolution of plant-florivore interactions.• The relation between the intensity of florivory and five biochemical traits (concentrations of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and total phenolics) and two morphological traits (diameter and number of flower heads) were investigated in wild individuals of 18 native species of Asteraceae. The phylogenetic signals in the morphological traits and intensity of florivory were also tested.• We found that species with higher nitrogen, water, and total phenolics and lower phosphorus concentrations in the flower heads and species with a large number and diameter of flower heads tended to be attacked by florivores. In addition, we found significant phylogenetic signals in florivory and morphological traits.• Our results clearly show that biochemical traits also play important roles in plant-florivore interactions, as previously shown in plant-leaf herbivore interactions. The positive relationship between florivory and total phenolics implies that phenolic compounds in flower heads may not act as a defense in the species. In addition, the observed pattern of signals in florivory might not be solely explained by the signals of the measured traits and other plant traits may also play significant roles in plant-florivore interaction in these species. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  4. Floral development and evolution of capitulum structure in Anacyclus (Anthemideae, Asteraceae).

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    Bello, M Angélica; Álvarez, Inés; Torices, Rubén; Fuertes-Aguilar, Javier

    2013-11-01

    Most of the diversity in the pseudanthia of Asteraceae is based on the differential symmetry and sexuality of its flowers. In Anacyclus, where there are (1) homogamous capitula, with bisexual, mainly actinomorphic and pentamerous flowers; and (2) heterogamous capitula, with peripheral zygomorphic, trimerous and long-/short-rayed female flowers, the floral ontogeny was investigated to infer their origin. Floral morphology and ontogeny were studied using scanning electron microscope and light microscope techniques. Disc flowers, subtended by paleae, initiate acropetally. Perianth and androecium initiation is unidirectional/simultaneous. Late zygomorphy occurs by enlargement of the adaxial perianth lobes. In contrast, ray flowers, subtended by involucral bracts, initiate after the proximal disc buds, breaking the inflorescence acropetal pattern. Early zygomorphy is manifested through the fusion of the lateral and abaxial perianth lobes and the arrest of the adaxials. We report atypical phenotypes with peripheral 'trumpet' flowers from natural populations. The peripheral 'trumpet' buds initiate after disc flowers, but maintain an actinomorphic perianth. All phenotypes are compared and interpreted in the context of alternative scenarios for the origin of the capitulum and the perianth identity. Homogamous inflorescences display a uniform floral morphology and development, whereas the peripheral buds in heterogamous capitula display remarkable plasticity. Disc and ray flowers follow different floral developmental pathways. Peripheral zygomorphic flowers initiate after the proximal actinomorphic disc flowers, behaving as lateral independent units of the pseudanthial disc from inception. The perianth and the androecium are the most variable whorls across the different types of flowers, but their changes are not correlated. Lack of homology between hypanthial appendages and a calyx, and the perianth double-sided structure are discussed for Anacyclus together with potential

  5. The potential medicinal value of plants from Asteraceae family with antioxidant defense enzymes as biological targets.

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    Koc, Suheda; Isgor, Belgin S; Isgor, Yasemin G; Shomali Moghaddam, Naznoosh; Yildirim, Ozlem

    2015-05-01

    Plants and most of the plant-derived compounds have long been known for their potential pharmaceutical effects. They are well known to play an important role in the treatment of several diseases from diabetes to various types of cancers. Today most of the clinically effective pharmaceuticals are developed from plant-derived ancestors in the history of medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol, ethanol, and acetone extracts from flowers and leaves of Onopordum acanthium L., Carduus acanthoides L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., and Centaurea solstitialis L., all from the Asteraceae family, for investigating their potential medicinal values of biological targets that are participating in the antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In this study, free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the plant samples were assayed by DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu, and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods. Also, the effects of extracts on CAT, GST, and GPx enzyme activities were investigated. The highest phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected in the acetone extract of C. acanthoides flowers, with 90.305 mg GAE/L and 185.43 mg Q/L values, respectively. The highest DPPH radical scavenging was observed with the methanol leaf extracts of C. arvense with an IC50 value of 366 ng/mL. The maximum GPx and GST enzyme inhibition activities were observed with acetone extracts from the flower of C. solstitialis with IC50 values of 79 and 232 ng/mL, respectively.

  6. ent-Pimarane and ent-Kaurane Diterpenes from Aldama discolor (Asteraceae) and Their Antiprotozoal Activity.

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    Nogueira, Mauro S; Da Costa, Fernando B; Brun, Reto; Kaiser, Marcel; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2016-09-15

    Aldama discolor (syn.Viguiera discolor) is an endemic Asteraceae from the Brazilian "Cerrado", which has not previously been investigated for its chemical constituents and biological activity. Diterpenes are common secondary metabolites found in Aldama species, some of which have been reported to present potential antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, the known ent-3-α-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-18-ol (1), as well as three new diterpenes, namely, ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-18-ol (2), ent-2S,4S-2-19-epoxy-pimara-8(3),15-diene-7β-ol (3) and ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-3β-ol (4), were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of A. discolor leaves and identified by means of MS and NMR. The compounds were assayed in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum and also tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian cells (L6 cell line). The ent-kaurane 1 showed significant in vitro activity against both P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.5 μ M) and L. donovani (IC 50 = 2.5 μ M) and ent-pimarane 2 against P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.8 μ M). Both compounds returned high selectivity indices (SI >10) in comparison with L6 cells, which makes them interesting candidates for in vivo tests. In addition to the diterpenes, the sesquiterpene lactone budlein A (5), which has been reported to possess a strong anti-T. b. rhodesiense activity, was identified as major compound in the A. discolor extract and explains its high activity against this parasite (100% growth inhibition at 2 μ g/mL).

  7. Evaluation of Selected Ornamental Asteraceae as a Pollen Source for Urban Bees

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    Wróblewska Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Offering more floral resources for urban bees can be achieved by growing ornamental bee plants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate selected Asteraceae (Calendula officinalis ‘Persimmon Beauty’ and ‘Santana’, Centaurea macrocephala, Cosmos sulphureus, Dahlia pinnata, Tagetes patula, Tithonia rotundifolia, and Zinnia elegans as pollen sources for pollinators. Under urban conditions in Lublin, SE Poland, the investigated plants flowered from late June to the end of October. The mass of pollen produced in florets and capitula was found to be species-related. The highest pollen amounts per 10 florets (10.1 mg as well as per capitulum (249.7 mg were found for C. macrocephala. The mass of pollen yielded by a single plant depended on both the pollen mass delivered per disk florets and the proportion of disk florets in capitulum, and the flowering abundance of the plants. A single plant of D. pinnata and a single plant of T. rotundifolia each produced the largest pollen mass. Mean pollen yield per 1m2 of a plot ranged from 6.2 g (Z. elegans to 60.7 g (D. pinnata. Pollen grains are tricolporate, with echinate exine, medium or small in size. They can be categorised as oblatespherical, spherical, and prolatespherical. The principal visitors to C. macrocephala, C. sulphureus, and C. officinalis were honey bees, whereas bumble bees dominated on T. rotundifolia and D. pinnata. A magnet plant for butterflies was Z. elegans. Among the investigated species, D. pinnata, C. macrocephala, and T. rotundifolia were found to be the most valuable sources of pollen flow for managed and wild bees.

  8. Sesquiterpene lactones from the Yugoslavian wild growing plant families Asteraceae and Apiaceae (REVIEW

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    MILUTIN STEFANOVIC

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Results 3. Asteraceae 3.1. Genus Artemisia L. 3.1.1. Artemisia annua L. 3.1.2. Artemisia vulgaris L. 3.1.3. Artemisia absinthium L. (warmwood 3.1.4. Artemisia scoparia W. et K. 3.1.5. Artemisia camprestris L. 3.2. Genus Ambrosia L. 3.2.1. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (the common rag weed 3.3. Genus Tanacetum L. (syn. Chrysanthemum L. 3.3.1. Tanacetum parthenium L. (feverfew 3.3.2. Tanacetum serotinum L. 3.3.3. Tanacetum vulgare L. (tansy 3.3.4. Tanacetum macrophyllum Willd. 3.3.5. Tanacetum corymbosum L. 3.4. Genus Telekia Baumg. 3.4.1. Telekia speciosa (Schreb. Baumg. 3.5. Genus Inula L. 3.5.1. Inula helenium L. 3.5.2. Inula spiraeifolia L. 3.6. Genus Eupatorium L. 3.6.1. Eupatorium cannabinum L. 3.7. Genus Achillea L. 3.7.1. Achillea abrotanoides Vis. 3.7.2. Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica 3.7.3. Achillea crithmifolia W. et K. 3.7.4. Achillea clypeolata Sibth. et Sm. 3.7.5. Achillea serbica Nyman 3.7.6. Achillea depressa Janka 3.8. Genus Anthemis L. 3.8.1. Anthemis carpatica Willd. 3.8.2. Anthemis cretica L. subsp. cretica 3.9. Genus Centaurea L. 3.9.1. Centaurea derventana Vis. et Panc. 3.9.2. Centaurea kosaninii Hayek 3.9.3. Centaurea solstitialis L. 4. Apiaceae 4.1. Genus Laserpitium L. 4.1.1. Laserpitium siler L. 4.1.2. Laserpitium marginatum L. 4.1.3. Laserpitium latifolium L. 4.1.4. Laserpitium alpinum W. K. 4.2. Genus Angelica L. 4.2.1. Angelica silvestris L. 4.3. Genus Peucedanum L. 4.3.1. Peucedanum austriacum (Jacq. Koch

  9. Comparative Analysis of the Genomic DNA Isolation Methods on Inula sp. (Asteraceae

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    Emre SEVİNDİK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Simple, fast, low-cost and high throughput protocols are required for DNA isolation of plant species. In this study, phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol and commercial (Sigma DNA isolation kit methods were applied on some Inula species that belong to Asteraceae family. Genomic DNA amounts, A260, A280, A260/A230 and purity degrees (A260/A280 that were obtained through both methods were measured through electrophoresis and spectrophotometer. Additionally, PCR amplification was realized by primer pairs specific to nrDNA ITS, cpDNA ndhF (972F-1603R and trnL-F regions. Results showed that maximum genomic DNA in nanograms obtained by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. The study also revealed that I. macrocephala had the maximum DNA and I. heterolepis had the minimum DNA amount. A260/A280 purity degrees showed that the highest and lowest purity in gDNAs obtained through phenol-choloform isoamyl alcohol method were in I.aucheriana and I. salicina, respectively. The highest and lowest purity degrees of gDNAs obtained through commercial kit was observed in I. fragilis and I. macrocephala samples, respectively. PCR amplification results showed that while band profiles of each three regions (ITS, trnL-F and ndhF did not yield positive results in PCR amplifications using phenol-choloform isoamyl alcohol method; PCR band profiles obtained through commercial kit yielded positive results. As a result, it is fair to say that the relation of genomic DNA with PCR was found to be more efficient although the maximum amount of genomic DNA was obtained through phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method.

  10. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae seeds

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    Noel Ndihokubwayo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae, a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north–eastern and south–western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C, seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C and seasons (in summer or autumn were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6% was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C, and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations.

  11. A volatolomic approach for studying plant variability: the case of selected Helichrysum species (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Claudia; Lazzaro, Lorenzo; Calamassi, Roberto; Calamai, Luca; Romoli, Riccardo; Fico, Gelsomina; Foggi, Bruno; Mariotti Lippi, Marta

    2016-10-01

    The species of Helichrysum sect. Stoechadina (Asteraceae) are well-known for their secondary metabolite content and the characteristic aromatic bouquets. In the wild, populations exhibit a wide phenotypic plasticity which makes critical the circumscription of species and infraspecific ranks. Previous investigations on Helichrysum italicum complex focused on a possible phytochemical typification based on hydrodistilled essential oils. Aims of this paper are three-fold: (i) characterizing the volatile profiles of different populations, testing (ii) how these profiles vary across populations and (iii) how the phytochemical diversity may contribute in solving taxonomic problems. Nine selected Helichrysum populations, included within the H. italicum complex, Helichrysum litoreum and Helichrysum stoechas, were investigated. H. stoechas was chosen as outgroup for validating the method. After collection in the wild, plants were cultivated in standard growing conditions for over one year. Annual leafy shoots were screened in the post-blooming period for the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by means of headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). The VOC composition analysis revealed the production of overall 386 different compounds, with terpenes being the most represented compound class. Statistical data processing allowed the identification of the indicator compounds that differentiate the single populations, revealing the influence of the geographical provenance area in determining the volatile profiles. These results suggested the potential use of VOCs as valuable diacritical characters in discriminating the Helichrysum populations. In addition, the cross-validation analysis hinted the potentiality of this volatolomic study in the discrimination of the Helichrysum species and subspecies, highlighting a general congruence with the current taxonomic treatment of the genus. The consistency

  12. Diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in native and invasive Senecio pterophorus (Asteraceae): implications for toxicity.

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    Castells, Eva; Mulder, Patrick P J; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam

    2014-12-01

    Changes in plant chemical defenses after invasion could have consequences on the invaded ecosystems by modifying the interactions between plants and herbivores and facilitating invasion success. However, no comprehensive biogeographical studies have yet determined the phenotypic levels of plant chemical defenses, as consumed by local herbivores, covering large distributional areas of a species. Senecio pterophorus is a perennial shrub native to Eastern South Africa, expanded into Western South Africa and introduced into Australia and Europe. As other Asteraceae, S. pterophorus contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) toxic to vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. Here we analyzed S. pterophorus PAs by LC-MS/MS on foliage sampled across its entire distributional range, including the native and all non-native areas. PA concentrations and diversity was very high: we found 57 compounds belonging to 6 distinct necine base-types, including the highly toxic 1,2-unsaturated PAs (retronecine and otonecines) and the less toxic 1,2-saturated PAs (platynecine and rosmarinecines). Plants from different origins diverged in their PA absolute and relative concentrations. Rosmarinine was the most abundant compound in Australia and South Africa, but it was nearly absent in Europe. We characterized three plant chemotypes: retrorsine-senkirkine chemotype in Eastern South Africa, rosmarinine chemotype in Australia and Western South Africa, and acetylseneciphylline chemotype in Europe. PA absolute concentrations were highest in Australia. The increased absolute and relative concentrations of retronecine PAs from Australia and Europe, respectively, indicate that S. pterophorus is potentially more toxic in the invasive range than in the native range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Origins and recent radiation of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) in the eastern Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

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    Rivera, Vanessa Lopes; Panero, Jose L; Schilling, Edward E; Crozier, Bonnie S; Moraes, Marta Dias

    2016-04-01

    The remarkable diversity of Eupatorieae in the Brazilian flora has received little study, despite the tribe's very high levels of endemism and importance in the threatened Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots. Eupatorieae are one of the largest tribes in Asteraceae with 14 of 19 recognized subtribes occurring in Brazil. We constructed the largest phylogeny of Brazilian Eupatorieae to date that sampled the nrITS and ETS, chloroplast ndhI and ndhF genes, and the ndhI-ndhG intergenic spacer for 183 species representing 77 of the 85 Brazilian genera of the tribe. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that these species are not collectively monophyletic, so their distribution reflects multiple introductions into Brazil. A novel clade was found that includes 75% of the genera endemic to Brazil (Cerrado-Atlantic Forest Eupatorieae, "CAFE" clade). This radiation of at least 247 species concentrated in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes of central eastern Brazil is <7 my old and exhibits several ecologically diverse life forms. Eight subtribes of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Ageratinae, Alomiinae, Ayapaninae, Critoniinae, Disynaphiinae, Eupatoriinae, Gyptidinae and Hebecliniinae) and 16 genera (Ageratum, Agrianthus, Austroeupatorium, Bejaranoa, Chromolaena, Critonia, Disynaphia, Grazielia, Hatschbachiella, Heterocondylus, Koanophyllon, Lasiolaena, Neocabreria, Praxelis, Stylotrichium, and Symphyopappus) were found to be polyphyletic. We attribute incongruities between the molecular phylogenetic results and the current classification of the tribe mostly to convergent evolution of morphological characters traditionally used in the classification of the tribe. We used these phylogenetic results to suggest changes to the classification of some subtribes and genera of Eupatorieae that occur in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Estudo anatômico de folha e caule de Elephantopus mollis Kunth (Asteraceae

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    Cláudia Bonissoni Empinotti

    Full Text Available Conhecida comumente como erva-de-colégio, erva-grossa e sussuaiá, Elephantopus mollis Kunth (Asteraceae é uma espécie herbácea perene, de base sublenhosa, ramos curtos e flores arroxeadas. Suas folhas são empregadas como emoliente, resolutivo, sudorífico e no tratamento de bronquite, tosse e gripe na medicina popular. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar caracteres anatômicos foliares e caulinares, a fim de fornecer subsídios aplicáveis à identificação da planta medicinal. Folhas adultas e fragmentos de caules foram fixados, seccionados e corados com azul de astra/fucsina básica ou com azul de toluidina. Testes microquímicos e análise ultra-estrutural de superfície foram também executados. A folha possui epiderme uniestratificada, recoberta por cutícula estriada e, em vista frontal, tem células com contorno ondulado. Ocorrem tricomas tectores e glandulares. Os primeiros são eretos, pluricelulares e unisseriados. Os tricomas glandulares são capitados e bisseriados. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e a nervura central é percorrida por feixes vasculares colaterais dispostos em arco aberto. O caule, em estrutura secundária inicial, possui epiderme unisseriada com cutícula estriada e tricomas semelhantes aos da folha. No córtex, observam-se colênquima anelar alternado com clorênquima e endoderme com estrias de Caspary. Calotas esclerenquimáticas apõem-se ao floema. Este é formado pelo câmbio vascular em direção à periferia e o xilema é gerado de modo centrípeto. A medula é parenquimática. Pequenos cristais de oxalato de cálcio estão presentes na folha e no caule.

  15. Adulticide effect of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae) against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, José; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Nieves, Elsa

    2012-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a public health problem that has been increasing year by year, with the further difficulty that an efficient control system is not available. Therefore, it is necessary to search for less contaminating and dangerous alternatives for controlling Leishmania transmitting sandflies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae) extracts and essential oil as an adulticide against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, from a laboratory colony, in experimental conditions. Dry aerial parts of M. greenmaniana (Hieron) Jeffrey were used. Methanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared, and essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Adulticide tests in pots, adulticide tests in cages, and knocked-down effects were determined. The results obtained demonstrated that methanolic and aqueous extracts produced adulticide activity. The essential oil from M. greenmaniana was proved to be the most toxic against L. migonei, with a 95 % death rate at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml during a 1-h exposure. The essential oil showed a DL50 = 0.0050 and DL98 = 0.0066 mg/ml. The methanolic extract was DL50 = 0.130 and DL98 = 1.016 mg/ml, and the aqueous extract, DL50 = 0.487 and DL98 10.924 mg/ml. The knocked-down effect for the M. greenmaniana oil showed a KDTL50 = 48.6 and KDTL98 = 90.1 min. It was concluded that the essential oil from M. greenmaniana showed a strong insecticide effect against L. migonei females, which encourages us to continue these studies in search for control alternatives against sandflies.

  16. Rapid Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations under Intergeneric Genomic Shock in Newly Synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum Hybrids (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5–50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses. PMID:24407856

  17. Rapid genetic and epigenetic alterations under intergeneric genomic shock in newly synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium x Leucanthemum paludosum hybrids (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5-50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses.

  18. Genetic Analysis of Floral Symmetry in Van Gogh's Sunflowers Reveals Independent Recruitment of CYCLOIDEA Genes in the Asteraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Mark A.; Tang, Shunxue; Draeger, Dörthe; Nambeesan, Savithri; Shaffer, Hunter; Barb, Jessica G.; Knapp, Steven J.; Burke, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic basis of floral symmetry is a topic of great interest because of its effect on pollinator behavior and, consequently, plant diversification. The Asteraceae, which is the largest family of flowering plants, is an ideal system in which to study this trait, as many species within the family exhibit a compound inflorescence containing both bilaterally symmetric (i.e., zygomorphic) and radially symmetric (i.e., actinomorphic) florets. In sunflower and related species, the inflorescence is composed of a single whorl of ray florets surrounding multiple whorls of disc florets. We show that in double-flowered (dbl) sunflower mutants (in which disc florets develop bilateral symmetry), such as those captured by Vincent van Gogh in his famous nineteenth-century sunflower paintings, an insertion into the promoter region of a CYCLOIDEA (CYC)-like gene (HaCYC2c) that is normally expressed specifically in WT rays is instead expressed throughout the inflorescence, presumably resulting in the observed loss of actinomorphy. This same gene is mutated in two independent tubular-rayed (tub) mutants, though these mutations involve apparently recent transposon insertions, resulting in little or no expression and radialization of the normally zygomorphic ray florets. Interestingly, a phylogenetic analysis of CYC-like genes from across the family suggests that different paralogs of this fascinating gene family have been independently recruited to specify zygomorphy in different species within the Asteraceae. PMID:22479210

  19. Hieracium caespitosum and Hieracium piloselloides (Asteraceae) in the Black Hills National Forest: New state records for South Dakota, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian E. Dickerson; Cheryl Mayer; Justin Ramsey; Zach Mergen; Mark Gabel

    2016-01-01

    Hieracium spp. (Asteraceae) are noted for their taxonomic complexity, frequent incidence of apomixis and polyploidy, and invasive tendencies. Here we report the Eurasian taxa, Hieracium caespitosum Dumort. and Hieracium piloselloides Vill., as recent additions to the flora of South Dakota. Plants were collected at three locations in the Black Hills during 2014 and 2015...

  20. Type specimens of taxa of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Insitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Korobkov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Typification of 97 Artemisia (Asteraceae taxa from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute was carried out. Holotypes for 39 taxa, lectotypes for 48 taxa, 28 syntypes and 4 isotypes are given.

  1. Morphometric, AFLP and plastid microsatellite variation in populations of Scalesia divisa and S. incisa (Asteraceae) from the Galápagos Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NIELSEN, LENE ROSTGAARD; Cowan, Robyn S.; SIEGISMUND, HANS R.

    2003-01-01

    Scalesia divisa and S. incisa (Asteraceae), both endemic to the Galápagos Islands, are found only on San Cristóbal, where S. divisa grows in the north-west of the island while S. incisa occurs in the north-east. At localities in between, populations with deviating individuals occur. Here we analyse...

  2. The first record of Baccharis L. (Asteraceae) as a host-plant genus for Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera), with description of new Stigmella species from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Despite the high species richness of Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe four new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis:...

  3. Seed size and nutrient content variation for twenty-one invasive and native California and Oregon taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed characteristics are important for seed dispersal, seedling growth, and seedling survival, but there is little information on seed characteristics for several taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Family: Asteraceae). We determined seed characteristics and their variation from natural populations of twen...

  4. Effects of herbicide and nitrogen fertilizer on non-target plant reproduction and indirect effects on pollination in Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Yoko Luise; Strandberg, Beate; Damgaard, Christian Frølund

    2018-01-01

    and nitrogen fertilizer on reproductive features of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae). The study was carried out in an experimental set-up, in which plots of 7x7 m were treated with one of six treatments: four levels of the herbicide glyphosate (0%, 1%, 5%, and 25% of label rate of 1440 g a.i. ha-1) without...

  5. Open field experiment to assess the host specificity of Lixus cardui (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a potential candidate for biological control of Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotch thistle Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae) is native to Europe and Asia and has been accidentally introduced to temperate climates elsewhere, including North America and Australia. In the USA, the weed is most problematic in the semi-arid parts of the Northwest, California and Nevada. Lixus car...

  6. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in the Asteraceae family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia, S.; Panero, J.L.; Široký, Jiří; Kovařík, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 176 (2010), s. 1-18 ISSN 1471-2229 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : organization of rDNA unit * intergenic spacer * Asteraceae Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.085, year: 2010

  7. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Stuessy, Tod F.; Villase?or, Jose L.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (ma...

  8. Metabolomic analysis applied to chemosystematics and evolution of megadiverse Brazilian Vernonieae (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallon, Marília Elias; Monge, Marcelo; Casoti, Rosana; Da Costa, Fernando Batista; Semir, João; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo

    2018-06-01

    Vernonia sensu lato is the largest and most complex genus of the tribe Vernonieae (Asteraceae). The tribe is chemically characterized by the presence of sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids. Over the years, several taxonomic classifications have been proposed for Vernonia s.l. and for the tribe; however, there has been no consensus among the researches. According to traditional classification, Vernonia s.l. comprises more than 1000 species divided into sections, subsections and series (sensu Bentham). In a more recent classification, these species have been segregated into other genera and some subtribes were proposed, while the genus Vernonia sensu stricto was restricted to 22 species distributed mainly in North America (sensu Robinson). In this study, species from the subtribes Vernoniinae, Lepidaploinae and Rolandrinae were analyzed by UHPLC-UV-HRMS followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Data mining was performed using unsupervised (HCA and PCA) and supervised methods (OPLS-DA). The HCA showed the segregation of the species into four main groups. Comparing the HCA with taxonomical classifications of Vernonieae, we observed that the groups of the dendogram, based on metabolic profiling, were in accordance with the generic classification proposed by Robinson and with previous phylogenetic studies. The species of the genera Stenocephalum, Stilpnopappus, Strophopappus and Rolandra (Group 1) were revealed to be more related to the species of the genus Vernonanthura (Group 2), while the genera Cyrtocymura, Chrysolaena and Echinocoryne (Group 3) were chemically more similar to the genera Lessingianthus and Lepidaploa (Group 4). These findings indicated that the subtribes Vernoniinae and Lepidaploinae are non-chemically homogeneous groups and highlighted the application of untargeted metabolomic tools for taxonomy and as indicators of species evolution. Discriminant compounds for the groups obtained by OPLS-DA were determined. Groups 1 and 2 were characterized

  9. Anticonvulsant properties of methanol leaf extract of Laggera Aurita Linn. F. (Asteraceae) in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malami, S; Kyari, H; Danjuma, N M; Ya'u, J; Hussaini, I M

    2016-09-15

    Preparation of Laggera aurita Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various kinds of diseases such as epilepsy, malaria, fever, pain and asthma. Its efficacy is widely acclaimed among communities in Northern Nigeria. The present study is aimed at establishing the possible anticonvulsant effects of the methanol leaf extract of Laggera aurita using acute and chronic anticonvulsant models. Median lethal dose (LD50) was determined in mice and rats via oral and intraperitoneal routes. Anticonvulsant screening of the extract was performed using maximal electroshock-induced seizure test in day-old chicks; pentylenetetrazole-, strychnine- and picrotoxin- induced seizure models in mice. Similarly; its effects on pentylenetetrazole-induce kindling in rats as well as when co-administered with fluphenamic and cyproheptadine in mice, were evaluated. Median lethal dose (LD50) values were found to be >5000mg/kg, p.o. and 2154mg/kg, i.p., each for both rats and mice. The extract showed dose dependent protection against tonic hind limb extension (THLE) and significantly (p<0.05) decreased the mean recovery from seizure in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure. In the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model, the extract offered 50% protection at 600mg/kg and also increased the mean onset of seizure at all doses with significant (p<0.05) increase at the highest dose (600mg/kg). Similarly the extract produced significant (p<0.05) increase in the onset of seizures in both strychnine- and picrotoxin- induced seizure models, at all the doses except at 150mg/kg for the picrotoxin model. Co-administration of fluphenamic acid (FFA) (5mg/kg) and the extract (600mg/kg) showed an enhanced effect with percentage protection of 70% while co-administration of FFA (5mg/kg) and phenytoin (5mg/kg) as well phenytoin (5mg/kg) and the extract (600mg/kg) produced an additive effect. Administration of the extract (600mg/kg), phenytoin (20mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (4mg

  10. Morfoanatomia e ontogênese do fruto e semente de Vernonia platensis (Spreng. Less. (Asteraceae Morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of the fruit and seed of Vernonia platensis (Spreng. Less. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Arias Galastri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Asteraceae possui cerca de 23.000 espécies e Vernonieae tem sua maior representatividade no Brasil, sendo Vernonia o maior gênero da tribo. Devido à ampla ocorrência nos Cerrados, V. platensis foi selecionada para a realização deste trabalho, que objetiva descrever a morfoanatomia e o desenvolvimento do pericarpo e da semente desta espécie, comparando os resultados com a literatura. O material coletado foi processado segundo técnicas usuais. O ovário é ínfero, bicarpelar, sincárpico, unilocular, com um óvulo anátropo, unitegumentado, tenuinucelado, formado em placentação basal. A parede ovariana é homogênea, com células mais densas perifericamente. O tegumento possui três regiões, destacando-se evidente endotélio. Na maturidade, a maioria das camadas colapsa, mantendo-se as fibras mesocárpicas externas; o pápus duplo persiste formado por células lignificadas. A semente madura apresenta testa restrita a uma faixa de células colapsadas; o endosperma é celular, persistindo residualmente na maturidade, e o embrião exibe eixo hipocótilo-radícula axial, espesso e curto. Em apenas 40% das cipselas maduras analisadas, há sementes completamente desenvolvidas. As observações deste trabalho corroboram pesquisas anteriores com Asteraceae, mas destaca-se o papel nutritivo do tegumento no desenvolvimento seminal e a baixa produção de sementes em V. platensis.The Asteraceae comprises approximately 23,000 species and Vernonieae is best represented in Brazil; Vernonia is the largest genus in this tribe. Due to occurrence in extensive areas of Cerrado, Vernonia platensis was selected for this work that aims to describe the morphology, anatomy and development of the pericarp and seed of this species, comparing the results with the literature. The collected material was processed by conventional techniques. The ovary is inferior, bicarpellate, syncarpous, unilocular with a single anatropous ovule, unitegmic, tenuinucelate

  11. O gênero Piptocarpha R.Br. (Asteraceae: Vernonieae no estado do Paraná, Brasil The genus Piptocarpha R.Br. (Asteraceae: Vernonieae in the Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Grokoviski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo abrange o gênero Piptocarpha R.Br. (Vernonieae: Asteraceae no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A metodologia consistiu no levantamento bibliográfico, coleta de material e observação de campo, estudos morfológicos e taxonômicos do material vivo e herborizado. Foram confirmadas para o Estado do Paraná nove espécies, sendo quatro escandentes: Piptocarpha leprosa (Less. Baker, P. oblonga (Gardner Baker, P. quadrangularis (Vell. Baker e P. sellowii (Sch.Bip. Baker; e cinco arbóreas: Piptocarpha angustifolia Dusén ex Malme, P. axillaris (Less. Baker, P. densifolia Dusén ex G.L. Smith, P. macropoda (DC. Baker e P. regnellii (Sch.Bip. Cabrera. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições morfológicas, época de floração e frutificação, nomes populares, distribuição geográfica, comentários e ilustrações para cada táxon estudado.The present study analysed the genus Piptocarpha R.Br. (Vernonieae: Asteraceae in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The methodology consisted of examining literature, botanical collections and field observations, morphological and taxonomic study of herborized specimens. Nine species were confirmed, four of these are scandent species: Piptocarpha leprosa (Less. Baker, P. oblonga (Gardner Baker, P. quadrangularis (Vell. Baker and P. sellowii (Sch.Bip. Baker; and five are trees species: Piptocarpha angustifolia Dusén ex Malme, P. axillaris (Less. Baker, P. densifolia Dusén ex G.L. Smith, P. macropoda (DC. Baker and P. regnellii (Sch.Bip. Cabrera. Identification key, descriptions, flowering and fruiting time, popular names, geographical distribution, comments and illustrations are provided for each studied taxa.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of 11 New Microsatellite Loci in Erigeron breviscapus (Asteraceae, an Important Chinese Traditional Herb

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    Junbo Yang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Erigeron breviscapus (Vant. Hand.-Mazz. (Asteraceae is a species endemic to southwestern China and an important traditional Chinese herb for cardiovascular and cerebral vessel diseases. Applying a modified biotin-streptavidin capture method, 11 microsatellite loci were discovered. Polymorphism of each locus was assessed in 24 individuals collected from five wild populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, with an average of 4.273. The observed (HO and expected (HE heterozygosities varied from 0.250 to 0.958 and from 0.337 to 0.786, respectively. Over half of these loci were successfully amplified in two congeneric species. The developed microsatellite markers will be useful for future population genetics and conservation studies, as well as accurate identification of different varieties.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation in Inuleae subtribe Inulinae (Asteraceae) based on ITS and cpDNA sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englund, Marcus; Pornpongrungrueng, Pimwadee; Gustafsson, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships in Inuleae subtribe Inulinae (Asteraceae) were investigated. DNA sequence data from three chloroplast regions (ndhF, trnL-F and psbA-trnH) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were analysed separately and in combination using parsimony...... and Bayesian inference. A total of 163 ingroup taxa were included, of which 60 were sampled for all four markers. Conflicts between chloroplast and nuclear data were assessed using partitioned Bremer support (PBS). Rather than averaging PBS over several trees from constrained searches, individual trees were...... considered by evaluating PBS ranges. Criteria to be used in the detection of a significant conflict between data partitions are proposed. Three nodes in the total data tree were found to encompass significant conflict that could result from ancient hybridization. Neither of the large, heterogeneous...

  14. [Diversity of Plants Belonging to the Genus Ligularia (Asteraceae) Based on Terpenoids and Synthetic Studies on Some Terpenoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tori, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    The terpenoid constituents of Ligularia virgaurea (30 samples), Ligularia pleurocaulis (8 samples), Ligularia dictyoneura (8 samples), Ligularia brassicoides (5 samples), Ligularia lingiana (1 sample), and Ligularia liatroides (1 sample)(all belonging to section Senecillis of Ligularia, Asteraceae and collected in Yunnan, Sichuan, Qinghai, and Gansu provinces, China), from which 220 compounds were isolated, including 113 novel ones, are reviewed. Five chemotypes were identified in L. virgaurea based on their chemical constituents, while three clades were detected from the base sequences. Although intra-specific diversity was found in L. virgaurea, more samples were needed of other species in order to reach a definite conclusion. Inter-specific diversity was also examined in section Senecillis but was restricted due to the scarcity of samples. Synthetic studies on chiral natural products to determine their absolute configurations, especially those of riccardiphenols A and B as well as crispatanolide, which were all isolated from the liverwort, are briefly reviewed.

  15. Pollen morphology and its relationship to the taxonomy of the some taxa of helichrysum gaertner (asteraceae) in turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkiran, O.; Bagci, E.

    2017-01-01

    Palynological studies of Helichrysum chionophilum, Helichrysum noeanum, Helichrysum arenarium subsp. aucheri, Helichrysum graveolens, H. plicatum subsp. plicatum and H. plicatum subsp. polyphyllum (Asteraceae) from Turkey have been carried out. H. chionophilum, H. noeanum and H. arenarium subsp. aucheri are endemics to Turkey. Pollen features of both taxa were observed with the Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The pollen type of both taxa were determined as tricolporate, pollen shapes were spheroidal and oblate-spheroidal, reticular pollen ornamentation was observed. The studies show that the pollen of the six taxa are very similar regarding pollen shapes, apertures, and ornamentation, but may be distinguished by colpus length (Clg), pore width (Plt) and pore length (Plg). The findings obtained from the study are discussed with each other and the genus patterns. (author)

  16. Evaluation of antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal activities of Artemisia scoparia and A. Spicigera, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba H. Afshar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species (Asteraceae, widespread throughout the world, are a group of important medicinal plants. The extracts of two medicinal plants of this genus, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. and A. spicigera C. Koch, were evaluated for potential antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal properties, using the heme biocrystallisation and inhibition assay, the DPPH assay and the contact toxicity bioassay using the pest Tribolium castaneum, respectively. The methanol extracts of both species showed strong free-radical-scavenging activity and the RC50 values were 0.0317 and 0.0458 mg/mL, respectively, for A. scoparia and A. spicigera. The dichloromethane extracts of both species displayed a moderate level of potential antimalarial activity providing IC50 at 0.778 and 0.999 mg/mL for A. scoparia and A. spicigera, respectively. Both species of Artemisia showed insecticidal properties. However, A. spicigera was more effective than A. scoparia.

  17. ALELOPATIA DE Arctium minus BERNH (ASTERACEAE NA GERMINAÇÃO E CRESCIMENTO RADICULAR DE SORGO E PEPINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenir José Belinelo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were identified and characterize the allelopatic activity of extracts obtained from Arctium minus (Hill Bernh (Asteraceae. The fitotoxic activity of organic extracts (1 e 100 mg.L-1 and aqueous extract (5,00 e 0,05% m/v on the germination and radicular growth of the monocotyledon Sorghum bicolor L. (sorghum, and the dicotyledon Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber were evaluated. The results showed the presence of allelopatic activity variable in according to the extract concentration and with the target plant. The intensity of induced inhibitory effect was higher for the ethanolic extract in concentration of 100 mg.L-1 for Sorghum bicolor L. The results also indicates the existence of the potential use of Arctium minus (Hill Bernh ethanolic extract as a natural herbicide and open perspectives for the research of the constituent(s with higher allelopatic activity.

  18. Evolution and diversification of the CYC/TB1 gene family in Asteraceae--a comparative study in Gerbera (Mutisieae) and sunflower (Heliantheae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tähtiharju, Sari; Rijpkema, Anneke S; Vetterli, Adrien; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2012-04-01

    Plant-specific TCP domain transcription factors have been shown to regulate morphological novelties during plant evolution, including the complex architecture of the Asteraceae inflorescence that involves different types of flowers. We conducted comparative analysis of the CYCLOIDEA/TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (CYC/TB1) gene family in Gerbera hybrida (gerbera) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower), two species that represent distant tribes within Asteraceae. Our data confirm that the CYC/TB1 gene family has expanded in Asteraceae, a condition that appears to be connected with the increased developmental complexity and evolutionary success of this large plant family. Phylogenetic analysis of the CYC/TB1 gene family revealed both shared and lineage-specific duplications in gerbera and sunflower, corresponding to the three gene lineages previously identified as specific to core eudicots: CYC1, CYC2, and CYC3. Expression analyses of early stages of flower primordia development indicated that especially within the CYC2 clade, with the greatest number of secondary gene duplications, gene expression patterns are conserved between the species and associated with flower and inflorescence development. All sunflower and gerbera CYC2 clade genes showed differential expression between developing flower types, being upregulated in marginal ray (and trans) flowers. One gene in gerbera (GhCYC3) and two in sunflower (HaCYC2d and HaCYC2c) were indicated to be strong candidates as regulators of ray flower identity, a function that is specific for Asteraceae. Our data further showed that other CYC2 clade genes are likely to have more specialized functions at the level of single flowers, including the late functions in floral reproductive organs that may be more conserved across plant families. The expression patterns of CYC1 and CYC3 clade genes showed more differences between the two species but still pointed to possible conserved functions during vegetative plant development. Pairwise protein

  19. Powdery mildew of Chrysanthemum × morifolium: phylogeny and taxonomy in the context of Golovinomyces species on Asteraceae hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Michael; Braun, Uwe; Götz, Monika; Meeboon, Jamjan; Takamatsu, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    The taxonomic history of the common powdery mildew of Chrysanthemum × morifolium (chrysanthemum, florist's daisy), originally described in Germany as Oidium chrysanthemi, is discussed. The position of O. chrysanthemi was investigated on the basis of morphological traits and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Based on the results of this study, this species, which is closely related to Golovinomyces artemisae, was reassessed and reallocated to Golovinomyces. The phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic reassessment of the chrysanthemum powdery mildew is supplemented by a morphological description, a summary of its worldwide distribution data, and a brief discussion of the introduction of this fungus to North America. G. chrysanthemi differs from true G. artemisiae in that it has much longer conidiophores, is not constricted at the base, and has much larger and most importantly longer conidia. The close affinity of Golovinomyces to Artemisia and Chrysanthemum species signifies a coevolutionary event between the powdery mildews concerned and their host species in the subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae tribe Anthemideae). This conclusion is fully supported by the current phylogeny and taxonomy of the host plant genera and the coevolution that occurred with the host and pathogen. The following powdery mildew species, which are associated with hosts belonging to the tribe Anthemideae of the Asteraceae, are epitypified: Alphitomorpha depressa β artemisiae (≡ Alphitomorpha artemisiae), Erysiphe artemisiae, and Oidium chrysanthemi. Erysiphe macrocarpa is neotypified. Their sequences were retrieved from the epitype collections and have been added to the phylogenetic tree. Golovinomyces orontii, an additional powdery mildew species on Chrysanthemum ×morifolium, is reported. This species is rarely found as a spontaneous infection and was obtained from inoculation experiments.

  20. Relationship between the species-representative phenotype and intraspecific variation in Ranunculaceae floral organ and Asteraceae flower numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Miho S; Fujimoto, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Phenotypic variation in floral morphologies contributes to speciation by testing various morphologies that might have higher adaptivity, leading eventually to phylogenetic diversity. Species diversity has been recognized, however, by modal morphologies where the variation is averaged out, so little is known about the relationship between the variation and the diversity. We analysed quantitatively the intraspecific variation of the organ numbers within flowers of Ranunculaceae, a family which branched near the monocot-eudicot separation, and the numbers of flowers within the capitula of Asteraceae, one of the most diverse families of eudicots. We used four elementary statistical quantities: mean, standard deviation (s.d.), degree of symmetry (skewness) and steepness (kurtosis). While these four quantities vary among populations, we found a common relationship between s.d. and the mean number of petals and sepals in Ranunculaceae and number of flowers per capitulum in Asteraceae. The s.d. is equal to the square root of the difference between the mean and specific number, showing robustness: for example, 3 in Ficaria sepals, 5 in Ranunculus petals and Anemone tepals, and 13 in Farfugium ray florets. This square-root relationship was not applicable to Eranthis petals which show little correlation between the s.d. and mean, and the stamens and carpels of Ranunculaceae whose s.d. is proportional to the mean. The specific values found in the square-root relationship provide a novel way to find the species-representative phenotype among varied morphologies. The representative phenotype is, in most cases, unique to the species or genus level, despite intraspecific differences of average phenotype among populations. The type of variation shown by the statistical quantities indicates not only the robustness of the morphologies but also how flowering plants changed during evolution among representative phenotypes that eventually led to phylogenetic diversification. © The

  1. Outstanding Anti-inflammatory Potential of Selected Asteraceae Species through the Potent Dual Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-Lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela Aparecida; Oliveira, Tiago Branquinho; Faleiro, Danniela Príscylla Vasconcelos; Oliveira, Rejane Barbosa; Costa, Fernando Batista Da

    2015-09-01

    Cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase are enzymes that catalyze important inflammatory pathways, suggesting that dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitors should be more efficacious as anti-inflammatory medicines with lower side effects than the currently available nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Many plants from the family Asteraceae have anti-inflammatory activities, which could be exerted by inhibiting the cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase enzymes. Nevertheless, only a small number of compounds from this family have been directly evaluated for their ability to inhibit the enzymes in cell-free assays. Therefore, this study systematically evaluated 57 Asteraceae extracts in vitro in enzyme activity experiments to determine whether any of these extracts exhibit dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase. The chemical profiles of the extracts were obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-diode array detector method, and their major constituents were dereplicated. Of the 57 tested extracts, 13 (26.6 %, IC50 range from 0.03-36.2 µg/mL) of them displayed dual inhibition. Extracts from known anti-inflammatory herbs, food plants, and previously uninvestigated species are among the most active. Additionally, the extract action was found to be specific with IC50 values close to or below those of the standard inhibitors. Thus, the active extracts and active substances of these species are potent inhibitors acting through the mechanism of dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase. The extracts were prepared for this study using nontoxic extraction solvents (EtOH-H2O), requiring only a small amount of plant material to carry out the bioassays and the phytochemical analyses. In summary, this study demonstrated the potential of the investigated species as dual inhibitors, revealing their potential as pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Toxicological evaluation of the natural products and some semisynthetic derivatives of Heterotheca inuloides Cass (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chávez, José Luis; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Sicilia-Argumedo, Gloria; Ramírez-Apan, Teresa; Delgado, Guillermo

    2015-12-04

    Heterotheca ineuloides Cass (Asteraceae), popularly known as árnica mexicana, is widely used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat bruises, dermatological problems, rheumatic pains, and other disorders as cancer. The major constituents in H. inuloides are cadinane type sesquiterpenes, flavonoids and phytosterols. Compounds with a cadinane skeleton have been proved to possess cytotoxic activity against human-tumor cell lines and brine shrimp, and display toxic effects in different animal species. Although this plant has been widely used, there is little available information on the safety and toxicity especially of pure compounds. Evaluate the potential toxicity of the natural products isolated from H. inuloides and some semisynthetic derivatives. The toxic aspects of the following natural products isolated from dried flowers of H. inuloides: 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (1), 7-hydroxycadalene (2), 3,7-dihydroxy-3(4H)-isocadalen-4-one (3), (1R,4R)-1-hydroxy-4H-1,2,3,4- tetrahydrocadalen-15-oic acid (4), D-chiro-inositol (5), quercetin (6), quercetin-3,7,3'-trimethyl ether (7), quercetin-3,7,3',4'-tetramethyl ether (8), eriodictyol-7,4'-dimethyl ether (9), α-spinasterol (10), caryolan-1,9β-diol (11) and 7-(3,3-dimethylallyloxy)-coumarin (12) as well as the toxic aspects of the semisynthetic compounds 7-acetoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (13), 7-benzoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (14), 7-acetoxycadalene (15), 7-benzoxycadalene (16), quercetin pentaacetate (17), 7-hydroxycalamenene (18), 3,8-dimethyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-1,2-naphthoquinone (19), and 4-isopropyl-1,6-dimethylbenzo[c]oxepine-7,9-dione (20). Toxic activities of compounds were determined by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, Artemia salina assay, RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Additionally, the acute toxicity in mouse of compound 1, the major natural sesquiterpene isolated from the acetone extract, was evaluated. The best cytotoxicity activity was observed for mansonone C (19) on K562 cell line with IC50 1.45 ± 0.14 μM, for

  3. QUALITATIVE COMPOSITION AND ORGANI C ACIDS CONTENT IN THE ABOVEGROUN D PART OF PLANTS FRO M FAMILIES LAMIACEAE, ASTERACEAE, APIACEAE AND CHENOPODIACEAE

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    S. M. Marchyshyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Organic acids are the compounds of aliphatic or aromatic orders, which are widespread in flora and have a wide range of biological activity. We studied the qualitative composition and quantitative contents of organic acids in the aboveground part of some unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae is relevant. Objective. The objects of the research are the aboveground part of unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae. Methods. Identification of organic acids was performed by means of thin-layer and paper chromatography, their content was determined by means of gas chromatography, the quantitative amount of organic acids was defined by titrimetric analysis. Results. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total contents were determined (in terms of malic acid. It is established that the maximum content of organic acids is accumulated in the grass Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae, and the minimal is in the leaves of Chrysánthemum xhortorum L. variety Apro (Asteraceae. In all studied raw plants the dominance of aliphatic acids (citric, malic, oxalic and malonic was determined by means of gas chromatography. Benzoic is predominant among the aromatic acids. Conclusions. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total content were determined. The following results can be used in developing the methods of quality control of the studied raw plants and during the study of new bioactive substances.

  4. Sesquiterpene lactone mix as a diagnostic tool for Asteraceae allergic contact dermatitis: chemical explanation for its poor performance and Sesquiterpene lactone mix II as a proposed improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Mathias; Brinkmann, Jürgen; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2012-05-01

    Two preparations are currently in use for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis caused by Asteraceae: (i) Sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix [three pure sesquiterpene lactones (STLs)], whose use has been questioned, owing to an insufficient rate of true-positive results; and (ii) Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae extracts, which is problematic because of lack of standardization and questionable reproducibility. To analyse the reasons for the narrow sensitivity of SL mix from a chemoinformatic point of view, and to propose a solution by rational selection of alternative constituents for a new SL mix II covering a broader cohort of allergic patients. Structural and biological information on allergenic STLs was retrieved from databases and the literature, and molecular modelling and chemoinformatic computations were performed. An explanation for the insufficient hit rate of SL mix is that the three constituents possess extremely similar molecular structures/properties and do not represent well the structural diversity of allergenic STLs. STLs that are known as constituents of Compositae mix plants show much a wider diversity, which explains the higher positive rate. On the basis of their positions in chemical property space, a new collection of STLs that more evenly cover the overall structural diversity spectrum is proposed. SL mix II is likely to detect a larger number of patients sensitized to Asteraceae. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Elisa de captura com IgY para quantificação de acetato de lupeol em Vernonia scorpioides lam. Pers (asteraceae Capture IgY-elisa to quantify lupeol acetate in Vernonia scorpioides lam. Pers (asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Bastos Freire

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento descreve, pela primeira vez, a elaboração de um ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA de captura com anticorpos IgY para a detecção e quantificação de acetato de lupeol (LAc em Vernonia scorpioides Lam. Pers (Asteraceae. Anticorpos anti-LAc, obtidos partir do soro das aves e gemas de seus ovos, após imunização com o conjugado acetato de lupeol-cBSA, foram concentrados em coluna contendo LAc-BSA acoplado a sepharose. A eficácia da metodologia de detecção imunológica foi de 97%, com índices de sensibilidade e especificidade de 99% e 95%, respectivamente com limites de detecção do ensaio entre 0,02µg.g-1 (inferior e 10 µg.g-1 (superior. A robustez do método foi atestada pela sua elevada reprodutibilidade (entre 94,75% e 96,81%, e pelo baixo coeficiente de variação interna (4,22 ± 1,03% nas condições de execução descritas.For the first time, a yolk immunoglobulins-based immunenzymatic assay (capture IgY-ELISA was carried out to detect Lupeol acetate (LAc from Vernonia scorpioides Lam. Pers (Asteraceae. Antibodies (IgY against lupeol acetate (anti-LAc antibodies were raised in White Leghorn hens immunized with LAc conjugated to the bovine serum albumin (LAc-BSA. The anti-LAc antibodies were recovered by cleanup columns containing LAc-BSA coupled to sepharose. The capture IgY-ELISA efficacy was of 97% when the predictive indices of sensitivity and specificity were 99.0% and 95%, respectively. The lowest and highest detection limits were of 0.02µg g-1 and 10µg.g-1 of plant extract, respectively. The strength of this method was attested by its high reproducibility (between 94.75% and 96.81%, and a low internal variation (4.22 ± 1.03%, under the described conditions.

  6. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae Actividad antibacteriana y antioxidante del aceite esencial extraído de Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laciar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae is commonly known in Argentina as “ajenjo”. Many studies report high efficacy of essential oils against food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity and minimal inhibitory concentration of A. echegarayi essential oil were evaluated against seven bacterial species of significant importance in food hygiene, by using the disc diffusion assay and the micro-well dilution method, respectively. Volatile components of the extract were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and major components were determined. Furthermore, the essential oil was tested for its antioxidant activity. The essential oil inhibited the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative tested bacteria, with the exception of Proteus mirabilis. A. echegarayi essential oil presented the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus. Two terpenes, thujone and camphor, were identified from this essential oil as the principal constituents responsible for antibacterial activity. The oil showed a free radical scavenging activity equivalent to 50% of the reference compound. These preliminary studies showed promising results since this essential oil may provide an alternative to promote its use as a natural food additive.Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae, conocida como “ajenjo”, es una planta típica de la región de Cuyo (Argentina. En este trabajo se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro y la concentración inhibitoria mínima del aceite esencial extraído de sus partes aéreas frente a especies bacterianas que con frecuencia contaminan los alimentos. Se utilizaron las técnicas de difusión con discos en agar y microdilución en placa respectivamente. Además, se determinó la actividad antioxidante de este aceite esencial in vitro por espectrofotometría. En general, tanto las bacterias gram-positivas como las gram-negativas fueron inhibidas por este aceite, con

  7. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in the Asteraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sònia; Panero, José L; Siroky, Jiri; Kovarik, Ales

    2010-08-16

    In flowering plants and animals the most common ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) organisation is that in which 35S (encoding 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA) and 5S genes are physically separated occupying different chromosomal loci. However, recent observations established that both genes have been unified to a single 35S-5S unit in the genus Artemisia (Asteraceae), a genomic arrangement typical of primitive eukaryotes such as yeast, among others. Here we aim to reveal the origin, distribution and mechanisms leading to the linked organisation of rDNA in the Asteraceae by analysing unit structure (PCR, Southern blot, sequencing), gene copy number (quantitative PCR) and chromosomal position (FISH) of 5S and 35S rRNA genes in approximately 200 species representing the family diversity and other closely related groups. Dominant linked rDNA genotype was found within three large groups in subfamily Asteroideae: tribe Anthemideae (93% of the studied cases), tribe Gnaphalieae (100%) and in the "Heliantheae alliance" (23%). The remaining five tribes of the Asteroideae displayed canonical non linked arrangement of rDNA, as did the other groups in the Asteraceae. Nevertheless, low copy linked genes were identified among several species that amplified unlinked units. The conserved position of functional 5S insertions downstream from the 26S gene suggests a unique, perhaps retrotransposon-mediated integration event at the base of subfamily Asteroideae. Further evolution likely involved divergence of 26S-5S intergenic spacers, amplification and homogenisation of units across the chromosomes and concomitant elimination of unlinked arrays. However, the opposite trend, from linked towards unlinked arrangement was also surmised in few species indicating possible reversibility of these processes. Our results indicate that nearly 25% of Asteraceae species may have evolved unusual linked arrangement of rRNA genes. Thus, in plants, fundamental changes in intrinsic structure of rDNA units, their copy

  8. Solidago Vigaurea for Prostate Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    and modi fication including CTP synthetase, thymidylate synthase, dihydrofo late reductase, IMP dehydrogenase, ribonucleotide reductase, DNA polymerase...this context, it is worth noting that some metabolic abnormalities such as diabetes and even ageing are linked with higher incidence of cancers. However

  9. Solidago Virgaurea for Prostate Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    F. Rodríguez, K. Reinicke, A.J. Yañez, L. García Mde , R.A. Medina, M. Carrasco, S. Barberis, T. Castro, F. Martínez, X. Koch, J.C. Vera, M.T...277] NCI web site: http://www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials/search. [278] N. Asou, 2. All-trans retinoic acid in the treatment of acute promyelocytic

  10. Combined treatment with caffeic and ferulic acid from Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) protects against metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocco, B M; Fernandes, G W; Lorena, F B; Cysneiros, R M; Christoffolete, M A; Grecco, S S; Lancellotti, C L; Romoff, P; Lago, J H G; Bianco, A C; Ribeiro, M O

    2016-03-01

    Fractionation of the EtOH extract from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to isolation of caffeic and ferulic acids, which were identified from spectroscopic and spectrometric evidence. These compounds exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be effective in the prevention/treatment of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids exhibits a more significant beneficial effect in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome. The combination treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids was tested for 60 days in C57 mice kept on a high-fat (40%) diet. The data obtained indicated that treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids prevented gain in body weight induced by the high-fat diet and improved hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The expression of a number of metabolically relevant genes was affected in the liver of these animals, showing that caffeic and ferulic acid treatment results in increased cholesterol uptake and reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which is a likely explanation for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids displayed major positive effects towards prevention of multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis in an obese mouse model.

  11. Volatile constituents from Baccharis spp. L. (Asteraceae): Chemical support for the conservation of threatened species in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteguiaga, Manuel; Andrés González, H; Cassel, Eduardo; Umpierrez, Noelia; Fariña, Laura; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2018-03-14

    Chemical bioprospecting is an important tool for generating knowledge regarding local human-threatened floras and for conservation management. For Baccharis L. (Asteraceae), several volatile components have been reported for Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile as a result of bioprospection, but not for Uruguayan flora, which is composed of more than 50 native species. In this work, through collection of aerial parts of different species and volatile simultaneous-distillation extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, 12 native species of Baccharis were studied (B. articulata, B. cultrata, B. genistifolia, B. gibertii, B. gnaphalioides, B. ochracea, B. phyteumoides, B. punctulata, B. crispa, B. dracunculifolia, B. linearifolia subsp. linearifolia, and B. spicata). A detailed analysis of the male and female volatile composition was conducted for the last four species. The profiles of B. cultrata, B. genistifolia, B. gibertii, and B. gnaphalioides are reported for the first time. Because half of the species analysed in this work are in Uruguay and are threatened or potentially threatened by human economic activities, the importance of their conservation as natural, sustainable resources is highlighted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Fly pollination of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae), and a possible mimetic function for dark spots on the capitulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.D.; Midgley, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the functional significance of raised black spots on the ray florets of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae) in South Africa. Field observations showed that G. diffusa is pollinated by a small bee-fly, Megapalpus nitidus (Bombyliidae). which is strikingly similar to the raised spots that occur on some of the ray florets. Removal of the spots resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of fly visits to capitula, but did not significantly affect seed set. Replacement of the spots with simple ink spots also significantly reduced the rate of pollinator visits, suggesting that flies respond to details in the structure of the spots. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy showed that the spots of G. diffusa consist of a complex of different cell types. Differences in epidermal sculpturing may partly explain the UV reflectance pattern of these spots, which is similar to that of the flies. Mate flies are strongly attracted to the spots, as well as to other flies sitting in the capitula, although female flies also visit the capitula. We conclude that the spots of G. diffusa mimic resting flies, thereby eliciting mate-seeking and aggregation responses in fly pollinators. Similar dark spots have evolved in unrelated South African Gazania. Dimorphotheca, and Pelargonium species pollinated by bee-flies

  13. On the road to diploidization? Homoeolog loss in independently formed populations of the allopolyploid Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltis Pamela S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidy (whole-genome duplication is an important speciation mechanism, particularly in plants. Gene loss, silencing, and the formation of novel gene complexes are some of the consequences that the new polyploid genome may experience. Despite the recurrent nature of polyploidy, little is known about the genomic outcome of independent polyploidization events. Here, we analyze the fate of genes duplicated by polyploidy (homoeologs in multiple individuals from ten natural populations of Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae, all of which formed independently from T. dubius and T. pratensis less than 80 years ago. Results Of the 13 loci analyzed in 84 T. miscellus individuals, 11 showed loss of at least one parental homoeolog in the young allopolyploids. Two loci were retained in duplicate for all polyploid individuals included in this study. Nearly half (48% of the individuals examined lost a homoeolog of at least one locus, with several individuals showing loss at more than one locus. Patterns of loss were stochastic among individuals from the independently formed populations, except that the T. dubius copy was lost twice as often as T. pratensis. Conclusion This study represents the most extensive survey of the fate of genes duplicated by allopolyploidy in individuals from natural populations. Our results indicate that the road to genome downsizing and ultimate genetic diploidization may occur quickly through homoeolog loss, but with some genes consistently maintained as duplicates. Other genes consistently show evidence of homoeolog loss, suggesting repetitive aspects to polyploid genome evolution.

  14. Next-Generation Sequencing of the Chrysanthemum nankingense (Asteraceae) Transcriptome Permits Large-Scale Unigene Assembly and SSR Marker Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Peng, Hui; Li, Pirui; Song, Aiping; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    Background Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Chrysanthemum is one of the largest genera in the Asteraceae family. Only few Chrysanthemum expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences have been acquired to date, so the number of available EST-SSR markers is very low. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina paired-end sequencing technology produced over 53 million sequencing reads from C. nankingense mRNA. The subsequent de novo assembly yielded 70,895 unigenes, of which 45,789 (64.59%) unigenes showed similarity to the sequences in NCBI database. Out of 45,789 sequences, 107 have hits to the Chrysanthemum Nr protein database; 679 and 277 sequences have hits to the database of Helianthus and Lactuca species, respectively. MISA software identified a large number of putative EST-SSRs, allowing 1,788 primer pairs to be designed from the de novo transcriptome sequence and a further 363 from archival EST sequence. Among 100 primer pairs randomly chosen, 81 markers have amplicons and 20 are polymorphic for genotypes analysis in Chrysanthemum. The results showed that most (but not all) of the assays were transferable across species and that they exposed a significant amount of allelic diversity. Conclusions/Significance SSR markers acquired by transcriptome sequencing are potentially useful for marker-assisted breeding and genetic analysis in the genus Chrysanthemum and its related genera. PMID:23626799

  15. Propagule pressure, genetic structure, and geographic origins of Chondrilla juncea (Asteraceae): an apomictic invader on three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, John F; Schwarzländer, Mark; Kinter, C Lynn; Smith, James F; Novak, Stephen J

    2013-09-01

    Assessing propagule pressure and geographic origins of invasive species provides insight into the invasion process. Rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea; Asteraceae) is an apomictic, perennial plant that is invasive in Australia, South America (Argentina), and North America (Canada and the United States). This study comprehensively compares propagule pressure and geographic structure of genotypes to improve our understanding of a clonal invasion and enhance management strategies. • We analyzed 1056 native range plants from Eurasia and 1156 plants from three invaded continents using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) techniques. We used measures of diversity (Simpson's D) and evenness (E), analysis of molecular variance, and Mantel tests to compare invasions, and genotype similarity to determine origins of invasive genotypes. • We found 682 unique genotypes in the native range, but only 13 in the invaded regions. Each invaded region contained distinct AFLP genotypes, suggesting independent introduction events, probably with different geographic origins. Relatively low propagule pressure was associated with each introduction around the globe, but levels of among-population variation differed. We found exact AFLP genotype matches between the native and invaded ranges for five of the 13 invasive genotypes. • Invasion dynamics can vary across invaded ranges within a species. Intensive sampling for molecular analyses can provide insight for understanding intraspecific invasion dynamics, which can hold significance for the management of plant species, especially by finding origins and distributions of invasive genotypes for classical biological control efforts.

  16. Selfing ability and dispersal are positively related, but not affected by range position: a multispecies study on southern African Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, C; Rodger, J G; Anderson, B; Ellis, A G

    2014-05-01

    Dispersal and breeding system traits are thought to affect colonization success. As species have attained their present distribution ranges through colonization, these traits may vary geographically. Although several theories predict associations between dispersal ability, selfing ability and the relative position of a population within its geographic range, there is little theoretical or empirical consensus on exactly how these three variables are related. We investigated relationships between dispersal ability, selfing ability and range position across 28 populations of 13 annual, wind-dispersed Asteraceae species from the Namaqualand region of South Africa. Controlling for phylogeny, relative dispersal ability--assessed from vertical fall time of fruits--was positively related to an index of autofertility--determined from hand-pollination experiments. These findings support the existence of two discrete syndromes: high selfing ability associated with good dispersal and obligate outcrossing associated with lower dispersal ability. This is consistent with the hypothesis that selection for colonization success drives the evolution of an association between these traits. However, no general effect of range position on dispersal or breeding system traits was evident. This suggests selection on both breeding system and dispersal traits acts consistently across distribution ranges. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Morphological and anatomical features of cypsela of some crepis taxa (asteraceae) from turkey and their taxonomic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru, J.; Cheng, X.Y.; Wang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit morphology and anatomy have taxonomic importance in Asteraceae. The fruits structures of Crepis from Turkey, which include five species (C. alpina, C. smyrnaea, C. pulchra, C. zacintha, C. sancta) and two subspecies (C. foetida subsp. foetida and C. foetida subsp. rhoeadifolia) were studied for fruit morphological and anatomical characters with one-way analysis of variance, cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Fruit size, shape, color, and the presence of beak were observed with stereomicroscopy. Whereas the surface patterns of fruit and pappus were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, pericarp structure, thicknesses of testa and endosperm, and number of rib, cotyledon width in cypsela were studied anatomically. Results indicated that cypsela sizes, the presence or absence of beak on the cypsela, fruit and pappus surfaces, pericarp. Thickness of testa and endosperm, and number of ribs are of major importance to illustrate interspecific relations among the examined taxa. Also, this investigation is a preliminary study, which was performed to use fruit morphological and anatomical characters for their practicality on the classification of taxa within the genus. (author)

  18. The Evolutionary History Of The White-Rayed Species Of Melampodium (Asteraceae) Involved Multiple Cycles Of Hybridization And Polyploidization1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebernig, Carolin A.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Blöch, Cordula; Turner, Barbara; Stuessy, Tod F.; Obermayer, Renate; Villaseñor, Jose L.; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study Polyploidy plays an important role in race differentiation and eventually speciation. Underlying mechanisms include chromosomal and genomic changes facilitating reproductive isolation and/or stabilization of hybrids. A prerequisite for studying these processes is a sound knowledge on the origin of polyploids. A well-suited group for studying polyploid evolution consists of the three species of Melampodium ser. Leucantha (Asteraceae): M. argophyllum, M. cinereum, and M. leucanthum. Methods The origin of polyploids was inferred using network and tree-based phylogenetic analyses of several plastid and nuclear DNA sequences and of fingerprint data (AFLP). Genome evolution was assessed via genome size measurements, karyotype analysis, and in situ hybridization of ribosomal DNA. Key results Tetraploid cytotypes of the phylogenetically distinct M. cinereum and M. leucanthum had, compared to the diploid cytotypes, doubled genome sizes and no evidence of gross chromosomal rearrangements. Hexaploid M. argophyllum constituted a separate lineage with limited intermixing with the other species, except in analyses from nuclear ITS. Its genome size was lower than expected if M. cinereum and/or M. leucanthum were involved in its origin, and no chromosomal rearrangements were evident. Conclusions Polyploids in M. cinereum and M. leucanthum are of recent autopolyploid origin in line with the lack of significant genomic changes. Hexaploid M. argophyllum also appears to be of autopolyploid origin against the previous hypothesis of an allopolyploid origin involving the other two species, but some gene flow with the other species in early phases of differentiation cannot be excluded. PMID:22645096

  19. A New Alkamide with an Endoperoxide Structure from Acmella ciliata (Asteraceae) and Its in Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Narjara; Saar, Julia; Santos, Alan Diego C; Barison, Andersson; Sandjo, Louis P; Kaiser, Marcel; Schmidt, Thomas J; Biavatti, Maique W

    2016-06-11

    From the aerial parts of Acmella ciliata (H.B.K.) Cassini (basionym Spilanthes ciliata Kunth; Asteraceae), three alkamides were isolated and identified by mass- and NMR spectroscopic methods as (2E,6E,8E)-N-isobutyl-2,6,8-decatrienamide (spilanthol, (1)), N-(2-phenethyl)-2E-en-6,8-nonadiynamide (2) and (2E,7Z)-6,9-endoperoxy-N-isobutyl-2,7-decadienamide (3). While 1 and 2 are known alkamides, compound 3 has not been described until now. It was found that the unusual cyclic peroxide 3 exists as a racemate of both enantiomers of each alkamide; the 6,9-cis- as well as the 6,9-trans-configured diastereomers, the former represents the major, the latter the minor constituent of the mixture. In vitro tests for activity against the human pathogenic parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum revealed that 1 and 3 possess activity against the NF54 strain of the latter (IC50 values of 4.5 and 5.1 µM, respectively) while 2 was almost inactive. Compound 3 was also tested against multiresistant P. falciparum K1 and was found to be even more active against this parasite strain (IC50 = 2.1 µM) with considerable selectivity (IC50 against L6 rat skeletal myoblasts = 168 µM).

  20. Dispersal, dormancy and life-history tradeoffs at the individual, population and species levels in southern African Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Caroli; Anderson, Bruce; Ellis, Allan G

    2016-04-01

    Dispersal and dormancy are important risk-reducing strategies in unpredictable environments. Negative covariation between these strategies is theoretically expected, but empirical evidence is limited and inconsistent. Moreover, covariation may be affected by other life-history traits and may vary across levels of biological organization. We assessed dispersal (vertical fall time of fruits, a proxy for wind dispersal ability) and dormancy (germination fractions measured during germination trials) in populations of 15 annual and 12 perennial wind-dispersed species in six Asteraceae genera from South Africa. Dormancy was higher in annuals than in perennials, whereas fall time was largely determined by evolutionary history. Controlling for phylogeny, dispersal and dormancy was negatively associated across species and life-history categories. Negative covariation between dispersal and dormancy was not evident at either the individual level (except for seed heteromorphic species) or the population level. Our study provides rare empirical support for the theoretical expectation of tradeoffs between dormancy and the alternative risk-reducing strategies, perenniality and dispersal, but refutes the expectation of increased dispersability in perennials. Although negative covariation between dispersal and dormancy at the species level appears not to be a simple consequence of upscaling individual-level mechanistic tradeoffs, our findings suggest that selection for one strategy may constrain evolution of the other. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Impact of sesquiterpenes from Inula racemosa (Asteraceae) on growth, development and nutrition of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

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    Kaur, Mandeep; Kumar, Rakesh; Upendrabhai, Deep Patel; Singh, Inder Pal; Kaur, Sanehdeep

    2017-05-01

    The use of botanical pesticides for protecting crops from insect pests has assumed greater importance all over the world owing to growing awareness of harmful effects of indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides. Inula racemosa Hook. f. (Asteraceae), a medicinally important perennial herb, is rich in sesquiterpenes with many biological activities. The present studies were conducted with the objective to evaluate the sesquiterpenes isolated from I. racemosa for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura (F.). Alantolactone and isoalantolactone isolated from I. racemosa exerted growth inhibitory effects on S. litura. Addition of both the sesquiterpenes to larval diet extended the development period and reduced pupation as well as adult emergence. The dietary utilisation experiments on third-instar larvae of S. litura revealed reduction in consumption and growth rates of larvae as well as efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food owing to alantolactone and isoalantolactone. The root extract of I. racemosa, which is rich in two sesquiterpenes, i.e. alantolactone and isoalantolactone, has the potential for management of S. litura. However, there is a need to understand the specific mechanism of action of these compounds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Most Compositae (Asteraceae) are descendants of a paleohexaploid and all share a paleotetraploid ancestor with the Calyceraceae.

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    Barker, Michael S; Li, Zheng; Kidder, Thomas I; Reardon, Chris R; Lai, Zhao; Oliveira, Luiz O; Scascitelli, Moira; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-07-01

    Like many other flowering plants, members of the Compositae (Asteraceae) have a polyploid ancestry. Previous analyses found evidence for an ancient duplication or possibly triplication in the early evolutionary history of the family. We sought to better place this paleopolyploidy in the phylogeny and assess its nature. We sequenced new transcriptomes for Barnadesia, the lineage sister to all other Compositae, and four representatives of closely related families. Using a recently developed algorithm, MAPS, we analyzed nuclear gene family phylogenies for evidence of paleopolyploidy. We found that the previously recognized Compositae paleopolyploidy is also in the ancestry of the Calyceraceae. Our phylogenomic analyses uncovered evidence for a successive second round of genome duplication among all sampled Compositae except Barnadesia. Our analyses of new samples with new tools provide a revised view of paleopolyploidy in the Compositae. Together with results from a high density Lactuca linkage map, our results suggest that the Compositae and Calyceraceae have a common paleotetraploid ancestor and that most Compositae are descendants of a paleohexaploid. Although paleohexaploids have been previously identified, this is the first example where the paleotetraploid and paleohexaploid lineages have survived over tens of millions of years. The complex polyploidy in the ancestry of the Compositae and Calyceraceae represents a unique opportunity to study the long-term evolutionary fates and consequences of different ploidal levels. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  3. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae, False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

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    R. Estrada-Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg, an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td, or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg, Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  4. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior.

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    Estrada-Reyes, R; Ferreyra-Cruz, O A; Jiménez-Rubio, G; Hernández-Hernández, O T; Martínez-Mota, L

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana . The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  5. Cytoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of an Edible Herb, Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae), against Experimentally Induced Lead Acetate Intoxication.

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    Dua, Tarun K; Dewanjee, Saikat; Khanra, Ritu; Joardar, Swarnalata; Barma, Sujata; Das, Shilpa; Zia-Ul-Haq, M; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae), an edible aquatic herb, is traditionally employed against toxic effects of heavy metals in India. The present study was planned to discover the protective effect of edible extract of E. fluctuans (AEEF) against Pb toxicity. The cytoprotective role of AEEF was determined on murine hepatocytes employing MTT assay and Hoechst staining. The effects on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, endogenous redox systems and the transcription levels of apoptotic proteins were studied after incubating the hepatocytes with AEEF (400 μg/ml) + Pb-acetate (6.8 μM). The defensive role of AEEF (100 mg/kg) against Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg) intoxication was measured in mice by in vivo assays. Biochemical, haematological and histological parameters, intracellular Pb burden and redox status were measured. AEEF exhibited a concentration dependent cytoprotective effect against Pb-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Pb-acetate incubation significantly (p intoxicated animals. However, concurrent administration of AEEF (100 mg/kg) could significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) reinstate the Pb-acetate mediated toxicity. Presence of metal chelators and phyto-antioxidants within AEEF would offer overall protection through promoting Pb clearance coupled with restoring redox balance.

  6. Phenolic Profiling of the South American “Baylahuen” Tea (Haplopappus spp., Asteraceae by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS

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    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of several Haplopappus species (Asteraceae, known under the common name “baylahuen”, are used as herbal teas in Chile and Argentina. In Chile, “baylahuen” comprises H. multifolius, H. taeda, H. baylahuen and H. rigidus. Little is known about the chemical identity of the infusion constituents in spite of widespread consumption. The aim of the present work was the characterization of phenolics occurring in the infusions and methanol extracts of “baylahuen” by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. A simple HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method was developed for the fast identification and differentiation of Haplopappus spp. used as a tea source, based on the phenolics from the tea and methanol extracts. Some 27 phenolics were tentatively identified in the infusions and methanol extract, including 10 caffeoyl quinic and feruloyl quinic acid derivatives and 17 flavonoids. The HPLC patterns of the Haplopappus tea and methanol extract allow a clear differentiation at the species level. The occurrence of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids can explain the reputed nutraceutical and health beneficial properties of this herbal tea.

  7. Biochemical characterization of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don subsp. italicum (Asteraceae) from Montenegro: phytochemical screening, chemotaxonomy, and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kladar, Nebojša V; Anačkov, Goran T; Rat, Milica M; Srđenović, Branislava U; Grujić, Nevena N; Šefer, Emilia I; Božin, Biljana N

    2015-03-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil and EtOH extract of immortelle (Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don subsp. italicum, Asteraceae) collected in Montenegro were evaluated. The essential oil was characterized by GC/MS analysis, and the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in the EtOH extract was determined using the FolinCiocalteu reagent. The free-radical-scavenging capacity (RSC) of both the essential oil and the EtOH extract was assessed with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Moreover, the inhibition of hydroxyl radical ((.) OH) generation by the EtOH extract of immortelle was evaluated for the first time here. Neryl acetate (28.2%) and γ-curcumene (18.8%) were the main compounds in the essential oil, followed by neryl propionate (9.1%) and ar-curcumene (8.3%). The chemical composition of the oils of the examined and additional 16 selected Helichrysum italicum taxa described in literature were compared using principal component (PCA) and cluster (CA) analyses. The results of the statistical analyses implied the occurrence of at least four different main and three subchemotypes of essential oils. Considering the antioxidant properties, the EtOH extract of immortelle exhibited similar potential as propyl gallate and quercetin, while the essential oil exhibited relatively weak DPPH(.) -scavenging capacity. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. Genetic variation in Mediterranean Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae; Gnaphalieae): do disjunct populations of subsp. microphyllum have a common origin?

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    Galbany-Casals, M; Blanco-Moreno, J M; Garcia-Jacas, N; Breitwieser, I; Smissen, R D

    2011-07-01

    The yellow-flowered everlasting daisy Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) is widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin, where it grows in continuous and widespread populations in diverse open habitats. Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum has a disjunct distribution in the Balearic Islands (Majorca and Dragonera), Corsica, Sardinia, Crete and Cyprus. Numerous morphological intermediates between subsp. italicum and subsp. microphyllum are known from Corsica, where the two subspecies co-occur. The aims of the study were to investigate if subsp. microphyllum has a common origin, constituting an independent gene pool from subsp. italicum, or if the morphological differences between subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum have arisen independently in different locations from a common wider gene pool. Our analyses of AFLP, cpDNA sequences and morphological characters show that there is geographic structure to the genetic variation within H. italicum, with eastern and western Mediterranean groups, which do not correspond with the division into subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum as currently circumscribed. Local selection on quantitative trait loci provides sufficient explanation for the morphological divergence observed and is consistent with genetic data. Within the western Mediterranean group of the species we found considerable polymorphism in chloroplast DNA sequences among and within some populations. Comparison with chloroplast DNA sequences from other Helichrysum species showed that some chloroplast haplotypes are shared across species. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extract and Essential Oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae against Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Loyana Silva Godinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV and the essential oil (TV-EO from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of β-thujone (84.13% as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200 μg/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50 μg/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200 μg/mL was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100 μg/mL. Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds.

  10. Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tanacetum Sonbolii (Asteraceae on Pain-related Behaviors during Formalin Test in Mice

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    Mohammad Sofiabadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tanacetum sonbolii (Asteraceae is an endemic species in Iran. In the present study, we examined the effects of Tanacetum sonbolii hydroalcoholic extract on the formalin test in mice. Methods: 126 Swiss albino mice weighing 230-280g were used as subjects. The formalin test was performed on two control groups (marked as intact and saline groups n = 6 in each group and an experimental group. In all groups, the formalin test was recorded for 60 min after administration of extract and drugs in mice. Results: The results showed that Tanacetum sonbolii (150 and 300 mg/kg produced significant antinociception in phase 2. In addition, different doses of Tanacetum sonbolii extract (600, 900 and 1200 mg/kg also induced antinociceptive effects in phase1 and phase 2. On the other hand, morphine could induce antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg failed to affect the pain scores compared to Tanacetum sonbolii (300 mg/kg group. Discussion: It seems that administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Tanacetum sonbolii has the potential to relieve pain through both central and peripheral mechanisms in persistent inflammatory nociception.

  11. Antinociceptive activity and toxicological study of aqueous extract of Egletes viscosa Less (Asteraceae Atividade antinociceptiva e estudo toxicológico de extrato aquoso de Egletes viscosa Lessa (Asteraceae

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    Adriano Antunes S. Araújo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Egletes viscosa Less (Asteraceae, popularly known as "macela" or "macela-da-terra", is a plant widely used in popular medicine due to its anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, antidiarrhoea, mio-relaxant, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, digestive, and anti-viral properties. Phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of Egletes viscosa (AEEV revealed the high presence of flavonoids. This study examined the oral antinociceptive potential of AEEV in rodents using different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.. The results showed significant antinociceptive action when tested in writhing (200 and 400 mg/kg-pEgletes viscosa Less (Asteraceae, popularmente conhecida como "macela" ou "macela-da-terra", é uma planta largamente usada na medicina popular devido as suas propriedades: anti-inflamatória, bactericida, antidiarréica, mio-relaxante, anti-espasmódica, antinociceptiva, digestiva e anti-viral. Análise fitoquímica do extrato aquoso da Egletes viscosa (AEEV mostrou elevada presença de flavonóides. Este estudo examinou o potencial antinociceptivo do AEEV em roedores usando diferentes concentrações (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.. Os resultados mostraram significante efeito antinociceptivo quando testadas as doses (200 mg/kg-p<0.01; 400 mg/kg-p<0.05 e na segunda fase dos testes com formalina (200 and 400 mg/kg-p<0.001. Este efeito antinociceptivo foi similar ao ácido acetilsalicílico (300 mg/kg nas doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg. Adicionalmente, estas observações sugerem que o AEEV é efetivo contra dores inflamatórias contínuas. AEEV foi bem tolerada. No teste de toxicidade aguda, utilizando uma administração oral de 5 g/kg de AEEV, não foi observado casos de mortalidade. Da mesma maneira, no estudo subcrônico nenhuma mortalidade foi observada após 30 dias de administração oral diária de 100 mg/kg do AEEV. Não houve diferença significativa entre os pesos corporal e dos órgãos isolados quando comparados grupo controle e teste

  12. Análise de crescimento e anatomia foliar da planta medicinal Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae cultivada em diferentes substratos Growth analysis and leaf anatomy of the medicinal plant Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae grown on different substrates

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    A.A Millani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae é uma espécie herbácea que ocorre em áreas de cerrado e, por se tratar de planta medicinal, é cultivada em escala familiar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar possíveis alterações no desenvolvimento das plantas quando cultivadas em solos com texturas diferentes (solo de cerrado, franco arenoso ou solo de terra roxa, muito argiloso. Foram analisados aos 40, 70 e 90 dias, o comprimento do caule e da raiz, massa seca da parte aérea (caule e folhas e das raízes, número de folhas e área foliar; além de parâmetros anatômicos foliares, como a densidade de tricomas. Os resultados mostraram que os comprimentos do caule e da raiz aumentaram no decorrer do experimento, independentemente do substrato (com exceção do comprimento da raiz de plantas cultivadas em solo de terra roxa. Porém, o comprimento do caule foi sempre maior nas plantas cultivadas em solo de cerrado, enquanto o comprimento da raiz foi significativamente maior somente aos 90 dias de cultivo neste solo. As biomassas secas da raiz e do caule também foram maiores nas plantas cultivadas em solo de cerrado por 70 e 90 dias, respectivamente. A massa seca foliar foi maior nas plantas cultivadas em solo de cerrado a partir dos 70 dias de experimento. Esse aumento foi devido ao maior número de folhas produzidas e a maior área foliar dessas plantas. No geral, a anatomia foliar não diferiu, porém o número de tricomas glandulares foi maior nas plantas cultivadas em solo de cerrado. Os resultados indicaram que esta espécie tem melhor desenvolvimento quando cultivada em solo mais arenoso.Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae is a herbaceous species found in cerrado areas and grown in family scale since it is a medicinal plant. The aim of this work was to study possible alterations in the plant development when grown in soils presenting different textures (a sandy-loam cerrado soil, or a very clayish red earth soil. At 40, 70 and 90 days, stem

  13. Caracterização morfoanatômica das folhas de Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae Leaf morpho-anatomical characterization of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae

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    Rafael C. Dutra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, popularmente conhecida como "candeia-da-serra", é uma espécie utilizada na medicina tradicional como cicatrizante e antimicrobiano. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar o número de tricomas glandulares nas folhas jovens e adultas de E. erythropappus, assim como realizar a caracterização morfoanatômica destas folhas. Secções transversais e paradérmicas das folhas foram submetidas às microtécnicas fotônicas e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A quantificação dos tricomas glandulares foi realizada em folhas jovens e adultas com auxílio de câmara clara. As folhas são alternas ou fasciculadas e a lâmina foliar possui epiderme uniestratificada, revestida por cutícula delgada e lisa e mesofilo dorsiventral. Em ambas as faces da epiderme, ocorrem estômatos predominantemente anomocíticos e tricomas glandulares inseridos em depressões. Na face abaxial observam-se numerosos tricomas tectores. O parênquima paliçádico é uniestratificado e o parênquima voltado para a face abaxial é formado por três a cinco camadas de células com disposição compacta. As folhas jovens e adultas apresentam respectivamente 21,78±5,83 e 17,80±6,69 tricomas glandulares na face adaxial. A análise morfoanatômica das folhas de E. erythropappus mostra-se um método rápido e prático para a identificação e controle de qualidade de espécies vegetais utilizadas na terapêutica.Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, commonly known as 'candeia-da-serra', is a plant used in folk medicine as wound healing and antimicrobial. The aim of this study was to compare the number of glandular trichomes between the young and the mature leaves, as well as to perform the morpho-anatomical characterization of E. erythropappus leaves. Transverse and paradermal sections of the leaves were prepared according to light and scanning microtechniques for the morpho-anatomical characterization

  14. Construction and characterization of two BAC libraries representing a deep-coverage of the genome of chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae

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    Gonthier Lucy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asteraceae represents an important plant family with respect to the numbers of species present in the wild and used by man. Nonetheless, genomic resources for Asteraceae species are relatively underdeveloped, hampering within species genetic studies as well as comparative genomics studies at the family level. So far, six BAC libraries have been described for the main crops of the family, i.e. lettuce and sunflower. Here we present the characterization of BAC libraries of chicory (Cichorium intybus L. constructed from two genotypes differing in traits related to sexual and vegetative reproduction. Resolving the molecular mechanisms underlying traits controlling the reproductive system of chicory is a key determinant for hybrid development, and more generally will provide new insights into these traits, which are poorly investigated so far at the molecular level in Asteraceae. Findings Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries, CinS2S2 and CinS1S4, were constructed from HindIII-digested high molecular weight DNA of the contrasting genotypes C15 and C30.01, respectively. C15 was hermaphrodite, non-embryogenic, and S2S2 for the S-locus implicated in self-incompatibility, whereas C30.01 was male sterile, embryogenic, and S1S4. The CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 libraries contain 89,088 and 81,408 clones. Mean insert sizes of the CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 clones are 90 and 120 kb, respectively, and provide together a coverage of 12.3 haploid genome equivalents. Contamination with mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA sequences was evaluated with four mitochondrial and four chloroplast specific probes, and was estimated to be 0.024% and 1.00% for the CinS2S2 library, and 0.028% and 2.35% for the CinS1S4 library. Using two single copy genes putatively implicated in somatic embryogenesis, screening of both libraries resulted in detection of 12 and 13 positive clones for each gene, in accordance with expected numbers. Conclusions This

  15. Construction and characterization of two BAC libraries representing a deep-coverage of the genome of chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Lucy; Bellec, Arnaud; Blassiau, Christelle; Prat, Elisa; Helmstetter, Nicolas; Rambaud, Caroline; Huss, Brigitte; Hendriks, Theo; Bergès, Hélène; Quillet, Marie-Christine

    2010-08-11

    The Asteraceae represents an important plant family with respect to the numbers of species present in the wild and used by man. Nonetheless, genomic resources for Asteraceae species are relatively underdeveloped, hampering within species genetic studies as well as comparative genomics studies at the family level. So far, six BAC libraries have been described for the main crops of the family, i.e. lettuce and sunflower. Here we present the characterization of BAC libraries of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) constructed from two genotypes differing in traits related to sexual and vegetative reproduction. Resolving the molecular mechanisms underlying traits controlling the reproductive system of chicory is a key determinant for hybrid development, and more generally will provide new insights into these traits, which are poorly investigated so far at the molecular level in Asteraceae. Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries, CinS2S2 and CinS1S4, were constructed from HindIII-digested high molecular weight DNA of the contrasting genotypes C15 and C30.01, respectively. C15 was hermaphrodite, non-embryogenic, and S2S2 for the S-locus implicated in self-incompatibility, whereas C30.01 was male sterile, embryogenic, and S1S4. The CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 libraries contain 89,088 and 81,408 clones. Mean insert sizes of the CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 clones are 90 and 120 kb, respectively, and provide together a coverage of 12.3 haploid genome equivalents. Contamination with mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA sequences was evaluated with four mitochondrial and four chloroplast specific probes, and was estimated to be 0.024% and 1.00% for the CinS2S2 library, and 0.028% and 2.35% for the CinS1S4 library. Using two single copy genes putatively implicated in somatic embryogenesis, screening of both libraries resulted in detection of 12 and 13 positive clones for each gene, in accordance with expected numbers. This indicated that both BAC libraries are valuable tools for molecular

  16. Unraveling systematic inventory of Echinops (Asteraceae) with special reference to nrDNA ITS sequence-based molecular typing of Echinops abuzinadianus.

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    Ali, M A; Al-Hemaid, F M; Lee, J; Hatamleh, A A; Gyulai, G; Rahman, M O

    2015-10-02

    The present study explored the systematic inventory of Echinops L. (Asteraceae) of Saudi Arabia, with special reference to the molecular typing of Echinops abuzinadianus Chaudhary, an endemic species to Saudi Arabia, based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. A sequence similarity search using BLAST and a phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequence of E. abuzinadianus revealed a high level of sequence similarity with E. glaberrimus DC. (section Ritropsis). The novel primary sequence and the secondary structure of ITS2 of E. abuzinadianus could potentially be used for molecular genotyping.

  17. First description of leaf-mining Nepticulidae and Tischeriidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera) feeding on the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae).

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    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-01-05

    Despite taxonomic and conservation interest in the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae: subfamily Asteroideae, tribe Heliantheae), no Podanthus-feeding Nepticulidae or Tischeriidae have ever been recorded. Here, on the basis of material reared from Podanthus from central Mediterranean Chile, we present the description of Stigmella podanthae sp. nov. (Nepticulidae) and a re-description of Astrotischeria chilei Puplesis & Diškus, 2003. Females and host-plant of the latter species were previously unknown. Both treated species are illustrated with numerous photographs of the leaf-mines, adults of both sexes, and male and female genitalia.

  18. Not only size matters: achene morphology affects time of seedling emergence in three heterocarpic species of Anacyclus (Anthemideae, Asteraceae

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    Torices, Rubén

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of two or more distinct fruit types by an individual, i.e. heterocarpy, is considered as a mixed dispersal strategy in which a proportion of the offspring is able to colonize new sites, whilst others remain near the maternal location. Here, we aimed to explore the effects of achene morphology (winged vs. unwinged achenes and achene size –measured here as achene mass– on post-dispersal life-history traits (probability and time of seedling emergence in three heterocarpic Anacyclus species (Anthemideae, Asteraceae. Morphology, size and germination performance were studied in achenes from six populations of Anacyclus clavatus (Desf. Pers., A. homogamos (Maire Humphries, and A. valentinus L. Our results show that achene morphology and size were related to their position within the capitulum, such that outer, winged achenes were significantly heavier than the inner, unwinged ones. Additionally, winged achenes germinated faster than unwinged ones. This pattern may be related to the sequential achene time of release displayed by these species. Finally, our findings cast doubt on the role of wings as structures that favor dispersal by wind in these three species of Anacyclus.La producción de dos o más tipos de frutos diferentes por un mismo individuo, i.e. heterocarpia, es considerada como una estrategia mixta de dispersión en la que una parte de la descendencia es capaz de colonizar nuevos sitios, mientras que la otra permanece cerca de la planta madre. En este trabajo, nuestro objetivo fue explorar los efectos de la morfología del aquenio (aquenios alados vs. no alados y de su tamaño –medido aquí como masa del aquenio– en la etapa del ciclo de vida siguiente a la dispersión (probabilidad de germinación y tiempo de emergencia de las plántulas de tres especies heterocárpicas del género Anacyclus (Anthemideae, Asteraceae. Se estudió la morfología, el tamaño y la germinación en aquenios de seis poblaciones de Anacyclus

  19. Relationship between seed bank expression, adult longevity and aridity in species of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae) in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, M T K; Chacon, P; Cavieres, L A

    2006-09-01

    Broad surveys have detected inverse relationships between seed and adult longevity and between seed size and adult longevity. However, low and unpredictable precipitation is also associated with seed bank (SB) expression in semi-arid and arid areas. The relationship between adult longevity, SB formation, seed mass and aridity is examined in annual and perennial herbs of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae) from the Chilean Mediterranean-type climate and winter-rainfall desert areas over a precipitation range of one order of magnitude. Seeds of 18 species and subtaxa (32 populations) were buried in field locations, and exhumed after two successive germination periods. Seeds not germinating in the field were tested in a growth chamber, and remnant intact seed tested for viability. Seed banks were classed as transient or persistent. The effect of life form, species, population and burial time on persistent SB size was assessed with factorial ANOVA. Persistent seed bank size was compared with the Martonne aridity index (shown to be a surrogate for inter-annual variation in precipitation) and seed size using linear regression. ANCOVA assessed the effect of life-form on SB size with aridity as covariate. Three species had a transient SB and 15 a persistent SB. ANOVA revealed a significant effect of life-form on SB size with annuals having larger SB size and greater capacity to form a persistent SB than perennials. Significant inter-population variation in SB size was found in 64% of cases. Seed mass was negatively correlated with persistent SB size. Persistent seed bank size was significantly correlated with the Martonne aridity index in the perennial and annual species, with species from more arid areas having larger persistent SBs. However, when aridity was considered as a covariate, ANCOVA revealed no significant differences between the annual and perennial herbs. Persistent seed bank size in Chaetanthera appears to reflect environmental selection rather than any trade-off with

  20. Spines vs. microspines: an overview of the sculpture exine in selected basal and derived Asteraceae with focus on Asteroideae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería, María C

    2017-11-01

    This study presents a detailed examination of the echinate and microechinate sculpturing in relation to the size of pollen grains in 31 selected species of Asteraceae belonging to the subfamilies Barnadesioideae, Mutisioideae, Carduoideae and Asteroideae. The aims were to recognize sculpturing patterns, under LM and SEM, within large and small pollen of both basal and derived species and to explore the features that could have taxonomic value to apply in palynological disciplines. The detailed examination of the exine surface showed both the relevance and limits of sculptural patterns for taxonomy. Under LM, the microechinate sculpture gave little taxonomic information, whereas in the echinate sculpture, three exine types and two subtypes were recognized. Type I included microechinate exine, which is commonly present in large pollen grains of the basal lineages. Types II (subtypes IIa and IIb) and III included echinate and smaller pollen grains. In these types, spines were always regularly arranged and, were characterized by the length, shape, tip, perforations and distribution. Type IIa included more or less conical spines usually with a distended base, less than 4 µm in length, present in species of different tribes like Astereae, Eupatorieae, Helenieae, Gnaphalieae, Senecioideae and Heliantheae to a lesser extent. Type IIb includes slender spines with narrower bases, longer than 4 µm, present in species of Coreopsideae, Heliantheae, Tageteae and Eupatorieae to a lesser extent. Type III included spines with swollen base, blunt tip and perforations over their entire surface. This type was present in only one of the basal species-Carduus thoermeri-and in one species of the derived tribe Helenieae, Gaillardia megapotamica. Probably, this is due to evolutionary convergence.

  1. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoeb M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae, commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the brine shrimp lethality assays. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC and PTLC were used to isolate compounds from the extracts.  The structures of these compounds [1-4] were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and also by direct comparison with the respective published data.  Both the DCM and the MeOH extract showed significant levels of antioxidant activities with the RC50 values of 72.6 x 10-2 and 47.3 ´ 10-2 mg/mL, respectively. The MeOH extract exhibited low levels of toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = 125.0 ´ 10-2 mg/mL. Three major bioactive components of the MeOH extract were matairesinoside [1], arctiin [2] and matairesinol [3]. An eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, pterodontriol [4], was also isolated from the DCM extract.  Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to various ailments, the antioxidant properties of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds may be of medicinal significance. This is the first report on the occurrence of 1-4 in C. pamphylica, and 4 in the genus Centaurea.  

  2. Seed Dormancy, After‐ripening and Light Requirements of Four Annual Asteraceae in South‐western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHÜTZ, W.; MILBERG, P.; LAMONT, B. B.

    2002-01-01

    The role of dormancy, temperature and light in the regulation of seed germination of four annual Asteraceae from south‐western Australia was investigated. The experiments aimed to identify after‐ripening patterns, and to relate these to climatic conditions of the habitat in which the species occur. Seeds of all species were strongly dormant at maturity and maintained high levels of dormancy for time periods corresponding to the duration of summer in south‐western Australia. Dry after‐ripening was promoted best by temperatures lower than those prevailing in the dry season, although differences among storage temperatures were mostly insignificant. Germination percentages were highest at average winter temperatures (15 °C). A logistic model revealed significant differences in germinability among species, but not between incubation temperatures or light and dark treatments across species. Three species with seeds >0·5 mg germinated better in darkness than in light, whereas germination in darkness was almost inhibited in the species with the smallest seeds (0·14 mg). The course of dormancy loss, tested over a range of fluctuating incubation temperatures (7–30 °C), showed that seeds of three species came out of dormancy first at temperatures that prevail in south‐western Australia during the winter (10–15 °C). Seeds from one species, introduced from South Africa, first lost dormancy at the lowest temperature (7 °C). All species showed after‐ripening patterns of Type 1, typical of species growing in Mediterranean climates. The germination characteristics of the investigated species can be interpreted as ensuring that initial growth and establishment occur during the winter growing season, thereby avoiding the hot and dry summer conditions that follow seed dispersal. PMID:12451026

  3. In and out of Madagascar: Dispersal to Peripheral Islands, Insular Speciation and Diversification of Indian Ocean Daisy Trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijk, Joeri S.; Noyes, Richard D.; Strasberg, Dominique; Cruaud, Corinne; Gavory, Fredéric; Chase, Mark W.; Abbott, Richard J.; Thébaud, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae), a plant genus with near equal numbers of species in Madagascar and surrounding islands. Analyzing patterns and processes of diversification, we explain species accumulation on peripheral islands and aim to offer new insights on the origin and potential causes for diversification in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot. Our results provide support for an African origin of the group, with strong support for non-monophyly. Colonization of the Mascarenes took place by two evolutionary distinct lineages from Madagascar, via two independent dispersal events, each unique for their spatial and temporal properties. Significant shifts in diversification rate followed regional expansion, resulting in co-occurring and phenotypically convergent species on high-elevation volcanic slopes. Like other endemic island lineages, Psiadia have been highly successful in dispersing to and radiating on isolated oceanic islands, typified by high habitat diversity and dynamic ecosystems fuelled by continued geological activity. Results stress the important biogeographical role for Rodrigues in serving as an outlying stepping stone from which regional colonization took place. We discuss how isolated volcanic islands contribute to regional diversity by generating substantial numbers of endemic species on short temporal scales. Factors pertaining to the mode and tempo of archipelago formation and its geographical isolation strongly govern evolutionary pathways available for species diversification, and the potential for successful

  4. Polyploidisation and Geographic Differentiation Drive Diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachschwöll, Clemens; Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Schönswetter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene), polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae), whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum) are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous) and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid). Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer) and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids—whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates—and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i) silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii) silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s.) and the Carpathians and (iii) the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps) and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps); each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid) of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale subsp

  5. Polyploidisation and geographic differentiation drive diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachschwöll, Clemens; Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Schönswetter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene), polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae), whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum) are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous) and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid). Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer) and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids-whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates-and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i) silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii) silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s.) and the Carpathians and (iii) the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps) and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps); each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid) of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale subsp

  6. Polyploidisation and geographic differentiation drive diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Pachschwöll

    Full Text Available Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene, polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae, whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid. Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids-whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates-and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s. and the Carpathians and (iii the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps; each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale

  7. Chemical Characterization, Antileishmanial Activity, and Cytotoxicity Effects of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Marley; Scull, Ramón; Satyal, Prabodh; Setzer, William N; Monzote, Lianet

    2017-09-01

    Current strategies to control leishmaniasis are mainly based on chemotherapy. However, none of the available drugs can be considered to be ideal to treat this disease. Because of the hydrophobic nature and bioactivities of their components, essential oils (EOs) can be considered as important sources for developing agents against intracellular pathogens, such as Leishmania parasites. In this study, we report the chemical characterization, antileishmanial activities, and cytotoxicity effect of the EO from Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don. (Asteraceae). Chemical analysis revealed that EO from aerial part from P. carolinensis is composed of 44 compounds. The main component was selin-11-en-4α-ol, which made up 51.0%. In vitro antileishmanial studies showed that P. carolinensis EO inhibited the growth of promastigotes (IC 50  = 24.7 ± 7.1 μg/mL) and amastigotes (IC 50  = 6.2 ± 0.1 μg/mL) of Leishmania amazonensis, while cytotoxicity evaluation revealed fivefold higher values than those for the parasites. In a model of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice, five doses of EO at 30 mg/kg by intralesional route demonstrated smaller lesion size and parasite burden (p < 0.05) compared with animals treated with Glucantime® and untreated mice. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo results showed the potentialities of EO from P. carolinensis with the future possibility of a new alternative in the treatment for leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. In and out of Madagascar: dispersal to peripheral islands, insular speciation and diversification of Indian Ocean daisy trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri S Strijk

    Full Text Available Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae, a plant genus with near equal numbers of species in Madagascar and surrounding islands. Analyzing patterns and processes of diversification, we explain species accumulation on peripheral islands and aim to offer new insights on the origin and potential causes for diversification in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot. Our results provide support for an African origin of the group, with strong support for non-monophyly. Colonization of the Mascarenes took place by two evolutionary distinct lineages from Madagascar, via two independent dispersal events, each unique for their spatial and temporal properties. Significant shifts in diversification rate followed regional expansion, resulting in co-occurring and phenotypically convergent species on high-elevation volcanic slopes. Like other endemic island lineages, Psiadia have been highly successful in dispersing to and radiating on isolated oceanic islands, typified by high habitat diversity and dynamic ecosystems fuelled by continued geological activity. Results stress the important biogeographical role for Rodrigues in serving as an outlying stepping stone from which regional colonization took place. We discuss how isolated volcanic islands contribute to regional diversity by generating substantial numbers of endemic species on short temporal scales. Factors pertaining to the mode and tempo of archipelago formation and its geographical isolation strongly govern evolutionary pathways available for species diversification, and the

  9. Mucoadhesive formulation of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae reduces intestinal injury from 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis in mice

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    Paulo Henrique Marcelino de Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal mucositis induced during cancer treatment is considered a serious dose-limiting side effect of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Frequently, interruption of the cancer treatment due to this pathology leads to a reduction in cure rates, increase of treatment costs and decrease life quality of the patient. Natural products such as Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae, represent a potential alternative for the treatment of mucositis given its anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, B. pilosa glycolic extract was formulated (BPF with poloxamer, a mucoadhesive copolymer, was used for treatment of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced mucositis in mice. As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200 mg/kg presented marked weight loss, reduction of intestinal villi, crypts and muscular layer, which was associated with severe disruption of crypts, edema, inflammatory infiltrate and vacuolization in the intestinal tissue, as compared to the control group and healthy animals only treated with BPF. On the other hand, the treatment of intestinal mucositis-bearing mice with BPF (75, 100 or 125 mg/kg managed to mitigate clinical and pathologic changes, noticeably at 100 mg/kg. This dose led to the restoration of intestinal proliferative activity through increasing Ki-67 levels; modulated the expression of Bax, Bcl2 and p53 apoptotic markers protecting intestinal cells from cell death. Moreover, this treatment regulated lipid peroxidation and inflammatory infiltration. No acute toxic effects were observed with this formulation. This work demonstrated that BPF was safe and effective against 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice. Additional studies are already in progress to further characterize the mechanisms involved in the protective effects of this technological formulation toward the development of a new medicine for the prevention and treatment of intestinal injury in patients undergoing chemotherapy/radiotherapy.

  10. Viper and cobra venom neutralization by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A; Saha, Archita; Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K

    2007-09-01

    We reported previously that the methanolic root extract of the Indian medicinal plant Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae) could neutralize viper venom-induced action [Alam, M.I., Auddy, B., Gomes, A., 1996. Viper venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plant (Hemidesmus indicus and P. indica) root extracts. Phytother. Res. 10, 58-61]. The present study reports the neutralization of viper and cobra venom by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of P. indica Less. (Asteraceae). The active fraction (containing the major compound beta-sitosterol and the minor compound stigmasterol) was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined using spectroscopic analysis (EIMS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR). Anti-snake venom activity was studied in experimental animals. The active fraction was found to significantly neutralize viper venom-induced lethal, hemorrhagic, defibrinogenation, edema and PLA(2) activity. Cobra venom-induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, respiratory changes and PLA(2) activity were also antagonized by the active component. It potentiated commercial snake venom antiserum action against venom-induced lethality in male albino mice. The active fraction could antagonize venom-induced changes in lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity. This study suggests that beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol may play an important role, along with antiserum, in neutralizing snake venom-induced actions.

  11. Development of expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers for genetic characterization and population structure analysis of Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q Z; Huang, M; Downie, S R; Chen, Z X

    2016-05-23

    Invasive plants tend to spread aggressively in new habitats and an understanding of their genetic diversity and population structure is useful for their management. In this study, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers were developed for the invasive plant species Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae) from 5548 Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of 133 microsatellite-containing ESTs (2.4%) were identified, of which 56 (42.1%) were hexanucleotide repeat motifs and 50 (37.6%) were trinucleotide repeat motifs. Of the 24 primer pairs designed from these 133 ESTs, 7 (29.2%) resulted in significant polymorphisms. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 9. The relatively high genetic diversity (H = 0.2667, I = 0.4212, and P = 100%) of P. clematidea was related to high gene flow (Nm = 1.4996) among populations. The coefficient of population differentiation (GST = 0.2500) indicated that most genetic variation occurred within populations. A Mantel test suggested that there was significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distribution (r = 0.3192, P = 0.012). These results further support the transferability of EST-SSR markers between closely related genera of the same family.

  12. Pre-release efficacy assessment of the leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae), a potential biological control agent for Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata (Asteraceae), in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae Gaedike & Kruger (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae) is a potential biological control agent for the invasive vine Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata Lemaire (Asteraceae), in western North America, where two morphological varieties (stipulate and exstipulate) of Cape-i...

  13. Plant Guide: Cutleaf balsamroot: Balsamorhiza macrophylla Nutt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren St. John; Derek Tilley

    2012-01-01

    Livestock and big game utilize cutleaf balsamroot. It is moderately palatable to grazing animals during the spring and early summer but has low protein content (Walter, 2007). Leaves are grazed lightly and flowers are often eaten. Horses are especially fond of the flowers (Plants of Utah, Online). The plant becomes dry and worthless as forage by midsummer (Forest...

  14. In vitro schistosomicidal and antiviral activities of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) against Schistosoma mansoni and Herpes simplex virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Mirna Meana; Zuza, Ohana; Riani, Lorena R; de Faria Pinto, Priscila; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Silva, Marcos P; de Moraes, Josué; Ataíde, Ana Caroline Z; de Oliveira Silva, Fernanda; Cecílio, Alzira Batista; Da Silva Filho, Ademar A

    2017-10-01

    Schistosomiasis and herpes diseases represent serious issues to the healthcare systems, infecting a large number of people worldwide, mainly in developing countries. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), known as "bardana" and "burdock", is a medicinal plant popularly used for several purposes, including as antiseptic. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro schistosomicidal and antiherpes activities of the crude extract of A. lappa, which have not yet been described. Fruits of A. lappa L. were extracted by maceration with ethanol: H 2 O (96:4 v/v) in order to obtain the hydroalcoholic extract of A. lappa (AL). In vitro schistosomicidal assays were assessed against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni, while the in vitro antiviral activity of AL was evaluated on replication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Cell viability was measured by MTT assay, using Vero cells and chemical composition of AL was determined by qualitative UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis. UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis of AL revealed the presence of dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans, such as arctiin and arctigenin. Results showed that AL was not cytotoxic to Vero cells even when tested at 400μg/mL. qPCR results indicated a significant viral load decreased for all tested concentrations of AL (400, 50, and 3.125μg/mL), which showed similar antiviral effect to acyclovir (50μg/mL) when tested at 400μg/mL. Also, AL (400, 200, and 100μg/mL) caused 100% mortality and significantly reduction on motor activity of all adult worms of S. mansoni. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed tegumental morphological alterations and changes on the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni worms in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with AL. This report provides the first evidence for the in vitro schistosomicidal and antiherpes activities of AL, opening the route to further schistosomicidal and antiviral studies with AL and their compounds, especially lignans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. [Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Zamora, Oscar; Insuasty-Torres, Jennyfer; de Cardenas, Camilo los Angeles; Ríos, Orlando Vargas

    2013-03-01

    Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs. We also evaluated the effect of size of relocated individuals on their survival and development. The work was carried out in an experimental plot at 3 424m altitude in the sector "Lagunas de Siecha" of Chingaza National Park, Colombia. We relocated 200 plants that belonged to three different size classes: 5, 10 and 15cm of initial height. The following variables were registered: survival, plant height, number of living leaves and stem diameter of each individual. We also evaluated the differences between individuals in survival and development. In terms of survival the most efficient size classes corresponded to 15cm high; the survival was 85% after two years. The relative growth rates for height and stem diameter decreases with the increase in size, but the absolute increase in height did not show significant differences between the three sizes tested. Since the stem diameter was found the strongest survival predictor after two years of relocation activities, we suggest its use as a criterion for selection of relocation individuals. The relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora had a positive side effect, carrying other species that may contribute to the enrichment and restoration of degraded areas. Among these, we found species of the genus Hypericum, as well as Arcytophyllum nitidum and Calamagrostis effusa, which should be evaluated in terms of survival and development for the subsequent implementation of the relocation strategy. In this study we verified the successful relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora as a

  16. Homeolog loss and expression changes in natural populations of the recently and repeatedly formed allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltis Pamela S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although polyploidy has long been recognized as a major force in the evolution of plants, most of what we know about the genetic consequences of polyploidy comes from the study of crops and model systems. Furthermore, although many polyploid species have formed repeatedly, patterns of genome evolution and gene expression are largely unknown for natural polyploid populations of independent origin. We therefore examined patterns of loss and expression in duplicate gene pairs (homeologs in multiple individuals from seven natural populations of independent origin of Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae, an allopolyploid that formed repeatedly within the last 80 years from the diploids T. dubius and T. porrifolius. Results Using cDNA-AFLPs, we found differential band patterns that could be attributable to gene silencing, novel expression, and/or maternal/paternal effects between T. mirus and its diploid parents. Subsequent cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS analyses of genomic DNA and cDNA revealed that 20 of the 30 genes identified through cDNA-AFLP analysis showed additivity, whereas nine of the 30 exhibited the loss of one parental homeolog in at least one individual. Homeolog loss (versus loss of a restriction site was confirmed via sequencing. The remaining gene (ADENINE-DNA GLYCOSYLASE showed ambiguous patterns in T. mirus because of polymorphism in the diploid parent T. dubius. Most (63.6% of the homeolog loss events were of the T. dubius parental copy. Two genes, NUCLEAR RIBOSOMAL DNA and GLYCERALDEHYDE-3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE, showed differential expression of the parental homeologs, with the T. dubius copy silenced in some individuals of T. mirus. Conclusions Genomic and cDNA CAPS analyses indicated that plants representing multiple populations of this young natural allopolyploid have experienced frequent and preferential elimination of homeologous loci. Comparable analyses of synthetic F1 hybrids showed only

  17. [Loss of pubescence and their physiological effects on endangered rosette Espeletia paipana (Asteraceae), Boyacá-Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Sindy; Vanegast, Leidy; Ramos, Carolina

    2015-09-01

    Espeletia paipana is an endangered giant caulescent rosette endemic to (Asteraceae), Boyacdi-Colombia. Espelelia paipana is an endangered giant caulescent rosette endemic to Boyacá department. In order to establish whether a plant disease, characterized by the loss of leaf pubescence (PPF) and attributed to the pathogenic action of endophytic microorganisms, is the cause of the increasing mortality of population, the physiological performance of the species was evaluated with and without PPF. The incidence (% leaves affected in each of the 27 individuals in the current population) and severity (% leaf area affected on 135 leaves) of the PPF were monitored over a period of nine months, in three topographic zones of different heights. During four consecutive days in both dry and wet season, physiological parameters as chlorophyll content index (ICC), stomatal conductance (Gs) and leaf temperature (Tfol) were measured in healthy and affected leaves. The study was complemented with isolations and pathogenicity tests to identify the causal agent of the PPF. Overall, although the disease incidence in E. paipana was constant over time, the severity progressed surpassing 60 % of the leaf area. The increasing of severity in the upper side of leaves was attributed to the photo-oxidative effect of high radiation between 11:00 h and 14:00 h of the day. The reduction of functional leaf area because of the PPF, led to low Gs with serious implications for carbon fixation and thus limiting growth and biomass renewal. The effect of season in Tfol varied according to the topographic zone, while the ICC did not present a defined pattern with respect to the PPF; its low values could be associated with the production of other pigments. Finally, although it is not possible to ensure that Botrytis sp. is the causative of the loss of leaf pubescence, it is postulated as the most probably causal agent due to its high representativeness in the isolates and its infectious potential during

  18. Flowering calendar and morphometric features of pollen for some invasive species in the Middle Russia

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    Vinogradova Yulia

    2016-12-01

    Clinical experiments for widely distributed alien Asteraceae (Helianthus tuberosus, Symphyotrichum × salignum, S. novae-angliae, Solidago spp., etc. should be made. It is necessary to determine their ability to cause allergic reactions, because their pollen has echinate exine, similar with closely related species, which already recognized as the source of allergy.

  19. Insect herbivores associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae: responses of gall-forming and free-feeding insects to latitudinal variation

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    Marcílio Fagundes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial heterogeneity hypothesis has been invoked to explain the increase in species diversity from the poles to the tropics: the tropics may be more diverse because they contain more habitats and microhabitats. In this paper, the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis prediction was tested by evaluating the variation in richness of two guilds of insect herbivores (gall-formers and free-feeders associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae along a latitudinal variation in Brazil. The seventeen populations of B. dracunculifolia selected for insect herbivores sampling were within structurally similar habitats, along the N-S distributional limit of the host plant, near the Brazilian sea coast. Thirty shrubs were surveyed in each host plant population. A total of 8 201 galls and 864 free-feeding insect herbivores belonging to 28 families and 88 species were sampled. The majority of the insects found on B. dracunculifolia were restricted to a specific site rather than having ageographic distribution mirroring that of the host plant. Species richness of free-feeding insects was not affected by latitudinal variation corroborating the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis. Species richness of gall-forming insects was positively correlated with latitude, probably because galling insect associated with Baccharris genus radiated in Southern Brazil. Other diversity indices and evenness estimated for both gall-forming and free feeding insect herbivores, did not change with latitude, suggesting a general structure for different assemblages of herbivores associated with the host plant B. dracunculifolia. Thus it is probable that, insect fauna sample in each site resulted of large scale events, as speciation, migration and coevolution, while at local level, the population of these insects is regulated by ecological forces which operate in the system. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1419-1432. Epub 2011 September 01.La hipótesis de heterogeneidad espacial se ha

  20. Effects of Salicylic Acid on Some Morphophysiological Characteristics of Border Flowers from Asteraceae Family under Water Deficit

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    majid zargarian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve physical and mental human healthy, development of the urban area landscape is necessary. Water deficit is one of the most important problems in arid and semi- arid regions. Water deficit causes to reduce growth of different plants parts, including roots, aerial parts, leaf area, height, dry weight, proteins, amino acids and chlorophyll. Using drought tolerance plantsisone solution. Moreover, one physiological method to decrease the hazardous effects of environmental stresses on plants is to applyplant growth regulators such as salicylic acid (SA. SA is one of the plant phenolic compounds in low amounts (mg/g wet weight or lower. This hormone can perform an important role in resistance to stresses. Asteraceae is one of the biggest plant families with over 20,000 species which is distributed worldwide in moderate and tropical regions. A lot of border flowers of this family are widely used in landscaping. Toselect drought tolerance flowers and application of materials that reducing stress effects, this experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of salicylic acid on some morphological and physiological characteristics of five border flowers of this family. Materials and Methods: The field experiment was conducted as split plot on randomized complete blocks design with four replications in which factors included two levels of water deficit (50, 100% FC as main plot and two levels of SA (0, 1mmol/L-1 as sub plot in the horticulturedepartment of faculty of Agriculture atFerdowsi University of Mashhad. In this investigation five border flowers (Ageratum houstonianum‘Blue Danube’, Tagetserecta ‘Discovery Yellow’, Tagetspatula‘Hero Harmony’, Zinnia elegans ‘Lilliput rose’andCallistephuschinensis ‘Milady Mix’ of Asteraceae family were chosen for study. The soil mixture was analyzed before starting the test. According to the result of physicochemical analysis of the soil, it had loamy texture

  1. Atividade antibacteriana e a preditividade do condimento Artemisia dracunculus Linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora - estragão -, frente à Salmonella sp Antimicrobial activity and preditivity of Artemisia acunculus (Asteraceae, var. inodora - tarragon -, as condiment, against Salmonella sp

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    Heloisa Helena Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antibacteriana de extrato aquoso do condimento estragão - Artemisia dracunculus linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora -, frente à Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, por meio do sistema de tubos múltiplos e pelo emprego de desinibidores bacterianos, determinando-se a Intensidade de Inibição/Inativação (IINIB/IINAB, observando-se expressiva inibição, bem como ausência de inativação sobre esta salmonela. Na presença do fator matéria orgânica/sujeira representada pelo leite, estes atributos repetiram-se, embora com menor intensidade de inibição. Posteriormente, avaliou-se a preditividade de uma técnica oficial de isolamento desta bactéria, utilizando uma solução experimental de leite e caldo BHI (Brain Heart Infusion, contaminada com 10(4 UFC/mL da salmonela em estudo. Verificou-se a ausência de isolamento desta bactéria em alíquotas de 25 mL, após períodos de 24, 48 e 72 h de incubação a 36ºC, comprometendo a Validade Preditiva dos Resultados Negativos (VPR- do teste. Sugere-se que, nas investigações epidemiológicas de surtos toxiinfectivos alimentares, devem-se ser acrescidas informações sobre condimentação vegetal, entre outras, pertinentes à complexidade crescente do sistema de alimentação e nutrição.It was evaluated antibacterial activity of watery extract of the condiment tarragon - Artemisia dracunculus linn., var. inodora -, against the Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, through the system of multiple pipes and the job of bacterial inhibitors, it was determined Intensity of inhibition/inativation (IINIB/IINAB, observing expressive inhibition, as well as absence of inativation on this salmonela. In presence of the organic substance, represented by skimmed barren milk, these attributes if had repeated, even so with lesser intensity of inhnibition. Later, it was evaluated preditividade of one official technique of isolation of this bacterium, using an experimental solution of milk

  2. Nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae em capítulos de Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae para o Brasil

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    Alessandre Pereira-Colavite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae para o Brasil, Dasineura occulta sp. nov., é descrita associada a Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae, uma espécie invasora e característica de ambientes antropizadas. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada ocupando capítulos e não há formação de galhas ou alterações no tecido das inflorescências que possam ser reconhecidas externamente. São apresentados desenhos de caracteres morfológicos de adultos (macho e fêmea, larva e pupa. Pranchas da ocupação do hospedeiro também são incluídas.

  3. Three new genera and three new species of Nearctic Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae: Cecidomyiinae) from Asteraceae and Caprifoliaceae, and the tribe Rhopalomyiini subsumed under Oligotrophini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Raymond J

    2016-08-30

    Three new Nearctic genera of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), each with a new species, are described: Helianthecis Gagné for Helianthecis capitum Gagné, new species, that lives in flower heads of Helianthus spp. (Asteraceae) from North Dakota to Texas; Lonicerae Gagné for Lonicerae russoi Gagné, new species, and Lonicerae lonicera (Felt), new combination, that form bud galls on Lonicera spp. (Caprifoliaceae) in California; and Chiosperma Gagné for Chiosperma turgidum Gagné, new species, that forms a bud gall on Symphoricarpos albus (L.) S.F. Blake (Caprifoliaceae) in Washington. The three new genera belong to the supertribe Lasiopteridi and are placed in the tribe Oligotrophini. The tribes Oligotrophini and Rhopalomyiini are combined.

  4. Investigating the potential of under-utilised plants from the Asteraceae family as a source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, O; Smyth, T J; Walsh, D; Kelleher, C T; Hewage, C M; Brunton, N P

    2014-10-15

    Antimicrobial properties of ethanol and water extracts from eight Asteraceae species were investigated against three Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA and Bacillus cereus) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) bacterial strains. Ethanol extracts from Centaurea scabiosa, Arctium minus, Taraxacum officinale, Centaurea nigra and Cirsium palustre demonstrated antimicrobial activity against strains of S. aureus, MRSA and B. cereus (MIC=187.5-365μg/ml). Ethanol extracts also had higher antioxidant activities and phenolic content demonstrating a link between these compounds and the bioactivity of these extracts. Further investigation into the phenolic content of ethanol extracts using UPLC-MS/MS lead to the identification and quantification of numerous phenolic compounds in all species including; 18 from Cirsium arvense, 16 from Cirsium vulgare, 19 from C. palustre, 15 from C. nigra, 17 from C. scabiosa, 14 from Sonchus asper, 17 from A. minus and 11 from T. officinale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Geography shapes the phylogeny of frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae: a remarkable example of recent rapid radiation in sky islands

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    Mauricio Diazgranados

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The páramo ecosystem, located above the timberline in the tropical Andes, has been the setting for some of the most dramatic plant radiations, and it is one of the world’s fastest evolving and most diverse high-altitude ecosystems. Today 144+ species of frailejones (subtribe Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae dominate the páramo. Frailejones have intrigued naturalists and botanists, not just for their appealing beauty and impressive morphological diversity, but also for their remarkable adaptations to the extremely harsh environmental conditions of the páramo. Previous attempts to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this group failed to resolve relationships among genera and species, and there is no agreement regarding the classification of the group. Thus, our goal was to reconstruct the phylogeny of the frailejones and to test the influence of the geography on it as a first step to understanding the patterns of radiation of these plants. Methods Field expeditions in 70 páramos of Colombia and Venezuela resulted in 555 collected samples from 110 species. Additional material was obtained from herbarium specimens. Sequence data included nrDNA (ITS and ETS and cpDNA (rpl16, for an aligned total of 2,954 bp. Fragment analysis was performed with AFLP data using 28 primer combinations and yielding 1,665 fragments. Phylogenies based on sequence data were reconstructed under maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. The AFLP dataset employed minimum evolution analyses. A Monte Carlo permutation test was used to infer the influence of the geography on the phylogeny. Results Phylogenies reconstructed suggest that most genera are paraphyletic, but the phylogenetic signal may be misled by hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting. A tree with all the available molecular data shows two large clades: one of primarily Venezuelan species that includes a few neighboring Colombian species; and a second clade of only

  6. Purificação do flavonóide trans-tilirosídeo do extrato metanólico das folhas de Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (asteraceae e avaliação da sua atividade nematicida Purification of the flavonoid trans-tiliroside from the methanolic extract of Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae leaves and evaluation of the nematicidal activity

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    Helvécio Martins dos Santos Júnior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento do extrato metanólico das folhas de Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae resultou no isolamento do flavonol glicosídico trans-tilirosídeo [kaempferol 3-O- -D-(6''-O-E-p-cumaroil-glicopiranosídeo], que nunca tinha sido identificado na referida espécie vegetal. Em teste realizado in vitro, observou-se que tal substância a 500 μg/mL, não tem efeito sobre a mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estágio do nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi.Fractionation of the methanolic extract from Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae leaves resulted in the isolation of the flavonol glycoside trans-tiliroside [kaempferol 3-O- -D-(6''-O-E-p-coumaroyl-glucopyranoside], which had never been found in such plant species. Such substance at 500 μg/mL caused no in vitro effect on the mortality of second-stage juveniles of the nematode Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi.

  7. Use of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae and Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae to treat intestinal mucositis in mice: Toxico-pharmacological evaluations

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    Carla Caroline Cunha Bastos

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies towards the development of an effective treatment for intestinal mucositis have been reported, since this condition represents a major problem in clinical oncology practice due to cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy. However standardized protocols and universally accepted treatment options are yet to be established. Objectives: Given above, this study evaluated the protective effects of a mucoadhesive formulation containing both Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae (BP and curcuminoids from Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae (CL on intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluoruoacil (5-FU in mice. Results: As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200 mg/kg showed a significant reduction of 60.3 and 42.4% in villi and crypts size, respectively, when compared to control. On the other hand, the proposed therapeutic/prophylactic treatment with mucoadhesive formulations managed to reduce histopathologic changes in mice bearing mucositis, especially at 125 mg/kg BP + 15 mg/kg CL dose. The formulation promoted an increase of 275.5% and 148.7% for villi and crypts size, respectively. Moreover, chemotherapy-related weight loss was reduced by 7.4% following the treatment. In addition, an increase of 10 and 30.5% in red and white blood cells was observed when compared to 5-FU group. Furthermore, treatments with the mucoadhesive formulation containing BP/CL up modulated Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression while reduced pro-apoptotic regulator Bax. The formulation also modulated inflammatory response triggered by 5-FU through reduction of 68% of myeloperoxidase activity and a 4-fold increase in anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels. In parallel, the oxidative stress via lipid peroxidation was reduced as indicated by decrease of 63% of malondialdehyde concentrations. Additionally, the new formulation presented low acute oral systemic toxicity, being classified in the category 5 (2000 mg/kg < LD50 < 5000 mg/kg of the Globally Harmonized

  8. Palinologia de espécies de Asteraceae de utilidade medicinal para a comunidade da Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil Pollen morpology of species of Asteraceae with medicinal utility for the community from Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Marcelo Neto Galvão

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho trata da morfologia polínica e de descrições taxonômicas de 12 espécies de Asteraceae correspondentes em 12 diferentes gêneros, distribuídos em nove tribos. Todas as espécies estudadas são utilizadas como medicamentos pelos moradores da Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. Neste estudo objetivou-se caracterizar os tipos polínicos das espécies usadas por esta comunidade e fornecer chaves diagnósticas de caracteres macromorfológicos e micromorfológicos que auxiliem a identificação das mesmas. A identificação taxonômica e palinológica correta é pré-requisito para estudos que validem a eficácia e segurança terapêutica dessas espécies. Deve-se considerar, ainda, que a utilização desses conhecimentos é importante para a comunidade, como por exemplo, na melissopalinologia. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscopia de luz. Para observar detalhes da superfície e abertura, grãos de pólen não acetolisados foram analisados em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Foram estudadas as características dos grãos de pólen como forma, tamanho, constituição da sexina e abertura. Os resultados mostraram que a morfologia polínica é bem definida entre as espécies estudadas, podendo ser usada para sua identificação e sustenta o caráter euripalinológico de Asteraceae.This study is a palynologycal characterization and taxonomic description of 12 species within 12 genera, distributed in nine tribes from Asteracaeae. All studied species are used as medicines by people from Vila Dois Rios and they occur in Ilha Grande. This work aimed to characterize the pollen grains of medicinal species of Asteraceae from Vila Dois Rios and provide diagnostic keys based on macromorphological and pollen characters to help their identification, since the correct taxonomic and palynological recognition of these species is necessary for further studies on therapeutic

  9. Short-term effects of dimethoate on metabolic responses in Chrysolina pardalina (Chrysomelidae) feeding on Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae), a hyper-accumulator of nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustyniak, M.; Migula, P. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J. [Materials Research Group, iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Tarnawska, M.; Nakonieczny, M. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Babczynska, A. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland)], E-mail: ababczyn@us.edu.pl; Przybylowicz, W. [Materials Research Group, iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Augustyniak, M.G. [Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, Bedzinska 60, PL 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2007-11-15

    Berkheya coddii Roessler (Asteraceae) is a hyper-accumulator of nickel, which can be used in phytomining and phytoremediation. Chrysolina pardalina Fabricius (Chrysomelidae) is a phytophagous leaf beetle, which may be useful in controlling population levels of B. coddii after it has been introduced into a new habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of C. pardalina to topical application of dimethoate. Data recorded included the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the concentration of glutathione (GSH), and the activity of selected enzymes connected with GSH metabolism. Assays were carried out several times during the first 24 h after exposure to dimethoate. At the dosages used in this study, dimethoate was not as toxic as expected. AChE activity was significantly decreased 14 and 24 h after application. GST activity was significantly decreased 24 h after application. GSTPx activity was significantly decreased 2, 14 and 24 h after application. GR activity was significantly increased 4 h after application. GSH concentration was significantly increased 24 h after application. Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable C. pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides. - Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable Chrysolina pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides.

  10. Host Jumps and Radiation, Not Co‐Divergence Drives Diversification of Obligate Pathogens. A Case Study in Downy Mildews and Asteraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Thines, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Even though the microevolution of plant hosts and pathogens has been intensely studied, knowledge regarding macro-evolutionary patterns is limited. Having the highest species diversity and host-specificity among Oomycetes, downy mildews are a useful a model for investigating long-term host-pathogen coevolution. We show that phylogenies of Bremia and Asteraceae are significantly congruent. The accepted hypothesis is that pathogens have diverged contemporarily with their hosts. But maximum clade age estimation and sequence divergence comparison reveal that congruence is not due to long-term coevolution but rather due to host-shift driven speciation (pseudo-cospeciation). This pattern results from parasite radiation in related hosts, long after radiation and speciation of the hosts. As large host shifts free pathogens from hosts with effector triggered immunity subsequent radiation and diversification in related hosts with similar innate immunity may follow, resulting in a pattern mimicking true co-divergence, which is probably limited to the terminal nodes in many pathogen groups. PMID:26230508

  11. Fumigant toxicity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Kang, Jaesoon; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against the Japanese termite Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. Fumigant toxicity varied with plant essential oils or constituents, exposure time, and concentration. Among the tested essential oils, those from Chamaemelum nobile exhibited the strongest fumigant toxicity, followed by those from Santolina chamaecyparissus, Ormenis multicaulis, and Eriocephalus punctulatus at 2 days after treatment. In all, 15, 24, 19, and 9 compounds were identified in the essential oils from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus, respectively, by using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or open-column chromatography. The identified compounds were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, trans-pinocarveol, caryophyllene oxide, sabinene hydrate, and santolina alcohol showed strong fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of the identified compounds from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus essential oils were tested to determine the mode of their action. The IC50 values of (+)-α-pinene, (-)-limonene, (-)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and β-phellandrene against Japanese termite AChE were 0.03, 0.13, 0.41, 0.42, and 0.67mg/mL, respectively. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Species tree phylogeny and character evolution in the genus Centipeda (Asteraceae): evidence from DNA sequences from coding and non-coding loci from the plastid and nuclear genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylinder, Stephan; Cronholm, Bodil; de Lange, Peter J; Walsh, Neville; Anderberg, Arne A

    2013-08-01

    A species tree phylogeny of the Australian/New Zealand genus Centipeda (Asteraceae) is estimated based on nucleotide sequence data. We analysed sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ETS, ITS) and three plasmid loci (ndhF, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F) using the multi-species coalescent module in BEAST. A total of 129 individuals from all 10 recognised species of Centipeda were sampled throughout the species distribution ranges, including two subspecies. We conclude that the inferred species tree topology largely conform previous assumptions on species relationships. Centipeda racemosa (Snuffweed) is the sister to remaining species, which is also the only consistently perennial representative in the genus. Centipeda pleiocephala (Tall Sneezeweed) and C. nidiformis (Cotton Sneezeweed) constitute a species pair, as does C. borealis and C. minima (Spreading Sneezeweed), all sharing the symplesiomorphic characters of spherical capitulum and convex receptacle with C. racemosa. Another species group comprising C. thespidioides (Desert Sneezeweed), C. cunninghamii (Old man weed, or Common sneeze-weed), C. crateriformis is well-supported but then include the morphologically aberrant C. aotearoana, all sharing the character of having capitula that mature more slowly relative the subtending shoot. Centipeda elatinoides takes on a weakly supported intermediate position between the two mentioned groups, and is difficult to relate to any of the former groups based on morphological characters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Stuessy, Tod F; Villaseñor, Jose L; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction.

  14. Short-term effects of dimethoate on metabolic responses in Chrysolina pardalina (Chrysomelidae) feeding on Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae), a hyper-accumulator of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustyniak, M.; Migula, P.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Tarnawska, M.; Nakonieczny, M.; Babczynska, A.; Przybylowicz, W.; Augustyniak, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Berkheya coddii Roessler (Asteraceae) is a hyper-accumulator of nickel, which can be used in phytomining and phytoremediation. Chrysolina pardalina Fabricius (Chrysomelidae) is a phytophagous leaf beetle, which may be useful in controlling population levels of B. coddii after it has been introduced into a new habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of C. pardalina to topical application of dimethoate. Data recorded included the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the concentration of glutathione (GSH), and the activity of selected enzymes connected with GSH metabolism. Assays were carried out several times during the first 24 h after exposure to dimethoate. At the dosages used in this study, dimethoate was not as toxic as expected. AChE activity was significantly decreased 14 and 24 h after application. GST activity was significantly decreased 24 h after application. GSTPx activity was significantly decreased 2, 14 and 24 h after application. GR activity was significantly increased 4 h after application. GSH concentration was significantly increased 24 h after application. Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable C. pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides. - Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable Chrysolina pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides

  15. Terpenoid Composition and Base Sequences of Ligularia virgaurea (Asteraceae) Grown in the Hengduan Mountain Area in China and a Comment on Drawing Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tori, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    A chemical analysis of 30 samples of Ligularia virgaurea (Asteraceae) collected in Sichuan province and its adjacent territories in China was reviewed. These samples afforded 146 compounds, 73 of which were novel, and the chemical constituents were classified into 8 categories: (1) simple eremophilanes (without ring C) and eudesmanes including nor-derivatives, (2) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with a 1(10)-saturated bond, (3) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with a 1(10)-unsaturated bond, 1,10-epoxide, or 10-ol, (4) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with 1(10)-en-2-one, 1(10)-en-2-ol, or 1-en-3-one, (5) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with 1(10)-en-9-one, 1(10)-en-9-ol, or 1,10-epoxy-9-one, (6) cacalol and their derivatives, (7) bakkanes and their derivatives, and (8) others, as shown in Tables 1-7. In these studies, five chemotypes were identified in addition to three clades from the DNA sequences of L. virgaurea. The structural determination of some compounds was also discussed and a comment on how to express the real structure was proposed, particularly for spiro compounds.

  16. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

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    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-04

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.

  17. Evolution of apomixis loci in Pilosella and Hieracium (Asteraceae) inferred from the conservation of apomixis-linked markers in natural and experimental populations

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    Hand, M L; Vít, P; Krahulcová, A; Johnson, S D; Oelkers, K; Siddons, H; Chrtek, J; Fehrer, J; Koltunow, A M G

    2015-01-01

    The Hieracium and Pilosella (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) genera of closely related hawkweeds contain species with two different modes of gametophytic apomixis (asexual seed formation). Both genera contain polyploid species, and in wild populations, sexual and apomictic species co-exist. Apomixis is known to co-exist with sexuality in apomictic Pilosella individuals, however, apomictic Hieracium have been regarded as obligate apomicts. Here, a developmental analysis of apomixis within 16 Hieracium species revealed meiosis and megaspore tetrad formation in 1 to 7% of ovules, for the first time indicating residual sexuality in this genus. Molecular markers linked to the two independent, dominant loci LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP) controlling apomixis in Pilosella piloselloides subsp. praealta were screened across 20 phenotyped Hieracium individuals from natural populations, and 65 phenotyped Pilosella individuals from natural and experimental cross populations, to examine their conservation, inheritance and association with reproductive modes. All of the tested LOA and LOP-linked markers were absent in the 20 Hieracium samples irrespective of their reproductive mode. Within Pilosella, LOA and LOP-linked markers were essentially absent within the sexual plants, although they were not conserved in all apomictic individuals. Both loci appeared to be inherited independently, and evidence for additional genetic factors influencing quantitative expression of LOA and LOP was obtained. Collectively, these data suggest independent evolution of apomixis in Hieracium and Pilosella and are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the evolution of apomixis. PMID:25026970

  18. Suitability of Root and Rhizome Anatomy for Taxonomic Classification and Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Relationships in the Tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae (Asteraceae).

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    Ginko, Elisabeth; Dobeš, Christoph; Saukel, Johannes

    2016-05-27

    The value of root and rhizome anatomy for the taxonomic characterisation of 59 species classified into 34 genera and 12 subtribes from the Asteraceae tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae was assessed. In addition, the evolutionary history of anatomical characters was reconstructed using a nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence-based phylogeny of the Cichorieae. Taxa were selected with a focus on pharmaceutically relevant species. A binary decision tree was constructed and discriminant function analyses were performed to extract taxonomically relevant anatomical characters and to infer the separability of infratribal taxa, respectively. The binary decision tree distinguished 33 species and two subspecies, but only five of the genera (sampled for at least two species) by a unique combination of hierarchically arranged characters. Accessions were discriminated-except for one sample worthy of discussion-according to their subtribal affiliation in the discriminant function analyses (DFA). However, constantly expressed subtribe-specific characters were almost missing and even in combination, did not discriminate the subtribes. Most anatomical characters showed at least some degree of homoplasious evolution limiting their suitability as phylogenetically informative characters.

  19. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae.

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    Jamie McCann

    Full Text Available Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods, branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively with no prevailing direction.

  20. Genomic and transcriptomic alterations following intergeneric hybridization and polyploidization in the Chrysanthemum nankingense×Tanacetum vulgare hybrid and allopolyploid (Asteraceae).

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    Qi, Xiangyu; Wang, Haibin; Song, Aiping; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi

    2018-01-01

    Allopolyploid formation involves two major events: interspecific hybridization and polyploidization. A number of species in the Asteraceae family are polyploids because of frequent hybridization. The effects of hybridization on genomics and transcriptomics in Chrysanthemum nankingense×Tanacetum vulgare hybrids have been reported. In this study, we obtained allopolyploids by applying a colchicine treatment to a synthesized C. nankingense × T. vulgare hybrid. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP), and high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technologies were used to investigate the genomic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic alterations in both the hybrid and allopolyploids. The genomic alterations in the hybrid and allopolyploids mainly involved the loss of parental fragments and the gain of novel fragments. The DNA methylation level of the hybrid was reduced by hybridization but was restored somewhat after polyploidization. There were more significant differences in gene expression between the hybrid/allopolyploid and the paternal parent than between the hybrid/allopolyploid and the maternal parent. Most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed down-regulation in the hybrid/allopolyploid relative to the parents. Among the non-additive genes, transgressive patterns appeared to be dominant, especially repression patterns. Maternal expression dominance was observed specifically for down-regulated genes. Many methylase and methyltransferase genes showed differential expression between the hybrid and parents and between the allopolyploid and parents. Our data indicate that hybridization may be a major factor affecting genomic and transcriptomic changes in newly formed allopolyploids. The formation of allopolyploids may not simply be the sum of hybridization and polyploidization changes but also may be influenced by the interaction between these processes.

  1. Demographic histories of adaptively diverged riparian and non-riparian species of Ainsliaea (Asteraceae) inferred from coalescent analyses using multiple nuclear loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2012-12-28

    Understanding demographic histories, such as divergence time, patterns of gene flow, and population size changes, in ecologically diverging lineages provide implications for the process and maintenance of population differentiation by ecological adaptation. This study addressed the demographic histories in two independently derived lineages of flood-resistant riparian plants and their non-riparian relatives [Ainsliaea linearis (riparian) and A. apiculata (non-riparian); A. oblonga (riparian) and A. macroclinidioides (non-riparian); Asteraceae] using an isolation-with-migration (IM) model based on variation at 10 nuclear DNA loci. The highest posterior probabilities of the divergence time parameters were estimated to be ca. 25,000 years ago for A. linearis and A. apiculata and ca. 9000 years ago for A. oblonga and A. macroclinidioides, although the confidence intervals of the parameters had broad ranges. The likelihood ratio tests detected evidence of historical gene flow between both riparian/non-riparian species pairs. The riparian populations showed lower levels of genetic diversity and a significant reduction in effective population sizes compared to the non-riparian populations and their ancestral populations. This study showed the recent origins of flood-resistant riparian plants, which are remarkable examples of plant ecological adaptation. The recent divergence and genetic signatures of historical gene flow among riparian/non-riparian species implied that they underwent morphological and ecological differentiation within short evolutionary timescales and have maintained their species boundaries in the face of gene flow. Comparative analyses of adaptive divergence in two sets of riparian/non-riparian lineages suggested that strong natural selection by flooding had frequently reduced the genetic diversity and size of riparian populations through genetic drift, possibly leading to fixation of adaptive traits in riparian populations. The two sets of riparian

  2. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation of Eurasian Aster (Asteraceae: Astereae) inferred from ITS, ETS and trnL-F sequence data

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    Li, Wei-Ping; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Jivkova, Todorka; Yin, Gen-Shen

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The classification and phylogeny of Eurasian (EA) Aster (Asterinae, Astereae, Asteraceae) remain poorly resolved. Some taxonomists adopt a broad definition of EA Aster, whereas others favour a narrow generic concept. The present study aims to delimit EA Aster sensu stricto (s.s.), elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of EA Aster s.s. and segregate genera. Methods The internal and external transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the plastid DNA trnL-F region were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of EA Aster through maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The analyses strongly support an Aster clade including the genera Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding Kalimeris longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron. Many well-recognized species of Chinese Aster s.s. lie outside of the Aster clade. Conclusions The results reveal that EA Aster s.s. is both paraphyletic and polyphyletic. Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding K. longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron should be included in Aster, whereas many species of Chinese Aster s.s. should be excluded. The recircumscribed Aster should be divided into two subgenera and nine sections. Kalimeris longipetiolata, Aster batangensis, A. ser. Albescentes, A. series Hersileoides, a two-species group composed of A. senecioides and A. fuscescens, and a six-species group including A. asteroides, should be elevated to generic level. With the Aster clade, they belong to the Australasian lineages. The generic status of Callistephus should be maintained. Whether Galatella (including Crinitina) and Tripolium should remain as genera or be merged into a single genus remains to be determined. In addition, the taxonomic status of A. auriculatus and the A. pycnophyllus–A. panduratus clade remains

  3. High and uneven levels of 45S rDNA site-number variation across wild populations of a diploid plant genus (Anacyclus, Asteraceae).

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    Rosato, Marcela; Álvarez, Inés; Nieto Feliner, Gonzalo; Rosselló, Josep A

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear genome harbours hundreds to several thousand copies of ribosomal DNA. Despite their essential role in cellular ribogenesis few studies have addressed intrapopulation, interpopulation and interspecific levels of rDNA variability in wild plants. Some studies have assessed the extent of rDNA variation at the sequence and copy-number level with large sampling in several species. However, comparable studies on rDNA site number variation in plants, assessed with extensive hierarchical sampling at several levels (individuals, populations, species) are lacking. In exploring the possible causes for ribosomal loci dynamism, we have used the diploid genus Anacyclus (Asteraceae) as a suitable system to examine the evolution of ribosomal loci. To this end, the number and chromosomal position of 45S rDNA sites have been determined in 196 individuals from 47 populations in all Anacyclus species using FISH. The 45S rDNA site-number has been assessed in a significant sample of seed plants, which usually exhibit rather consistent features, except for polyploid plants. In contrast, the level of rDNA site-number variation detected in Anacyclus is outstanding in the context of angiosperms particularly regarding populations of the same species. The number of 45S rDNA sites ranged from four to 11, accounting for 14 karyological ribosomal phenotypes. Our results are not even across species and geographical areas, and show that there is no clear association between the number of 45S rDNA loci and the life cycle in Anacyclus. A single rDNA phenotype was detected in several species, but a more complex pattern that included intra-specific and intra-population polymorphisms was recorded in A. homogamos, A. clavatus and A. valentinus, three weedy species showing large and overlapping distribution ranges. It is likely that part of the cytogenetic changes and inferred dynamism found in these species have been triggered by genomic rearrangements resulting from contemporary

  4. Composição química volátil e não-volátil de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae

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    Maria Rose Jane R. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a composição química dos óleos essenciais e o isolamento de onze substâncias de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidrodestilação, analisados por CG-EM e avaliados quanto às suas atividades frente à enzima acetilcolinesterase. O rendimento dos óleos foi de 0,11% para as folhas e 0,03% para os talos. Os principais constituintes dos óleos foram os sesquiterpenos β-cariofileno (24,9 e 22,2%, espatulenol (17,7 e 12,4% e epóxi-allo-aromadendreno (23,0 e 23,6%. Do extrato hexânico da parte aérea foi isolada a mistura de β-sitosterol e estigmasterol, incluindo suas formas glicosiladas, e os triterpenos acetato de taraxasterila e taraxasterol, enquanto, do extrato etanólico foram isolados os flavonóides nepetina and 3-O-glicosil-quercetina. Do extrato hexânico das raízes foram isolados os triterpenos epi-friedelanol e damara-20,24-dien-3β-ol e do extrato etanólico a cumarina 11-hidroxi-11,12-di-hidroobliquina. As estruturas de todos os compostos foram determinadas usando técnicas espectroscópica tais como IV, EM e RMN ¹H e 13C.

  5. [Phagodeterrent activity of the plants Tithonia diversifolia and Montanoa hibiscifolia (Asteraceae) on adults of the pest insect Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnarello, Gina; Hilje, Luko; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Cartín, Victor; Calvo, Marco

    2009-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a polyphagous, cosmopolitan and worldwide relevant pest, mainly acting as a virus vector on many crops. A sound preventive approach to deal with it would be the application of repellent or deterrent substances hopefully present in tropical plants, which in turn may contribute to take advantage of the remarkable rich Mesoamerican biodiversity. Therefore, extracts of two wild plants belonging to family Asteraceae, titonia (Tithonia diversifolia) and "tora" (Montanoa hibiscifolia), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults. The crude leaf extract of each one, as well as four fractions thereof (hexane, dichlorometane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) were tested under greenhouse conditions; in addition, the extracts were submitted to a phytochemical screening to determine possible metabolites causing phagodeterrence. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments were conducted. In the former ones, each fraction was tested at four doses (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v), which were compared with four control treatments: distilled water, endosulfan, an agricultural oil (Aceite Agricola 81 SC), and the emulsifier Citowett. Tomato plants were sprayed and placed inside sleeve cages, where 50 B. tabaci adults were released. The criterion to appraise phagodeterrence was the number of landed adults on plants at 48h. For the unrestricted-choice experiments, only the two highest doses (1.0 and 1.5%) of the crude extracts of each species were tested, and compared to distilled water and the agricultural oil. The titonia and "tora" crude extracts caused phagodeterrence, and for both plant species the methanol fraction stood out. Results suggest that metabolites causing phagodeterrence are several sesquiterpenic lactones, polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins) and saponins.

  6. Identificação de espécies da família Asteraceae, revisão sobre usos e triagem fitoquímica do gênero Eremanthus da Reserva Boqueirão, Ingaí-MG Asteraceae species identification, use revision and phytochemical screening of Eremanthus genus in Boqueirão Ecological Reserve, Ingaí - Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    A.O. Ribeiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar espécies da família Asteraceae, revisar seus usos e realizar triagem fitoquímica preliminar do gênero Eremanthus procederam-se coletas botânicas semanais de espécimes na Reserva Boqueirão, localizada em Ingaí, Minas Gerais. As amostras foram herborizadas e identificadas utilizando-se bibliografia especializada e comparação com espécimes disponíveis no Herbário ESAL, da Universidade Federal de Lavras. A revisão dos usos foi feita através de consulta a obras clássicas e artigos científicos contendo relatos sobre levantamentos etnobotânicos realizados na área de estudo. Para triagem fitoquímica empregaram-se reagentes específicos para cada grupo de metabólito. Foram levantadas 102 espécies da família Asteraceae, sendo 32 delas úteis para o homem. A triagem fitoquímica dos extratos hidroalcoólicos indicaram a presença de açúcares redutores, carboidratos, aminoácidos, taninos, flavonóides, glicosídeos cardiotônicos, carotenóides, esteróides e triterpenóides, depsídeos e depsidonas, derivados de cumarina, saponinas espumídicas, alcalóides, purinas, polissacarídeos e antraquinonas. Não foram detectados ácidos orgânicos, catequinas, lactonas sesquiterpênicas e azulenos.To identify Asteraceae species, review the utilization and perform a preliminary phytochemical screening of some species of Eremanthus genus, plants were weekly collected in Boqueirão Ecological Reserve, located in Ingaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The samples were herborized and identified by using a specialized bibliography and comparison with the species available in the Herbarium ESAL of the Federal University of Lavras. The utilization review was carried out by means of bibliographical research and ethnobotanical surveys in the sampling area. Specific reagents for each group of compounds were used for phytochemical screening. From the 102 Asteraceae species investigated, 32 were reported to be of use to

  7. Avaliação do efeito de polietilenoglicóis no perfil de extratos de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, e Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae Evaluation of PEG effects on the extracts obtaining from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae

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    Jorge de Medeiros

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Os polietilenoglicóis (PEG são polímeros hidrossolúveis capazes de reduzir a constante dielétrica de solventes como a água, e assim são utilizados como cossolventes para solubilização de diferentes fármacos. Atualmente, o PEG tem sido empregado satisfatoriamente na obtenção de extratos de matérias-primas vegetais por favorecer a extração de substâncias com polaridades semelhantes às extraídas pelos solventes hidroetanólicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da concentração e da massa molar de PEG (400 e 4000 g/mol sobre a extração de flavonoides totais a partir de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, (maracujá e de cumarina a partir da Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco. Este estudo revelou que o aumento da concentração de PEG promoveu um aumento na capacidade extrativa de flavonoides totais e cumarina a partir da Passiflora edulis e Mikania glomerata respectivamente, comportamento atribuído a alterações da constante dielétrica. Apesar de elevar a capacidade extrativa, os líquidos extratores contendo PEG exigiram elevada relação planta:solvente para alcançar teores extrativos semelhante ao solvente hidroetanólico utilizado, com exceção da extração de flavonoides totais com PEG 4000 g/mol a partir da Passilfora edulis.Polyethylene glycols (PEG are hydrosoluble polymers able to reducing dielectric constant of solvents like water and thus are used as cosolvents to enhance the aqueous solubility of several drugs. Actually, the PEG have been successful applied to obtain extracts of plant raw material once can facilitate the extraction of substances with polarities similar to those extracted by hydroethanol solvents. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the effect of PEG concentration and molecular weight (400 and 4000 g/mol on the extraction of total flavonoids from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and coumarin from Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae. The results

  8. Anatomia de raiz, caule e folha e identificação de estruturas secretoras de Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.163 Anatomy of root, stem and leaf and identification of secretory structures of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.163

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    Ismar Sebastião Moscheta

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo anatômico dos órgãos vegetativos raiz, caule e folha, e extraíram-se os óleos essenciais das diferentes partes da planta, identificando-se as possíveis estruturas secretoras desses óleos. Utilizou-se material fresco para a realização dos testes histoquímicos e para a confecção de lâminas semipermanentes, as quais se coraram com Safrablau. Para a confecção de lâminas permanentes, utilizou-se material fixado em FAA 50%, incluído em historesina. Observaram-se pêlos tectores no escapo e na folha, enquanto que pêlos glandulares foram encontrados no escapo e na flor. Canais secretores de origem esquizógena acompanham os feixes vasculares no rizoma, no escapo, na folha e na bráctea da flor. Na raiz, esses canais estão ausentes. Na folha e na inflorescência fechada, observouse maior quantidade de óleos essenciais. A folha é anfistomática e os estômatos, do tipo anomocítico, estão presentes também no escapo. A estrutura geral de Achillea millefolium é semelhante à de outras espécies da família Asteraceae.An anatomic study of the vegetative organs: root, stem and leaf was made. The essential oils were extracted from the plant identifying the possible secretory structures. Fresh material was used in order to perform histochemical tests and to prepare semi-permanent slides, which were colored with Safrabau. For the preparation of the semi-permanent slides, material fixed in FAA 50% was used including historesina. Tector hairs can be observed in the scape and flower. Secretory channels of schizogeneous origin follow the vascular bundles in the rhizome, scape, leaf and bract of the flower. In the root, these channels are absent. In the leaf and in the unopened inflorescence there is a greater quantity of the essential oils. The leaf is amphistomatic and the stomata of anomocytic type are present in the scape as well. The general structure of the Achillea millefolium is similar to the structures of the

  9. Two new herb gall wasps from Spain, including the description of a new species of Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, “Aylacini” inducing galls on Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae

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    Nieves-Aldrey, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of herb gall wasps are recorded from Spain, which induce galls on flower heads of Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae. Isocolus serratulae (Mayr, 1882 is recorded for the first time in Spain, while a new species of Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897, Aulacidea pilarae sp. n., is described. This new species is similar to Aulacidea serratulae Diakontschuk, 1984, which is found throughout Oriental Europe. However, those two congeneric species may be distinguished by the morphology of the adults.Se citan dos nuevas especies de avispas de las agallas en plantas herbáceas para España. Las dos especies inducen agallas en cabezuelas florales de Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae y se han encontrado en el valle del Lozoya (Madrid, España Central. Isocolus serratulae (Mayr, 1882 se cita por primera vez para la Península Ibérica y se describe una especie nueva de Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897: A. pilarae sp. n. La nueva especie es similar a Aulacidea serratulae Diakontschuk, 1984 citada de Europa oriental, diferenciándose por la morfología de los adultos.

  10. ST proteins, a new family of plant tandem repeat proteins with a DUF2775 domain mainly found in Fabaceae and Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornos, Lucía; Martín, Ignacio; Iglesias, Rebeca; Jiménez, Teresa; Labrador, Emilia; Dopico, Berta

    2012-11-07

    Many proteins with tandem repeats in their sequence have been described and classified according to the length of the repeats: I) Repeats of short oligopeptides (from 2 to 20 amino acids), including structural cell wall proteins and arabinogalactan proteins. II) Repeats that range in length from 20 to 40 residues, including proteins with a well-established three-dimensional structure often involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. (III) Longer repeats in the order of 100 amino acids that constitute structurally and functionally independent units. Here we analyse ShooT specific (ST) proteins, a family of proteins with tandem repeats of unknown function that were first found in Leguminosae, and their possible similarities to other proteins with tandem repeats. ST protein sequences were only found in dicotyledonous plants, limited to several plant families, mainly the Fabaceae and the Asteraceae. ST mRNAs accumulate mainly in the roots and under biotic interactions. Most ST proteins have one or several Domain(s) of Unknown Function 2775 (DUF2775). All deduced ST proteins have a signal peptide, indicating that these proteins enter the secretory pathway, and the mature proteins have tandem repeat oligopeptides that share a hexapeptide (E/D)FEPRP followed by 4 partially conserved amino acids, which could determine a putative N-glycosylation signal, and a fully conserved tyrosine. In a phylogenetic tree, the sequences clade according to taxonomic group. A possible involvement in symbiosis and abiotic stress as well as in plant cell elongation is suggested, although different STs could play different roles in plant development. We describe a new family of proteins called ST whose presence is limited to the plant kingdom, specifically to a few families of dicotyledonous plants. They present 20 to 40 amino acid tandem repeat sequences with different characteristics (signal peptide, DUF2775 domain, conservative repeat regions) from the described group of 20 to 40

  11. Why do different oceanic archipelagos harbour contrasting levels of species diversity? The macaronesian endemic genus Pericallis (Asteraceae) provides insight into explaining the 'Azores diversity Enigma'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K E; Pérez-Espona, S; Reyes-Betancort, J A; Pattinson, D; Caujapé-Castells, J; Hiscock, S J; Carine, M A

    2016-10-08

    Oceanic archipelagos typically harbour extensive radiations of flowering plants and a high proportion of endemics, many of which are restricted to a single island (Single Island Endemics; SIEs). The Azores represents an anomaly as overall levels of endemism are low; there are few SIEs and few documented cases of intra-archipelago radiations. The distinctiveness of the flora was first recognized by Darwin and has been referred to as the 'Azores Diversity Enigma' (ADE). Diversity patterns in the Macaronesian endemic genus Pericallis (Asteraceae) exemplify the ADE. In this study we used morphometric, Amplified Length Polymorphisms, and bioclimatic data for herbaceous Pericallis lineages endemic to the Azores and the Canaries, to test two key hypotheses proposed to explain the ADE: i) that it is a taxonomic artefact or Linnean shortfall, ie. the under description of taxa in the Azores or the over-splitting of taxa in the Canaries and (ii) that it reflects the greater ecological homogeneity of the Azores, which results in limited opportunity for ecological diversification compared to the Canaries. In both the Azores and the Canaries, morphological patterns were generally consistent with current taxonomic classifications. However, the AFLP data showed no genetic differentiation between the two currently recognized Azorean subspecies that are ecologically differentiated. Instead, genetic diversity in the Azores was structured geographically across the archipelago. In contrast, in the Canaries genetic differentiation was mostly consistent with morphology and current taxonomic treatments. Both Azorean and Canarian lineages exhibited ecological differentiation between currently recognized taxa. Neither a Linnean shortfall nor the perceived ecological homogeneity of the Azores fully explained the ADE-like pattern observed in Pericallis. Whilst variation in genetic data and morphological data in the Canaries were largely congruent, this was not the case in the Azores, where

  12. Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae) in sub-Saharan Africa: A synthesis and review of its medicinal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokhua, Aitebiremen G; McGaw, Lyndy J; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-05-13

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae) is a scrambling perennial shrub that originated in the Americas, but is now common in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Oceania, where it has become a serious weed. The species, particularly the biotype found in Asia and West Africa, has many ethnopharmacological uses, including treatment of malaria, wounds, diarrhoea, skin infection, toothache, dysentery, stomach ache, sore throat, convulsions, piles, coughs and colds. Furthermore, no attempt has been made to synthesise and review the available literature on the usefulness of the plant in the sub-Saharan African region, hence this paper examines the beneficial attributes of C. odorata in sub-Saharan Africa. Published information on the species was gathered by the use of different database platforms, including Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, SciFinder and Scopus. Records indicate that two biotypes of C. odorata are present in sub-Saharan Africa viz. the more widespread Asian/West African C. odorata biotype (AWAB) and the southern African biotype (SAB). While the usefulness of the former is well elucidated in the literature, such information on the latter is still scarce. Although the importance of AWAB C. odorata as a fallow species and as a soil fertility improvement plant in the slash and burn rotation system of agriculture in West Africa is increasingly being recognised, its usage in traditional medicinal practice is far more appreciated. The species has a wide range of ethnopharmacological uses, possibly because of the presence of flavonoids, essential oils, phenolics, tannins and saponins. The plant is reported to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anthelminthic, antifungal, cytotoxic, anticonvulsant, antiprotozoal, antispasmodic, antipyretic and analgesic properties. While the results of this review suggest that the AWAB plant can be exploited as an alternative to other threatened plant species known to possess similar medicinal potential

  13. Reubicación de plantas de Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae como estrategia para el enriquecimiento de áreas de páramo alteradas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia

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    Oscar Rojas-Zamora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante o reubicación de individuos ha sido ampliamente usado para la adición de especies en procesos de restauración. En este trabajo se estudió la respuesta de individuos de Espeletia grandiflora a la reubicación como estrategia de restauración ecológica; así mismo, se evaluó el efecto del tamaño de los individuos reubicados sobre la supervivencia y desarrollo. Se reubicaron individuos de tres diferentes tamaños, 5, 10 y 15cm de altura. Se registraron las variables supervivencia, altura de la planta, número de hojas vivas y diámetro del tallo de cada uno de los individuos, se evaluaron las posibles diferencias en cuanto a supervivencia y desarrollo. La categoría de tamaño más eficaz corresponde a la de 15cm de altura, que presentó una supervivencia del 85% luego de dos años. Se sugiere el uso del diámetro del tallo como criterio de selección de los individuos a reubicar, ya que es la variable que mejor predice la supervivencia dos años luego de la reubicación. Las tasas de crecimiento relativo en altura y diámetro del tallo disminuyen conforme aumenta el tamaño de los individuos; sin embargo, el incremento absoluto en altura no presenta diferencias entre los tres tamaños evaluados. A partir de los resultados se verifica el éxito de la reubicación de plantas de E. grandiflora como estrategia de enriquecimiento en pastizales de páramos alterados.Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia. Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs

  14. Utilização de espécies de Asteraceae por comunidades rurais do nordeste do Brasil: relatos em Camocim de São Félix, Pernambuco

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    Aryecha Arruda Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n2p93   Asteraceae, com aproximadamente 2.000 espécies registradas no Brasil, destaca-se nos estudos etnobotânicos, posicionando-se quase sempre entre as quatro famílias com maior número de espécies na flora útil, principalmente para fins medicinais. Neste estudo investigou-se a importância dessa família em quatro comunidades rurais do município de Camocim de São Félix, em um brejo de altitude, no agreste de Pernambuco. Os trabalhos de campo foram realizados no período de dezembro de 2010 a maio de 2011. Para a coleta dos dados etnobotânicos, foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 50 moradores, de ambos os sexos, na maioria agricultores, com renda familiar inferior a um salário-mínimo, sendo coletadas as espécies por eles citadas. Os entrevistados mostraram um diversificado conhecimento sobre as Asteraceae, citando 19 espécies, nas seguintes categorias: medicinal (12, ornamental (6, tecnológica (3 e alimentícia (2, algumas delas incluídas em mais de uma categoria. Acanthospermum hispidum DC., espécie ruderal conhecida como espinho-de-cigano, foi a planta mais citada como medicinal, indicada para o tratamento de problemas respiratórios, infecções, doenças renais e odontalgias. As espécies Dahlia pinnata Cav., Tagetes erecta L. e Zinnia elegans Jacq. são utilizadas como ornamentais. Lactuca sativa L. (cultivada e Emilia sonchifolia (L. DC. (daninha foram as únic