Sample records for solid residue obtained

  1. Method for obtaining solid micro -or nanoparticles

    Ventosa Rull, Nora; Veciana Miró, Jaume; Cano-Sarabia, Mary; Sala Vergés, Santiago


    [EN] The invention provides a novel method for obtaining solid micro -or nanoparticIes with a homogeneous structure. A method is provided for obtaining solid micro -or nanoparticIes with a homogeneous structure having a particIe size of less than 10 /lm where the processed solid compound has the natural, crystalline, amorphous, polymorphic and other features associated with the starting compound. In accordance with the invention a method which also makes it possible to obtain solid m...

  2. Obtaining calcium silicates by using solid residues as precursors. Influence of water in the process of mixing reagents; Obtencin de silicatos de calcio empleando como precursores residuos solidos. Influencia del mezclado de reactivos en fase seca o fase humeda

    Felipe-Sese, M.; Eliche-Quesada, D.; Corpas-Iglesias, F. A.


    The suitability of re-using residues marble, remaining from cutting marble, as a source of calcium-oxide, as well as the resultant ashes from the combustion of the wastes generated in the process of manufacturing boards from derivates of wood, as a source of silica, as raw material for the production of calcium silicate products has been determined. First of all, the influence of water has been studied in the initial phase of mixing residues. Marble and ashes have been mixed in molar relation CaO:SiO{sub 2} of 1:1 using two different ways: using a planetary ball mill (while in solid state) or agitating at 90 degree centigrade (2 h) using a 60 wt% of water (while in humid state). Later, both mixtures were sintered at 1100 degree centigrade (24 h). In order to use the obtained calcium-silicates as ceramic insulating thermal materials, the samples were compressed at 15 Tm obtaining bricks from which the technological properties have been studied. The ceramic materials obtained from mixing the residues in dry phase, as well as those obtained in the wet phase, can be used as thermal insulators, showing values of conductivity of 0.18 and 0.12 w/m{sup 2}K, with an elevated resistance to compressive strength. (Author) 14 refs.

  3. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Macías, A.


    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingómez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 ºC on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtención de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras españolas de residuos sólidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingómez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformación de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en función de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 ºC hasta 1.200 ºC, así como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formación de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinación. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X y área superficial por el método BET-N2.

  4. Solid residues; Os residuos solidos



    This chapter gives a general overview on the general effects of the solid waste pollution, the principal pollutants emitted by the oil refineries, control actions for the solid waste emissions, the minimization actions, and the effluent treatment.

  5. Management of industrial solid residues; Gerenciamento de residuos solidos industriais



    This chapter gives an overview on the management of industrial solid wastes, approaching the following subjects: classification of industrial solid residues; directives and methodologies for the management of industrial solid residues; instruments for the management of industrial solid residues; handling, packing, storage and transportation; treatment of industrial solid residues; final disposal - landfill for industrial residues; the problem of treatment and final disposer of domestic garbage in Brazil; recycling of the lubricant oils used in brazil; legislation.

  6. Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Hyks, J.


    Leaching of pollutants from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) residues has been investigated combining a range of laboratory leaching experiments with geochemical modeling. Special attention was paid to assessing the applicability of laboratory data for subsequent modeling with respect to presumed full-scale conditions; both sample pretreatment and actual influence of leaching conditions on the results of laboratory experiments were considered. It was shown that sample pretreatment may have large impact on leaching test data. In particular, a significant fraction of Pb was shown mobile during the washing of residues with water. In addition, drying of residues (i.e. slow oxidation) prior to leaching experiments increased the leaching of Cr significantly. Significant differences regarding the leaching behavior of individual elements with respect to (non)equilibrium conditions in column percolation experiments were observed in the study. As a result, three groups of elements were identified based on the predominant leaching control and the influence of (non)equilibrium on the results of the laboratory column experiments: I. Predominantly availability-controlled elements (e.g. Na, K, Cl) II. Solubility-controlled elements (e.g. Ca, S, Si, Al, Ba, and Zn) III. Complexation-controlled elements (e.g. Cu and Ni) With respect to the above groups it was suggested that results of laboratory column experiments can, with consideration, be used to estimate full-scale leaching of elements from Group I and II. However, in order to avoid large underestimations in the assessment of leaching from Group III, it is imperative to describe the time-dependent transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the tested system or to minimize the physical non-equilibrium during laboratory experiments (e.g. bigger column, slower flow velocity). Forward geochemical modeling was applied to simulate long-term release of elements from a MSWI air-pollution-control residue. Leaching of a

  7. Oxidative degradation of biorefinery lignin obtained after pretreatment of forest residues of Douglas Fir.

    Srinivas, Keerthi; de Carvalho Oliveira, Fernanda; Teller, Philip Johan; Gonҫalves, Adilson Roberto; Helms, Gregory L; Ahring, Birgitte Kaer


    Harvested forest residues are usually considered a fire hazards and used as "hog-fuel" which results in air pollution. In this study, the biorefinery lignin stream obtained after wet explosion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of forestry residues of Douglas Fir (FS-10) was characterized and further wet oxidized under alkaline conditions. The studies indicated that at 10% solids, 11.7wt% alkali and 15min residence time, maximum yields were obtained for glucose (12.9wt%), vanillin (0.4wt%) at 230°C; formic acid (11.6wt%) at 250°C; acetic acid (10.7wt%), hydroxybenzaldehyde (0.2wt%), syringaldehyde (0.13wt%) at 280°C; and lactic acid (12.4wt%) at 300°C. FTIR analysis of the solid residue after wet oxidation showed that the aromatic skeletal vibrations relating to lignin compounds increased with temperature indicating that higher severity could result in increased lignin oxidation products. The results obtained, as part of the study, is significant for understanding and optimizing processes for producing high-value bioproducts from forestry residues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.


    ability to accurately determine a volume is a function of the quantity and quality of the waste tank images. Currently, mapping is performed remotely with closed circuit video cameras and still photograph cameras due to the hazardous environment. There are two methods that can be used to create a solids volume map. These methods are: liquid transfer mapping / post transfer mapping and final residual solids mapping. The task is performed during a transfer because the liquid level (which is a known value determined by a level measurement device) is used as a landmark to indicate solids accumulation heights. The post transfer method is primarily utilized after the majority of waste has been removed. This method relies on video and still digital images of the waste tank after the liquid transfer is complete to obtain the relative height of solids across a waste tank in relation to known and usable landmarks within the waste tank (cooling coils, column base plates, etc.). In order to accurately monitor solids over time across various cleaning campaigns, and provide a technical basis to support final waste tank closure, a consistent methodology for volume determination has been developed and implemented at SRS.

  9. Unburned carbon in combustion residues from mainly solid biofuels

    Bjurstroem H; Lind B; Lagerkvist A


    Unburned carbon in 21 combustion residues from solid biofuels is investigated using several methods of analysis (a.o. LOI and TOC), as well as micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results are used to discuss the distribution of unburned carbon in the residues from the different combustion plants and its nature (organic or elemental). The consequences of the elemental nature of carbon for environmental properties of the residue are noted

  10. Solid residues from Italian municipal solid waste incinerators: A source for "critical" raw materials.

    Funari, Valerio; Braga, Roberto; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Dinelli, Enrico; Meisel, Thomas


    The incineration of municipal solid wastes is an important part of the waste management system along with recycling and waste disposal, and the solid residues produced after the thermal process have received attention for environmental concerns and the recovery of valuable metals. This study focuses on the Critical Raw Materials (CRM) content in solid residues from two Italian municipal waste incinerator (MSWI) plants. We sampled untreated bottom ash and fly ash residues, i.e. the two main outputs of common grate-furnace incinerators, and determined their total elemental composition with sensitive analytical techniques such as XRF and ICP-MS. After the removal of a few coarse metallic objects from bottom ashes, the corresponding ICP solutions were obtained using strong digestion methods, to ensure the dissolution of the most refractory components that could host significant amounts of precious metals and CRM. The integration of accurate chemical data with a substance flow analysis, which takes into account the mass balance and uncertainties assessment, indicates that bottom and fly ashes can be considered as a low concentration stream of precious and high-tech metals. The magnesium, copper, antimony and zinc contents are close to the corresponding values of a low-grade ore. The distribution of the elements flow between bottom and fly ash, and within different grain size fractions of bottom ash, is appraised. Most elements are enriched in the bottom ash flow, especially in the fine grained fractions. However, the calculated transfer coefficients indicate that Sb and Zn strongly partition into the fly ashes. The comparison with available studies indicates that the CRM concentrations in the untreated solid residues are comparable with those residues that undergo post-treatment beneficiations, e.g. separation between ferrous and non-ferrous fractions. The suggested separate collection of "fresh" bottom ash, which could be processed for further mineral upgrading, can

  11. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek


    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are represented by three main materials: bottom ash, fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Among them ˜80 wt% is bottom ash. All of that materials are products of high temperature (>1000° C) treatment of waste. Incineration process allows to obtain significant reduction of waste mass (up to 70%) and volume (up to 90%) what is commonly used in waste management to reduce the amount need to be landfilled or managed in other way. Incineration promote accumulation non-combustible fraction of waste, which part are metallic elements. That type of concentration is object of concerns about the incineration residues impact on the environment and also gives the possibility of attempts to recover them. Metallic elements are not equally distributed among the materials. Several factors influence the process: melting points, volatility and place and forms of metallic occurrence in the incinerated waste. To investigate metallic elements distribution in MSWI residues samples from one of the biggest MSW incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015. Chemical analysis with emphasis on the metallic elements content were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bottom ash was a SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Na2O rich material, whereas fly ash and APC residues were mostly composed of CaO and SiO2. All of the materials were rich in amorphous phase occurring together with various, mostly silicate crystalline phases. In a mass of bottom ash 11 wt% were metallic elements but also in ashes 8.5 wt% (fly ash) and ˜4.5 wt% (APC residues) of them were present. Among the metallic elements equal distribution between bottom and fly ash was observed for Al (˜3.85 wt%), Mn (770 ppm) and Ni (˜65 ppm). In bottom ash Fe (5.5 wt%), Cr (590 ppm) and Cu (1250 ppm) were concentrated. These values in comparison to fly ash were 5-fold higher for Fe, 3-fold for Cu and 1.5-fold for

  12. Chemical analysis of solid residue from liquid and solid fuel combustion: Method development and validation

    Trkmic, M. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecturek Zagreb (Croatia); Curkovic, L. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Zagreb (Croatia); Asperger, D. [HEP-Proizvodnja, Thermal Power Plant Department, Zagreb (Croatia)


    This paper deals with the development and validation of methods for identifying the composition of solid residue after liquid and solid fuel combustion in thermal power plant furnaces. The methods were developed for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer analysis. Due to the fuels used, the different composition and the location of creation of solid residue, it was necessary to develop two methods. The first method is used for identifying solid residue composition after fuel oil combustion (Method 1), while the second method is used for identifying solid residue composition after the combustion of solid fuels, i. e. coal (Method 2). Method calibration was performed on sets of 12 (Method 1) and 6 (Method 2) certified reference materials (CRM). CRMs and analysis test samples were prepared in pellet form using hydraulic press. For the purpose of method validation the linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity were determined, and the measurement uncertainty of methods for each analyte separately was assessed. The methods were applied in the analysis of real furnace residue samples. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Produção de Bipolaris euphorbiae em meios de cultura sólidos e líquidos obtidos de grãos e resíduos agroindustriais Production of Bipolaris euphorbiae in solid and liquid culture media obtained from grains and agricultural industry residues

    Mara Cristina Penariol


    Full Text Available A introdução de Bipolaris euphorbiae como bioagente de controle de Euphorbia heterophylla é dependente da produção de conídios em grande quantidade. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se definir meios de cultura sólidos e líquidos, obtidos de grãos ou resíduos da agroindústria, eficazes para a produção de conídios de B. euphorbiae. No preparo dos meios sólidos utilizaram-se grãos de arroz, trigo e sorgo, quirelas de arroz, milho e trigo, sorgo moído, farelos de arroz, trigo e soja, cascas de mandioca e soja, casca de mandioca + farelo de soja, bagaço de cana e bagaço de cana + amido solúvel. No preparo dos meios líquidos, utilizaram-se grãos de arroz, sorgo e trigo, quirela de milho, farelos de trigo, soja e arroz, casca de mandioca e soja, vinhaça de cana e água de prensa da mandioca. Avaliaram-se a produção e a viabilidade dos conídios e a virulência do fungo e, nos meios líquidos, também a biomassa. A produção de conídios é influenciada pelo tipo de meio de cultura, sendo acentuadamente maior nos meios sólidos, destacando-se, como substratos, o sorgo em grão (474 x 10(6 conídios g-1 e a casca de soja (472 x 10(6 conídios g-1. Dentre os meios líquidos obteve-se mais produção usando-se farelo de trigo (1,33 x 10(6 conídios mL-1. A virulência e a viabilidade de B. euphorbiae não são afetadas pelo preparo de meios sólidos ou líquidos e pela composição nutricional dos meios de cultura. Na maioria dos meios sólidos ou líquidos obteve-se viabilidade de conídios maior que 98%; apenas os conídios produzidos nos meios sólidos de quirela de arroz, casca de mandioca + farelo de soja e farelo de soja estavam com viabilidade significativamente menor.The introduction of Bipolaris euphorbiae as a bioagent for Euphorbia heterophylla control depends on fungal conidia production in large amount. This work evaluate to solid and liquid culture media obtained from grains and residues from agriculture industries

  14. Indigenous microbial capability in solid manure residues to start-up solid-phase anaerobic digesters.

    Yap, S D; Astals, S; Jensen, P D; Batstone, D J; Tait, S


    Batch solid-phase anaerobic digestion is a technology for sustainable on-farm treatment of solid residues, but is an emerging technology that is yet to be optimised with respect to start-up and inoculation. In the present study, spent bedding from two piggeries (site A and B) were batch digested at total solids (TS) concentration of 5, 10 and 20% at mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) temperatures, without adding an external inoculum. The results showed that the indigenous microbial community present in spent bedding was able to recover the full methane potential of the bedding (140±5 and 227±6L CH4 kgVSfed(-1) for site A and B, respectively), but longer treatment times were required than for digestion with an added external inoculum. Nonetheless, at high solid loadings (i.e. TS level>10%), the digestion performance was affected by chemical inhibition due to ammonia and/or humic acid. Thermophilic temperatures did not influence digestion performance but did increase start-up failure risk. Further, inoculation of residues from the batch digestion to subsequent batch enhanced start-up and achieved full methane potential recovery of the bedding. Inoculation with liquid residue (leachate) was preferred over a solid residue, to preserve treatment capacity for fresh substrate. Overall, the study highlighted that indigenous microbial community in the solid manure residue was capable of recovering full methane potential and that solid-phase digestion was ultimately limited by chemical inhibition rather than lack of suitable microbial community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of solid residue from the olive industry

    Guinda, Ángeles


    Full Text Available Research into finding new uses for olive products, particularly by-products of olive oil production, is of great relevance not only to the economy, but also to the environment, in the towns where olives are grown. A large number of research articles has been published dealing with the chemical composition of olives and olive oil; however, only a few studies have centered on isolating and identifying compounds in the olive leaf. In this article an overview of the present body of knowledge on the chemical composition of the olive leaf will be presented. Also to be discussed is the use of solid residue, namely, the olive leaf and the olive stone. Both of these types of residue result from olive oil and table olive production, and can be used as a renewable energy source, as well as to obtain high added-value compounds. The latter, bioactive compounds are directed towards the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and natural food supplements markets, all of which are currently highly receptive to products of natural origin.La investigación de nuevos aprovechamientos del olivar y en particular de lo subproductos del proceso de producción del aceite, tiene gran relevancia tanto en la economía como en el medio ambiente de los pueblos donde se desarrolla este cultivo. Son numerosos los trabajos publicados sobre la composición química de la aceituna y el aceite de oliva, en cambio sólo existen algunos estudios sobre el aislamiento e identificación de los compuestos de la hoja de olivo, en esta contribución se revisan los conocimientos sobre la composición química de la hoja de olivo, así como, las utilizaciones de los residuos sólidos -hoja de olivo y hueso de aceituna- que se originan en la producción del aceite de oliva y de aceitunas de mesa, como energía renovable y para la obtención de compuestos de alto valor añadido. Estos últimos, compuestos bioactivos dirigidos a los mercados de los aditivos alimentarios naturales, farmacéutico y cosm

  16. Crop residues quantification to obtain self-consumption compost in an organic garden

    Lopez de Fuentes, Pilar; Lopez Merino, María; Remedios Alvir, María; Briz de Felipe, Teresa


    This research focuses on quantifying the crop residue left after the campaign fall/winter (2011) for the organic garden crops of Agricultural ETSI, located in practice fields, to get compost for self-generated residues arising from within their own fields. This compost is produced by mixing this material with an organic residues source animal. In this way the plant organic residues provided the nitrogen required for an appropriate C/N and the animal organic residues can provide the carbon amount required to achieve an optimal scenario. The garden has a surface area of 180 m2 which was cultured with different seasonal vegetables, different families and attending practices and species associations' rotations, proper of farming techniques. The organic material of animal origin referred to, is rest from sheep renew bed, sustained management support the precepts of organic farming and cottage belongs to practice fields too. At the end of crop cycle, we proceeded to the harvest and sorting of usable crop residues, which was considered as net crop residues. In each case, these residues were subjected to a cutting treatment by the action of a mincing machine and then weighed to estimate the amounts given by each crop. For the sheep bed residue 1m2 was collected after three months having renewed. It had been made by providing 84 kg of straw bales in July and introducing about 12 Kg each. The herd consisted of three females and one playe. Each one of them was feed 300g and 600 g of straw per day. Two alternating different pens were used to simulate a regime of semi-intensive housing. A balance on how much organic residue material was obtained at the end and how much was obtained in the compost process is discussed in terms of volume and nutrients content is discussed.

  17. A microalgae residue based carbon solid acid catalyst for biodiesel production.

    Fu, Xiaobo; Li, Dianhong; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Yuanming; Huang, Weiya; Zhu, Yi; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Chengwu


    Biodiesel production from microalgae is recognized as one of the best solutions to deal with the energy crisis issues. However, after the oil extraction from the microalgae, the microalgae residue was generally discarded or burned. Here a novel carbon-based solid acid catalyst derived from microalgae residue by in situ hydrothermal partially carbonization were synthesized. The obtained catalyst was characterized and subjected to both the esterification of oleic acid and transesterification of triglyceride to produce biodiesel. The catalyst showed high catalytic activity and can be regenerated while its activity can be well maintained after five cycles.

  18. Electrodialytic remediation of municipal solid waste incineration residues using different membranes

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.


    In the present work, three different commercial membrane brands were used in an identical electrodialytic cell setup and operating conditions, in order to reduce the leaching of metals and salt anions of two types of municipal solid waste incineration residues: air pollution control residues...... as a technology to upgrade municipal solid waste incineration residues....

  19. Diversity in C-Xanes Spectra Obtained from Carbonaceous Solid Inclusions from Monahans Halite

    Kebukawa, Y.; Zolensky, M. E.; Fries, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Rahman, Z.; Cody, G. D.


    Monahans meteorite (H5) contains fluid inclusion- bearing halite (NaCl) crystals [1]. Microthermometry and Raman spectroscopy showed that the fluid in the inclusions is an aqueous brine and they were trapped near 25degC [1]. Their continued presence in the halite grains requires that their incorporation into the H chondrite asteroid was post metamorphism [2]. Abundant solid inclusions are also present in the halites. The solid inclusions include abundant and widely variable organics [2]. Analyses by Raman microprobe, SEM/EDX, synchrotron X-ray diffraction and TEM reveal that these grains include macromolecular carbon similar in structure to CV3 chondrite matrix carbon, aliphatic carbon compounds, olivine (Fo99-59), high- and low-Ca pyroxene, feldspars, magnetite, sulfides, lepidocrocite, carbonates, diamond, apatite and possibly the zeolite phillipsite [3]. Here we report organic analyses of these carbonaceous residues in Monahans halite using C-, N-, and O- X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Samples and Methods: Approximately 100 nm-thick sections were extracted with a focused ion beam (FIB) at JSC from solid inclusions from Monahans halite. The sections were analyzed using the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) on beamline at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for XANES spectroscopy. Results and Discussion: C-XANES spectra of the solid inclusions show micrometer-scale heterogeneity, indicating that the macromolecular carbon in the inclusions have complex chemical variations. C-XANES features include 284.7 eV assigned to aromatic C=C, 288.4-288.8 eV assigned to carboxyl, and 290.6 eV assigned to carbonate. The carbonyl features obtained by CXANES might have been caused by the FIB used in sample preparation. No specific N-XANES features are observed. The CXANES spectra obtained from several areas in the FIB sections include type 1&2 chondritic IOM like, type 3 chondritic IOM like, and none of the above

  20. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis to obtain therapeutic peptides

    Veronika Mäde


    Full Text Available The great versatility and the inherent high affinities of peptides for their respective targets have led to tremendous progress for therapeutic applications in the last years. In order to increase the drugability of these frequently unstable and rapidly cleared molecules, chemical modifications are of great interest. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS offers a suitable technology to produce chemically engineered peptides. This review concentrates on the application of SPPS by Fmoc/t-Bu protecting-group strategy, which is most commonly used. Critical issues and suggestions for the synthesis are covered. The development of automated methods from conventional to essentially improved microwave-assisted instruments is discussed. In order to improve pharmacokinetic properties of peptides, lipidation and PEGylation are described as covalent conjugation methods, which can be applied by a combination of automated and manual synthesis approaches. The synthesis and application of SPPS is described for neuropeptide Y receptor analogs as an example for bioactive hormones. The applied strategies represent innovative and potent methods for the development of novel peptide drug candidates that can be manufactured with optimized automated synthesis technologies.

  1. Solid dispersions in pharmaceutical technology. Part I. Classification and methods to obtain solid dispersions.

    Karolewicz, Bozena; Górniak, Agata; Probst, Sandra; Owczarek, Artur; Pluta, Janusz; Zurawska-Płaksej, Ewa


    There are many methods to increase solubility of a substance. These include, inter alia, preparation of solid dispersions, i.e. eutectic mixtures, solid solutions, glassy solutions and suspensions. When compared to the individual constituents prior to dispersion formation solid dispersion components are better soluble in water. Therefore, solid solutions became one of the most promising ways to modify solubility, ensuring improved bioavailability and consequently therapeutic efficacy of a substance. In this part of the publication solid dispersions were classified and described in regard to their properties and preparation methods, i.e. melting method, melt evaporation and melt extrusion methods, lyophilisation technique, melt agglomeration process as well as SCF technology and electrospinning.

  2. Experimental Study of Residual Stresses in Metal Parts Obtained by Selective Laser Melting

    Protasov, C. E.; Safronov, V. A.; Kotoban, D. V.; Gusarov, A. V.

    High local temperature gradients occur at additive manufacturing by selective laser melting of powder. This gives rise to undesirable residual stresses, deformations, and cracks. To understand how to control the formation of the residual stresses, a reliable method is necessary for measuring their distribution in the fabricated part. It is proposed to cut the part into thin plates and to reconstruct the residual stresses from the measured deformation of the plates. This method is tested on beams with square cross-section built from stainless steel. The beams were cut by electrical discharge machining and chemically etched. The obtained stress profile in vertical transversal direction slightly increases from the top to the bottom of the beam. This dependency is confirmed by numerical modeling. The measured stress profile agrees with the known results by other authors.

  3. An inverse finite element method for determining residual and current stress fields in solids

    Tartibi, M.; Steigmann, D. J.; Komvopoulos, K.


    The life expectancy of a solid component is traditionally predicted by assessing its expected stress cycle and comparing it to experimentally determined stress states at failure. The accuracy of this procedure is often compromised by unforeseen extremes in the loading cycle or material degradation. Residually stressed parts may either have longer or shorter lifespans than predicted. Thus, determination of the current state of stress (i.e., the residual stress in the absence of external loading) and material properties is particularly important. Typically, the material properties of a solid are determined by fitting experimental data obtained from the measured deformation response in the stress-free configuration. However, the characterization of the mechanical behavior of a residually stressed body requires, in principle, a method that is not restricted to specific constitutive models. Complementing a recently developed technique, known as the reversed updated Lagrangian finite element method (RULFEM), a new method called estimating the current state of stress (ECSS) is presented herein. ECSS is based on three-dimensional full-field displacement and force data of a body perturbed by small displacements and complements the first step of the incremental RULFEM method. The present method generates the current state of stress (or residual stress in the absence of external tractions) and the incremental elasticity tensor of each finite element used to discretize the deformable body. The validity of the ECSS method is demonstrated by two noise-free simulation cases.

  4. An inverse finite element method for determining residual and current stress fields in solids

    Tartibi, M.; Steigmann, D. J.; Komvopoulos, K.


    The life expectancy of a solid component is traditionally predicted by assessing its expected stress cycle and comparing it to experimentally determined stress states at failure. The accuracy of this procedure is often compromised by unforeseen extremes in the loading cycle or material degradation. Residually stressed parts may either have longer or shorter lifespans than predicted. Thus, determination of the current state of stress (i.e., the residual stress in the absence of external loading) and material properties is particularly important. Typically, the material properties of a solid are determined by fitting experimental data obtained from the measured deformation response in the stress-free configuration. However, the characterization of the mechanical behavior of a residually stressed body requires, in principle, a method that is not restricted to specific constitutive models. Complementing a recently developed technique, known as the reversed updated Lagrangian finite element method (RULFEM), a new method called estimating the current state of stress (ECSS) is presented herein. ECSS is based on three-dimensional full-field displacement and force data of a body perturbed by small displacements and complements the first step of the incremental RULFEM method. The present method generates the current state of stress (or residual stress in the absence of external tractions) and the incremental elasticity tensor of each finite element used to discretize the deformable body. The validity of the ECSS method is demonstrated by two noise-free simulation cases.

  5. Elaboration and characterization of a new activated carbon obtained from oregano residue: Application in environmental field

    Oumam N.; Oumam M.; Abourriche A.K.; Abourriche A.M.; Hannache H.; Bennamara A.


    This study focuses on the valorization of extraction residues of medicinal plants which represent approximately 80% of the gross weight of the plant. In this context we proceeded to the transformation of “marc oregano” to a material adsorbent type activated carbon. The oregano marc, obtained after extraction of essential oils and organic compounds, has undergone a chemical activation using the phosphoric acid 85% (H3PO4). It is well known as precursors of lignocellulosic activating agent, all...

  6. Environmental Accounting Evidence in Organic Solid Residue Treatment Companies

    Bruna Batista Padilha


    Full Text Available The growing concern with natural resources and the environment brings out the true dimension of these issues. The awareness of society causes companies to adopt environmentally correct policies and attitudes, so as to contribute with the preservation of the environment. Accounting, as a social science which studies the patrimony and its affectations, has adapted to the need of its users and has started to care about proper presentation and measurement of environmental items, for effective publication to society. With this premise, this study aims to identify and describe the contributions of Environmental Accounting to the process of environmental accounting disclosure of a company, which deals with organic solid residues from agriculture. Using a case study, it has been intended to analyze the production process and to list the environmental items and events that could benefit the company through their disclosure. It was intended, with this study, to highlight the contribution that the environmental accounting may add to the company, with proper measurement and presentation proposals. We have been able to verify that, indeed, there are events of an environmental nature resulting from the production process and also of the investment that it carries out periodically to preserve nature; however, there re faults in the accounting records from an environmental point of view. The application of environmental accounting in the organization allows for a broad view of environmental management and sustainable development adopted by the entity, registering all events that may generate economic and financial changes.

  7. Mineral mixtures from solid salt residues for lambs

    Daniel Bomfim Manera


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate water, mineral, feed and nutrient voluntary intakes, in addition to dry matter and nutrient digestibility and the nitrogen balance of lambs fed three mineral supplements. The first treatment consisted of solid salt residue (SSR from an aquaculture tank; the second contained SSR from desalination waste; and the third treatment was control, which corresponded to the supplementation of a commercial mineral supplement. The study lasted 20 days, the first 15 of which were used for animals to adapt to the pens and diets, and the last five days were used for data collection. Twenty-four castrated male lambs with a body weight of 19.72±2.52 kg were utilized in the experiment. The mineral supplements evaluated did not affect the intake and digestibility of the dry matter and nutrients, the water and mineral-salt intake or nitrogen balance. Mineral supplements produced from the SSR from aquaculture tanks and from the desalination waste did not reduce feed, nutrient and water intakes or nutrient digestibility, which suggests that these raw materials can be used in the elaboration of mineral mixtures for lambs.

  8. Enhanced extraction of phenolic compounds from coffee industry’s residues through solid state fermentation by Penicillium purpurogenum

    Lady Rossana PALOMINO García


    Full Text Available Abstract The use of agroindustrial residues is an economical solution to industrial biotechnology. Coffee husk and pulp are abounding residues from coffee industry which can be used as substrates in solid state fermentation process, thus allowing a liberation and increase in the phenolic compound content with high added value. By employing statistical design, initial moisture content, pH value in the medium, and the incubation temperature were evaluated, in order to increase the polyphenol content in a process of solid state fermentation by Penicillium purpurogenum. The main phenolic compounds identified through HPLC in fermented coffee residue were chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin. Data obtained through HPLC with the radical absorbance capacity assay suggest the fermented coffee husk and pulp extracts potential as a source of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Results showed good perspectives when using P. purpurogenum strain to enhance the liberation of phenolic compounds in coffee residues.

  9. Analysis of hazardous organic residues from sodium hydrosulfite industry and utilization as raw materials in a novel solid lubricant production

    Shang, Jiwu [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Yihe, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zhou, Fengshan; Lv, Fengzhu; Han, Feng; Lu, Jinbo; Meng, Xianghai [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Ye, Zhengfang [Department of Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xing, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are analyzed and the main compounds are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2 Prime -dithiodiethanol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the homemade solid lubricant is observed to have good lubricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The clean process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution. - Abstract: The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are demonstrated to be convertible into a novel solid lubricant. Identification and isolation of the organic residues are achieved by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). FTIR and GC-MS provide important information about the residues and the two main components obtained by column chromatography are further analyzed by NMR. The main organic residues are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2 Prime -dithiodiethanol which have potential applications in petroleum drilling because of their S-S and/or C-S functional groups. The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the influence of different adsorbents on the lubricity is investigated and discussed. This homemade lubricant is observed to have good lubricity and by increasing the concentration of the commercial solid lubricant M, the lubricity diminishes. The process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution.

  10. Toxicity of solid residues resulting from wastewater treatment with nanomaterials.

    Nogueira, Verónica; Lopes, Isabel; Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth


    Nanomaterials (NMs) are widely recommended for wastewater treatments due to their unique properties. Several studies report the different advantages of nanotechnology in the remediation of wastewaters, but limited research has been directed toward the fate and potential impacts of the solid residues (SRs) produced after the application of such technologies. The present work aimed at investigating the ecotoxicity of SRs resulting from the treatment of three effluents (OOMW, kraft pulp mill, and mining drainage) with two NMs (TiO2 and Fe2O3). The invertebrate Chironomus riparius was selected as test organism and exposed to the residues. The effect on percentage of survival and growth was assessed. Results showed that the SRs from the treatments nano-TiO2(1.0gL(-1))/H2O2(0.5M) and nano-Fe2O3(1.0gL(-1))/H2O2(1.0M) from OOMW and nano-Fe2O3(0.75gL(-1))/H2O2(0.01M) from kraft pulp mill effluent exhibited lethal toxicity to C. riparius. Only the exposure to SRs resulting from the treatment with nano-Fe2O3(0.75gL(-1))/H2O2(0.01M) applied to the kraft pulp mill effluent significantly affected the growth rate based on the head capsule width. In terms of growth rate, based on the body length, it decreased significantly after exposure to the SRs from the treatments nano-TiO2 (1.0gL(-1)) and nano-Fe2O3(0.75gL(-1))/H2O2(0.01M) of kraft paper mill effluent and nano-Fe2O3(1.0gL(-1))/H2O2(1.0M) of OOMW. According to our study the SRs can promote negative effects on C. riparius. However, the effects are dependent on the type of effluent treated as well as on the organic and inorganic compounds attached to the NMs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mineral processing technologies used to obtain valuable components of the solid wastes from coal combustion in power plants

    Martin Sisol


    Full Text Available This paper presents mineral processing technologies used to achieve components from solid wastes of coal combusted in power plants. By combusting bituminous coal in smelting boilers, mineral novelties are formed which are separable by suitable mineral processing technologies. The separation of unburned coal residues is realized by flotation, using nonionic flotation agents such as Flotalex MR, Flotalex bio, Flotakol NX and others. The Fe component created by the mineral novelty of magnetite is obtained by wet and dry low-intensity magnetic separation. Optimal results were accomplished by the flotation process in which we obtained residues of unburned coal. The waste from the flotation was consequently separated by the wet low-intensity separation. The waste from the flotation and magnetic separation - subtilized fly ash, contained 0 – 2,5% LOI which can be used in architecture.

  12. An adsorbent with a high adsorption capacity obtained from the cellulose sludge of industrial residues.

    Orlandi, Géssica; Cavasotto, Jéssica; Machado, Francisco R S; Colpani, Gustavo L; Magro, Jacir Dal; Dalcanton, Francieli; Mello, Josiane M M; Fiori, Márcio A


    One of the major problems in effluent treatment plants of the cellulose and paper industry is the large amount of residual sludge generated. Therefore, this industry is trying to develop new methods to treat such residues and to use them as new products, such as adsorbents. In this regard, the objective of this work was to develop an adsorbent using the raw activated sludge generated by the cellulose and paper industry. The activated cellulose sludge, after being dried, was chemically activated with 42.5% (v/v) phosphoric acid at 85 °C for 1 h and was charred at 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C for 2 h. The efficiency of the obtained adsorbent materials was evaluated using kinetic tests with methylene blue solutions. Using the adsorption kinetics, it was verified that the three adsorbents showed the capacity to adsorb dye, and the adsorbent obtained at a temperature of 600 °C showed the highest adsorption capacity of 107.1 mg g(-1). The kinetic model that best fit the experimental data was pseudo-second order. The Langmuir-Freudlich isotherm adequately described the experimental data. As a result, the cellulose sludge generated by the cellulose and paper industries could be used as an adsorbent.

  13. Adsorption of arsenic from a Nova Scotia groundwater onto water treatment residual solids.

    Gibbons, Meaghan K; Gagnon, Graham A


    Water treatment residual solids were examined in batch adsorption and column adsorption experiments using a groundwater from Halifax Regional Municipality that had an average arsenic concentration of 43 μg/L (±4.2 μg/L) and a pH of 8.1. The residual solids studied in this paper were from five water treatment plants, four surface water treatment plants that utilized either alum, ferric, or lime in their treatment systems, and one iron removal plant. In batch adsorption experiments, iron-based residual solids and lime-based residual solids pre-formed similarly to GFH, a commercially-available adsorbent, while alum-based residual solids performed poorly. Langmuir isotherm modeling showed that ferric residuals had the highest adsorptive capacity for arsenic (Q(max) = 2230 mg/kg and 42,910 mg/kg), followed by GFH (Q(max) = 640 mg/kg), lime (Q(max) = 160 mg/kg) and alum (Q(max) = 93% for the ferric and lime residuals and GFH, while the maximum arsenic removal was residuals under the same conditions. In a column adsorption experiment, ferric residual solids achieved arsenic removal of >26,000 bed volumes before breakthrough past 10 μg As/L, whereas the effluent arsenic concentration from the GFH column was under the method detection limit at 28,000 bed volumes. Overall, ferric and lime water treatment residuals were promising adsorbents for arsenic adsorption from the groundwater, and alum water treatment residuals did not achieve high levels of arsenic adsorption.

  14. Torrefaction of cultivation residue of Auricularia auricula-judae to obtain biochar with enhanced fuel properties.

    Zhang, Yan; Yao, Aiying; Song, Kuiyan


    Auricularia auricula-judae, commonly known as the wood ear, is a species of edible Auriculariales fungus. Torrefactions of cultivation residues of A. auricula-judae (CRAA) at different temperatures and residence times are carried out. Effect of different torrefaction conditions on the mass and energy yields, elemental composition, heating value, thermal properties; and chemical, crystal and morphological structures of biochars are analyzed. Low torrefaction temperatures could not enhance the fuel properties as expected. Crystallinities of biochars derived from mild torrefaction conditions do not have a suitable variation trend because of the unstable degrees between degradation and recrystallization. Torrefaction of CRAA should be processed under severe conditions, such as 320 °C for 60 min and 280 °C for 120 min, in order to obtain enhanced biochar properties with DTGmax at low peak temperatures of 367 and 361 °C, as well high burnout temperatures of 528 and 530 °C, respectively.

  15. The synthesis and properties of the phases obtained by solid-solid reactions

    Blonska-Tabero A.


    Full Text Available The presented work encompasses the subject of the studies and the results obtained over the last years by the research workers of the Department of Inorganic Chemistry. They include mainly the studies on the reactivity of metal oxides, searching for new phases in binary and ternary systems of metal oxides as well as describing phase relations establishing in such systems. They also encompass works on the extensive characteristics of physico-chemical properties of the newly obtained compounds.

  16. Solid residues from combustion plants. Pt. 1; Feste Rueckstaende aus Verbrennungsanlagen. T. 1

    Reichenberger, H.P.; Quicker, P.; Mocker, M.; Faulstich, M. [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Gleis, M. [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany)


    The following publication deals with solid combustion residues, which results in Germany from the thermal treatment of municipal waste, coal, sewage sludge and biomass. The intention is, to give an overview about the current situation. The first part of the article shows the annual quantities of combustible substances thermal treated and which kind of residues and which quantities of residues are resulting from the thermal treatment. Furthermore the properties of different residues are observed and together compared. The second part describes the quantities of residues feeded to the relevant ways of recycling or disposal. References to orders and legislations are given. (orig.)

  17. Solid residues from combustion plants. Pt. 2; Feste Rueckstaende aus Verbrennungsanlagen. T. 2

    Reichenberger, H.P.; Quicker, P.; Mocker, M.; Faulstich, M. [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Gleis, M. [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany)


    The following publication deals with solid combustion residues, which results in Germany from the thermal treatment of municipal waste, coal, sewage sludge and biomass. The intention is, to give an overview about the current situation. The first part of the article shows the annual quantities of combustible substances thermal treated and which kind of residues and which quantities of residues are resulting from the thermal treatment. Furthermore the properties of different residues are observed and together compared. The second part describes the quantities of residues feeded to the relevant ways of recycling or disposal. References to orders and legislations are given. (orig.)

  18. Elaboration and characterization of a new activated carbon obtained from oregano residue: Application in environmental field

    Oumam N.


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the valorization of extraction residues of medicinal plants which represent approximately 80% of the gross weight of the plant. In this context we proceeded to the transformation of “marc oregano” to a material adsorbent type activated carbon. The oregano marc, obtained after extraction of essential oils and organic compounds, has undergone a chemical activation using the phosphoric acid 85% (H3PO4. It is well known as precursors of lignocellulosic activating agent, allows the development of a large porosity in the activated material. The activated product has subsequently underwent heat treatment in the temperature range from 200 to 350 °C. The optimum temperature for development was set at 300 °C. The results obtained showed that the adsorbent material O300 has developed the interesting textural properties. It is an adsorbent material like activated carbon, which presents, according to the BET method, a specific surface of 1200 m2·g−1 (specific surface area of commercial activated carbon is of about 905 m2·g−1. The application of adsorbent material developed O300 in microbial decontamination of urban waste water, has revealed its effectiveness and its important adsorptive properties against pathogens pollutants from wastewater.

  19. A process for treatment of residues from dry/semidry APC systems at municipal solid waste incinerators. Final report

    Hjelmar, O. [VKI, Hoersholm (Denmark)] Holland, D. [FLS miljoe a/s, Valby (Denmark)] Poulsen, B. [KARA, Roskilde (Denmark)


    The main objective of the project has been to establish and test a process for treatment of residues from the semidry (and dry) lime injection based APC processes at MSWIs, which will ensure that the residues can be managed in an environmentally safe manner. In pursuit of this goal, the following activities have been carried out: Performance of pilot scale extractions (approximately 50 kg of residue per batch) at the KARA MSWI in Roskilde of semidry APC system residues in order to establish and optimize process conditions. The optimization includes consideration of the possibilities for subsequent treatment/stabilization of the extracted solid phase as well as the possibility of treatment and safe discharge/utilization of the extract; Performance of chemical characterization, hydrogeochemical model calculations and experimental work in order to improve the understanding of the mechanisms and factors which for several contaminants control the equilibrium between the solid and liquid phases, both in the short and the long germ, and to use this information to obtain an environmentally acceptable method for stabilization/treatment of the extracted residues while at the same time minimizing the necessary amount of additives; production of treated residues and performance of leaching tests on these to assess and demonstrate the effectiveness of the entire process (extraction + stabilization/treatment); Evaluation of the technical, economical and environmental consequences of full scale implementation of the process. (EG) EFP-94. 19 refs.

  20. Biosafe inertization of municipal solid waste incinerator residues by COSMOS technology.

    Guarienti, Michela; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Bontempi, Elza; Moscoso Cardozo, Sdenka; Borgese, Laura; Zizioli, Daniela; Mitola, Stefania; Depero, Laura E; Presta, Marco


    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) residues can generate negative environmental impacts when improperly handled. The COlloidal Silica Medium to Obtain Safe inert (COSMOS) technology represents a new method to stabilize MSWI residues and to produce inert safe material. Here we report the results about aquatic biotoxicity of lixiviated MSWI fly ash and the corresponding inertized COSMOS material using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity test. Quantitative assessment of waste biotoxicity included evaluation of mortality rate and of different morphological and teratogenous endpoints in zebrafish embryos exposed to tested materials from 3 to 72h post-fertilization. The results demonstrate that lixiviated MSWI fly ash exerts a dose-dependent lethal effect paralleled by dramatic morphological/teratogenous alterations and apoptotic events in the whole embryo body. Similar effects were observed following MSWI fly ash stabilization in classical concrete matrices, demonstrating that the obtained materials are not biologically safe. On the contrary, no significant mortality and developmental defects were observed in zebrafish embryos exposed to COSMOS inert solution. Our results provide the first experimental in vivo evidence that, in contrast with concrete stabilization procedure, COSMOS technology provides a biologically safe inert.

  1. Pb2+ adsorption from aqueous solutions on activated carbons obtained from lignocellulosic residues

    L. Giraldo


    Full Text Available Activated carbons obtained from cane sugar bagasse (ACB, African palm pit (ACP and sawdust (ACS were prepared through an impregnated with HNO3 and thermal treatment in an atmosphere in N2/steam water at 1173 K. Adsorption isotherms of N2 at 77 K and of CO2 at 273 K were determined for the activated carbons for which surface area and pore volume values were from 868 to 1100 m²g-1 and from 0.27 to 0.55cm³ g-1, respectively. These results were correlated, with the ones obtained for adsorption the adsorption isotherms of Pb2+ in aqueous solutions. Impregnation of the lignocellulosic materials with nitric acid produced acid-type activated carbons with total acid site contents between 4.13 and 6.93 mmol g-1 and pH at the point of zero charge values between 2.7 and 4.1, which were within range of the adsorption, at different pH values, since they determined, the surface charge of the activated carbons. Adsorption isotherms of Pb2+ at different pH values (2-8 at 298 K were determined. The ion adsorption capacity on ACB, ACP and ACS were 13.7, 15.2 and 17.5 mg.g-1, respectively. Experimental data were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich models and all cases the former fit better. The highest values for the quantity adsorbed on the monolayer, qm, were at pH 4, whereas the surface, charge of activated carbons was negative and the lead species mainly present was Pb2+. For higher pHs, the quantity of Pb2+ adsorbed decreased, and this had an important effect on adsorption, the surface characteristics of the solids and the hydroxilated lead species that were formed in the system.

  2. Liquid-solid extraction coupled with magnetic solid-phase extraction for determination of pyrethroid residues in vegetable samples by ultra fast liquid chromatography.

    Jiang, Chunzhu; Sun, Ying; Yu, Xi; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuanpeng; Zhang, Hanqi; Song, Daqian


    In this study, liquid-solid extraction coupled with magnetic solid-phase extraction was successfully developed for the extraction of pyrethroid residues in vegetable samples. The analytes were determined by ultra fast liquid chromatography. The pyrethroids were extracted by liquid-solid extraction and then adsorbed onto magnetic adsorbent. Magnetic adsorbent, C18-functionalized ultrafine magnetic silica nanoparticles, was synthesized by chemical coprecipitation, silanization and alkylation. The analytes adsorbed onto the magnetic adsorbent can be simply and rapidly isolated from sample solution with a strong magnet on the bottom of the extraction vessel. The extraction parameters, such as liquid-solid extraction solvent, liquid-solid extraction time, the amount of magnetic adsorbent, magnetic solid-phase extraction time and magnetic solid-phase extraction desorption solvent, were optimized to improve the extraction efficiency. The analytical performances of this method, including linear range, detection limit, precision, and recovery were evaluated. The limits of detection for pyrethroid were between 0.63 and 1.2 ng g(-1). Recoveries obtained by analyzing the four spiked vegetable samples were between 76.0% and 99.5%. The results showed that the present method was a simple, accurate and high efficient approach for the determination of pyrethroids in the vegetable samples.

  3. Thermal processing of Khoot coal and characterization of obtained solid and liquid products

    S Batbileg


    Full Text Available On 21st January 2015, the abstract of this paper was replaced with the correct abstract.The coal of Khoot deposit have been investigated and determined the technical characteristics, elemental and petrographical maceral compositions. On the basis of proximate, ultimate, petrographic and IR analysis results have been confirmed that the Khoot coal is a sub-bituminous coal. The hard residue after pyrolysis have been activated by heated water steam and determined the iodine and methylene blue adsorption of initial coal and activated carbon samples from pyrolysis hard residue. The porosity structure of initial coal, activated carbon of pyrolysis hard residue and hard residue after thermolysis (thermal dissolution have been determined by SEM analysis. The liquid tar product of thermolysis of Khoot coal was investigated by FTIR, 13C and 1H NMR spectrometric analysis. The results of thermolysis of Khoot coal in tetralin with constant mass ratio between coal and tetralin (1:1.8 at 450°C show that 60.8% of liquid product can be obtained after thermolysis of the coal organic mass.DOI: Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p66-72

  4. Estimate of the residual loads obtained in the end of piles driven in porous soils

    David de Carvalho


    Full Text Available In the geotechnical engineering the study about the quantification of the residual loads in the pile end, after the end of the first loading of the load test attempt, highlighted some works on its interpretation in the curve load versus pile settlement. The construction of a mathematical model to study such a phenomenon is based on the Relations of Cambefort Precast-concrete piles were specially built for this research. They have special elements installed all along their length where the residual loads inlaid in the pile end region could be measured by means of deformation strain gauges.

  5. Study of the degradation of methylene blue by semi-solid-state fermentation of agricultural residues with Phanerochaete chrysosporium and reutilization of fermented residues.

    Zeng, Guangming; Cheng, Min; Huang, Danlian; Lai, Cui; Xu, Piao; Wei, Zhen; Li, Ningjie; Zhang, Chen; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan


    The degradation of methylene blue (MB) by semi-solid-state fermentation of agricultural residues rice straw with Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the reutilization of fermented residues was investigated. A maximum decolorization of 84.8% for an initial dye concentration of 0.4 g/L was observed at the optimal operating conditions (temperature 35 °C, pH 5). As compared to the previous results obtained using synthetic materials as substrate, the results in the present study revealed an excellent performance of the bioreactor in decolorizing the wastewater containing MB, which is due to this type of cultivation reproducing the natural living conditions of the white rot fungi. Among the two ligninolytic enzymes that are responsible to the decolorization, manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity was found better correlated with decoloration percentage. Our results also provide a first step to recycling the fermented residues for the removal of MB from aqueous solutions, the maximum adsorption capacity of the fermented residues reached 51.4 mg/g.

  6. Detailed monitoring of two biogas plants and mechanical solid-liquid separation of fermentation residues.

    Bauer, Alexander; Mayr, Herwig; Hopfner-Sixt, Katharina; Amon, Thomas


    The Austrian "green electricity act" (Okostromgesetz) has led to an increase in biogas power plant size and consequently to an increased use of biomass. A biogas power plant with a generating capacity of 500 kW(el) consumes up to 38,000 kg of biomass per day. 260 ha of cropland is required to produce this mass. The high water content of biomass necessitates a high transport volume for energy crops and fermentation residues. The transport and application of fermentation residues to farmland is the last step in this logistic chain. The use of fermentation residues as fertilizer closes the nutrient cycle and is a central element in the efficient use of biomass for power production. Treatment of fermentation residues by separation into liquid and solid phases may be a solution to the transport problem. This paper presents detailed results from the monitoring of two biogas plants and from the analysis of the separation of fermentation residues. Furthermore, two different separator technologies for the separation of fermentation residues of biogas plants were analyzed. The examined biogas plants correspond to the current technological state of the art and have designs developed specifically for the utilization of energy crops. The hydraulic retention time ranged between 45.0 and 83.7 days. The specific methane yields were 0.40-0.43 m(3)N CH(4) per kg VS. The volume loads ranged between 3.69 and 4.00 kg VS/m(3). The degree of degradation was between 77.3% and 82.14%. The screw extractor separator was better suited for biogas slurry separation than the rotary screen separator. The screw extractor separator exhibited a high throughput and good separation efficiency. The efficiency of slurry separation depended on the dry matter content of the fermentation residue. The higher the dry matter content, the higher the proportion of solid phase after separation. In this project, we found that the fermentation residues could be divided into 79.2% fluid phase with a dry matter

  7. Enzymatic saccharification of solid residue of olive mill in a batch reactor.

    Abdi; Hamdache; Belhocine; Grib; Lounici; Piron; Mameri


    This paper describes the enzymatic hydrolysis of solid residue of olive mill (OMRS) in a batch reactor with the Trichoderma reesei enzyme. Before enzymatic saccharification, crude lignocellulosic material is submitted to alkaline pre-treatment with NaOH. Optimum conditions of the pre-treatment (temperature of T=100 degrees C and OMRS-NaOH concentration ratio of about R=20) were determined. The optimum enzymatic conditions determined were as follows: pH of about 5, temperature of T=50 degrees C and enzyme to mass substrate mass ratio E/S=0.1g enzyme (g OMRS)(-1). The maximum saccharification yield obtained at optimum experimental conditions was about 50%. The experimental results agree with Lineweaver Burk's formula for low substrate concentrations. At substrate concentrations greater than 40gdm(-3), inhibitory effects were encountered. The kinetic constants obtained for the batch reactor were K(m)=0.1gdm(-3)min(-1) and V(m)=800gdm(-3).

  8. Structural study of nanocrystalline solid solution of Cu-Mo obtained by mechanical alloying

    Aguilar, C., E-mail: [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica y de Materiales, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avenida Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Instituto de Materiales y Procesos Termomecanicos, Universidad Austral de Chile, General Lagos 2086, Valdivia (Chile); Castro, F. [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Tecnicas de Gipuzkoa, Paseo de Manuel Lardizabal, N Degree-Sign 15 20018, San Sebastian (Spain); Martinez, V. [TEKMETALL, Metallurgical Solutions S.L., Paseo neinor, Iribar Kalea 5, F1. B. de Igara 20018, San Sebastian (Spain); Guzman, D. [Departamento de Ingenieria en Metalurgia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Atacama y Centro Regional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Sustentable de Atacama (CRIDESAT), Av. Copayapu 485, Copiapo (Chile); Cuevas, F. de las; Lozada, L.; Vielma, N. [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Tecnicas de Gipuzkoa, Paseo de Manuel Lardizabal, N Degree-Sign 15 20018, San Sebastian (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extension of solid solution in Cu-Mo system achieved by mechanical alloying. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray characterization of Cu-Mo system processed by mechanical alloying. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural study of nanocrystalline solid solution of Cu-Mo obtained by mechanical alloying. - Abstract: This work studied the structural evolution of Cu-xMo (x = 5 and 8 wt.%) alloys processed by mechanical alloying using x-ray diffraction profiles, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetric and microhardness. X-ray diffraction analysis was done using the modified Williamson-Hall and Warren-Averbach methods. These were used to determine structural properties, such as crystallite size, stacking fault probability and energy, dislocation density of metallic powder as a function of the amount of Mo and milling time. The main results obtained for both alloys were higher dislocation density and Vickers microhardness values were measured and crystallites sizes of around 10 nm were measured for both systems at 50 h of milling. Lattice defects increase the free energy and the free energy curves shift upwards, therefore the solubility limits change and Cu-Mo solid solution is formed.

  9. Veterinary antibiotic resistance, residues, and ecological risks in environmental samples obtained from poultry farms, Egypt.

    Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Nabawy, Ehab Elsayed


    In Egypt, poultry production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) into the environment. About 80 % of meat production in Egypt is of poultry origin, and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of VAs in these farms have not yet been properly evaluated. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enteric key bacteria and the incidence of residual antibiotics in poultry farm environmental samples and to determine whether fertilizing soils with poultry litter from farms potentially brings ecological risks. From December 2011 to September 2012, a total of 225 litter, bird dropping, and water samples were collected from 75 randomly selected boiler poultry farms. A high prevalence of Escherichia coli (n = 179; 79.5 %) in contrast to the low prevalence of Salmonella spp. (n = 7; 3.1 %) was detected. Amongst E. coli isolates, serotypes O142:K86, O125:K70, O91:K, and O119:K69 were the most common. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica serotypes emek and enteritidis were recovered. The antibiograms using the disc diffusion method revealed significantly more common resistant and multi-resistant isolates in broiler poultry farms. Residues of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were detected at 2.125 and 1.401 mg kg(-1) mean levels, respectively, in environmental samples contaminated with E. coli-resistant strains by HPLC. The risk evaluations highlighted that tetracycline residues in poultry litter significantly display environmental risks with a hazard quotient value above 1 (1.64). Our study implies that ineffective implementation of veterinary laws which guide and guard against incorrect VA usage may potentially bring health and environmental risks.

  10. Maximising municipal solid waste--legume trimming residue mixture degradation in composting by control parameters optimization.

    Cabeza, I O; López, R; Ruiz-Montoya, M; Díaz, M J


    Composting is one of the most successful biological processes for the treatment of the residues enriched in putrescible materials. The optimization of parameters which have an influence on the stability of the products is necessary in order to maximize recycling and recovery of waste components. The influence of the composting process parameters (aeration, moisture, C/N ratio, and time) on the stability parameters (organic matter, N-losses, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate, biodegradability coefficient) of the compost was studied. The composting experiment was carried out using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and Legume Trimming Residues (LTR) in 200 L isolated acrylic barrels following a Box-Behnken central composite experimental design. Second-order polynomial models were found for each of the studied compost stability parameter, which accurately described the relationship between the parameters. The differences among the experimental values and those estimated by using the equations never exceeded 10% of the former. Results of the modelling showed that excluding the time, the C/N ratio is the strongest variable influencing almost all the stability parameters studied in this case, with the exception of N-losses which is strongly dependent on moisture. Moreover, an optimized ratio MSW/LTR of 1/1 (w/w), moisture content in the range of 40-55% and moderate to low aeration rate (0.05-0.175 Lair kg(-)(1) min(-1)) is recommended to maximise degradation and to obtain a stable product during co-composting of MSW and LTR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of Residual Solids from Pulp and Paper Mills for Enhancing Strength and Durability of Ready-Mixed Concrete

    Tarun R. Naik; Yoon-moon Chun; Rudolph N. Kraus


    This research was conducted to establish mixture proportioning and production technologies for ready-mixed concrete containing pulp and paper mill residual solids and to study technical, economical, and performance benefits of using the residual solids in the concrete. Fibrous residuals generated from pulp and paper mills were used, and concrete mixture proportions and productions technologies were first optimized under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the mixture proportions established in the laboratory, prototype field concrete mixtures were manufactured at a ready-mixed concrete plant. Afterward, a field construction demonstration was held to demonstrate the production and placement of structural-grade cold-weather-resistant concrete containing residual solids.

  12. Physicochemical pretreatments and hydrolysis of furfural residues via carbon-based sulfonated solid acid.

    Ma, Bao Jun; Sun, Yuan; Lin, Ke Ying; Li, Bing; Liu, Wan Yi


    Potential commercial physicochemical pretreatment methods, NaOH/microwave and NaOH/ultrasound were developed, and the carbon-based sulfonated solid acid catalysts were prepared for furfural residues conversion into reducing sugars. After the two optimum pretreatments, both the content of cellulose increased (74.03%, 72.28%, respectively) and the content of hemicellulose (94.11%, 94.17% of removal rate, respectively) and lignin (91.75%, 92.09% of removal rate, respectively) decreased in furfural residues. The reducing sugar yields of furfural residues with the two physicochemical pretreatments on coal tar-based solid acid reached 33.94% and 33.13%, respectively, higher than that pretreated via NaOH alone (27%) and comparable to that pretreated via NaOH/H2O2 (35.67%). The XRD patterns, IR spectra and SEM images show microwave and ultrasound improve the pretreatment effect. The results demonstrate the carbon-based sulfonated solid acids and the physicochemical pretreatments are green, effective, low-cost for furfural residues conversion.

  13. Bioethanol production from carbohydrate-enriched residual biomass obtained after lipid extraction of Chlorella sp. KR-1.

    Lee, Ok Kyung; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Eun Yeol


    The residual biomass of Chlorella sp. KR-1 obtained after lipid extraction was used for saccharification and bioethanol production. The carbohydrate was saccharified using simple enzymatic and chemical methods using Pectinex at pH 5.5 and 45°C and 0.3N HCl at 121°C for 15min with 76.9% and 98.2% yield, respectively, without any pretreatment. The residual biomass contained 49.7% carbohydrate consisting of 82.4% fermentable sugar and 17.6% non-fermentable sugar, which is valuable for bioethanol fermentation. Approximately 98.2% of the total carbohydrate was converted into monosaccharide (fermentable+non-fermentable sugar) using dilute acid saccharification. The fermentable sugar was subsequently fermented to bioethanol through separate hydrolysis and fermentation with a fermentation yield of 79.3%. Overall, 0.4g ethanol/g fermentable sugar and 0.16g ethanol/g residual biomass were produced.

  14. Nanostructure of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Adsorption Layer on the Surface of Activated Carbon Obtained from Residue After Supercritical Extraction of Hops

    Wiśniewska, M.; Nosal-Wiercińska, A.; Ostolska, I.; Sternik, D.; Nowicki, P.; Pietrzak, R.; Bazan-Wozniak, A.; Goncharuk, O.


    The nanostructure of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) adsorption layer on the surface of mesoporous-activated carbon HPA obtained by physical activation of residue after supercritical extraction of hops was characterized. This characterization has been done based on the analysis of determination of adsorbed polymer amount, surface charge density, and zeta potential of solid particles (without and in the PAA presence). The SEM, thermogravimetric, FTIR, and MS techniques have allowed one to examine the solid surface morphology and specify different kinds of HPA surface groups. The effects of solution pH, as well as polymer molecular weight and concentration, were studied. The obtained results indicated that the highest adsorption on the activated carbon surface was exhibited by PAA with lower molecular weight (i.e., 2000 Da) at pH 3. Under such conditions, polymeric adsorption layer is composed of nanosized PAA coils (slightly negatively charged) which are densely packed on the positive surface of HPA. Additionally, the adsorption of polymeric macromolecules into solid pores is possible.

  15. Characterisation of agroindustrial solid residues as biofuels and potential application in thermochemical processes.

    Virmond, Elaine; De Sena, Rennio F; Albrecht, Waldir; Althoff, Christine A; Moreira, Regina F P M; José, Humberto J


    In the present work, selected agroindustrial solid residues from Brazil - biosolids from meat processing wastewater treatment and mixture of sawdust with these biosolids; residues from apple and orange juice industries; sugarcane bagasse; açaí kernels (Euterpe oleracea) and rice husk - were characterised as solid fuels and an evaluation of their properties, including proximate and ultimate composition, energy content, thermal behaviour, composition and fusibility of the ashes was performed. The lower heating value of the biomasses ranged from 14.31 MJkg(-1) to 29.14 MJkg(-1), on a dry and ash free basis (daf), all presenting high volatile matter content, varying between 70.57 wt.% and 85.36 wt.% (daf) what improves the thermochemical conversion of the solids. The fouling and slagging tendency of the ashes was predicted based on the fuel ash composition and on the ash fusibility correlations proposed in the literature, which is important to the project and operation of biomass conversion systems. The potential for application of the Brazilian agroindustrial solid residues studied as alternative energy sources in thermochemical processes has been identified, especially concerning direct combustion for steam generation.

  16. Biofiltration of composting gases using different municipal solid waste-pruning residue composts: monitoring by using an electronic nose.

    López, R; Cabeza, I O; Giráldez, I; Díaz, M J


    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the composting of kitchen waste and pruning residues, and the abatement of VOCs by different compost biofilters was studied. VOCs removal efficiencies greater than 90% were obtained using composts of municipal solid waste (MSW) or MSW-pruning residue as biofilter material. An electronic nose identified qualitative differences among the biofilter output gases at very low concentrations of VOCs. These differences were related to compost constituents, compost particle size (2-7 or 7-20mm), and a combination of both factors. The total concentration of VOCs determined by a photoionization analyser and inferred from electronic nose data sets were correlated over an ample range of concentrations of VOCs, showing that these techniques could be specially adapted for the monitoring of these processes.

  17. Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-C-108 Residual Waste Solids Samples

    Cooke, Gary A.; Pestovich, John A.; Huber, Heinz J.


    This report presents the results for solid phase characterization (SPC) of solid samples removed from tank 241-C-108 (C-108) on August 12-13,2012, using the off-riser sampler. Samples were received at the 222-S Laboratory on August 13 and were described and photographed. The SPC analyses that were performed include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the ASPEX(R)l scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rigaku(R) 2 MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) using the Nikon(R) 3 Eclipse Pol optical microscope. The SEM is equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to provide chemical information. Gary A. Cooke conducted the SEM analysis, John A. Pestovich performed the XRD analysis, and Dr. Heinz J. Huber performed the PLM examination. The results of these analyses are presented here.

  18. An Evaluation of Residual Feed Intake Estimates Obtained with Computer Models Versus Empirical Regression

    Data on individual daily feed intake, bi-weekly BW, and carcass composition were obtained on 1,212 crossbred steers, in Cycle VII of the Germplasm Evaluation Project at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Within animal regressions of cumulative feed intake and BW on linear and quadratic days on fe...


    Verónica Capdevila


    Full Text Available In this paper presents a simulation model of the fermentation/separation process of bioethanol from hydrolyzed pretreated rice husk, using Aspen HYSYS simulator. Sensitivity studies performed on the developed model indicated levels for selected variables: biomass/water ratio of 1:2,89 ; biomass flow of 50 t/h and inlet temperature separator of 30°C, leading to maximize the yield of bioethanol. From these variables, a bioethanol production of 8,81 t/h with a purity of 65,51% w/w is obtained, corresponding to a flow of hydrolyzed treated biomass of 50 t/h. This work represents an advance in the development of the simulation model of the complete process to obtain second generation of bioethanol from rice husks.

  20. Polyurethane foams obtained from residues of PET manufacturing and modified with carbon nanotubes

    Stiebra, L.; Cabulis, U.; Knite, M.


    In this work we report the preparation of rigid microcellular polyurethane/carbon nanotube nanocomposites with different CNT loadings (0.09-0.46%) and various isocyanate indexes (110-260). Water was used as a blowing agent for samples. Density of all obtained samples - 200 ± 10 kg/m3. Electrical properties, as well as heat conductivity, cellular structure and mechanical properties of these nanocomposites were investigated.

  1. Typical Mexican agroindustrial residues as supports for solid-state fermentation

    Flores-Maltos, Dulce A.; Mussatto, Solange Ines; Contreras Esquivel, Juan Carlos;


    . These biological wastes can be used as support-substrates in Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) to produce industrially relevant metabolites with great economical advantage. In addition, it is an environment friendly method of waste management. In this study were analyzed six different Mexican agro industrial residues...... process. The results provided important knowledge about the characteristics of these materials revealing their potential for use in fermentation processes....

  2. Evaluation of the residual antigenicity of dairy whey hydrolysates obtained by combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and high-pressure treatment.

    Peñas, Elena; Restani, Patrizia; Ballabio, Cinzia; Préstamo, Guadalupe; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Gomez, Rosario


    Dairy whey was hydrolyzed for 15 min with five food-grade enzymes (Alcalase, Neutrase, Corolase 7089, Corolase PN-L, and Papain) at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) and in combination with high pressure (HP) at 100, 200, and 300 MPa, applied prior to or during enzymatic digestion. The peptide profile of the hydrolysates obtained was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and their residual antigenicity was assessed by immuno-blotting with anti-beta-lactoglobulin monoclonal antibodies and the sera from pediatric patients allergic to cow's milk proteins. Moreover, to evaluate the presence of residual trace amounts of casein in bovine whey hydrolysates, immunoblotting with anti-cow's milk protein polyclonal antibodies was performed. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that HP treatment increased hydrolysis by the proteases assayed, especially when it was applied during the enzymatic digestion. Positive reactions at the band corresponding to beta-lactoglobulin were detected for Corolase PN-L and Corolase 7089 hydrolysates, except for those obtained under 300 MPa by the last protease. However, the immunochemical reaction was lower in the hydrolysis products obtained under HP than in those obtained at atmospheric pressure and after the HP treatment. On the contrary, no residual immunochemical reactivity associated with beta-lactoglobulin was observed in the hydrolysates obtained by Alcalase and Neutrase under HP, and none was observed in any of the hydrolysis products obtained by Papain. The presence of traces of casein was not significant. These results suggest that HP combined with selected food-grade proteases is a treatment that can remove the antigenicity of whey protein hydrolysates for their use as ingredients of hypoallergenic infant formulae.

  3. Determining the release of radionuclides from tank waste residual solids. FY2015 report

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hobbs, David T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Methodology development for pore water leaching studies has been continued to support Savannah River Site High Level Waste tank closure efforts. For FY2015, the primary goal of this testing was the achievement of target pH and Eh values for pore water solutions representative of local groundwater in the presence of grout or grout-representative (CaCO3 or FeS) solids as well as waste surrogate solids representative of residual solids expected to be present in a closed tank. For oxidizing conditions representative of a closed tank after aging, a focus was placed on using solid phases believed to be controlling pH and Eh at equilibrium conditions. For three pore water conditions (shown below), the target pH values were achieved to within 0.5 pH units. Tank 18 residual surrogate solids leaching studies were conducted over an Eh range of approximately 630 mV. Significantly higher Eh values were achieved for the oxidizing conditions (ORII and ORIII) than were previously observed. For the ORII condition, the target Eh value was nearly achieved (within 50 mV). However, Eh values observed for the ORIII condition were approximately 160 mV less positive than the target. Eh values observed for the RRII condition were approximately 370 mV less negative than the target. Achievement of more positive and more negative Eh values is believed to require the addition of non-representative oxidants and reductants, respectively. Plutonium and uranium concentrations measured during Tank 18 residual surrogate solids leaching studies under these conditions (shown below) followed the general trends predicted for plutonium and uranium oxide phases, assuming equilibrium with dissolved oxygen. The highest plutonium and uranium concentrations were observed for the ORIII condition and the lowest concentrations were observed for the RRII condition. Based on these results, it is recommended that these test methodologies be used to

  4. Ethanol production from the organic fraction obtained after thermal pretreatment of municipal solid waste.

    Ballesteros, Mercedes; Sáez, Felicia; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Manzanares, Paloma; Negro, Maria Jose; Martínez, Jose Maria; Castañeda, Rafael; Oliva Dominguez, Jose Miguel


    In this work, the use of organic fraction from municipal solid waste (MSW) as substrate for ethanol production based on enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated. MSW was subjected to a thermal pretreatment (active hygienization) at 160 degrees C from 5 to 50 min. The organic fiber obtained after 30 min was used as substrate in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and fed-batch SSF process using cellulases and amylases. In a fed-batch mode with 25% (w/w) substrate loading, final ethanol concentration of 30 g/L was achieved (60% of theoretical). In these conditions, more than 160 L of ethanol per ton of dry matter could be produced from the organic fraction of MSW.

  5. Determining the Release of Radionuclides from Tank 18F Waste Residual Solids: FY2016 Report

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hobbs, David T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Pore water leaching studies were conducted on actual Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 18F residual waste solids to support Liquid Waste tank closure efforts. A test methodology was developed during previous simulant testing to produce slurries of tank residual solids and grout-representative solids in grout pore water solutions (based on SRS groundwater compositions) with pH and Eh values expected during the aging of the closed waste tank. The target conditions are provided below where the initial pore water has a reducing potential and a relatively high pH (Reducing Region II). The pore water is expected to become increasingly oxidizing with time (Oxidizing Region II) and during the latter stages of aging (Oxidizing Region III) the pH is expected to decrease. For the reducing case, tests were conducted with both unwashed and washed Tank 18F residual solids. For the oxidizing cases (Oxidizing Regions II and III), all samples were washed with simulated grout pore water solutions prior to testing, since it is expected that these conditions will occur after considerable pore water solution has passed through the system. For the reducing case, separate tests were conducted with representative ground grout solids and with calcium carbonate reagent, which is the grout phase believed to be controlling the pH. Ferrous sulfide (FeS) solids were also added to the reducing samples to lower the slurry Eh value. Calcium carbonate solids were used as the grout-representative solid phase for each of the oxidizing cases. Air purge-gas with and without CO2 removed was transferred through the oxidizing test samples and nitrogen purge-gas was transferred through the reducing test samples during leach testing. The target pH values were achieved to within 0.5 pH units for all samples. Leaching studies were conducted over an Eh range of approximately 0.7 V. However, the highest and lowest Eh values achieved of ~+0.5 V and ~-0.2 V were

  6. Pyrolysis of casein, characterization and properties of obtained solid and liquid products

    B. Purevsuren


    Full Text Available Have been determined the technical characteristics and elemental composition of milk casein. Pyrolysis experiments of casein carried out at different heating temperatures and determined the yields of obtained solid (biochar, liquid (tar and pyrolysis water and gas products. A temperature around 550ºC determined as an optimal heating temperature of pyrolysis and approximately 28.33% biochar, 37.38% tar, 13.23% pyrolysis water and 20.84% gas obtained after pyrolysis. First time a biochar with higher content of nitrogen was obtained by pyrolysis of casein and determined it is elemental composition and technical specifications. The porous structure of casein biochar was characterized by mercury porosimeter and SEM analysis confirmed that casein biochar has mostly meso and macro pores. The casein tar had the elemental composition: C-66.7%, H-8.3%, N-12.1%, O-12.9% and was completely soluble in 1-methyl-2-pyrroldinone. The tar consisted mostly of moderate molecular mass components with SEC elution times between 18-26 min and an estimated mass range up to 3000-5000 mass units as well as some larger size components, possibly 3-dimentional. The property and determined chemical composition of casein tar by GC/MS analysis were an evidence for using it as a curing agent for crosslinking reactions of epoxy resins. The necessary amount of tar for curing reaction of epoxy resin was determined experimentally as a 15-20% for the stoichiometric amount of reactive epoxy groups (15-20% epoxy group content in epoxy resin and obtained cured epoxy resin with 95% degree of crosslinking reaction. Have been suggested several curing reaction schemes of epoxy resin with amines, nitriles and phenols of the casein tar

  7. Recycling of air pollution control residues from municipal solid waste incineration into lightweight aggregates.

    Quina, Margarida J; Bordado, João M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M


    This work focuses on the assessment of technological properties and on the leaching behavior of lightweight aggregates (LWA) produced by incorporating different quantities of air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration. Currently this hazardous waste has been mostly landfilled after stabilization/solidification. The LWA were produced by pelletizing natural clay, APC residues as-received from incineration plant, or after a washing treatment, a small amount of oil and water. The pellets were fired in a laboratory chamber furnace over calcium carbonate. The main technological properties of the LWA were evaluated, mainly concerning morphology, bulk and particle densities, compressive strength, bloating index, water adsorption and porosity. Given that APC residues do not own expansive (bloating) properties, the incorporation into LWA is only possible in moderate quantities, such as 3% as received or 5% after pre-washing treatment. The leaching behavior of heavy metals from sintered LWA using water or acid solutions was investigated, and despite the low acid neutralization capacity of the synthetic aggregates, the released quantities were low over a wide pH range. In conclusion, after a washing pre-treatment and if the percentage of incorporation is low, these residues may be incorporated into LWA. However, the recycling of APC residues from MSW incineration into LWA does not revealed any technical advantage.

  8. Characterization of air pollution control residues produced in a municipal solid waste incinerator in Portugal.

    Quina, Margarida J; Santos, Regina C; Bordado, João C; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M


    This study is mainly related with the physical and chemical characterization of a solid waste, produced in a municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration process, which is usually referred as air pollution control (APC) residue. The moisture content, loss on ignition (LOI), particle size distribution, density, porosity, specific surface area and morphology were the physical properties addressed here. At the chemical level, total elemental content (TC), total availability (TA) and the leaching behaviour with compliance tests were determined, as well as the acid neutralization capacity (ANC). The main mineralogical crystalline phases were identified, and the thermal behaviour of the APC residues is also shown. The experimental work involves several techniques such as laser diffraction spectrometry, mercury porosimetry, helium pycnometry, gas adsorption, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), ion chromatography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and simultaneous thermal analysis (STA). The results point out that the APC residues do not comply with regulations in force at the developed countries, and therefore the waste should be considered hazardous. Among the considered heavy metals, lead, zinc and chromium were identified as the most problematic ones, and their total elemental quantities are similar for several samples collected in an industrial plant at different times. Moreover, the high amount of soluble salts (NaCl, KCl, calcium compounds) may constitute a major problem and should be taken into account for all management strategies. The solubility in water is very high (more than 24% for a solid/liquid ratio of 10) and thus the possible utilizations of this residue are very limited, creating difficulties also in the ordinary treatments, such as in solidification/stabilization with binders.


    Eibling, R; Erich Hansen, E; Bradley Pickenheim, B


    High level waste tanks 18F and 19F have residual mounds of waste which may require removal before the tanks can be closed. Conventional slurry pump technology, previously used for waste removal and tank cleaning, has been incapable of removing theses mounds from tanks 18F and 19F. A mechanical cleaning method has been identified that is potentially capable of removing and transferring the mound material to tank 7F for incorporation in a sludge batch for eventual disposal in high level waste glass by the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been requested to evaluate whether the material transferred from tanks 18F/19F by the mechanical cleaning technology can later be suspended in Tank 7F by conventional slurry pumps after mixing with high level waste sludge. The proposed mechanical cleaning process for removing the waste mounds from tanks 18 and 19 may utilize a high pressure water jet-eductor that creates a vacuum to mobilize solids. The high pressure jet is also used to transport the suspended solids. The jet-eductor system will be mounted on a mechanical crawler for movement around the bottom of tanks 18 and 19. Based on physical chemical property testing of the jet-eductor system processed IE-95 zeolite and size-reduced IE-95 zeolite, the following conclusions were made: (1) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite has a mean and median particle size (volume basis) of 115.4 and 43.3 microns in water. Preferential settling of these large particles is likely. (2) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite rapidly generates settled solid yield stresses in excess of 11,000 Pascals in caustic supernates and will not be easily retrieved from Tank 7 with the existing slurry pump technology. (3) Settled size-reduced IE-95 zeolite (less than 38 microns) in caustic supernate does not generate yield stresses in excess of 600 Pascals in less than 30 days. (4) Preferential settling of size-reduced zeolite is a function of the amount of

  10. Comparison between liquid and solid acids catalysts on reducing sugars conversion from furfural residues via pretreatments.

    Lin, Keying; Ma, Baojun; Sun, Yuan; Liu, Wanyi


    Liquid sulphuric acid is adopted and compared with carbon-based sulfonated solid acids (coal tar-based and active carbon-based) for furfural residues conversion into reducing sugars. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of liquid acid are at 4% of sulphuric acid, 25:1 of liquid and solid ratio, 175°C of reaction temperature and 120 min of reaction time. The reducing sugar yields are reached over 60% on liquid acid via NaOH/H2O2, NaOH/microwave and NaOH/ultrasonic pretreatments, whereas only over 30% on solid acids. The TOFs (turnover number frequency) via NaOH/H2O2 pretreatments are 0.093, 0.020 and 0.023 h(-1) for liquid sulphuric acid, coal tar-based and active carbon-based solid acids catalysts, respectively. Considering the efficiency, cost and environment factors, the liquid and solid acids have their own advantages of potential commercial application values.


    Mirella Irena Fernandes; Shirley Suely Soares Veras Maciel; Waneska Cybelle de Souza Xavier


    .... During this process of attendance different material they are used, generating effluent that they will need to be dealt with and a great variety solid residues that will need an adequate management...

  12. Management of the solid residues in the services of health of the hospitals of Caruaru-PE

    Mirella Irena Fernandes; Shirley Suely Soares Veras Maciel; Waneska Cybelle de Souza Xavier


    .... During this process of attendance different material they are used, generating effluent that they will need to be dealt with and a great variety solid residues that will need an adequate management...

  13. Metal releases from a municipal solid waste incineration air pollution control residue mixed with compost.

    Van Praagh, M; Persson, K M


    The influence of 10 wt.% mature compost was tested on the heavy metal leachate emissions from a calcium-rich municipal solid waste incineration air pollution control residue (MSWI APC). Apart from elongated columns (500 and 1250 mm), an otherwise norm compliant European percolation test setup was used. More than 99% of the metals Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe and Ni were left in the APC residue after leaching to a liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) of 10. Apparent short-term effects of elevated leachate DOC concentrations on heavy metal releases were not detected. Zn and Pb leachate concentrations were one order of magnitude lower for L/S 5 and 10 from the pure APC residue column, which suggests a possible long-term effect of compost on the release of these elements. Prolonging the contact time between the pore water and the material resulted in elevated leachate concentrations at L/S 0.1 to L/S 1 by a factor of 2. Only Cr and Pb concentrations were at their maxima in the first leachates at L/S 0.1. Equilibrium speciation modelling with the PHREEQC code suggested portlandite (Ca(OH)2) to control Ca solubility and pH.

  14. Enhancement of high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis of corncob residues by bisulfite pretreatment for biorefinery.

    Xing, Yang; Bu, Lingxi; Zheng, Tianran; Liu, Shijie; Jiang, Jianxin


    Co-production of glucose, furfural and other green materials based on a lignocellulosic biorefinery is a promising way to realize the commercial application of corncob residues. An effective process was developed for glucose production using low temperature bisulfite pretreatment and high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis. Corncob residues from furfural production (FRs) were pretreated with 0.1g NaHSO3/g dry substrate at 100°C for 3h. Lignin was sulfonated and sulfonic groups were produced during pretreatment, which resulted in decreasing the zeta potential of the samples. Compared with raw material, bisulfite pretreatment of FRs increased the glucose yield from 18.6 to 99.45% after 72h hydrolysis at a solids loading of 12.5%. The hydrolysis residues showed a relatively high thermal stability and concentrated high derivatives. Direct pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis is an environmentally-friendly and economically-feasible method for the production of glucose and high-purity lignin, which could be further converted into high-value products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of pre-treatment methods for landfill disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration.

    Kim, Sang-Yul; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Nobutoshi


    This study presents results concerning leaching of Pb, Cd, Ca, and Cl with reference to one individual batch of bottom ash and fly ash (5:1) resulting from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in Japan. This ash mixture was stabilised by the following pre-treatments: water washing, carbonation, and phosphate stabilisation. Once the optimum processing condition for each pre-treatment was determined, the performances were evaluated using both pH-stat leaching (pH 6, 9, 12) and availability tests. These performance tests were carried out with only fly ash without considering the mixture of MSWI residues, in order to accurately determine leaching differences among the pre-treatments. Water washing effectively removed the major elements from MSWI residues and also reduced the leachability of trace metals, such as Pb and Cd. A washing time of 15 minutes with a liquid/solid ratio of 5 was reasonably effective. Carbonation had a significant effect on leachability in alkaline ranges (pH 9 and 12), when the reaction occurred only on the surface of MSWI residues, moreover a moisture content of 10-16.7% was proved suitable for carbonation. On the other hand, phosphate stabilisation, even with small amounts of phosphate (0.16 mol-PO4(3-) kg(-1)), was very effective in reducing the leachability of heavy metals.

  16. Obtaining fuel oils from the low temperature conversion of biomass waste; Obtencao de oleo combustivel a partir da conversao a baixa temperatura de biomassa residual

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes; Cinelli, Leonardo Rodrigues [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail:; Romeiro, Gilberto Alves; Damasceno, Raimundo Nonato [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica Organica]. E-mail:; Senra, Paulo Mauricio de Albuquerque [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Estudos e Gestao de Geracao]. E-mail:


    This paper refers to the characterization and application of oil obtained through the 'Low Temperature Conversion Process' applied to industrial waste generated in the treatment of effluent from the petrochemical industry. Physical and chemical parameters, such as viscosity, density, sulfur content, flash point, point of fluidity were obtained. The characterization of the oil obtained indicates the possibility of classifying it as oil fuel. Also, studying the application of the oil in engines. Developed from studies on the feasibility of producing biodiesel from sludge of sewage treatment plants in Germany of the 1980s, the 'Low Temperature Conversion-LTC' technique, is a thermo chemical process, whose main goal is to extend the life of liabilities environment. The LTC is being applied in various biomass of urban, industrial and agricultural origin, looking up through the thermal conversion transform them into products of potential commercial value. Depending on the type of biomass used in the process, are obtained a fraction lipophilic and a carbonaceous solid waste in a varying of proportions, plus a fraction hydrophilic and conversion gas. The lipophilic fraction is targeted to studies about the feasibility of its application as fuel or other compounds with possible commercial application (such as greases, oils, resins, etc.), while the carbonaceous residue is directed to studies about its activation for the used as activated charcoal, in addition to the possible direct use as energy.

  17. Cellulase and xylanase productions by isolated Amazon Bacillus strains using soybean industrial residue based solid-state cultivation

    Heck Júlio X.


    Full Text Available In Brazil, a large amount of a fibrous residue is generated as result of soybean (Glycine max protein production. This material, which is rich in hemicellulose and cellulose, can be used in solid state cultivations for the production of valuable metabolites and enzymes. In this work, we studied the bioconversion of this residue by bacteria strains isolated from water and soil collected in the Amazon region. Five strains among 87 isolated bacteria selected for their ability to produce either celullases or xylanases were cultivated on the aforementioned residue. From strain BL62, identified as Bacillus subtilis, it was obtained a preparation showing the highest specific cellulase activity, 1.08 UI/mg protein within 24 hours of growth. Concerning xylanase, the isolate BL53, also identified as Bacillus subtilis, showed the highest specific activity for this enzyme, 5.19 UI/mg protein within 72 hours of cultivation. It has also been observed the production of proteases that were associated with the loss of cellulase and xylanase activities. These results indicated that the selected microorganisms, and the cultivation process, have great biotechnological potential.


    Dulce A. Flores-Maltos


    Full Text Available Biological wastes contain several reusable substances of high value such as soluble sugars and fiber. Direct disposal of such wastes to soil or landfill causes serious environmental problems. Thus, the development of potential value-added processes for these wastes is highly attractive. These biological wastes can be used as support-substrates in Solid-State Fermentation (SSF to produce industrially relevant metabolites with great economical advantage. In addition, it is an environment friendly method of waste management. In this study were analyzed six different Mexican agro industrial residues to evaluate their suitability as support-substrate in SSF, between physicochemical properties that have included Water Absorption Index (WAI, Critical Moisture Point (CHP and Packing Density (PD. The selection of an appropriate solid substrate plays an important role in the development of an efficient SSF process. The results provided important knowledge about the characteristics of these materials revealing their potential for use in fermentation processes.

  19. An energy analysis of torrefaction for upgrading microalga residue as a solid fuel.

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Huang, Ming-Yueh; Chang, Jo-Shu; Chen, Chun-Yen; Lee, Wen-Jhy


    The torrefaction characteristics and energy utilization of microalga Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 (C. sp. JSC4) residue under the combination of temperature and duration are studied by examining contour maps. The torrefaction temperature on the contour line of solid yield has a trend to linearly decrease with increasing duration. An index of relative energy efficiency (REE) is introduced to identify the performance of energy utilization for upgrading biomass. For a fixed energy yield, the optimal operation can be found to maximize the heating value of the biomass and minimize the solid yield. The energy utilization under the combination of a high temperature and a short duration is more efficient than that of a low temperature and a long duration. The maximum REE along the contour line of energy yield is always exhibited at the highest temperature (300°C) where the energy efficiency can be enlarged by a factor of at least 2.36.

  20. Polar volatiles on Mars - Theory versus observation. [solid carbon dioxide in north residual cap

    Murray, B. C.; Malin, M. C.


    Synthesis of the results of the Mariner 9 mission, as they pertain to polar volatiles, and comparison of them with a description of the solid-vapor equilibrium relations believed to be presently active on Mars. The discovery by Mariner 9 of extensive volcanic deposits on portions of the Martian surface suggests that the total amount of CO2 liberated to the surface probably exceeds that now present in the atmosphere. Thus excess CO2 in the solid form is to be expected in the polar areas. Although the simplified model of Leighton and Murray (1966), which predicts a permanent CO2 cap, has significant deficiencies both theoretically and observationally, the seasonal caps are composed of CO2, as predicted, excess CO2 is quite likely, and a permanent deposit of solid CO2 evidently is in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2. It is suggested that there must be a large reservoir of solid CO2 in gaseous equilibrium with the atmosphere, but buried immediately below the exposed residual water-ice cap. This reservoir is believed to be located near the north pole. The principal effect of such a reservoir is to average out annual and longer-term fluctuations in the polar heat balance.

  1. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: A review

    Lindberg, Daniel, E-mail:; Molin, Camilla, E-mail:; Hupa, Mikko, E-mail:


    Highlights: • We review the thermal treatment methods for ashes and residues from WtE plants. • We review the results from extensive laboratory work on vitrification, melting and vaporization of ash. • We analyze the results from the extensive patent literature on thermal treatment. • We review industrial concepts for thermal treatment of ash. - Abstract: Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field.

  2. Solid state anaerobic co-digestion of tomato residues with dairy manure and corn stover for biogas production.

    Li, Yangyang; Li, Yu; Zhang, Difang; Li, Guoxue; Lu, Jiaxin; Li, Shuyan


    Solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of tomato residues with dairy manure and corn stover was conducted at 20% total solids under 35°C for 45days. Results showed digestion of mixed tomato residues with dairy manure and corn stover improved methane yields. The highest VS reduction (46.2%) and methane yield (415.4L/kg VSfeed) were achieved with the ternary mixtures of 33% corn stover, 54% dairy manure, and 13% tomato residues, lead to a 0.5-10.2-fold higher than that of individual feedstocks. Inhibition of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) to biogas production occurred when more than 40% tomato residues were added. The results indicated that ternary mixtures diluted the inhibitors that would otherwise cause inhibition in the digestion of tomato residues as a mono-feedstock.

  3. A review of municipal solid waste environmental standards with a focus on incinerator residues

    Alec Liu


    Full Text Available Environmental issues are often neglected until a lapse in the care for environment, which leads to serious human health problem, would then put regulation gaps in the spotlight. Environmental regulations and standards are important as they maintain balance among competing resources and help protect human health and the environment. One important environmental standard is related to municipal solid waste (MSW. Proper MSW management is crucial for urban public health. Meanwhile, the sustainability of landfills is also of concern as increasing volumes of MSW consume finite landfill space. The incineration of MSW and the reuse of incinerated residues help alleviate the burden on landfill space. However, the reuse of MSW incinerator residues must be regulated because they may expose the environment to toxic heavy metal elements. The study of environmental standards from different countries applicable to MSW is not widely published, much less those for incinerated MSW residue reuse. This paper compares extant waste classification and reuse standards pertinent to MSW, and explores the unique recent history and policy evolution in some countries exhibiting high environmental regard and rapid changes, so that policy makers can propose new or revise current MSW standards in other countries.

  4. Leaching of Antimony (Sb)from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Residues

    Herrmann, Inga


    The mobility of antimony (Sb) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues often exceeds the limit values stipulated by the European Union. As an ash treatment by washing is conceivable, this work investigated the Sb release from Swedish bottom ash and fly ash when mixed with water. The leaching experiments revealed the factors significantly (a = 0.05) affecting Sb release from the ashes. The following factors were investigated: Liquid to solid ratio (L/S), time, pH, carbonation (treatment with CO{sub 2}), ultrasonics and temperature. The data were evaluated using multiple linear regression (MLR). The impact of the factors could be quantified. The maximum Sb release calculated was 13 mg/kg DM for bottom ash and 51 mg/kg DM for fly ash. The derived models explained the observed data well. Nevertheless, the calculated values were subject to a high uncertainty. For bottom ash, a lowering of the Sb total content of approximately 22% could be achieved. If this also involves a sufficient lowering of the Sb mobility to meet EU limit values could not yet be assessed. Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed to explain the empirical results. However, no solid phases controlling Sb release from the ashes could be identified.

  5. Conversion of agroindustrial residues for high poly(γ-glutamic acid) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 via solid-state fermentation.

    Tang, Bao; Xu, Hong; Xu, Zongqi; Xu, Cen; Xu, Zheng; Lei, Peng; Qiu, Yibin; Liang, Jinfeng; Feng, Xiaohai


    Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 was carried out through solid-state fermentation with dry mushroom residues (DMR) and monosodium glutamate production residues (MGPR; a substitute of glutamate) for the first time. Dry shiitake mushroom residue (DSMR) was found to be the most suitable solid substrate among these DMRs; the optimal DSMR-to-MGPR ratio was optimized as 12:8. To increase γ-PGA production, industrial waste glycerol was added as a carbon source supplement to the solid-state medium. As a result, γ-PGA production increased by 34.8%. The batch fermentation obtained an outcome of 115.6 g kg(-1) γ-PGA and 39.5×10(8) colony forming units g(-1) cells. Furthermore, a satisfactory yield of 107.7 g kg(-1) γ-PGA was achieved by compost experiment on a scale of 50 kg in open air, indicating that economically large-scale γ-PGA production was feasible. Therefore, this study provided a novel method to produce γ-PGA from abundant and low-cost agroindustrial residues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous determination of carbaryl and o-phenylphenol residues in waters by first-derivative synchronous solid-phase spectrofluorimetry.

    Capitán-Vallvey, L F; Rohand, J; Navalón, A; Avidad, R; Vilchez, J L


    A spectrofluorimetric method for the simultaneous determination of carbaryl (CBL) and o-phenylphenol (OPP) residue mixtures in waters has been developed. Carbaryl was hydrolysed in alkaline medium to give 1-naphthol. This compound and o-phenylphenol were fixed on QAE Sephadex A-25 gel at pH 10.75. The fluorescence of the gel, packed in a 1-mm silica cell, was measured directly with a solid-surface attachment. Overlapping of conventional fluorescence spectra is resolved by using first-derivative synchronous spectrofluorimetry and allows for the complete resolution of the mixture. The range of application is between 0.4 and 25.0 ng/ml for OPP and 0.8 and 25.0 ng/ml for CBL. The detection limits for o-phenylphenol and carbaryl were 0.1 and 0.2 ng/ml, respectively. The accuracy and precision of the method are reported. The method is suitable for determination of carbaryl and o-phenylphenol residues in natural waters. Recoveries from 95 to 105% have been obtained for natural waters spiked with CBL and OPP.

  7. Composting of solid and sludge residues from agricultural and food industries. Bioindicators of monitoring and compost maturity.

    Ranalli, G; Bottura, G; Taddei, P; Garavani, M; Marchetti, R; Sorlini, C


    A study to monitor the composting process, to evaluate the effectiveness of bioindicators for the quality and maturity of cured compost obtained by a mixture of winery residues, sludges from dairies and solid residues from food processing (grape-stalks, grape-dregs, rice husks), was conducted. Composting process lasting five months was monitored by chemico-physical, spectroscopic (FTIR, DTG and DSC), microbiological and enzymatic analyses. Biological activities (ATP, DHA contents and several enzymatic activities), impedance variations (DT) of mixed cultures during growth and potential pathogens (E. coli and Salmonella sp.), were determined. The phytotoxicity tests gave a germination index higher than 90% and no significant genotoxic differences between controls and the compost samples were evidenced. Pathogens were not found on the cured compost that can therefore be satisfactorily used as amendment for agricultural crops. However, no single measurement of a composting process factor, biological, chemical or physical, gave a comprehensive view of the quality of a specific composting. We proposed a tool of bioindicators of potential activity and markers in combination for integrated evaluation of monitoring of composting process and compost quality. The responses of several enzymatic activities were positive and indicative of their favorable use capable to reveal even very small changes within microbial population and activity in test and monitoring of compost programmes.


    Olayinka Quadri Adio


    Full Text Available In this study mould strains screened and molecularly identified as Aspergillus niger F7-02 was used to produced extracellular lipase in Solid State Fermentation (SSF process. Different agricultural residues were combined in different ratios as carbon, nitrogen and elemental sources in the solid culture medium. The optimization of the culture medium was carried out for such parameters as incubation time (24 h - 96 h, inoculum concentration (0.5 – 3.0%, w/v, initial moisture content (40 – 70%, w/v, and initial pH (6 – 8 for maximum yield. The maximum lipase activity of 76.7 U/ml was obtained with a medium containing rice bran (RB, palm kernel cake (PKC, groundnut cake (GNC and starch (S at the ratio of 5:5:3:1 (%w/w with optimum conditions of 60% moisture, 1% inoculum and a pH of 7.0 with an incubation temperature of 30 oC and incubation time of 72 h.

  9. Characteristics of residual organics in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash.

    Lin, Yen-Ching; Yen, Jui-Hung; Lateef, Shaik Khaja; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy; Lin, Cheng-Fang


    Although heavy metals in bottom ash have been a primary issue in resource recovery of municipal solid waste incinerator residues in past decades, less studied are potentially toxic and odorous organic fractions that exist as they have not been completely oxidized during the mass burn process. Using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and soxtec extraction (SE) techniques, this study investigated the characteristics of un-oxidized organic residues contained in bottom ash from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Taiwan during 2008-2009. All together 99 organics were identified in bottom ash samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the identified organics, aromatic compounds were most frequently detected. No polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted by SFE or SE. Several phthalates (e.g., phthalic acid isobutyl tridec-2-yn-1-yl ester, dibutyl phthalate and 2-butoxyethyl butyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate), organic phosphates (e.g., octicizer and phosphoric acid isodecyl diphenyl ester), and aromatics and amines including pyridine, quinoline derivatives, chloro- and cyano-organics were successfully extracted. Aromatic amines (e.g., 1-nitro-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydro-anthracene-2-carboxylic acid diethylamide and 3-bromo-N-(4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl)-propanamide) and aromatic compounds (other than amines) (e.g., 7-chloro-4-methoxy-3-methylquinoline and 2,3-dihydro-N-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,3-dimethyl indole-2-one) are probably the major odorous compounds in bottom ash. This work identifies organic pollutants in incinerated bottom ash that have received far less attention than their heavy metals counterpart.

  10. 40 CFR 2.305 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended. 2.305 Section 2.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.305 Special rules governing...

  11. Pretreatment methods to obtain pumpable high solid loading wood–water slurries for continuous hydrothermal liquefaction systems

    Dãrãbana, Iulia-Maria; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer


    Feedstock pretreatment is a prerequisite step for continuous processing of lignocellulosic biomass through HTL, in order to facilitate the pumpability of biomass aqueous slurries. Until now, HTL feedstock pumpability could only be achieved at solid mass content below 15%. In this work, two...... pretreatment methods to obtain wood-based slurries with more than 20% solid mass content, for continuous processing in HTL systems, are proposed. The effect of biomass particle size and pretreatment method on the feedstock pumpability is analyzed. The experimental results show that pumpable wood-based slurries...... containing 20% solids can be prepared using recycle HTL biocrude as carrier fluid, if particles smaller than 0.125 mm are used. The recycle biocrude concentration used for slurry make-up is strongly affected by the sawdust size distribution. A second pretreatment option is feedstock thermal treatment...

  12. Approaching zero cellulose loss in cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) production: recovery and characterization of cellulosic solid residues (CSR) and CNC

    Q.Q. Wang; J.Y. Zhu; R.S. Reiner; S.P. Verrill; U. Baxa; S.E. McNeil


    This study demonstrated the potential of simultaneously recovering cellulosic solid residues (CSR) and producing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by strong sulfuric acid hydrolysis to minimize cellulose loss to near zero. A set of slightly milder acid hydrolysis conditions than that considered as “optimal” were used to significantly minimize the degradation of cellulose...

  13. Thermal evolution of La{sup 3+}/ZrO{sub 2} solid solutions obtained by mechanochemical activation

    Fuertes, M.C.; Salgueiro, W.; Somoza, A.; Porto Lopez, J.M


    A study on the microstructural evolution with the temperature of La{sup 3+}/ZrO{sub 2} cubic solid solutions obtained by mechanochemical activation of mixtures ZrO{sub 2}-La{sub 2}O{sub 3} is presented. The development of crystallinity with thermal treatments in the range 1073-1673 K was followed by means of positron lifetime measurements and X-ray diffraction as main experimental techniques.

  14. Stabilization/solidification of a municipal solid waste incineration residue using fly ash-based geopolymers.

    Luna Galiano, Y; Fernández Pereira, C; Vale, J


    The stabilization/solidification (S/S) of a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash containing hazardous metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn or Ba by means of geopolymerization technology is described in this paper. Different reagents such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate, potassium silicate, kaolin, metakaolin and ground blast furnace slag have been used. Mixtures of MSWI waste with these kinds of geopolymeric materials and class F coal fly ash used as silica and alumina source have been processed to study the potential of geopolymers as waste immobilizing agents. To this end, the effects of curing conditions and composition have been tested. S/S solids are submitted to compressive strength and leaching tests to assess the results obtained and to evaluate the efficiency of the treatment. Compressive strength values in the range 1-9 MPa were easily obtained at 7 and 28 days. Concentrations of the metals leached from S/S products were strongly pH dependent, showing that the leachate pH was the most important variable for the immobilization of metals. Comparison of fly ash-based geopolymer systems with classical Portland cement stabilization methods has also been accomplished.

  15. Solid-liquid extraction of alkali metals and organic compounds by leaching of food industry residues.

    Yu, Chaowei; Zheng, Yi; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Jenkins, Bryan M; Zhang, Ruihong; VanderGheynst, Jean S


    Leaching was studied for its application in extracting inorganic and organic constituents from fresh fermented grape pomace, air-dried fermented grape pomace and air-dried sugar beet pulp. Samples of each feedstock were leached in water at ambient temperature for 30 or 120 min at dry solid-to-liquid ratios of 1/20 and 1/50 kg/L. Leaching removed 82% of sodium, 86% of potassium, and 76% of chlorine from sugar beet pulp, and reduced total ash concentration in air-dry fermented grape pomace from 8.2% to 2.9% of dry matter, 8.2% to 4.4% in fresh fermented grape pomace, and 12.5% to 5.4% in sugar beet pulp. Glycerol (7-11 mg/dry g), ethanol (131-158 mg/dry g), and acetic acid (24-31 mg/dry g) were also extracted from fermented grape pomace. These results indicate that leaching is a beneficial pretreatment step for improving the quality of food processing residues for thermochemical and biochemical conversion.

  16. Obtaining solid electrolytes based on zirconium oxide; Obtencao de eletrolitos solidos baseados em oxido de zirconio

    Cajas, P.C.; Munoz, R.; Silva, C.R.M da, E-mail: [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)


    Ceramic materials based on zirconia were synthesized by the controlled precipitation method, ZrO{sub 2}: 3% molY{sub 2}O{sub 3}: η mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (η = 3,4,5), using commercial zirconia, TZ-3YB-E, and a concentrate of mixed rare earth oxides. The powder samples were thermally treated at 600 ° C (2h) to remove unwanted carbonates formed in the synthesis process, and then subjected to milling using attrition mill and finally compacted by uniaxial pressing and sintered at 1500 ° C (2h). The densities were analyzed by the Archimedes method, obtaining results higher than 96% of theoretical. Using XRD and Rietveld refinements, the phases present in the samples were known qualitatively and quantitatively, observing a mixture of the cubic and tetragonal phases. An improvement in the conductivity in the samples co-doped with complex impedance spectroscopy was determined.

  17. Obtaining of gas, liquid, and upgraded solid fuel from brown coals in supercritical water

    Vostrikov, A. A.; Fedyaeva, O. N.; Dubov, D. Yu.; Shishkin, A. V.; Sokol, M. Ya.


    Two new conversion methods of brown coals in water steam and supercritical water (SCW) are proposed and investigated. In the first method, water steam or SCW is supplied periodically into the array of coal particles and then is ejected from the reactor along with dissolved conversion products. The second method includes the continuous supply of water-coal suspension (WCS) into the vertically arranged reactor from above. When using the proposed methods, agglomeration of coal particles is excluded and a high degree of conversion of coal into liquid and gaseous products is provided. Due to the removal of the main mass of oxygen during conversion in the composition of CO2, the high heating value of fuels obtained from liquid substantially exceeds this characteristic of starting coal. More than half of the sulfur atoms transfer into H2S during the SCW conversion already at a temperature lower than 450°C.

  18. Fed-Batch Enzymatic Saccharification of High Solids Pretreated Lignocellulose for Obtaining High Titers and High Yields of Glucose.

    Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yang, Jungwoo; Kim, Kyoung Heon


    To reduce the distillation costs of cellulosic ethanol, it is necessary to produce high sugar titers in the enzymatic saccharification step. To obtain high sugar titers, high biomass loadings of lignocellulose are necessary. In this study, to overcome the low saccharification yields and the low operability of high biomass loadings, a fed-batch saccharification process was developed using an enzyme reactor that was designed and built in-house. After optimizing the cellulase and biomass feeding profiles and the agitation speed, 132.6 g/L glucose and 76.0% theoretical maximum glucose were obtained from the 60 h saccharification of maleic acid-pretreated rice straw at a 30% (w/v) solids loading with 15 filter paper units (FPU) of Cellic CTec2/g glucan. This study demonstrated that through the proper optimization of fed-batch saccharification, both high sugar titers and high saccharification yields are possible, even with using the high solids loading (i.e., ≥30%) with the moderate enzyme loading (i.e., high solids saccharification process in cellulosic fuel and chemical production.

  19. Simultaneous Determination of TetracyclinesResidues in Bovine Milk Samples by Solid Phase Extraction and HPLC-FL Method

    Mehra Mesgari Abbasi


    Full Text Available Introduction:Tetracyclines (TCs are widely used in animal husbandry and their residues in milk may resultinharmful effects on human. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of TCs residues in various bovine milk samples from local markets of Ardabil, Iran. Methods:One hundred and fourteen pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples were collected from markets of Ardabil. Tetracycline, Oxytetracycline and Chlortetracycline (TCs residues extraction carried out by Solid Phase Extraction method. Determination of TCs residues were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method using Fluorescence detector.Results: The mean of total TCs residues in all samples (114 samples was 97.6 ±16.9ng/g and that of pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples were 87.1 ± 17.7, 112.0 ± 57.3 and 154.0 ± 66.3ng/g respectively. Twenty five point four percent of the all samples, and24.4%, 30% and 28.6% of the pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples, respectively had higher TCs residues than the recommended maximum levels (100ng/g. Conclusion:This study indicates the presence of tetracycline residues more than allowed amount. Regulatory authorities should ensure proper withdrawal period before milking the animals and definite supervisions are necessary on application of these drugs.

  20. Solid-state 13C NMR and molecular modeling studies of acetyl aleuritolic acid obtained from Croton cajucara Benth

    da Silva San Gil, Rosane Aguiar; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; da Cunha Pinto, Angelo; do Espírito Santo Gomes, Fabiano; de Castro Dantas, Tereza Neuma; Maciel, Maria Aparecida Medeiros


    Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13C NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS) and with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) spectra, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to obtain structural data from a sample of acetyl aleuritolic acid (AAA) extracted from the stem bark of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) and recrystallized from acetone. Since solid-state 13C NMR results suggested the presence of more than one molecule in the unitary cell for the AAA, DSC analysis and molecular modeling calculations were used to access this possibility. The absence of phase transition peaks in the DSC spectra and the dimeric models of AAA simulated using the semi-empirical PM3 method are in agreement with that proposal.

  1. Immobilization of lipase on mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-48 obtained using ionic solid as a structure director and esterification reaction on solvent-free

    Catia S. Z. Battiston

    Full Text Available Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB is an enzyme able to catalyze chemical reaction, however when it is used as a free enzyme, it cannot be recovered from reaction medium. One of the alternatives is to immobilize the enzymes on a support which allows the maintenance of their catalytic activities. The purpose of this paper was to immobilize the CALB on MCM-48 using the ionic solid [C16MI]Cl as structure director. 22 CCRD (Central Composite Rotational Design was proposed to analyze the influence of the variables like enzyme mass (0.059 to 0.341 g and ionic solid concentration (0.59 to 3.41% in the enzyme immobilization process to obtain the maximum esterification activity in order to optimize the process. After immobilization, the study results showed that the enzymes exhibited improvement of thermal (40, 60 and 80 ºC and storage stability (90 days, besides the possibility to reuse of the enzyme up to 10 times, showing residual activity of 50%.

  2. Effect of saponification on the anaerobic digestion of solid fatty residues.

    Mouneimne, A H; Carrère, H; Bernet, N; Delgenès, J P


    In France, fatty residues considered as "non-ultimate" waste will not be accepted in landfill from 2002, in accordance with French legislation. Anaerobic digestion appears as an alternative process to mobilize and profitably use such fermentable waste. In this work, the effect of an alkaline pretreatment on the degradation of hexane extractible matter (HEM) and the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was compared in reactors working at pH 6.5 and 8.5. The results obtained showed that 40% (+/- 0.1) of HEM were degraded at pH 8.5 versus 10% (+/- 0.3) at pH 6.5, regardless of the alkali agent used to saponify the greasy wastes. The highest performances of VFA production (8.45% +/- 0.3) were obtained at pH 8.5 with greases saponified by potassium hydroxide, compared to results (4.25% +/- 0.1) with greasy waste saponified by sodium hydroxide. This difference in VFA production might be attributable to biotoxic molecules generated during the saponification of greases by soda, limiting consequently the VFA production process.

  3. Optimization of manganese peroxidase production from Schizophyllum sp. F17 in solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial residues.

    Zhou, Yue; Yang, Bing; Yang, Yang; Jia, Rong


    Manganese peroxidase (MnP), a crucial enzyme in lignin degradation, has wide potential applications in environmental protection. However, large-scale industrial application of this enzyme is limited due to several factors primarily related to cost and availability. Special attention has been paid to the production of MnP from inexpensive sources, such as lignocellulosic residues, using solid-state fermentation (SSF) systems. In the present study, a suitable SSF medium for the production of MnP by Schizophyllum sp. F17 from agro-industrial residues has been optimized. The mixed solid medium, comprising pine sawdust, rice straw, and soybean powder at a ratio of 0.52:0.15:0.33, conferred a maximum enzyme activity of 11.18 U/g on the sixth day of SSF. The results show that the use of wastes such as pine sawdust and rice straw makes the enzyme production more economical as well as helps solve environmental problems.


    Natalia C. Ladeira


    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation (SSF has been used as a model for the study of metabolism and physiology of microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to enhance 6-PP production by Trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as a residue. A fractional factorial design was used to select the components of the nutrient solution. The fermentation was carried out during 9 days, and the aroma extraction was done on the third, fifth, seventh, and ninth days using organic solvent. On the seventh day the major concentration of 6-PP was found. The variables glucose, sucrose, and MgSO4 were found to be significant statistically (p> 0.05 as components of the nutrient solution used in the production of 6-PP by filamentous fungi in SSF using sugarcane bagasse as a residue. GC-MS was used for quantification of 6-PP aroma.

  5. Establishment of Primary Cell Culture From Ascitic Fluid and Solid Tumor Obtained From Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma Patients.

    Kar, Rajarshi; Chawla, Diwesh; Gupta, Bindiya; Mehndiratta, Mohit; Wadhwa, Neelam; Agarwal, Rachna


    Ovarian cancer is the seventh leading cause of cancer death worldwide. This is mainly due to late diagnosis and high rate of relapse and resistance following chemotherapy. In the present study, we describe simple and cost-effective method to establish primary culture from ascitic fluid and solid tumor obtained from epithelial ovarian carcinoma patient, which may provide a better tool for in vitro testing of drug sensitivity and designing individualized treatment protocol. Complete Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM) was prepared by supplementing DMEM with 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and amphotericin B). Establishment of primary culture of ovarian cancer cells from ascites fluid and solid tumor was done by using complete DMEM media. Primary cultures of ovarian cancer cells were established from ascitic fluid and solid tumor tissue. Of the 7 ascitic fluid samples, we were able to establish 5 primary cultures of ovarian cancer cells. All the 7 samples were diagnosed as serous papillary adenocarcinoma. Some fibroblasts were also attached to culture flask on day 4; they were removed by exposing them to trypsin for a brief period. On day 7, grape-like clusters were visualized under inverted microscope. The cells became confluent on the 10th and 11th day and showed cobblestone appearance, which is a hallmark of ovarian cancer cells. Senescent irregularly shaped cells that have ceased dividing were seen after 8 to 10 passages. This study highlights the fact that establishing primary cultures from ascitic fluid or solid tumor tissue may help us to understand the molecular profile of the cancer cells, which allow us to select the best chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer patients and thus take a step toward patient-tailored therapy so that patients are not exposed to drugs to which they are not likely to respond.

  6. Determination of Sudan Residues in Sausage by Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Zhai, Yujuan; Cheng, Jianhua


    A method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion and high-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the determination of four Sudan red residues in sausage. The proposed method required only 0.5 g sample. The neutral alumina was used as the dispersant sorbent while n-hexane containing 10% (v/v) acetone was used as the eluting solvent. The recoveries in samples ranged from 76.4 to 111.0% and relative standard deviations were sausage.

  7. Gallic Acid Production with Mouldy Polyurethane Particles Obtained from Solid State Culture of Aspergillus niger GH1.

    Mata-Gómez, Marco; Mussatto, Solange I; Rodríguez, Raul; Teixeira, Jose A; Martinez, Jose L; Hernandez, Ayerim; Aguilar, Cristóbal N


    Gallic acid production in a batch bioreactor was evaluated using as catalytic material the mouldy polyurethane solids (MPS) obtained from a solid-state fermentation (SSF) bioprocess carried out for tannase production by Aspergillus niger GH1 on polyurethane foam powder (PUF) with 5 % (v/w) of tannic acid as inducer. Fungal biomass, tannic acid consumption and tannase production were kinetically monitored. SSF was stopped when tannase activity reached its maximum level. Effects of washing with distilled water and drying on the tannase activity of MPS were determined. Better results were obtained with dried and washed MPS retaining 84 % of the tannase activity. Maximum tannase activity produced through SSF after 24 h of incubation was equivalent to 130 U/gS with a specific activity of 36 U/mg. The methylgallate was hydrolysed (45 %) in an easy, cheap and fast bioprocess (30 min). Kinetic parameters of tannase self-immobilized on polyurethane particles were calculated to be 5 mM and 04.1 × 10(-2) mM/min for K M and V max, respectively. Results demonstrated that the MPS, with tannase activity, can be successfully used for the production of the antioxidant gallic acid from methyl-gallate substrate. Direct use of PMS to produce gallic acid can be advantageous as no previous extraction of enzyme is required, thus reducing production costs.

  8. Solid waste management of coal conversion residuals from a commercial-size facility: environmental engineering aspects. Final report

    Bern, J.; Neufeld, R. D.; Shapiro, M. A.


    Major residuals generated by the conversion process and its auxiliary operations include: (a) coal preparation wastes; (b) gasifier ash; (c) liquefaction solids-char; (d) tail gas or flue gas desulfurization sludge; (e) boiler flyash and bottom ash; (f) raw water treatment sludge, and; (g) biosludges from process wastewater treatment. Recovered sulfur may also require disposal management. Potential environmental and health impacts from each of the residues are described on the basis of characterization of the waste in the perspective of water quality degradation. Coal gasification and liquefaction systems are described in great detail with respect to their associated residuals. Management options are listed with the conclusion that land disposal of the major residual streams is the only viable choice. On-site versus off-site disposal is analyzed with the selection of on-site operations to reduce political, social and institutional pressures, and to optimize the costs of the system. Mechanisms for prevention of leachate generation are described, and various disposal site designs are outlined. It is concluded that co-disposal feasibility of some waste streams must be established in order to make the most preferred solid waste management system feasible. Capacity requirements for the disposal operation were calculated for a 50,000 bbl/day coal liquefaction plant or 250 million SCF/day gasification operation.

  9. Structure and property of metal melt Ⅰ:The number of residual bonds after solid-liquid phase changes


    Based on the mechanism of metal solid-liquid phase change and the theory of liquid metal’s micro-inhomogeneity,a physical model is established between latent heats of fusion and vaporization and the numbers of residual bonds and short-range ordered atoms at the melting point inside a metal melt.Meanwhile,the mathematical derivation and proof are also offered.This model produces the numbers of residual bonds and short-range ordered atoms after the solid-liquid phase change only by using basic parameters and thermophysical properties of the crystal structure.Therefore,it presents a more effective way to analyze the melt’s structural information.By using this model,this study calculates the numbers of residual bonds and short-range ordered atoms in Al and Ni melts.The calculated results are consistent with the experimental results.Simultaneously,this study discusses the atomic number’s influence on the numbers of residual bonds and short-range ordered atoms in the melts within the first(ⅠA) and second main group(ⅡA) elements.

  10. Structural analysis and magnetic properties of solid solutions of Co–Cr system obtained by mechanical alloying

    Betancourt-Cantera, J.A. [Área Académica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, UAEH Carr., Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Pachuca, Hidalgo 42184 (Mexico); Sánchez-De Jesús, F., E-mail: [Área Académica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, UAEH Carr., Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Pachuca, Hidalgo 42184 (Mexico); Bolarín-Miró, A.M. [Área Académica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, UAEH Carr., Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Pachuca, Hidalgo 42184 (Mexico); Betancourt, I.; Torres-Villaseñor, G. [Departamento de Materiales Metálicos y Cerámicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)


    In this paper, a systematic study on the structural and magnetic properties of Co{sub 100−x}Cr{sub x} alloys (0obtained by mechanical alloying is presented. Co and Cr elemental powders were used as precursors, and mixed in an adequate weight ratio to obtain Co{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x} (0solid solutions based on Co-hcp, Co-fcc and Cr-bcc structures were obtained. The saturation polarization indicated a maximum value of 1.17 T (144 Am{sup 2}/kg) for the Co{sub 90}Cr{sub 10}, which decreases with the increasing of the Cr content up to x=80, as a consequence of the dilution effect of the magnetic moment which is caused by the Cr content and by the competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. The coercivity increases up to 34 kA/m (435 Oe) for Co{sub 40}Cr{sub 60}. For Cr rich compositions, it is observed an important decrease reaching 21 kA/m (272 Oe) for Co{sub 10}Cr{sub 90,} it is related to the grain size and the structural change. Besides, the magnetic anisotropy constant was determined for each composition. Magnetic thermogravimetric analysis allowed to obtain Curie temperatures corresponding to the formation of hcp-Co(Cr) and fcc-Co(Cr) solid solutions. - Highlights: • Mechanical alloying (MA) induces the formation of solid solutions of Co–Cr system in non-equilibrium. • We report the crystal structure and the magnetic behavior of Co–Cr alloys produced by MA. • MA improves the magnetic properties of Co–Cr system.

  11. Activated carbons from waste biomass: an alternative use for biodiesel production solid residues.

    Nunes, Anne A; Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S


    Defective coffee press cake, a residue from coffee oil biodiesel production, was evaluated as raw material for production of an adsorbent for removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption tests were performed at 25 degrees C and the effects of particle size, contact time, adsorbent dosage and pH were investigated. Preliminary adsorption tests indicated that thermal treatment is necessary in order to improve adsorption capacity. Adsorption kinetics was determined by fitting first and second-order kinetic models to the experimental data, with the second-order model providing the best description of MB adsorption onto the prepared adsorbent. The experimental adsorption equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption models, with the last two providing the best fits. The experimental data obtained in the present study indicated that this type of waste material is a suitable candidate for use in the production of adsorbents for removal of cationic dyes, thus contributing for the implementation of sustainable development in both the coffee and biodiesel production chains.

  12. Investigation of biomasses and chars obtained from pyrolysis of different biomasses with solid-state 13C and 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Link, S.; Arvelakis, S.; Spliethoff, H.; Waard, de P.; Samoson, A.


    A number of biomass samples (reed, pine pellets, Douglas fir wood chips, wheat straw, peach stones, and olive residue), pretreated biomass samples (leached wheat straw, leached peach stones, and leached olive residue), as well as their chars obtained by pyrolysis using different heating rates (5, 10

  13. Phytosterols elevation in bamboo shoot residue through laboratorial scale solid-state fermentation using isolated Aspergillus niger CTBU.

    Zheng, X X; Chen, R S; Shen, Y; Yin, Z Y


    Aspergillus niger CTBU isolated from local decayed bamboo shoot residue was employed to solid-state fermentation (SSF) of bamboo shoot residue to elevate the content of phytosterols. Strain acclimatization was carried out under the fermentation condition using bamboo shoot as substrate for fermentation performance improvement. The optimal fermentation temperature and nitrogen level were investigated using acclimatized strain, and SSF was carried out in a 500-ml Erlenmeyer flask feeding 300-mg bamboo shoot residue chips under the optimal condition (33 °C and feeding 4 % urea), and 1,186 mg (100 g)(-1) of total phytosterol was attained after 5-day fermentation, in comparison, only 523 mg (100 g)(-1) of phytosterol was assayed in fresh shoots residue. HPLC analysis of the main composition of total phytosterols displays that the types of phytosterols and composition ratio of main sterols keep steady. This laboratorial scale SSF unit could be scaled up for raw phytosterols production from discarded bamboo shoot residue and could reduce its cost.

  14. Effect of drying on leaching testing of treated municipal solid waste incineration APC-residues

    Hu, Y.; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas


    tests with dried APC-residue than in tests with wet residues. The effect of drying appeared to be a combination of decreasing the reduction capacity of the sample (Cr), decreasing pH (Cd, Cu) and in column tests also a wash-out of salts (probably affecting Cd and Pb). If the leaching tests are intended...... to mimic landfill conditions, the results of this paper suggest that the tests should be done on wet, non-dried residue samples, although this may be less practical than testing dried samples....... for the batch and column leaching test; however, these standards do not specify whether or not the residue samples should be dried prior to the leaching testing. Laboratory tests were performed in parallel (dried/nondried) on treated APC-residue samples and evaluated with respect to Cr, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn...

  15. Tamarind seed powder and palm kernel cake: two novel agro residues for the production of tannase under solid state fermentation by Aspergillus niger ATCC 16620.

    Sabu, A; Pandey, A; Daud, M Jaafar; Szakacs, G


    Palm kernel cake (PKC), the residue obtained after extraction of palm oil from oil palm seeds and tamarind seed powder (TSP) obtained after removing the fruit pulp from tamarind fruit pod were tested for the production of tannase under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger ATCC 16620. The fungal strain was grown on the substrates without any pretreatment. In PKC medium, a maximum enzyme yield of 13.03 IU/g dry substrate (gds) was obtained when SSF was carried out at 30 degrees C, 53.5% initial substrate moisture, 33 x 10(9) spores/5 g substrate inoculum size and 5% tannic acid as additional carbon source after 96 h of fermentation. In TSP medium, maximum tannase yield of 6.44 IU/gds was obtained at 30 degrees C, 65.75% initial substrate moisture, 11 x 10(9) spores/5 g substrate inoculum, 1% glycerol as additional carbon source and 1% potassium nitrate as additional nitrogen source after 120 h of fermentation. Results from the study are promising for the economic utilization and value addition of these important agro residues, which are abundantly available in many tropical and subtropical countries.

  16. COSMOS-rice technology abrogates the biotoxic effects of municipal solid waste incinerator residues.

    Guarienti, Michela; Cardozo, Sdenka Moscoso; Borgese, Laura; Lira, Gloria Rodrigo; Depero, Laura E; Bontempi, Elza; Presta, Marco


    Fly ashes generated by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) are classified as hazardous waste and usually landfilled. For the sustainable reuse of these materials is necessary to reduce the resulting impact on human health and environment. The COSMOS-rice technology has been recently proposed for the treatment of fly ashes mixed with rice husk ash, to obtain a low-cost composite material with significant performances. Here, aquatic biotoxicity assays, including daphnidae and zebrafish embryo-based tests, were used to assess the biosafety efficacy of this technology. Exposure to lixiviated MSWI fly ash caused dose-dependent biotoxic effects on daphnidae and zebrafish embryos with alterations of embryonic development, teratogenous defects and apoptotic events. On the contrary, no biotoxic effects were observed in daphnidae and zebrafish embryos exposed to lixiviated COSMOS-rice material. Accordingly, whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis of the expression of various tissue-specific genes in zebrafish embryos provided genetic evidence about the ability of COSMOS-rice stabilization process to minimize the biotoxic effects of MSWI fly ash. These results demonstrate at the biological level that the newly developed COSMOS-rice technology is an efficient and cost-effective method to process MSWI fly ash, producing a biologically safe and reusable material.

  17. The potential of agro-industrial residues and municipal solid waste for production of biogas and electricity in Tanzania

    Kivaisi, A.K. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Botany Dept., Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)


    This paper gives an overview of the energy demands in Tanzania, and highlights the current serious shortage of electricity. Government strategy to alleviate the problem include exploitation of the country`s big natural gas reserves for power generation, and utilization of the renewable energies such as solar, wind and biogas. Important agro-industrial residues and municipal solid wastes with large potentials for anaerobic converstion into biogas and electricity have been identified and quantified. Tanzania is estimated to generate about 615,000 organic matter from coffee, sisal, sugar and cereal residues and households in main towns are estimated to generate about 600,000 tons of organic matter annually. Laboratory scale determinations of methane yields from the residues gave 400 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sisal pulp; 400 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sisal production wastewater; 400 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of Robusta coffee solid waste, 350 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sugar processing wastewater; 250 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sugar filter mat, 450 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS maize bran and 300 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of mixed household waste. Based on these results the estimated total annual potential electricity production from these residues is 1.4 million MW. The total oil substitution from these residues has been estimated at 0.35 million tonnes crude diesel oil per annum equivalent to 2% of the total energy consumption in Tanzania. Case studies onthe coffee and sisal processing factories indicate that exploitation of the residues for the production of electricity on site these factories is feasible. Utilization of agro-industrial residues and municipal waste for biogas production has enormous potential for reduction of environmental pollution. The potential substitution of fossil fuel with biogas represents an annual reduction in the net CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere of approximately 1.3 million tonnes. By treating the residues in controlled

  18. Ammonium Removal from Landfill Leachate by Means of Multiple Recycling of Struvite Residues Obtained through Acid Decomposition

    Alessio Siciliano


    Full Text Available The treatment of landfill leachate, due to its great polluting load, is a very difficult task. In particular, the abatement of high ammonium concentrations represents one of the main issues. Among the available techniques, struvite precipitation is an effective method for the removal and recovery of NH4+ load. However, due to the lack of phosphorus and magnesium amounts, the struvite formation results in an expensive process in the leachate treatment. To overcome this issue, in the present work, we developed a simple and suitable method for ammonium removal by the multiple recycling of struvite decomposition residues. In this regard, a procedure for acid dissolution of struvite, produced by using industrial grade reagents, was initially defined. The effect of pH, temperature, and acid type was investigated. The experimental results proved the effectiveness of both hydrochloric and acetic acid, which allow a high and selective release of ammonium at T = 50 °C and pH = 5.5. The multiple reuse of decomposition products, combined with the supplementation of a small quantity of phosphorus and magnesium at molar ratios of n(N:n(Mg:n(P = 1:0.05:0.05, guarantees stable NH4+ abatement of about 82%. The proposed process allows a cost saving of around to 74% and can be easily applied in industrial treatment plants.

  19. Selective production of hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates from wheat straw using dilute HCl or FeCl3 solutions under mild conditions. X-ray and thermo-gravimetric analysis of the solid residues.

    Marcotullio, G; Krisanti, E; Giuntoli, J; de Jong, W


    The present work explores the combined production of hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates and an upgraded solid residue from wheat straw using a dilute-acid pretreatment at mild temperature. Dilute aqueous HCl solutions were studied at temperatures of 100 and 120°C, and they were compared to dilute FeCl(3) under the same conditions. Comparable yields of soluble sugars and acetic acid were obtained, affording an almost complete removal of pentoses when using 200 mM aqueous solutions at 120°C. The solid residues of pretreatment were characterized showing a preserved crystallinity of the cellulose, and a almost complete removal of ash forming matter other than Si. Results showed upgraded characteristic of the residues for thermal conversion applications compared to the untreated wheat straw.

  20. Manganese peroxidase production from cassava residue by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in solid state fermentation and its decolorization of indigo carmine

    Huixing Li; Ruijing Zhang; Lei Tang; Jianhua Zhang; Zhonggui Mao


    Bioconversion of lignocellulosic wastes to higher value products through fungal fermentation has economic and ecological benefits. In this study, to develop an effective strategy for production of manganese peroxidase (MnP) from cassava residue by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in solid state fermentation, the stimulators of MnP produc-tion were screened and their concentrations were optimized by one-at-a-time experiment and Box–Behnken design. The maximum MnP activity of 186.38 nkat·g−1 dry mass of the sample was achieved after 6 days of fer-mentation with the supplement of 79.5 mmol·L−1·kg−1 acetic acid, 3.21 ml·kg−1 soybean oil, and 28.5 g·kg−1 alkaline lignin, indicating that cassava residue is a promising substrate for MnP production in solid state fermen-tation. Meanwhile, in vitro decolorization of indigo carmine by the crude MnP was also carried out, attaining the ratio of 90.18%after 6 h of incubation. An oxidative mechanism of indigo carmine decolorization by MnP was pro-posed based on the analysis of intermediate metabolites with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Using the crude MnP produced from cassava residue for indigo carmine decolorization gives an effective approach to treat dyeing effluents.

  1. Applications of solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: a review.

    Abdulra'uf, Lukman Bola; Chai, Mee Kin; Tan, Guan Huat


    This paper reviews the application of various modes of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. SPME is a simple extraction technique that eliminates the use of solvent, and it is applied for the analysis of both volatile and nonvolatile pesticides. SPME has been successfully coupled to both GC and LC. The coupling with GC has been straightforward and requires little modification of existing equipment, but interfacing with LC has proved challenging. The external standard calibration technique is widely used for quantification, while standard addition and internal or surrogate standards are mainly used to account for matrix effects. All parameters that affect the extraction of pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables, and therefore need to be optimized, are also reviewed. Details of the characteristics of analytical procedures and new trends in fiber production using sol-gel technology and molecularly imprinted polymers are discussed.

  2. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria.

    Quina, Margarida J; Bordado, João C M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M


    Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of "building material not allowed". The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but difficulties with the soluble salts are still observed. This analysis suggests that for APC residues to comply with soil and surface water protection criteria to be further used as building material at least a pre-treating for removing soluble salts is absolutely required.

  3. Management of solid residues in waste-to-energy and biomass systems

    Vehlow, J.; Bergfeldt, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Wilen, C.; Ranta, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Schwaiger, H. [Forschungsgesellschaft Joanneum mbH, Graz (Austria); Visser, H.J.M. [ECN Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Gu, S.; Gyftopoulou, E.; Brammer, J. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom)


    A literature review has been performed for getting in-depth information about quality of residues from thermal processes for waste and biomass as well as their disposal or utilisation options and current practices. Residues from waste incineration have been subject to intense research programs for many years and it can be concluded that the quality of bottom ashes has meanwhile a high standard. The question whether an utilisation as secondary building material is accepted or not depends on the definition of acceptable economic impac. For filter ashes and gas cleaning residues the situation is more complex. Their quality is known: due to their high inventory of heavy metals and organic micro-pollutants they are classified as hazardous waste which means they require specific measures for their safe long-term disposal. A number of stabilisation and treatment processes for filter ashes and gas cleaning residues including the recovery of species out of these materials have been developed but none has been implemented in full scale due to economic constraints. There is reason to speculate that even recovery processes which are not profitable for private companies might point out economically useful if future and long-term costs which have to be covered of the society, e.g. for rehabilitation of contaminated sites, are taken into account. Their quality as well as that of residues from combustion of contaminated biomass is mainly depending on the quality of the fuel. The inventory of critical ingredients in fuel produced from waste or waste fractions, especially of halogens and heavy metals, is often rather high and shows typically a wide range of variation. A reliable quality control for such fuels is very difficult. Other residues can - like gas cleaning residues from waste incineration - be inertised in order to meet the criteria for the access to cheaper landfills than those for hazardous waste. A similar conclusion can be drawn for the quality and management of

  4. Solid State NMR Observation of Phenylalanine Residues in M2 Protein from Influenza a Virus


    @@ The M2 protein from influenza A functions as a proton channel. It has been cloned and over-expressed in Escherchia coli. Large quantities of recombinant protein are purified by Ni2 affinity chromatography. The residues in M2 have been selectively labeled with 15N in an aromatic amino acid autotroph CT19.

  5. Detección molecular de enfermedad mínima residual en melanoma y otros tumores sólidos Molecular detection of minimal residual disease in melanoma and solid tumors

    Valeria Vázquez


    Full Text Available La disponibilidad de métodos altamente sensibles y específicos para la detección de enfermedad mínima residual en pacientes con tumores sólidos podría tener importantes consecuencias pronósticas y terapéuticas. Uno de los métodos más usados para la detección molecular de células cancerosas es la técnica de RT-PCR, que permite la amplificación de secuencias de ARNm específicas de distintos tejidos. La misma fue aplicada por primera vez en la detección de células tumorales circulantes en sangre periférica de pacientes con melanoma avanzado, poco tiempo después fue adaptada para la búsqueda de enfermedad mínima residual en otros tumores sólidos. El objetivo de la presente revisión es evaluar la información publicada desde el primer estudio sobre este tema en 1991 y analizar el valor clínico de los hallazgos obtenidos. Se discute también la importancia del manejo de la muestra y de la estandarización de los procedimientos de RT-PCR.The availability of highly sensitive and specific methods for the detection of minimal residual disease in patients with solid tumors may have important prognostic and therapeutic implications. One of the most widely used methods for the molecular detection of cancer cells is the RT-PCR technique, which leads to the amplification of tissue-specific mRNA. It was firstly applied in the detection of circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood of patients with advanced melanoma; and soon it was adapted for the detection of minimal residual disease in other solid tumors. The aim of the present review is to evaluate the published data since the first study in 1991 and to analyze the clinical value of the findings obtained. The importance of sample handling and standardization of RT-PCR procedures is also discussed.

  6. Headspace solid phase microextraction in the analysis of pesticide residues – kinetics and quantification prior to the attainment of partition equilibrium



    Full Text Available A new theoretical approach to the headspace/solid phase microextraction (HS/SPME process is proposed and tested by the analysis of pesticide residues of water samples. The new approach focuses on mass transfer at the sample/gas phase and gas phase/SPME polymer interfaces. The presented model provides a directly proportional relationship between the amount of analytes sorbed by the SPME fiber and their initial concentrations in the sample. Also, the expression indicates that quantification is possible before partition equilibrium is attained. Experimental data for pesticides belonging to various classes of organic compounds were successfully interpreted by the developed model. Additionally, a linear dependence of the amount of pesticide sorbed on the initial analyte concentration in aqueous solution was obtained for a sampling time shorter than that required to reach sorption equilibrium.

  7. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei


    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  8. Residual stresses and strength of multilayer tape cast solid oxide fuel and electrolysis half-cells

    Charlas, Benoit; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Brodersen, Karen;


    The cost-effectiveness of Solid Oxide Cells production can be improved by introducing "multilayer-tape-casting" (MTC: sequential casting of the layers) and co-sintering of the half-cells. MTC additionally results in more homogeneous layers with strong interfaces. However, the thermal expansion...

  9. Simultaneous determination of herbicide residues in tobacco using ultraperformance convergence chromatography coupled with solid-phase extraction.

    Guo, Weiyun; Bian, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Daohong; Tang, Gangling; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jianlong; Li, Zhonghao; Yang, Fei


    A time-saving and organic solvent efficient method to simultaneously determine six kinds of herbicide residues in tobacco using solid-phase extraction for sample clean-up and preconcentration and the highly sensitive ultraperformance convergence chromatography method was developed. Parameters for ultraperformance convergence chromatography, including the choice of stationary phase and modifiers, autobackpressure regulator pressure, column temperature, and the flow rate of mobile solvents, were optimized. The herbicide residues of napropamide, alachlor, quizalofop-ethyl, diphenamid, metolachlor, and clomazone in tobacco samples were successfully separated and detected at levels as low as 0.0043-0.0086 mg/kg within 5 min using a nonpolar high strength silica C18 selectivity for bases column and methanol as the cosolvent of the mobile phase of carbon dioxide (75-99.9%, v/v). Analysis of tobacco samples had recoveries of 69.8-95.0%, limit of quantitation of 0.0127-0.0245 mg/kg, limit of detection of 0.0043-0.0086 mg/kg, and correlation coefficient of >0.9990. Results support this method as an efficient alternative to current methodologies for the determination of herbicide residues in tobacco.

  10. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    Beylot, Antoine, E-mail:; Villeneuve, Jacques


    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  11. Chemical characterization of agroforestry solid residues aiming its utilization as adsorbents for metals in water

    Francisco H. M. Luzardo; Fermin G. Velasco; Clemildes P. Alves; Correia,Ivea K. da S.; Cazorla,Lázaro L.


    In this work, a study of the correlation between the functional groups present in the chemical structure of the fibers of coconut shells, cocoa and eucalyptus, and their adsorption capacity of Cd+2 and Cu+2 ions from water was performed. The content of soluble solids and reactive phenols in aqueous extracts were determined. The chemical functional groups present in the fibers were examined using the IR spectra. The ads...

  12. Local pressure components and interfacial tension at a liquid-solid interface obtained by the perturbative method in the Lennard-Jones system.

    Fujiwara, K; Shibahara, M


    A classical molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for a system composed of fluid molecules between two planar solid surfaces, and whose interactions are described by the 12-6 Lennard-Jones form. This paper presents a general description of the pressure components and interfacial tension at a fluid-solid interface obtained by the perturbative method on the basis of statistical thermodynamics, proposes a method to consider the pressure components tangential to an interface which are affected by interactions with solid atoms, and applies this method to the calculation system. The description of the perturbative method is extended to subsystems, and the local pressure components and interfacial tension at a liquid-solid interface are obtained and examined in one- and two-dimensions. The results are compared with those obtained by two alternative methods: (a) an evaluation of the intermolecular force acting on a plane, and (b) the conventional method based on the virial expression. The accuracy of the numerical results is examined through the comparison of the results obtained by each method. The calculated local pressure components and interfacial tension of the fluid at a liquid-solid interface agreed well with the results of the two alternative methods at each local position in one dimension. In two dimensions, the results showed a characteristic profile of the tangential pressure component which depended on the direction tangential to the liquid-solid interface, which agreed with that obtained by the evaluation of the intermolecular force acting on a plane in the present study. Such good agreement suggests that the perturbative method on the basis of statistical thermodynamics used in this study is valid to obtain the local pressure components and interfacial tension at a liquid-solid interface.

  13. Local pressure components and interfacial tension at a liquid-solid interface obtained by the perturbative method in the Lennard-Jones system

    Fujiwara, K., E-mail: [R and D Group, R and D Center, Dainippon Screen Mfg. Co., Ltd., 322 Furukawa-cho, Hazukashi, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 612-8486 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shibahara, M., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)


    A classical molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for a system composed of fluid molecules between two planar solid surfaces, and whose interactions are described by the 12-6 Lennard-Jones form. This paper presents a general description of the pressure components and interfacial tension at a fluid-solid interface obtained by the perturbative method on the basis of statistical thermodynamics, proposes a method to consider the pressure components tangential to an interface which are affected by interactions with solid atoms, and applies this method to the calculation system. The description of the perturbative method is extended to subsystems, and the local pressure components and interfacial tension at a liquid-solid interface are obtained and examined in one- and two-dimensions. The results are compared with those obtained by two alternative methods: (a) an evaluation of the intermolecular force acting on a plane, and (b) the conventional method based on the virial expression. The accuracy of the numerical results is examined through the comparison of the results obtained by each method. The calculated local pressure components and interfacial tension of the fluid at a liquid-solid interface agreed well with the results of the two alternative methods at each local position in one dimension. In two dimensions, the results showed a characteristic profile of the tangential pressure component which depended on the direction tangential to the liquid-solid interface, which agreed with that obtained by the evaluation of the intermolecular force acting on a plane in the present study. Such good agreement suggests that the perturbative method on the basis of statistical thermodynamics used in this study is valid to obtain the local pressure components and interfacial tension at a liquid-solid interface.

  14. Aerobic digestion reduces the quantity of antibiotic resistance genes in residual municipal wastewater solids

    Tucker R Burch


    Full Text Available Numerous initiatives have been undertaken to circumvent the problem of antibiotic resistance, including the development of new antibiotics, the use of narrow spectrum antibiotics, and the reduction of inappropriate antibiotic use. We propose an alternative but complimentary approach to reduce antibiotic resistant bacteria by implementing more stringent technologies for treating municipal wastewater, which is known to contain large quantities of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs. In this study, we investigated the ability of conventional aerobic digestion to reduce the quantity of ARGs in untreated wastewater solids. A bench-scale aerobic digester was fed untreated wastewater solids collected from a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment facility. The reactor was operated under semi-continuous flow conditions for more than 200 days at a residence time of approximately 40 days. During this time, the quantities of tet(A, tet(W, and erm(B decreased by more than 90%. In contrast, intI1 did not decrease, and tet(X increased in quantity by 5-fold. Following operation in semi-continuous flow mode, the aerobic digester was converted to batch mode to determine the first-order decay coefficients, with half-lives ranging from as short as 2.8 days for tet(W to as long as 6.3 days for intI1. These results demonstrated that aerobic digestion can be used to reduce the quantity of antibiotic resistance genes in untreated wastewater solids, but that rates can vary substantially depending on the reactor design (i.e., batch versus continuous-flow and the specific ARG.

  15. Miniaturization of self-assembled solid phase extraction based on graphene oxide/chitosan coupled with liquid chromatography for the determination of sulfonamide residues in egg and honey.

    Li, Yazhen; Li, Zhaoqian; Wang, Weiping; Zhong, Shuxian; Chen, Jianrong; Wang, Ai-Jun


    The miniaturization of self-assembled solid phase extraction (m-SASPE) based on graphene oxide/chitosan (GO/CS) coupled with liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection was developed for rapid screening of five sulfonamide residues in egg and honey. GO/CS was synthesized by solution blending method and characterized by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Parameters that affected extraction efficiency including sample pH, amount of the GO/CS, elution solvent and rotation speed were optimized in detail. Under the optimal conditions, good linear relationships between the peak area and the concentrations of the analytes were obtained. The linear ranges were 0.01-10.00μgg(-1) with correlation coefficients (r)≧0.9989. The method detection limits (MDLs) were in the range of 0.71-0.98ngg(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and inter-day analysis were less than 3.5 and 7.1%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of sulfonamide residues in egg and honey. The average recoveries for two samples spiked at levels from 0.02 to 2.0μgg(-1) were in the range of 75.3-105.2% with RSDs less than 13.5%.

  16. Leaching behaviour of elements and evaluation of pre-treatment methods for municipal solid waste incinerator residues in column leaching tests.

    Kim, Sang-Yul; Tanaka, Nobutoshi; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Tojo, Yasumasa


    Two new pre-treatment methods (water-washing/carbonation and carbonation/phosphate stabilization) of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator residues were evaluated by column leaching tests under aerobic conditions and anaerobic conditions (which were changed to aerobic conditions after 10 months). A mixture of bottom ash and fly ash (5:1 ratio) was pre-treated using each method. Shredded incombustible residues (SIR) were added to each ash preparation in proportions similar to the ratios present in landfills. For comparison, landfill wastes typical of Japan, namely, a mixture of bottom ash, chelating-pre-treated fly ash, and SIR, were also examined. Leachate samples were collected periodically and analysed over a 15-month period. When compared with chelating pretreatment, both water-washing/carbonation and carbonation/ phosphate stabilization reduced the leaching of Pb, Al, and Cu by about one to two orders of magnitude. Moreover, the initial concentrations of Ca and Pb in leachates from column of water-washing/carbonation were 56-57% and 84-96% less than those from the column of carbonation/phosphate stabilization. Therefore, water-washing/carbonation was considered to be a promising approach to obtain early waste stabilization and to reduce the release of heavy metals to near-negligible levels. The leaching behaviour of elements was also discussed.

  17. Iterative methods for obtaining solvation structures on a solid plate: The methods for Surface Force Apparatus and Atomic Force Microscopy in Liquids

    Amano, Ken-ich


    We propose iterative methods for obtaining solvation structures on a solid plate which use force distributions measured by surface force apparatus (SFA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) as input data. Two model systems are considered here. In the model system for SFA, the same two solid plates are immersed in a solvent, and a probe tip and a solid plate are immersed in a solvent in the model system for AFM. Advantages of the iterative methods are as follows: The iterative method for SFA can obtain the solvation structure, for example, in a Lennard-Jones liquid; The iterative method for AFM can obtain the solvation structure without an input datum of solvation structure around the probe tip.

  18. The effect of residual chlorides on resultant properties of solid and liquid phases after carbonization process

    Plevova Eva; Sugarkova Vera; Kaloc Miroslav [Institute of Geonics ASCR, Ostrava (Czech Republic). Laboratory of Petrology


    The low-concentration condition was employed to model the carbonisation mode for local (Czech Republic) coals with higher concentrations of some metals. After completing the carbonisation, mass balance calculations were performed. Results show that the presence of zinc dichloride, copper dichloride and sodium chloride caused the most pronounced impediment to the formation of tar in contrast to lead dichloride and aluminium chloride that increased tar. The results demonstrated that adding of chloride agents effect both the course of the coking process and the properties of solid and liquid products of coking. Evaluation of the solid phase showed that chloride addition caused a decrease of the caking and swelling value, which corresponds with measurements of plasticity values that are of significant influence on mechanical properties closely related to coking plant processes. Evaluation of the liquid phase pointed towards an increase of aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives (especially phenanthrene, fluoranthene, acenaphthylene, pyrene) but a decrease of naphthalene and methylnaphthalene. Chloride addition increased aromaticity and caused a difference in substitution rate at aromatic nucleus. Mesophase estimation indicated extensive mosaic, domain and laminated anisotropic texture occurrence after chloride addition, mainly NaCl and CuCl{sub 2} addition. A more detailed evaluation including detailed screening, TGA, IR and RTG analysis will be subject of further investigation. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Dynamics of Hydrophobic Core Phenylalanine Residues Probed by Solid-State Deuteron NMR

    Vugmeyster, Liliya; Ostrovsky, Dmitry; Villafranca, Toni; Sharp, Janelle; Xu, Wei; Lipton, Andrew S.; Hoatson, Gina; Vold, Robert L.


    We conducted a detailed investigation of the dynamics of two phenylalanine side chains in the hydrophobic core of the villin headpiece subdomain protein (HP36) in the hydrated powder state over the 298–80 K temperature range. We utilized static deuteron NMR measurements of longitudinal relaxation and line shapes supplemented with computational modeling. The temperature dependence of the relaxation times reveals the presence of two main mechanisms that can be attributed to the ring-flips, dominating at high temperatures, and small-angle fluctuations, dominating at low temperatures. The relaxation is non- exponential at all temperatures with the extent of non-exponentiality increasing from higher to lower temperatures. This behavior suggests a distribution of conformers with unique values of activation energies. The central values of the activation energies for the ring-flipping motions are among the smallest reported for aromatic residues in peptides and proteins and point to a very mobile hydrophobic core. The analysis of the widths of the distributions, in combination with the earlier results on the dynamics of flanking methyl groups (Vugmeyster et al., J. Phys. Chem. 2013, 117, 6129–6137), suggests that the hydrophobic core undergoes concerted fluctuations. There is a pronounced effect of dehydration on the ring-flipping motions, which shifts the distribution toward more rigid conformers. The cross-over temperature between the regions of dominance of the small-angle fluctuations and ring-flips shifts from 195 K in the hydrated protein to 278 K in the dry one. This result points to the role of solvent in the onset of the concerted fluctuations of the core and highlights aromatic residues as markers of the protein dynamical transitions.

  20. Polar Volatiles on Mars--Theory versus Observation: Excess solid carbon dioxide is probably present in the north residual cap.

    Murray, B C; Malin, M C


    The residual frost caps of Mars are probably water-ice. They may be the source of the water vapor associated with seasonal polar hoods. A permanent reservoir of solid CO(2) is also probably present within the north residual cap and may comprise a mass of CO(2) some two to five times that of the present atmosphere of Mars. The martian atmospheric pressure is probably regulated by the temperature of the reservoir and not by the annual heat balance of exposed solid CO(2) (37). The present reservoir temperature presumably reflects a long-term average of the polar heat balance. The question of a large permanent north polar cap is reexamined in light of the Mariner 9 data. The lower general elevation of the north polar region compared to the south and the resulting occurrence in the north of a permanent CO(2) deposit are probably responsible for the differences in size and shape of the two residual caps. The details of the processes involved are less apparent, however. It might be argued that the stability of water-ice deposits depends on both insolation and altitude. The present north and south residual caps should be symmetrically located with respect to such a hypothetical stability field. However, the offset of the south cap from the geometrical pole, the non-symmetrical outline of the north cap, and the apparently uniform thickness of the thin, widespread water-ice all argue against control by simple solid-vapor equilibrium of water under present environmental conditions. We think that the present location of the water-ice may reflect, in part, the past location of the permanent CO(2) reservoir. The extreme stability of polar water-ice deposits increases the likelihood that past environmental conditions may be recorded there. Detailed information on elevations in the vicinity of the residual caps is needed before we can further elucidate the nature and history of the residual caps. This, along with measurements of polar infrared emission, should be given high

  1. Supersaturated solid solution obtained by mechanical alloying of 75% Fe, 20% Ge and 5% Nb mixture at different milling intensities

    Blazquez, J.S.; Ipus, J.J.; Millan, M.; Franco, V. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, ICMSE-CSIC, Universidad de Sevilla, P.O. Box 1065, Apartado 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Conde, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, ICMSE-CSIC, Universidad de Sevilla, P.O. Box 1065, Apartado 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail:; Oleszak, D.; Kulik, T. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)


    Mechanical alloying process of Fe{sub 75}Ge{sub 20}Nb{sub 5} composition has been studied at different milling frequencies from initial pure powder mixture to the development of a single bcc phase (supersaturated solid solution). As an intermediate state, an intermetallic phase is formed, which disappears after further milling or after thermal treatment (ascribed to an endothermic process at 700-800 K). A preferential partition of Nb and Ge to the boundaries between nanocrystals of bcc Fe-Ge-Nb supersaturated solid solution is observed from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer results.

  2. Morphology, composition, and mixing state of primary particles from combustion sources - crop residue, wood, and solid waste.

    Liu, Lei; Kong, Shaofei; Zhang, Yinxiao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Liang; Yan, Qin; Lingaswamy, A P; Shi, Zongbo; Lv, Senlin; Niu, Hongya; Shao, Longyi; Hu, Min; Zhang, Daizhou; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaoye; Li, Weijun


    Morphology, composition, and mixing state of individual particles emitted from crop residue, wood, and solid waste combustion in a residential stove were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our study showed that particles from crop residue and apple wood combustion were mainly organic matter (OM) in smoldering phase, whereas soot-OM internally mixed with K in flaming phase. Wild grass combustion in flaming phase released some Cl-rich-OM/soot particles and cardboard combustion released OM and S-rich particles. Interestingly, particles from hardwood (pear wood and bamboo) and softwood (cypress and pine wood) combustion were mainly soot and OM in the flaming phase, respectively. The combustion of foam boxes, rubber tires, and plastic bottles/bags in the flaming phase released large amounts of soot internally mixed with a small amount of OM, whereas the combustion of printed circuit boards and copper-core cables emitted large amounts of OM with Br-rich inclusions. In addition, the printed circuit board combustion released toxic metals containing Pb, Zn, Sn, and Sb. The results are important to document properties of primary particles from combustion sources, which can be used to trace the sources of ambient particles and to know their potential impacts in human health and radiative forcing in the air.

  3. A pilot and field investigation on mobility of PCDDs/PCDFs in landfill site with municipal solid waste incineration residue.

    Osako, Masahiro; Kim, Yong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hoon


    A field investigation by boring was carried out in a landfill site primarily with municipal solid waste incineration residue. From the collected core samples, vertical profiles of homologous content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in the landfill layer were traced and the behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs was examined. In addition, a pilot-scale study was conducted on the PCDDs/PCDFs leached from incineration fly ash and the treated one using large landfill simulation columns (lysimeters) and the leaching behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs was examined. As a result, it was found that the coexistence of dissolved coloring constituents (DCCs), which might be composed of constituents like dissolved humic matters having strong affinity for hydrophobic organic pollutants, could enhance the leachability of PCDDs/PCDFs, thus contributing to the vertical movement and leaching behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs in the landfill layers of the incineration residue. Moreover, it is highly probable that DCCs derive from the unburned carbon in the bottom ash mixed and buried with the fly ash containing a high content of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  4. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography with ion trap detector (GC-ITD) analysis of amitraz residues in beeswax after hydrolysis to 2,4-dimethylaniline.

    Lenícek, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Novotná, Andrea Rychtecká; Vásová, Eva; Titera, Dalibor; Veselý, Vladimír


    An analytical method for the determination of amitraz residues in beeswax after hydrolysis to 2,4-dimethylaniline is reported. It consists of wax extraction with an acid buffer solution, head space solid phase microextraction and GC-ITD analysis. The limit of determination is 1 ng g(-1). Wax samples from beekepers and commercial foundations were analysed, content of residues varied from <1 to 20.5 ng g(-1).

  5. Chemical characterization of agroforestry solid residues aiming its utilization as adsorbents for metals in water

    Francisco H. M. Luzardo


    Full Text Available In this work, a study of the correlation between the functional groups present in the chemical structure of the fibers of coconut shells, cocoa and eucalyptus, and their adsorption capacity of Cd+2 and Cu+2 ions from water was performed. The content of soluble solids and reactive phenols in aqueous extracts were determined. The chemical functional groups present in the fibers were examined using the IR spectra. The adsorption capacity of the peels was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. For Cd+2, a significant correlation between the adsorption capacity and some specific chemical functional groups present in the fiber was verified. The potential use of these peels, as adsorbent of Cd+2 ions, is based on the presence of OH functional groups such as aryl-OH, aryl-O-CH2 of phenol carboxylic acids, as well as carbonyl groups derived from carboxylic acid salts, in these fibers.

  6. Complete relaxation of residual stresses during reduction of solid oxide fuel cells

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Hendriksen, Peter Vang


    reduce significantly over minutes. In this work the stresses are measured in-situ before and after the reduction by use of XRD. The phenomenon of accelerated creep has to be considered both in the production of stacks and in the analysis of the stress field in a stack based on anode supported SOFCs.......To asses the reliability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks during operation, the stress field in the stack must be known. During operation the stress field will depend on time as creep processes relax stresses. This work reports further details on a newly discovered creep phenomenon......, accelerated creep, taking place during the reduction of the anode. This relaxes stresses at a much higher rate (~×104) than creep during operation. The phenomenon has previously been studied by simultaneous loading and reduction. With the recorded high creep rates, the stresses at the time of reduction should...

  7. Acetonitrile extraction and dual-layer solid phase extraction clean-up for pesticide residue analysis in propolis.

    Oellig, Claudia


    Propolis is a very complex mixture of substances that is produced by honey bees and is known to be a rather challenging matrix for residue analysis. Besides resins, flavonoids and phenols, high amount of wax is co-extracted resulting in immense matrix effects. Therefore a suitable clean-up is crucial and indispensable. In this study, a reliable solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up was developed for pesticide residue analysis in propolis. The clean-up success was quickly and easily monitored by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with different detection possibilities. The final method consists of the extraction of propolis with acetonitrile according to the QuEChERS method followed by an effective extract purification on dual-layer SPE cartridges with spherical hydrophobic polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin/primary secondary amine as sorbent and a mixture of toluene/acetone (95:5, v/v) for elution. Besides fat-soluble components like waxes, flavonoids, and terpenoids, more polar compounds like organic acids, fatty acids, sugars and anthocyanins were also removed to large extent. Method performance was assessed by recovery experiments at spiking levels of 0.5 and 1mg/kg (n=5) for fourteen pesticides that are relevant for propolis. Mean recoveries determined by HPLC-MS against solvent standards were between 40 and 101%, while calculation against matrix-matched standards provided recoveries of 79-104%. Precision of recovery, assessed by relative standard deviations, were below 9%. Thus, the developed dual-layer SPE clean-up enables the reliable pesticide residue analysis in propolis and provides a suitable alternative to time-consuming clean-up procedures proposed in literature.

  8. Determination of aromatic compounds in eluates of pyrolysis solid residues using HS-GC-MS and DLLME-GC-MS.

    Bernardo, Maria S; Gonçalves, M; Lapa, N; Barbosa, R; Mendes, B; Pinto, F; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim


    A method for the determination of 15 aromatic hydrocarbons in eluates from solid residues produced during the co-pyrolysis of plastics and pine biomass was developed. In a first step, several sampling techniques (headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), static headspace sampling (HS), and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) were compared in order to evaluate their sensitivity towards these analytes. HS-SPME and HS sampling had the better performance, but DLLME was itself as a technique able to extract volatiles with a significant enrichment factor. HS sampling coupled with GC-MS was chosen for method validation for the analytes tested. Calibration curves were constructed for each analyte with correlation coefficients higher than 0.999. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.66-37.85 ng/L. The precision of the HS method was evaluated and good repeatability was achieved with relative standard deviations of 4.8-13.2%. The recoveries of the analytes were evaluated by analysing fortified real eluate samples and were in the range of 60.6-113.9%. The validated method was applied in real eluate samples. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) were the compounds in higher concentrations. The DLLME technique coupled with GC-MS was used to investigate the presence of less volatile contaminants in eluate samples. This analysis revealed the presence of significant amounts of alkyl phenols and other aromatic compounds with appreciable water solubility.

  9. Comparison study of phosphorus adsorption on different waste solids: Fly ash, red mud and ferric-alum water treatment residues.

    Wang, Ying; Yu, Yange; Li, Haiyan; Shen, Chanchan


    The adsorption of phosphorus (P) onto three industrial solid wastes (fly ash, red mud and ferric-alum water treatment residual (FAR)) and their modified materials was studied systematically via batch experiments. Compared with two natural adsorbents (zeolite and diatomite), three solid wastes possessed a higher adsorption capacity for P because of the higher Fe, Al and Ca contents. After modification (i.e., the fly ash and red mud modified by FeCl3 and FARs modified by HCl), the adsorption capacity increased, especially for the modified red mud, where more Fe bonded P was observed. The P adsorption kinetics can be satisfactorily fitted using the pseudo-second-order model. The Langmuir model can describe well the P adsorption on all of the samples in our study. pH and dissolved organic matter (DOM) are two important factors for P adsorption. Under neutral conditions, the maximum adsorption amount on the modified materials was observed. With the deviation from pH7, the adsorption amount decreased, which resulted from the change of P species in water and surface charges of the adsorbents. The DOM in water can promote P adsorption, which may be due to the promotion effects of humic-Fe(Al) complexes and the pH buffer function exceeds the depression of competitive adsorption. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Contribution to the sustainable management of resources by novel combination of industrial solid residues into red ceramics.

    Karayannis, V; Spiliotis, X; Papastergiadis, E; Ntampegliotis, K; Papapolymerou, G; Samaras, P


    Limited amounts of industrial residues are recycled while the remaining huge quantities are stockpiled or disposed of, thus frequently leading to soil contamination. The utilization of industrial residues as valuable secondary resources into ceramics can contribute to efficient waste management and substitution for massive amounts of natural resources (clayey minerals) demanded for ceramic production. The low cost of these residues and even possible energy savings during mixture firing may also be beneficial. In the present study, the innovative combination of lignite fly ash with steel-making dust into clay-based red ceramics is undertaken, to contribute both to sustainable use of resources and prevention of soil contamination. Brick specimens were shaped by extrusion and fired, their microstructure was examined and the effect of the mixture composition and firing temperature on physico-mechanical properties was determined. Ceramic microstructures were successfully obtained by a suitable combination of fly ash with steel dust (5 + 5 wt%) into clays. Properties can be predicted and tailored to meet the needs for specific applications by appropriately adjusting the mixture composition and sintering temperature.

  11. Adaptation and Validation of QUick, Easy, New, CHEap, and Reproducible (QUENCHER) Antioxidant Capacity Assays in Model Products Obtained from Residual Wine Pomace.

    Del Pino-García, Raquel; García-Lomillo, Javier; Rivero-Pérez, María D; González-SanJosé, María L; Muñiz, Pilar


    Evaluation of the total antioxidant capacity of solid matrices without extraction steps is a very interesting alternative for food researchers and also for food industries. These methodologies have been denominated QUENCHER from QUick, Easy, New, CHEap, and Reproducible assays. To demonstrate and highlight the validity of QUENCHER (Q) methods, values of Q-method validation were showed for the first time, and they were tested with products of well-known different chemical properties. Furthermore, new QUENCHER assays to measure scavenging capacity against superoxide, hydroxyl, and lipid peroxyl radicals were developed. Calibration models showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.995), proportionality and precision (CV antioxidant capacity values significantly different from those obtained with water. The dilution of samples with powdered cellulose was discouraged because possible interferences with some of the matrices analyzed may take place.

  12. Employing Solid Phase Microextraction as Extraction Tool for Pesticide Residues in Traditional Medicinal Plants

    Gondo, Thamani T.; Mmualefe, Lesego C.; Okatch, Harriet


    HS-SPME was optimised using blank plant sample for analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) of varying polarities in selected medicinal plants obtained from northern part of Botswana, where OCPs such as DDT and endosulfan have been historically applied to control disease carrying vectors (mosquitos and tsetse fly). The optimised SPME parameters were used to isolate analytes from root samples of five medicinal plants obtained from Maun and Kasane, Botswana. The final analytes determination was done with a gas chromatograph equipped with GC-ECD and analyte was confirmed using electron ionisation mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Dieldrin was the only pesticide detected and confirmed with MS in the Terminalia sericea sample obtained from Kasane. The method was validated and the analyte recoveries ranged from 69.58 ± 7.20 to 113 ± 15.44%, with RSDs ranging from 1.19 to 17.97%. The method indicated good linearity (R2 > 0.9900) in the range of 2 to 100 ng g−1. The method also proved to be sensitive with low limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.48 ± 0.16 to 1.50 ± 0.50 ng g−1. It can be concluded that SPME was successfully utilized as a sampling and extraction tool for pesticides of diverse polarities in root samples of medicinal plants. PMID:27725893

  13. Employing Solid Phase Microextraction as Extraction Tool for Pesticide Residues in Traditional Medicinal Plants

    Thamani T. Gondo


    Full Text Available HS-SPME was optimised using blank plant sample for analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs of varying polarities in selected medicinal plants obtained from northern part of Botswana, where OCPs such as DDT and endosulfan have been historically applied to control disease carrying vectors (mosquitos and tsetse fly. The optimised SPME parameters were used to isolate analytes from root samples of five medicinal plants obtained from Maun and Kasane, Botswana. The final analytes determination was done with a gas chromatograph equipped with GC-ECD and analyte was confirmed using electron ionisation mass spectrometer (GC-MS. Dieldrin was the only pesticide detected and confirmed with MS in the Terminalia sericea sample obtained from Kasane. The method was validated and the analyte recoveries ranged from 69.58±7.20 to 113±15.44%, with RSDs ranging from 1.19 to 17.97%. The method indicated good linearity (R2>0.9900 in the range of 2 to 100 ng g−1. The method also proved to be sensitive with low limits of detection (LODs ranging from 0.48±0.16 to 1.50±0.50 ng g−1. It can be concluded that SPME was successfully utilized as a sampling and extraction tool for pesticides of diverse polarities in root samples of medicinal plants.

  14. Sustainable options for the utilization of solid residues from wine production.

    Zhang, Nansen; Hoadley, Andrew; Patel, Jim; Lim, Seng; Li, Chao'en


    The efficient use of solid organic waste materials is an issue of particular importance for the wine industry. This paper focuses on the valorization of grape marc, the major component of winery organic waste (60-70%). Two methods were designed and compared: combustion to generate electricity, and the pyrolysis for the production of bio-char, bio-oil, and bio-gas. Each of these processes was analysed to determine their economic and environmental viability. The flow-sheeting software, ASPEN PLUS, was used to model the two cases. Data from the simulations was used to inform techno-economic and environmental analyses. Pyrolysis was found to be the superior method of utilizing grape marc from both economic and environmental perspectives. Both pyrolysis and combustion exploit the energy content of the waste, which is not recovered by the traditional treatments, composting or distillation. In addition to the production of energy, pyrolysis yielded 151kg of bio-char and 140kg of bio-oil per tonne of grape marc. These products may be used in place of fossil fuels, resulting in a net reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. However, the potential deleterious effects resulting from the replacement of the traditional treatments was not considered. Investment in either pyrolysis or combustion had a negligible impact on the price of the wine produced for wineries with an annual grape crush larger than 1000 tonnes. Composting has significant economic advantages in wineries with a small grape crush of less than 50 tonnes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Quantity and Hyperhydricity of Cocoa Somatic Embryo Obtained from Solid Culture, Liquid Culture, and Sequence Subculture

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas


    Full Text Available Research  aimed  to  study  the  effect  of  solid  culture,  liquid  culture,  and sequence  subculture  on  quantity  and  hyperhydricity  of  somatic  embryo  wascarried  out  at  Laboratory  of  Biotechnology,  Indonesian  Coffee  and  Cocoa Research  Institute.  Materials  used  in  this  study  were  embryogenic  callitransferred  on  somatic  embryos  expression  both  in  solid  and  liquid  media with  the  same  media  composition,  namely  MS  medium  with  the  addition  ofAdenine  (0.025  mg/L.  Gelling  agent  used  in  solid  media  was  gelrite  (3  g/L. Clones used in this study was Sca 6. This research consisted of two trials, namely1  effect  of  medium  type  (solid  and  liquid,  and  2  sequence  subculture  (four subcultures.  This  results  showed  that  the  production  of  somatic  embryosin  liquid  medium  was  higher  than  in  the  solid  medium.  Regeneration  of somatic  embryos  on  solid  medium  culture  showed  the  highest  percentage  of abnormality  embryos  due  to  hyperhydricity  at  the  cotyledonary  phase  60%. Meanwhile,  the  regeneration  of  somatic  embryos  in  liquid  culture  showed the  highest  percentage  of  abnormality  embryos  due  to   hyperhydricity  at the  globular  and  cotyledonary  phase  37%.  Frequent  subculture  increased abnormal embryos  and  decreased  the  number of  somatic  embryos.Key words: Cacao, hyperhydricity,  somatic embryos,  solid  culture,  liquid  culture,  subculture,  in  vitro.

  16. Impact of microwave pre-treatment on the batch anaerobic digestion of two-phase olive mill solid residue: a kinetic approach

    B. Rincón


    Full Text Available The effect of a microwave (MW pre-treatment on two-phase olive mill solid residue (OMSR or alperujo with a view to enhancing its anaerobic digestibility was studied. The MW pre-treatment was carried out at a power of 800 W and at a targeted temperature of 50 °C using different heating rates and holding times. The following specific energies were applied: 4377 kJ·kg TS-1 (MW1, 4830 kJ·kg TS-1 (MW2, 7170 kJ·kg TS-1 (MW3 and 7660 kJ·kg TS-1 (MW4. The maximum methane yield, 395±1 mL CH4·g VSadded-1, was obtained for MW4. The effect of the pre-treatment on the kinetics of the process was also studied. The methane production curves generated during the batch tests showed a first exponential stage and a second sigmoidal stage for all the cases studied. In the first stage, the kinetic constant for the pre-treatment MW1 was 54.8% higher than that obtained for untreated OMSR.

  17. Effect of fast pyrolysis conditions on biomass solid residues at high temperatures

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn


    Fast pyrolysis of wood and straw was conducted in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and compared with corresponding data from a wire mesh reactor (WMR) to study the influence of temperature (1000-1400)°C, biomass origin (pinewood, beechwood, wheat straw, alfalfa straw), and heating rate (103 °C/s, 104 °C...... in its half-width with respect to the parental fuel, whereas the alfalfa straw char particle size remained unaltered at higher temperatures. Soot particles in a range from 60 to 300 nm were obtained during fast pyrolysis. The soot yield from herbaceous fuels was lower than from wood samples, possibly due...

  18. Electrodialytic upgrading of three different municipal solid waste incineration residue types with focus on Cr, Pb, Zn, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, V, Cl and SO4

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Pedersen, Kristine B.


    Handling of air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is a challenge due to its toxicity and high leaching of toxic elements and salts. Electrodialysis (ED) of the material has shown potential for reduction of leaching of toxic elements and salts to produce...

  19. Electrodialytic upgrading of three different municipal solid waste incineration residue types with focus on Cr, Pb, Zn, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, V, Cl and SO4

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Pedersen, Kristine B.


    Handling of air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is a challenge due to its toxicity and high leaching of toxic elements and salts. Electrodialysis (ED) of the material has shown potential for reduction of leaching of toxic elements and salts to produce...

  20. Can the Solid State Greenhouse Effect Produce ~100 Year Cycles in the Mars South Polar Residual CO2 Ice Cap?

    Line, M. R.; Ingersoll, A. P.


    Malin et al. (2001) reported that the south perennial cap consists of quasi-circular pits ~8 meters deep, with a flat surface in between. The walls of the pits are retreating at a rate of 1 to 3 meters per year. Byrne and Ingersoll (2003a, 2003b) showed evidence that the floors of the pits are water ice and the upper layer is CO2. This layer will be gone in a few Martian centuries, if the observations are taken at face value. This raises some difficult questions: How likely is it that mankind would be witnessing the final few hundred years of the residual CO2 frost on Mars? Can one imagine extreme weather events that could recharge the residual CO2 frost once it is gone? Both seem unlikely, and we propose a different mechanism. Kieffer et al. (2000) showed that sunlight can penetrate several meters through the seasonal CO2 frost, where it warms the surface below. We have observational evidence that the same is happening in the perennial CO2 frost. Further, we have a model that shows how this "solid-state greenhouse" can lead to cyclic behavior, in which layers of CO2 build up on a water ice substrate, are heated internally by sunlight and lose mass from within. Eventually the layer becomes too weak to support itself, and it collapses to form pits. Then a new CO2 layer accumulates and the process repeats. Our study addresses fundamental questions of long-term stability of the Martian polar caps and how the caps control the atmospheric pressure. Instead of invoking extreme climate events to explain the data, we propose that processes within the frost itself can lead to cyclic growth and collapse of the pits. Our model implies that there is no long-term change in the ~8 meter layer of CO2 and no extreme weather events to make it change.

  1. Solid-State 13C NMR Spectroscopy Applied to the Study of Carbon Blacks and Carbon Deposits Obtained by Plasma Pyrolysis of Natural Gas

    Jair C. C. Freitas


    Full Text Available Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was used in this work to analyze the physical and chemical properties of plasma blacks and carbon deposits produced by thermal cracking of natural gas using different types of plasma reactors. In a typical configuration with a double-chamber reactor, N2 or Ar was injected as plasma working gas in the first chamber and natural gas was injected in the second chamber, inside the arc column. The solid residue was collected at different points throughout the plasma apparatus and analyzed by 13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy, using either cross polarization (CP or direct polarization (DP, combined with magic angle spinning (MAS. The 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra of a number of plasma blacks produced in the N2 plasma reactor showed two resonance bands, broadly identified as associated with aromatic and aliphatic groups, with indication of the presence of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing groups in the aliphatic region of the spectrum. In contrast to DP experiments, only a small fraction of 13C nuclei in the plasma blacks are effectively cross-polarized from nearby 1H nuclei and are thus observed in spectra recorded with CP. 13C NMR spectra are thus useful to distinguish between different types of carbon species in plasma blacks and allow a selective study of groups spatially close to hydrogen in the material.

  2. Structural and Optical Investigations of Heterostructures Based on AlxGa1-xAsyP1-y:Si Solid Solutions Obtained by MOCVD

    P. V. Seredin


    Full Text Available We investigated MOCVD epitaxial heterostructures based on AlxGa1−xAs ternary solid solutions, obtained in the range of compositions x~0.20–0.50 and doped with high concentrations of phosphorus and silicon atoms. Using the methods of high-resolution X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy we have shown that grown epitaxial films represent five-component (AlxGa1−xAs1−yPy1−zSiz solid solutions. The implementation of silicon in solid solution with a concentration of ~ 0.01 at.% leads to the formation of the structure with deep levels, DX centers, the occurrence of which fundamentally affects the energy characteristics of received materials.

  3. Particle Size Distributions Obtained Through Unfolding 2D Sections: Towards Accurate Distributions of Nebular Solids in the Allende Meteorite

    Christoffersen, P. A.; Simon, Justin I.; Ross, D. K.; Friedrich, J. M.; Cuzzi, J. N.


    Size distributions of nebular solids in chondrites suggest an efficient sorting of these early forming objects within the protoplanetary disk. The effect of this sorting has been documented by investigations of modal abundances of CAIs (e.g., [1-4]) and chondrules (e.g., [5-8]). Evidence for aerodynamic sorting in the disk is largely qualitative, and needs to be carefully assessed. It may be a way of concentrating these materials into planetesimal-mass clumps, perhaps 100 fs of ka after they formed. A key parameter is size/density distributions of particles (i.e., chondrules, CAIs, and metal grains), and in particular, whether the radius-density product (rxp) is a better metric for defining the distribution than r alone [9]. There is no consensus between r versus rxp based models. Here we report our initial tests and preliminary results, which when expanded will be used to test the accuracy of current dynamical disk models.

  4. Short-chain fatty acids produced in vitro from fibre residues obtained from mixed diets containing different breads and in human faeces during the ingestion of the diets.

    Wisker, E; Daniel, M; Rave, G; Feldheim, W


    It was studied whether the type of bread (i.e. a low-fibre wheat-rye mixed bread and coarse or fine wholemeal rye bread) either as part of a diet or alone, had an influence on the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced during in vitro fermentation. Fermentation substrates were dietary fibre residues obtained from diets and breads. In addition, it was investigated whether the faecal SCFA pattern in the inoculum donors, who ingested the experimental diets, could be predicted by in vitro fermentation. Yields of SCFA in vitro were 0.51-0.62 g/g fermented polysaccharide. In vitro, the molar ratios of butyrate were higher for the two high-fibre diets containing coarse or fine wholemeal bread than for the low fibre diet containing wheat-rye mixed bread; the difference was significant for the coarse (P bread diet (P = 0.0678). The coarse wholemeal bread alone produced a higher molar ratio of butyrate than the fine wholemeal bread (P bread (P wholemeal bread led to higher faecal butyrate ratios (molar ratios: coarse bread diet 19.6, fine bread diet 17.7) compared with the wheat-rye mixed bread-containing diet (14.9), but the differences between the diets were not significant. For the diets investigated, there were no significant differences between faecal and in vitro SCFA patterns.

  5. Optimization of a novel headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic method by means of a Doehlert uniform shell design for the analysis of trace level ethylene oxide residuals in sterilized medical devices.

    DiCicco, Michael P; Lang, Bridget; Harper, Thomas I


    Medical devices sterilized by ethylene oxide (EtO) retain trace quantities of EtO residuals, which may irritate patients' tissue. Reliably quantifying trace level EtO residuals in small medical devices requires an extremely sensitive analytical method. In this research, a Doehlert uniform shell design was utilized in obtaining a response surface to optimize a novel headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic (HS-SPME-GC) method developed for analyzing trace levels of EtO residuals in sterilized medical devices, by evaluating sterilized, polymer-coated, drug-eluting cardiovascular stents. The effects of four independent experimental variables (HS-SPME desorption time, extraction temperature, GC inlet temperature and extraction time) on GC peak area response of EtO were investigated simultaneously and the most influential experimental variables determined were extraction temperature and GC inlet temperature, with the fitted model showing no evidence of lack-of-fit. The optimized HS-SPME-GC method demonstrated overall good linearity/linear range, accuracy, repeatability, reproducibility, absolute recovery and high sensitivity. This novel method was successfully applied to analysis of trace levels of EtO residuals in sterilized/aerated cardiovascular stents of various lengths and internal diameter, where, upon heating, trace EtO residuals fully volatilized into HS for extraction, thereby nullifying matrix effects. As an alternative, this novel HS-SPME-GC method can offer higher sensitivity compared with conventional headspace analyzer-based sampling.

  6. Factors which determine the utilization of urban solid residue in vapor and electric power generation; Fatores que condicionam o aproveitamento dos residuos solidos urbanos nas geracoes eletricas e de vapor

    Pires, Flavio B.; Sanchez, Wladimyr [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    this work describes the main aspects concerning the utilization of urban solid residues in electric power and vapor generation such as: the transportation of the solid residues; the strategic factors which should be considered for the success of the plant; economic and financial analysis; and environmental impacts 5 refs., 2 figs.

  7. CO2 emission and structural characteristics of two calcareous soils amended with municipal solid waste and plant residue

    Yazdanpanah, N.


    This investigation examines the effect of different amendments on selected soil physical and biological properties over a 24-month period in two cropland fields. Urban municipal solid waste (MSW) compost and alfalfa residue (AR) were used as different organic amendments at the rates of 0 (control), 10 and 30 Mg ha-1 to a clay loam soil and a loamy sand soil in a semiarid region. Results showed that the soil improvement was controlled by the application rate and decomposability of amendments and soil type. The addition of organic amendments to the soils improved aggregate stability and consequently enhanced total porosity, especially macropore fraction. The increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and total porosity values as compared to the control treatment were greater in the loamy sand soil than in the clay loam soil. Moreover, compared to the microbial respiration of control plots, the application of MSW resulted in higher values of microbial respiration in the clay loam soil than in the loamy sand soil, whereas the reverse was found for AR. Linear and power functions were provided for the relationships between microbial respiration and SOC in the loamy sand and clay loam soils, respectively. Also, CO2 emission was stimulated significantly as power functions of the total porosity and the ratio of macroporosity to microporosity. However, the soil microbial respiration and carbon storage improved aggregate stability and pore size distribution, and as a response, soil porosity, especially the macropore fraction, controlled CO2 flux.

  8. Application of alkaline solid residue of electric arc furnace dust for neutralization/purification of electroplating wastewaters.

    Elez, Loris; Orescanin, Visnja; Sofilic, Tahir; Mikulic, Nenad; Ruk, Damir


    The purpose of this work was development of an appropriate procedure for the neutralization/purification of electroplating wastewater (EWW) with alkaline solid residue (ASR) by-product of the alkaline extraction of zinc and lead from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD). Removal efficiency of ASR at optimum purification conditions (pH 8 and mixing time; 20 minutes) for the elements Pb, Cr (VI), Cr (III), Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn were 94.92%, 97.58%, 99.59%, 99.48%, 97.25% and 99.97%, respectively. The concentrations of all elements in the purified wastewater were significantly lower in relation to the upper permissible limit for wastewaters suitable for discharge into the environment. The remaining waste mud was regenerated in the strong alkaline medium and successfully applied once again for the neutralization/purification of EWW. Removal efficiencies of heavy metals accomplished with regenerated waste mud were comparable to these achieved by original ASR. Elemental concentrations in the leachates of the waste mud were in accordance with regulated values.

  9. Citotoxicity status of electroplating wastewater prior/after neutralization/purification with alkaline solid residue of electric arc furnace dust.

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kopjar, Nevenka; Durgo, Ksenija; Elez, Loris; Gustek, Stefica Findri; Colic, Jasna Franekic


    Toxicological safety of new procedure for the neutralisation/purification of wastewater originated from zinc plating facility was investigated. Wastewater was treated with alkaline solid residue-by-product of zinc recovery from electric arc furnace dust. For determination of cytotoxic potential of untreated and purified wastewater MTT test on HEp2 (human laryngeal carcinoma) and HeLa (human cervical carcinoma) cells lines and alkaline comet assay on human leukocytes were used. Then 100% of the sample as well as different dilutions were tested. Compared to negative control 100, 75 and 50% of the sample of untreated wastewater significantly decreased survival of both HEp2 and HeLa cell lines. In the presence of undiluted sample survival percentage of HeLa and HEp2 cells were only 2.3 and 0.3% respectively. Only undiluted purified wastewater showed slight but insignificant decrease of the survival of both cell lines. Even 0.5% of the sample of original electroplating wastewater exhibited significantly higher value of all comet assay parameters compared to negative control. There was no significant difference between negative control and purified wastewater for any of comet assay parameters. Significantly lower level of primary DNA damage recorded after treatment with purified water, even comparable with negative control, confirmed effectiveness of the purification process.

  10. [Simultaneous determination of captan and folpet pesticide residues in apples by solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography].

    Wang, Shuju; Yu, Yanbin; Tan, Peigong; Miao, Zaijing; Wei, Yishan


    A method for the simultaneous determination of captan and folpet pesticide residues in apples was developed by solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography. The sample was extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned-up by a mixture of homemade sorbent and silica gel with hexane-dichloromethane-acetonitrile (50:49: 1, v/v) as the eluent. The cleaned effects by using Florisil column, amino column, the mixed sorbent were compared, and the effect of the mixed sorbent was the best. The optimal analytical conditions were follow as: an methanol-acetonitrile-water (50: 5:45, v/v) containing 0. 1 mmol/L acetic-acetate buffer (pH 3. 80) as the mobile phase, detection at 210 nm. The method had a good linear relationship in the range of 0. 40 - 8. 00 mg/kg for captan and folpet (r > 0. 999 9). The detection limits of captan and folpet were 0. 27 mg/kg and 0. 20 mg/kg, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of retention time were no more than 0. 60%. The average recoveries of captan and folpet from the apples spiked at three levels ranged from 69. 3% - 106% and 101% - 108%, with RSD of 3. 7% - 4. 7% and 1. 3% - 5. 4%, respectively.

  11. Coagulation-Sedimentation-Extraction Pretreatment Methods for The Removal of Suspended Solids and Residual Oil From Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Pome

    Abdul Latif Ahmad, Norliza Ibrahim , Suzylawati Ismail and Subhash Bhatia


    Full Text Available Suspended solids and residual oil removal in a liquid are relevant to numerous research areas and industry. The suspended solid cannot be removed completely by plain settling. Large and heavy particles can settle out readily, but smaller and lighter particles settle very slowly or in some cases do not settle at all. Because of this, it requires efficient physical-chemical pretreatment methods.   Our current research is to study the pretreatment methods in the removal of suspended solids and residual oil content in POME. Preliminary analysis shows that POME contains 40,000 mg/L suspended solid and 4,000 mg/L oil and grease content that relatively very high compared to the maximum allowable limit by the Malaysian Department of Environment which are only 400 mg/L and 50 mg/L respectively. The methods chosen were coagulation-sedimentation method for suspended solids removal and solvent extraction for residual oil removal.  Jar test apparatus was used as the standard procedure for bench-scale testing and alum was used as the coagulant. Parameters studied were alum dosage, mixing time, mixing speed, sedimentation time and pH. For removal of residual oil, six different organic solvents; n-hexane, n-heptane, benzene, petroleum ether, pentane and petroleum benzene were used. For every solvent the effect of solvent ratio, mixing time, mixing speed and pH were analyzed. The results show that the optimum conditions in removal of suspended solid from POME were at pH 4.11, sedimentation time of 100 minutes and 150 rpm mixing speed with 1.5 hr mixing time. N-hexane give the best performance in extracting residual oil from POME with solvent to POME ratio of 6:10. It was estimated about 0.54 grams of oil and grease can be extracted with optimum variables at pH 4, mixing speed of 200 rpm, and 20 minutes mixing time.  Key Words: palm oil mill effluent, coagulation, suspended solid, residual oil, solvent extraction.

  12. Evaluation of using urban solid residues as renewable energy source: a reflexions on the way of production oriented to the wasteful consumption; Avaliacao do uso dos residuos solidos urbanos como fonte de energia renovavel: uma reflexao sobre o modo de producao voltado ao consumo perdulario

    Costa, Angela Oliveira da; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli; Henriques, Rachel Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico]|[Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Instituto Virtual Internacional de Mudancas Globais (IVIG)]. E-mails:;;; Silva, Neilton Fidelis da [Centro de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio Grande do Norte (CEFET/RN), Natal, RN (Brazil)


    This article discusses the waste concept, the historical origin and formation, considering the social, economical and cultural characters. The document evaluates the rule of solid urban residue (SUR) as energy source, introducing the discussion that SUR carries a load of energy superior to the energy that can be obtained from his use as primary source.

  13. An improved bonded-polydimethylsiloxane solid-phase microextraction fiber obtained by a sol-gel/silica particle blend.

    Azenha, Manuel; Nogueira, Pedro; Fernando-Silva, A


    A novel procedure for solid-phase microextraction fiber preparation is presented, which combines the use of a rigid titanium alloy wire as a substrate with a blend of PDMS sol-gel mixture/silica particles, as a way of increasing both the mechanical robustness and the extracting capability of the sol-gel fibers. The approximately 30 microm average thick fibers displayed an improvement in the extraction capacity as compared to the previous sol-gel PDMS fibers, due to a greater load of stable covalently bonded sol-gel PDMS. The observed extraction capacity was comparable to that of 100 microm non-bonded PDMS fiber, having in this case the advantages of the superior robustness and stability conferred, respectively, by the unbreakable substrate and the sol-gel intrinsic characteristics. Repeatability (n=3) ranged 1-8% while fiber production reproducibility (n=3) ranged 15-25%. The presence of the silica particles was found to have no direct influence on the kinetics and mechanism of the extraction process, thus being possible to consider the new procedure as a refinement of the previous ones. The applicability potential of the devised fiber was illustrated with the analysis of gasoline under the context of arson samples.

  14. Mechanical evaluation of calcium-zirconium-silicate (baghdadite) obtained by a direct solid-state synthesis route.

    Schumacher, Thomas C; Volkmann, Eike; Yilmaz, Rumeysa; Wolf, Artur; Treccani, Laura; Rezwan, Kurosch


    Ca3ZrSi2O9 (baghdadite) has become a major research focus within the biomaterial community due to its remarkable in-vitro and in-vivo bioactivity. Although baghdadite seems to exhibit interesting biological properties, as yet there has been no data published concerning its mechanical properties. This lack of knowledge hinders targeting this novel bioactive material towards potential applications. In this study we prepare dense Ca3ZrSi2O9 bulk ceramics for the first time, allowing the evaluation of its mechanical properties including hardness, bending strength, Young׳s modulus, and fracture toughness. The preparation of baghdadite has been accomplished by a direct solid-state synthesis in combination with conventional sintering at 1350-1450°C for 3h. Our results show that samples sintered at 1400°C exhibit the best mechanical properties, resulting in a bending strength, fracture toughness, and hardness of 98±16MPa, 1.3±0.1MPam(0.5), and 7.9±0.2GPa. With a comparable mechanical strength to hydroxyapatite, but with an increased fracture toughness by 30% and hardness by 13% baghdadite is highly suitable for potential applications in non-load bearing areas (e.g. coatings or filler materials).

  15. Production of versatile peroxidase from Pleurotus eryngii by solid-state fermentation using agricultural residues and evaluation of its catalytic properties.

    Palma, C; Lloret, L; Sepúlveda, L; Contreras, E


    Interest in production of ligninolytic enzymes has been growing over recent years for their use in various applications such as recalcitrant pollutants bioremediation; specifically, versatile peroxidase (VP) presents a great potential due to its catalytic versatility. The proper selection of the fermentation mode and the culture medium should be an imperative to ensure a successful production by an economic and available medium that favors the process viability. VP was produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Pleurotus eryngii, using the agricultural residue banana peel as growth medium; an enzymatic activity of 10,800 U L(-1) (36 U g(-1) of substrate) was detected after 18 days, whereas only 1800 U L(-1) was reached by conventional submerged fermentation (SF) with glucose-based medium. The kinetic parameters were determined by evaluating the H2O2 and Mn(2+) concentration effects on the Mn(3+)-tartrate complex formation. The results indicated that although the H2O2 inhibitory effect was observed for the enzyme produced by both media, the reaction rates for VP obtained by SSF were less impacted. This outcome suggests the presence of substances released from banana peel during the fermentation, which might exhibit a protective effect resulting in an improved kinetic behavior of the enzyme.

  16. Determination of triazine herbicides: development of an electroanalytical method utilizing a solid amalgam electrode that minimizes toxic waste residues, and a comparative study between voltammetric and chromatographic techniques.

    De Souza, Djenaine; de Toledo, Renata A; Galli, Andressa; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R; Silva, Maria R C; Garbellini, Gustavo S; Mazo, Luiz H; Avaca, Luis A; Machado, Sergio A S


    The use of a copper solid amalgam electrode (CuSAE) for the analytical determination of triazine herbicides (atrazine and ametryne) instead of the conventional hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) is reported. The results obtained using electroanalytical methods utilizing each of these electrodes were also compared with those provided by the HPLC technique. The results indicated that the CuSAE electrode can be used to detect the herbicides studied, since the detection limits reached using the electrode (3.06 microg L-1 and 3.78 microg L-1 for atrazine and ametryne, respectively) are lower than the maximum values permitted by CONAMA (Brazilian National Council for the Environment) for wastewaters (50 microg L-1) and by the US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency of the United States) in natural water samples (10.00 microg L-1). An electroanalytical methodology employing CuSAE and square wave voltammetry (SWV) was successfully applied to the determination of atrazine and ametryne in natural water samples, yielding good recoveries (70.30%-79.40%). This indicates that the CuSAE provides a convenient substitute for the HMDE, particularly since the CuSAE minimizes the toxic waste residues produced by the use of mercury in HDME-based analyses.

  17. Solid phase extraction-capillary electrophoresis determination of sulphonamide residues in milk samples by use of C18-carbon nanotubes as hybrid sorbent materials.

    Polo-Luque, M L; Simonet, B M; Valcárcel, M


    The exceptional sorption capabilities of carbon nanotubes were used to preconcentrate trace sulphonamides from milk samples. To this end, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) dispersed in the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate were retained on a C18 stationary phase to obtain a hybrid material in a simple manner. In this approach ionic liquids are an excellent alternative to improve the dispersion of CNTs, without chemical modification or the use of solid substances or organic solvents. MWNTs provided better results than SWNTs. Carbon nanotubes retained in the C18 sorbent matrix were found to confer aromatic character, increasing its preconcentration capacity as a result. The conventional C18 stationary phase played a two-fold role: as a support to retain carbon nanotubes in the cartridge and as a medium to prevent their aggregation. The modified MWNT/C18 and SWNT/C18 materials were used to preconcentrate residual sulphonamides (SAs) in milk samples for their determination at concentrations as low as 0.03-0.069 mg L(-1) by capillary electrophoresis. Analyte recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 103.2 to 98.8% and precision, as RSD, from 8.2 to 5.4%.

  18. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals and chloride from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and air pollution control residue in suspension - test of a new two compartment experimental cell

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Magro, Cátia; Guedes, Paula


    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues such as fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues are classified as hazardous waste and disposed of, although they contain potential resources. The most problematic elements in MSWI residues are leachable heavy metals and salts. For reuse...

  19. A method for the densification of ceramic layers, especially ceramic layers within solid oxide cell (SOC) technology, and products obtained by the method


    A ceramic layer, especially for use in solid oxide cell (SOC) technology, is densified in a method comprising (a) providing a multilayer system by depositing the porous ceramic layer, which is to be densified, onto the selected system of ceramic layers on a support, (b) pre-sintering the resulting......(s) in the porous layer surface and (e) performing a thermal treatment at a temperature T2, where T2 > ?1, to obtain densification of and grain growth in the porous layer formed in step (b). The method makes it possible to obtain dense ceramic layers at temperatures, which are compatible with the other materials...... present in a ceramic multilayer system....

  20. Structural characterization of bismuth rare earth tungstates obtained by fast microwave-assisted solid-state synthesis

    Rocha, G.N.; Melo, L.F.L. [Grupo de Química de Materiais Avançados (GQMAT), Departamento de Química Analítica e Físico-Química, Universidade Federal do Ceará – UFC, Campus do Pici, CP 12100, CEP 60451-970 Fortaleza – CE (Brazil); Castro, M.C.; Ayala, A.P. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará (Brazil); Menezes, A.S. de [Departamento de Física – CCET, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus do Bacanga, 65085-580 São Luís, MA (Brazil); Fechine, P.B.A., E-mail: [Grupo de Química de Materiais Avançados (GQMAT), Departamento de Química Analítica e Físico-Química, Universidade Federal do Ceará – UFC, Campus do Pici, CP 12100, CEP 60451-970 Fortaleza – CE (Brazil)


    A new synthetic route was used to obtain bismuth rare earth tungstates: BiREWO{sub 6}, where RE = Y, Gd and Nd. These materials were obtained by microwave radiation in air at 900–1100 °C for 10 min, depend on the rare earth composition in the ceramic. Structural characterization was performed by X-ray powder diffraction, Infrared and Raman spectroscopy. It was observed that all samples are isostructural materials with monoclinic phase with space group A12/m1 and member of the Aurivillius family, as Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} ferroelectric phase. It was observed moderated values for dielectric measurements (14<ε{sub r}{sup ′}>19 and 0.018 < tg δ > 0.079) at microwaves frequencies, which can be used as Dielectric Resonator Antenna or for size reduction of the electric device. - Highlights: ► New synthetic route to obtain bismuth rare earth tungstates by microwave radiation. ► Vibration spectroscopy was based in Group Theory and observed in FTIR and Raman. ► BiGdWO{sub 6} presented simultaneously higher ε{sub r}{sup ′} and smaller tg δ values at microwaves frequencies. ► The samples can be used as a DRA or for size reduction of the electric device.

  1. Influence of polymer bases on the synergistic effects obtained from mixtures of additives in the petroleum industry. Performance and residue formation

    Spinelli, Luciana S.; Aquino, Aline S.; Pires, Renata V.; Barboza, Elaine M.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Institute of Macromolecules/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, IMA/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco J, Ilha do Fundao 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Louvisse, Ana Maria T. [Petrobras Research Center/CENPES - Q. 7 - Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    Undesirable residue formation and lower performance can be observed during the use of polymer-based chemical additives in the petroleum industry when such compounds are mixed during a number of operations, such as oil production. In this work a demulsifier, a flocculant and a scale inhibitor and their respective polymeric bases were tested. These were evaluated through specific performance tests for each additive and a solubility test to assess residue formation. By correlating the performance of commercial additives and the respective polymeric bases, we can conclude that the polymeric base is responsible for the positive synergistic effects on demulsifier performance in the presence of other additives and for the negative synergistic effects on scale-inhibiting performance, also in the presence of other additives. Moreover, we found that the polymeric base can be responsible for the residue formation from the scale inhibitor and flocculant mixture, although it is not be responsible for the residue formation of the flocculant alone. (author)

  2. Characterization of 430L porous supports obtained by powder extrusion moulding for their application in solid oxide fuel cells

    Sotomayor, María Eugenia, E-mail:; Ospina, Liliana María, E-mail:; Levenfeld, Belén, E-mail:; Várez, Alejandro, E-mail:


    The characterization of 430L stainless steel planar porous supports obtained by powder extrusion moulding was performed in this work. A thermoplastic multicomponent binder based on high density polyethylene and paraffin wax was selected for the process. Green supports were shaped by extrusion moulding, and subsequently the binder was removed by a thermal cycle previously optimized. Sintering was carried out at different temperatures in low vacuum. Density of sintered parts was measured by Archimedes' method and porosity was also evaluated through a microstructural analysis by optical microscopy. The porosity degree of samples sintered at low temperature was close to 35% which is a very suitable value for their application in SOFCs. Tensile tests were carried out in order to determine mechanical strength as a function of porosity degree. Based on these results, the best feedstock composition and processing parameters were selected. The oxidation behaviour in static air at high temperature was studied, and formed oxides were characterized in a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays. X-ray diffraction experiments were performed in order to identify the formed oxides based on formula Fe{sub 2−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3}. The results of these studies showed that this kind of ferritic stainless steel would be more suitable to be used as anodic supports where a rich hydrogen atmosphere is employed. Preliminary deposition tests allowed obtaining a homogeneous Ni–YSZ anode layer with a thickness of 10 μm on the porous metallic substrates. - Highlights: • 430L stainless steel porous supports were obtained by powder extrusion moulding. • Porosity degree was controlled sintering at different temperatures in low vacuum. • Tensile tests allowed determining mechanical strength of porous supports. • A study about its oxidation behaviour in static air at high temperature was realized. • After oxidation, formed oxides were

  3. Effects of fining on phenolic compounds and colour of red wine obtained with addition of increased amounts of grape solid phase in pomace

    Puškaš Vladimir S.


    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study the effect of grape pomace enrichment in solid phase (stems and seeds on phenolic compounds and colour stability of obtained red wines, before and after use of different fining agents. Results have shown increase in total phenols and flavan-3-ols content after grape solid phase addition. On the other hand, decrease in anthocyanins content has generally been recorded in all wine samples except in wines obtained with addition of 40 g/l of seeds during maceration. Stems addition caused decrease in colour intensity while addition of seeds has increased this colour parameter. The use of four fining agents (albumin, gelatine, bentonite and PVPP has been investigated and compared, especially in terms of their influence on potential stabilization effect of grape solid phase on wine colour. Fined wines tended to have considerably lower anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol levels, especially in the case of gelatine and PVPP treatment (decrease up to 60 and 70%, respectively. In the case of chromatic parameters, used fining agents caused colour intensity decrease but it is important to emphasize that their values, after fining, are still as high as expected from red wine. This can be explained by the stabilization effect of increased flavan-3-ols content.

  4. Lignocellulose fermentation and residual solids characterization for senescent switchgrass fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum in the presence and absence of continuous in situ ball-milling

    Balch, Michael L.; Holwerda, Evert K.; Davis, Mark F.; Sykes, Robert W.; Happs, Renee M.; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E.; Lynd, Lee R.


    Milling during lignocellulosic fermentation, henceforth referred to as cotreatment, is investigated as an alternative to thermochemical pretreatment as a means of enhancing biological solubilization of lignocellulose. We investigate the impact of milling on soluble substrate fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum with comparison to yeast, document solubilization for fermentation of senescent switchgrass with and without ball milling, and characterize residual solids. Soluble substrate fermentation by C. thermocellum proceeded readily in the presence of continuous ball milling but was completely arrested for yeast. Total fractional carbohydrate solubilization achieved after fermentation of senescent switchgrass by C. thermocellum for 5 days was 0.45 without cotreatment or pretreatment, 0.81 with hydrothermal pretreatment (200 degrees C, 15 minutes, severity 4.2), and 0.88 with cotreatment. Acetate and ethanol were the main fermentation products, and were produced at similar ratios with and without cotreatment. Analysis of solid residues was undertaken using molecular beam mass spectrometry (PyMBMS) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) in order to provide insight into changes in plant cell walls during processing via various modes. The structure of lignin present in residual solids remaining after fermentation with cotreatment appeared to change little, with substantially greater changes observed for hydrothermal pretreatment - particularly with respect to formation of C-C bonds. The observation of high solubilization with little apparent modification of the residue is consistent with cotreatment enhancing solubilization primarily by increasing the access of saccharolytic enzymes to the feedstock, and C. thermocellum being able to attack all the major linkages in cellulosic biomass provided that these linkages are accessible.

  5. Comparative chemistry and biological properties of the solid residues from hydrodistillation of Spanish populations of Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Sánchez-Vioque, R.; Izquierdo-Melero, M. E.; Polissiou, M.; Astraka, K.; Tarantilis, Petros A.; Herraiz-Peñalver, D.; Martín-Bejerano, M.; Santana-Méridas, O.


    Solid residues from the hydrodistillation of selected Spanish populations of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) have been analyzed for their polyphenol composition, and antioxidant and bioplaguicide activities. The objective was to evaluate and select the most suitable plant materials as sources of natural antioxidants and crop protectants. Total polyphenol content and polyphenol composition of rosemary populations were very dependent on the growth location: populations from Aranjuez showed...

  6. Prediction of the Residual Welding Stress in 2.25Cr-1Mo Steel by Taking into Account the Effect of the Solid-State Phase Transformations

    Dean DENG; Yangang TONG; Ninshu MA; Hidekazu MURAKAWA


    A computational approach based on the thermal elastic plastic finite element method was developed for predicting welding residual stress in low carbon alloyed steel welds by taking into account the effect of the solid-state phase transformations.The kinetics of phase transformations was described by Johnson Mehl Avrami Kolmogrov (JMAK) equation for bainitic transition and by Koistinen-Marburger (K-M) relationship for martensitic transition.Moreover,an additive rule depending on volumetric phase fraction was adopted to represent the material property changes during heating and cooling.Consequently,the residual welding stresses in a 2.25Cr1Mo steel TIG welded plate were computed.Early calculation results suggest that the bainitic and martensitic transformations took place in the weld the heat-affected zone drastically reduce the residual longitudinal tensile stress in the region.

  7. Effect of residual stresses on the strength, adhesion and wear resistance of SiC coatings obtained by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on low alloy steel

    Kattamis, T.Z. (Department of Metallurgy, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3136 (United States)); Chen, M. (Department of Metallurgy, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3136 (United States)); Skolianos, S. (Aristoteles University, Thessaloniki (Greece)); Chambers, B.V. (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States))


    Amorphous hydrogenated silicon carbide thin coatings were deposited on AISI 4340 low alloy steel wafers and thicker steel specimens by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The cohesion of the coating, its adhesion to the substrate and its friction coefficient were evaluated by automatic scratch testing, and its wear resistance by pin-on-disk tribometry. During annealing, the residual stress attributed to hydrogen entrapment during deposition gradually changed from compressive to tensile and its rate of increase decreased with increasing annealing time. The cohesion and adhesion failure loads and the abrasive wear resistance decreased with decreasing residual compressive stress and increasing residual tensile stress. The friction coefficient between the coating surface and a diamond stylus decreased with increasing annealing time. ((orig.))

  8. Gasificación con aire en lecho fluidizado de los residuos sólidos del proceso industrial de la naranja//Air gasification in fluidized bed of solid residue the orange industrial process

    Leonardo Aguiar-Trujillo


    Full Text Available La industria procesadora de la naranja genera elevados volúmenes de residuos sólidos. Este residuo se ha utilizado en la alimentación animal y en procesos bioquímicos; pero no se ha aprovechado a través de la gasificación. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el aporte energético por medio del proceso de gasificación, realizándose estudios de los residuos sólidos de naranja, utilizando aire en reactor de lecho fluidizado burbujeante (variando la temperatura de gasificación, relación estequiométrica y altura del lecho. En el proceso se utilizó un diseño de experimento factorial completo de 2k, valorando la influencia de las variables independientes y sus interacciones en las respuestas, con un grado de significación del 95 %. Se obtuvieron los parámetros para efectuar el proceso de gasificación de los residuos sólidos de naranja, obteniendo un gas de bajo poder calórico, próximo a 5046 kJ/m3N, demostrando sus cualidades para su aprovechamiento energético.Palabras claves: gasificación con aire, lecho fluidizado, residuo de naranja._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe orange industrial process generates high volumes of solid residue. This residue has been used as complement in the animal feeding and biochemical processes; but it has not taken advantage through of the gasification process. The objective of the work was to determine the energy contribution by means ofthe gasification process, were carried out studies of the orange solid residue, using air in reactor of bubbling fluidized bed (varying the gasification temperature, air ratio and bed height. In the process a design of complete factorial experiment of 2k, was used, valuing the influence of the independent variables and its interactions in the answers, using a confidence level of 95 %. Were obtained the parameters to make the process of gasification of the orange solid residue, obtaining a gas of lower heating

  9. Valorization of agroindustrial solid residues and residues from biofuel production chains by thermochemical conversion: a review, citing Brazil as a case study

    E. Virmond


    Full Text Available Besides high industrial development, Brazil is also an agribusiness country. Each year about 330 million metrics tons (Mg of biomass residues are generated, requiring tremendous effort to develop biomass systems in which production, conversion and utilization of bio-based products are carried out efficiently and under environmentally sustainable conditions. For the production of biofuels, organic chemicals and materials, it is envisaged to follow a biorefinery model which includes modern and proven green chemical technologies such as bioprocessing, pyrolysis, gasification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and other catalytic processes in order to make more complex molecules and materials on which a future sustainable society will be based. This paper presents promising options for valorization of Brazilian agroindustrial biomass sources and residues originating from the biofuel production chains as renewable energy sources and addresses the main aspects of the thermochemical technologies which have been applied.

  10. Diagnostic efficacy of liquid-based cytology for solid pancreatic lesion samples obtained with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration: Propensity score-matched analysis.

    Hashimoto, Shinichi; Taguchi, Hiroki; Higashi, Michiyo; Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Fujita, Toshihiro; Iwaya, Hiromichi; Nakazawa, Junichi; Arima, Shiho; Iwashita, Yuji; Sasaki, Fumisato; Nasu, Yuichiro; Kanmura, Shuji; Ido, Akio


    There is a paucity of data on the diagnostic efficacy of liquid-based cytology (LBC) for pancreatic samples obtained by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). Using propensity score matching, we retrospectively analyzed the additional diagnostic value of LBC compared to a conventional Papanicolaou smear (CPS) for samples of solid pancreatic lesions obtained by EUS-FNA. This cohort study included 126 matched patients who underwent initial EUS-FNA for solid pancreatic lesions between January 2009 and August 2014. CPS was used for cytology of EUS-FNA samples obtained until May 2012 (63 patients). Subsequently, LBC was used for cytological analysis (63 patients). Diagnostic yields of CPS and LBC for malignancy were compared. Risk factors for cytological misdiagnosis with LBC were investigated. Overall rate of malignancy was 86% after matching. LBC had higher diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy than CPS (96.6% vs 84.0%, P = 0.03; and 96.8% vs 87.3%, P = 0.05). LBC was significantly more sensitive for diagnosing pancreatic head lesions (96.4% vs 78.1%, P = 0.04). The sensitivity for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with LBC was higher (98.1% vs 83.0%, P = 0.009). Multivariate analysis revealed that malignant tumors other than PDAC (P = 0.004) and lesion size ≤20 mm (P = 0.046) were risk factors for LBC misdiagnosis in all participants. For solid pancreatic lesions, LBC of EUS-FNA samples contributes to the diagnosis of malignancy. Malignant tumors other than PDAC and small tumors are difficult to diagnose using EUS-FNA and LBC. © 2017 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  11. Influence of diffusion annealing on residual resistivity of Nb3Sn-based chromium-plated strands obtained by a bronze process

    Novosilova, D. S.; Abdyukhanov, I. M.; Vorob'eva, A. E.; Dergunova, E. A.; Polikarpova, M. V.; Mareev, K. A.; Traktirnikova, N. V.; Popova, E. N.; Deryagina, I. L.; Sudareva, S. V.


    The residual resistivity ratio, R273/R20, is an important parameter for multifilament superconductors (strands) based on Nb3Sn that are used to manufature cables of magnetic systems. High values of RRR impart stability to the cable with regard to thermal excitations. Nb3Sn strands for magnetic system of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor are manufactured from high purity oxygen-free copper with RRR > 250 units; however, after extended diffusion annealing intended to form superconducting phase Nb3Sn, the residual resistivity ratio values of the strands decrease. This work investigates the influence of diffusion annealing for 55-200 h during the final stage at 650°C on the residual resistivity ratio of chromium-plated Nb3Sn strands. The contents of chromium and oxygen have been analyzed using X-ray spectral microanalysis of the strand surface and peripheral copper layers. Mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP mass spectrometry) has been used to determine the total chromium content in the copper shell. The influence of chromium and oxygen diffusion from coating during annealing at 650°C on the residual resistivity ratio has been demonstrated. Based on the data of ICP mass spectrometry, the depth of the penetration of chromium in a copper shell has been assessed.

  12. Recent Advances in Solid Catalysts Obtained by Metalloporphyrins Immobilization on Layered Anionic Exchangers: A Short Review and Some New Catalytic Results

    Shirley Nakagaki


    Full Text Available Layered materials are a very interesting class of compounds obtained by stacking of two-dimensional layers along the basal axis. A remarkable property of these materials is their capacity to interact with a variety of chemical species, irrespective of their charge (neutral, cationic or anionic. These species can be grafted onto the surface of the layered materials or intercalated between the layers, to expand or contract the interlayer distance. Metalloporphyrins, which are typically soluble oxidation catalysts, are examples of molecules that can interact with layered materials. This work presents a short review of the studies involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on two different anionic exchangers, Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs and Layered Hydroxide Salts (LHSs, published over the past year. After immobilization of anionic porphyrins, the resulting solids behave as reusable catalysts for heterogeneous oxidation processes. Although a large number of publications involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on LDHs exist, only a few papers have dealt with LHSs as supports, so metalloporphyrins immobilized on LHSs represent a new and promising research field. This work also describes new results on an anionic manganese porphyrin (MnP immobilized on Mg/Al-LDH solids with different nominal Mg/Al molar ratios (2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 and intercalated with different anions (CO32− or NO3−. The influence of the support composition on the MnP immobilization rates and the catalytic performance of the resulting solid in cyclooctene oxidation reactions will be reported.

  13. Solid-state Forensic Finger sensor for integrated sampling and detection of gunshot residue and explosives: towards 'Lab-on-a-finger'.

    Bandodkar, Amay J; O'Mahony, Aoife M; Ramírez, Julian; Samek, Izabela A; Anderson, Sean M; Windmiller, Joshua R; Wang, Joseph


    Increasing security needs require field-deployable, on-the-spot detection tools for the rapid and reliable identification of gunshot residue (GSR) and nitroaromatic explosive compounds. This manuscript presents a simple, all-solid-state, wearable fingertip sensor for the rapid on-site voltammetric screening of GSR and explosive surface residues. To fabricate the new Forensic Fingers, we screen-print a three-electrode setup onto a nitrile finger cot, and coat another finger cot with an ionogel electrolyte layer. The new integrated sampling/detection methodology relies on 'voltammetry of microparticles' (VMP) and involves an initial mechanical transfer of trace amounts of surface-confined analytes directly onto the fingertip-based electrode contingent. Voltammetric measurements of the sample residues are carried out upon bringing the working electrode (printed on the index finger cot) in direct contact with a second finger cot coated with an ionogel electrolyte (worn on the thumb), thus completing the solid-state electrochemical cell. Sampling and screening are performed in less than four minutes and generate distinct voltammetric fingerprints which are specific to both GSR and explosives. The use of the solid, flexible ionogel electrolyte eliminates any liquid handling which can resolve problems associated with leakage, portability and contamination. A detailed study reveals that the fingertip detection system can rapidly identify residues of GSR and nitroaromatic compounds with high specificity, without compromising its attractive behavior even after undergoing repeated mechanical stress. This new integrated sampling/detection fingertip strategy holds considerable promise as a rapid, effective and low-cost approach for on-site crime scene investigations in various forensic scenarios.

  14. Comparative chemistry and biological properties of the solid residues from hydrodistillation of Spanish populations of Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Sánchez-Vioque, R.


    Full Text Available Solid residues from the hydrodistillation of selected Spanish populations of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. have been analyzed for their polyphenol composition, and antioxidant and bioplaguicide activities. The objective was to evaluate and select the most suitable plant materials as sources of natural antioxidants and crop protectants. Total polyphenol content and polyphenol composition of rosemary populations were very dependent on the growth location: populations from Aranjuez showed a higher content of total polyphenols and were richer in rosmarinic acid as compared with their equivalent populations from Cuenca, whereas these latter were characterized by an overall higher content in genkwanin and carnosol. Most of the antioxidant activities were highly correlated with the total content of polyphenols although some polyphenols like carnosic acid and carnosol seemed to favor such activities. The extracts from R. officinalis were strong antifeedants against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say and moderate against Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and Myzus persicae Sulzer, according to their feeding ecologies. The biological effects of the active samples cannot be accounted by their chemical composition, suggesting additive or synergistic effects. Both the phytotoxic and stimulating effects on Lactuca sativa L., and Lolium perenne L. leaf and/or root growth were observed.Se ha analizado la composición en polifenoles y las actividades antioxidante y bioplaguicida de los residuos sólidos procedentes de la hidrodestilación de poblaciones seleccionadas de romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. El objetivo fue evaluar y seleccionar los materiales vegetales más adecuados como fuente de antioxidantes y bioplaguicidas naturales. El contenido total y la composición en polifenoles de las poblaciones de romero dependieron mucho de la localidad de cultivo: las poblaciones de Aranjuez mostraron un mayor contenido en polifenoles y fueron más ricas en

  15. A multi-residue method for the determination of pesticides in tea using multi-walled carbon nanotubes as a dispersive solid phase extraction absorbent.

    Hou, Xue; Lei, Shaorong; Qiu, Shiting; Guo, Lingan; Yi, Shengguo; Liu, Wei


    A modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) absorbent was established for analysis of 78 pesticide residues in tea. A 6 mg MWCNT sample was selected as the optimised amount based on the distribution of pesticide recoveries and clean-up efficiency from 6 mL acetonitrile extracts. The matrix effects of the method were evaluated and matrix-matched calibration was recommended. The method was validated employing gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) at the spiked concentration levels of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 mg kg(-1). For most of the targeted pesticides, the percent recoveries range from 70% to 120%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) absorbent with excellent cleanup efficiency, which could be widely applied for the analysis of pesticide residues.

  16. 3D solid supported inter-polyelectrolyte complexes obtained by the alternate deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate

    Eduardo Guzmán


    Full Text Available This work addresses the formation and the internal morphology of polyelectrolyte layers obtained by the layer-by-layer method. A multimodal characterization showed the absence of stratification of the films formed by the alternate deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate. Indeed the final organization might be regarded as three-dimensional solid-supported inter-polyelectrolyte films. The growth mechanism of the multilayers, followed using a quartz crystal microbalance, evidences two different growth trends, which show a dependency on the ionic strength due to its influence onto the polymer conformation. The hydration state does not modify the multilayer growth, but it contributes to the total adsorbed mass of the film. The water associated with the polyelectrolyte films leads to their swelling and plastification. The use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has allowed for deeper insights on the internal structure and composition of the polyelectrolyte multilayers.

  17. Evolution of process control parameters during extended co-composting of green waste and solid fraction of cattle slurry to obtain growing media.

    Cáceres, Rafaela; Coromina, Narcís; Malińska, Krystyna; Marfà, Oriol


    This study aimed to monitor process parameters when two by-products (green waste - GW, and the solid fraction of cattle slurry - SFCS) were composted to obtain growing media. Using compost in growing medium mixtures involves prolonged composting processes that can last at least half a year. It is therefore crucial to study the parameters that affect compost stability as measured in the field in order to shorten the composting process at composting facilities. Two mixtures were prepared: GW25 (25% GW and 75% SFCS, v/v) and GW75 (75% GW and 25% SFCS, v/v). The different raw mixtures resulted in the production of two different growing media, and the evolution of process management parameters was different. A new parameter has been proposed to deal with attaining the thermophilic temperature range and maintaining it during composting, not only it would be useful to optimize composting processes, but also to assess the hygienization degree.

  18. Pyrethroid residue determination in organic and conventional vegetables using liquid-solid extraction coupled with magnetic solid phase extraction based on polystyrene-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    Yu, Xi; Yang, Hongshun


    A detection method using polystyrene-coated magnetic nanoparticles based extraction technique coupled to HPLC was developed for trace amount of pyrethroids residue detection in vegetable matrixes. The recoveries for five kinds of commonly used pyrethroids were in the range of 91.6%-116.2%. The sensitivity and precision of the method were satisfactory with the limits of detection and limits of quantification in the range of 0.0200-0.0392ngg(-1) and 0.072-0.128ngg(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations for the recoveries of the analytes were lower than 6.8% and 10.7%, respectively. The nanoparticles can be washed and recycled after use. The results indicate that the developed method was efficient, fast, economical and environmentally friendly. The method was successfully applied to detect the pyrethroids residue in ten pairs of commonly consumed organic and conventional fresh vegetables in Singapore. Pyrethroids residue was detected in four kinds of conventional vegetables and one kind of organic vegetable.




    . The largest number of strains and bacteria with more solubilizing activity on LRC were isolated from sludge with high content of carbon residue and rhizosphere of Typha domingensis and Cenchrus ciliaris grown on sediments mixed with carbon particles, this result suggests that obtaining and solubilization capacity of LRC by bacteria may be related to the microhabitat where the populations originated.

  20. Optimization and microbial community analysis for production of biogas from solid waste residues of palm oil mill industry by solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    Suksong, Wantanasak; Kongjan, Prawit; Prasertsan, Poonsuk; Imai, Tsuyoshi; O-Thong, Sompong


    This study investigated the improvement of biogas production from solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of oil palm biomass by optimizing of total solids (TS) contents, feedstock to inoculum (F:I) ratios and carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratios. Highest methane yield from EFB, OPF and OPT of 358, 280 and 324m(3)CH4ton(-1)VS, respectively, was achieved at TS content of 16%, C:N ratio of 30:1 and F:I ratio of 2:1. The main contribution to methane from biomass was the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose. The highest methane production of 72m(3)CH4ton(-1) biomass was achieved from EFB. Bacteria community structure in SS-AD process of oil palm biomass was dominated by Ruminococcus sp. and Clostridium sp., while archaea community was dominated by Methanoculleus sp. Oil palm biomass has great potential for methane production via SS-AD.

  1. Mercury Levels In Fly Ash And Apc Residue From Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Before And After Electrodialytic Remediation

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland


    carbon. Two distinct behaviours were observed for mercury as a result of the electrodialytic treatment. This element became enriched in the MSWI residues from the semi-dry system with activated carbon, whereas it decreased in ESP’s and cyclone’s FA. This work presents for the first time information about...

  2. Analysis of the organic matter which are present in solid organic wastes from urban areas; Analise da materia organica presente em residues organicos solidos de origem urbana

    Canellas, Luciano Pasqualoto; Santos, Gabriel de Araujo; Amarai Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil do; Mazur, Nelson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Solos. E-mail:; Moraes, Anselmo Alpande [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    This study analyses the organic matter which are present in the solid wastes from the Rio de Janeiro city - Brazil. The humic acids were extracted and purified. After the purification, the humic acids were dried by lyophilization. Visible UV, infrared and NMR spectra were obtained for the humic acids extracted.

  3. Uso del residual sólido de biogás para la producción de hortalizas en huertos intensivos./Use of biogas solid waste for intensive vegetable production gardens

    Pável Chaveli Chávez


    Full Text Available Resumen:Se llevó a cabo un estudio para medir el comportamiento de la utilización de diferentes dosis de residual sólido de producción de biogás (0.5; 1.0; 1.5 y 2.0 kg.m-2 en tres momentos de aplicación (al inicio, cada dos cultivos y en cada cultivo en una secuencia de hortalizas. Se empleó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. Se realizaron muestreos al suelo al término del ciclo de cultivo y se determinó pH (KCl, contenido de fósforo, potasio y el porciento de materia orgánica. Del análisis de los resultados se obtuvo que la dosis de 1 kg.m-2 del residual de biogás en su estado sólido aplicado cada dos cultivos logro incrementos de los rendimientos por encima del 30% con respecto a la no aplicación del residual. Los contenidos de P2O5 y K2O y el % de materia orgánica se favorecieron con el uso del abono al término del ciclo de las hortalizas, lo que permite la explotación intensiva del suelo./Abstract: A study was conducted to measure the performance of using different doses of solid waste in biogas production (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg.m-2 in three application times (at baseline, each two crops and in each crop in a sequence of vegetables. Design of randomized blocks with three replications was employed. Soil sampling at the end of the crop cycle were performed and pH (KCl, content of phosphorus, potassium and the percentage of organic matter was determined. Analysis of the results obtained that the dose of 1 kg.m-2 residual biogas in its solid state achievement applied every two crops yield increases above 30% over the non-implementation of the residual. The P2O5 and K2O and % organic matter contents were favored by the use of the organic fertilizer at the end of the cycle of the vegetables, allowing the intensive soil use.

  4. Critical analysis of the integration of residual municipal solid waste incineration and selective collection in two Italian tourist areas.

    Ranieri, Ezio; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Masi, Salvatore; Montanaro, Comasia


    Municipal solid waste management is not only a contemporary problem, but also an issue at world level. In detail, the tourist areas are more difficult to be managed. The dynamics of municipal solid waste production in tourist areas is affected by the addition of a significant amount of population equivalent during a few months. Consequences are seen in terms of the amount of municipal solid waste to be managed, but also on the quality of selective collection. In this article two case studies are analyzed in order to point out some strategies useful for a correct management of this problem, also taking into account the interactions with the sector of waste-to-energy. The case studies concern a tourist area in the north of Italy and another area in the south. Peak production is clearly visible during the year. Selective collection variations demonstrate that the tourists' behavior is not adequate to get the same results as with the resident population.

  5. Increased synapse formation obtained by T cell epitopes containing a CxxC motif in flanking residues convert CD4+ T cells into cytolytic effectors.

    Vincent A Carlier

    Full Text Available The nature of MHC class II-binding epitopes not only determines the specificity of T cell responses, but may also alter effector cell functions. Cytolytic CD4+ T cells have been observed primarily in anti-viral responses, but very little is known about the conditions under which they can be elicited. Their potential as regulators of immune responses, however, deserves investigations. We describe here that inclusion of a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase motif within flanking residues of class II-restricted epitopes results, both in vitro and in vivo, in elicitation of antigen-specific cytolytic CD4+ T cells through increased synapse formation. We show that both naïve and polarized CD4+ T cells, including Th17 cells, can be converted by cognate recognition of such modified epitopes. Cytolytic CD4+ T cells induce apoptosis on APCs by Fas-FasL interaction. These findings potentially open the way towards a novel form of antigen-specific immunosuppression.

  6. CO2 Biofixation by the Cyanobacterium Spirulina sp. LEB 18 and the Green Alga Chlorella fusca LEB 111 Grown Using Gas Effluents and Solid Residues of Thermoelectric Origin.

    da Silva Vaz, Bruna; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque


    The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has increased from 280 to 400 ppm in the last 10 years, and the coal-fired power plants are responsible for approximately 22 % of these emissions. The burning of fossil fuel also produces a great amount of solid waste that causes serious industrial and environmental problems. The biological processes become interesting alternative in combating pollution and developing new products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the CO2 biofixation potential of microalgae that were grown using gaseous effluents and solid residues of thermoelectric origin. The microalgae Chlorella fusca LEB 111 presented higher rate of CO2 biofixation (42.8 %) (p Spirulina sp. LEB 18. The values for the CO2 biofixation rates and the kinetic parameters of Spirulina and Chlorella cells grown using combustion gas did not differ significantly from those of cells grown using CO2 and a carbon source in the culture media. These microalgae could be grown using ash derived from coal combustion, using the minerals present in this residue as the source of the essential metals required for their growth and the CO2 derived from the combustion gas as their carbon source.

  7. Effect of the organic loading rate on the performance of anaerobic acidogenic fermentation of two-phase olive mill solid residue.

    Rincón, B; Sánchez, E; Raposo, F; Borja, R; Travieso, L; Martín, M A; Martín, A


    A study of the effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) on the anaerobic acidogenic fermentation of two-phase olive mill solid residue (OMSR) derived from fruits with a low ripening index was carried out in a laboratory-scale completely stirred tank reactor at mesophilic temperature (35 degrees C). Eight experimental runs were carried out at OLRs of 3.2, 5.6, 7.4, 9.6, 11.0, 12.9, 14.0 and 15.1g T-COD/ld, which were equivalent to hydraulic retention times of 50.0, 28.8, 21.8, 16.9, 14.7, 12.4, 11.5 and 10.7d, respectively. The experimental results obtained demonstrated that the optimum value of OLR for the acidogenic fermentation process was 12.9 g T-COD/ld, for which a maximum production of acetic acid was achieved. It was found that inhibition of the process occurred at OLRs higher than 12.9 g T-COD/ld. This was characterized by a significant decrease in the acetic acid concentration in the effluent and an increase in the concentration of other volatile acids that may affect the methanogenic step. The process inhibition was also characterized by the plateau in the curves of the effluent substrate concentration versus the OLR applied. It was found that a first-order kinetics satisfactorily described the influence of non-acetic acid soluble organic matter concentration (S-COD( *)) on the rate of soluble organic matter conversion to acetic acid (R(S-COD)( *)), and the influence of acetic acid concentration (AcH) on the rate of acetic acid production (R(AcH)), while a potential equation type adequately described the influence of acetic acid concentration on the volumetric hydrogen production (R(ACH) ). The kinetic constant for soluble organic matter removal was 0.145 d(-1), while the constant for acetic acid formation was found to be 0.075 d(-1).

  8. LCA Of The “Renescience” Concept: An Alternative To Incineration For The Treatment Of Residual Municipal Solid Waste

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas


    The “REnescience” system consists on a pretreatment of the waste based on heat and enzymes which liquefy the biogenic fraction of the waste (paper and organics). The outputs of the process are then liquid slurry and a remaining solid fraction from which metals, plastic and glass can eventually...

  9. Electrode–electrolyte interface stability in solid state electrolyte systems: influence of coating thickness under varying residual stresses

    Claas Hüter; Shuo Fu; Martin Finsterbusch; Egbert Figgemeier; Luke Wells; Robert Spatschek


    ... with the interface profile.As model system, we use metallic lithium as electrode, LLZO as electrolyte and Al2O3 as a thin filminterlayer, which is a highly relevant interfacial system in state of the art all-solid-electrolyte...

  10. A rapid, solid phase extraction (SPE technique for the extraction and gas chromatographic determination lindane pesticide residue in tissue and milk



    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticide contamination in feed can cause residue in animal product (tissue and milk, so its become a problem in food safety. Solid phase extraction (SPE has been carried out for determination organochlorine pesticide residues in food animal production. The technique was rapid, not costly and produce limited amount of hazardous-waste. Samples were homogenized with acetonitrile trough cartridge C18, eluted in fluorocyl column with 2% ether-petroleum or acetonitrile fortissue and milk samples respectively. The recoveries of tissue sample by addition lindane standard solution: 0.50 and 1.00 μg are 85.10 and 103.10% respectively, while that of milk with the addition of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50 μg are 83.80, 88.69 and 91.24% respectively. Three replicates were carried out for every sample. According of validation criteria of FAO/IAEA the recovery for analysis of pesticide residues was 70-110%. Therefore, the method is applicable.

  11. Determination of the torsion angles of alanine and glycine residues of model compounds of spider silk (AGG){sub 10} using solid-state NMR methods

    Ashida, Jun; Ohgo, Kosuke; Komatsu, Kohei; Kubota, Ayumi; Asakura, Tetsuo [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Biotechnology (Japan)], E-mail:


    Spiders synthesize several kinds of silk fibers. In the primary structure of spider silk, one of the major ampullate (dragline, frame) silks, spidroin 1, and flagelliform silk (core fibers of adhesive spiral), there are common repeated X-Gly-Gly (X = Ala, Leu, Pro, Tyr, Glu, and Arg) sequences, which are considered to be related to the elastic character of these fibers. In this paper, two dimensional spin diffusion solid-state NMR under off magic angle spinning (OMAS), {sup 13}C chemical shift contour plots, and Rotational Echo DOuble Resonance (REDOR) were applied to determine the torsion angles of one Ala and two kinds of Gly residues in the Ala-Gly-Gly sequence of {sup 13}C=O isotope-labeled (Ala-Gly-Gly){sub 10}. The torsion angles were determined to be ({phi}, {psi}) = (-90 deg., 150 deg.) within an experimental error of {+-}10 deg. for each residue. This conformation is characterized as 3{sub 1} helix which is in agreement with the structure proposed from the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of poly(Ala-Gly-Gly). The 3{sub 1} helix of (Ala-Gly-Gly){sub 10} does not change by formic acid treatment although (Ala-Gly){sub 15} easily changes from the silk I conformation (the structure of Bombyx mori silk fibroin before spinning in the solid state) to silk II conformation (the structure of the silk fiber after spinning) by such treatment. Thus, the 3{sub 1} helix conformation of (Ala-Gly-Gly){sub 10} is considered very stable. Furthermore, the torsion angles of the 16th Leu residue of (Leu-Gly-Gly){sub 10} were also determined as ({phi}, {psi}) = (-90 deg., 150 deg.) and this peptide is also considered to take 3{sub 1} helix conformation.

  12. Mechanical and trybological characterization of ceramic materials obtained of mine solid wastes; Caracterizacion mecanica y tribologica de materiales ceramicos obtenidos de residuos solidos mineros

    Soto T, J.L


    A discussion of the physical, mechanical and tribological characterization of the ceramics Jaar, Jaca and Vijaar is presented in this work. They have been obtained from the industrial residuals, coming from metals and sand of the mining industry in Pachuca Hidalgo, Mexico. The methodology followed for the obtention and characterization of these ceramics consists on eliminating the cyanides from the tailings through columns coupled with a system controlled with thermostats. Then, the chemical composition is analysed with spectrometry emission of plasma and scanning electronic microscopy. Then the ceramics are produced. The base material is agglutinated with clay or kaolin. For this purpose, it was used a sintering processes and isothermal compacting in hot condition. Finally, the physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological properties of these new products are determined. Carbon, oxygen, sodium, magnesium, aluminium, manganese, silicon, potassium, phosphor, calcium, titanium, iron, molybdenum, silver and gold are in the chemical composition or ceramic analysed. Also these are heterogeneous mixture of clay and kaolin. The cyanide was eliminated. The results show that Vijaar has better wear resistances to the waste; this was demonstrated in tribology tests. They were not perforated with the abrasive particles. Also, they have high hardness and they can to support more loads in compression than Jaar and the Jaca. Consequently, they are less fragile and, therefore, they can tolerate bending stresses and bigger impact loading. (Author)

  13. Utilization of steel, pulp and paper industry solid residues in forest soil amendment: relevant physicochemical properties and heavy metal availability.

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Watkins, Gary; Pöykiö, Risto; Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Dahl, Olli


    Industrial residue application to soil was investigated by integrating granulated blast furnace or converter steel slag with residues from the pulp and paper industry in various formulations. Specimen analysis included relevant physicochemical properties, total element concentrations (HCl+HNO3 digestion, USEPA 3051) and chemical speciation of chosen heavy metals (CH3COOH, NH2OH·HCl and H2O2+H2O2+CH3COONH4, the BCR method). Produced matrices showed liming effects comparable to commercial ground limestone and included significant quantities of soluble vital nutrients. The use of converter steel slag, however, led to significant increases in the total concentrations of Cr and V. Subsequently, total Cr was attested to occur as Cr(III) by Na2CO3+NaOH digestion followed by IC UV/VIS-PCR (USEPA 3060A). Additionally, 80.6% of the total concentration of Cr (370 mg kg(-1), d.w.) occurred in the residual fraction. However, 46.0% of the total concentration of V (2470 mg kg(-1), d.w.) occurred in the easily reduced fraction indicating potential bioavailability.

  14. Experimental data sulfate and metal removal from mining impacted water collected at the Formosa Mine, OR, and sulfur speciation in the obtained solid residues.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data set contains the elemental composition, pH, and sulfate content of the utilized mining impacted water used as influent in the columns study, the data for...

  15. Determination of low-level ink photoinitiator residues in packaged milk by solid-phase extraction and LC-ESI/MS/MS using triple-quadrupole mass analyzer.

    Shen, Dong-xu; Lian, Hong-zhen; Ding, Tao; Xu, Jin-zhong; Shen, Chong-yu


    A confirmatory and quantitative method based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS) has been developed for simultaneous determination of seven photoinitiator residues: benzophenone, (1-hydroxycyclohexyl)phenylketone (Irgacure 184), isopropylthioxanthone (ITX), 2-ethylhexyl-(4-dimethylamino)benzoate (EHA or EHDAB), 2-methyl-1-[4-(methylthio)phenyl]-2-(4-morpholinyl)-1-propanone (Irgacure 907), (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) and 2-benzyl-2-(dimethylamino)-1-(4-morpholinophenyl)-1-butanone (Irgacure 369) in packaged milk and related packaging materials. Residues of photoinitiators were extracted from milk using acetonitrile, and further enriched and purified on HLB solid-phase extraction cartridges prior to being analyzed by LC-ESI/MS/MS with selected reaction monitoring mode, while photoinitiators in packaging materials were extracted using the same solvent. Satisfactory recovery (from 80 to 111%), intra- and inter-day precision (below 12%), and low limits of quantification (from 0.1 to 5.0 microg kg(-1)) were evaluated from spiked samples at three concentration levels (5.0, 10.0 and 25.0 microg kg(-1) for Irgacure 184 and 2.5, 5.0 and 25.0 microg kg(-1) for others). These excellent validation data suggested the possibility of using the LC-ESI/MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of low-level photoinitiator residues migrating from printed food-packaging materials into milk. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of real samples of different fat contents ranging from 8 to 30 g L(-1). The photoinitiator residues were revealed to be higher in milk with higher fat content and the most important contaminations were benzophenone and ITX in concentration ranges of 2.84-18.35 and 0.83-8.87 microg kg(-1), respectively.

  16. Utilizing a novel sorbent in the solid phase extraction for simultaneous determination of 15 pesticide residues in green tea by GC/MS.

    Huo, Feifei; Tang, Hua; Wu, Xue; Chen, Dazhou; Zhao, Tan; Liu, Pei; Li, Lei


    Pesticide residues exceeding standard in green tea is a widespread problem of the world's attention, containing organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), and pyrethroids. In this research, three dimensionally honeycomb Mg-Al layered double oxide (TDH-Mg-Al-LDO) combined with graphitized carbon black (GCB), packed as a column, was used as a novel solid phase extraction sorbent, applying in simultaneous determination of 15 pesticide residues in green tea coupled with GC-MS. Compared with different type of SPE column, it showed that TDH-Mg-Al-LDO exhibited great advantages in the extraction of 15 pesticide residues from green tea, which was seldom reported before. Different experiment conditions, such as combination order of Mg-Al-LDO and GCB, dosage of sorbents, type and volume of eluting solvent were thoroughly studied and optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) of 15 pesticides ranged from 0.9 to 24.2ng/g and the limits of quantifications (LOQs) were ranging from 3.0 to 80.0ng/g. The recoveries using this method at three spiked concentration levels (10, 100 and 500ng/g for Fenthion, P,P'-DDE, O,P'-DDT, P,P'-DDD and Bifenthrin, 100, 500 and 2000ng/g for the others) range from 71.1 to 119.0%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was from 0.1 to 7.6% in all case. The result indicated that the proposed analytical method had been successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of 15 pesticide residues in commercial green tea.

  17. Evaluation of volatile profiles obtained for minimally-processed pineapple fruit samples during storage by headspace-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Francielle Crocetta TURAZZI

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the application of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME technique for the determination and monitoring of the volatile profile of minimally-processed pineapple fruit stored at various temperatures (-12 °C, 4 °C and 25 °C for different periods (1, 4 and 10 days. The SPME fiber coating composed of Car/PDMS presented the best performance. The optimal extraction conditions obtained through a Doehlert design were 60 min at 35 °C. The profiles for the volatile compounds content of the fruit at each stage of storage were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The variation in the volatile profile over time was greater when the fruit samples were stored at 25 °C and at -12 °C compared to 4 °C. Thus, according to the volatile profiles associated with the storage conditions evaluated in this study, packaged pineapple retains best its fresh fruit aroma when stored at 4 °C.

  18. An easy and innovative method based on spray-pyrolysis deposition to obtain high efficiency cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    dos Santos-Gómez, L.; Porras-Vázquez, J. M.; Martín, F.; Ramos-Barrado, J. R.; Losilla, E. R.; Marrero-López, D.


    A novel electrode preparation method based on the spray-pyrolysis deposition of metal nitrate solutions onto a porous electrolyte scaffold is proposed. This method has been proved with different cathode materials, usually used in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, such as La0.8Sr0.2MnO3-δ and La0.6Sr0.4Co1-xFexO3-δ (x = 0, 0.2, 0.8 and 1). The electrode microstructure is composed by two layers; the inner layer is a porous electrolyte scaffold homogeneously coated by cathode nanoparticles, providing an increased number of triple phase boundary sites for oxygen reduction, whereas, the top layer is formed by only cathode nanoparticles and acts mainly as a current collector. Polarization resistance values as low as 0.07 and 1.0 Ω cm2 at 600 and 450 °C, respectively, are obtained at open circuit voltage. This alternative approach has several advantages with respect to the traditional wet infiltration method for large area electrode fabrication, such as higher reproducibility, shorter preparation time in a single thermal deposition step, and easy implementation at industrial scale as a continuous process.

  19. Comparative studies on adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions by biosorbent, bio-char and activated carbon obtained from low cost agro-residue.

    Kırbıyık, Çisem; Pütün, Ayşe Eren; Pütün, Ersan


    In this study, Fe(III) and Cr(III) metal ion adsorption processes were carried out with three adsorbents in batch experiments and their adsorption performance was compared. These adsorbents were sesame stalk without pretreatment, bio-char derived from thermal decomposition of biomass, and activated carbon which was obtained from chemical activation of biomass. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform-infrared techniques were used for characterization of adsorbents. The optimum conditions for the adsorption process were obtained by observing the influences of solution pH, adsorbent dosage, initial solution concentration, contact time and temperature. The optimum adsorption efficiencies were determined at pH 2.8 and pH 4.0 for Fe(III) and Cr(III) metal ion solutions, respectively. The experimental data were modelled by different isotherm models and the equilibriums were well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order kinetic, intra-particle diffusion and Elovich models were applied to analyze the kinetic data and to evaluate rate constants. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model gave a better fit than the others. The thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibbs free energy change ΔG°, standard enthalpy change ΔH° and standard entropy change ΔS° were evaluated. The thermodynamic study showed the adsorption was a spontaneous endothermic process.

  20. Determination of acaricide residues in saudi arabian honey and beeswax using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography.

    Kamel, Alaa; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad


    Determination of acaricide residues of flumethrin, tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos, and amitraz in honey and beeswax was carried out using a rapid extraction method utilizing C-18 SPE cartridges and an analytical method utilizing GC with ECD, NPD, and MSD detectors for the four acaricides. Recovery percentages from the extraction method ranged from 90-102%, while the minimum detection levels ranged from 0.01-0.05 mg/kg for the acaricides. Nine of the 21 analyzed samples were found to be contaminated with the acaricides tau-fluvalinate and coumaphos. Neither flumethrin nor amitraz was detected in any of the honey or wax samples. Coumaphos was found only in honey samples in which two samples exceeded the tolerance levels set by EPA and EC regulations. It has not been detected in beeswax. Five honey samples and eight beeswax samples were found to be contaminated with tau-fluvalinate. One of the wax samples was contaminated with a relatively high residue of tau-fluvalinate and contained above 10 mg/kg.

  1. Rapid and simple solid-phase esterification of sialic acid residues for quantitative glycomics by mass spectrometry.

    Miura, Yoshiaki; Shinohara, Yasuro; Furukawa, Jun-ichi; Nagahori, Noriko; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro


    A rapid and quantitative method for solid-phase methyl esterification of carboxy groups of various sialylated oligosaccharides has been established. The method employed a triazene derivative, 3-methyl-1-p-tolyltriazene, for facile derivatization of oligosaccharides immobilized onto general solid supports such as Affi-Gel Hz and gold colloidal nanoparticles in a multiwell plate. The workflow protocol was optimized for the solid-phase processing of captured sialylated/unsialylated oligosaccharides separated from crude sample mixtures by chemical ligation. From tryptic and/or PNGase F-digest mixtures of glycoproteins, purification by chemoselective immobilization, esterification and recovery were achieved in the same well of the filter plate within three hours when used in conjunction with "glycoblotting technology" (S.-I. Nishimura, K. Niikura, M. Kurogochi, T. Matsushita, M. Fumoto, H. Hinou, R. Kamitani, H. Nakagawa, K. Deguchi, N. Miura, K. Monde, H. Kondo, High-throughput protein glycomics: Combined use of chemoselective glycoblotting and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry: Angew. Chem. 2005, 117, 93-98; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 91-96). The recovered materials were directly applicable to subsequent characterization by mass spectrometric techniques such as MALDI-TOF for large-scale glycomics of both neutral and sialylated oligosaccharides. On-bead/on-gold nanoparticle derivatization of glycans containing sialic acids allowed rapid and quantitative glycoform profiling by MALDI-TOF MS with reflector and positive ion mode. In addition to its simplicity and speed, the method eliminates the use of unfavorable halogenated solvents such as chloroform and dichloromethane or volatile solvents such as diethyl ether and hexane, resulting in a practical and green chemical method for automated robotic adaptation.

  2. Combination of solid-phase extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by GC-MS for determination of pesticide residues from water, milk, honey and fruit juice.

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Yazdanfar, Najmeh; Ghambarian, Mahnaz


    In this work, an effective preconcentration method for the extraction and determination of traces of multi-residue pesticides was developed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Variables affecting the performance of both extraction steps such as type and volume of elution and extraction solvents, breakthrough volume, salt addition, extraction time were thoroughly investigated. The proposed method resulted in good linearities (R(2)>0.9915) over the ranges of 1-10,000ngkg(-1), limits of detection (LODs) in the range of 0.5-1.0ngkg(-1) at S/N=3, and precision of RSD% of ⩽11.8. Under optimal conditions, the preconcentration factors were obtained in the range of 2362-10,593 for 100mL sample solutions. Comparison of the proposed method with other ones demonstrated that SPE-DLLME method provides higher extraction efficiency and larger preconcentration factor for determination of pesticides residues. Further, it is simple, inexpensive, highly sensitive, and can be successfully applied to separation, preconcentration and determination of the pesticides (and other noxious materials) in different real food samples.

  3. LCA Of The “Renescience” Concept: An Alternative To Incineration For The Treatment Of Residual Municipal Solid Waste

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas


    is the incinerator “Amagerforbrænding” (INC) located in Copenhagen (Denmark). Two different energy systems are considered for the assessment: coal as marginal energy and natural gas as marginal energy. The results of the LCA show that the co-combustion (CC-CC) and biogas scenarios (BG-CC) perform better than......The “REnescience” system consists on a pretreatment of the waste based on heat and enzymes which liquefy the biogenic fraction of the waste (paper and organics). The outputs of the process are then liquid slurry and a remaining solid fraction from which metals, plastic and glass can eventually...

  4. A study of the properties of the mineral residue of thermal pyrolysis of shales produced in an installation with a solid heat carrier

    Sidorovich, Ya.I.; Kopachinskiy, K.F.; Lubentsova, V.N.; Makitra, R.G.; Stel' makh, G.P.


    The ash of menilite shales for Carpathia, produced in a laboratory stand with a solid heat carrier, was studied to solve the problem of utilization of its mineral mass. The possibility is demonstrated of using the ash for the production of Portland cement and for construction ceramics. The best results are obtained with the processing of the ash at a temperature of approximately 720 degrees.

  5. [A Simultaneous Determination Method with Acetonitrile-n-Hexane Partitioning and Solid-Phase Extraction for Pesticide Residues in Livestock and Marine Products by GC-MS].

    Yoshizaki, Mayuko; Kobayashi, Yukari; Shimizu, Masanori; Maruyama, Kouichi


    A simultaneous determination method was examined for 312 pesticides (including isomers) in muscle of livestock and marine products by GC-MS. The pesticide residues extracted from samples with acetone and n-hexane were purified by acetonitrile-n-hexane partitioning, and C18 and SAX/PSA solid-phase extraction without using GPC. Matrix components such as cholesterol were effectively removed. In recovery tests performed by this method using pork, beef, chicken and shrimp, 237-257 pesticides showed recoveries within the range of 70-120% in each sample. Validity was confirmed for 214 of the target pesticides by means of a validation test using pork. In comparison with the Japanese official method using GPC, the treatment time of samples and the quantity of solvent were reduced substantially.

  6. [Rapid determination of six preservative residues in fruits and vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography using dispersive solid phase extraction].

    Lin, Haidan; Zou, Zhifei; Qin, Yan; Xie, Shouxin; Chen, Yufang; Xu, Juan; Wang, Lan; Chen, Chuying


    A dispersive solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was established for the simultaneous determination of 2,4-D, thiabendazole, 2-naphthol, o-phenyl phenol, diphenyl ether and biphenyl in the fruits and vegetables. The samples were vortexed for extraction with acetonitrile containing sodium chloride and anhydrous magnesium sulfate. The acetonitrile extraction was purified by acidic alumina dispersed solid phase extraction. The analysis was performed on an Agilent TC C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) and an ultraviolet detector at 235 nm with a mobile phase of methanol-0.02 mol/L (pH 6) potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with gradient elution. Good linearities were observed in the range of 0.5-20 mg/L with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The average recoveries of the six preservatives in fruits and vegetables were in the range of 84.2% -99. 1% at three spiked levels of 1, 2 and 10 mg/kg (n = 6) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 1.67%-10.3%. The limits of quantification were 1 mg/kg. This method is simple, accurate and suitable for the determination of the six preservatives in fruits and vegetables.

  7. Electrode–electrolyte interface stability in solid state electrolyte systems: influence of coating thickness under varying residual stresses

    Claas Hüter


    Full Text Available We introduce a model of electrode–electrolyte interfacial growth which focuses on theeffect of thin coating layers on the interfacial stability in prestressed systems. We take into accounttransport resulting from deposition from the electrolyte, from capillarity driven surface diffusion, andfrom changes of the chemical potential due to the elastic energy associated with the interface profile.As model system, we use metallic lithium as electrode, LLZO as electrolyte and Al2O3 as a thin filminterlayer, which is a highly relevant interfacial system in state of the art all-solid-electrolyte batteries.We consider the stability of the electrode-coating-electrolyte interface depending on the thickness ofthe thin film interlayer and the magnitude of the elastic prestresses. Our central approach is a linearstability analysis based on the mass conservation at the planar interface, employing approximationswhich are appropriate for solid state electrolytes (SSEs like LLZ, a thin Li metal electrode and a thincoating layer with a thickness in the range of nanometres.

  8. Monitoring of N-methyl carbamate pesticide residues in water using hollow fibre supported liquid membrane and solid phase extraction

    Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    The aim of this work was to develop a method for the determination of N-methyl carbamates in water involving hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) and solid phase extraction (SPE) as sample preparation methods. Four N-methyl carbamate pesticides, aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb sulfoxide, were simultaneously extracted and analysed by a liquid chromatograph with a diode array detector (LC-UV/DAD) and a liquid chromatograph coupled to a ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS). The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of carabamate extracts was performed on a C18 column with water-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The mass spectrometry analyses were carried out in the positive mode, operating under both the selected ion monitoring (SIM) and full scan modes. The solid phase recoveries of the extracts ranged between 8% and 98%, with aldicarb having the highest recoveries, followed by carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb had the lowest recovery. The HFSLM recovery ranged between 8% and 58% and the order of recovery was similar to the SPE trend. Factors controlling the efficiency of the HFSLM extraction such as sample pH, stripping phase pH, enrichment time, stirring speed as well as organic solvent used for entrapment of analytes, were optimised to achieve the highest enrichment factors.

  9. Multi-residue methods for the determination of over four hundred pesticides in solid and liquid high sucrose content matrices by tandem mass spectrometry coupled with gas and liquid chromatograph.

    Lozowicka, Bozena; Ilyasova, Gulzhakhan; Kaczynski, Piotr; Jankowska, Magdalena; Rutkowska, Ewa; Hrynko, Izabela; Mojsak, Patrycja; Szabunko, Julia


    For the first time three methods: matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD), original and modified QuEChERS, with and without clean up step were studied in order to evaluate the extraction efficiency of various classes of pesticides from solid and liquid high sucrose content matrices. Determinations over four hundred pesticides were performed by gas and liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/LC/MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring. The proposed methods were validated on sugar beets and their technological product beet molasses. In general, the recoveries obtained for the original QuEChERS and MSPD method were lower (gas and liquid chromatography. The most compounds showed signal enhancement and it was compensated by using matrix-matched calibration and modified QuEChERS characterized lower matrix effects. The confirmation of suitability citrate QuEChERS optimized method was to use for routine testing of several dozen samples determination and residue of epoxiconazole and tebuconazole (both at 0.01mgkg(-1)) in the samples of beet molasses and cyfluthrin (0.06mgkg(-1)) in sugar beet were found.

  10. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Jansson, S.


    The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed...... characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements...... of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits. © 2014 Elsevier B.V....

  11. 固态顶空法测定苹果中的磷化氢残留%Determination of phsophine residues in apples with solid headspace method

    李丽; 王跃进; 张凡华; 龚绍润; 刘彩虹; 詹国平; 刘涛


    为开发水果中磷化氢残留的检测方法,本文采用固态顶空技术对苹果中的磷化氢进行了测定。顶空参数优化结果表明,60℃20 min 平均回收率为101.1%,可确定为顶空处理条件。在此条件下使用气相色谱对一系列标准样品进行分析,得到磷化氢检测的线性范围为0.002 mg/kg~0.032 mg/kg,测定低限为0.002 mg/kg,远低于0.05 mg/kg 的磷化氢残留限量要求。添加回收率结果表明,在0.002 mg/kg ~0.02 mg/kg 范围的低、中、高3种加标水平的平均回收率为98.4%~104.1%,相对标准偏差为2.20%~2.63%。这些结果表明固态顶空法具有操作简便、灵敏度高、重现性好等优点。进一步的实际测定结果表明,熏蒸后苹果中的磷化氢残留在通风8 h 后可降至安全水平。%In order to determine phosphine residues in fruits, the solid headspace method was conducted for phosphine residues analysis in apples. Our results show that 101.1% recovery of phosphine residues could be achieved after 20 min heating at 60℃, and this optimized condition was used in further experiments. A series of phosphine standards were then determined with gas chromatography. The linear ranges of this method were determined to be 0.002 - 0.032 mg/kg, and the level of quantification (LOQ) was 0.002 mg/kg, which was far below the Maximum Residue Limits (0.05 mg/kg). 1×, 5× and 10×LOQ ranging from 0.002 to 0.02 mg/kg phosphine were added in affix recovery tests. The average recoveries were ranging from 98.4% to 104.1% while the standard errors were ranging from 2.20% to 2.63%. These results indicated that the solid headspace method was simple, accurate and highly reproductive. Phosphine residues in fumigated apples were further determined. According to the results of actual samples, phosphine residues in apples would be acceptable after 8-h-aeration.

  12. Residual tensile stresses and piezoelectric properties in BiFeO3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2O3-PbTiO3 ternary solid solution perovskite ceramics

    Weilin Zheng


    Full Text Available For low dielectric loss perovskite-structured (1-x-yBiFeO3-xBi(Zn1/2Ti1/2O3-yPbTiO3 (BF-BZT-PT (x = 0.04-0.15 and y = 0.15-0.26 ceramics in rhombohedral/tetragonal coexistent phase, structural phase transitions were studied using differential thermal analyzer combined with temperature-dependent dielectric measurement. Two lattice structural phase transitions are disclosed in various BF-BZT-PT perovskites, which is different from its membership of BiFeO3 exhibiting just one lattice structural phase transition at Curie temperature TC= 830oC. Consequently, residual internal tensile stresses were revealed experimentally through XRD measurements on ceramic pellets and counterpart powders, which are reasonably attributed to special structural phase transition sequence of BF-BZT-PT solid solution perovskites. Low piezoresponse was observed and argued extrinsically resulting from residual tensile stresses pinning ferroelectric polarization switching. Post-annealing and subsequent quenching was found effective for eliminating residual internal stresses in those BZT-less ceramics, and good piezoelectric property of d33 ≥ 28 pC/N obtained for 0.70BF-0.08BZT-0.22PT and 0.05 wt% MnO2-doped 0.70BF-0.04BZT-0.26PT ceramics with TC ≥ 640oC, while it seemed no effective for those BZT-rich BF-BZT-PT ceramics with x = 0.14 and 0.15 studied here.

  13. [Determination of estrogen residues in drinking water by on-line solid phase extraction based on sol-gel technique coupled with high performance liquid chromatography].

    Li, Longfei; Su, Min; Shi, Xiaolei; Wang, Yana; Wang, Minmin; He, Jinxing


    A method for the determination of diethylstilbestrol (DES), hexestrol (HEX) and dienestrol (DS) residues in drinking water was established by on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The material synthesized on the base of sol-gel technology was employed as adsorbent. This material was prepared using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the functional monomer, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the crosslinking agent, and acetic acid as the initiator. The synthesized adsorbent showed outstanding property for the estrogen extraction. The estrogen can be caught effectively from water samples and the extraction can be achieved rapidly. Some important parameters, such as pH of sample solution, eluent solvents, loading flow rate, which might influence extraction efficiency, were optimized. The results indicated that the limit of detection (S/N = 3) of the developed method could reach 0.07-0.13 microg/L under the conditions of pH 7.0 of sample solution, methanol and 1% (v/v) acetic acid aqueous solution as the eluent solvent and the loading flow rate of 2 mL/min. The recoveries of the three estrogens from the water samples at three spiked levels ranged from 82.31% to 99.43% with RSD of 1.61%-7.15%. The method was simple, rapid, and suitable to detect the trace residues of estrogens in drinking water.

  14. The comparison of solid phase microextraction-GC and static headspace-GC for determination of solvent residues in vegetable oils.

    Ligor, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogusław


    The objective of these investigations has been the determination of volatile organic compounds including residue solvents present in vegetable oil samples. Some olive oil, rape oil, sunflower oil, soy-bean oil, pumpkin oil, grape oil, rice oil as well as hazel-nut oil samples were analysed. Among residue solvents the following compounds have been mentioned: acetone, n-hexane, benzene, and toluene. Some experiments for the solid phase microextraction (SPME)-GC-flame ionisation detection (FID) were performed to examine extraction conditions such as fiber exposure time, temperature of extraction, and temperature of desorption. Various SPME fibers such as polydimethylsiloxane, Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane and polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene coatings were used for the isolation of tested compounds from vegetable oil samples. After optimisation of SPME, real vegetable oil samples were examined using SPME-GC/MS. Based on preliminary experiments the qualitative and quantitative analyses for the determination of acetone, n-hexane, benzene and toluene were performed by SPME-GC-FID and static head-space (SHS)-GC-FID methods. The regression coefficients for calibration curves for the examined compounds were R(2) > or = 0.992. This shows that the used method is linear in the examined concentration range (0.005-0.119 mg/kg for SPME-GC-FID and 0.003-0.728 mg/kg for SHS-GC-FID). Chemical properties of analysed vegetable oils have been characterised by chemometric procedure (cluster analysis).

  15. Multiple acquisitions via sequential transfer of orphan spin polarization (MAeSTOSO): How far can we push residual spin polarization in solid-state NMR?

    Gopinath, T.; Veglia, Gianluigi


    Conventional multidimensional magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (ssNMR) experiments detect the signal arising from the decay of a single coherence transfer pathway (FID), resulting in one spectrum per acquisition time. Recently, we introduced two new strategies, namely DUMAS (DUal acquisition Magic Angle Spinning) and MEIOSIS (Multiple ExperIments via Orphan SpIn operatorS), that enable the simultaneous acquisitions of multidimensional ssNMR experiments using multiple coherence transfer pathways. Here, we combined the main elements of DUMAS and MEIOSIS to harness both orphan spin operators and residual polarization and increase the number of simultaneous acquisitions. We show that it is possible to acquire up to eight two-dimensional experiments using four acquisition periods per each scan. This new suite of pulse sequences, called MAeSTOSO for Multiple Acquisitions via Sequential Transfer of Orphan Spin pOlarization, relies on residual polarization of both 13C and 15N pathways and combines low- and high-sensitivity experiments into a single pulse sequence using one receiver and commercial ssNMR probes. The acquisition of multiple experiments does not affect the sensitivity of the main experiment; rather it recovers the lost coherences that are discarded, resulting in a significant gain in experimental time. Both merits and limitations of this approach are discussed.

  16. Automated on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction-assisted derivatization coupled to liquid chromatography for quantifying residual dimethylamine in cationic polymers.

    Prieto-Blanco, M C; Cháfer-Pericás, C; López-Mahía, P; Campíns-Falcó, P


    A method for the analysis of dimethylamine (DMA) by automated in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME)-supported chemical derivatization coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was developed. Extraction, derivatization and desorption were studied by using a capillary coated with 95% polydimethylsiloxane and 5% polydiphenylsiloxane. Solution derivatization and automated IT-SPME derivatization using 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC) were compared. The proposed procedure provided adequate linearity, accuracy and precision in the 0.2-2.0 microg/mL concentration interval, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 50 ng/mL. The main advantages of the proposed procedure are: (i) no off-line sample manipulation, (ii) rapidity, as the total analysis time is about 10 min, (iii) specificity for the samples assayed, (iv) minimal consumption of FMOC reagent and (v) minimal residues. Therefore, the proposed method is an environmental-friendly and cost-effective alternative for the control of residual DMA in polymeric cationic surfactants used like flocculants in water treatment.

  17. Multi-residue determination of pesticides in water using multi-walled carbon nanotubes solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Peng; Min, Guang; Fang, Guozhen


    A reliable multi-residue method which was based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as adsorbent was developed for determination and quantitation of 12 pesticides (carbofuran, iprobenfos, parathion-methyl, prometryn, fenitrothion, parathion-ethyl, isocarbofos, phenthoate, methidathion, endrin, ethion, methoxychlor) in surface water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Parameters that might influence the extraction efficiency such as the eluent volume, the sample flow rate and the sample loading volume were optimized. The experimental results showed the excellent linearity of 12 pesticides (R(2)>0.99) over the range of 0.04-4 microg L(-1), and the precisions (RSD) were 3.1-15.1% under the optimal conditions. The detection limits of proposed method could reach 0.01-0.03 microg L(-1) based on the ratio of chromatographic signal to base line noise (S/N=3). Good recoveries achieved with spiked water samples were in the range of 82.0-103.7%. The results indicated that MWCNTs have good adsorbability to the 12 pesticides tested in this study. With less cost, less analytical time and less solvent-consuming, the developed multi-residue method could be used to determine multi-class pesticides in water simultaneously.

  18. Effect of Fast Pyrolysis Conditions on the Biomass Solid Residues at High Temperatures (1000-1400°C)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Anker D.; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    Fast pyrolysis of wood and straw was conducted in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and compared with the experimental work on the wire-mesh reactor (WMR) to study the influence of temperature (1000-1400°C), biomass origin (softwood, hardwood, grass) and heating rate (1000°C/s, 10^4 °C/s) on the char yield...... to the parental fuel, whereas alfalfa straw char particle size remained unaltered with the higher temperatures. In this study, the retained shape of beechwood and herbaceous biomass samples is related to the presence of extractives and formation of silicates. Soot yield from herbaceous fuels occurs lower than...... and morphology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), elementary analysis, CAMSIZER XT, ash compositional analysis were applied to characterize the effect of operational conditions on the solid and gas products. Char yield from fast pyrolysis in the DFT setup was 2 to 6 % (daf) lower than in the WMR apparatus...

  19. Multi-residue analysis of 90 emerging contaminants in liquid and solid environmental matrices by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Petrie, Bruce; Youdan, Jane; Barden, Ruth; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara


    Reported herein is new analytical methodology for the determination of 90 emerging contaminants (ECs) in liquid environmental matrices (crude wastewater, final effluent and river water). The application of a novel buffer, ammonium fluoride improved signal response for several ECs determined in negative ionisation mode. Most notably the sensitivity of steroid estrogens was improved by 4-5 times in environmental extracts. Method recoveries ranged from 40 to 152% in all matrices and method quantitation limits (MQLs) achieved were <1ngL(-1) for numerous ECs. Development of a microwave assisted extraction (MAE) protocol as an additional sample extraction step for solid matrices enabled 63 ECs to be simultaneously analysed in digested sludge. To the authors knowledge this is considerably more than any previously reported MAE method. Here, MQLs ranged from 0.1-24.1ngg(-1) dry weight. The application of MAE offers several advantages over pressurized liquid extraction including faster sample preparation, lower solvent requirements, and the ability to perform several extractions simultaneously as well as lower purchasing and running costs. To demonstrate the method's sensitivity, application to environmental samples revealed 68 and 40 ECs to be above their respective MQL in liquid environmental samples and digested sludge, respectively. To date, this is the most comprehensive multi-residue analytical method reported in the literature for the determination of ECs in both liquid and solid environmental matrices.

  20. The National Incinerator Testing and Evaluation Program (NITEP): A summary of the characterization and treatment studies on residues from municipal solid waste incineration

    Sawell, S.E.; Constable, T.W. (Waste Water Technology Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada))


    The National Incinerator Testing and Evaluation Program (NITEP) was implemented in 1984 to examine the impact of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration on the environment and human health. The chemical properties and leachability of different types of ash from MSW incinerators were evaluated using a battery of laboratory procedures. Three generic incinerator technologies were tested: two stage combustion, mass burning, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustion. The semi-pyrolytic conditions in the two stage incinerator result in lower fixed solids contents and consequently higher organic contaminant concentrations in bottom ash when compared to the other two systems. Air pollution control system residues from MSW incinerator facilities were solidified using formulations of a Portland Type II cement and a waste pozzolan, using a minimum of solidification additives while retaining physical strength. The formulations produced solidified materials that typically had unconfined compressive strength, hydraulic conductivity and volume change factors appropriate for disposal in a landfill. Solidification typically reduces the solubility of metals under both acidic and highly alkaline leaching conditions. In general the use of cement and waste pozzolans to solidify fly ash from MSW incinerator systems appears to be technically feasible. 51 figs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

  1. Preparation of a novel carbon-based solid acid from cassava stillage residue and its use for the esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oil.

    Wang, Lingtao; Dong, Xiuqin; Jiang, Haoxi; Li, Guiming; Zhang, Minhua


    A novel carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of incompletely carbonized cassava stillage residue (CSR) with concentrated sulfuric acid, and employed to catalyze the esterification of methanol and free fatty acids (FFAs) in waste cooking oil (WCO). The effects of the carbonization and the sulfonation temperatures on the pore structure, acid density and catalytic activity of the CSR-derived catalysts were systematically investigated. Low temperature carbonization and high temperature sulfonation can cause the collapse of the carbon framework, while high temperature carbonization is not conducive to the attachment of SO3H groups on the surface. The catalyst showed high catalytic activity for esterification, and the acid value for WCO is reduced to below 2mg KOH/g after reaction. The activity of catalyst can be well maintained after five cycles. CSR can be considered a promising raw material for the production of a new eco-friendly solid acid catalyst. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant

    Allegrini, E., E-mail: [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, Lyngby 2800 (Denmark); Boldrin, A. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, Lyngby 2800 (Denmark); Jansson, S. [Umeå University, Department of Chemistry, Umeå SE-901 87 (Sweden); Lundtorp, K. [Babcock and Wilcox Vølund A/S, Göteborg (Sweden); Fruergaard Astrup, T. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, Lyngby 2800 (Denmark)


    Highlights: • Ash was sampled at 10 different points of the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant. • Samples were analysed for the chemical composition, PCDD/F and leaching behaviour. • Enrichment trends of elements were investigated in relation to boiler conditions. • No significant differences were found between boiler ash samples. - Abstract: The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits.

  3. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant.

    Allegrini, E; Boldrin, A; Jansson, S; Lundtorp, K; Fruergaard Astrup, T


    The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Energetic and environmental assessment of thermochemical and biochemical ways for producing energy from agricultural solid residues: Coffee Cut-Stems case.

    García, Carlos A; Peña, Álvaro; Betancourt, Ramiro; Cardona, Carlos A


    Forest residues are an important source of biomass. Among these, Coffee Cut-Stems (CCS) are an abundant wood waste in Colombia obtained from coffee crops renovation. However, only low quantities of these residues are used directly in combustion processes for heating and cooking in coffee farms where their energy efficiency is very low. In the present work, an energy and environmental assessment of two bioenergy production processes (ethanol fermentation and gasification) using CCS as raw material was performed. Biomass gasification seems to be the most promising thermochemical method for bioenergy production whereas, ethanol fermentation is a widely studied biochemical method to produce biofuels. Experimental runs of the CCS gasification were carried out and the synthesis gas composition was monitored. Prior to the fermentation process, a treatment of the CCS is required from which sugar content was determined and then, in the fermentation process, the ethanol yield was calculated. Both processes were simulated in order to obtain the mass and energy balance that are used to assess the energy efficiency and the potential environmental impact (PEI). Moderate high energy efficiency and low environmental impacts were obtained from the CCS gasification. In contrast, high environmental impacts in different categories and low energy efficiencies were calculated from the ethanolic fermentation. Biomass gasification seems to be the most promising technology for the use of Coffee Cut-Stems with high energy yields and low environmental issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and application of molecularly imprinted poly(methacrylic acid)-silica hybrid composite material for selective solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography determination of oxytetracycline residues in milk.

    Lv, Yun-Kai; Wang, Li-Min; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Chen-Xi; Sun, Han-Wen


    A novel molecularly imprinted organic-inorganic hybrid composite material (MIP-HCM) was developed based on molecular imprinting technique in combination with hybrid composite synthesis and sol-gel technology for selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) of tetracyclines residues in milk. The MIP-HCM was prepared using oxytetracycline as the template, methacrylic acid as organic functional monomer, tetraethoxysilane as inorganic precursor and methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane as the coupling agent. Synthesis conditions are optimized by changing some factors to obtain sorbent with the controllable adsorption capacity, selectivity, hardness and toughness. Binding study demonstrated that the imprinted hybrid composites showed excellent affinity and high selectivity to oxytetracycline. An enrichment factor of 18.8 along with a good sample clean-up was obtained under the optimized SPE conditions. The average recoveries of three tetracyclines antibiotics spiked milk at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mg kg⁻¹ were in the range of 80.9-104.3% with the precision of 1.5-5.0%. The limits of detection and quantitation of the proposed method were in a range of 4.8-12.7 μg kg⁻¹ and 16.0-42.3 μg kg⁻¹, respectively.

  6. Energy conservation and production from solid residues - alternative for two problems: wastes and energy; Conservacao e producao de energia a partir de residuos solidos - alternativa para dois problemas: lixo e energia

    Reno, Francisco de Assis Grillo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos]. E-mail:; Streb, Cleci Schalemberger [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Piunti, Regina Celia [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    This paper explores possibilities of energy conservation and production through the using domestic solid residues, aiming the disposal impacts and improvement the energy supplying as well. For energy conservation,the recycling, reduction and re utilization will be mentioned. For the energy recovering the burning of organic material in sanitary landfill and incineration of plastics and tires.

  7. Characterization of oil shale, isolated kerogen, and post-pyrolysis residues using advanced 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Birdwell, Justin E.; Chappell, Mark A.; Li, Yuan; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Mao, Jingdong


    Characterization of oil shale kerogen and organic residues remaining in postpyrolysis spent shale is critical to the understanding of the oil generation process and approaches to dealing with issues related to spent shale. The chemical structure of organic matter in raw oil shale and spent shale samples was examined in this study using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Oil shale was collected from Mahogany zone outcrops in the Piceance Basin. Five samples were analyzed: (1) raw oil shale, (2) isolated kerogen, (3) oil shale extracted with chloroform, (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C to mimic surface retorting, and (5) oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C to simulate in-situ retorting. The NMR methods applied included quantitative direct polarization with magic-angle spinning at 13 kHz, cross polarization with total sideband suppression, dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy filtering, and 1H-13C long-range recoupled dipolar dephasing. The NMR results showed that, relative to the raw oil shale, (1) bitumen extraction and kerogen isolation by demineralization removed some oxygen-containing and alkyl moieties; (2) unpyrolyzed samples had low aromatic condensation; (3) oil shale pyrolysis removed aliphatic moieties, leaving behind residues enriched in aromatic carbon; and (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C contained larger aromatic clusters and more protonated aromatic moieties than oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C, which contained more total aromatic carbon with a wide range of cluster sizes.

  8. Heavy metal leaching from aerobic and anaerobic landfill bioreactors of co-disposed municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and shredded low-organic residues.

    Inanc, Bulent; Inoue, Yuzo; Yamada, Masato; Ono, Yusaku; Nagamori, Masanao


    In this study, heavy metal leaching from aerobic and anaerobic landfill bioreactor test cells for co-disposed municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and shredded low-organic residues has been investigated. Test cells were operated for 1 year. Heavy metals which were comparatively higher in leachate of aerobic cell were copper (Cu), lead (Pb), boron (B), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe), and those apparently lower were aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), molybdenum (Mo), and vanadium (V). However, no significant release of heavy metals under aerobic conditions was observed compared to anaerobic and control cells. Furthermore, there was no meaningful correlation between oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and heavy metal concentrations in the leachates although some researchers speculate that aeration may result in excessive heavy metal leaching. No meaningful correlation between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and leaching of Cu and Pb was another interesting observation. The only heavy metal that exceeded the state discharge limits (10mg/l, to be enforced after April 2005) in the aerobic cell leachate samples was boron and there was no correlation between boron leaching and ORP. Higher B levels in aerobic cell should be due to comparatively lower pH values in this cell. However, it is anticipated that this slightly increased concentrations of B (maximum 25mg/l) will not create a risk for bioreactor operation; rather it should be beneficial for long-term stability of the landfill through faster washout. It was concluded that aerobization of landfills of heavy metal rich MSWI bottom ash and shredded residues is possible with no dramatic increase in heavy metals in the leachate.

  9. Rational management of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. crop residues to obtain organic compostManejo racional de resíduos da cultura do fumo (Nicotiana tabacum L. para obtenção de composto orgânico

    Antonio Carlos Souza Borges Filho


    Full Text Available Crop residues may be used to produce organic composts for agricultural use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two inoculums on the decomposition speed of tobacco residues (stems. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and six replications. The residue used in the study was passed through a forage chopper and mixed to the inoculums in a concrete truck mixer. The treatments evaluated were: TF + EB + RB - tobacco residue, bovine manure and bovine rumen; TF + EB + MP - tobacco residue, bovine manure and Microsept-Dust and TF + EB - tobacco residue and bovine manure. The temperature and humidity of the piles were monitored weekly. The piles were initially turned up side down every seven days, and then every fourteen days till closing 60 days. Samples for chemical analysis of the composted material were collected at 30, 60 and 90 days after the beginning of the composting process. The temperature of the piles stayed around 57 to 60 ºC in the period between the 20 to 40 days after the beginning of the composting process. The mix containing cattle rumen (RB presented the lowest temperature after forty days. At the end of the composting the mix containing Microsept-Dust (MP presented the lowest humidity. The C/N relation of the composts obtained was around 10/1 and 11/1. The three treatments presented pH values close to the neutrality in the mature stage. A period of sixty days seems to be sufficient to obtain a mature and stable biocompost of tobacco waste using manure independent of the addition of inoculums.Os resíduos vegetais podem ser utilizados na produção de adubo orgânico por meio da compostagem. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de dois inoculantes sobre a velocidade de decomposição do resíduo da cultura do fumo. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo o resíduo picado em picadeira

  10. Spectroscopic studies of composite obtained from solid state reaction between a mononuclear vanadium(IV) complex and kaolinite; Estudo espectroscopico de composito obtido da reacao no estado solido entre um complexo mononuclear de vanadio(IV) e caulinita

    Rezende, Edivaltris I.P. de; Mangrich, Antonio S.; Mangoni, Ana P. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Scarpellini, Marciela; Casellato, Annelise; Fernandez, Tatiana L. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The use of probes, such as paramagnetic species diluted in diamagnetic materials in EPR spectroscopy, and mathematical tools such, as the Kubelka-Munk function in DRUV-VIS spectroscopy are strategies in the analysis of complex mixtures of solid materials. The results obtained here show that the solid state reaction between the complex, [VO(acac)(BMIMAPY)] [ClO{sub 4}], BMIMAPY = [(bis(1-methylimidazole-2-yl)methyl)(2-(pyridyl-2-yl)ethyl) amine] and acac = acetilacetonate, with kaolinite turns possible to obtain anisotropic EPR spectrum of the complex with a reasonable level of resolution. The study by DRUV-VIS using the method of second derivative mode of the Kubelka-Munk function revealed new complex structural arrangements, a solid hitherto unknown. (author)

  11. Determination of Rotenone Residues in Foodstuffs by Solid-Phase Extraction(SPE)and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry(LC-MS/MS)

    XU Dun-ming; ZHOU Yu; LIN Li-yi; ZHANG Zhi-gang; ZHANG Jin; LU Sheng-yu; YANG Fang; HUANG Peng-ying


    We developed a novel approach to determine rotenone residues in foodstuffs,by integrating solid-phase extraction(SPE)and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS)technologies,to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity.In our method,the solvent extraction with n-hexane-dichloromethane(50:50,v/v)and cleanup with florisil SPE cartridges using ethyl acetate-ethyl ether(25:75,v/v)as eluents provided adequate recovery of rotenone.The detection of rotenone was then carried out by LC-MS/MS using acetonitrile-water with the 0.1% formic acid(w/v)as the mobile phase.The multiple reaction monitoring(MRM)scheme employed in the approach involved the transitions of the precursor ion to three selected product ions,in which one pair for quantification was m/z 395.3>213.2 and the other two pairs for identification were m/z 395.3>192.2 and 395.3>367.0.The limits of quantification(LOQs)of the method ranged from 0.001 to 0.005 mg kg-1 depending on the matrix,Intra-and inter-day precisions(relative standard deviations,RSDs)for rotenone were less than 7.1 and 14.8%,respectively.Results from repetitive analysis suggested good reproducibility of the method for rotenone residue detection.The recoveries at three concentrations(LOQ,10LOQ and 100LOQ)ranged from 79.3-118.3% in cabbage,potato,onion,carrot,apple,orange,banana,lichee,tea,and Shiitake mushroom.The proposed procedure was then applied to the analysis of 129 real samples collected from Xiamen,Fujian Province,China.The existence of rotenone was found in two tea products with concentrations of 0.012 and 0.016 mg kg-1,respectively.The method has great potential for routine analysis of monitoring rotenone residue in foodstuffs.

  12. Enhanced Retention of Chelating Reagents in Octadecylsilyl Silica Phase by Interaction with Residual Silanol Groups in Solid Phase Extraction of Divalent Metal Ions.

    Ohmuro, Satoshi; Fujii, Kan; Yasui, Takashi; Takada, Kazutake; Yuchi, Akio; Kokusen, Hisao


    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) of divalent metal ions with a lipophilic and potentially divalent hexadentate chelating reagent (H2L), with which octadecylsilyl silica (ODS), was impregnated with was studied to gain more insight into and develop the potential of this methodology. This is the first time to demonstrate that this reagent as well as other common nitrogen-containing reagents were retained both by adsorption due to hydrogen bonding between nitrogen atoms of the reagent and residual silanol groups in the ODS phase and by simple distribution into the hydrophobic space. An appreciably large amount of this reagent could be retained by the adsorption mechanism even with a relatively thin loading solution. The divalent metal ions of Mn(2+), Co(2+) and Zn(2+) were extracted as 1:1 neutral complexes ([ML]), while Ni(2+) and Cu(2+) as ion-pairs of 1:1 cationic complex ([MHL](+)) with anion in SPE with H2L. The extractability and selectivity were substantially the same as that in liquid-liquid extraction.

  13. Saúde coletiva, resíduos sólidos urbanos e os catadores de lixo Urban solid residues, garbage collectors and public health

    Mônica Maria Siqueira


    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a problemática ambiental da produção e da geração de resíduos sólidos urbanos, destacando o conceito de saúde e de ambiente enquanto representação social. A partir de uma revisão bibliográfica, discute a incorporação da temática saúde e ambiente no campo de conhecimento e práticas de interconexão com a saúde coletiva. Associa nesse contexto a questão da exclusão social gerada pela forma de produção e de consumo da sociedade pós-moderna, introduzindo os catadores de lixo, grupo populacional vulnerável.The article approaches the issues of environmental production and the generation of urban solid residues, in particular the environment and health concept while social representation. From a bibliographical revision it argues the incorporation of the themes of health and environment in the practical field of knowledge and of interconnection with the Public Health. In this context it associates the question of the social exclusion generated by the form of production and consumption of the after-modern society, introducing the garbage collectors as a vulnerable population group.

  14. Nickel Oxide Nanoparticle-Deposited Silica Composite Solid-Phase Extraction for Benzimidazole Residue Analysis in Milk and Eggs by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Sun, Huan; Yu, Qiong-Wei; He, Hai-Bo; Lu, Qian; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Feng, Yu-Qi


    A novel nickel oxide nanoparticle-deposited silica (SiO2@NiO) composite was prepared via liquid-phase deposition (LPD) and then employed as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent. When the SPE was coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS) analysis, an analytical platform for the sensitive determination of benzimidazole residues in egg and milk was established. The limits of detection of nine benzimidazoles were in the range of 0.8-2.2 ng/mL in milk and 0.3-2.1 ng/g in eggs, respectively, which was 5-10 times superior to the methods with other adsorbents for SPE. The recoveries of nine benzimidazoles spiked in milk and egg ranged from 70.8 to 118.7%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) being less than 18.9%. This work presented the excellent extraction performance of NiO on benzimidazoles for the first time, and the applicability of the LPD technique used as sorbents for trace analysis in complex matrices was also demonstrated.

  15. Residue-specific structures and membrane locations of pH-low insertion peptide by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    Shu, Nicolas S.; Chung, Michael S.; Yao, Lan; An, Ming; Qiang, Wei


    The pH-low insertion peptide (pHLIP) binds to a membrane at pH 7.4 unstructured but folds across the bilayer as a transmembrane helix at pH∼6. Despite their promising applications as imaging probes and drug carriers that target cancer cells for cytoplasmic cargo delivery, the mechanism of pH modulation on pHLIP-membrane interactions has not been completely understood. Here, we show the first study on membrane-associated pHLIP using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Data on residue-specific conformation and membrane location describe pHLIP in various surface-bound and membrane-inserted states at pH 7.4, 6.4 and 5.3. The critical membrane-adsorbed state is more complex than previously envisioned. At pH 6.4, for the major unstructured population, the peptide sinks deeper into the membrane in a state II′ that is distinct from the adsorbed state II observed at pH 7.4, which may enable pHLIP to sense slight change in acidity even before insertion. PMID:26195283

  16. Evaluation of clayey masses compositions starting from the residue incorporation of the red ceramic industry to obtain tubular ceramic membranes; Avaliacao das composicoes de massas argilosas a partir da incorporacao de residuo da industria de ceramica vermelha na obtencao de membranas ceramicas tubulares

    Silva, Adriano Lima da; Chaves, Alexsandra Cristina; Luna, Carlos Bruno Barreto; Neves, Gelmires de Araujo; Lira, Helio de Lucena, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais


    The inappropriate residue disposal of red ceramic industry is very high. Nowadays, one of the major challenges is the investigation of processes to obtain alternative materials, enabling the use of these residues to manufacture new materials. This work's objective is to study clayey masses' compositions starting from the residue incorporation of the red ceramic industry to be used in tubular ceramic membranes. Two compositions of ceramic masses were established, composition A (50% of residue) and composition B (70% of residue). Granulometric analysis of the ceramic masses presented an average size of particles, what indicates membranes in the microfiltration scale. Another observed factor is related to the increase of residue amount, what favored a decrease in the ceramic mass' plasticity. A rise in the apparent porosity was also observed, probably because of a possible growing in the bigger pores numbers, due to the sintering high temperature and the elevation of residue quantity itself. (author)

  17. Production and characterization of distilled alcoholic beverages obtained by solid-state fermentation of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) and black currant (Ribes nigrum L.).

    Alonso González, Elisa; Torrado Agrasar, Ana; Pastrana Castro, Lorenzo M; Orriols Fernández, Ignacio; Pérez Guerra, Nelson


    The present study was conducted to appraise the potential of black mulberry and black currant to be used as fermentation substrates for producing alcoholic beverages obtained by distillation of the fruits previously fermented with Sacchromyces cerevisiae IFI83. In the two distillates obtained, the volatile compounds that can pose health hazards are within the limits of acceptability fixed by the European Council (Regulation 110/2008) for fruit spirits. However, the amount of volatile substances in the black currant distillate (121.1 g/hL absolute alcohol (aa)) was lower than the minimum limit (200 g/hL aa) fixed by the aforementioned regulation. The mean volatile composition of both distillates was different from other alcoholic beverages such as four commercial Galician orujo spirits, Portuguese bagaceiras, and two distillates obtained from fermented whey and blackberry. The results obtained showed the feasibility for obtaining distillates from fermented black mulberry and black currant, which have their own distinctive characteristics.

  18. Determination of multi-residue for malachite green, gentian violet and their metabolites in aquatic products by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction.

    Long, Chaoyang; Mai, Zhibin; Yang, Yingfen; Zhu, Binghui; Xu, Xiumin; Lu, Lin; Zou, Xiaoyong


    A sorbent was synthesized and investigated for molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE). Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized via precipitation polymerization procedure, where methacrylic acid (MAA) was used as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linking agent. The imprinting effect and selectivity of the MISPE were evaluated by elution experiments. The resulting MISPE showed high extraction selectivity to malachite green, gentian violet and their metabolites, which may be caused by both the ion exchange and the hydrophobic interactions. The determination of multi-residue for malachite green, gentian violet and their metabolites in aquatic products by HPLC coupled with MISPE was also investigated. The mean recoveries calculated by solvent calibration curve for malachite green (MG), gentian violet (GV), leucomalachite green (LMG) and leucogentian violet (LGV) were from 89.8% to 99.1% for grass carp, 90.6% to 101.2% for shrimp and 91.3% to 96.3% for shellfish. The decision limit (CCalpha) and the detection capability (CCbeta) obtained for MG, GV, LMG and LGV were in the range of 0.11-0.14 and 0.19-0.24 microg kg(-1) for grass carp, shrimp and shellfish. The MISPE was successfully used off-line for the determination of MG, GV and their metabolites in aquatic products.

  19. 西番莲果中嘧霉胺残留的SPE-RP-HPLC降解分析%Degradation analysis of pyrimethanil residue in passion fruit by RP-HPLC with solid-phase extraction

    高智席; 敖克厚; 曾启华; 李新发; 刘焱; 牟青松; 邓传跃


    建立固相萃取-反相高效液相色谱法测定西番莲果中嘧霉胺的残留降解分析的方法.色谱柱为Shim-pack VP-ODS 150 mm×4.6 mm,流动相为甲醇:1%冰乙酸=90:10(V/V),流速为0.4 mL/min,进样量20μL.嘧霉胺在0.0760~21.20 mg/L(r=0.9964)范围内与峰面积呈良好线性关系,检出限为0.05 mg/L,嘧霉胺的回收率为85.6%~102.3%,相对标准偏差0.89%~2.7%.方法可作为西番莲果中嘧霉胺含量监测的控制方法.同时,还对嘧霉胺由西番莲果皮向西番莲果肉的迁移,在西番莲果体上的降解动态进行了测定.%A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatograghic method with solid-phase extraction was used for the degradation analysis of pyrimethanil residue in passion fruit. The HPLC conditions were as follows: the column was Shim-pack VP-ODS 150 mm ×4. 6 mm. CH3OH: 1% CH3COOH = 90:10 ( V/V)as mobile phase, flow rate 0. 4 mL /min, injection volume 20 μL and detection wavelength at 270 nm. Good linearity of pyrimeth-anil was obtained over the range of 0.0760 ~21.20 mg/L(r =0.9964). The detection limit was 0. 0500 mg/L for pyrimedianil. The average recoveries ranged from 85. 6% to 102. 3% with relative standard deviation of 0. 89% ~2. 7% . The method is fast and simple for the residue detection and analysis of pyrimethanil in passion fruit, and it is suitable for the determination of fungicide residue of pyrimethanil in passion fruit.

  20. Analysis of Elemental and Isotopic Composition of a Substance Obtained in Experiments on Energy Concentration in a Solid-State Superdense Plasma

    Adamenko, S V


    We present the results of the experimental study on synthesis of a wide range of isotopes in a superdense plasma. The initial conditions necessary for plasma bunch formation were provided by specially organized coherent impact on a solid target with a total energy up to 1 kJ. More than 4000 shots were performed with various targets made of light, medium, and heavy elements. Subsequent analysis of the products of the target explosion reveals the presence of a wide range of elements absent in the initial materials. Elements with nuclei three and more times heavier than the nucleus of the target main element are detected in the products. The isotopic composition of the produced elements significantly differs from the natural one. The presence of unknown superheavy elements at the border of the periodic table and beyond it was detected by several different spectroscopic methods of elemental and isotopic analyzes.

  1. Evaluation of the methanogenic step of a two-stage anaerobic digestion process of acidified olive mill solid residue from a previous hydrolytic-acidogenic step.

    Rincón, B; Borja, R; Martín, M A; Martín, A


    A study of the second step or methanogenic stage of a two-stage anaerobic digestion process treating two-phase olive oil mill solid residue (OMSR) was conducted at mesophilic temperature (35 degrees C). The substrate fed to the methanogenic step was the effluent from a hydrolytic-acidogenic reactor operating at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 12.9 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1) d(-1) and at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12.4 days; these OLR and HRT were found to be the best values to achieve the maximum total volatile fatty acid concentration (14.5 g L(-1) expressed as acetic acid) with a high concentration in acetic acid (57.5% of the total concentration) as the principal precursor of methane. The methanogenic stage was carried out in an anaerobic stirred tank reactor containing saponite as support media for the immobilization of microorganisms. OLRs of between 0.8 and 22.0 g COD L(-1) d(-1) were studied. These OLRs corresponded to HRTs of between 142.9 and 4.6 days. The methanogenic reactor operated with high stability for OLRs lower than 20.0 g COD L(-1) d(-1). This behaviour was shown by the total volatile fatty acids/total alkalinity ratio, whose values were always kept 0.12 for HRTs>4.6 days. The total COD (T-COD) removed was in the range of 94.3-61.3% and the volatile solids (VS) removed between 92.8% and 56.1% for OLRs between 0.8 and 20.0 g COD L(-1) d(-1). In the same way, a reduction of 43.8% was achieved for phenolic content. The low concentration of total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) observed (below 1 g L(-1) expressed as CH(3)COOH) in the methanogenic reactor effluents showed the high percentage of consumption and conversion of these acids to methane. A methane yield of 0.268+/-0.003 L CH(4) at standard temperature and pressure conditions (STP) g(-1) COD eliminated was achieved.

  2. On-line preconcentration and determination of tetracycline residues in milk using solid-phase extraction in conjunction with flow injection spectrophotometry

    Prinya Masawat


    Full Text Available A simple, cheap and highly sensitive system with on-line preconcentration using solid-phase extraction in conjunction with flow injection spectrophotometry for the determination of tetracycline residues in milk samples is described. C18 was used as packing material in a designed minicolumn used for preconcentration of tetracyclines. Tetracycline standard or sample solutions were dissolved in a mixed buffer solution of pH 4.0 containing boric acid, citric acid and sodium phosphate, then loaded to the minicolumn for 6 min followed by elution with a solution containing methanol : mixed buffer solution (40:60 by volume of pH 6.5 The absorbance of the eluate was measured at 370 nm. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.20-1.00, 0.20-4.00, and 0.20-1.00 mg L-1 for tetracycline (TC, oxytetracycline (OTC, and chlortetracycline (CTC respectively. The limits of detection were 0.08, 0.10, and 0.09mg L-1 for TC, OTC, and CTC respectively. Relative standard deviations for 20 replicated determinations of 0.20, 0.40, and 0.60 mg L-1 of TC were 7.03, 7.23, and 6.55 % respectively. Per cent recoveries for four commercial types of milk: U.H.T., pasteurised, raw, and sterilised milk were in the range of 86–109 (TC, 90–109 (OTC, and 89–108 (CTC. The sample throughput was 6 h-1.

  3. GC/MS analysis of volatiles obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous-distillation extraction from Rabdosia serra (MAXIM.) HARA leaf and stem.

    Lin, Lianzhu; Zhuang, Mingzhu; Lei, Fenfen; Yang, Bao; Zhao, Mouming


    Volatiles in Rabdosia serra were investigated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and simultaneous-distillation extraction (SDE). The HS-SPME technique was previously evaluated to optimise sampling conditions. A total of 56 and 48 compounds including alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, carboxylic acid, ester, and aromatics were identified in leaf and stem by optimised HS-SPME method (CAR/PDMS fibre; incubation time, 10 min; extraction temperature, 50°C; extraction time, 40 min), respectively. 1-Octen-3-ol and (2E)-hexenal had significant contribution to R. serra aroma. Cluster analysis indicated that leaf and stem exhibited different volatile diversity. Air drying was favourable for the retention of the volatiles, while freeze- and sun-drying led to the loss of volatiles. SDE method preferred to the analysis of compounds with low volatility including fatty acids and esters. HS-SPME was a useful technique for the analysis of readily volatile components for the characteristics of R. serra aroma.

  4. Adsorption behaviors of thiophene, benzene, and cyclohexene on FAU zeolites: Comparison of CeY obtained by liquid-, and solid-state ion exchange

    Qin, Yucai [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555, Shandong (China); Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Catalytic Science and Technology, Liaoning Province, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001, Liaoning (China); Mo, Zhousheng; Yu, Wenguang; Dong, Shiwei; Duan, Linhai [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555, Shandong (China); Gao, Xionghou, E-mail: [Petrochemical Research Institute, PetroChina Company Limited, 9 Dongzhimen North Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100007 (China); Song, Lijuan, E-mail: [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555, Shandong (China); Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Catalytic Science and Technology, Liaoning Province, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001, Liaoning (China)


    Cerium containing Y zeolites were prepared by liquid- (L-CeY) and solid- (S-CeY) state ion exchange from NaY and HY, respectively. The structural and textural properties were characterized by XRD and N{sub 2} adsorption, and acidity properties were characterized by NH{sub 3} temperature-programmed desorption (NH{sub 3}-TPD) and in situ FTIR spectrum of chemisorbed pyridine (in situ Py-FTIR). Furthermore, the single component adsorption and multi-component competitive adsorption behavior of thiophene, benzene and cyclohexene on those zeolites have also been studied by using vapor adsorption isotherms, solution adsorption breakthrough curves, thermogravimetry and derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG), frequency response (FR) and in situ FTIR techniques. The results indicate that the primary adsorption mode of benzene is simply micropore filling process, but the nature of effect of aromatics on selective adsorption of thiophene is competitive adsorption. The strong chemical adsorptions and protonization reactions of thiophene and cyclohexene occur upon the Brönsted acid sites of the HY and L-CeY zeolites, and the preferable acid catalytic protonization reactions of olefins hinder the further adsorption of sulfur compounds.

  5. Adsorption behaviors of thiophene, benzene, and cyclohexene on FAU zeolites: Comparison of CeY obtained by liquid-, and solid-state ion exchange

    Qin, Yucai; Mo, Zhousheng; Yu, Wenguang; Dong, Shiwei; Duan, Linhai; Gao, Xionghou; Song, Lijuan


    Cerium containing Y zeolites were prepared by liquid- (L-CeY) and solid- (S-CeY) state ion exchange from NaY and HY, respectively. The structural and textural properties were characterized by XRD and N2 adsorption, and acidity properties were characterized by NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) and in situ FTIR spectrum of chemisorbed pyridine (in situ Py-FTIR). Furthermore, the single component adsorption and multi-component competitive adsorption behavior of thiophene, benzene and cyclohexene on those zeolites have also been studied by using vapor adsorption isotherms, solution adsorption breakthrough curves, thermogravimetry and derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG), frequency response (FR) and in situ FTIR techniques. The results indicate that the primary adsorption mode of benzene is simply micropore filling process, but the nature of effect of aromatics on selective adsorption of thiophene is competitive adsorption. The strong chemical adsorptions and protonization reactions of thiophene and cyclohexene occur upon the Brönsted acid sites of the HY and L-CeY zeolites, and the preferable acid catalytic protonization reactions of olefins hinder the further adsorption of sulfur compounds.

  6. Ultrafiltration in laxative treatment of urban solid residues dump. Experience in the Deposito Controlado de Puigpalter (Girona, Spain); Ultrafiltracion en el tratamiento de lixiviados de vertedero de RSU. Experiencia en el Deposito Controlado de Puigpalter



    The appearance of lixiviates owes fundamentally to the degradation of the organic matter present in the solid residues of dump and his dragging for rain water percolated. These liquids are characterized by high concentrations of organic pollutants, ammonia nitrogen, metallic ions and other potentially toxic substances. Several technologies for lixiviates treatment are used in Deposito Controlado de Puigpalter (Girona), like ultrafiltration, which has demonstrated his efficiency and reliability during the first 12 months of exploitation. (Author)

  7. Technical and economical analysis of the energy recovery during in incineration of urban solid residues; Analise tecnico-economica da recuperacao de energia durante a incineracao de residuos solidos urbanos

    Teixeira, Flavio N.; Lora, Electo S.; Martins, Andre R.S. [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica


    This work conducts a technical and economical evaluation on the energetic recovering of an incinerator with processing capacity of 600 t/h of urban solid residues, resulting from electric power generation (gas turbines) and cooling (absorption systems) using garbage and natural gas. The results allow the conclusion that besides the social and environmental benefits resulting from the elimination of the contamination potential, an electric energy surplus can be generated for inclusion in the Brazilian energy matrix.

  8. Validated method for determination of ultra-trace closantel residues in bovine tissues and milk by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Sun, Hanwen; Wang, Fengchi; Ai, Lianfeng


    A liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-ESI-MS/MS) with solid extraction was developed and validated for the detection and determination of closantel residues in bovine tissues and milk. An acetonitrile-acetone mixture (80:20, v/v) was used for one-stage extraction of closantel residues in bovine tissues and milk samples, and the extract was cleaned by solid phase extraction with Oasis MAX cartridges. The mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reactions monitoring mode with negative electrospray interface. The limits of detection in different matrices were in the range of 0.008-0.009 microg/kg. The overall recoveries for bovine muscle, liver, kidney and milk samples spiked at four levels including MRL were in the range of 76.0-94.3%. The overall relative standard deviations were in the range of 3.57-8.61%. The linearity is satisfactory with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.9913-0.9987 at both concentration ranges of 0.02-100 microg/kg and 200-5000 microg/kg. The method is capable of identifying closantel residues at > or =0.02 microg/kg levels and was applied in the determination of closantel residues in animal origin foods.

  9. Functionalization of zeolitic cavities: grafting NH2 groups in framework T sites of B-SSZ-13--a way to obtain basic solids catalysts?

    Regli, Laura; Bordiga, Silvia; Busco, Claudia; Prestipino, Carmelo; Ugliengo, Piero; Zecchina, Adriano; Lamberti, Carlo


    Insertion of B atoms into an Al-free zeolitic framework with CHA topology results in the formation of B-SSZ-13 zeotype with Si/B = 11. B K-edge NEXAFS testifies that B forms [B(OSi)4] units in a Td-like geometry (sp3-hybridized B atoms). According to B K-edge NEXAFS and IR, template burning results in the formation of [B(OSi)3] units in a D3h-like geometry (sp2-hybridized B atoms) with a break of a B-O-Si bond and the formation of a Si-OH group. The activated material contains B(III) Lewis acid centers able to specifically coordinate bases like NH3. Such [B(OSi)3] units are reactive toward ammonia, resulting in the formation of B-NH2 surface functionality inside the pores of B-SSZ-13 already under mild conditions, i.e., 35 mbar of NH3 at 373 K for 30 min and without crystallinity degradation. A minor fraction of Si-NH2 cannot be excluded owing to the presence of two IR doublets at 3500 and 3430 cm-1 and at 1600 and 1550 cm-1. Ab initio B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) calculations on a cluster model, supported by a single-point MP2 on B3LYP/6-31+G(D,P) optimized structures, found the break by NH3 of a B-O-Si bond of the [B(OSi)3] unit with formation of [SiOH] and [H2N-B(OSi)2] species to be energetically favored. Comparison between experimental and computed frequency shifts shows them to be in semiquantitative agreement. The high stability of the B-NH2 surface functionality is probed by N K-edge NEXAFS spectra collected under UHV conditions. These findings can open a new route in the preparation of shape selective solid basic catalysts.

  10. Composite fuel based on residue from tyre and secondary polymer pyrolysis

    Popov, V.; Papin, A.; Ignatova, A.; Makarovskikh, A.


    The article presents the analysis of obtaining high-quality molded solid fuel from waste that is a carbonaceous residue obtained by pyrolysis of automobile tyres and secondary polymers. Preliminary waste preparing, blending and briquetting have been carried out; fuel samples have been obtained; their strength characteristics have been studied; technical analysis has been carried out.

  11. Co-gasification of sewage sludge and woody biomass in a fixed-bed downdraft gasifier: toxicity assessment of solid residues.

    Rong, Le; Maneerung, Thawatchai; Ng, Jingwen Charmaine; Neoh, Koon Gee; Bay, Boon Huat; Tong, Yen Wah; Dai, Yanjun; Wang, Chi-Hwa


    As the demand for fossil fuels and biofuels increases, the volume of ash generated will correspondingly increase. Even though ash disposal is now strictly regulated in many countries, the increasing volume of ash puts pressure on landfill sites with regard to cost, capacity and maintenance. In addition, the probability of environmental pollution from leakage of bottom ash leachate also increases. The main aim of this research is to investigate the toxicity of bottom ash, which is an unavoidable solid residue arising from biomass gasification, on human cells in vitro. Two human cell lines i.e. HepG2 (liver cell) and MRC-5 (lung fibroblast) were used to study the toxicity of the bottom ash as the toxins in the bottom ash may enter blood circulation by drinking the contaminated water or eating the food grown in bottom ash-contaminated water/soil and the toxic compounds may be carried all over the human body including to important organs such as lung, liver, kidney, and heart. It was found that the bottom ash extract has a high basicity (pH = 9.8-12.2) and a high ionic strength, due to the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals e.g. K, Na, Ca and Mg. Moreover, it also contains concentrations of heavy metals (e.g. Zn, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Mo) and non-toxic organic compounds. Although human beings require these trace elements, excessive levels can be damaging to the body. From the analyses of cell viability (using MTS assay) and morphology (using fluorescence microscope), the high toxicity of the gasification bottom ash extract could be related to effects of high ionic strength, heavy metals or a combination of these two effects. Therefore, our results suggest that the improper disposal of the bottom ash wastes arising from gasification can create potential risks to human health and, thus, it has become a matter of urgency to find alternative options for the disposal of bottom ash wastes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Conformation of LSM/YSZ and LSM ceramic films obtained by the citrate and solid mixture techniques; Conformacao de filmes ceramicos de LSM e LSM/YSZ obtidos pelas tecnicas citratos e mistura de solidos

    Chiba, R.; Vargas, R.A.; Andreoli, M.; Seo, E.S.M., E-mail: rchiba@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCTM/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais. Lab. de SOFC - Insumos e Componentes


    In this work, the ceramic films of LSM/YSZ (strontium-doped lanthanum manganite/Yttria-stabilized zirconia) and LSM used as cathodes of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are conformed by the wet powder spraying technique. The composite LSM/YSZ was obtained by the solid mixture technique and LSM by the citrate technique. For the formation of the LSM/YSZ and LSM ceramic films was necessary the preparation of dispersed ceramic suspensions for the deposition in YSZ substrate, used as electrolyte of the CaCOS. These powders were conformed using an aerograph for the deposition of the LSM/YSZ and LSM thin films of approximately 40 microns. The half-cells had been characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), identifying the phases hexagonal (LSM) and cubica (YSZ). And electronic scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the adherence and porosity of the ceramic films according to the characteristics of the cathode. (author)

  13. Solid state fermentation of biogas residues for production of Bacillus thuringiensis based bio-pesticide%以沼渣为原料固态发酵生产Bt生物农药

    张玮玮; 弓爱君; 邱丽娜; 要如磊


    used as a substrate for bio-pesticides production by solid state fermentation. Principal component analysis of biogas residue indicated that it was well suited for the growth of Bacillus thuringiensis in the experiments. The culture medium recipe was optimized by the orthogonal test. Brewer's grain, corn meal, soybean cake power and mixed ions were chosen to carry out the study. The results showed that brewer’s grain had the biggest effects on the growth of Bacillus thuringiensis and then followed the growth effects of corn meal, soybean cake power and mixed ions. Ultimately, the optimum media were 50% biogas residues, 35% brewer's grain, 10% corn meal, and 5% soybean cake power. This article compared the fermentation process among conventional media, only biogas residues media and the optimum media, under the optimized conditions. Spore counts of 5.23×1010 CFU/g and entomotoxicity of 16100 IU/mg were obtained after 48h fermentation, while 2.55×1010 CFU/g spore counts and 12500 IU/mg entomotoxicity were obtained in the conventional medium, and 1.74×108 CFU/g spore counts and 6000 IU/mg entomotoxicity were found in the only biogas residue medium. At last, by comparing the cost between conventional medium and the optimum media, the cost could be lowered by 36.3%. The present study proved the feasibility of using kitchen waste for the production of bio-pesticides, and it seemed to be a promising alternative for the use of conventional mediums to reduce the costs.

  14. The role of nano-Ni catalyst in MgH2 obtained by reactive mechanical milling method for solid hydrogen storage application

    Jalil, Zulkarnain; Rahwanto, Adi; Handoko, Erfan; Mustanir


    Magnesium (Mg) is regarded as one of the candidate material for absorbing hydrogen, because theoretically, has the ability to absorb hydrogen in the large quantities (7.6 wt%). However, Mg has shortage, namely its kinetic reaction is very slow, it takes time to absorb hydrogen at least 60 minutes with very high operating temperatures (300-400°C). The aim of this study is to improve the hydrogen desorption temperature of Mg-based hydrogen storage material. In this work, we used nano-nickel (Ni) as catalyst in MgH2 and obtained by reactive mechanical milling method. The duration of milling was done in 2 hours (soft milling) with the 2 mol% Ni catalyst and milled under hydrogen atmosphere (10 bar). As the results, small amount of 2 mol% Ni in nanometer scale acts as a suitable catalyst for improvement the kinetics of MgH2 which could absorp 5.5 wt% of hydrogen within 10 minutes at 300°C. It is obvious that small amount has much better as catalyst in nanoparticle size and at the same time allowed to reduce the milling process in short time.

  15. A study of the oriented composites with the conductive segregated structure obtained via solid-phase processing of the UHMWPE reactor powder mixed with the carbon nanofillers

    Lebedev, Oleg V.; Kechek'yan, Alexander S.; Shevchenko, Vitaly G.; Kurkin, Tikhon S.; Golubev, Evgeny K.; Karpushkin, Evgeny A.; Sergeev, Vladimir G.; Ozerin, Alexander N.


    Electrically conductive oriented polymer nano-composites of different compositions, based on the reactor powder of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with a special morphology, filled with particles of nanostructured graphite (NG), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and electrically conductive carbon black (CB), were investigated. Polymer composites were obtained via compaction of the mechanical mixture of the polymer and filler powder, followed by uniaxial deformation of the material under homogeneous shear (HS) conditions (all of the processing stages were conducted at room temperature). Resulted composites possess a high tensile strength, high level of the electrical conductivity and low percolation threshold, owing it to the formation of the segregated conductive structure, The influence of the type of nanosized carbon filler, degree of the deformation under HS condition, temperature and etc. on the electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of strengthened conductive composites oriented under homogeneous shear conditions was investigated. Changes in the electrical conductivity of oriented composite materials during reversible "tension-shrinkage" cycles along the orientation axis direction were studied. A theoretical approach, describing the process of transformation of the conductive system as a response on polymer phase deformation and volume change, was proposed, based on the data received from the analysis of the conductivity behavior during the uniaxial deformation and thermal treatment of composites.

  16. A study of the oriented composites with the conductive segregated structure obtained via solid-phase processing of the UHMWPE reactor powder mixed with the carbon nanofillers

    Lebedev, Oleg V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University,) Institutskiy per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); N.S. Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymer Materials of RAS, Profsoyuznaya st., Moscow, 117393 (Russian Federation); Kechek’yan, Alexander S.; Shevchenko, Vitaly G.; Kurkin, Tikhon S.; Golubev, Evgeny K.; Ozerin, Alexander N. [N.S. Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymer Materials of RAS, Profsoyuznaya st., Moscow, 117393 (Russian Federation); Karpushkin, Evgeny A.; Sergeev, Vladimir G. [Moscow State University, Chemical Department, Leninskie Gori, Moscow, 119234 (Russian Federation)


    Electrically conductive oriented polymer nano-composites of different compositions, based on the reactor powder of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with a special morphology, filled with particles of nanostructured graphite (NG), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and electrically conductive carbon black (CB), were investigated. Polymer composites were obtained via compaction of the mechanical mixture of the polymer and filler powder, followed by uniaxial deformation of the material under homogeneous shear (HS) conditions (all of the processing stages were conducted at room temperature). Resulted composites possess a high tensile strength, high level of the electrical conductivity and low percolation threshold, owing it to the formation of the segregated conductive structure, The influence of the type of nanosized carbon filler, degree of the deformation under HS condition, temperature and etc. on the electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of strengthened conductive composites oriented under homogeneous shear conditions was investigated. Changes in the electrical conductivity of oriented composite materials during reversible “tension–shrinkage” cycles along the orientation axis direction were studied. A theoretical approach, describing the process of transformation of the conductive system as a response on polymer phase deformation and volume change, was proposed, based on the data received from the analysis of the conductivity behavior during the uniaxial deformation and thermal treatment of composites.

  17. Simultaneous determination of 15 aminoglycoside(s) residues in animal derived foods by automated solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Yu, Huan; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhaoying; Cao, Xiaoqin; Yan, Caixia; Pan, Yuanhu; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui


    An automated method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of 15 aminoglycosides in muscle, liver (pigs, chicken and cattle), kidney (pigs and cattle), cow milk, and hen eggs by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Homogenized samples were extracted by monopotassium phosphate buffer (including ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid), and cleaned up with auto solid-phase extraction by carboxylic acid cartridges. The analytes were separated by a specialized column for aminoglycosides, and eluted with trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile. The decision limits (CCα) of apramycin, gentamycin, tobramycin, paromomycin, hygromycin, neomycin, kanamycin, sisomicin, netilmicin, ribostamycin, kasugamycin, amikacin, streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin and spectinomycin were ranged from 8.1 to 11.8 μg/kg and detection capabilities (CCβ) from 16.4 to 21.8 μg/kg. High correlation coefficients (r(2)>0.99) of calibration curves for the analytes were obtained within linear from 20 to 1000 μg/kg. Reasonable recoveries (71-108%) were demonstrated with excellent relative standard deviation (RSD). This method is simple pretreatment, rapid determination and high sensitivity, which can be used in the determination of multi-aminoglycosides in complex samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of dispersive solid-phase extraction and ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry in food additive residue analysis of red wine.

    Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Shen, Hao-Yu; Jin, Mi-Cong


    A novel and effective dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) procedure with rapid magnetic separation using ethylenediamine-functionalized magnetic polymer as an adsorbent was developed. The new procedure had excellent clean-up ability for the selective removal of the matrix in red wine. An accurate, simple, and rapid analytical method using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives (i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid, and neotame) in red wine was also used and validated. Recoveries ranging from 78.5% to 99.2% with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.46% to 6.3% were obtained using the new method. All target compounds showed good linearities in the tested range with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9993. The limits of quantification for the nine food additives were between 0.10 μg/L and 50.0 μg/L. The proposed dSPE-UFLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied in the food-safety risk monitoring of real red wine in Zhejiang Province, China. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development, validation and application of a methodology based on solid-phase micro extraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) for the determination of pesticide residues in mangoes.

    Menezes Filho, Adalberto; dos Santos, Fábio Neves; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula


    A method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 14 pesticide residues (clofentezine, carbofuran, diazinon, methyl parathion, malathion, fenthion, thiabendazole, imazalil, bifenthrin, permethrin, prochloraz, pyraclostrobin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in mango fruit, based on solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Different parameters of the method were evaluated, such as fiber type, extraction mode (direct immersion and headspace), temperature, extraction and desorption times, stirring velocities and ionic strength. The best results were obtained using polyacrylate fiber and direct immersion mode at 50 degrees C for 30 min, along with stirring at 250 rpm and desorption for 5 min at 280 degrees C. The method was validated using mango samples spiked with pesticides at concentration levels ranging from 33.3 to 333.3 microg kg(-1). The average recoveries (n=3) for the lowest concentration level ranged from 71.6 to 117.5%, with relative standard deviations between 3.1 and 12.3%, respectively. Detection and quantification limits ranged from 1.0 to 3.3 microg kg(-1) and from 3.33 to 33.33 microg kg(-1), respectively. The optimized method was then applied to 16 locally purchased mango samples, all of them containing the pesticides bifenthrin and azoxystrobin in concentrations of 18.3-57.4 and 12.7-55.8 microg kg(-1), respectively, although these values were below the MRL established by Brazilian legislation. The method proved to be selective, sensitive, and with good precision and recovery rates, presenting LOQ below the MRL admitted by Brazilian legislation.

  20. Particle behavior in solid propellant rockets

    Netzer, D. W.; Diloreto, V. D.; Dubrov, E.


    The use of holography, high speed motion pictures, light scattering measurements, and post-fire particle collection/scanning electron microscopic examination to study the combustion of composite solid propellants is discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of the different experimental techniques for obtaining two-phase flow characteristics within the combustion environment of a solid propellant grain are evaluated. Combustion bomb studies using high speed motion pictures and post-fire residue analysis were completed for six low metal content propellants. Resolution capabilities and the relationships between post-fire residue and motion picture data are determined. Initial testing using a holocamera together with a 2D windowed motor is also described.

  1. Photorefractive Keratectomy with Adjunctive Mitomycin C for Residual Error after Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis Using the Pulzar 213 nm Solid-State Laser: Early Results.

    Ng-Darjuan, Maya Fe; Evangelista, Raymond P; Agahan, Archimedes Lee D


    Purpose. To evaluate the accuracy, efficacy, stability, and safety of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) enhancement using the Pulzar 213 nm solid-state laser (SSL) with adjunctive Mitomycin C in eyes previously treated with laser assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with residual error of refraction. Methods. This is a prospective noncomparative case series of 16 eyes of 12 patients who underwent PRK for residual refractive error after primary LASIK. Mitomycin C 0.02% was used after the PRK to prevent haze formation. Outcomes measured were pre- and postoperative manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), uncorrected (UDVA) and best-corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and slit lamp evidence of corneal complications. Results. The mean UDVA improved from 20/70 preoperatively to 20/30 postoperatively. The average gain in lines for the UDVA was 2.38. After six months of followup, the postoperative MRSE within 0.50 D in 56% (9) of eyes and 94% (15) eyes were within 1.0 diopters of the intended correction. No eyes developed haze all throughout the study. Conclusion. PRK enhancement with adjunctive use of Mitomycin C for the correction of residual error of refraction after LASIK using the Pulzar 213 nm solid-state laser is an accurate, effective, and safe procedure.

  2. Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis; Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de residuos solidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis

    Goncalves, Jose E.; Leao, Alcides L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], emails:,; Sartori, Maria M.P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao], email:


    The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW). With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above 15% showed large increase in ash content. Therefore, the treatment that fulfilled the requirements for combustion versus ash content and mechanical resistance was of at least 15% of MSW, since the source of the ash is unidentified. Considering the net energy content, the best treatment was 25% of MSW, with 17,175 kJ kg{sup -1}. Nevertheless, it is strongly advised that further studies related to gas emissions are necessary. (author)

  3. Transfer of pollution from municipal wastewater to bio solids: their chemical characterization; Transferencia de contaminacion desde el agua residual urbana a los lodos de depuracion: caracterizacion de biosolidos

    Marin Galvin, R.


    Production of bio solids depends on the amount of wastewater treated according the expression y=ax''2,5575, being y the log of TM/year of bio solids produced, and X the log then m''3/year of wastewater treated. Quality of bio solids generated by three WWTP does not seem function either of the amount of treated water and neither of the treatment process applied (active sludges or bio discs). The bio solids exhibited values of 20-25% in dehidradation, and those of organic matter, nitrogen and phosp hour being equal to 60-75%, 7% and 4%, respectively. Moreover, the total of metals there present were 11-19 g/kg over dried matter, supposing Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn the 97% of all metals, and being Hg the minority metal. Bio solids can be used in agricultural practices (they agree with the Spanish normative here applied) and they concentrated the organic matter and metals found in wastewater up to 417 and 869 times, respectively. At the same time, we have estimated that each 4841 of wastewater produced 1 kg of bio solid. (Author)

  4. Morphological, microstructural and chemical characterisation of solid residues from sewage sludge incineration; Caratterizzazione morfologica, compositiva e microstrutturale dei residui solidi di incenerimento dei fanghi urbani

    Bemporad, E.; Carassiti, F. [Rome University Roma Tre, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Meccanica e Industriale


    For a deeper understanding of all the potential factors affecting metal speciation and partitioning in sludge incineration and to assess potential hazard posed by residual ashes, the Water Research Institute (Irsa) of the Italian National Research Council has carried out a large series of sludge incineration tests using the pilot plant located in Bari (Southern Italy) in the area of a large municipal wastewater treatment plant. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering of the Rome Tre University cooperated with Irsa in chemical-physical characterisation of different types of ashes collected during the test with the aim of obtaining useful data for process optimisation. Different techniques were used to characterize incineration products and to correlate with process parameters. The X ray Diffraction (XRD) technique was found to be able to estimate the amount of sand, lost from the furnace in cyclone ash (CA) and in filter ash (FA). Low Angle Laser Light Scattering (LALLS) is suitable to evaluate size distribution, Scanning Electron Microscopy associated with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) was used to correlate size and shape of individual particles with qualitative chemical composition. XRD semi-quantitative measurements of the incineration products, obtained by using reference calibrating sand/ash samples, showed that sand content varies form 28% to 73% in the CA and from 6% to 14% in the FA. LALLS technique showed mono-modal and bi-modal distributions of particle size. (Sauter mean diameter), varying frm 17 {mu}m to 250 {mu}m in the CA and from 4 {mu}m to 14 {mu}m in the FA. SEM/EDS observations showed that heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni) are prevalently present as small droplets on the surface of the non spherical particles. [Italian] Al fine di comprendere i fenomeni di speciazione e il destino dei metalli pesanti durante le operazioni di trattamento dei fanghi urbani, il Cnr-Irsa di Roma ha condotto una serie di prove di impianto presso l

  5. Cultivation ofPaenibacillus polymyxa by solid-state fermentation of pear residues%梨渣固态发酵培养多粘类芽孢杆菌的工艺

    赵国群; 牛梦天; 卢士康; 关军锋


    done, but study on its solid-state fermentation has not been reported at the present. In this work, fresh Yali pear’s residues were used to cultivateP. polymyxa D1 in a solid-state fermentaion. Fresh Yali pear’s residues contained 76.2% moisture, 5.5% residual sugars and 0.32% proteins. The effects of cultivation conditions on its cell growth and sporulation were investigated. The results showed that pear residues were good material for solid-state fermentation and very suitable to cultivate P. polymyxaD1. The mositure of fresh Yali pear’s residues was very high, which might not be in favour of the cell growth during solid-state fermentation. Addition of wheat bran into pear residues improved significantly the cell growth. The possible reason of this result was that oxygen supply and nutritional status of the culture medium were improved obviously when pear residues were mixed with wheat bran. When the ratio between pear residue and wheat bran was 5:2, the highest viable cell number was achieved, 2.5×109cfu/g. Spore number was an important parameter of microbial agent. Cultivation conditions could influence bacterial sporulation. The viable cell number and spore yield ofP. polymyxaD1 obviously increased when urea, sodium nitrate and soybean meal were added into the cultural medium of pear residues, and soybean meal had the best stimulation effect. However, NH4NO3, NH4Cl and degossypolized cottonseed protein inhibited the cell growth and spore formation. Mineral salts also influenced the cell growth and sporulation ofP. polymyxaD1. Supplement of NaCl, MgSO4, CaCO3 and FeSO4 into the medium largely inhibited the spore formation ofP. polymyxaD1. Addition of KH2PO4 greatly promoted the cell growth and sporulation, and its spore yield and sporulation efficiency were 4.52×109 cfu/g and 95.6%, respectively.P. polymyxa is a highly anaerobic bacterium. The spore yield of P. polymyxaD1 decreased obviously as the medium volume in the fermenter increased. The optimal

  6. IDH1 Mutations at Residue p.R132 (IDH1(R132)) Occur Frequently in High-Grade Gliomas But Not in Other Solid Tumors

    F.E. Bleeker; S. Lamba; S Leenstra; D Troost; T. Hulsebos; W.P. Vandertop; M. Frattini; F. Molinari; M. Knowles; A. Cerrato; M. Rodolfo; A. Scarpa; L. Felicioni; F. Buttitta; S. Malatesta; A. Marchetti; A. Bardelli


    Systematic sequence profiling of the Glio. blastoma Multiforme (GBM) genome has recently led to the identification of somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene. Interestingly, only the evolutionarily conserved residue R132 located in the substrate binding site of IDH1 was found

  7. Application of a hybrid ordered mesoporous silica as sorbent for solid-phase multi-residue extraction of veterinary drugs in meat by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Casado, Natalia; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Sierra, Isabel


    A quick, sensitive and selective analytical reversed-phase multi-residue method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ion-trap mass spectrometry detector (UHPLC-IT-MS/MS) operating in both positive and negative ion mode was developed for the simultaneous determination of 23 veterinary drug residues (β-blockers, β-agonists and Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)) in meat samples. The sample treatment involved a liquid-solid extraction followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. SBA-15 type mesoporous silica was synthetized and modified with octadecylsilane, and the resulting hybrid material (denoted as SBA-15-C18) was applied and evaluated as SPE sorbent in the purification of samples. The materials were comprehensively characterized, and they showed a high surface area, high pore volume and a homogeneous distribution of the pores. Chromatographic conditions and extraction procedure were optimized, and the method was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The method detection limits (MDLs) and the method quantification limits (MQLs) were determined for all the analytes in meat samples and found to range between 0.01-18.75μg/kg and 0.02-62.50μg/kg, respectively. Recoveries for 15 of the target analytes ranged from 71 to 98%. In addition, for comparative purpose SBA-15-C18 was evaluated towards commercial C18 amorphous silica. Results revealed that SBA-15-C18 was clearly more successful in the multi-residue extraction of the 23 mentioned analytes with higher recovery values. The method was successfully tested to analyze prepacked preparations of mince bovine meat. Traces of propranolol, ketoprofen and diclofenac were detected in some samples.

  8. Pyroacm Resin: An Acetamidomethyl Derived Resin for Solid Phase Synthesis of Peptides through Side Chain Anchoring of C-Terminal Cysteine Residues.

    Juvekar, Vinayak; Gong, Young Dae


    The design, synthesis and utilization of an efficient acetamidomethyl derived resin for the peptide synthesis is presented using established Fmoc and Boc protocols via side chain anchoring. Cleavage of the target peptide from the resin is performed using carboxymethylsulfenyl chloride under mild conditions which gave in situ thiol-sulfenyl protection of the cysteine residues. The utility of the resin is successfully demonstrated through applications to the syntheses of model peptides and natural products Riparin 1.1 and Riparin 1.2.

  9. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for determination of ractopamine residue in pork samples by solid phase extraction and pre-column derivatization.

    Ding, Guanglong; Li, Deguang; Qin, Jiao; Zhu, Juanli; Wang, Baitao; Geng, Qianqian; Guo, Mingcheng; Punyapitak, Darunee; Cao, Yongsong


    Ractopamine (RAC) has been approved as a feed additive for swine, cattle or turkey, and is likely to have residue in edible animal products and may pose a potential risk for consumer health. Therefore, it is essential to establish a method to detect the residue of RAC in animal products. This work presents a rapid and sensitive HPLC method for the determination of RAC in pork samples with pre-column derivatization. The RAC derivative was separated on a kromasil C18 column and detected at 284nm with a UV detector. The detection capability (CCβ) was 0.078μgg(-1) and the linearity was established over the concentration range of 0.15-100.0μgg(-1). The overall mean recovery in spike range of 0.2μgg(-1) to 100μgg(-1) was 89.9% with the overall mean relative standard deviation of 4.1%. This method can be used for the quantification of RAC in pork samples and help to establish adequate monitoring of the residue of RAC.

  10. Detection of tannins in modern and fossil barks and in plant residues by high-resolution solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

    Wilson, M.A.; Hatcher, P.G.


    Bark samples isolated from brown coal deposits in Victoria, Australia, and buried wood from Rhizophora mangle have been studies by high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Dipolar dephasing 13C NMR appears to be a useful method of detecting the presence of tannins in geochemical samples including barks, buried woods, peats and leaf litter. It is shown that tannins are selectively preserved in bark during coalification to the brown coal stage. ?? 1988.

  11. Solid biofuels production from agricultural residues and processing by-products by means of torrefaction treatment: the case of sunflower chain

    Daniele Duca


    Full Text Available The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use. Their standardisation is going to be a key aspect to get good quality biofuels from those residues. Torrefaction is an interesting process to improve the physical and chemical properties of lignocellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks, husks and oil press cake. The thermal behaviour of these materials has been studied at first by thermogravimetric analysis in order to identify torrefaction temperatures range. Afterwards, different residence time and torrefaction temperatures have been tested in a bench top torrefaction reactor. Analyses of raw and torrefied materials have been carried out to assess the influence of the treatment. As a consequence of torrefaction, the carbon and ash contents increase while the volatilisation range reduces making the material more stable and standardised. Mass yield, energy yield and energy densification reach values of about 60%, 80% and 1.33 for sunflower stalks and 64%, 85% and 1.33 for sunflower oil press cake respectively. As highlighted by the results, torrefaction is more interesting for sunflower stalks than oil cake and husks due to their different original characteristics. Untreated oil press cake and husks, in fact, already show a good high heating value and, for this reason, their torrefaction should be mild to avoid an excessive ash concentration. On the contrary, for sunflower stalks the treatment is more useful and could be more severe.

  12. Solid state fermentation of olive mill residues by wood- and dung-dwelling Agaricomycetes: effects on peroxidase production, biomass development and phenol phytotoxicity.

    Reina, Rocío; Liers, Christiane; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet


    The in vivo conversion of dry olive mill residue (DOR) by wood- and dung-dwelling fungi - Auricularia auricula-judae, Bjerkandera adusta and Coprinellus radians - increases peroxidase secretion up to 3.2-3.5-fold (∼1.3, 3.5 and 7.0 Ug(-1) DOR for dye-decolorizing peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and aromatic peroxygenases, respectively). The incubation of DOR with these fungi produced a sharp decrease in total phenolic content (100% within 4 wk), a reduction in phytotoxicity as well as a certain degree of plant growth caused by the stimulating effect of fungal-treated DOR. These findings correlate with a characteristic shift in the fragmentation pattern of water-soluble aromatics (detected at 280 nm) from low (0.2, 1.5 and 2.2 kDa, respectively) to high molecular mass (35 to >200 kDa), which demonstrates the presence of a polymerization process. Phenol-rich agricultural residues are a useful tool for enzyme expression and production studies of peroxidase-producing Agaricomycetes which could make DOR a valuable organic fertilizer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Obtaining of ceria - samaria - gadolinia ceramics for application as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolyte; Obtencao de ceramicas de ceria - samaria - gadolinia para aplicacao como eletrolito em celulas a combustivel de oxido solido (SOFC)

    Arakaki, Alexander Rodrigo


    Cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) when doped with rare earth oxides has its ionic conductivity enhanced, enabling its use as electrolyte for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IT-SOFC), which is operated in temperatures between 500 e 700 degree C. The most effective additives or dopants for ionic conductivity improvement are (samarium oxide - Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and gadolinia (gadolinium oxide - Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}), fixing the concentration between 10 and 20 molar%. In this work, Ce{sub 0,8}(SmGd){sub 0,2}O{sub 1,9} powders have been synthesized by hydroxide, carbonate and oxalate coprecipitation routes. The hydrothermal treatment has been studied for powders precipitated with ammonium hydroxide. A concentrate of rare earths containing 90wt% of CeO{sub 2} and other containing 51% of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 30% of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, both prepared from monazite processing, were used as starting materials. These concentrates were used due the lower cost compared to pure commercial materials and the chemical similarity of others rare earth elements. Initially, the coprecipitation and calcination conditions were defined. The process efficiency was verified by ceramic sinterability evaluation. The results showed that powders calcined in the range of 450 and 800 degree C presented high specific surface area (90 - 150 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}) and fluorite cubic structure, indicating the solid solution formation. It was observed, by scanning electron microscopy, that morphology of particles and agglomerates is a function of precipitant agent. The dilatometric analysis indicated the higher rate of shrinkage at temperatures around 1300-1350 degree C. High densification values (>95% TD) was obtained at temperatures above 1400 degree C. Synthesis by hydroxides coprecipitation followed by hydrothermal treatment demonstrated to be a promising route for crystallization of ceria nano powders at low temperatures (200 degree C). High values of specific surface area were reached with the

  14. 危险固体废物焚烧残渣的稳定化处理研究%Study on the stabilization of hazardous solid waste incineration residues

    宋二喜; 廖燕; 张弛; 王峰涛; 韩建勋; 沈东升


    Conventional hazardous waste stabilizers (Na3PO4, Na2S, humic acid) and carbide slag was employed for stabilization the incineration residues of typical hazardous solid waste. The stabilization performance and ecological risk of each treatment process were evaluated by Pb, Ni, Cu, and Zn removal rates. Results showed that Na3 PO4 and carbide slag obtained approving and steady stabilization effect after 7 days of stabilization. Na2 S and humic acid achieved the best stabilization efficiency at 14, 21 d respectively, but the stabilization performance getting worse as the time prolongs, so Na2 S and humic acid were unfit to be stabilizers. Further tests were conducted to compare the stabilization performance of Na3PO4 and carbide slag, results showed the stabilization effect of carbide slag was better than that of Na3PO4 on the whole. After adding 9% (mass ratio) of carbide slag for 24 h, the removal rate of Pb, Ni, Cu and Zn was 93. 76% ,79. 69% ,98. 40% and 95. 19% ,respectively. 24 h-EC50 values obtained in ecotox-icology experiment showed an obvious toxicity reduction after carbide slag stabilization. After all, carbide slag was the kind of high efficiency, steady and safety stabilizer.%采用常规危险固体废物稳定剂Na3 PO4、Na2S、腐殖酸以及工业固体废物电石渣对台州典型危险固体废物焚烧残渣进行稳定化处理.以残渣中污染最严重的重金属Pb、Ni、Cu、Zn的去除率为衡量指标,进行稳定化时间优化试验.结果表明,Na3 PO4、电石渣可在7d后达到较好的稳定化效果,且随着时间的延长效果稳定;而Na2S和腐殖酸的稳定化效果分别在14、21 d达到最佳,但随着时间的延长,稳定化效果呈下降趋势,不适合作危险固体废物焚烧残渣的稳定剂.通过稳定剂投加比例优化试验发现,电石渣对残渣的稳定化效果优于Na3PO4,在投加9%(质量分数)电石渣的条件下,Pb、Ni、Cu、Zn的浸出率分别为93.76%、79.69%、98.40%和95

  15. Produção de biossurfactante por Aspergillus fumigatus utilizando resíduos agroindustriais como substrato Solid-state biosurfactant production by Aspergillus fumigatus using agricultural residues as substrate

    Gabriel Luis Castiglioni


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate biosurfactant production in solid state by Aspergillus fumigatus in fixed-bed column bioreactors using substrate based on agricultural residues. Without a supplementary carbon source the highest emulsifying activity (EA was 11.17 emulsifying units (EU g-1 of substrate at an aeration rate of 148 mL h-1g-1 but in the presence of diesel oil the highest EA value was 9.99 EU g-1 at an aeration rate of 119 mL h-1g-1 of substrate while supplementation with soya oil resulted in only 8.47 EU g-1 of substrate at an aeration rate of 119 mL h-1g-1.

  16. Energetic planning in civil engineer: solid urban residues incineration; Planejamento energetico na engenharia civil: o caso da incineracao de residuos solidos urbanos

    Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto; Ferruccio, Sheilla Jones Akel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil


    There is an Hybrid Thermic Reactor operating in Americana (SP) since 1986 with the only duty of incinerating hospital residues. This kind of pyrolytic decomposition had proved to be self-sustainable on the energetic point of view based on the composition of the hospital waste. So, it seems interesting to compare, energectly, the mass reduction efficiency existent in the operation of the Hybrid Thermic Reactor and the expected in the work being developed about Thermochemical Decomposition in situ, an attempt without preceding of reproduction of the effects of a pyrolytic reactor inside existing cells in landfills, using as a generating heat source the biogas generated in adjacent cell in the same area. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Residuation theory

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M


    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  18. The influence of the stereochemistry of alanine residue on the solid state conformation and crystal packing of opioid peptides containing D-Ala or L-Ala in message domain--XRD and NMR study.

    Trzeciak-Karlikowska, Katarzyna; Bujacz, Anna; Ciesielski, Włodzimierz; Bujacz, Grzegorz D; Potrzebowski, Marek J


    In this work, an X-ray diffraction (XRD) and solid state NMR study of two tetrapeptides with different stereochemistry of alanine residue is presented using Tyr-(D-Ala)-Phe-Gly (1), an N-terminal sequence of opioid peptide dermorphin, and its biologically inactive analog Tyr-(L-Ala)-Phe-Gly (2). Single-crystal XRD proved that 1 crystallized under different conditions from exclusively one structure: a monoclinic crystal with P2(1) space group. In contrast, 2 very easily formed at least three crystallographic modifications, 2a (monoclinic P2(1)), 2b (orthorhombic P2(1)2(1)2) and 2c (tetragonal P4(1)2(1)2). Solid-state NMR spectroscopy was employed to investigate the structure and molecular dynamics of 1, 2a, and 2b. By employing different NMR experiments (dipolar dephasing and PILGRIM) and an analysis of the (13)C principal elements of the chemical shift tensor (CST), it was proven that the main skeleton of tetrapeptides is rigid, whereas significant differences in the molecular motion of the aromatic residues were observed. Comparing current data with those of previous studies (J. Phys. Chem. B2004, 108, 4535-4545 and Cryst. Growth Des. 2009, 9, 4050-4059), it can be assumed that an important preorganization mechanism anticipating the formation of peptide crystals containing D-Ala in sequence is the intramolecular CH-π interaction, which occurs for the amino acid with D stereochemistry. This effect may be responsible for the formation of only one crystallographic form of D-Ala peptides.

  19. Evaluation of alternative sorbents for dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up in the QuEChERS method for the determination of pesticide residues in rice by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Cabrera, Liziara da C; Caldas, Sergiane S; Prestes, Osmar D; Primel, Ednei G; Zanella, Renato


    Many compounds are used for pest control during the production and storage of rice, making it necessary to employ multiclass methods for pesticide residues determination. For this purpose, QuEChERS-based methods are very efficient, fast and accurate, and improvements in the clean-up step are important, especially for complex matrices, like cereals. In this work, different sorbents such as chitosan, florisil(®) , alumina, diatomaceous earth, graphitized carbon black, besides the commonly used primary secondary amine and octadecylsilane, were evaluated for dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up in acetate-buffered QuEChERS method for the determination of residues of 20 representative pesticides and one metabolite in rice by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The sorbent C18 presented the best results, however, chitosan showed similar results, and the best performance among the unconventional sorbents evaluated. The method limit of quantification, attending accuracy (70-120% recovery) and precision (RSD ≤20%) criteria, ranged from 5 to 20 μg/kg. Results showed that chitosan is an effective alternative to reduce analysis costs, maintaining the method reliability and accuracy.

  20. Rapid analysis of pesticide residues in drinking water samples by dispersive solid-phase extraction based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and pulse glow discharge ion source ion mobility spectrometry.

    Zou, Nan; Gu, Kejia; Liu, Shaowen; Hou, Yanbing; Zhang, Jialei; Xu, Xiang; Li, Xuesheng; Pan, Canping


    An analytical method based on dispersive solid-phase extraction with a multiwalled carbon nanotubes sorbent coupled with positive pulse glow discharge ion mobility spectrometry was developed for analysis of 30 pesticide residues in drinking water samples. Reduced ion mobilities and the mass-mobility correlation of 30 pesticides were measured. The pesticides were divided into five groups to verify the separation capability of pulse glow discharge in mobility spectrometry. The extraction conditions such as desorption solvent, ionic strength, conditions of adsorption and desorption, the amounts of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and solution pH were optimized. The enrichment factors of pesticides were 5.4- to 48.7-fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 50-fold). The detection limits of pesticides were 0.01∼0.77 μg/kg. The linear range was 0.005-0.2 mg/L for pesticide standard solutions, with determination coefficients from 0.9616 to 0.9999. The method was applied for the analysis of practical and spiked drinking water samples. All results were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The proposed method was proven to be a commendably rapid screening qualitative and semiquantitative technique for the analysis of pesticide residues in drinking water samples on site.

  1. 从铝热法制备金属铬所得铬渣中回收铬、铝工艺研究%Recovery of Cr and Al from Chromic Residue Obtained from Preparation of Metal Chromium Using Aluminothermics Method

    林盛; 吴亮; 李晓鹏; 任秀玲; 刘岩


    Chromic residue obtained from preparation of metal chromium by aluminothermic reaction, was used to recover alumina and sodium chromate by adopting a combined process consisting of roasting with molten alkali, leaching with water, carbonation decomposition, concentration and crystallization. Effects of particle size of chromic residue, alkali/residue ratio, roasting time and temperature on the recovery rate were explored. Results showed that the leaching rates of chromium and aluminum increased with an increase in the alkali/residue ratio, roasting time and temperature, as well as a decrease in the particle size of the residue. The optimal technological conditions were obtained through orthogonal experiment L9(34), including roasting at a temperature of 700 ℃ for 4 h, with particle size of residue at 0�045 mm and alkali/residue ratio of 6∶1. Consequently, the chromate salt ( calculated in terms of sodium bichromate) and alumina were obtained with purity of 88.5% and 95.4%, at total recovery of 85.6% and 96.4%, respectively, and sodium was recovered in the form of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate.%采用在熔融碱中焙烧⁃水浸⁃碳酸化分解⁃浓缩结晶工艺从铝热法生产金属铬所得炉渣中回收氧化铝和铬酸钠,探讨了铬渣粒度、碱渣比、焙烧时间以及温度等因素对铬和铝浸出率的影响。研究表明,铬和铝的浸出率随碱渣比、焙烧时间以及焙烧温度增加而增加,随铬渣粒度减少而增加。通过四因素三水平正交实验确定焙烧最佳浸出工艺条件为:焙烧温度700℃,焙烧时间4 h,粒度0.045 mm和碱矿比6∶1。所得铬盐(以重铬酸钠计)和氧化铝的纯度分别为88.5%和95.4%,总回收率分别达到85.6%和96�4%,钠以碳酸钠和碳酸氢钠的形式得到回收。

  2. Ionic liquid mediated sol-gel sorbents for hollow fiber solid-phase microextraction of pesticide residues in water and hair samples.

    Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Es'haghi, Zarrin; Samadi, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Mohammad-Saeid


    An ionic liquid mediated sol-gel sorbents for hollow fiber solid-phase microextraction (HF-SPME) was developed for extraction of the pesticides: diazinon, fenitrothion, malathion, fenvalerate, phosalone and tridemorph from human hair and water samples. The analytes were subsequently analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography and diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Preliminary experiments were carried out in order to study experimental conditions for pesticides' extraction from spiked hair and water samples with HF-SPME using hollow fiber-supported ionic liquid mediated sol-gel sorbent. The sol-gel nanocomposites were reinforced with nanoparticles such as carboxylic functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs), amino functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NH(2)-MWCNTs), nano SiO(2), nano TiO(2) and nano MgO comparatively to promote extraction efficiency. In this device, the innovative solid sorbents were developed by the sol-gel method via the reaction of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) with 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-propane-1,3-diol (TRIS). In the basic condition (pH 10-11), the gel growth process in the presence of ionic liquid and nanoparticles was initiated. Then, the sol was injected into a polypropylene hollow fiber segment for in situ gelation process. Parameters affecting the efficiency of HF-SPME were thoroughly investigated. Linearity was observed over a range of 0.01-25,000 ng/mL with detection limits between 0.004 and 0.095 ng/mL for the pesticides in the aqueous matrices and 0.003-0.080 ng/mL in the hair matrices. The relative recoveries in the real samples ranged from 82.0% to 94.0% for the pesticides store seller's hair and the work researchers' hair. Results are showing the great possibilities of HF-SPME-HPLC-PDA for analysis of pesticides in biological and environmental samples.

  3. Determination of 14 Organophosphorous Pesticide Residues in Seawater by Solid Phase Extraction%固相萃取法测定海水中14种有机磷农药

    高莹莹; 高晓飞; 姜洋; 门宇; 李宏晖


    通过对固相萃取法中萃取剂的选择、用量和样品溶液pH值等条件进行优化处理,建立海水中常见有机磷农药的分析方法。研究结果表明,pH值对萃取结果无影响,当萃取剂选择二氯甲烷、且萃取剂用量为20mL时,萃取结果最优。关键词:有机磷农药;固相萃取;气相色谱;海水%The influence factors in solid phase extraction were studied, such as the extraction solvent, the dosage of extraction solvent, and the pH of solvent. The determination of 14 organophosphorous pesticide residues in seawater were done by gas chromatography. The results showed that the pH values of solvent have unconspicuous effects on the test result. So the best conditions of the solid phase ex- traction were dichloromethane and extraction solvent for 20 mL.

  4. Comparison of bacterial community structure and dynamics during the thermophilic composting of different types of solid wastes: anaerobic digestion residue, pig manure and chicken manure.

    Song, Caihong; Li, Mingxiao; Jia, Xuan; Wei, Zimin; Zhao, Yue; Xi, Beidou; Zhu, Chaowei; Liu, Dongming


    This study investigated the impact of composting substrate types on the bacterial community structure and dynamics during composting processes. To this end, pig manure (PM), chicken manure (CM), a mixture of PM and CM (PM + CM), and a mixture of PM, CM and anaerobic digestion residue (ADR) (PM + CM + ADR) were selected for thermophilic composting. The bacterial community structure and dynamics during the composting process were detected and analysed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) coupled with a statistic analysis. The physical-chemical analyses indicated that compared to single-material composting (PM, CM), co-composting (PM + CM, PM + CM + ADR) could promote the degradation of organic matter and strengthen the ability of conserving nitrogen. A DGGE profile and statistical analysis demonstrated that co-composting, especially PM + CM + ADR, could improve the bacterial community structure and functional diversity, even in the thermophilic stage. Therefore, co-composting could weaken the screening effect of high temperature on bacterial communities. Dominant sequencing analyses indicated a dramatic shift in the dominant bacterial communities from single-material composting to co-composting. Notably, compared with PM, PM + CM increased the quantity of xylan-degrading bacteria and reduced the quantity of human pathogens.

  5. Application of a novel sol-gel polydimethylsiloxane-poly(vinyl alcohol) solid-phase microextraction fiber for gas chromatographic determination of pesticide residues in herbal infusions.

    Zuin, Vânia Gomes; Lopes, Alexandre Leite; Yariwake, Janete Harumi; Augusto, Fabio


    A simple and environmentally friendly methodology for headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using a new fiber coated with polydimethylsiloxane-poly(vinyl alcohol) (PDMS/PVA) is reported for the trace determination of organochlorine (OCP) and organophosphorus (OPP) pesticides in herbal infusions of Passiflora L. by GC-ECD. The capacity of the PDMS/PVA coating for the pesticides was compared to that of commercial PDMS fibers, with advantageous results. The effects of parameters such as the sample ionic strength, dilution of the infusion, extraction temperature and time were investigated. The optimized conditions for the determination of OCP and OPP in Passiflora L. infusions were extraction time and temperature, respectively, of 38 min and 67.5 degrees C, with 5 min of sample/headspace equilibration time. The analytical curves for the range between 0.04 ng mL(-1) to 6 ng mL(-1) of each compound presented a good quality (correlation coefficients of 0.921 or better). The detection limits for the OCP and OPP in these matrices varied from 0.01 ng mL(-1) (beta-endosulfan) to 1.5 ng mL(-1) (malathion). The sensitivity of studied methodology was adequate, as well as its accuracy (78.7-91.5%) and precision (R.S.D. = 1.2-14.2%).

  6. A high-throughput approach for the determination of pesticide residues in cucumber samples using solid-phase microextraction on 96-well plate.

    Bagheri, Habib; Es'haghi, Ali; Es-haghi, Ali; Mesbahi, Noushin


    A high-throughput solid-phase microextraction (SPME) on 96-well plate together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the determination of some selected pesticides in cucumber samples. Pieces with the length of 1.0 cm of silicon tubing were precisely prepared and then coated on the end part of stainless steel wires. The prepared fibers were positioned in a home-made polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-based constructed ninety-six holes block to have the possibility of simultaneous immersion of the SPME fibers into the center of individual wells. Pesticides such as diazinon, penconazol, tebuconazol, bitertanol, malathion, phosalone and chlorpyrifos-methyl were selected for their highly application in cucumber field. The performances of the SPME fibers, such as intra and inter-fibers reproducibility, were evaluated and the results showed a good similarity in extraction yields. A volume of 1 mL of the aquatic supernatant of the cucumber samples was transferred into the 96-well plate and the array of SPME fibers was applied for the extraction of the selected pesticides. The important parameters influencing the whole extraction process including, organic solvent percent, salt addition, dilution factor, stirring rate and extraction time were optimized. The inter- and intra-day RSD% were found to be less than 15.4%. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were below 60 and 180 μg kg(-1), respectively. The coefficient of determination was satisfactory (r(2)>0.99) for all the studied analytes. The developed method was successfully applied to the monitoring of several samples gathered from local markets.

  7. New shredding machine for recycling pruning residuals

    Recchia, L.; Daou, M.; Rimediotti, M.; Cini, E.; Vieri, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Agraria e Forestale, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, P.le delle Cascine 15, 50144 Firenze (Italy)


    This paper, which illustrates some results of the project SO.L.E.AGRI. (''Wood-energy chain sustainability in agricultural sector'') funded by Provincia di Siena and of the PRIN 2005-2006 ''Study of the biomass-energy chains in Italy'' funded by the Italian Ministry of Instruction, University and Research, highlights that the use of agricultural residuals as renewable energy source is economically and environmentally convenient. This work firstly looks at the energy use of agricultural residuals harvested, and then it considers their packaging and supply management. The main objective of the production of the solid bio-fuels originated from pruning residuals is the reduction of harvesting and transport costs; therefore, experimental tests have been carried out in different farms using an innovative shredding machine that simultaneously permits harvesting, shredding and packaging of pruning residuals. These trials have been undertaken in olive groves and vineyards, on stony and hilly terrain. The machine has obtained good results under different operative conditions: intensive mechanisation of harvesting implies lower costs and simultaneous packaging assures a better organisation of the whole energy chain. (author)

  8. Multi-residue analysis of 36 priority and emerging pollutants in marine echinoderms (Holothuria tubulosa) and marine sediments by solid-liquid extraction followed by dispersive solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Martín, J; Zafra-Gómez, A; Hidalgo, F; Ibáñez-Yuste, A J; Alonso, E; Vilchez, J L


    Marine echinoderms are filter-feeding invertebrates widely distributed along the coasts, and which are therefore extensively exposed to anthropogenic xenobiotics. They can serve as good sentinels for monitoring a large variety of contaminants in marine ecosystems. In this context, a multi-residue analytical method has been validated and applied to Holothuria tubulosa specimens and marine sediments for the determination of 36 organic compounds, which belong to some of the most problematic groups of emerging and priority pollutants (perfluoroalkyl compounds, estrogens, parabens, benzophenones, plasticizers, surfactants, brominated flame retardants and alkylphenols). Lyophilization of samples prior to solvent extraction and clean-up of extracts with C18, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, is proposed. A Box-Behnken design was used for optimization of the most influential variables affecting the extraction and clean-up steps. For validation, matrix-matched calibration and recovery assay were applied. Linearity (% r(2)) higher than 99%, recoveries between 80% and 114% (except in LAS and NP1EO), RSD (precision) lower than 15% and limits of quantification between 0.03 and 12.5ngg(-1) dry weight (d.w.) were achieved. The method was applied to nine samples of Holothuria collected along the coast of Granada (Spain), and to marine sediments around the animals. The results demonstrated high bioaccumulation of certain pollutants. A total of 25 out of the 36 studied compounds were quantified, being surfactants, alkylphenols, perfluoroalkyl compounds, triclocarban and parabens the most frequently detected. Nonylphenol was found in the highest concentration (340 and 323ngg(-1) d.w. in sediment and Holothuria samples, respectively).

  9. 甜高粱茎秆残渣生料多菌种固态发酵生产蛋白饲料%Producing protein feedstuff by multiple strains solid-state fermentation with raw sweet sorghum stalk residue

    杨森; 王石垒; 张雷; 赵宏军; 谢慧; 王风芹; 陈红歌; 宋安东


    Sweet sorghum is a high-energy crop which has many applications, such as producing sugars and fuel ethanol. The sweet sorghum stalk residues are discarded as waste. However, there are fat, protein, crude fiber and other carbohydrates in stalk residues which can be used to make protein feedstuff. To achieve the rapid promotion and large-scale application of producing protein feedstuff using sweet sorghum stalk residues, the solid state fermentation system was used. First, the physical and chemical parameters of the sweet sorghum stalk residues were determined, the total content of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin was 73.75% (dry weight, the same below) and the crude protein content was 2.27%. Secondly, the combination ofAspergillus nige,Trichoderma reesei,Candida utilis andLactobacillus casei was optimized. The optimal combination of the strains was selected based on the component change of crude protein, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, crude ash and crude fat. The results showed that the fermentation after adding 4 strains was proper. In this condition, the cellulose content decreased by 27.0%, and the hemicellulose content decreased by 15.72%. The crude protein content in the combination added withLactobacillus casei increased by 26.96%, the crude ash content decreased by 15.49% and the crude fat decreased by 18.15%, compared with those without addingLactobacillus casei. Third, based on the optimal combination of the strains, 1% and 3% urea were respectively added in the sweet sorghum stalk residues to confirm the optimal content of urea. It indicated that the contents of crude protein and true protein were significantly improved with the addition of 1% urea. The true protein content was increased by 21.90% compared with that without the addition of urea under the same condition. In conclusion, the crude protein content of sweet sorghum stalk residues increased from 2.27% to 7.14% and its true protein increased from 2.01% to 6.41% after 8 days under the raw

  10. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.


    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...... with geochemical modelling were carried out both on fresh and aged samples. The results showed that the material is comparable to residues from wood combustion and the leaching behaviour was dominated by Ca-containing minerals and solid solutions. Heavy metals were detected in very low concentrations in the bulk...

  11. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.


    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  12. Feasibility of biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of herbal-extraction residues with swine manure.

    Li, Yan; Yan, Xi-Luan; Fan, Jie-Ping; Zhu, Jian-Hang; Zhou, Wen-Bin


    The objective of this work was to examine the feasibility of biogas production from the anaerobic co-digestion of herbal-extraction residues with swine manure. Batch and semi-continuous experiments were carried out under mesophilic anaerobic conditions. Batch experiments revealed that the highest specific biogas yield was 294 mL CH(4) g(-1) volatile solids added, obtained at 50% of herbal-extraction residues and 3.50 g volatile solids g(-1) mixed liquor suspended solids. Specific methane yield from swine manure alone was 207 mL CH(4) g(-1) volatile solid added d(-1) at 3.50 g volatile solids g(-1) mixed liquor suspended solids. Furthermore, specific methane yields were 162, 180 and 220 mL CH(4) g (-1) volatile solids added d(-1) for the reactors co-digesting mixtures with 10%, 25% and 50% herbal-extraction residues, respectively. These results suggested that biogas production could be enhanced efficiently by the anaerobic co-digestion of herbal-extraction residues with swine manure.

  13. Biotechnological Potential of Agro Residues for Economical Production of Thermoalkali-Stable Pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 by Solid-State Fermentation and Its Efficacy in the Treatment of Ramie Fibres

    Deepak Chand Sharma


    Full Text Available The production of a thermostable and highly alkaline pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 was optimized in solid-state fermentation (SSF and the impact of various treatments (chemical, enzymatic, and in combination on the quality of ramie fibres was investigated. Maximum enzyme titer (348.0±11.8 Ug−1 DBB in SSF was attained, when a mixture of agro-residues (sesame oilseed cake, wheat bran, and citrus pectin, 1 : 1 : 0.01 was moistened with mineral salt solution ( 0.92, pH 9.0 at a substrate-to-moistening agent ratio of 1 : 2.5 and inoculated with 25% of 24 h old inoculum, in 144 h at 40°C. Parametric optimization in SSF resulted in 1.7-fold enhancement in the enzyme production as compared to that recorded in unoptimized conditions. A 14.2-fold higher enzyme production was attained in SSF as compared to that in submerged fermentation (SmF. The treatment with the enzyme significantly improved tensile strength and Young’s modulus, reduction in brittleness, redness and yellowness, and increase in the strength and brightness of ramie fibres.

  14. The Subcritical Water Extraction-Solid Phase Extraction to Pretreatment Organophosphorous Residues%亚临界水-固相萃取有机磷残留前处理技术

    王啸; 林翠萍; 张燕


      The combination of subcritical water extraction (SCWE) and solid phase extraction for determining organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables was studied. In the experiments , organophosphorous residues were determinated by gas chromatography (GC). The optimum conditions were the extraction temperature of 90℃, the extraction time of 5 min, the volume of 10 mL, pH=8.0, the average recoveries of organophosphorus pesticides were in the range of 70%-96%.%  建立了一种使用亚临界水萃取-固相萃取技术对蔬菜中有机磷农药进行萃取、检测的方法。实验中使用气相色谱对有机磷农药进行检测。研究表明,在萃取温度90℃,萃取时间5 min,萃取溶剂pH=8.0,萃取液体积为10 mL的条件下,对有机磷农药进行了萃取,其回收率在70%~96%。

  15. Multi-residue analysis of veterinary drugs, pesticides and mycotoxins in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using low-temperature cleanup and solid phase extraction.

    Xie, Jie; Peng, Tao; Zhu, Ailing; He, Jianli; Chang, Qiaoying; Hu, Xueyan; Chen, Hui; Fan, Chunlin; Jiang, Wenxiao; Chen, Min; Li, Jiancheng; Ding, Shuangyang; Jiang, Haiyang


    A multi-class multi-residue analysis method for determination of veterinary drugs, pesticides and mycotoxins in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been established. These 17 classes, a total of 40 kinds of target compounds were chosen because their administration to food-producing animals is banned or regulated in China and may be potentially abused or misused. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile-ethyl acetate-acetic acid (49.5+49.5+1, v/v/v). Most of lipids in the extract were removed by low-temperature cleanup, prior to solid phase extraction on HLB cartridges. The quantification and confirmation of the 40 analytes were performed by LC-MS/MS with electro-spray ionization (ESI) interface in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.006-0.3μg/kg and 0.02-1.0μg/kg, respectively. The spiked recoveries in milk, yogurt, milk powder and cheese samples were from 67.3% to 106.9%. The repeatability and the within-laboratory reproducibility were less than 12.7% and 13.9%. Applying this method, our results revealed the presences of chloramphenicol, cimeterol, and flunixin at the concentration of 0.027-0.452μg/kg in some samples.

  16. Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis

    José E. Gonçalves


    Full Text Available O incentivo ao consumo e à produção em grande quantidade na sociedade atual gera, exageros de resíduos sólidos urbanos que, em alguns casos, podem ser utilizados para a geração de energia. Neste sentido e visando reduzir os resíduos dos aterros municipais e gerar energia, buscou-se produzir briquetes com mistura de rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RRSU e resíduos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Os briquetes foram fabricados com 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de RRSU na mistura com resíduos madeireiros contendo 12% de umidade. Os parâmetros analisados para a escolha da melhor mistura, foram: análise de combustibilidade x cinzas, resistência e energia utilizável. Os briquetes com até 10% de RRSU se mostraram com baixa resistência e os acima de 15% apresentaram grande aumento no teor de cinzas; portanto, os que melhor atenderam aos requisitos combustibilidade x cinzas e resistência mecânica, foram aqueles com 15% de RRSU, pois não se conhece a procedência das cinzas. Considerando-se a energia utilizável, o briquete com 25% de RRSU é o que apresenta maior poder calorífico útil na ordem de 17.175 kJ kg-1 motivo pelo qual se indica a produção de briquetes com adição RRSU; ressalta-se, porém, a necessidade de estudos sobre a emissão de gases.The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW. With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above

  17. Biogas systems for sisal and other agro-industrial residues

    Jungersen, G. [Danish Technological Inst., Section for Biotechnology, Taastrup (Denmark)


    Most of the East-African agro-industries are generating very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. In the East-African Region the most important of these crops are: Sisal, Sugar, Coffee, Cashew nuts and Pineapple. In other 3. world countries, Palm oil and Cassava (Tapioca starch) processing are main producers of organic waste products. Moreover, large quantities of organic residues are generated from other food processing activities like breweries, consumption of bananas etc. The following pages give examples of setups and system designs of anaerobic treatment systems for some of the residues mentioned above. When considering anaerobic treatment of sisal residues, which constitutes the main agro-industrial biomass resource in Tanzania, two major issues should be considered: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; And optionally, potential methods for pre-treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield. The sisal liquid residues are degraded very fast and efficiently in UASB systems. At COD loading rates less than 11 kg COD/m{sup 3} x day, the reduction in organic matter is more than 90% and methane yields obtained are between 373 and 377 ml CH{sub 4}/g COD reduced. The treatment of sisal solid residues in CSTR systems has been examined both at mesophilic (37 deg. C) and thermophilic temperatures (55 deg. C.). (EG)

  18. Dry fermentation of agricultural residues

    Jewell, W. J.; Chandler, J. A.; Dellorto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R. M.


    A dry fermentation process is discussed which converts agricultural residues to methane, using the residues in their as produced state. The process appears to simplify and enhance the possibilities for using crop residues as an energy source. The major process variables investigated include temperature, the amount and type of inoculum, buffer requirements, compaction, and pretreatment to control the initial available organic components that create pH problems. A pilot-scale reactor operation on corn stover at a temperature of 550 C, with 25 percent initial total solids, a seed-to-feed ratio of 2.5 percent, and a buffer-to-feed ratio of 8 percent achieved 33 percent total volatile solids destruction in 60 days. Volumetric biogas yields from this unit were greater than 1 vol/vol day for 12 days, and greater than 0.5 vol/vol day for 32 days, at a substrate density of 169 kg/m (3).

  19. Determination of 43 pesticide residues in grape wine by solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry%固相分散萃取-气相色谱-质谱联用法测定葡萄酒中43种农药残留量

    谢建军; 李菊; 陈捷; 席静; 陈文锐; 李敏青


    目的:建立固相分散萃取结合气相色谱-质谱联用法(GC/MS)快速测定葡萄酒中敌敌畏、乐果、二嗪磷等葡萄种植过程中常用43种杀虫剂、杀螨剂及杀菌剂残留量。方法样品用乙腈快速提取、氯化钠和无水硫酸镁盐析后,经 GCB粉、NH2粉和 PSA粉组合吸附剂净化, GC/MS外标法定性定量。结果43种农药在10~500μg/L范围内线性关系良好,相关系数R2在0.9851~0.9997范围内,空白添加浓度在50~200μg/kg时,其回收率在67.43%~114.74%之间,相对标准差(n=6)小于13.6%,方法的测定下限(LOD)介于1~50μg/kg 之间。结论本法简单、准确、快速,适合于葡萄酒中对43种农药残留量的检测。%Objective A rapid analytical method was developed for the determination of 43 pesticide residues in grape wine by solid-phase dispersion with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Methods Toally 43 pesticide residues were extracted from the samples with acetonitrile, and then detected by GC/MS with external standard method after being cleaned up with three sorbents (PSA 80.0 mg、GCB 30.0 mg and NH2 30.0 mg). Results Good linearities of 10500μg/L were obtained and correlation coefficients were 0.98510.9997. The recoveries of all pesticides were in the range from 67.43%to 114.74%at the spiked levels of 50, 100, and 200μg/kg in grape wine, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were not more than 13.6%. The limits of detection (LOD) were 1~50μg/kg. Conclusion The method could be used for the determination of 43 pesticide residues in grape wine due to its simpleness, accuracy and rapidness.

  20. Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Hyks, Jiri

    I dette studie er udvaskning af farlige stoffer fra restprodukter fra affaldsforbrænding blevet undersøgt ved at kombinere udvaskningstests i laboratoriet med geokemisk modellering. Der blev lagt særlig vægt på at undersøge anvendelsen af laboratoriedata i forhold til efterfølgende modellering af...

  1. Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Hyks, Jiri


    I dette studie er udvaskning af farlige stoffer fra restprodukter fra affaldsforbrænding blevet undersøgt ved at kombinere udvaskningstests i laboratoriet med geokemisk modellering. Der blev lagt særlig vægt på at undersøge anvendelsen af laboratoriedata i forhold til efterfølgende modellering af...

  2. 固相萃取-高效液相色谱法检测药渣中残留泰乐菌素%Determination of tylosin residue in pharmaceutical waste using solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography

    王艳; 常璇; 马玉龙; 孙瑞珠; 王敏


    目的:建立了药渣中残留泰乐菌素的固相萃取-高效液相色谱测定方法.方法:药渣中残留泰乐菌素经甲醇提取,正己烷脱脂,C18固相萃取柱净化,然后用Agilent HC-C18反相色谱柱,紫外检测器,外标法定量检测.流动相为乙腈-0.02mol·L-1磷酸二氢钾溶液,等度洗脱,流速1 mL·min-1.结果:泰乐菌素含量在0.1 ~100 mg·L-1的范围内呈良好线性关系,在16,20,24 mg·L-1添加水平下的回收率为92.9% ~ 107.1%,RSD为2.4% ~4.1%,检出限为0.05 mg·L-1.结论:本法适用于药渣、饲料等样品中泰乐菌素残留量的测定.%Objective: To develop a method for the determination of tylosin residue in pharmaceutical waste using solid phase extraction ( SPE ) - high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detection system. Methods: Tylosin in pharmaceutical waste was extracted using methanol,defatted with hexane,purified on a C18 -SPE column, and then determined using C18 - reversed - phase column with external standard. The mobile phase was aceto-nitrile -0. 02 mol · L-1 phosphate buffer and the flow rate was 1. 0 mL · min-1 with isocratic elution. Results: The tylosin concentrations within the range of 0. 1 - 100 mg · L-1 exhibited a better linearity. The recoveries at spiked concentration of 16,20,24 mg · L-1 were in the range of 92. 9% -107. 1% , and the relative standard deviations were 2. 4% -4. 1%. The detection limit was 0. 05 mg · L-1. Conclusion: This method can be used utilization for the detection of tylosin residue in pharmaceutical waste and feed.


    Kyser, E


    This report describes the development of a dissolution flowsheet for neptunium (Np) oxide (NpO{sub 2}) residues (i.e., various NpO{sub 2} sources, HB-Line glovebox sweepings, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) thermogravimetric analysis samples). Samples of each type of materials proposed for processing were dissolved in a closed laboratory apparatus and the rate and total quantity of off-gas were measured. Samples of the off-gas were also analyzed. The quantity and type of solids remaining (when visible) were determined after post-dissolution filtration of the solution. Recommended conditions for dissolution of the NpO{sub 2} residues are: Solution Matrix and Loading: {approx}50 g Np/L (750 g Np in 15 L of dissolver solution), using 8 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 0.025 M potassium fluoride (KF) at greater than 100 C for at least 3 hours. Off-gas: Analysis of the off-gas indicated nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) as the only identified components. No hydrogen (H{sub 2}) was detected. The molar ratio of off-gas produced per mole of Np dissolved ranged from 0.25 to 0.4 moles of gas per mole of Np dissolved. A peak off-gas rate of {approx}0.1 scfm/kg bulk oxide was observed. Residual Solids: Pure NpO{sub 2} dissolved with little or no residue with the proposed flowsheet but the NpCo and both sweepings samples left visible solid residue after dissolution. For the NpCo and Part II Sweepings samples the residue amounted to {approx}1% of the initial material, but for the Part I Sweepings sample, the residue amounted to {approx}8 % of the initial material. These residues contained primarily aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) compounds that did not completely dissolve under the flowsheet conditions. The residues from both sweepings samples contained minor amounts of plutonium (Pu) particles. Overall, the undissolved Np and Pu particles in the residues were a very small fraction of the total solids.

  4. Biomass Conversion into Solid Composite Fuel for Bed-Combustion

    Tabakaev Roman B.


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the conversion of different types of biomass into solid composite fuel. The subject of research is the heat conversion of biomass into solid composite fuel. The research object is the biomass of the Tomsk region (Russia: peat, waste wood, lake sapropel. Physical experiment of biomass conversion is used as method of research. The new experimental unit for thermal conversion of biomass into carbon residue, fuel gas and pyrolysis condensate is described. As a result of research such parameters are obtained: thermotechnical biomass characteristics, material balances and product characteristics of the heat-technology conversion. Different methods of obtaining solid composite fuel from the products of thermal technologies are considered. As a result, it is established: heat-technology provides efficient conversion of the wood chips and peat; conversion of the lake sapropel is inefficient since the solid composite fuel has the high ash content and net calorific value.

  5. Rendimiento de los productos del proceso de pirólisis en lecho fijo de los residuos de naranja del proceso de obtención de jugos concentrados en la provincia de Pinar del Río, Cuba. // Yields in pirolysis process in fixed bed of solid residues of orange i

    L. Aguiar-Trujillo


    Full Text Available En la Provincia de Pinar Río en Cuba, existe un residuo de la biomasa, como son los residuos sólidosde naranja del proceso de obtención de jugos concentrados. Este desecho se podría transformarpor medio de un proceso termoquímico, como es la pirólisis. No se han encontrado datos en laliteratura acerca del comportamiento de la pirólisis de este tipo de biomasa, que se utilizanormalmente para la comida animal. En este trabajo, se ha estudiado el proceso de pirólisis deestos residuos, realizando experimentos en un reactor de lecho fijo a escala de laboratorio. Elproducto obtenido (carbón, gas y el alquitrán y la composición de la distribución de los gases hansido obtenidas para diferentes tamaños de partículas (menores a 300 micrómetros y mayores a 800micrómetros y temperaturas del proceso 3000, 4500 y 6000 C.Los resultados fundamentales que se obtienen:Rendimiento a carbón oscila entre 25 y 35 %, Rendimiento a gas oscilan entre 21 y 29 %,Rendimiento a alquitrán entre 5 y 9 %. Los gases fundamentales que se obtienen en el proceso son:H2, CO, CH4, CO2, C2H4, C2H6, C2H2, con una energía máxima entregada entre 150 y 1000 Kcal.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn Pinar del Río, Cuba, a residue of the biomass exists, such as the solid residues of orange in theconcentrated juices process. This waste would be able to transform through a termo-chemicalprocess, such as in the pirolysis in fixed bed. No data in the literature about the behavior of thepirolysis of this type of biomass have been found, which is employed normally for animal feeding.In this work we has been study the pirolysis process in fixed bed of early residues, carrying outexperiments in a reactor of fixed bed to scale of laboratory. The product obtained (coal, gas andthe tar and the composition of distribution of gases, they have been obtained for different sizes ofparticles (smaller to 300 micrometers and greater to

  6. Residue depletion of ivermectin in broiler poultry.

    Mestorino, Nora; Buldain, Daniel; Buchamer, Andrea; Gortari, Lihuel; Daniele, Martín; Marchetti, María Laura


    Helminth infections are widespread in the poultry industry. There is evidence of extra-label use of some drugs, such as ivermectin (IVM), in broiler poultry. Pharmacokinetic and residual studies of IVM in poultry, however, are rather scarce. Our aim was to determine time restrictions for broiler chickens fed with balanced feed mixed with IVM for 21 days, and thus achieve acceptable residual levels for consumption as established by the European Union. Sixty 1-day-old chicks were fed with food supplemented with IVM at 5 mg kg(-1) feed for 21 days. Groups of six treated animals were sacrificed at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 15, 20 and 28 days after treatment. Liver, skin/fat, kidney and muscle samples were obtained. IVM were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after automatic solid-phase extraction with SPE C18 cartridges. The highest concentrations were measured in the liver, which is logical given that IVM is a drug that undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism. The optimal withdrawal time for edible tissues of these animals to stay within the permitted residual levels were: 12 days for liver, 8 days for skin/fat, 0 days for muscle and 10 days for kidney.

  7. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salts...

  8. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salts...

  9. Aprovechamiento de residuos sólidos en un sistema hidro-orgánico de agricultura urbana Use of solid residues in a hydro-organic culture systems of urban agriculture

    Consuelo Montes Rojas


    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo por objeto diseñar un sistema hidroorgánico de producción de hortalizas en áreas pequeñas, con el fin de contribuir a la seguridad alimentaria de la población urbana y al aprovechamiento de los residuos sólidos de la ciudad de Popayán. Se diseñó un sistema a partir de material reciclado y se evaluó utilizando tres tratamientos como fuente nutricional (Lixiviado orgánico, Lixiviado orgánico suplementado, solución nutritiva común y como indicador biológico cilantro (Coriandrum sativum l.. La respuesta de las plantas fue evaluada por crecimiento y desarrollo. El sistema para producción urbana de hortalizas permitió obtener producciones hasta de 627 g m-2, superando la producción en agricultura tradicional (227 g. La mejor fuente nutricional fue la solución nutritiva comercial.The research objective was to design hydroorganic crop systems to produce vegetables in small areas, to contribute to the security food of urban population and the use of the solid residues. An alternative system was design for urban agricultural of vegetable with recycled material. To describe the source nutritional response of Coriandrum sativum were evaluating three treatments (organic leached, leached organic supplemented, common nutritional solution. The response of plant was characterized by growth and plants development. In the alternative systems for urban crop of vegetables the production/plant was of 627 g m-2, surpassing the results in traditional agriculture (227g. The best nutritional source was common nutritional solution.

  10. Characterization of biochar and bio-oil samples obtained from carbonization of various biomass materials

    Oezcimen, Didem; Ersoy-Mericboyu, Ayseguel [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical-Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Department of Chemical Engineering, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)


    Apricot stone, hazelnut shell, grapeseed and chestnut shell are important biomass residues obtained from the food processing industry in Turkey and they have a great importance as being a source of energy. In this study, the characteristics of bio-oil and biochar samples obtained from the carbonization of apricot stone, hazelnut shell, grapeseed and chestnut shell were investigated. It was found that the biochar products can be characterized as carbon rich, high heating value and relatively pollution-free potential solid biofuels. The bio-oil products were also presented as environmentally friendly green biofuel candidates. (author)

  11. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara


    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  12. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie


    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  13. 3D reconstruction of the structure of a residual limb for customising the design of a prosthetic socket.

    Shuxian, Zheng; Wanhua, Zhao; Bingheng, Lu


    Aiming at overcoming the limitations of the plaster-casting method in traditional prosthetic socket fabrication, the idea of reconstructing the 3D models for bones and skin of the residual limb is proposed. Given the two-dimensional obtained image through CT scanning, using image processing and reverse engineering techniques, the 3D solid model of the residual limb can be successfully reconstructed. The new approach can reproduce both the internal and the external structure of the residual limb. It can moreover avoid making a positive mould by the way of manual modifications. In addition to this, it can provide a scientific basis for the individualization of prosthetic socket design.


    Qiu Jinghui


    The author gives a dual characterization of solid cones in locally convex spaces.From this the author obtains some criteria for judging convex cones to be solid in various inds of locally convex spaces. Using a general expression of the interior of a solid cone,the author obtains a number of necessary and sufficient conditions for convex cones to be solid in the framework of Banach spaces. In particular, the author gives a dual relationship between solid cones and generalized sharp cones. The related known results are improved and extended.

  15. Thermal treatment of stabilized air pollution control residues in a waste incinerator pilot plant. Part 1: Fate of elements and dioxins.

    Bergfeldt, Brita; Jay, Klaus; Seifert, Helmuth; Vehlow, Jürgen; Christensen, Thomas H; Baun, Dorthe L; Mogensen, Erhardt P B


    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerator plants that are treated by means of the Ferrox process can be more safely disposed of due to reduction of soluble salts and stabilization of heavy metals in an iron oxide matrix. Further stabilization can be obtained by thermal treatment inside a combustion chamber of a municipal solid waste incinerator. The influence of the Ferrox products on the combustion process, the quality of the residues, and the partitioning of heavy metals between the various solids and the gas have been investigated in the Karlsruhe TAM-ARA pilot plant for waste incineration. During the experiments only few parameters were influenced. An increase in the SO2 concentration in the raw gas and slightly lower temperatures in the fuel bed could be observed compared with reference tests. Higher contents of Fe and volatile heavy metals such as Zn, Cd, Pb and partly Hg in the Ferrox products lead to increased concentration of these elements in the solid residues of the co-feeding tests. Neither the burnout nor the PCDD/F formation was altered by the addition of the Ferrox products. Co-feeding of treated APC residues seems to be a feasible approach for obtaining a single solid residue from waste incineration.

  16. Estudio de la actividad biologica de dos suelos de los tableros costeros del NE de Brasil enmendados con residuos agricolas: vinaza y torta de canã de azúcar Study of biological activity in northeast Brazil's coastal tableland soils treated with organic residue: stillage and sugar cane solid residue

    Zelson Tenório


    Full Text Available Se han seleccionado los epipediones de dos suelos representativos de la zona de Tableros Costeros de Brasil, dedicados mayoritariamente al monocultivo de la caña de azúcar. Estos fueron enmendados con torta de caña de azúcar (T, de relación C/N = 19,33, en dosis de 10, 20 y 30 t ha-1, (T1, T2 y T3, respectivamente; la enmienda con vinaza de caña (V, de relación C/N = 32,17, fue de 30, 60 y 90 m³ ha-1, (V1, V2 y V3, respectivamente. Dichas enmiendas se incorporanon al suelo sin compostaje previo. Fueron incubados en condiciones controladas de temperatura y de humedad en el laboratorio según el método de Gucker durante 39 dias; los 27 primeros sin encalar y hasta el final del proceso añadiendo 2 t ha-1 de CaCO3. En ambos suelos, el tratamiento T3 no mostró diferencia con el testigo, antes y después de encalar, encontrán dose mayor actividad biológica en las enmiendas de 10 y de 20 t ha-1. Con vinaza, en ambos suelos, la dosis de 90 m³ ha-1 fue la de menor actividad biológica, también muy próxima a la del testigo. En ninguno de los casos se ha observado inhibición de la actividad biológica. Los suelos fueron caracterizados, después de incubar, con el fin de relacionar la posible influencia de estas enmiendas orgánicas en la fertilidad de los suelos.Epipedons of two representative soils from "Coastal table lands" of Northeastern Brazil cultivated with sugar cane were selected for the study. These soils were fertilized with 10 (T1, 20 (T2 and 30 (T3 t ha-1 of solid sugar cane residue (C/N=19.33 and 30 (V1, 60 (V2 and 90 (V3 m³ ha-1 of stillage (C/N=32,17. The fertilizers were incorporated without previous composting. After incorporation, samples were incubated under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity in laboratory according to Gucker's method for 39 days. The soil samples received lime treatment (2 t ha-1 CaCO3 27 days after fertilizer application. In both soils, treatment T3 did not significantly differ from

  17. Leaching Behavior of Circulating Fluidised Bed MSWI Air Pollution Control Residue in Washing Process

    Zhiliang Chen


    Full Text Available In this study, air pollution control (APC residue is conducted with water washing process to reduce its chloride content. A novel electrical conductivily (EC measurement method is proposed to monitor the dynamic change of chloride concentrations in leachate as well as the chloride content of the residue. The method equally applies to various washing processes with different washing time, liquid/solid ratio and washing frequency. The results show that washing effectively extracts chloride salts from APC residues, including those from circulating fluidized bed (CFB municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI. The most appropriate liquid/solid ratio and washing time in the first washing are found to be around 4 L water per kg of APC residue and 30 min, respectively, and washing twice is required to obtain maximum dissolution. The pH value is the major controlling factor of the heavy metals speciation in leachate, while chloride concentration also affects the speciation of Cd. Water washing causes no perceptible transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs from the APC residue to leachate. The chloride concentration is strongly related with electrical conductivity (EC, as well as with the concentrations of calcium, sodium and potassium of washing water. Their regression analyses specify that soluble chloride salts and EC could act as an indirect indicator to monitor the change of chloride concentration and remaining chloride content, thus, contributing to the selection of the optimal washing conditions.

  18. One-step green synthesis of β-cyclodextrin/iron oxide-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite with high supramolecular recognition capability: Application for vortex-assisted magnetic solid phase extraction of organochlorine pesticides residue from honey samples.

    Mahpishanian, Shokouh; Sereshti, Hassan


    In this research, β-cyclodextrin/iron oxide reduced graphene oxide hybrid nanostructure (β-CD/MRGO) with high water dispersability, excellent magnetic responsivity and molecular selectivity was prepared via a facile one step green strategy. The obtained nanomaterial was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), which confirmed the modification of GO with β-CD and magnetic nanoparticles. The formation mechanism of β-CD/MRGO was also discussed. The prepared magnetic nanocomposite was then applied as adsorbent in the vortex-assisted magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from honey samples prior to gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) analysis. Optimum extraction conditions have been assessed with respect to vortex time, sample pH, adsorbent amount, and salt concentration as well as desorption conditions (type and volume of desorption solvent and desorption time). A good level of linearity (2-10,000ngkg(-1)) with satisfactory determination coefficients (R(2)>0.9966) and suitable precision (%RSDs less than 7.8) was obtained for OCPs under the optimal conditions. The limits of detection and quantification of the method were obtained in the sub-parts per trillion (ppt) to parts per trillion range (LOD: 0.52-3.21ngkg(-1); LOQ: 1.73-10.72ngkg(-1)) based on 3 and 10 signal to noise ratios, respectively. The MSPE method was successfully applied to analysis of OCPs in honey samples with recoveries in the range of 78.8% to 116.2% and RSDs (n=3) below 8.1%. The results demonstrated that β-CD/MRGO could exhibit good supramolecular recognition, enrichment capability and high extraction recoveries toward OCPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Interferometric Measurement Of Residual Stress

    Danyluk, Steven; Andonian, A. T.


    Stress averaged through thickness of plate measured nondestructively. Theory of elasticity combined with laser interferometric technique into technique for measurement of residual stresses in solid objects - usually in thin, nominally-flat plates. Measurements particularly useful in inspection of wafers of single-crystal silicon for making solar cells or integrated circuits, because stresses remaining after crystal-growing process cause buckling or fracture. Used to predict deflections of plates caused by known applied loads under specified boundary condition, or to infer applied loads that cause known deflections. Also used to relate known deflections to residual stresses equivalent to stresses produced by fictitious applied loads.

  20. Validation of an off line solid phase extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of systemic insecticide residues in honey and pollen samples collected in apiaries from NW Spain.

    García-Chao, María; Agruña, María Jesús; Flores Calvete, Gonzalo; Sakkas, Vasilis; Llompart, María; Dagnac, Thierry


    The use of pesticides to protect crops against plagues and insects is one of the most important ways to assure agricultural quality and productivity. However, bad application practices may cause the contamination of different environmental compartments and animal species, as a consequence of migration or accumulation of those compounds. Fipronil, imidacloprid and thiametoxam are systemic or systemic-like insecticides widely used in maize crops. Their heavy action in the nervous system of target insects also means a high toxicity to non-target pollinator insects such as honey bees which can get in touch with them through pollen and nectar during foraging activities. These insecticides have even been suspected to cause a significant decrease of honeybee colonies that has been observed in many countries since the past decade. Since September 1st 2008, the European Commission set new MRLs in food and feed of plant and animal origin. The pesticides included in this study have MRLs in honey and pollen between 10 and 50 ng g(-1). In the present work, an analytical method was developed with the aim of determining residues of fipronil and some of its metabolites (fipronil sulfone, fipronil sulfide, fipronil desulfinyl and fipronil carboxamide), thiamethoxam and imidacloprid in honey and pollen samples. The extraction optimization was performed using a Doehlert experimental design by studying two factors, the mixture and the ratio of solvents used. Prior to the extraction procedure, raw hive samples containing honey, pollen and wax were centrifuged at 4000 rpm. The upper solid material was removed, and 1 g of the lower phase was mixed with 3 mL of the optimized mixture of methanol/water (10/90). The extract was passed through a florisil cartridge and the target compounds were eluted with methanol and analysed by LC-MS/MS in selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The method was validated according to the guidelines included in the SANCO/10684/2009 document and the ISO

  1. Chloride leaching from air pollution control residues solidified using ground granulated blast furnace slag.

    Lampris, Christos; Stegemann, Julia A; Cheeseman, Christopher R


    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (ggbs) has been used to solidify air pollution control (APC) residues obtained from a major UK energy-from-waste plant. Samples were prepared with ggbs additions between 10 and 50 wt% of total dry mass and water/solids ratios between 0.35 and 0.80. Consistence, setting time, compressive strength and leaching characteristics have been investigated. Results indicated that the highly alkaline nature of APC residues due to the presence of free lime can be used to activate ggbs hydration reactions. Increasing ggbs additions and reducing the water content resulted in increased compressive strengths, with 50 wt% ggbs samples having average 28 d strengths of 20.6 MPa. Leaching tests indicate low physical encapsulation and minimal chemical fixation of chloride in ggbs solidified APC residues. The results suggest that more than 50 wt% ggbs additions would be required to treat APC residues to meet the current waste acceptance criteria limits for chloride.

  2. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues in bench scale

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Celia; Hansen, Henrik K.


    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is considered a hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions; however, most commercial....... A system resembling conventional electrodialysis was designed and adjusted to fit the high solids content feed solution (10% APC residue, 90% water). Experiments were made in bench scale with raw residue (natural pH > 12), water pre-residue (natural pH > 12), acid pre-washed residue (pH 10), and acid......). Between 57 and 83% of the APC residue was dissolved during treatment. The highest dissolution was seen for acid treated residue and the lowest for water pre-washed residue....

  3. Residual stresses of thin, short rectangular plates

    Andonian, A. T.; Danyluk, S.


    The analysis of the residual stresses in thin, short rectangular plates is presented. The analysis is used in conjunction with a shadow moire interferometry technique by which residual stresses are obtained over a large spatial area from a strain measurement. The technique and analysis are applied to a residual stress measurement of polycrystalline silicon sheet grown by the edge-defined film growth technique.

  4. Evaluation of holocellulase production by plant-degrading fungi grown on agro-industrial residues.

    de Siqueira, Félix Gonçalves; de Siqueira, Aline Gonçalves; de Siqueira, Eliane Gonçalves; Carvalho, Marly Azevedo; Peretti, Beatriz Magalhães Pinto; Jaramillo, Paula Marcela Duque; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Félix, Carlos Roberto; Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira


    Agaricus brasiliensis CS1, Pleurotus ostreatus H1 and Aspergillus flavus produced holocellulases when grown in solid and submerged liquid cultures containing agro-industrial residues, including sugar cane bagasse and dirty cotton residue, as substrates. These isolates proved to be efficient producers of holocellulases under the conditions used in this screening. Bromatological analysis of agro-industrial residues showed differences in protein, fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin content. Maximal holocellulase activity (hemicellulase, cellulase and pectinase) was obtained using solid-state cultivation with 10% substrate concentration. In this case, remarkably high levels of xylanase and polygalacturonase activity (4,008 and 4,548 IU/l, respectively) were produced by A. flavus when grown in media containing corn residue, followed by P. ostreatus H1 with IU/l values of 1,900 and 3,965 when cultivated on 5% and 10% sugar cane bagasse, respectively. A. brasiliensis CS1 showed the highest reducing sugar yield (11.640 mg/ml) when grown on medium containing sugar cane bagasse. A. brasiliensis was also the most efficient producer of protein, except when cultivated on dirty cotton residue, which induced maximal production in A. flavus. Comparison of enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse and dirty cotton residue by crude extracts of A. brasiliensis CS1, P. ostreatus H1 and A. flavus showed that the best reducing sugar yield was achieved using sugar cane bagasse as a substrate.

  5. Caracterização da poligalacturonase produzida por fermentação semi-sólida utilizando-se resíduo do maracujá como substrato Characterization of polygalacturonase produced by solid-state fermentation using the residue of passion fruit as substrate

    Rosane L. A. de Souza


    Full Text Available As enzimas pectinolíticas ou pectinases são um grupo heterogêneo de enzimas que hidrolisam as substâncias pécticas presentes nas células vegetais. Essas enzimas estão sendo aplicadas em diversas áreas tornando-se importante conhecer suas características visando uma aplicação eficiente. Assim, este trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar o resíduo seco da casca e do albedo do maracujá (Passiflora edulis e posterior caracterização da enzima poligalacturonase, produzida através da fermentação em estado sólido e, como agente da fermentação, o fungo filamentoso Aspergillus niger. O resíduo do maracujá apresenta teor de pectina de 13,10%. A atividade de poligalacturonase alcançou um pico em 66 h de processo, para 40% de umidade inicial e 1% da concentração da fonte de nitrogênio, condição, em que a atividade obtida foi de 20,9 U g-1. A poligalacturonase do extrato enzimático bruto apresentou boa estabilidade térmica até temperaturas de 50 °C. Esta enzima permaneceu estável para pH entre 3,5 e 5,5 e não foi detectada para valores de pH acima de 6,5.Pectinolytic enzymes, or pectinases, are a heterogeneous group of enzymes that hydrolyze the pectic substances present in plant cells. These enzymes are applied in several areas, making it important to know their characteristics for an efficient application. This work aimed to characterize the dry residue of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis and subsequent characterization of the enzyme polygalacturonase produced by solid state fermentation and leavening agent and the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. The residue of passion fruit presented a pectin content of 13.10%, having a potential as a substrate for the production of pectinases. The activity of polygalacturonase reached a maximum value after 66 h of process with 40% initial moisture content and 1% of nitrogen supplementation. In this condition an activity of 20.9 U g-1 was obtained. The polygalacturonase produced the

  6. Effect of pH, Temperature, and Chemicals on the Endoglucanases and β-Glucosidases from the Thermophilic Fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica F.2.1.4. Obtained by Solid-State and Submerged Cultivation

    Vanessa de Cássia Teixeira da Silva


    Full Text Available This work reports endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase production by the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica in solid-state (SSC and submerged (SmC cultivation. Wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse were used for SSC and cardboard for SmC. Highest endoglucanase production in SSC occurred after 192 hours: 1,170.6 ± 0.8 U/g, and in SmC after 168 hours: 2,642 ± 561 U/g. The endoglucanases and beta-glucosidases produced by both cultivation systems showed slight differences concerning their optimal pH and temperature. The number of endoglucanases was also different: six isoforms in SSC and ten in SmC. Endoglucanase activity remained above 50% after incubation between pH 3.0 and 9.0 for 24 h for both cultivation systems. The effect of several chemicals displayed variation between SSC and SmC isoenzymes. Manganese activated the enzymes from SmC but inhibited those from SSC. For β-glucosidases, maximum production on SmC was 244 ± 48 U/g after 168 hours using cardboard as carbon source. In SSC maximum production reached 10.9 ± 0.3 U/g after 240 h with 1 : 1 wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse. Manganese exerted a significant activation on SSC β-glucosidases, and glucose inhibited the enzymes from both cultivation systems. FeCl3 exerted the strongest inhibition for endoglucanases and β-glucosidases.

  7. Multi-residue determination of 171 pesticides in cowpea using modified QuEChERS method with multi-walled carbon nanotubes as reversed-dispersive solid-phase extraction materials.

    Han, Yongtao; Song, Le; Zou, Nan; Chen, Ronghua; Qin, Yuhong; Pan, Canping


    A rapid and sensitive method for the determination of 171 pesticides in cowpea was developed using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as reversed-dispersive solid-phase (r-DSPE) extraction materials. The clean-up performance of MWCNTs was proved to be obviously superior to PSA and GCB. This method was validated on cowpea spiked at 0.01 and 0.1mgkg(-1) with five replicates. The mean recoveries for 169 pesticides ranged from 74% to 129% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n=5) lower than 16.4%, except diflufenican and quizalofop-ethyl. Good linearity for all pesticides was obtained with the calibration curve coefficients (R(2)) larger than 0.9970. The limit of detection (LODs) and limit of quantification (LOQs) for the 171 pesticides ranged from 0.001 to 0.003mgkg(-1) and from 0.002 to 0.009mgkg(-1), respectively. The method was demonstrated to be reliable and sensitive for the routine monitoring of the 171 pesticides in cowpea samples.

  8. 40 CFR 279.59 - Management of residues.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of residues. 279.59 Section 279.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Management of residues. Owners and operators who generate residues from the storage, processing, or re...

  9. 40 CFR 279.67 - Management of residues.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of residues. 279.67 Section 279.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... for Energy Recovery § 279.67 Management of residues. Burners who generate residues from the storage or...

  10. 40 CFR 279.47 - Management of residues.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of residues. 279.47 Section 279.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Management of residues. Transporters who generate residues from the storage or transport of used oil must...

  11. Enabling safe dry cake disposal of bauxite residue by deliquoring and washing with a membrane filter press.

    Kinnarinen, Teemu; Lubieniecki, Boguslaw; Holliday, Lloyd; Helsto, Jaakko-Juhani; Häkkinen, Antti


    Dry cake disposal is the preferred technique for the disposal of bauxite residue, when considering environmental issues together with possible future utilisation of the solids. In order to perform dry cake disposal in an economical way, the deliquoring of the residue must be carried out efficiently, and it is also important to wash the obtained solids well to minimise the amount of soluble soda within the solids. The study presented in this article aims at detecting the most important variables influencing the deliquoring and washing of bauxite residue, performed with a horizontal membrane filter press and by determining the optimal washing conditions. The results obtained from pilot-scale experiments are evaluated by considering the properties of the solids, for instance, the residual alkali and aluminium content, as well as the consumption of wash liquid. Two different cake washing techniques, namely classic washing and channel washing, are also used and their performances compared. The results show that cake washing can be performed successfully in a horizontal membrane filter press, and significant improvements in the recovery of alkali and aluminium can be achieved compared with pressure filtration carried out without washing, or especially compared with the more traditionally used vacuum filtration.

  12. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals and chloride from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and air pollution control residue in suspension - test of a new two compartment experimental cell

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Magro, Cátia; Guedes, Paula


    of MSWI residues in for instance concrete, the aim of remediation should be reduction of the heavy metal leaching, while at the same time keeping the alkaline pH, so the residue can replace cement. In this study a MSWI residues were subjected to electrodialytic remediation under various experimental...... conditions. Also a newly developed 2 compartment experimental cell was tested. The results show that the pH development in the MSWI residue suspension depended on the type of MSWI residue and the experimental cell type. The acidification of the suspension occurred earlier when using the 2 compartment setup...... and the acidification of the fly ash occurred earlier than for the APC residue but the highest removal was seen with the 3 compartment cell. The lowest final pH for the fly ash and APC residue was 6.4 and 10.9, respectively. The results showed that the leaching of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn was reduced compared to the initial...

  13. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar


    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  14. Observer's observables. Residual diffeomorphisms

    Duch, Paweł; Świeżewski, Jedrzej


    We investigate the fate of diffeomorphisms when the radial gauge is imposed in canonical general relativity. As shown elsewhere, the radial gauge is closely related to the observer's observables. These observables are invariant under a large subgroup of diffeomorphisms which results in their usefulness for canonical general relativity. There are, however, some diffeomorphisms, called residual diffeomorphisms, which might be "observed" by the observer as they do not preserve her observables. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of these diffeomorphisms in the case of the spatial and spacetime radial gauges. Although the residual diffeomorphisms do not form a subgroup of all diffeomorphisms, we show that their induced action in the phase space does form a group. We find the generators of the induced transformations and compute the structure functions of the algebras they form. The obtained algebras are deformations of the algebra of the Euclidean group and the algebra of the Poincar\\'e group in the spat...

  15. Fermentation characteristics of vinegar residue and some natural materials

    Liu Jian; Yang Ji-chu


    Solid state fermentation is an attractive process to produce cellulase economically due to its lower financial investment and lower operating costs. Generally available natural materials in our study included vinegar residue, wheat bran, rice bran and wheat straw. Cellulase production was carried out by solid state fermentation using these materials as the substrate of Trichoderma koningii.The ingredients of natural materials, associated with the effects of water content, time and nitrogen sources on cellulase synthesis were studied.A comparatively high cellulase activity(>4 IU·g-1 SDM) was obtained in the fermentation batch.The optimum culture time of vinegar residue, wheat bran and wheat straw were 72 hours, but that of rice bran was 60 hours. Total water contents of wheat bran, rice bran and wheat straw should not exceed 50% and that of vinegar residue should not be more than 60%. It was also shown that nitrogen salts contributed much to fermentation. (NH4)3PO4 and urea achieved good results in promoting enzyme activity.


    Silas R. Ferreira


    Full Text Available Asphaltenes are blamed for various problems in the petroleum industry, especially formation of solid deposits and stabilization of water-in-oil emulsions. Many studies have been conducted to characterize chemical structures of asphaltenes and assess their phase behavior in crude oil or in model-systems of asphaltenes extracted from oil or asphaltic residues from refineries. However, due to the diversity and complexity of these structures, there is still much to be investigated. In this study, asphaltene (subfractions were extracted from an asphaltic residue (AR02, characterized by NMR, elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence and MS-TOF, and compared to asphaltene subfractions obtained from another asphaltic residue (AR01 described in a previous article. The (subfractions obtained from the two residues were used to prepare model-systems containing 1 wt% of asphaltenes in toluene and their phase behavior was evaluated by measuring asphaltene precipitation onset using optical microscopy. The results obtained indicated minor differences between the asphaltene fractions obtained from the asphaltic residues of distinct origins, with respect to aromaticity, elemental composition (CHN, presence and content of heteroelements and average molar mass. Regarding stability, minor differences in molecule polarity appear to promote major differences in the phase behavior of each of the asphaltene fractions isolated.

  17. Solids fluidizer-injector

    Bulicz, T.R.


    An apparatus and process are described for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine. 3 figs.

  18. Solid Base Catalysis

    Ono, Yoshio


    The importance of solid base catalysts has come to be recognized for their environmentally benign qualities, and much significant progress has been made over the past two decades in catalytic materials and solid base-catalyzed reactions. The book is focused on the solid base. Because of the advantages over liquid bases, the use of solid base catalysts in organic synthesis is expanding. Solid bases are easier to dispose than liquid bases, separation and recovery of products, catalysts and solvents are less difficult, and they are non-corrosive. Furthermore, base-catalyzed reactions can be performed without using solvents and even in the gas phase, opening up more possibilities for discovering novel reaction systems. Using numerous examples, the present volume describes the remarkable role solid base catalysis can play, given the ever increasing worldwide importance of "green" chemistry. The reader will obtain an overall view of solid base catalysis and gain insight into the versatility of the reactions to whic...

  19. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and propose diagnostic plots based on these residuals. The techniques apply to any Gibbs point process model, which may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence on spatial covariates. Our...... residuals generalise the well-known residuals for point processes in time, used in signal processing and survival analysis. An important difference is that the conditional intensity or hazard rate of the temporal point process must be replaced by the Papangelou conditional intensity $lambda$ of the spatial...... process. Residuals are ascribed to locations in the empty background, as well as to data points of the point pattern. We obtain variance formulae, and study standardised residuals. There is also an analogy between our spatial residuals and the usual residuals for (non-spatial) generalised linear models...

  20. Utilization of agroindustrial residues for lipase production by solid-state fermentation Utilização de resíduos agroindustriais para produção de lipase por fermentação em estado sólido

    Mônica Caramez Triches Damaso


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce lipases by solid-state fermentation (SSF using, as substrate, agroindustrial residue supplemented with by-products from corn oil refining process or olive oil. For a group of ten fungi strains selected in the first steps, the lipase activity obtained by SSF varied from 7.7 to 58.6 U/g of dry substrate (gds. Among the evaluated strains, the Aspergillus niger mutant 11T53A14 was selected by presenting the best enzymatic production. For the fermentation tests, two substrates were also investigated: wheat bran and corn cob, both supplemented with olive oil. The best results were obtained with wheat bran. Additionally, three industrial by-products from corn oil refining (soapstock, stearin and fatty acids were evaluated as substitutes to the olive oil in the function of lipases production inducer. Among them, soapstock and stearin were the best inducers, whereas fatty acids presented an inhibitor effect. The highest lipase activities using soapstock, stearin and fatty acids were 62.7 U/gds, 37.7 U/gds and 4.1 U/gds, respectively.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir lipases por fermentação em estado sólido (FES utilizando, como substrato, resíduo agroindustrial enriquecido com subprodutos do processo de refino do óleo de milho ou óleo de oliva. Para um conjunto de dez linhagens de fungos selecionadas nas primeiras etapas, a atividade lipásica obtida por FES variou de 7,7 a 58,6 U/g de substrato seco (gss. Dentre as linhagens avaliadas, o mutante Aspergillusniger 11T53A14 foi selecionado por apresentar a melhor produção enzimática.Para os testes de fermentação, dois substratos foram investigados: farelo de trigo e sabugo de milho, ambos enriquecidos com óleo de oliva. Nestes testes, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com farelo de trigo. Adicionalmente, três subprodutos industriais do refino do óleo de milho (borra, estearina e ácidos graxos foram avaliados como substitutos do óleo de oliva na

  1. Biogas from landfills embankments: the Brazilian contribution for the management of urban solid residues and the greenhouse effect mitigation through the mechanisms for clean development; Biogas de aterros: a contribuicao do Brasil na gestao de residuos solidos urbanos e na mitigacao do efeito estufa atraves dos mecanismos de desenvolvimento limpo

    Lacerda, Gleide B.M.; Guimaraes, Hoji Y' a Henda da R.; Andrade, Euridice S. Mamede de; Teixeira, Gisele Pereira; Freitas, Marcos A.V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico


    This paper studies the clean development mechanism (CDM) for sanitary sewage in Brazil, as instruments for flexibilization and mitigation of the effects of climate changes coming from the global heating. This research presents the assessments of the CDM projects for sanitary sewage in Brazil, considering the Project Conception Documents (PCD) approved until November 2007. The paper presents some methodologies for studying of energy generation potential from the biogas originated in sanitary sewage. The paper also contributes to projects of carbon credit commercialization, and relevance of the CDM instrument for the adequate management expansion of the residence solid residues as well, and advances in the implantation of sanitary embankments in Brazil.

  2. Electroremediation of air pollution control residues in a continuous reactor

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Célia M. D.; Hansen, Henrik K.


    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration is considered hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist, however most commercial solutions involve landfilling. A demand...... were made with raw residue, water-washed residue, acid washed residue and acid-treated residue with emphasis on reduction of heavy metal mobility. Main results indicate that the reactor successfully removes toxic elements lead, copper, cadmium and zinc from the feed stream, suggesting...

  3. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering


    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  4. Truncated states obtained by iteration

    Cardoso, W B


    Quantum states of the electromagnetic field are of considerable importance, finding potential application in various areas of physics, as diverse as solid state physics, quantum communication and cosmology. In this paper we introduce the concept of truncated states obtained via iterative processes (TSI) and study its statistical features, making an analogy with dynamical systems theory (DST). As a specific example, we have studied TSI for the doubling and the logistic functions, which are standard functions in studying chaos. TSI for both the doubling and logistic functions exhibit certain similar patterns when their statistical features are compared from the point of view of DST. A general method to engineer TSI in the running-wave domain is employed, which includes the errors due to the nonidealities of detectors and photocounts.

  5. Dirt feedlot residue experiments. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1977--November 30, 1977

    Turk, M.


    Progress is reported in development of a mobile fermentation system at the Monfort feedlot. Continued use was made of aged pen 307 residue at a nominal loading rate of 0.25 pounds volatile solids/ft/sup 3//day along with a 10-day retention time and an operating temperature of 57/sup 0/C for the purpose of establishing comparative yields. The ten-day running average of specific methane yield increased to an indicated yield of 3.0 ft/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//No. volatile solids representing approximately 75 percent of that obtained from the fresh residue. During this entire period no attempts at controlling total volatile acid concentration were made. Preliminary investigation of the centrifuge capture efficiency was begun. (JGB)

  6. Multi-residue analysis of pharmaceuticals in aqueous environmental samples by online solid-phase extraction-ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: optimisation and matrix effects reduction by quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction.

    Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Leang, Sokha; Bernet, Nathalie; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Nélieu, Sylvie


    The aim of this study was to develop and optimise an analytical method for the quantification of a bactericide and 13 pharmaceutical products, including 8 antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, macrolide), in various aqueous environmental samples: soil water and aqueous fractions of pig slurry, digested pig slurry and sewage sludge. The analysis was performed by online solid-phase extraction coupled to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE-UHPLC-MS-MS). The main challenge was to minimize the matrix effects observed in mass spectrometry, mostly due to ion suppression. They depended on the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and its origin, and ranged between -22% and +20% and between -38% and -93% of the signal obtained without matrix, in soil water and slurry supernatant, respectively. The very variable levels of these matrix effects suggested DOC content cut-offs above which sample purification was required. These cut-offs depended on compounds, with concentrations ranging from 30 to 290mgC/L for antibiotics (except tylosine) up to 600-6400mgC/L for the most apolar compounds. A modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction procedure was therefore optimised using an experimental design methodology, in order to purify samples with high DOC contents. Its performance led to a compromise, allowing fluoroquinolone and tetracycline analysis. The QuEChERS extraction salts consisted therefore of sodium acetate, sodium sulfate instead of magnesium sulfate, and sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) as a ligand of divalent cations. The modified QuEChERS procedure employed for the extraction of pharmaceuticals in slurry and digested slurry liquid phases reduced the matrix effects for almost all the compounds, with extraction recoveries generally above 75%. The performance characteristics of the method were evaluated in terms of linearity, intra-day and inter

  7. Different strategies for recovering metals from CARON process residue

    Cabrera, G., E-mail: [Biological and Enzymatic Reactors Group, Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Cadiz (Spain); Gomez, J.M., E-mail: [Biological and Enzymatic Reactors Group, Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Cadiz (Spain); Hernandez, I., E-mail: [Laboratory of Metals, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Havana (Cuba); Coto, O., E-mail: [Laboratory of Metals, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Havana (Cuba); Cantero, D., E-mail: [Biological and Enzymatic Reactors Group, Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Cadiz (Spain)


    The capacity of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DMS 11478 to recover the heavy metals contained in the residue obtained from the CARON process has been evaluated. Different bioreactor configurations were studied: a two-stage batch system and two semi-continuous systems (stirred-tank reactor leaching and column leaching). In the two-stage system, 46.8% Co, 36.0% Mg, 26.3% Mn and 22.3% Ni were solubilised after 6 h of contact between the residue and the bacteria-free bioacid. The results obtained with the stirred-tank reactor and the column were similar: 50% of the Mg and Co and 40% of the Mn and Ni were solubilised after thirty one days. The operation in the column reactor allowed the solid-liquid ratio to be increased and the pH to be kept at low values (<1.0). Recirculation of the leachate in the column had a positive effect on metal removal; at sixty five days (optimum time) the solubilisation levels were as follows: 86% Co, 83% Mg, 72% Mn and Ni, 62% Fe and 23% Cr. The results corroborate the feasibility of the systems studied for the leaching of metals from CARON process residue and these methodologies can be considered viable for the recovery of valuable metals.

  8. Residual Tensile Strength of Plain Concrete Under Tensile Fatigue Loading


    The functional relation between the residual tensile strength of plain concrete and number of cycles was determined. 99 tappered prism specimens of plain concrete were tested under uniaxial tensile fatigue loading. Based on the probability distribution of the residual tensile strength, the empirical expressions of the residual tensile strength corresponding to the number of cycles were obtained. The residual tensile strength attenuating curves can be used to predict the residual fatigue life of the specimen under variable-amplitude fatigue loading. There is a good correlation between residual tensile strength and residual secant elastic modulus.The relationship between the residual secant elastic modulus and number of cycles was also established.

  9. Saponification pretreatment and solids recirculation as a new anaerobic process for the treatment of slaughterhouse waste.

    Affes, R; Palatsi, J; Flotats, X; Carrère, H; Steyer, J P; Battimelli, A


    Different configurations of anaerobic process, adapted to the treatment of solid slaughterhouse fatty waste, were proposed and evaluated in this study. The tested configurations are based on the combination of anaerobic digestion with/without waste saponification pretreatment (70 °C during 60 min) and with/without recirculation of the digestate solid fraction (ratio=20% w/w). After an acclimation period of substrate pulses-feeding cycles, the reactors were operated in a semi-continuous feeding mode, increasing organic loading rates along experimental time. The degradation of the raw substrate was shown to be the bottleneck of the whole process, obtaining the best performance and process yields in the reactor equipped with waste pretreatment and solids recirculation. Saponification promoted the emulsification and bioavailability of solid fatty residues, while recirculation of solids minimized the substrate/biomass wash-out and induced microbial adaptation to the treatment of fatty substrates.

  10. Test and Numerical Analysis for Penetration Residual Velocity of Bullet Considering Failure Strain Uncertainty of Composite Plates

    Cha, Myungseok; Lee, Minhyung [Sejong Univ., Sejong (Korea, Republic of)


    The ballistic performance data of composite materials is distributed due to material inhomogeneity. In this paper, the uncertainty in residual velocity is obtained experimentally, and a method of predicting it is established numerically for the high-speed impact of a bullet into laminated composites. First, the failure strain distribution was obtained by conducting a tensile test using 10 specimens. Next, a ballistic impact test was carried out for the impact of a fragment-simulating projectile (FSP) bullet with 4ply ([0/90]s) and 8ply ([0/90/0/90]s) glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) plates. Eighteen shots were made at the same impact velocity and the residual velocities were obtained. Finally, simulations were conducted to predict the residual velocities by using the failure strain distributions that were obtained from the tensile test. For this simulation, two impact velocities were chosen at 411.7m/s (4ply) and 592.5m/s (8ply). The simulation results show that the predicted residual velocities are in close agreement with test results. Additionally, the modeling of a composite plate with layered solid elements requires less calculation time than modeling with solid elements.

  11. Stabilization of APC residues from waste incineration with ferrous sulfate on a semi-industrial scale

    Lundtorp, Kasper; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    A stabilization method for air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) involving mixing of the residue with water and FeSO4 has been demonstrated on a semi-industrial scale on three types of APC residues: a semidy (SD) APC residue, a fly ash (FA), and an FA...

  12. Electrodialytic upgrading of MSWI APC residue from hazardous waste to secondary resource

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Parés Viader, Raimon

    The aim of this project was to contribute to the development of electrodialytic treatment technology of air pollution control residues (APC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) to obtain maximal leaching reduction by optimization of treatment time and current density for different types...... of MSWI APC residues. The concept idea was in a pilot scale unit to reduce the mobility of toxic elements and salts by electrodialytic treatment enough for the residual product to constitute an environmentally safe resource for substitution of virgin resources in construction material e.......g. for substitution of cement or fillers in concrete. In general leaching could not be reduced by optimizing current density and treatment time in the pilot scale stack treatment unit, as hypothesized, even though there was evidence of dependency on current density for e.g. zinc, this was not true for most elements...

  13. Solids Control in Sludge Pretreatment

    Beahm, E.C., Weber, C.F., Hunt, R.D., Dillow, T.A.


    Sludge pretreatment will likely involve washing, followed by caustic or acidic leaching and washing of sludge residues after leaching. The principal goal of pretreatment is to obtain a low-volume high-activity waste stream and a high-volume low-activity waste stream. Also, some waste constituents such as chromium and phosphate can be included in glass formulations only at very low concentrations; therefore, it is desirable to remove them from high-level waste streams. Two aspects of sludge treatment and subsequent separations should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns.Before any treatment technology is adopted, it must be demonstrated that the process can be carried out as planned. Three pretreatment methods were considered in the Tri-Party (Washington State Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy) negotiations: (1) sludge washing with corrosion- inhibiting water, (2) Enhanced Sludge Washing, and (3)acidic dissolution with separations processes. Enhanced Sludge Washing is the baseline process. In Enhanced Sludge Washing, sludge is first washed with corrosion-inhibiting water; it is then leached with caustic (sodium hydroxide solution) and washed again with corrosion- inhibiting water. The initial concern is whether a pretreatment technique is effective in separating sludge components. This can be evaluated by bench-scale tests with sludge specimens from underground storage tanks. The results give data on the distribution of important species such as aluminum, phosphate, and radionuclides between wash and leach solutions and solid sludge residues.

  14. Development of headspace solid-phase microextraction method for ...

    ... solid-phase microextraction method for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruit and ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... interface temperature) and solid phase microextraction parameters (fiber coating type, ...

  15. [Erythromycin ethylsuccinate obtaining possibilities].

    Stan, Cătălina Daniela; Stefanache, Alina; Tântaru, Gladiola; Poiată, Antonia; Dumitrache, M; Diaconu, D E; Profire, Lenuţa


    In this study we tried to improve the erythromycin ethylsuccinate obtaining, having in view to separate the erythromycin ester by crystallization in water. The erythromycin acylation and the erythromycin ethylsuccinate crystallization were realized, following the next steps: 1. the acylation of the erythromycin with a methylene chloride solution of monoethylsuccinyl chloride, at 25-28 degrees C for 3 hours in the presence of NaHCO3; 2. the transfer of the erythromycin ethylsuccinate from methylene chloride solution in acetone solution by distillation of mixture methylene chloride: acetone 1:1 at 25-28 degrees C; 3. erythromycin ethylsuccinate separation by crystallization in water at pH = 8-8.5 and 5 degrees C for 90 minutes. The quality control for the erythromycin ester was performed according to the Xth edition of Romanian Pharmacopoeia standards using national standard for erythromycin ethylsuccinate and national standard for erythromycin with an activity of 1: 937 U and 2.02% humidity. The Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 was used as a test microorganism and a thin layer cromatography was performed for qualitative control. 13.1 g of erythromycin ethylsuccinate were obtained with an output of the process of 82.02%. Using water for the separation of erythromycin ethylsuccinate the output of the process is greater (82.02%) than in case of using petroleum ether (74.14%) or hexane (80.25%). The thin layer cromatography revealed an Rf = 0.56 and the microbiological activity of the erythromycin ethylsuccinate was 98.7% compared with the standard. Using water instead of hexane or petroleum ether is gainful for the separation of erythromycin ethylsuccinate from the reaction medium. The obtained erythromycin ethylsuccinate corresponds to the Xth edition of Romanian Pharmacopoeia standards. So, the raw materials consumption is decreased, the costs are cut down, the obtained product purity is high and the output of the process is greater.

  16. Municipal Solid Waste Resources



    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  17. Physical Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquette from Oil Palm Residues

    Physical Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquette from Oil Palm Residues. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Keywords: Palm kernel shell; Mesocarp fibre; Briquette; Biomass solid fuel; proximate analysis.

  18. Chemical composition of canned heart of Cordyline spectabilis and the flour obtained from post-processing residue Caracterização da composição química de conserva de palmito de Cordyline spectabilis e da farinha obtida do resíduo após processamento

    Cristiane Vieira Helm


    Full Text Available

    The need for new products requires the use of local raw material, which is either processed rudimentarily, such as the heart of Cordyline spectabilis Kunth & Bouché, or sometimes not processed at all. The aim of this work was to store the heart of Cordyline spectabilis from the municipality of Campo Largo, state of Parana, Brazil, as canned food and evaluate the nutritional value. The residue obtained from this process was used to make flour. The nutritional composition of both products was determinade. Their chemical compositions, pH levels and acidity were also checked for quality and conservation. The canned uvarana heart featured high protein levels (4.68 g 100 g-1 and the flour presented high levels of fibre (69.11 g 100g-1. Both products presented low calorie levels (58.39 and 59.72 kcal 100 g-1, respectively, which suggests an interesting source of vitamin for food industry.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.265

    A necessidade de novos produtos estimula a utilização de matérias-primas regionais que não  são processadas ou que quando o são, é realizado de maneira bastante artesanal, como é o caso da uvarana. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar uma conserva de palmito de uvarana (Cordyline spectabilis Kunth & Bouché procedentes do Município de Campo Largo, PR, e com o resíduo obtido do processamento da conserva elaborar uma farinha e determinar a composição nutricional dos dois produtos. Avaliaram-se a composição química dos produtos obtidos e o valor de pH e acidez das conservas, para avaliar o estado de conservação do produto. A conserva apresentou um alto teor proteico (4,68 g 100 g-1 e a farinha um alto teor de fibra alimentar (69,11 g 100 g-1 e ambos os produtos apresentaram um baixo valor calórico (58,39 e 59,72 kcal 100 g-1, respectivamente, o que sugere uma interessante fonte de suplemento alimentar para

  19. Investigation of Filtration Membranes from the Dairy Protein Industry for Residual Fouling Using Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Jensen, Jannie Krog

    the result showed that the MCR model needed three factors to describe the system, one describing the membrane material (polyethersulfone, PES), and two describing the residual fouling that is present on the membrane. The MCR method improved the interpretation of the models considerably compared to e.g. PCA...... or the univariate data analysis. However, it also became evident that the penetration depth of the infrared beam creates additional complexity when measuring semi-solid layered samples. In order to obtain an overview of the different analysis methods and data analysis methods that have been employed by other...... how the application of multivariate infrared spectroscopy combined with new data analysis methods has augmented the knowledge about residual fouling on real size production membranes. The information obtained can be used to investigate and monitor residual membrane fouling and help in the design...

  20. Batch test assessment of waste-to-energy combustion residues impacts on precipitate formation in landfill leachate collection systems.

    Cardoso, Antonio J; Levine, Audrey D; Rhea, Lisa R


    Disposal practices for bottom ash and fly ash from waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities include emplacement in ash monofills or co-disposal with municipal solid waste (MSW) and residues from water and wastewater treatment facilities. In some cases, WTE residues are used as daily cover in landfills that receive MSW. A recurring problem in many landfills is the development of calcium-based precipitates in leachate collection systems. Although MSW contains varying levels of calcium, WTE residues and treatment plant sludges have the potential to contribute concentrated sources of leachable minerals into landfill leachates. This study was conducted to evaluate the leachability of calcium and other minerals from residues generated by WTE combustion using residues obtained from three WTE facilities in Florida (two mass-burn and one refuse-derived fuel). Leaching potential was quantified as a function of contact time and liquid-to-solid ratios with batch tests and longer-term leaching tests using laboratory lysimeters to simulate an ash monofill containing fly ash and bottom ash. The leachate generated as a result of these tests had total dissolved solid (TDS) levels ranging from 5 to 320 mg TDS/g ash. Calcium was a major contributor to the TDS values, contributing from 20 to 105 g calcium/kg ash. Fly ash was a major contributor of leachable calcium. Precipitate formation in leachates from WTE combustion residues could be induced by adding mineral acids or through gas dissolution (carbon dioxide or air). Stabilization of residual calcium in fly ashes that are landfilled and/or the use of less leachable neutralization reagents during processing of acidic gases from WTE facilities could help to decrease the calcium levels in leachates and help to prevent precipitate formation in leachate collection systems.

  1. Kinetic study of solid waste pyrolysis using distributed activation energy model.

    Bhavanam, Anjireddy; Sastry, R C


    The pyrolysis characteristics of municipal solid waste, agricultural residues such as ground nut shell, cotton husk and their blends are investigated using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with in a temperature range of 30-900 °C at different heating rates of 10 °C, 30 °C and 50 °C/min in inert atmosphere. From the thermograms obtained from TGA, it is observed that the maximum rate of degradation occurred in the second stage of the pyrolysis process for all the solid wastes. The distributed activation energy model (DAEM) is used to study the pyrolysis kinetics of the solid wastes. The kinetic parameters E (activation energy), k0 (frequency factor) are calculated from this model. It is found that the range of activation energies for agricultural residues are lower than the municipal solid waste. The activation energies for the municipal solid waste pyrolysis process drastically decreased with addition of agricultural residues. The proposed DAEM is successfully validated with TGA experimental data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Residue-specific membrane location of peptides and proteins using specifically and extensively deuterated lipids and {sup 13}C-{sup 2}H rotational-echo double-resonance solid-state NMR

    Xie Li; Ghosh, Ujjayini; Schmick, Scott D.; Weliky, David P., E-mail: [Michigan State University, Department of Chemistry (United States)


    Residue-specific location of peptides in the hydrophobic core of membranes was examined using {sup 13}C-{sup 2}H REDOR and samples in which the lipids were selectively deuterated. The transmembrane topology of the KALP peptide was validated with this approach with substantial dephasing observed for deuteration in the bilayer center and reduced or no dephasing for deuteration closer to the headgroups. Insertion of {beta} sheet HIV and helical and {beta} sheet influenza virus fusion peptides into the hydrophobic core of the membrane was validated in samples with extensively deuterated lipids.

  3. Solid phase extraction using magnetic core mesoporous shell microspheres with C18-modified interior pore-walls for residue analysis of cephalosporins in milk by LC-MS/MS.

    Liu, Xiaodan; Yu, Yingjia; Zhao, Meiyan; Zhang, Haiying; Li, Yan; Duan, Gengli


    A fast and effective extraction method has been developed for measuring the residue of cephalosporins (cefalexin, cefazolin, cefoperazone) in milk by using magnetic core-mesoporous shell microspheres with C18-functionalized interior pore-walls (C18-Fe3O4@mSiO2) as adsorbent. With no need for any protein precipitation procedure, the cephalosporins were directly adsorbed onto the C18-Fe3O4@mSiO2 microspheres through hydrophobic interaction with C18-groups (Octadecyl functional groups) functionalized in the interior walls of mesopore channels while the abundant proteins in milk sample were excluded out of the channel due to the size exclusion effect. Thereafter, the cephalosporins-absorbed C18-Fe3O4@mSiO2 microspheres were rapidly isolated by placing a magnet, and followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis after eluted by methanol. Various parameters which could affect the extraction performance were optimised. The newly developed extraction method was successfully applied in determination of cephalosporin residues in milk samples, offering a valuable alternative to simplify and speed up the sample preparation step.

  4. Solid propellants.

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.


    The basic principles underlying propulsion by rocket motor are examined together with the configuration of a solid propellant motor. Solid propellants and their preparation are discussed, giving attention to homogeneous propellants, composite propellants, energetic considerations in choosing a solid propellant, the processing of composite propellants, and some examples of new developments. The performance of solid propellants is investigated, taking into account characteristics velocity, the specific impulse, and performance calculations. Aspects of propellant development considered include nonperformance requirements for solid propellants, the approach to development, propellant mechanical properties, and future trends.

  5. Multiresidue analysis of cotton defoliant, herbicide, and insecticide residues in water by solid-phase extraction and GC-NPD, GC-MS, and HPLC-diode array detection.

    Potter, T L; Marti, L; Belflower, S; Truman, C C


    A multiresidue procedure was developed for analysis of cotton pesticide and harvest-aid chemicals in water using solid-phase extraction and analysis by GC-NPD, GC-MS, and HPLC-DAD. Target compounds included the defoliants tribufos, dimethipin, thidiazuron; the herbicide diuron; and the insecticide methyl parathion. Three solid-phase extraction (SPE) media, octadecylsilyl (ODS), graphitized carbon black (GCB), and a divinylbenzene-N-vinyl pyrollidine copolymer (DVBVP), were evaluated. On GCB and ODS, recoveries varied depending on compound type. Recoveries were quantitative for all compounds on DVBVP, ranging from 87 to 115% in spiked deionized water and surface runoff. The method detection limit was less than 0.1 microg L(-)(1). SPE with DVBVP was applied to post-defoliation samples of surface runoff and tile drainage from a cotton research plot and surface runoff from a commercial field. The research plot was defoliated with a tank mixture of dimethipin and thidiazuron, and the commercial field, with tribufos. Dimethipin was detected (1.9-9.6 microg L(-)(1)) in all research plot samples. In the commercial field samples, tribufos concentration ranged from 0.1 to 135 microg L(-)(1). An exponentially decreasing concentration trend was observed with each successive storm event.

  6. Thermal Residual Stresses in Multilayered Coatings

    Xiancheng ZHANG; Binshi XU; Haidou WANG; Yixiong WU


    The mechanical integrity and reliability of coated devices are strongly affected by the residual stresses in thin films and coatings. However, due to the metallurgical complexity of materials, it is rather difficult to obtain a closed-form solution of residual stresses within multilayered coatings (e.g. functionally graded coatings, FGCs). In this paper,an analytical model is developed to predict the distribution of residual stresses within multilayered coatings. The advantage of this model is that the solution of residual stresses is independent of the number of layers. Specific results are obtained by calculating elastic thermal stresses in ZrO2/NiCoCrAIY FGCs, which consist of different material layers. Furthermore, the residual stress distribution near the edges and the stress-induced failure modes of coating are also analyzed. The topics discussed provide some insights into the development of a methodology for designing fail-safe coating systems.

  7. 固相萃取-双柱气相色谱法测定水中多种有机磷农药残留%Determination of multiple organophosphorous pesticide residues in water by dual-column gas chromatography coupled with solid phase extraction

    陈烨; 许秀艳; 吕怡兵; 滕恩江; 邢冠华; 王超


    针对单一气相色谱柱定性分析易出现假阳性误判的情况,采用固相萃取-气相色谱双柱技术测定环境水体中多种有机磷农药的残留量.水样中的有机磷农药通过HLB固相萃取小柱富集,经洗脱浓缩后,用DB-35MS和HP-5毛细管气相色谱柱、火焰光度检测器测定.方法的平均加标回收率为86.1%~118%,相对标准偏差为3.2%~6.8%,最低检出限为20~40 ng/L,可满足环境水体中痕量有机磷农药残留的分析需要.%To avoid the case of false positive when analyzing by single column, the dual-column gas chromatography coupled with solid phase extraction was applied to the multi -residue determination of organophosphorous pesticides in environmental water. The organophosphorous pesticides were extracted from water with HLB solid phase extraction cartridges and then eluted. After concentrated, the eluents were detected by GC-FPD with DB-35MS and HP-5 capillary columns. The average recoveries of 5 replicates for analytes ranged from 86.1% to 118%, with relative standard deviations between 3.2% and 6.8%. And the method detection limits were within the range of 20 ng/L to 40 ng/L. The results showed that the proposed method is suitable for the determination of trace amounts of multiple organophosphorous pesticide residues in environmental water.

  8. Adsorption of residual oil from palm oil mill effluent using rubber powder

    A.L. Ahmad


    Full Text Available A synthetic rubber powder was used to adsorb the residual oil in palm oil mill effluent (POME. POME is the wastewater produced by the palm oil industry. It is a colloidal suspension which is 95-96% water, 0.6-0.7% oil and 4-5% total solids including 2-4% suspended solids originating in the mixing of sterilizer condensate, separator sludge and hydrocyclone wastewater. POME contains 4,000 mg dm-3 of oil and grease, which is relatively high compared to the limit of only 50 mg dm-3 set by the Malaysian Department of Environment. A bench-scale study of the adsorption of residual oil in POME using synthetic rubber powder was conducted using a jar test apparatus. The adsorption process was studied by varying parameters affecting the process. The parameters were adsorbent dosage, mixing speed, mixing time and pH. The optimum values of the parameters were obtained. It was found that almost 88% removal of residual oil was obtained with an adsorbent dosage of 30 mg dm-3 and mixing speed of 150 rpm for 3 hr at a pH 7. Adsorption equilibrium was also studied, and it was found that the adsorption process on the synthetic rubber powder fit the Freundlich isotherm model.

  9. Nutritional Improvement of Sweet Potato Residue by Solid-State Fermentation with Mixed Microbe Strains%复合益生菌固态发酵改善甘薯渣营养价值的研究

    赵华; 王雪涛; 汤加勇; 汤小朋; 贾刚; 刘光芒; 陈小玲; 龙定彪; 王康宁


    本试验旨在研究采用多种微生物混合固态发酵对甘薯渣营养价值的影响,并探讨其最佳发酵工艺参数。采用单因素试验设计,对4类菌种共12株菌种进行单菌发酵,从中筛选1株发酵效果最优菌株作为混菌发酵的主菌种,与其他3类菌株进行不同组合发酵,筛选最佳菌种组合。采用正交试验设计,考察发酵时间、发酵温度、料水比、接种量及菌种接种比例对甘薯渣营养价值影响。结果表明:1)在发酵温度38℃,发酵时间4.5 d,料水比1∶1.3,接种量1×106个/g,接种比例黑曲霉2∶里氏木霉∶枯草芽孢杆菌1∶酿酒酵母1=1∶1∶2∶1条件下发酵效果最好。2)在混菌发酵后,以干物质为基础,粗蛋白质含量从6.37%提高到9.75%;粗脂肪含量从2.71%提高到4.92%;发酵后还原糖含量达到8.22%,羧甲基纤维素酶、滤纸酶、β-葡萄糖苷酶和淀粉酶活性分别为4.26、3.29、3.75和5.15 U/g DM。由此可见,农副产品甘薯渣经过微生物混菌固态发酵后可以有效改善其营养品质。%In this study, a solid⁃state fermentation ( SSF) using mixed microbe strains was conducted to im⁃prove the nutritional quality of sweet potato residue and the optimal fermentation parameters was investigated. A single factor experiment design was adopted to investigate the effects of 4 species, 12 strains of microbe fer⁃mentation on nutritional improvement of sweet potato residue. Four single microbial strains from each species were selected and the strain with best nutritional improvement was selected as the main strain to formulation with other three strains screened for SSF. Orthogonal experiment design was further used to optimize the fer⁃mentation parameters such as time, temperature, moisture, inoculation size and strain formulation ratio on nu⁃tritional quality improvement of sweet potato residue. The results showed

  10. Exploring solid-phase approaches for the preparation of new beta-lactams from amino acids.

    Gerona-Navarro, Guillermo; Royo, Miriam; García-López, Ma Teresa; Albericio, Fernando; González-Muñiz, Rosario


    Two solid-phase approaches, involving the base-assisted intramolecular alkylation of N-chloroacetyl-Phe derivatives anchored to appropriate solid supports, were investigated for the preparation of novel beta-lactams. When a BAL-type strategy was used, the resin-bound azetidinones were easily formed, as established by MAS-NMR, but final compounds could not be removed from the resin, unless a suitable two linkers system was used. In the second approach, in which the Phe residue is anchored to a Wang-type resin through the carboxylate group, the corresponding 1,4,4-trisubstituted 2-azetidinone was obtained in moderate to good yield and high purity.

  11. 固相膜萃取-高效液相色谱法测定饮用水中12种氨基甲酸酯类农药残留%Determination of twelve carbamate residues in drinking water by HPLC after solid-phase membrane extraction

    杨晓松; 余辉菊; 马子元


    目的:建立固相膜萃取-高效液相色谱法测定饮用水中灭多威、涕灭威、速灭威、残灭威、呋喃丹、甲萘威、抗杀虫威、异丙威、硫双威、仲丁威、猛杀威、杀虫威等12种氨基甲酸酯类农药残留量的方法.方法:水样经C18固相萃取膜真空抽滤,滤膜用乙酸乙酯洗脱,洗脱液经氮吹、甲醇溶解,高效液相色谱法测定.结果:12种氨基甲酸酯类农药的线性范围为0.05 mg/L~25.0 mg/L,线性相关系数大于0.999,检出限为0.31 mg/L~1.25 mg/L,水样中氨基甲酸酯类农残最低检测浓度范围为0.005 mg/L~0.019 mg/L,加标回收率为59.3%~97.3%,RSD<7.5%.结论:本方法样品前处理方便、快捷,有机试剂用量少.%Objective:To establish a method for determination of 12 carbamate residues including methomyl, al-dicarb, metolcarb, profluoralin, furadan, methyl carbamate, pirimicarb, isoprocarb, thiodicarb, fenobucarb, promecarb and tetrachlorvinphose in drinking - water by high performance liquid chromatography after solid - phase membrane extraction. Methods: The water sample was filtered through the conditioned solid - phase membrane under vacuum. The carbamales absorbed on the membrane were eluted using ethyl acetate and the eluted solution was blown to dryness under nitrogen gas. The residue was reconstituted with methanol and analyzed by HPLC. Results: The linear range of 12 carbamates residues were between 0. 05 mg/L to 25. 0 mg/L with r >0. 999. The detection limits were 0. 31 mg/L to 1.25 mg/L. The lowest detection limits of carbamate residues in the sample water were between 0.005 mg/L and 0.019 mg/L. The recoveries ranged from 59. 3% to 97. 3% with RSD <7.5% . Conclusion: The method can be used for the multi -residue analysis of carbamate residues in drinking water.

  12. PDMS固相萃取-气相色谱法检测甘蔗中有机磷农药残留%The Method of PDMS Solid Phase Membrane Extraction-Gas Chromatographic Analysis for Organ Phosphorus Pesticide Residue of Sugarcane

    赵汉民; 彭金云; 谭义秋; 农克良


    [目的]建立一套快速、简单、准确的有机磷残留量检测方法.[方法]用聚二甲基硅氧烷(PDMS)固相萃取膜吸附萃取甘蔗汁中甲拌磷和特丁硫磷,经二氯甲烷脱附后,FTD/GC直接检测.[结果]用PDMS固相萃取-气相色谱法检测了甘蔗汁中添加甲拌磷和特丁硫磷的标准品混合液,甲拌磷和特丁硫磷得到有效的分离和确认.[结论]PDMS固相萃取-气相色谱法操作简单,能快速、准确地检测有机磷农药残留.%[ Objective ] To establish a fast, simple and accurate detection method for organophosphate residues. [ Method ] Phorate and terbufos in sugarcane juice were absorbed by the membrane extraction of PDMS solid phase extraction, then disported by dichloromethane and detected directly by FID/GC. [ Result] Mixed liquid of sugar cane juice and phorate, terbufos standard substances were detected,and phorate and terbufos were effectively separated and recognized by PDMS-SPE-GC method. [Conclusion] PDMS-SPEM-GC is a simple,fast and accurate method to be detected of organ phosphorus pesticide residues.

  13. Methodology to calculate starch in castor seed cake residue from biodiesel production; Metodologia de quantificacao de amido em torta de mamona residual da producao de biodiesel

    Castro, Aline Machado de [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES). Gerencia de Energias Renovaveis, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail:; Pereira Junior, Nei [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Departamento de Engenharia Bioquimica. Escola de Quimica, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail:


    When castor seeds are used in the production of biodiesel a solid residue is obtained from the seed crushing process (castor seed cake). This residue, due to its high starch content, is a potential biomass for second generation bioethanol production. The starch in this biomass presents some peculiarities that are associated with the proteins and other structures of the seed. The challenge of this study was to standardize a method to quantify the starch, tailored for this biomass. This methodology was confirmed with a comparative study using commercial methods and a standard starch sample. This study is an important aspect in bioethanol production from castor seed cake. This is because to evaluate the potential of cakes from different sources it is necessary to determine the starch content in the biomass to calculate the mass balance as well as the process yield.

  14. Alternativas de utilização de resíduos sólidos alcalinos na disposição de resíduos contaminados: estudo de caso no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Alkaline residues alternatives for use in the landfill of a contaminated solid residues: case study from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Wilma de Carvalho Pereira


    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo o estudo dos elementos potencialmente contaminantes presentes nos rejeitos industriais que são dispostos no meio ambiente e, por processo de lixiviação, carreados para os corpos hídricos. Dois tipos de resíduos foram estudados. Um deles, proveniente da indústria de produção de aço (escória da aciaria, de características alcalina. Este rejeito é considerado relativamente estável pelos padrões vigentes devido às suas características (CdThe goal of this work is to study the potentially contaminating trace elements present in industrial waste that is discharged into the environment though lixiviation process to water resources. Two types of waste were studied. The first one, a refuse slag from steel industry, an alkaline residue. Even though this waste is considered relatively stable within the established standards set by current legislation due to its characteristics (Cd<0.5 mg/Kg, Pb<10 mg/Kg, Co<5 mg/Kg, Cu=61 mg/Kg, Ni<1.5 mg/Kg, Zn=75 mg/Kg, there is so far no feasible alternative for its total reutilization. The other one a residue from the electroplating industry (Class I: ABNT, 1987, closed down in 1998.

  15. Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis of Fusukang for AIDS

    甘一如; 戴琦; 张雪竹; 高晨昊


    A 36-residue peptide is designed to cure acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS), and is synthesized by the manual solid phase peptide synthesis technique. Different reaction conditions of the synthesis process were discussed. Stirring efficiency of mechanics and nitrogen was compared. The mechanical method displays a predominant performance. Although the coupling efficiencies of diisopropylcarbodiimide(DIC) and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide(DCC) are virtually identical, DIC offers several advantages over DCC in practice due to different physical characters. Wash conditions after deprotection and coupling were investigated to monitor washing efficiency. 0.369 2 g crude peptide was obtained.

  16. Co-pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse with petroleum residue. Part 1: thermogravimetric analysis

    Garcia-Perez, M.; Chaala, A.; Yang, J.; Roy, C. [Universite Laval, Ste-Foy, PQ (Canada). Departement de genie chimique


    Thermal decomposition under nitrogen of sugarcane bagasse, petroleum residue and their blends was studied by thermogravimetry (TG) at different heating rates (10, 20 and 60 deg C/min). Thermal decomposition kinetic parameters were determined. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis was described as the sum of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin individual contributions. First order equations were used to determine the bagasse component thermal decomposition kinetics. Activation energies calculated were 235, 105, and 26 kJ/mol for cellulose, hemiceullose and lignin, respectively. Thermal decomposition of petroleum residue can be explained by the additive effect of its three major fractions, following kinetic equation orders of 2.5, 2.3 and 1.5 with activation energies of 100, 180 and 220 kJ/mol respectively. It has been found that during thermal decomposition of bagasse/petroleum residue mixtures, no significant interaction occurred in the solid phase between the components under the experimental conditions investigated. The kinetic parameters associated with the bagasse/petroleum residue mixture involved the sum of bagasse and petroleum residue individual component kinetic parameters. The information obtained can be used to develop a correlation between the thermogravimetric data and the feedstock composition. 55 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Determining of Five Alkaloids Residues in Hotpot Seasoning Using Solid-phase Extraction-highPerformance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry%固相萃取-液质联用测定火锅底料中5种生物碱

    刘晓茂; 杨志伟; 崔宗岩; 张守军; 裴岗; 李萧萧; 张进杰; 曹彦忠


    A method was developed for the determination of five alkaloids residues in hotpot seasoning by dual solid-phase extraction clean up-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The residues were extracted from the samples by acetonitrile, cleaned up with PSA and PXC solid phase extraction cartridges, then analyzed by using HPLC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via positive electrospray ionization with an Hillic column as the analytical column. An internal standard method was used for quantitative determination of five alkaloids. The limits of determination for papaverine, morphine, noscapine, codeine and thebaine were 0.033, 1.5, 0.066, 1.2,0.15μg/kg, respectively. The recov-eries for the five alkaloids, at three fortified levels, ranged from 96.0%to 112.5%, with relative standard de-viations between 2.0%and 5.7%.The method was simple, accurate and sensitive. It was suitable for the deter-mination of alkaloids residues in hotpot seasoning.%建立双柱串联固相萃取-高效液相色谱-串联质谱法(HPLC-MS/MS)测定火锅底料中罂粟碱、吗啡、那可丁、可待因和蒂巴因5种生物碱成分的含量.样品用酸化乙腈提取,PSA和PXC固相萃取柱串联净化,经Hillic色谱柱分离,以电喷雾离子源(ESI)在正离子多反应监测(MRM)模式下进行测定,内标法定量.在优化的试验条件下,罂粟碱、吗啡、那可丁、可待因、蒂巴因的检出限分别为0.033、1.5、0.066、1.2、0.15μg/kg.5种生物碱类药物在3个加标水平下的回收率范围为96.0%~112.5%,RSD为2.0%~5.7%.该方法操作简便、准确、灵敏度高,适用于火锅底料中罂粟碱、吗啡、那可丁、可待因和蒂巴因含量的测定.

  18. Solid lubricants

    Sliney, Harold E.


    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  19. 分子印迹固相萃取技术在动物源食品中药物残留检测中的应用进展%Application of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction on drug residues in animal source foods

    闫宏远; 杨更亮


    Due to the superior molecular recognition and good physical and chemical stability,the molecularly imprinted materials have gained more and more concern recently in extrication and separation fields. Using the imprinted materials as adsorbents, the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction ( MISPE ) allows selective extraction of the target molecules and its analogues from complex matrices, and is suitable for complex sample preparation and enrichment processes. This article describes the principle , latest progresses and parameters of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction and summarizes its extraction and applications for the determination of drug residues of animal source foods in recent years. Moreover, the shortcomings and future prospects of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction are also mentioned.%以分子印迹材料作为特效吸附剂的分子印迹固相萃取技术具有从复杂样品中选择性吸附目标分子及其结构类似物的能力,较好地克服了由于样品复杂所带来的内源性干扰问题,因此非常适用于复杂样品的预处理与富集.本文介绍了分子印迹固相萃取技术的原理、最新进展以及相关萃取参数的优化过程,对近几年国内外分子印迹固相萃取技术在动物源食品中药物残留检测方面的应用进行了总结;阐明了分子印迹固相萃取技术在实际应用中存在的不足,并对其未来的发展进行了展望.

  20. Solid Matter

    Angelo, Joseph A


    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  1. Waste vinegar residue as substrate for phytase production.

    Wang, Zhi-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Tong, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Shang-Zhong


    Waste vinegar residue, the by-product of vinegar processing, was used as substrate for phytase production from Aspergillus ficuum NTG-23 in solid-state fermentation to investigate the potential for the efficient re-utilization or recycling of waste vinegar residue. Statistical designs were applied in the processing of phytase production. First, a Plackett-Burman (PB) design was used to evaluate eleven parameters: glucose, starch, wheat bran, (NH(4))(2)SO(4), NH(4)NO(3), tryptone, soybean meal, MgSO(4)·7H(2)O, CaCl(2)·7H(2)O, FeSO(4)·7H(2)O, incubation time. The PB experiments showed that there were three significant factors: glucose, soybean meal and incubation time. The closest values to the optimum point were then derived by steepest ascent path. Finally, a mathematical model was created and validated to explain the behavioural process after these three significant factors were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The best phytase activity was attained using the following conditions: glucose (7.2%), soybean meal (5.1%), and incubation time (271 h). The phytase activity was 7.34-fold higher due to optimization by PB design, steepest ascent path design and RSM. The phytase activity was enhanced 0.26-fold in comparison with the results by the second step of steepest ascent path design. The results indicate that with waste vinegar residue as a substrate higher production of phytase from Aspergillus ficuum NTG-23 could be obtained through an optimization process and that this method might be applied to an integrated system for recycling of the waste vinegar residue.

  2. Novel feature for catalytic protein residues reflecting interactions with other residues.

    Yizhou Li

    Full Text Available Owing to their potential for systematic analysis, complex networks have been widely used in proteomics. Representing a protein structure as a topology network provides novel insight into understanding protein folding mechanisms, stability and function. Here, we develop a new feature to reveal correlations between residues using a protein structure network. In an original attempt to quantify the effects of several key residues on catalytic residues, a power function was used to model interactions between residues. The results indicate that focusing on a few residues is a feasible approach to identifying catalytic residues. The spatial environment surrounding a catalytic residue was analyzed in a layered manner. We present evidence that correlation between residues is related to their distance apart most environmental parameters of the outer layer make a smaller contribution to prediction and ii catalytic residues tend to be located near key positions in enzyme folds. Feature analysis revealed satisfactory performance for our features, which were combined with several conventional features in a prediction model for catalytic residues using a comprehensive data set from the Catalytic Site Atlas. Values of 88.6 for sensitivity and 88.4 for specificity were obtained by 10-fold cross-validation. These results suggest that these features reveal the mutual dependence of residues and are promising for further study of structure-function relationship.

  3. Treatment of biomass to obtain a target chemical

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Elander, Richard T.; Hennessey, Susan Marie


    Target chemicals were produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  4. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.


    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  5. Characterization and extraction of volatile compounds from pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril processing residues

    Lília Calheiros de Oliveira Barretto


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to extract and identify volatile compounds from pineapple residues generated during concentrated juice processing. Distillates of pineapple residues were obtained using the following techniques: simple hydrodistillation and hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas. The volatile compounds present in the distillates were captured by the solid-phase microextraction technique. The volatile compounds were identified in a system of high resolution gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry using a polyethylene glycol polar capillary column as stationary phase. The pineapple residues constituted mostly of esters (35%, followed by ketones (26%, alcohols (18%, aldehydes (9%, acids (3% and other compounds (9%. Odor-active volatile compounds were mainly identified in the distillate obtained using hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas, namely decanal, ethyl octanoate, acetic acid, 1-hexanol, and ketones such as γ-hexalactone, γ-octalactone, δ-octalactone, γ-decalactone, and γ-dodecalactone. This suggests that the use of an inert gas and lower temperatures helped maintain higher amounts of flavor compounds. These data indicate that pineapple processing residue contained important volatile compounds which can be extracted and used as aroma enhancing products and have high potential for the production of value-added natural essences.

  6. Solid State Fermentation of Mexican Oregano (Lippia Berlandieri Schauer Waste

    Paola Melendez-Renteria


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mexican oregano is recognized for their aromatic characteristics and flavor quality. Principal products obtained from the plant and marketing are the leaves and essential oil; however the extraction of the essential oil generates large amounts of agro industrial wastes; that can be used as support-substrates in Solid-State Fermentations (SSF. Approach: In this study a fungal bioprocess, as solid state fermentation using Mexican oregano wastes as support, for the use of these residues to obtain adds value products and/or molecules were developed. The fungal strain was selects by its adaptability to the support. The aqueous and non polar extracts were obtained kinetically until 120 h and then it was partially characterized (hydrolysable tannins, total sugar and proteins contents, antioxidant activity, tymol and carvacrol concentration. Results: Solid state fermentation of oregano wastes, with Aspergillus niger PSH, allowed the accumulation of a phenolic compound with catechin similar characteristics and could be responsible of the biotransformation of small amounts of carvacrol to thymol. Conclusion: These results could give an add value to Mexican oregano wastes and with more investigation the obtained products can be used in several industries.

  7. Blocks and residual stresses in shaped sapphire single crystals

    Krymov, V. M.; Nosov, Yu. G.; Bakholdin, S. I.; Maslov, V. N.; Shul‧pina, I. L.; Nikolaev, V. I.


    The formation of blocks and residual stresses in shaped sapphire crystals grown from the melt by the Stepanov method (EFG) has been studied. The probability of block formation is higher for the growth along the c axis compared to that grown in the a-axis direction. The distribution of residual stress in sapphire crystals of tubular, rectangular and round cross section was measured by the conoscopy method. It was found that the magnitude of the residual stress increases from the center to the periphery of the crystal and reaches up to about 20 MPa. Residual stress tensor components for solid round rod and tubular single crystals were determined by numerical integration.

  8. 生活垃圾焚烧残灰中有毒成分的排放特性%Emission characteristics of hazardous components in municipal solid waste incinerator residual ash

    Xiao-dong LI; Yong REN; Sha-sha JI; Xia-li HOU; Tong CHEN; Sheng-yong LU; Jian-hua YAN


    目的:探索中国生活垃圾焚烧残灰中重金属、氯苯、多环芳烃等有毒成分的排放特性、排放水平及相互之间的关联特性,并认识其产生、排放与焚烧炉型、焚烧条件的关联,以探索控制其危害的有效方法。方法:1.对中国几个典型的生活垃圾焚烧炉现场采样,获得多个飞灰和底渣的样品;2.通过多种不同的检测手段和方法,分别检测残灰的基本物理化学特性、氯苯、多环芳烃和主要金属元素的浓度;3.结合焚烧炉型和焚烧特性等条件,分析各有毒成分的排放特性和相互之间的关联特性。结论:1.氯苯、多环芳烃和重金属受焚烧因素影响,在残灰中的排放特性各不相同,流化床焚烧炉能消除焚烧和原始垃圾的扰动,能控制氯苯在残灰中的排放,但多环芳烃排放控制不如炉排焚烧炉;2.残灰中主要的有机有毒成分为高氯代氯苯和2至4环等少环类多环芳烃;3.氯苯和多环芳烃在残灰中的含量可能因为不同的产生机理而表现出一定的负关联特点;4.残灰中的金属主要为铝和铁等轻金属,浓度远高于重金属元素,而无毒重金属(主要为Mn、Ni、As和Zn)浓度高于有毒重金属元素(Cu、Pb和Cr),且不同金属表现出不同的对氯苯和多环芳烃的催化促进或抑制作用。%In this study, eight fly ash samples and three bottom ash samples from different areas are collected for analysis of their physicochemical properties and emission content of dioxin precursors and metals. Their surface characteristics, their effects on dioxin precursors, and important aspects of the compositions of residual ash (fly ash and bottom ash) are investigated. Poly-chlorobenzenes (PCBzs) in the fly ash of a fluidized bed incinerator (FBI) are 7.35 to 357.94 µg/kg, and in that of a fire grate incinerator (FGI) are 6.74 to 96.52 µg/kg. The concentrations in bottom ash are the same (i

  9. Three-dimensional graphene aerogel-supported iron oxide nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent for magnetic solid phase extraction of organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruit juices followed by gas chromatographic determination.

    Mahpishanian, Shokouh; Sereshti, Hassan


    In this research, a magnetic three dimensional-graphene nanocomposite (3D-G-Fe3O4) was prepared, characterized and used as an effective nanoadsorbent in magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from juice samples prior to gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detection (GC-NPD). The properties and morphology of 3D-G-Fe3O4 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The main experimental parameters affecting extraction recoveries including extraction time, amount of adsorbent, pH of sample solution, salt concentration and desorption conditions were carefully studied and optimized. The results showed wide linear concentration ranges with determination coefficients between 0.9973 and 0.9999. The limits of detection (S/N=3) of the method and limits of quantification (S/N=10) were from 1.2 to 5.1 ng L(-1) and 3.4-17.0 ng L(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day RSDs were 2.6-5.1% and 3.5-6.9%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of OPPs in fruit juices (apple, orange, grape, sour-cherry and apricot) with recoveries in range of 86.6-107.5%. The GC-NPD results were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results demonstrated that with combination of highly interconnected 3D network structure and magnetism property of adsorbent, 3D-G-Fe3O4 aerogel exhibited exceptional extraction ability towards the OPPs.

  10. Erroneous laboratory values obtained from central catheters.

    Johnston, J B; Messina, M


    Serious analytic errors in potassium measurements have been identified in blood specimens obtained from newly inserted central catheters. Erroneous elevated readings have been related to interactions of chemistry analyzer electrodes and substances fixed to external and intraluminal walls of the central catheter. Anecdotal summaries of this phenomenon are presented to enable the nurse to recognize potential problems when sampling blood from central catheters. Studies were performed to determine the amount of flush necessary to clear the catheter of interfering residue. To eliminate this potentially hazardous occurrence, recommended flush volumes, nursing implications, and actions are described.

  11. Life cycle assessment of disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration: recycling of bottom ash in road construction or landfilling in Denmark evaluated in the ROAD-RES model.

    Birgisdóttir, H; Bhander, G; Hauschild, M Z; Christensen, T H


    Two disposal methods for MSWI bottom ash were assessed in a new life cycle assessment (LCA) model for road construction and disposal of residues. The two scenarios evaluated in the model were: (i) landfilling of bottom ash in a coastal landfill in Denmark and (ii) recycling of bottom ash as subbase layer in an asphalted secondary road. The LCA included resource and energy consumption, and emissions associated with upgrading of bottom ash, transport, landfilling processes, incorporation of bottom ash in road, substitution of natural gravel as road construction material and leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash in road as well as in landfill. Environmental impacts associated with emissions to air, fresh surface water, marine surface water, groundwater and soil were aggregated into 12 environmental impact categories: Global Warming, Photochemical Ozone Formation, Nutrient Enrichment, Acidification, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Human Toxicity via air/water/soil, Ecotoxicity in water/soil, and a new impact category, Stored Ecotoxicity to water/soil that accounts for the presence of heavy metals and very persistent organic compounds that in the long-term might leach. Leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash was estimated from a series of laboratory leaching tests. For both scenarios, Ecotoxicity(water) was, when evaluated for the first 100 yr, the most important among the twelve impact categories involved in the assessment. Human Toxicity(soil) was also important, especially for the Road scenario. When the long-term leaching of heavy metals from bottom ash was evaluated, based on the total content of heavy metals in bottom ash, all impact categories became negligible compared to the potential Stored Ecotoxicity, which was two orders of magnitudes greater than Ecotoxicity(water). Copper was the constituent that gave the strongest contributions to the ecotoxicities. The most important resources consumed were clay as liner in landfill and the

  12. Fractionation and Purification of Bioactive Compounds Obtained from a Brewery Waste Stream

    Letricia Barbosa-Pereira


    Full Text Available The brewery industry generates waste that could be used to yield a natural extract containing bioactive phenolic compounds. We compared two methods of purifying the crude extract—solid-phase extraction (SPE and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE—with the aim of improving the quality of the final extract for potential use as safe food additive, functional food ingredient, or nutraceutical. The predominant fractions yielded by SPE were the most active, and the fraction eluted with 30% (v/v of methanol displayed the highest antioxidant activity (0.20 g L−1, similar to that of BHA. The most active fraction yielded by SFE (EC50 of 0.23 g L−1 was obtained under the following conditions: temperature 40°C, pressure 140 bar, extraction time 30 minutes, ethanol (6% as a modifier, and modifier flow 0.2 mL min−1. Finally, we found that SFE is the most suitable procedure for purifying the crude extracts and improves the organoleptic characteristics of the product: the final extract was odourless, did not contain solvent residues, and was not strongly coloured. Therefore, natural extracts obtained from the residual stream and purified by SFE can be used as natural antioxidants with potential applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.

  13. Inulinase production by Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-7571 using solid state fermentation.

    Bender, João Paulo; Mazutti, Marcio Antônio; de Oliveira, Débora; Di Luccio, Marco; Treichel, Helen


    Inulinase is an enzyme relevant to fructose production by enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin. This enzyme is also applied in the production of fructo-oligosaccharides that may be used as a new food functional ingredient. Commercial inulinase is currently obtained using inulin as substrate, which is a relatively expensive raw material. In Brazil, the production of this enzyme using residues of sugarcane and corn industry (sugarcane bagasse, molasses, and corn steep liquor) is economically attractive, owing to the high amount and low cost of such residues. In this context, the aim of this work was the assessment of inulinase production by solid state fermentation using by Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-7571. The solid medium consisted of sugar cane bagasse supplemented with molasses and corn steep liquor. The production of inulinase was carried out using experimental design technique. The effect of temperature, moisture, and supplements content were investigated. The enzymatic activity reached a maximum of 445 units of inulinase per gram of dry substrate.

  14. Remoção de sólidos em suspensão na água residuária da despolpa de frutos do cafeeiro em filtros constituídos por pergaminho de grãos de café submetido a compressões Removal of suspended solids in the wastewater of the coffee shrub cherry pulping by filters constituted by parchment of the coffee beans subjected to compressions

    Antonio T. de Matos


    Full Text Available A remoção de sólidos em suspensão é fundamental para que se possa aplicar a água residuária gerada na despolpa de frutos do cafeeiro (ARC na fertirrigação de culturas agrícolas. Dentre as opções disponíveis para efetuar a remoção de SS da ARC, está o uso de filtros orgânicos. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do grau de compressão na redução do volume e na eficiência do pergaminho, utilizado como material filtrante, na remoção de sólidos em suspensão (SS na ARC. Numa primeira etapa, foram realizados ensaios nos quais corpos-de-prova de pergaminho triturado (retido entre as peneiras de 2,5 e 3 mm e não-triturado (na condição em que é produzido foram submetidos a diferentes compressões para a redução do volume das colunas filtrantes em 5; 10; 15; 20; 25 e 28%. Numa segunda etapa, os corpos-de-prova foram utilizados como material filtrante da ARC para a avaliação da sua capacidade de remoção de SS presentes nessa água residuária. O pergaminho triturado ofereceu maior resistência à compressão e proporcionou, para as mesmas reduções volumétricas no material filtrante, maior eficiência na remoção de SS da ARC do que o pergaminho não-triturado. Reduções na faixa de 10% a 15% no volume do filtro constituído por pergaminho triturado foram suficientes para obter satisfatórias eficiências na remoção de SS da ARC, enquanto, para filtros constituídos de pergaminho não-triturado, as reduções de volume devem ser superiores a 25%.The removal of suspended solids (SS is fundamental to apply the wastewater from the coffee shrub cherry pulping (ARC on agricultural crops fertigation. Among the available options for the removal of SS from ARC is the use of organic filters. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of the compression degree on either volume reduction or parchment efficiency, when used as medium filter for the removal of suspended solids (SS in

  15. Characterization of residual oils for biodiesel production

    Edmilson Antonio Canesin


    Conclusions: The obtained results suggesting that it is possible to take advantage of these residues for biodiesel production as the obtained products were approved according to the rules established by the National Association of Petroleum (ANP; the bovine samples were the exception regarding moisture and acidity.

  16. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat.

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Ahn, Dong Uk; Eun, Jong Bang; Moon, Sun Hee


    The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee) still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid-liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE) and without heating (CEE) were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE). The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA), but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat.

  17. Solvent selection for solid-to-solid synthesis

    Ulijn, R.V.; Martin, de L.; Gardossi, L.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Moore, B.D.; Halling, P.J.


    Thermolysin catalyzed solid-to-solid synthesis of the model peptide Z-L-Phe-L-Leu-NH2 is practically feasible in water and a range of organic solvents with different physicochemical properties. Excellent overall conversions were obtained in acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, methanol, 2-propanol

  18. Differences in glucose yield of residues from among varieties of rice, wheat, and sorghum after dilute acid pretreatment.

    Teramura, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kengo; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Matsuda, Fumio; Kikuchi, Jun; Shirai, Tomokazu; Sazuka, Takashi; Yamasaki, Masanori; Takumi, Shigeo; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko


    Bio-refinery processes require use of the most suitable lignocellulosic biomass for enzymatic saccharification and microbial fermentation. Glucose yield from biomass solid fractions obtained after dilute sulfuric acid (1%) pretreatment (at 180 °C) was investigated using 14, 8, and 16 varieties of rice, wheat, and sorghum, respectively. Biomass solid fractions of each crop showed similar cellulose content. However, glucose yield after enzymatic hydrolysis (cellulase loading at 6.6 filter paper unit/g-biomass) was different among the varieties of each crop, indicating genotypic differences for rice, wheat, and sorghum. Nuclear magnetic resonance method revealed that the high residual level of lignin aromatic regions decreased glucose yield from solid fraction of sorghum.

  19. Dynamic residual stress in thermal sprayed coatings

    Wang Zhiping; Yang Yuanyuan


    With the modified Almen method, the forming and development process of residual stress in a thermal sprayed coating has been obtained. The test results identify that the residual stress in a coating is depend on coating material properties, technique and coating thickness. The paper pays much attention to the hysteresis between the coating temperature and residual stress in the coating or between the applied stress and the strain of the coating, and confirms that the fact is resulted from the"Gas Fix" character of a thermal sprayed coating.

  20. Torrefaction process for agriculture and forest residues

    Dutta, A. [Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS (Canada). Dept. of Engineering; Pimchuai, A. [Burapha Univ., Chonburi (Thailand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    This paper reported on a study in which 2 energy crops, notably agriculture and forest residues, were torrefied with subsequent analysis of the solid residues. The purpose of the study was to remove some disadvantages of agriculture residues as a fuel and to enhance their solid fuel qualities. The 5 agriculture residues studied were rice husk, sawdust, peanut husk, bagasse and water hyacinth. Temperature and residence time for the process was varied at 250, 270, 300 degrees C and 1, 1.5, 2 hours respectively. The torrefied products were then characterized in terms of yield, proximate analysis, heating value and hydrophobic properties. The optimum condition based on mass and energy balance for the torrefaction process was determined. The torrefied products were found to be more brown in colour and had lower moisture content and volatile matter. The fixed carbon content and energy density of the ash increased. The bagasse that was torrefied at 300 degrees C and 1.5 hours had the highest HHV content, comparable to that of lignite. Depending on the severity of the torrefaction conditions, the torrefied fuel can contain up to 98 per cent of the original energy content on a mass basis. It was concluded that the operating temperature is the most important parameter for producing a better torrefied product.

  1. Solid consistency

    Bordin, Lorenzo; Creminelli, Paolo; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Noreña, Jorge


    We argue that isotropic scalar fluctuations in solid inflation are adiabatic in the super-horizon limit. During the solid phase this adiabatic mode has peculiar features: constant energy-density slices and comoving slices do not coincide, and their curvatures, parameterized respectively by ζ and Script R, both evolve in time. The existence of this adiabatic mode implies that Maldacena's squeezed limit consistency relation holds after angular average over the long mode. The correlation functions of a long-wavelength spherical scalar mode with several short scalar or tensor modes is fixed by the scaling behavior of the correlators of short modes, independently of the solid inflation action or dynamics of reheating.

  2. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    Gazineu, M.H.P. [UNICAP, Dept. de Quimica, Recife (Brazil); Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A. [UFPE, Dept. de Energia Nuclear, Recife (Brazil); Hazin, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares/ CNEN, Recife (Brazil)


    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for {sup 228}Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  3. 木薯渣、桉树渣固体发酵Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WJ22研制生物有机肥的配方研究%Solid Fermentation Ingredient of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WJ22 to Produce Bio-organic Fertilizer by Cassava Residue and Eucalyptus Slag

    王晶晶; 黎张早; 张彦龙; 邓小恳; 黎健才; 阮云泽


    A rhizosphere bacteria-Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WJ22 stored in the laboratory was a plant growth-promoting rhizosphere bacterium. In the present study, ripe cow manure compost and rapeseed cake as raw materials, cassava residue and eucalyptus slag as addition materials were chosen from agriculture wastes in Hainan Province to solid ferment strain WJ22 and the bio-organic fertilizer made from this strain was prepared. The results showed that strain WJ22 could grow well in the mixture contain 65%of ripe cow manure compost, 15%of rapeseed cake, 20%of cassava residue, and 20%of eucalyptus slag. The strain number was more than 2×109 cfu/g dry weight at the end of composting process and was far more than the national solid bio-organic fertilizer standard (2×107 cfu/g dry weight). Pot experiment results showed that the bio-organic fertilizer made from WJ22 could efficiently promote the growth of banana.%  Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WJ22为实验室保存的香蕉根际促生功能菌。利用牛粪有机肥和菜籽饼为基本原料,海南当地农业废弃物木薯渣和桉树皮为添加原料,研究该菌株的固体发酵配方工艺,最终获得利用该菌株研制的促生生物有机肥。结果表明,拮抗菌WJ22在菜籽饼含量为15%、木薯渣含量为20%、桉树渣含量为20%的原料混合物中固体发酵效果最佳,菌株数量超过2×109 cfu/(g·干重),远远超过国家固体生物有机肥的标准[2×107 cfu/(g·干重)]。盆栽试验结果表明,该配方研制的生物有机肥能够很好地促进香蕉苗期的生长。

  4. Uso de los residuos sólidos mineros de la extracción del níquel como estimulantes para la producción de biogás. // Use of the nickel solid mining residuals as stimulants for the biogasproduction.

    I. Pereda Reyes


    like Fe, Ni and Co.A preliminary study of mining residues effect on anaerobic process is presented in this paper. Mining residues can be aperfect metal supplier, and indeed act as a biocatalyst. A characterization of the used mining residue (Cola was made. Itwas demonstrated that Cola did contribute essential nutrients to wastewater anaerobic process. There was bettereffectiveness under extreme conditions: less substrate and toxic concentrations in Nitrogen and Sulphur. In all cases, thebest answer was obtained when Cola concentration was around 3mg/l, with an organic matter removing of more than 80%.Keywords: Anaerobic digestion, biogas, trace metals, mining residues.

  5. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues in bench scale

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Celia; Hansen, Henrik K.


    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is considered a hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions; however, most commercial......-treated residue (pH 2). Our results show that the soluble fraction of the toxic elements Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn was removed from the feed solution and concentrated in the concentrate solution. Furthermore, the leaching (leaching test at L/S 2) of these elements was substantially reduced during treatment (fig. 1......). Between 57 and 83% of the APC residue was dissolved during treatment. The highest dissolution was seen for acid treated residue and the lowest for water pre-washed residue....

  6. Radio Frequency Solid State Amplifiers

    Jacob, J


    Solid state amplifiers are being increasingly used instead of electronic vacuum tubes to feed accelerating cavities with radio frequency power in the 100 kW range. Power is obtained from the combination of hundreds of transistor amplifier modules. This paper summarizes a one hour lecture on solid state amplifiers for accelerator applications.

  7. Predictions of biochar yield and elemental composition during torrefaction of forest residues.

    Bach, Quang-Vu; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Chu, Yen-Shih; Skreiberg, Øyvind


    In this work, a direct prediction method coupled with a consecutive reaction model is developed to estimate the biochar yield and elemental composition in a biomass torrefaction process. Norway forest residues were chosen as feedstock and torrefied at different temperatures under nitrogen atmosphere in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Obtained data were modeled to predict the mass loss during torrefaction. Distributions of initial, intermediate and final solid products as well as torrefaction kinetic parameters are reported. Thereafter, a direct method to predict the elemental composition of biochar is introduced. The results show that the decomposition of initial biomass to form an intermediate solid has higher conversion rate than the degradation of the intermediate. Moreover, the predictions reproduce well the experimental thermogravimetric curves and show composition trends similar to the literature data. This method is useful for the design and optimization of industrial torrefaction processes with predictable biochar yield and elemental composition.

  8. Phosphorus Recovery Using Zirconium-Loaded Saponified Orange Juice Residue

    Harada, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Mitsunori; Biswas, Biplob K.; Ohura, Seichirou; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Ishikawa, Susumu; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke

    Zirconium was immobilized to orange juice residue, to investigate the feasibility of using zirconium-loaded saponified orange juice residue (Zr-SOJR) for phosphorus recovery from secondary effluent and the extraction solution from incinerated sewage sludge ash by using H2SO4 and HCl. These had phosphorus concentrations of 68.2 mg/dm3 and 5.9 mg/dm3, respectively. The phosphorus removal rate secondary effluent increased with an increasing solid/liquid ratio in batch experiments. The adsorption capacity of Zr-SOJR was also compared with those obtained using a synthetic phosphorus solution and using zirconium-loaded ferrite. The prepared absorbent was effective for phosphorus removal and exhibited a reasonably high sorption capacity, twice that of zirconium ferrite. Secondary effluent was treated by packed column, and this reached break-through after 300 bed volumes. The results from phosphorous extraction from the ash indicate that can be treated with acid to efficiently recover phosphorous and thus can be absorbed by Zr-SOJR.

  9. Lactic Acid and Biosurfactants Production from Residual Cellulose Films.

    Portilla Rivera, Oscar Manuel; Arzate Martínez, Guillermo; Jarquín Enríquez, Lorenzo; Vázquez Landaverde, Pedro Alberto; Domínguez González, José Manuel


    The increasing amounts of residual cellulose films generated as wastes all over the world represent a big scale problem for the meat industry regarding to environmental and economic issues. The use of residual cellulose films as a feedstock of glucose-containing solutions by acid hydrolysis and further fermentation into lactic acid and biosurfactants was evaluated as a method to diminish and revalorize these wastes. Under a treatment consisting in sulfuric acid 6% (v/v); reaction time 2 h; solid liquid ratio 9 g of film/100 mL of acid solution, and temperature 130 °C, 35 g/L of glucose and 49% of solubilized film was obtained. From five lactic acid strains, Lactobacillus plantarum was the most suitable for metabolizing the glucose generated. The process was scaled up under optimized conditions in a 2-L bioreactor, producing 3.4 g/L of biomass, 18 g/L of lactic acid, and 15 units of surface tension reduction of a buffer phosphate solution. Around 50% of the cellulose was degraded by the treatment applied, and the liqueurs generated were useful for an efficient production of lactic acid and biosurfactants using L. plantarum. Lactobacillus bacteria can efficiently utilize glucose from cellulose films hydrolysis without the need of clarification of the liqueurs.

  10. Optimized Combination of Residue Hydrodesulfurization and Residue Fluid Catalytic Cracking

    Chen Junwu


    @@1 Introduction Combination of residue hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and resi-due fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) is a unique technologyfor processing high-sulfur residue. This paper discusses theoptimized combination of these two processes.

  11. Power generation from solid fuels

    Spliethoff, Hartmut


    Power Generation from Solid Fuels introduces the different technologies to produce heat and power from solid fossil (hard coal, brown coal) and renewable (biomass, waste) fuels, such as combustion and gasification, steam power plants and combined cycles etc. The book discusses technologies with regard to their efficiency, emissions, operational behavior, residues and costs. Besides proven state of the art processes, the focus is on the potential of new technologies currently under development or demonstration. The main motivation of the book is to explain the technical possibilities for reduci

  12. Speciation and recovery of chromium from chromite ore processing residues.

    Sreeram, K J; Ramasami, T


    The processing of chromite ore is associated with the generation of large quantities of solid wastes containing chromium, which have been disposed of as landfill for many years. The mobilization and operational speciation of chromium contained in soils contaminated with metal salts are important in terms of the environment. Several methods have been employed for the extraction and recovery of solid wastes. Chromium contained in contaminated soils and solid wastes can be categorized as exchangeable, oxidizable, carbonate-bound, reducible and residual. The results from this study indicate a need for efficient leaching methodologies in chromite ore processing plants to decrease the non-detrital fractions of chromium in the residue. Aggressive methodologies are required to recover chromium from the detrital fractions. The potential benefits of employing sodium peroxide for the complete recovery of chromium from chromite residue have been demonstrated, and the need to ensure the safety of the process has been emphasized.

  13. Solid-Phase Random Glycosylation

    Agoston, K.; Kröger, Lars; Dekany, Gyula


    Two different approaches were employed to study solid phase random glycosylations to obtain oligosaccharide libraries. In approach I, Wang resin esters were attached to the acceptors structures. Following their glycosylation and resin cleavage, the peracetylated components of the oligosaccharide ...

  14. Residuation Properties and Weakly Primary Elements in Lattice Modules

    C. S. Manjarekar


    Full Text Available We obtain some elementary residuation properties in lattice modules and obtain a relation between a weakly primary element in a lattice module M and weakly prime element of a multiplicative lattice L.

  15. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  16. Modelling pesticides residues


    This work is a contribution to the development of a specific method to assess the presence of residues in agricultural commodities. The following objectives are formulated: to identify and describe main processes in environment — plant exchanges, to build of a model to assess the residue concentration at harvest in agricultural commodities, to understand the functioning of the modelled system, to characterise pesticides used in field crops and identify optimisation potentials in phytosanitary...

  17. Solid phases of tenoxicam.

    Cantera, Rodrigo G; Leza, María G; Bachiller, Carmen M


    In this report we describe the preparation and characterization of four polymorphic forms of tenoxicam; they are, three 1:1 stoichiometric solvates with acetonitrile, dioxane, and N,N-dimethylformamide, and an amorphous phase obtained by recrystallization in various solvents. Polymorph IV and solvates with dioxane and N,N-dimethylformamide are reported for the first time in this paper. In addition, three solvates were crystallized in acetone, ethyl acetate, and isopropyl alcohol. These solid forms were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, optical microscopy, and elemental analysis. Solid-state properties, intrinsic dissolution rate, and dissolution kinetics from formulated tablets are also provided.

  18. Residual dynamics of thiacloprid in medical herbs marjoram, thyme, and camomile in soil

    YU Yun-long; WU Jia-lun; STAHLER Matthias; PESTEMER Wilfried


    Thiacloprid is a new insecticide of the chloronicotinyl family. To assess its risk after application, residual characteristics of thiacloprid in marjoram, thyme, and camomile and in soil were studied under field conditions. The active ingredient was extracted from the plant material using a mixture of acetone-water. After filtration, the extract was concentrated to the aqueous phase, diluted with water, and portioned against ethyl acetate on a matrix solid phase dispersion column. Thiacloprid was extracted from soil using a mixture of methanol-water, filtered, and reextracted (clean up) with dichloromethane. The residues were quantified using HPLC-MS-MS. The methods were validated by recovery experiments. Thiacloprid residues in marjoram, thyme, and camomile and in soil persisted beyond 10, 14, 14, and 21 d but no residues were detected after 14, 21, 21, and 28 d, respectively. The data obtained in this study indicated that the biexponential model is more suitable than the first-order function to describe the decline of thiacloprid in fresh marjoram, fresh thyme, and dried camomile flowers with half-life (t1/2) of 1.1, 0.7, and 1.2 d, respectively. However, both the first-order function and biexponential model were found to be applicable for dissipation of thiacloprid in soil with almost the same t1/2 values of 3.5 and 3.6 d.The results indicated that thiacloprid dissipates rapidly and does not accumulate in the tested herbs and in soil.

  19. Two-Stage Fungal Pre-Treatment for Improved Biogas Production from Sisal Leaf Decortication Residues

    Muthangya, Mutemi; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Kivaisi, Amelia Kajumulo


    Sisal leaf decortications residue (SLDR) is amongst the most abundant agro-industrial residues in Tanzania and is a good feedstock for biogas production. Pre-treatment of the residue prior to its anaerobic digestion (AD) was investigated using a two-stage pre-treatment approach with two fungal strains, CCHT-1 and Trichoderma reesei in succession in anaerobic batch bioreactors. AD of the pre-treated residue with CCTH-1 at 10% (wet weight inoculum/SLDR) inoculum concentration incubated for four days followed by incubation for eight days with 25% (wet weight inoculum/SLDR) of T. reesei gave a methane yield of 0.292 ± 0.04 m3 CH4/kg volatile solids (VS)added. On reversing the pre-treatment succession of the fungal inocula using the same parameters followed by AD, methane yield decreased by about 55%. Generally, an increment in the range of 30–101% in methane yield in comparison to the un-treated SLDR was obtained. The results confirmed the potential of CCHT-1 followed by Trichoderma reesei fungi pre-treatment prior to AD to achieve significant improvement in biogas production from SLDR. PMID:20087466

  20. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report

    Jewell, W. J.; Capener, H. R.; Dell& #x27; orto, S.


    The results of studies designed to evaluate the potential of rapidly improving the technology of anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues and methods of implementing it in existing agricultural operations are reported. The main objectives of this study were to: identify simple and low cost anaerobic fermentor design criteria that would be appropriate in small agricultural operations, develop high rate fermentor concepts that would enable multiple product recovery from the reactor, expand the information base particularly in the area of temperature influence on the process, and to review sociological and economic issues relating to implementation of fermentation technology. This study has identified several major anaerobic fermentation concepts which illustrate that the technology may be rapidly improved. A simple reactor design utilizing an unmixed plug flow concept was shown to be comparable to the more complex completely mixed reactor when using dairy cow residue. A high rate thermophilic reactor designed to encourage flotation of particulate solids illustrated that liquid, solid, and gaseous products can be generated within the anaerobic fermentor thus eliminating an additional dewatering unit process. A third reactor concept involved extension of the anaerobic attached microbial film expanded bed to the treatment of cow manure slurries. A high rate of methane generation was recorded. Comprehensive thermophilic fermentation studies (60/sup 0/C) indicated that the increased temperature resulted in little improvement in total quantity or the rate of yield of gas over that obtained with mesophilic fermentation with reactor retention periods greater than 10 days. Finally, other areas where preliminary date were obtained are noted.

  1. Solid-phase synthesis of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles.

    Canfarotta, Francesco; Poma, Alessandro; Guerreiro, Antonio; Piletsky, Sergey


    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic materials, generally based on acrylic or methacrylic monomers, that are polymerized in the presence of a specific target molecule called the 'template' and capable of rebinding selectively to this target molecule. They have the potential to be low-cost and robust alternatives to biomolecules such as antibodies and receptors. When prepared by traditional synthetic methods (i.e., with free template in solution), their usefulness has been limited by high binding site heterogeneity, the presence of residual template and the fact that the production methods are complex and difficult to standardize. To overcome some of these limitations, we developed a method for the synthesis of MIP nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) using an innovative solid-phase approach, which relies on the covalent immobilization of the template molecules onto the surface of a solid support (glass beads). The obtained nanoMIPs are virtually free of template and demonstrate high affinity for the target molecule (e.g., melamine and trypsin in our published work). Because of an affinity separation step performed on the solid phase after polymerization, poor binders and unproductive polymer are removed, so the final product has more uniform binding characteristics. The overall protocol, starting from the immobilization of the template onto the solid phase and including the purification and characterization of the nanoparticles, takes up to 1 week.

  2. 全自动固相萃取-气相色谱质谱法检测动物性食品中五氯酚钠残留量%Full-automatic Solid-phase Extractions and Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry in Detecting the Sodium Pentachlorophenate Residual Quantity in Animal Food

    黄季维; 梅玉琴; 刘天洁; 漆航


    目的:建立全自动固相萃取—气质法检测食品中五氯酚钠的方法。方法取20份猪肉、鸡肉样品,经乙酸乙酯—正己烷(50+50)混合液提取,氮气吹干后加2 mL乙腈溶解;通过全自动固相萃取仪以1 mL/min过SLC固相萃取柱萃取,用4 mL乙腈洗脱SLC固相萃取柱上吸附的待测物,氮气吹干,用乙酸酐—吡啶(50+50)衍生后,取有机相供气相色谱质谱测定。结果样品在0~200μg/L范围线性关系良好,相关系数r=0.999,最低检出浓度0.3μg/kg(5 g样品);10μg/L 加标样品五氯酚钠的回收率为108%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为5.3%;100μg/L加标样品五氯酚钠的回收率为102%,RSD为3.5%;200μg/L加标样品五氯酚钠的回收率为105%,RSD为4.8%。结论该方法简便准确,适用于动物性食品中五氯酚钠的检测。%Objective To establish a method of full-automatic solid-phase extractions and gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry in detecting the sodium pentachlorophenate residual quantity in animal food. Methods 20 pieces of pork and chicken samples were selected and extracted by the ethylacetate and normal hexane (50+50) miscible liquid, and dissolved by 2mL acetonitrile after dry under nitrogen, the full-automatic SPE apparatus was adopted for extraction through SLC solid phase extraction column at a 1mL/min rate, the adsorptive determinands on the SLC solid phase extraction column was cleared by 4mL methyl cyanide, and measured by organic phase gas chromatography mass spectrometry after dry under ni-trogen and derived from acetic anhydride- pyridine (50+50). Results The linear relationship of samples was good between 0 and 200 μg/L, and the correlation coefficient r=0.999, and the lowest detecting concentration was 0.3 μg/kg (5g samples), the recovery rate of 10μg/L spiked sample sodium pentachlorophenate was 108%, RSD was 5.3%, and the recovery rate of 10 μg/L spiked sample sodium pentachlorophenate was 102%, RSD was 3.5%, and the the recovery

  3. The thermoelastic excitation of air-solid interface waves using the pulsed laser

    HU; Wenxiang; QIAN; Menglu


    Applying the integral transform to the coupled problem of thermoelastic and heat conduction equations, the integral representation of the normal displacement field for the air-solid interface waves excited by a pulsed laser line source is obtained. The pole residues of the integrand are performed analytically, and the transient displacement field is calculated by using FFT technique. The thermoelastic excitation and detection of the air-solid interface waves is carried out by a laser ultrasonic system, on which the pulsed laser is focused into a line source onto the interface to excite the air-solid interface waves:leaky Rayleigh wave and Scholte wave, and the interface waves displacement signal is detected successfully by a SH130 laser heterodyne interferometer. The theoretic and experimental results are in good agreement.

  4. Fluidized-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Kudjoi, A.; Heinolainen, A.; Hippinen, I.; Lu, Y. [Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering


    Hybrid combined cycle processes have been presented as possibilities for power generation in the future. In the processes based on partial gasification of coal, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed char) contain unburned fuel, which is burned either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. Pressurised fluidised-bed (PFB) combustion of gasification residues were studied experimentally by Helsinki University of Technology. The gasification residues, i.e. cyclone fines and bed chars, came from pilot scale PFB gasification tests of bituminous coals. The combustion efficiency was high in cyclone fines combustion. The calcium sulphide oxidised effectively to calcium sulphate in the combustion of cyclone fines. In bed char combustion the residual sulphide contents in solids after combustion were still relatively high. In general, sulphur dioxide emissions in residue combustion were low. The recarbonation of calcium oxide was observed in bed char combustion. Fuel-N conversion to NO{sub x} during bed char combustion and in most of the test runs with cyclone fines was higher than in bituminous coal combustion. In bed char combustion the conversion was significantly higher than in cyclone fines combustion. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing excess air for both residues, as was expected. In bed char combustion the highest NO{sub x} emissions were measured at higher pressure. Calculated mass reactivity values of equal particle size of all bed chars studied had similar trends with burnout. The biggest particles had the lowest reactivity values throughout the combustion, while reactivity for finer particles was at considerably higher level and sharply increases with burnout. In the constant combustion conditions used in the tests, no significant differences were observed in rate-controlling mechanisms for bed char fractions studied. 25 refs., 13 figs., 15 tab.

  5. Solid electrolytic fuel cell

    Sakai, Masayasu; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Kamisaka, Mitsuo; Notomi, Kei.


    Concerning a solid electrolytic fuel cell with a gas permeable substrate pipe, a fuel electrode installed on this substrate pipe and an air electrode which is laminated on this fuel electrode with the electrolyte in between, the existing fuel cell of this kind uses crystals of CaMnO3, etc. for the material of the air electrode, but its electric resistance is big and in order to avert this, it is necessary to make the film thickness of the air electrode big. However, in such a case, the entry of the air into its inside worsens and the cell performance cannot develop satisfactorily. In view of the above, in order to obtain a high performance solid electrolytic fuel cell which can improve electric conductivity without damaging diffusion rate of the air, this invention proposes with regard to the aforementioned solid electrolytic fuel cell to install a heat resistant and conductive member inside the above air electrode. 6 figs.

  6. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation catalysts obtained from coal mineral matter

    Liu, Kindtoken H. D.; Hamrin, Jr., Charles E.


    A hydrotreating catalyst is prepared from coal mineral matter obtained by low temperature ashing coals of relatively low bassanite content by the steps of: (a) depositing on the low temperature ash 0.25-3 grams of an iron or nickel salt in water per gram of ash and drying a resulting slurry; (b) crushing and sizing a resulting solid; and (c) heating the thus-sized solid powder in hydrogen.

  7. Calibrações por meio da técnica da espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo para teor de extrativos totais, de lignina total e holocelulose usando espectros obtidos na madeira sólida / Calibrations using the technique of near infrared spectroscopy for content of extractives, lignin total and holocellulose using spectra obtained in solid wood

    Carlos Rogério Andrade


    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi obter curvas de calibrações por meio da técnica de espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo (NIRS para as propriedades teor de extrativos totais, lignina total e de holocelulose, usando espectros das faces radial, tangencial e transversal da madeira sólida. Foi utilizado um híbrido natural de Eucalyptus urophylla pertencente à empresa V&M Florestal, localizada no município de Paraopeba (MG. O híbrido tinha sete anos de idade e estava plantado em espaçamento de 3m x 3m. Os corpos-de-prova foram retirados ao longo de todo o fuste. O equipamento utilizado foi um espectrômetro da marca Bruker modelo MPA-R. Os espectros foram adquiridos na gama de 800 a 1.500 nm, em modo de reflexão difusa. Os modelos foram ajustados pelo método PLS-1. Foi utilizado o método da validação cruzada com pré-tratamentos de primeira e segunda derivada e remoção do espalhamento de luz. Pelos resultados conclui-se que: De maneira geral, os maiores valores de correlação foram obtidos a partir da média das faces tangencial, transversal e radial; as melhores calibrações foram obtidas quando aplicou-se o pré-tratamento de segunda derivada; melhores resultados: extrativos totais r = 0,66 e RPD = 1,3; teor de lignina total r = 0,70 e RPD = 1,5 e teor de holocelulose r = 0,66 e RPD = 1,4.AbstractThe purpose of this study was to obtain calibration curves using Near Infrared Spectroscopy Technique (NIRS for the determination of total extractive content, total lignin, and holocellulose, using the radial face, tangential, and transversal spectra of solid wood. We used a natural hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla owned by V & M Florestal, located in Paraopeba city (MG. The hybrid was seven years old and was planted in 3m x 3m space. The soils-proof was taken throughout the shaft. The used equipment was a Bruker spectrometer brand model MPA-R. The spectra were acquired in the range from 800 to 1,500 nm in diffuse reflection mode. The

  8. Effectively designed molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. residues by screening the library of non-imprinted polymers.

    Chen, Lingxiao; Ji, Wenhua; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Gao, Qianshan; Geng, Yanling; Huang, Luqi


    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with high selectivity and affinity to glabridin were designed based on the screening results of the library of non-imprinted polymers (NIPs). The NIP library contained 48 polymers that were polymerized with the combinations of different functional monomers, cross-linkers, and porogenic solvents. The distribution coefficient (k) values were used to estimate the affinity of NIPs to glabridin. The corresponding MIPs of the best three NIPs were prepared. After evaluating the imprinting effects and selectivity of the three MIPs, the performance of the best MIP as solid phase extraction sorbent was investigated. Glabridin with percent recovery of 83 was obtained from the extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (G. glabra L.) residues by molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE). Thus, this material can be successfully used for the extraction and purification of glabridin from G. glabra L. residues.

  9. Agro-industrial waste to solid biofuel through hydrothermal carbonization.

    Basso, Daniele; Patuzzi, Francesco; Castello, Daniele; Baratieri, Marco; Rada, Elena Cristina; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Fiori, Luca


    In this paper, the use of grape marc for energy purposes was investigated. Grape marc is a residual lignocellulosic by-product from the winery industry, which is present in every world region where vine-making is addressed. Among the others, hydrothermal carbonization was chosen as a promising alternative thermochemical process, suitable for the treatment of this high moisture substrate. Through a 50 mL experimental apparatus, hydrothermal carbonization tests were performed at several temperatures (namely: 180, 220 and 250 °C) and residence times (1, 3, 8 h). Analyses on both the solid and the gaseous phases obtained downstream of the process were performed. In particular, solid and gas yields versus the process operational conditions were studied and the obtained hydrochar was evaluated in terms of calorific value, elemental analysis, and thermal stability. Data testify that hydrochar form grape marc presents interesting values of HHV (in the range 19.8-24.1 MJ/kg) and physical-chemical characteristics which make hydrochar exploitable as a solid biofuel. In the meanwhile, the amount of gases produced is very small, if compared to other thermochemical processes. This represents an interesting result when considering environmental issues. Statistical analysis of data allows to affirm that, in the chosen range of operational conditions, the process is influenced more by temperature than residence time. These preliminary results support the option of upgrading grape marc toward its energetic valorisation through hydrothermal carbonization.

  10. Structure characterization of nanocrystalline Ni–W alloys obtained by electrodeposition

    Indyka, P., E-mail: [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Chemistry, 3 Ingardena St., 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Beltowska-Lehman, E.; Tarkowski, L.; Bigos, A. [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow (Poland); García-Lecina, E. [Surface Finishing Department, CIDETEC-IK4 – Centre for Electrochemical Technologies, P° Miramón 196, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain)


    Highlights: • Ni–W alloy coatings were electrodeposited from an aqueous electrolyte solutions. • The microstructure was studied with respect to electrodeposition process parameters. • We report optimal plating conditions for crack-free, nanocrystalline Ni–W coatings. • Crystalline Ni–W coatings exhibited the phase structure of an α-Ni(W) solid solution. • Coatings revealed tensile residual stresses and weakly pronounced 〈1 1 0〉 fiber texture. -- Abstract: Ni–W coatings of different tungsten content (2–50 wt%) were electrodeposited on a steel substrates from an aqueous complex sulfate–citrate galvanic baths, under controlled hydrodynamic conditions in a Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE) system. The optimum conditions for the electrodeposition of crack-free, homogeneous nanocrystalline Ni–W coatings were determined on the basis of the microstructure investigation results. The XRD structural characterizations of Ni–W alloy coatings obtained under different experimental conditions were complemented by SEM and TEM analysis. Results of the study revealed that the main factor influencing the microstructure formation of the Ni–W coatings is the chemical composition of an electrolyte solution. X-ray and electron diffraction patterns of all nanocrystalline Ni–W coatings revealed mainly the fcc phase structure of an α-Ni(W) solid solution with a lattice parameter increased along with tungsten content. The use of additives in the plating bath resulted in the formation of equiaxial/quasifibrous, nanocrystalline Ni–W grains of an average size of about 10 nm. The coatings were characterized by relatively high tensile residual stresses (500–1000 MPa), depending on the electrodeposition conditions. Ni–W coatings exhibited weakly pronounced fiber type 〈1 1 0〉 crystallographic texture, consistent with the symmetry of the plating process. Coatings of the highest tungsten content 50 wt% were found to be amorphous.

  11. Covariant Residual Entropy

    Hubeny, Veronika E


    A recently explored interesting quantity in AdS/CFT, dubbed 'residual entropy', characterizes the amount of collective ignorance associated with either boundary observers restricted to finite time duration, or bulk observers who lack access to a certain spacetime region. However, the previously-proposed expression for this quantity involving variation of boundary entanglement entropy (subsequently renamed to 'differential entropy') works only in a severely restrictive context. We explain the key limitations, arguing that in general, differential entropy does not correspond to residual entropy. Given that the concept of residual entropy as collective ignorance transcends these limitations, we identify two correspondingly robust, covariantly-defined constructs: a 'strip wedge' associated with boundary observers and a 'rim wedge' associated with bulk observers. These causal sets are well-defined in arbitrary time-dependent asymptotically AdS spacetimes in any number of dimensions. We discuss their relation, spec...

  12. Residual stress simulation of circumferential welded joints

    Melicher R.


    Full Text Available Residual stresses are an important consideration in the component integrity and life assessment of welded structure. The welding process is very complex time dependent physical phenomenon with material nonlinearity. The welding is a thermal process with convection between fluid flow and welding body, between welding bodyand environment. Next type of boundary conditions is radiation and thermo-mechanical contact on the outer surface of gas pipe in the near of weld. The temperature variation so obtained is utilised to find the distribution of the stress field.In this paper, a brief review of weld simulation and residual stress modelling using the finite element method (FEM by commercial software ANSYS is presented. Thermo-elastic-plastic formulations using a von Mises yield criterion with nonlinear kinematics hardening has been employed. Residual axial and hoop stresses obtained from the analysis have been shown. The commercial FEM code ANSYS was used for coupled thermalmechanical analysis.

  13. Residual-stress measurements

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)


    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  14. Decomposition of residue currents

    Andersson, Mats; Wulcan, Elizabeth


    Given a submodule $J\\subset \\mathcal O_0^{\\oplus r}$ and a free resolution of $J$ one can define a certain vector valued residue current whose annihilator is $J$. We make a decomposition of the current with respect to Ass$(J)$ that correspond to a primary decomposition of $J$. As a tool we introduce a class of currents that includes usual residue and principal value currents; in particular these currents admit a certain type of restriction to analytic varieties and more generally to construct...

  15. Sharing Residual Liability

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco


    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... allows policy makers to induce parties to undertake socially desirable care and activity levels. Traditionally, tort law systems have assigned residual liability either entirely on the tortfeasor or entirely on the victim. In this paper, we unpack the cheapest-cost-avoider principle to consider...

  16. Characterization of fish protein concentrate obtained from the Nile tilapia filleting residuesCaracterização do concentrado protéico de peixe obtido a partir dos resíduos da filetagem de tilápia do Nilo

    Janaína Maria Martins Vieira


    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain fish protein concentrate from mechanically deboned Nile tilapia using a modified methodology, as well as perform physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory analysis of the obtained product. The protein concentrate was obtained from mechanically deboned meat of Nile tilapia, by modifying an existing methodology, with changes in deodorizing and lipids removal steps. Chemical and physical-chemical raw material and product consisted of following analysis: moisture, fat, protein, ash, water activity and degree of lipid oxidation by the TBA test. The microbiological analysis consisted in the determination of Staphylococcus aureus, Coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonellasp. Test of Hedonic Scale assessed the acceptability of sensory attributes of appearance, color and aroma. Mechanically deboned meat and fish protein concentrate obtained, respectively, following values of chemical composition: moisture (77.24 and 4.85%, protein (17.48 and 85.16%, lipids (4.46 and 8.20% and ash (1.02 and 2.45%. Attributes of color and appearance obtained following percentages of acceptance, 46.67 and 60.0%. Aroma had a great rejection, reaching a frequency of 70.0%. The modification made in the methodology for processing of fish protein concentrate allowed to obtain a product with low fat content, reduced moisture, high protein content, and appropriate microbiological quality that enabling to get a product that can be used for enrichment protein of various foods.Este trabalho teve como objetivos a obtenção de concentrado protéico de peixe a partir da carne mecanicamente separada de tilápia do Nilo através de uma metodologia modificada, bem como realizar caracterização físico-química, microbiológica e sensorial do produto obtido. O concentrado protéico foi obtido a partir da carne mecanicamente separada de tilápia do Nilo, através da modificação de uma metodologia já existente, com alterações nas etapas de desodorização e

  17. Amorphous Solid Water:

    Wenzel, Jack; Linderstrøm-Lang, C. U.; Rice, Stuart A.


    The structure factor of amorphous solid D2O deposited from the vapor at 10°K has been obtained by measuring the neutron diffraction spectrum in the wave vector transfer from 0.8 to 12.3 reciprocal angstroms. The results indicate that the phase investigated is amorphous and has a liquiid-like stru......The structure factor of amorphous solid D2O deposited from the vapor at 10°K has been obtained by measuring the neutron diffraction spectrum in the wave vector transfer from 0.8 to 12.3 reciprocal angstroms. The results indicate that the phase investigated is amorphous and has a liquiid...

  18. Caracterização química e bacteriológica de polpa e surimi obtidos do espinhaço residual da filetagem de tilápia Chemical and bacteriological characterization of minced fish and surimi obtained from fillet frames of tilapia

    Silvia Conceição Reis Pereira Mello


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar rendimentos, composição centesimal e características bacteriológicas da polpa e do surimi de tilápia obtidos a partir da desossa mecânica de espinhaços residuais da filetagem de peixes de 400 a 650 gramas e oriundos de unidade de processamento oficial. As amostras foram divididas em quatro lotes, com intervalos de prazo de coleta de dois meses. As análises realizadas foram determinação do rendimento, composição centesimal (umidade, proteína, lipídios e cinzas e análises bacteriológicas: contagem de Bactérias Heterotróficas Aeróbias Mesófilas (CBHAM e Psicrotróficas (CBHAP; isolamento e identificação de Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e Escherichia coli. Os rendimentos obtidos para a polpa e o surimi em relação aos espinhaços foram, respectivamente, de 17,96 e 13,61%, observando-se diferença significativa (PThe aim of this study was to assess the yields, proximate composition and bacteriological characteristics of minced fish and surimi obtained from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus from 400 to 650 grams, recovered from fillet frames, after mechanical deboning. The samples were divided in four lots, collected each two months. The percentage yields were determined and the chemical analysis carried out included moisture, protein, lipids and ashes. Bacteriological analysis considered Heterotrophic Aerobics Mesophilics and Psychrotrophics bacteria count, isolation and identification of Salmonella spp., coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli. The yields obtained from minced fish and surimi, in relation with fillet frames, were 17.96% and 13.61% with significant gaps (P<0.05 between samples. The moisture, proteins, lipids and ashes percentage rate were for the minced fish: 80.69, 16.5, 3.14 and 0.50 and for the surimi: 80.82, 14.6, 0.27, and 0.98, with significant gaps (P<0.05 for lipids and ashes. The counted Mesophilics and Psychrotrophics Bacteria in the

  19. Inactivation of a solid-state detergent protease by hydrogen peroxide vapor and humidity.

    Biran, Suzan; Jensen, Anker Degn; Kiil, Søren; Bach, Poul; Simonsen, Ole


    An experimental study on solid-state stability of a detergent protease (Savinase) is reported. The inactivation kinetics of technical grade enzyme powder was determined as a function of gas phase H(2)O(2) concentration and humidity by employing a quick assay running over few hours instead of several weeks as typical in industry. The results indicated that enzymes adsorbed significant amounts of moisture and H(2)O(2) during exposure. The amount of adsorbed H(2)O(2) did not depend on humidity in the gas stream, which implied that water and H(2)O(2) were not competing for the same adsorption sites. Inactivation of the solid-state enzyme was caused by the mutual effect of increasing hydration and H(2)O(2) (g) concentration. No auto-proteolytic activity or covalently bound aggregate formation was detected. A simple mechanism for solid-state enzyme oxidation was proposed and the kinetic parameters in the resulting rate expression of inactivation were derived. A good agreement between the derived equation and experimental data was obtained. The oxidative alterations on Savinase were investigated by peptide mapping. Molecular mass examination of CNBr-cleaved fragments by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy located the oxidation-labile residue. Only one methionine (Met 222) was oxidized, while other residues remained unaffected. The study provides practical information on solid-state stability measurements of biocatalysts in oxidative environments.

  20. Quasihomomorphisms and the residue Chern character

    Perrot, Denis


    We develop a general procedure, based on the renormalized eta-cochain, which allows to find local representatives of the bivariant Chern character of finitely summable quasihomomorphisms. In particular, using zeta-function renormalization we obtain a bivariant generalization of the Connes-Moscovici residue formula, and explain the link with chiral and multiplicative anomalies in quantum field theory.

  1. Quasihomomorphisms and the residue Chern character

    Perrot, Denis


    We develop a general procedure, based on the renormalized eta-cochain, which allows to find "local" representatives of the bivariant Chern character of finitely summable quasihomomorphisms. In particular, using zeta-function renormalization we obtain a bivariant generalization of the Connes-Moscovici residue formula, and explain the link with chiral and multiplicative anomalies in quantum field theory.

  2. Designing with residual materials

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.


    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  3. Sharing Residual Liability

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco


    allows policy makers to induce parties to undertake socially desirable care and activity levels. Traditionally, tort law systems have assigned residual liability either entirely on the tortfeasor or entirely on the victim. In this paper, we unpack the cheapest-cost-avoider principle to consider...

  4. Residual stresses within sprayed coatings

    JIANG Yi; XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou


    Some important developments of residual stress researches for coating-based systems were studied. The following topics were included the sources of residual stresses in coatings: error analysis of Stoney's equation in the curvature method used for the measurement of coating residual stress, the modeling of residual stress and some analytical models for predicting the residual stresses in coatings. These topics should provide some important insights for the fail-safe design of the coating-based systems.

  5. Study of the obtainment of Mo{sub 2}C by gas-solid reaction in a fixed and rotary bed reactor; Estudo da obtencao de Mo{sub 2}C por reacao gas-solido em reator de leito fixo e rotativo

    Araujo, C.P.B. de; Souza, C.P. de; Souto, M.V.M.; Barbosa, C.M.; Frota, A.V.V.M., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)


    Carbides' synthesis via gas-solid reaction overcomes many of the difficulties found in other processes, requiring lower temperatures and reaction times than traditional metallurgic routes, for example. In carbides' synthesis in fixed bed reactors (FB) the solid precursor is permeated by the reducing/carburizing gas stream forming a packed bed without mobility. The use of a rotary kiln reactor (RK) adds a mixing character to this process, changing its fluid-particle dynamics. In this work ammonium molybdate was subjected to carbo-reduction reaction (CH4 / H2) in both reactors under the same gas flow (15L / h) and temperature (660 ° C) for 180 minutes. Complete conversion was observed Mo2C (dp = 18.9nm modal particles sizes' distribution) in the fixed bed reactor. In the RK reactor this conversion was only partial (∼ 40%) and Mo2C and MoO3 (34nm dp = bimodal) could be observed on the produced XRD pattern. Partial conversion was attributed to the need to use higher solids loading in the reactor CR (50% higher) to avoid solids to centrifuge. (author)

  6. 分子印迹固相萃取/毛细管电泳法检测牛奶中头孢噻肟残留%Determination of Cefotaxime Residue in Milk by Molecular Imprinted Solid Phase Extraction/Capillary Electrophoresis

    陈玎玎; 何东旭; 祁克宗; 陆翠珍


    采用分子印迹技术,以头孢噻肟(CTX)为模板分子,α-甲基丙烯酸(MAA)为功能单体,乙二醇二甲基丙烯酸酯(EGDMA)为交联剂合成了头孢噻肟分子印迹聚合物(CTX-MIP).以该分子印迹聚合物为固相萃取柱填料,毛细管电泳进行检测,建立了分子印迹固相萃取/毛细管电泳检测牛奶中头孢噻肟残留的方法.结果表明,CTX-MIP对CTX具有较高的选择性,萃取效果良好.该方法在CTX为5~ 100 mg/L范围内呈良好线性,相关系数(r2)为0.999 4;3种不同加标水平(10、50、100 mg/L)的回收率分别为78%、84%、86%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为3.5%~4.5%,检出限(LOD,S/N≥3)为98.52 μg/L,定量下限(LOQ,S/N≥10)为329.0 μg/L,符合兽药残留分析的要求.%A molecularly imprinted polymer for cefotaxime ( CTX - MIP) was synthesized by the molecular imprinting technique using cefotaxime ( CTX) as template molecule, ot-methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate ( EGDMA) as cross linking agent. By using the cefotaxime molecularly imprinted polymer as sorbent in solid-phase extraction column, a molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction - capillary electrophoresis (MISPE - HPCE) method was developed for the determination of cefotaxime residue in milk. The results showed that cefotaxime imprinted polymer exhibited a higher selectivity to cefotaxime compared with that of the non-imprinted polymer. The linear range of cefotaxime was in the range of 0. 5 - 100 mg/L, and the correlation coefficient was 0. 999 4. The recoveries at three spiked concentration levels of 10, 50, 100 mg/L were 78% , 84% and 86% , respectively, with RSDs of 3.5% -4.5% . The limit of detection(LOD, S/N≥3) and the limit of quantitation(LOQ, S/N≥10) were 98.52 μg/L and 329.0 μg/L, respectively. The method could meet the requirements for veterinary drug residue analysis.

  7. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina


    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A single-step pesticide extraction and clean-up multi-residue analytical method by selective pressurized liquid extraction followed by on-line solid phase extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for complex matrices.

    Rodrigues, Elsa Teresa; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Salgueiro-González, Noelia; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Alpendurada, Maria Fátima


    Pesticides, a group of compounds linked to human activity, may, when in toxic levels, have a profound effect on water quality, and hence result in adverse consequences to aquatic life and ultimately to human health. Analytical challenges arise when successfully trying to determine these levels in environmental complex matrices. Therefore, fast, simple, sensitive and selective analytical methodologies for multi-residue determination of pesticides (atrazine, azoxystrobin, bentazon, λ-cyhalothrin, penoxsulam and terbuthylazine) in sediment, macrophytes (algae and aquatic plants) and aquatic animals were developed and validated. The established methods were matrix-dependent and were based on Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction (SPLE) followed by on-line Solid Phase Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (on-line SPE-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). This cutting-edge research methodology uses a small amount of sample, is time saving and reduces the use of organic solvents in compliance with Green Chemistry principles. The analytical features were adequate for all compounds in all studied matrices. The established methodology was applied on real marine samples and no pesticide concentrations above their respective method quantification limits were measured in sediments or aquatic plants. However, terbuthylazine was found in the macroalgae Ulva spp. (108ngg(-1)dw) and all the prospected pesticides were measured above their respective method quantification limits in the bivalve Scrobicularia plana (atrazine: 48ngg(-1)dw, azoxystrobin: 64ngg(-1)dw, bentazon: 33ngg(-1)dw, λ-cyhalothrin: 2531ngg(-1)dw, penoxsulam: 50ngg(-1)dw, and terbuthylazine: 44ngg(-1)dw).

  9. The San Francisco Bay - Delta Wastewater and Residual Solids Management Study. Volume III. Technical Appendix. Wastewater Residual Solids Management Study


    1𔃾. It 20,-w *" A 1938 A \\A • 1937 AUG.󈧪 16 -- - ______ _____JULY 37 J 50 55 60 65 70 TEMPERATURE - FAHR . (Ref, 173, Fig. 5) SEASONAL EFFECT OF...Phosphcras is important for roof growth, ripening and resistance to plant disease . Potash is important for vigorous gowth, the development of the woody parts...of stems ar.d the pulp of fruit, the G-30 * U. 167 ocre-fcet/year A A formation of chlorophyll and resistance of plants to disease . Humus content is

  10. Residual stress profiling of an aluminum alloy by laser ultrasonics

    PAN Yondong; QIAN Menglu; XU Weijiang; M. OURAK


    A residual-stress profile along the thickness of an aluminum alloy sheet is determined by laser-ultrasonic technique. Surface acoustic waves are generated by a Nd:YAG pulse laser and detected by a Heterodyne interferometer on a lateral free surface of the sheet. The distribution of residual stress is determined by measuring the relative variation of the wavevelocities at different location of the sample along its thickness. This technique is validated by three different residual stress profiles obtained experimentally.

  11. Residual stress measurement in silicon sheet by shadow moire interferometry

    Kwon, Y.; Danyluk, S.; Bucciarelli, L.; Kalejs, J. P.


    A shadow moire interferometry technique has been developed to measure residual strain in thin silicon sheet. The curvature of a segment of sheet undergoing four-point bending is analyzed to include the applied bending moments, the in-plane residual stresses, and the 'end effect' of the sheet since it is of finite length. The technique is applied to obtain residual stress distributions for silicon sheet grown by the edge-defined film-fed growth technique.

  12. Avaliação de painéis produzidos a partir de resíduos sólidos para aplicação na arquitetura Evaluation of the properties of panels produced from solid residues for civil construction

    José C. Caraschi


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo o reaproveitamento de resíduos sólidos na preparação de painéis para uso na arquitetura. Para atingir as metas propostas, painéis foram preparados a partir de resíduos provenientes de embalagens cartonadas e plásticas, utilizando-se como elemento de reforço, resíduos lignocelulósicos (casca de amendoim e de arroz. A concentração e a natureza dos resíduos utilizados como matriz e como carga foram variadas gerando doze condições experimentais diferentes. As propriedades avaliadas dos painéis foram o módulo de ruptura, módulo de elasticidade, tração perpendicular à superfície, inchamento em espessura, absorção de água e densidade. Todos os ensaios foram realizados segundo as normas ASTM D1037 e EN 317, referente à chapa de partículas. Os resultados foram analisados segundo a norma ANSI A208.1 que especifica as propriedades de desempenho requeridas para as chapas de partículas. Os painéis foram classificados como de baixa densidade, podendo ser utilizados como forros, divisórias, revestimento decorativos e demais aplicações que requerem as mesmas propriedades físicas e mecânicas. Os painéis a base de embalagem plástica reforçados com casca de arroz apresentaram propriedades superiores do que os demais painéis produzidos. O elemento arquitetônico desenvolvido neste estudo representa um novo mercado potencial, podendo ser empregado no ambiente urbano e rural, atendendo ao conceito de produto ecoeficiente.This work aims to evaluate the utilization of solid residues in the preparation of panels for civil construction. Panels were prepared from residues based on multilayer packages and plastics, reinforced with lignocellulosics residues (peanut shells and rice hulls. Several blends were prepared with different ratios of components, resulting in twelve treatments. The following physical and mechanical properties were evaluated: modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture

  13. Ethanol and chemicals from wood residues

    Pye, K. [Lignol Innovations Corp., Media, PA (United States)


    Climate change mitigation issues have created new business opportunities for the forest products industry in terms of energy and chemicals production from renewable energy sources. Wood residues are currently used as low value solid fuel and for low efficiency liquefaction and gasification. However, wood in general is a poor choice for fuel. It is a much better source for industrial oxychemicals than coal, oil or natural gas. The market for oxychemicals is huge. Typical oxychemicals, which are made from starch and sugar, include acetic acid, ethanol, propanediol, ethylene glycol, acetone, acrylic acid, and glycerol. Wood contains the same glucose found in starch. Biorefining technology makes it possible to extract the glucose from the wood and convert it to oxychemicals. Biorefining separates the major components of woody biomass into cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and extractives. As a solid fuel, wood residues amount to $35 to $50 of electrical power per dry tonne. However, the value of wood as a purified chemical component is more than $750 per tonne. There is very strong government support in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Europe and Japan to develop biorefining and associated technologies. Canada is considering to invest C$575 million of its Kyoto funding to support fuel ethanol production. This paper described the Organosolv delignification process which uses aqueous ethanol at high temperature to separate wood residues into high value product streams. The characteristics of a Lignol Biorefinery demonstration plant in Miramichi, New Brunswick were described. This new technology offers the lumber industry with new opportunities to increase revenues from under-utilized wood residues. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  14. Residual gait abnormalities in surgically treated spondylolisthesis.

    Shelokov, A; Haideri, N; Roach, J


    The authors retrospectively studied seven patients who had in situ fusion as adolescents for high-grade (IV, V) spondylolisthesis unresponsive to more conservative means. All patients achieved solid bony union; their pain was relieved; and hamstring spasm had resolved. The authors sought to determine whether crouch gait or any other abnormalities could be demonstrated in patients exhibiting clinical parameters of success. Each patient underwent gait analysis, radiographic analysis, and a physical examination. Four of seven patients demonstrated slight degrees of forward trunk lean during varying phases of gait accompanied by increased hip flexion. One patient demonstrated increased trunk extension accompanied by limited hip flexion. Two patients were essentially normal. The authors were unable to quantify residual crouch in these patients with solidly fused high-grade spondylolisthesis.

  15. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Holubcik, Michal, E-mail:; Jandacka, Jozef, E-mail: [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia); Kolkova, Zuzana, E-mail: [Research centre, University of Žilina, Univerzitna 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)


    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  16. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Holubcik, Michal; Kolkova, Zuzana; Jandacka, Jozef


    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  17. 柠檬酸改性糠醛渣的制备%Preparation of Modified Furfural Residue With Citric Acid

    王昕; 邢琦; 任广军


    The preparation process of modified furfural residue with citric acid was studied as well as the optimum conditions for modification. The furfural residue was first pretreated, then it was treated by 20%isopropanol and 20%sodium hydroxide solution, at last the furfural residue was modified by citric acid to obtain the citric acid modified furfural residue. Effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, citric acid solution concentration, ratio of solid to liquid on the modification were investigated. The results show that,the best modification conditions are as follows:reaction time 60 min, reaction temperature 80 ℃, citric acid concentration 100 g/L, ratio of solid to liquid 1︰4. The modified furfural residue has good adsorption for methylene blue solution, removal rate can reach to 98.2%.%研究了柠檬酸改性糠醛渣的制备过程和条件。首先对糠醛渣进行预处理,然后分别用20%的异丙醇和20%的氢氧化钠溶液处理,最后用柠檬酸对其进行改性,得到柠檬酸改性糠醛渣。讨论了反应时间,反应温度,柠檬酸溶液浓度,固液比等因素对改性的影响。结果表明:当反应时间60 min,反应温度80℃,柠檬酸质量浓度100 g/L,固液比1︰3时获得的改性糠醛渣吸附亚甲基蓝效果最好,去除率可达到98.2%。

  18. Cadmium complexation by solid waste leachates

    Xu Ze Lun; Christensen, Thomas H.


    A previously reported method for determination of Cd species in solid waste leachates has been applied to ten leachate samples representing five different types of solid waste: refuse compost, flyash from coal combustion, sewage sludge, refuse incineration residues and landfilled municipal waste......, slowly labile complexes and stable complexes. Leachates originating from the same type of solid waste showed different fractions of Cd, in particular with respect to free divalent Cd and stable Cd complexes. Only coal flyash showed almost identical fractions of Cd in the two leachates. The latter is due...



    The pyrolysis of two types of tobacco residue was carried out at different pyrolysis temperatures between 300 and 600 °C and a residence time of 1 h in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the product distributions was investigated and the composition of the bio-oils identified. The variation in product distribution depended on both the temperature and the type of tobacco residues. The maximum liquid yields were obtained at 400°C for one sample and at 500°C for the ot...

  20. Residue Management: A Computer Program About Conservation Tillage Decisions.

    Thien, Steve J.


    Describes a computer program, Residue Management, which is designed to supplement discussions on the Universal Soil Loss Equation and the impact of tillage on soil properties for introductory soil courses. The program advances the user through three stages of residue management. Information on obtaining the program is also included. (ML)

  1. Residual contaminants in milk

    Nevijo Zdolec


    Full Text Available Various chemical agents are used during the whole production chain of milk and dairy products. Production of feedingstuffs is accompanied with pesticide usage, which may remain in environment, thus are transported through feeding into animals, animal products and finally in human organism. Preparation procedure and storage conditions of feed also influence on milk safety in the sense of mycotoxins entering into the food chain. Chemical agents are, on daily basis, used on dairy farms either as detergents or disinfections. The residuals of cleaning agents might remain in milk if the cleaning agents and its dosage are not performed adequately. Besides already mentioned agents, a great influence in milk production can bee seen through veterinary drugs usage, particularly antibacterial drugs (mastitis. Proper application of drugs and by following legal recommendation, a by-reactions can be avoided such as allergic reaction in humans, development of resisting bacteria or even undesirable influence on starter cultures in dairy products manufacture. The maximum residue limits, monitoring plan as well as sampling procedures are set up within the harmonization of Croatian and European legislation, in order to provide official control of residues in foodstuffs of animal origin.

  2. Modelling of classical ghost images obtained using scattered light

    Crosby, S.; Castelletto, S.; Aruldoss, C.; Scholten, R. E.; Roberts, A.


    The images obtained in ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal light sources are highly dependent on the spatial coherence properties of the incident light. Pseudo-thermal light is often created by reducing the coherence length of a coherent source by passing it through a turbid mixture of scattering spheres. We describe a model for simulating ghost images obtained with such partially coherent light, using a wave-transport model to calculate the influence of the scattering on initially coherent light. The model is able to predict important properties of the pseudo-thermal source, such as the coherence length and the amplitude of the residual unscattered component of the light which influence the resolution and visibility of the final ghost image. We show that the residual ballistic component introduces an additional background in the reconstructed image, and the spatial resolution obtainable depends on the size of the scattering spheres.

  3. Residue-free wines: fate of some quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides in the winemaking process.

    Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; De Melo Abreu, Susana; Caboni, Pierluigi; Angioni, Alberto; Alves, Arminda; Cabras, Paolo


    The fate of three fungicide residues (fenamidone, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin) from vine to wine was studied to evaluate the decay ratio and the influence of the technological process. The aim of this work was to identify pesticides that can degrade rapidly or be eliminated together with byproduct (lees and cake) of the winemaking process to obtain wine free of residues. The disappearance rate on grapes was calculated as pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the half-life (t(1/2)) was in the range from 5.4 +/- 1.9 to 12.2 +/- 1.2 days. The mechanism of dissipation of the three quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides was studied using different model systems. It was observed that the main mechanism responsible for disappearance was photodegradation. For active ingredients (ai) the half-lives of fenamidone, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin were 10.2 +/- 0.8, 20.1 +/- 0.1, and 8.6 +/- 1.0 h, respectively, whereas for formulation higher half-lives were observed when epicuticular waxes were present (from 13.8 +/- 0.2 to 26.6 +/- 0.1 h). After winemaking, fenamidone, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin residues were not detected in the wine, but they were present in the cake and lees. This was due to the adsorption of pesticide residues to the solid parts, which are always eliminated at the end of the alcoholic fermentation. The data obtained in these experiments suggest that these three active ingredients could be used in a planning process to obtain residue-free wines.

  4. Concepts and Methods of Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy Applied to Biomembranes.

    Molugu, Trivikram R; Lee, Soohyun; Brown, Michael F


    Concepts of solid-state NMR spectroscopy and applications to fluid membranes are reviewed in this paper. Membrane lipids with (2)H-labeled acyl chains or polar head groups are studied using (2)H NMR to yield knowledge of their atomistic structures in relation to equilibrium properties. This review demonstrates the principles and applications of solid-state NMR by unifying dipolar and quadrupolar interactions and highlights the unique features offered by solid-state (2)H NMR with experimental illustrations. For randomly oriented multilamellar lipids or aligned membranes, solid-state (2)H NMR enables direct measurement of residual quadrupolar couplings (RQCs) due to individual C-(2)H-labeled segments. The distribution of RQC values gives nearly complete profiles of the segmental order parameters SCD((i)) as a function of acyl segment position (i). Alternatively, one can measure residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) for natural abundance lipid samples to obtain segmental SCH order parameters. A theoretical mean-torque model provides acyl-packing profiles representing the cumulative chain extension along the normal to the aqueous interface. Equilibrium structural properties of fluid bilayers and various thermodynamic quantities can then be calculated, which describe the interactions with cholesterol, detergents, peptides, and integral membrane proteins and formation of lipid rafts. One can also obtain direct information for membrane-bound peptides or proteins by measuring RDCs using magic-angle spinning (MAS) in combination with dipolar recoupling methods. Solid-state NMR methods have been extensively applied to characterize model membranes and membrane-bound peptides and proteins, giving unique information on their conformations, orientations, and interactions in the natural liquid-crystalline state.

  5. Ni- and Zn-doped hematite obtained by combustion of mixed metal oxinates

    Barrero, C.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Arpe, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Av General Paz 1499, 1650, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sileo, E. [INQUIMAE y Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon II, Piso 3, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428EHA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sanchez, L.C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Zysler, R. [Centro Atomico Bariloche (CNEA), 8400 S.C. de Bariloche, RN (Argentina); Saragovi, C. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Av General Paz 1499, 1650, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail:


    We have studied the changes in the structural and magnetic properties of hematite obtained by a new method based on the combustion of mixed Fe(III){sub 0.95}, Ni(II){sub 0.05}- and Fe(III){sub 0.95}, Zn(II){sub 0.05}-oxinates. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the decomposition of the mixed oxinates proceeds in an overall weight loss formed at least by two stages and the weight loss is related to the formation of probably CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, and a solid residue. X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy reveal that the residue of the thermally treated Fe(III){sub 0.95}, Zn(II){sub 0.05}-oxinate is {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, whereas in the case of Fe(III){sub 0.95}, Ni(II){sub 0.05}-oxinate is Ni-doped {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Results suggest low Ni incorporation into the hematite structure. However, it was difficult to establish if Zn-for-Fe substitution in hematite had taken place. The comparison between the two hematites obtained in this work with a non-doped one shows reduction in the cell parameters, increment in the saturation hyperfine fields, and reduction in the Neel temperatures. The presence of the dopant, vacancy sites and lattice distortion are responsible for these effects.

  6. Microstructure and Residual Stress of Shot Coating

    Itoh, Yoshiyasu; Suyama, Shoko; Fuse, Toshiaki

    A shot coating process for metalizing at the surface of ceramics has been newly developed as the shot peening treatment. However, microstructure and residual stress of shot coatings, which have an important effect on the adherent strength of coatings and the strength of ceramic substrates, have not always been clarified. An experimental investigation on the microstructure and residual stress was carried out for the shot coating of aluminum on zinc-oxide substrate by comparison with the atmospheric plasma sprayed aluminum coatings. As a result, low porosity, low oxide content and flat surface could be obtained from the aluminum coatings formed by shot coating process in comparison with the atmospheric plasma sprayed aluminum coatings. Also, it was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction technique that the residual stress of shot coated aluminum over zinc-oxide substrate was high compressive in comparison with the atmospheric plasma spraying process.

  7. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat

    Ji-Hee Kim


    Full Text Available The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid–liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE and without heating (CEE were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE. The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA, but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat.

  8. Properties of sintered glass-ceramics prepared from plasma vitrified air pollution control residues.

    Roether, J A; Daniel, D J; Rani, D Amutha; Deegan, D E; Cheeseman, C R; Boccaccini, A R


    Air pollution control (APC) residues, obtained from a major UK energy from waste (EfW) plant, processing municipal solid waste, have been blended with silica and alumina and melted using DC plasma arc technology. The glass produced was crushed, milled, uni-axially pressed and sintered at temperatures between 750 and 1150 degrees C, and the glass-ceramics formed were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mechanical properties assessed included Vickers's hardness, flexural strength, Young's modulus and thermal shock resistance. The optimum sintering temperature was found to be 950 degrees C. This produced a glass-ceramic with high density (approximately 2.58 g/cm(3)), minimum water absorption (approximately 2%) and relatively high mechanical strength (approximately 81+/-4 MPa). Thermal shock testing showed that 950 degrees C sintered samples could withstand a 700 degrees C quench in water without micro-cracking. The research demonstrates that glass-ceramics can be readily formed from DC plasma treated APC residues and that these have comparable properties to marble and porcelain. This novel approach represents a technically and commercially viable treatment option for APC residues that allow the beneficial reuse of this problematic waste.

  9. A method for visualizing sound propagation in solids and liquids

    SHEN Jian-guo; ZHANG Hong-min


    A new method for visualizing sound propagation in solids and liquids is described in this paper. The method can show the sound propagation process dynamically in two dimensions. Compared with Schlieren method and dynamic photo-elastic method, this method cannot only show the sound field distribution in liquid and solid at different time moments, but also can be applied to non-transparent solid. In addition, it does not strictly require small residual stress of the sample. The sample can, therefore, be easily made. Because the acoustic field is obtained by indirect measurements, the recording can be affected by the after-shock of the receiving sensor and is prone to the influence of the direct wave of the liquid. Putting an aluminum plate into a liquid, we recorded the compression wave, shear wave and surface wave in the aluminum and, in the liquid we also recorded the direct wave and three head waves, which are directly coupled with the compression wave, shear wave and surface wave respectively. The recording clearly depicts the coupling relationship of the sound waves through the interface between the aluminum and the liquid. Putting a plexiglass into a liquid, we also recorded the sound waves in the plexiglass and the coupling relationship between the sound waves in the two mediums.

  10. Thermoluminescence Properties of Novel Self-Agglomerating CaSO4:Eu Phosphors Obtained by an Environmentally Friendly Method

    A. R. García-Haro


    Full Text Available In this work, we report the thermoluminescence (TL properties of self-agglomerating CaSO4:Eu samples obtained by an environmentally friendly coprecipitation technique. No binding material is needed to form solid CaSO4:Eu samples. Samples exposed to beta particle irradiation exhibit a TL maximum at 473.15 K when a 5 K/s heating rate is used, they are two times more sensitive than the TLD-100 commercial dosimeter, and their lower detection limit was determined to be less than 0.69 mGy. The computerized glow curve deconvolution carried out fitting the residual glow curves from McKeever method revealed that the whole glow curve is composed of four individual TL peaks with intermediate-order kinetics. The main peak order kinetics is b = 1.48. This result agrees with that computed using Chen’s formula.

  11. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Hugo de Almeida; Maria Helena Amaral; Paulo Lobão


    In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV) as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA tec...

  12. Truncated States Obtained by Iteration

    W.B.Cardoso; Almeida


    We introduce the concept of truncated states obtained via iterative processes(TSI)and study its statistical features,making an analogy with dynamical systems theory(DST).As a specific example,we have studied TSI for the doubring and the logistic functions,which are standard functions in studying chaos.TSI for both the doubling and logistic functions exhibit certain similar patterns when their statistical features are compared from the point of view of DST.

  13. Detailed analysis of a quench bomb for the study of aluminum agglomeration in solid propellants

    Gallier, S.; Kratz, J.-G.; Quaglia, N.; Fouin, G.


    A standard quench bomb (QB) - widely used to characterize condensed phase from metalized solid propellant combustion - is studied in detail. Experimental and numerical investigations proved that collected particles are mostly unburned aluminum (Al) agglomerates despite large quenching distances. Particles are actually found to quench early as propellant surface is swept by inert pressurant. Further improvements of the QB are proposed which allow measuring both Al agglomerates and alumina residue with the same setup. Finally, the results obtained on a typical aluminized ammonium perchlorate (AP) / hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant are briefly discussed.

  14. Geração e caracterização dos resíduos sólidos de serviços de saúde em laboratório de análises clínicas de Maringá, Estado do Paraná = Generation and characterization of solid residues in the health services of the clinical analysis laboratory of Maringá, state of Paraná

    Carlos de Barros Junior


    Full Text Available Os resíduos sólidos gerados em estabelecimentos de saúde (RSS representam uma pequena parcela dos resíduos gerados no meio urbano, mas não podem ser ignorados, devido ao grande caráter infeccioso, que pode causar acidentes intra e extra-hospitalares. O presente trabalho apresenta um enfoque sobre a situação atual na questão dos RSS geradospelo laboratório de análises clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, e realiza um inventário sobre os tipos de resíduos gerados nesse local. A avaliação qualitativa foi efetuada mediante inspeções técnicas, identificando, classificando e segregando os diferentes grupos de resíduos gerados de acordo com a RDC nº 33/2003, adaptada para a Resolução RDC nº 306/2004 (Anvisa. Para determinação das composições quantitativas foi pesado todo o resíduo gerado nesse laboratório durante dois períodos em cinco dias úteis, aferindo-se as massas dos resíduos separados de acordo com seus tipos, bem como suas procedências.Solid residues generated in health sectors (HSR represent a little part of residues which are generated in the urban environment. However, they cannot be ignored due to their great infectious potential, which may cause accidents inside and outside the hospitalenvironment. The present work has the aim to make an inventory about the types of the HSR generated in the clinical analysis laboratory of the State University of Maringá, state of Paraná. Technical inspections were made in order to provide a qualitative evaluationthrough the identification, classification and segregation of the different groups of residues generated, according to ANVISA (National Agency of Sanitary Vigilance, RDC nº 33/2003, adapted in the final study for the Resolution RDC nº 306/2004. Aiming to determine thequantitative composition, the weighting of every residue generated in the laboratory was proceeded twice a day during five days, measuring every residue mass selected

  15. Electrodialytically treated MSWI APC residue as substitute for cement in mortar

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Geiker, Mette Rica; Jensen, Pernille Erland


    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are considered hazardous waste and need pretreatment prior to possible reuse. Here, two MSWI APC residues, from which the most mobile fraction of heavy metals and salts has been removed by carbonation and...... and comparable to both the reference mortar and mortar with coal fly ash. These results indicate that electrodialytic remediation could be used a pre-treatment method for MSWI APC residues prior to reuse in mortar....

  16. Codex alimentarius approach to pesticide residue standards.

    Maybury, R B


    To protect consumers' health, most countries have maximum legal limits for pesticide residues in foods. Trade difficulties can arise when limits differ between countries. The Codex Alimentarius Commission was established in 1962 to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, the purpose of which is to protect consumer health and ensure fair practices in international food trade. The Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR), an intergovernmental body which advises the Commission on matters related to pesticide residues, is responsible for establishing maximum residue limits (MRLs) for pesticides in foods and feeds that move in international trade. Codex MRLs are based on residue data obtained mainly from supervised trials that reflect approved pesticide use in accordance with "good agricultural practice." MRLs must be toxicologically acceptable in terms of estimated pesticide intake by consumers. CCPR Working Groups examine problems related to establishing and implementing MRLs, including sampling and methods of analysis. Despite time and effort expended, acceptance and application of Codex MRLs face many problems in international trade.

  17. Study on properties of residue-residue contacts in protein

    王向红; 柯见洪; 郑亦庄; 陈爱; 徐银香


    Residue-residue contacts are very important in forming protein structure. In this work, we calculated the average probability of residue-residue contacts in 470 globular proteins and analyzed the distribution of contacts in the different interval of residues using Contacts of Structural Units (CSU) and Structural Classification (SCOP) software. It was found that the relationship between the average probability PL and the residue distance L for four structural classes of proteins could be expressed as lgPL=a+b×L, where a and b are coefficients. We also discussed the connection between two aspects of proteins which have equal array residue number and found that the distribution probability was stable (or un-stable) if the proteins had the same (or different) comnact (for examnle svnthase) in the same structural class.

  18. Study on properties of residue-residue contacts in protein

    王向红; 柯见洪; 郑亦庄; 陈爱; 徐银香


    Residue-residue contacts are very important in forming protein structure. In this work, we calculated theaverage probability of residue-residue contacts in 470 globular proteins and analyzed the distribution of contacts in thedifferent interval of residues using Contacts of Structural Units (CSU) and Structural Classification (SCOP) software. Itwas found that the relationship between the average probability -PL and the residue distance L for four structural classes ofproteins could be expressed as lgPL=a+b×L, where a and b are coefficients. We also discussed the connection between twoaspects of proteins which have equal array residue number and found that the distribution probability was stable (or un-stable) if the proteins had the same (or different) compact (for example synthase) in the same structural class.

  19. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    Wright, Steve


    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  20. Residual stress in quenched 7075 aluminum alloy thick plates

    林高用; 张辉; 朱伟; 彭大暑; 梁轩; 周鸿章


    The influence of quenching water temperature, pre-stretching amount and aging temperature and times on residual stress in 7075 aluminum thick plate was studied by the measurement of residual stress using drilling hole method. The results indicate that residual stress decreases by 30% with increasing quenching water temperature from 40 ℃ to 80 ℃, 20% with increasing aging temperature from 100 ℃ to 180 ℃,and 20% with increasing aging times from 5 h to 25 h. Also, residual stress decreases to zero with increasing pre-stretching amount to approximately 2%. Hence, residual stress in 7075 aluminum thick plate is reduced by the control of quenching water temperature at 80 ℃ and with pre-stretching amount of about 2%. An optimal aging temperature and time should be systemically investigated to obtain combination of high mechanical performances and lower residual stress for manufacturing of 7075 aluminum alloy thick plates.