Sample records for solid propellant motor

  1. Integral performance optimum design for multistage solid propellant rocket motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongtao (Shaanxi Power Machinery Institute (China))


    A mathematical model for integral performance optimization of multistage solid propellant rocket motors is presented. A calculation on a three-stage, volume-fixed, solid propellant rocket motor is used as an example. It is shown that the velocity at burnout of intermediate-range or long-range ballistic missile calculated using this model is four percent greater than that using the usual empirical method.

  2. Linear stability analysis in a solid-propellant rocket motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.M.; Kang, K.T.; Yoon, J.K. [Agency for Defense Development, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Combustion instability in solid-propellant rocket motors depends on the balance between acoustic energy gains and losses of the system. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of the program which predicts the standard longitudinal stability using acoustic modes based on linear stability analysis and T-burner test results of propellants. Commercial ANSYS 5.0A program can be used to calculate the acoustic characteristic of a rocket motor. The linear stability prediction was compared with the static firing test results of rocket motors. (author). 11 refs., 17 figs.

  3. Electric Propellant Solid Rocket Motor Thruster Results Enabling Small Satellites


    Koehler, Frederick; Langhenry, Mark; Summers, Matt; Villarreal, James; Villarreal, Thomas


    Raytheon Missile Systems has developed and tested true on/off/restart solid propellant thrusters which are controlled only by electrical current. This new patented class of energetic rocket propellant is safe, controllable and simple. The range of applications for this game changing technology includes attitude control systems and a safe alternative to higher impulse space satellite thrusters. Described herein are descriptions and performance data for several small electric propellant solid r...

  4. Solid propellant processing factor in rocket motor design (United States)


    The ways are described by which propellant processing is affected by choices made in designing rocket engines. Tradeoff studies, design proof or scaleup studies, and special design features are presented that are required to obtain high product quality, and optimum processing costs. Processing is considered to include the operational steps involved with the lining and preparation of the motor case for the grain; the procurement of propellant raw materials; and propellant mixing, casting or extrusion, curing, machining, and finishing. The design criteria, recommended practices, and propellant formulations are included.

  5. Solid propellant ignition motors for LH_2/LOX rocket engine system


    ARAKI, Tetsuo; AKIBA, Ryojiro; HASHIMOTO, Yasunari; AIHARA, Kenji; TOMITA, Etsu; YASUDA, Seiichi; 荒木, 哲夫; 秋葉, 鐐二郎; 橋本, 保成; 相原, 賢二; 富田, 悦; 安田, 誠一


    Solid propellant ignition motors are used in the series of experiments of the 10 ton LH_2/LOX engine featured by the channel wall thrust chamber, This paper presents design specification, experiments and results obtained by actual applications of those ignition motors.

  6. Development and Characterization of Fast Burning Solid Fuels/Propellants for Hybrid Rocket Motors with High Volumetric Efficiency (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposed work is to develop several fast burning solid fuels/fuel-rich solid propellants for hybrid rocket motor applications. In the...

  7. Research on combustion instability and application to solid propellant rocket motors. II. (United States)

    Culick, F. E. C.


    Review of the current state of analyses of combustion instability in solid-propellant rocket motors, citing appropriate measurements and observations. The work discussed has become increasingly important, both for the interpretation of laboratory data and for predicting the transient behavior of disturbances in full-scale motors. Two central questions are considered - namely, linear stability and nonlinear behavior. Several classes of problems are discussed as special cases of a general approach to the analysis of combustion instability. Application to motors, and particularly the limitations presently understood, are stressed.

  8. Development of efficient finite elements for structural integrity analysis of solid rocket motor propellant grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marimuthu, R.; Nageswara Rao, B.


    Solid propellant rocket motors (SRM) are regularly used in the satellite launch vehicles which consist of mainly three different structural materials viz., solid propellant, liner, and casing materials. It is essential to assess the structural integrity of solid propellant grains under the specified gravity, thermal and pressure loading conditions. For this purpose finite elements developed following the Herrmann formulation are: twenty node brick element (BH20), eight node quadrilateral plane strain element (PH8) and, eight node axi-symmetric solid of revolution element (AH8). The time-dependent nature of the solid propellant grains is taken into account utilizing the direct inverse method of Schepary to specify the effective Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. The developed elements are tested considering various problems prior to implementation in the in-house software package (viz., Finite Element Analysis of STructures, FEAST). Several SRM configurations are analyzed to assess the structural integrity under different loading conditions. Finite element analysis results are found to be in good agreement with those obtained earlier from MARC software. -- Highlights: • Developed efficient Herrmann elements. • Accuracy of finite elements demonstrated solving several known solution problems. • Time dependent structural response obtained using the direct inverse method of Schepary. • Performed structural analysis of grains under gravity, thermal and pressure loads

  9. Particle size determination in small solid propellant rocket motors using the diffractively scattered light method.


    Cramer, Robert Grewelle.


    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited A dual beam apparatus was developed which simultaneously measured particle size (D32) at the entrance and exit of an exhaust nozzle of a small solid propellant rocket motor. The diameters were determined using measurements of dif fractiveiy scattered laser power spectra. The apparatus was calibrated by using spherical glass beads and aluminum oxide powder. Measurements were successfully made at both locations. Because of...

  10. Finite element analysis of propellant of solid rocket motor during ship motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Qu


    Full Text Available In order to simulate the stress and strain of solid rocket motors (SRMs, a finite element analysis model was established. The stress spectra of the SRM elements with respect to time in the case that the vessel cruises under a certain shipping condition were obtained by simulation. According to the analysis of the simulation results, a critical zone was confirmed, and the Mises stress amplitudes of the different critical zones were acquired. The results show that the maximum stress and strain of SRM are less than the maximum tensile strength and elongation, respectively, of the propellant. The cumulative damage of the motor must also be evaluated by random fatigue loading.

  11. Test data from small solid propellant rocket motor plume measurements (FA-21) (United States)

    Hair, L. M.; Somers, R. E.


    A program is described for obtaining a reliable, parametric set of measurements in the exhaust plumes of solid propellant rocket motors. Plume measurements included pressures, temperatures, forces, heat transfer rates, particle sampling, and high-speed movies. Approximately 210,000 digital data points and 15,000 movie frames were acquired. Measurements were made at points in the plumes via rake-mounted probes, and on the surface of a large plate impinged by the exhaust plume. Parametric variations were made in pressure altitude, propellant aluminum loading, impinged plate incidence angle and distance from nozzle exit to plate or rake. Reliability was incorporated by continual use of repeat runs. The test setup of the various hardware items is described along with an account of test procedures. Test results and data accuracy are discussed. Format of the data presentation is detailed. Complete data are included in the appendix.

  12. A multilayered thick cylindrical shell under internal pressure and thermal loads applicable to solid propellant rocket motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renganathan, K.; Nageswara Rao, B.; Jana, M.K. [Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum (India). Structural Engineering Group


    A solid propellant rocket motor can be considered to be made of various circumferential layers of different properties. A simple procedure is described here to obtain an analytical solution for the general case of multilayered thick cyclindrical shell for internal pressure and thermal loads. This analytical procedure is useful in the preliminary design analysis of solid propellant rocket motors. Since solid propellant material is of viscoelastic behaviour an approximate viscoelastic solution methodology for the multilayered shell is described for estimation of time dependent solutions of propellant grain in a rocket motor. The analytical solution for a two layer reinforced thick cylindrical shell available in the literature is shown to be a special case of the present analytical solution. The results from the present analytical solution for multilayers is found to be in good agreement with FEA results. (orig.) [German] Der grundlegende Aufbau von Feststoffraketenmotoren kann auf einen Zylinder aus mehreren Schichten mit unterschiedlichen Eigenschaften zurueckgefuehrt werden. Eine einfache Berechnungsprozedur fuer die analytische Loesung des allgemeinen Falles eines mehrschichtigen Zylinders unter innerem Druck und thermischer Belastung wird hier vorgestellt. Diese analytische Methodik ist fuer den Auslegungsprozess von Feststoffraketenmotoren von grundlegender Bedeutung. Das viskoelastische Fliessverhalten des festen Brennstoffes, das den zeitlichen Ablauf des Verbrennungsprozesses wesentlich bestimmt, wird durch ein Naeherungsverfahren gut erfasst. Ein in der Literatur enthaltenes spezielles Ergebnis fuer einen zweischaligen verstaerkten Zylinder ergibt sich als Sonderfall der hier vorgestellten Methodik. Die analytisch erhaltenen Loesungen fuer mehrschichtige Aufbauten sind in guter Uebereinstimmung mit mittels der FEM ermittelten Ergebnisse. (orig.)

  13. Extension of a simplified computer program for analysis of solid-propellant rocket motors (United States)

    Sforzini, R. H.


    A research project to develop a computer program for the preliminary design and performance analysis of solid propellant rocket engines is discussed. The following capabilities are included as computer program options: (1) treatment of wagon wheel cross sectional propellant configurations alone or in combination with circular perforated grains, (2) calculation of ignition transients with the igniter treated as a small rocket engine, (3) representation of spherical circular perforated grain ends as an alternative to the conical end surface approximation used in the original program, and (4) graphical presentation of program results using a digital plotter.

  14. Solid propellant impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.


    Future space missions, as in the past, call for the continued use of radioisotopes as heat sources for thermoelectric power generators. In an effort to minimize the risk of radioactive contamination of the environment, a complete safety analysis of each such system is necessary. As a part of these analyses, the effects on such a system of a solid propellant fire environment resulting from a catastrophic launch pad abort must be considered. Several impact tests were conducted in which either a simulant MHW-FSA or a steel ball was dropped on the cold, unignited or the hot, burning surface of a block of UTP-3001 solid propellant. The rebound velocities were measured for both surface conditions of the propellant. The resulting coefficient of restitution, determined as the ratio of the components of the impact and rebound velocities perpendicular to the impact surface of the propellant, were not very dependent on whether the surface was cold or hot at the time of impact

  15. Design and Fabrication of a 200N Thrust Rocket Motor Based on NH4ClO4+Al+HTPB as Solid Propellant (United States)

    Wahid, Mastura Ab; Ali, Wan Khairuddin Wan


    The development of rocket motor using potassium nitrate, carbon and sulphur mixture has successfully been developed by researchers and students from UTM and recently a new combination for solid propellant is being created. The new solid propellant will combine a composition of Ammonium perchlorate, NH4ClO4 with aluminium, Al and Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene, HTPB as the binder. It is the aim of this research to design and fabricate a new rocket motor that will produce a thrust of 200N by using this new solid propellant. A static test is done to obtain the thrust produced by the rocket motor and analyses by observation and also calculation will be done. The experiment for the rocket motor is successful but the thrust did not achieve its required thrust.

  16. A parallel solution-adaptive scheme for predicting multi-phase core flows in solid propellant rocket motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, J.S.; Groth, C.P.T.; Gottlieb, J.J.


    The development of a parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) scheme is described for solving the governing equations for multi-phase (gas-particle) core flows in solid propellant rocket motors (SRM). An Eulerian formulation is used to described the coupled motion between the gas and particle phases. A cell-centred upwind finite-volume discretization and the use of limited solution reconstruction, Riemann solver based flux functions for the gas and particle phases, and explicit multi-stage time-stepping allows for high solution accuracy and computational robustness. A Riemann problem is formulated for prescribing boundary data at the burning surface. Efficient and scalable parallel implementations are achieved with domain decomposition on distributed memory multiprocessor architectures. Numerical results are described to demonstrate the capabilities of the approach for predicting SRM core flows. (author)

  17. Propellant selection for ramjets with solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmucker, R H; Lips, H


    Ramjet propulsion using solid propellant for post-boost acceleration of missiles exhibits several favorable properties, brought about by heterogeneous combustion. A simplified theory for calculating the performance of possible propellants is presented, and they are classified with respect to maximum fuel-specific impulse. The optimal choice of fuel, from a system standpoint, must consider volume constraints, and defines the requirements for motor geometry.

  18. Hazard Studies for Solid Propellant Rocket Motors (Etude des Risque pour les Moteurs-Fusees a Propergols Solides) (United States)


    Combustion Through Granulated Propellant to Predict Transition to Detonation," University of Illinois, Urbana . IL, Final Report, October 19"/6-September...Vol). i, p. 258, 15 -1 9) July 1985 (Albuquerque, NM). F. A. Williams. ’Asymptotic Methods in Ignition Theory," Memoria del VII Congreso de Ia Academia

  19. Nonsteady Combustion Mechanisms of Advanced Solid Propellants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Branch, Melvyn


    .... The individual tasks which we are studying will pursue solid propellant decomposition under unsteady conditions, nonsteady aspects of gas phase flame structure measurements, numerical modeling...

  20. Design methods in solid rocket motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A compilation of lectures summarizing the current state-of-the-art in designing solid rocket motors and and their components is presented. The experience of several countries in the use of new technologies and methods is represented. Specific sessions address propellant grains, cases, nozzles, internal thermal insulation, and the general optimization of solid rocket motor designs.

  1. Structure of Partially Premixed Flames and Advanced Solid Propellants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Branch, Melvyn


    The combustion of solid rocket propellants of advanced energetic materials involves a complex process of decomposition and condensed phase reactions in the solid propellant, gaseous flame reactions...

  2. Development of hydrazinium nitroformate based solid propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schöyer, H.F.R.; Schnorhk, A.J.; Korting, P.A.O.G.; Lit, P.J. van; Mul, J.M.; Gadiot, G.; Meulenbrugge, J.J.


    The development of new high-performance propellant combinations requires the establishment of safety and handling characteristics and thermodynamic decomposition and explosive properties. This paper addresses the early development phases of a new composite solid propellant based on HNF as oxidizer

  3. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (United States)

    Mitchell, Royce E.


    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

  4. Advanced technologies available for future solid propellant grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thepenier, J. [SNPE Propulsion, St Medard en Jalles (France); Fonblanc, G. [SNPE Propulsion, Vert le Petit (France). Centre de Recherche de Bouchet


    Significant advances have been made during the last decade in several fields of solid propulsion: the advances have enabled new savings in the motor development phase and in recurring costs, because they help limit the number of prototypes and tests. The purpose of the paper is to describe the improvements achieved by SNPE in solid grain technologies, making these technologies available for new developments in more efficient and reliable future SRMs: new energetic molecules, new solid propellants, new processes for grain manufacturing, quick response grain design tools associated with advanced models for grain performance predictions. Using its expertise in chemical synthesis, SNPE develops new molecules to fit new energetic material requirements. Tests based on new propellant formulations have produced good results in the propellant performance/safety behavior ratio. New processes have been developed simultaneously to reduce the manufacturing costs of the new propellants. In addition, the grain design has been optimized by using the latest generation of predictive theoretical tools supported by a large data bank of experimental parameters resulting from over 30 years' experience in solid propulsion: computer-aided method for the preliminary grain design; advanced models for SRM operating and performance predictions. All these technologies are available for industrial applications in future developments of solid propellant grains. (author)

  5. High burn rate solid composite propellants (United States)

    Manship, Timothy D.

    High burn rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface area grain geometries. Utilizing high burn rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high burn rate propellants allow for a higher volumetric loading which reduces the overall missile's size and weight. The purpose of this study is to present methods of achieving a high burn rate propellant and to develop a composite propellant formulation that burns at 1.5 inches per second at 1000 psia. In this study, several means of achieving a high burn rate propellant were presented. In addition, several candidate approaches were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe method with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based propellants using burn rate modifiers and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)-based propellants being selected for further evaluation. Propellants with varying levels of nano-aluminum, nano-iron oxide, FeBTA, and overall solids loading were produced using the HTPB binder and evaluated in order to determine the effect the various ingredients have on the burn rate and to find a formulation that provides the burn rate desired. Experiments were conducted to compare the burn rates of propellants using the binders HTPB and DCPD. The DCPD formulation matched that of the baseline HTPB mix. Finally, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstock dogbones were attempted to be made for mechanical evaluation. Results from the study show that nano-additives have a substantial effect on propellant burn rate with nano-iron oxide having the largest influence. Of the formulations tested, the highest burn rate was a 84% solids loading mix using nano-aluminum nano-iron oxide, and ammonium perchlorate in a 3:1(20 micron: 200 micron) ratio which achieved a burn rate of 1.2 inches per second at 1000

  6. On Nonlinear Combustion Instability in Liquid Propellant Rocket Motors (United States)

    Sims, J. D. (Technical Monitor); Flandro, Gary A.; Majdalani, Joseph; Sims, Joseph D.


    All liquid propellant rocket instability calculations in current use have limited value in the predictive sense and serve mainly as a correlating framework for the available data sets. The well-known n-t model first introduced by Crocco and Cheng in 1956 is still used as the primary analytical tool of this type. A multitude of attempts to establish practical analytical methods have achieved only limited success. These methods usually produce only stability boundary maps that are of little use in making critical design decisions in new motor development programs. Recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of combustion instability in solid propellant rockets"' provides a firm foundation for a new approach to prediction, diagnosis, and correction of the closely related problems in liquid motor instability. For predictive tools to be useful in the motor design process, they must have the capability to accurately determine: 1) time evolution of the pressure oscillations and limit amplitude, 2) critical triggering pulse amplitude, and 3) unsteady heat transfer rates at injector surfaces and chamber walls. The method described in this paper relates these critical motor characteristics directly to system design parameters. Inclusion of mechanisms such as wave steepening, vorticity production and transport, and unsteady detonation wave phenomena greatly enhance the representation of key features of motor chamber oscillatory behavior. The basic theoretical model is described and preliminary computations are compared to experimental data. A plan to develop the new predictive method into a comprehensive analysis tool is also described.

  7. Study of Liquid Breakup Process in Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle (United States)


    Laboratory, Edwards, CA Abstract In a solid rocket motor (SRM), when the aluminum based propellant combusts, the fuel is oxidized into alumina (Al2O3...34Chemical Erosion of Refractory-Metal Nozzle Inserts in Solid - Propellant Rocket Motors," J. Propulsion and Power, Vol. 25, no.1,, 2009. [4] E. Y. Wong...34 Solid Rocket Nozzle Design Summary," in 4th AIAA Propulsion Joint Specialist Conference, Cleveland, OH, 1968. [5] Nayfeh, A. H.; Saric, W. S

  8. Parameters Affecting the Erosive Burning of Solid Rocket Motor


    Abdelaziz Almostafa; Guozhu Liang; Elsayed Anwer


    Increasing the velocity of gases inside solid rocket motors with low port-to-throat area ratios, leading to increased occurrence and severity of burning rate augmentation due to flow of propellant products across burning propellant surfaces (erosive burning), erosive burning of high energy composite propellant was investigated to supply rocket motor design criteria and to supplement knowledge of combustion phenomena, pressure, burning rate and high velocity of gases all of these are parameter...

  9. Solid State MEMS Thrusters Using Electrically Controlled Extinguishable Solid Propellant, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ET Materials, LLC developed the first ever electrically controlled extinguishable solid propellant (ECESP). The original propellant developed under Air Force SBIR...

  10. A novel kind of solid rocket propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, R.E. [Berlin University of Technology (Germany). Rocket Technology at the Aerospace Institute (ILR)


    Cryogenic Solid Propellants (CSPs) combine the simplicity of conventional solid propulsion with the high performance of liquid propulsion. By introducing materials that require cooling for remaining solid, CSPs offer an almost unlimited choice of propellant constituents that mights be selected with respect to specific impulse, density or environmental protection. The prize to be paid for these advantages is the necessity of constant cooling and the requirement of special design features that provide combustion control by moving from deflagration to hybrid like boundary layer combustion. This is achieved by building the solid propellant grains out of macroscopic elements rather than using the quasi homogeneous mixture of conventional composites. The elements may be coated, providing protection and support. Different elements may be designed for individual tasks and serve as modules for ignition, sustained combustion, gas generation, combustion efficiency enhancement, etc. Modular dissected grains offer many new ways of interaction inside the combustion chamber and new degrees of freedom for the designer of such `multiple internal hybrid grains`. At a preliminary level, a study finished in Germany 1997 demonstrated large payload gains when the US space Shuttle and the ARIANE 5 boosters were replaced by CSP-boosters. A very preliminary cost analysis resulted in development costs in the usual magnitude (but not in higher ones). Costs of operation were identified as crucial, but not established. Some experimental work in Germany is scheduled to begin in 1998, almost all details in this article (and many more that were not mentioned - most prominent cost analyses of CSP development and operations) wait for deeper analysis and verification. Actually, a whole new world new of world of chemical propulsion awaits exploration. The topic can be looked up and discussed at the web site of the Advanced Propulsion Workshop of the International Academy of Astronautics. The author

  11. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    Graves, S. R.


    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  12. Studies on Flame Spread with Sudden Expansions of Ports of Solid Propellant Rockets under Elevated Pressure.


    B.N. Raghunandan; N.S. Madhavan; C. Sanjeev; V.R.S. Kumar


    A detailed experimental study on flame spread over non-uniform ports of solid propellant rockets has been carried out. An idealised. 2-dimensional laboratory motor was used for the experimental study with the aid of cinephotography. Freshly prepared rectangular HTPB propellant with backward facing step was used as the specimenfor this study. It has been shown conclusively that under certain conditions of step location. step height and port height which govern the velocity of gases at the step...

  13. Nano and micro architectures for self-propelled motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Jemish; Ma, Xing; Katuri, Jaideep; Simmchen, Juliane; Stanton, Morgan M; Trichet-Paredes, Carolina; Soler, Lluís; Sanchez, Samuel


    Self-propelled micromotors are emerging as important tools that help us understand the fundamentals of motion at the microscale and the nanoscale. Development of the motors for various biomedical and environmental applications is being pursued. Multiple fabrication methods can be used to construct the geometries of different sizes of motors. Here, we present an overview of appropriate methods of fabrication according to both size and shape requirements and the concept of guiding the catalytic motors within the confines of wall. Micromotors have also been incorporated with biological systems for a new type of fabrication method for bioinspired hybrid motors using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. The 3D printed hybrid and bioinspired motors can be propelled by using ultrasound or live cells, offering a more biocompatible approach when compared to traditional catalytic motors. (focus issue paper)

  14. Experimental investigation of solid rocket motors for small sounding rockets (United States)

    Suksila, Thada


    Experimentation and research of solid rocket motors are important subjects for aerospace engineering students. However, many institutes in Thailand rarely include experiments on solid rocket motors in research projects of aerospace engineering students, mainly because of the complexity of mixing the explosive propellants. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a solid rocket motor for total impulse in the class I-J that can be utilised as a small sounding rocket by researchers in the near future. Initially, the test stands intended for measuring the pressure in the combustion chamber and the thrust of the solid rocket motor were designed and constructed. The basic design of the propellant configuration was evaluated. Several formulas and ratios of solid propellants were compared for achieving the maximum thrust. The convenience of manufacturing and casting of the fabricated solid rocket motors were a critical consideration. The motor structural analysis such as the combustion chamber wall thickness was also discussed. Several types of nozzles were compared and evaluated for ensuring the maximum thrust of the solid rocket motors during the experiments. The theory of heat transfer analysis in the combustion chamber was discussed and compared with the experimental data.

  15. Crusader solid propellant best technical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bader, G. [Fire Support Armament Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (United States); Dolecki, M. [Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Picatinny, NJ (United States); Krupski, S. [Benet Weapons Lab., Watervliet Arsenal, NY (United States); Zangrando, R. [Close Combat Armament Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (United States)


    The goal of the Solid Propellant Resupply Team is to develop Crusader system concepts capable of automatically handling 155mm projectiles and Modular Artillery Charges (MACs) based on system requirements. The system encompasses all aspects of handling from initial input into a resupply vehicle (RSV) to the final loading into the breech of the self-propelled howitzer (SPH). The team, comprised of persons from military and other government organizations, developed concepts for the overall vehicles as well as their interior handling components. An intermediate review was conducted on those components, and revised concepts were completed in May 1995. A concept evaluation was conducted on the finalized concepts, from both a systems level and a component level. The team`s Best Technical Approach (BTA) concept was selected from that evaluation. Both vehicles in the BTA have a front-engine configuration with the crew situated behind the engine-low in the vehicles. The SPH concept utilizes an automated reload port at the rear of the vehicle, centered high. The RSV transfer boom will dock with this port to allow automated ammunition transfer. The SPH rearm system utilizes fully redundant dual loaders. Active magazines are used for both projectiles and MACs. The SPH also uses a nonconventional tilted ring turret configuration to maximize the available interior volume in the vehicle. This configuration can be rearmed at any elevation angle but only at 0{degree} azimuth. The RSV configuration is similar to that of the SPH. The RSV utilizes passive storage racks with a pick-and-place manipulator for handling the projectiles and active magazines for the MACs. A telescoping transfer boom extends out the front of the vehicle over the crew and engine.

  16. Studies on composite solid propellant with tri-modal ammonium perchlorate containing an ultrafine fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Suresh Babu


    Full Text Available Composite solid propellant is prepared using tri-modal Ammonium perchlorate (AP containing coarse, fine and ultrafine fractions of AP with average particle size (APS 340, 40 and 5 μm respectively, in various compositions and their rheological, mechanical and burn rate characteristics are evaluated. The optimum combination of AP coarse to fine to ultrafine weight fraction was obtained by testing of series of propellant samples by varying the AP fractions at fixed solid loading. The concentration of aluminium was maintained constant throughout the experiments for ballistics requirement. The propellant formulation prepared using AP with coarse to fine to ultrafine ratio of 67:24:9 has lowest viscosity for the propellant paste and highest tensile strength due to dense packing as supported by the literature. A minimum modulus value was also observed at 9 wt. % of ultrafine AP concentration indicates the maximum solids packing density at this ratio of AP fractions. The burn rate is evaluated at different pressures to obtain pressure exponent. Incorporation of ultrafine fraction of AP in propellant increased burn rate without adversely affecting the pressure exponent. Higher solid loading propellants are prepared by increased AP concentration from 67 to 71 wt. % using AP with coarse to fine to ultrafine ratio of 67:24:9. Higher solid content up to 89 wt. % was achieved and hence increased solid motor performance. The unloading viscosity showed a trend with increased AP content and the propellant couldn't able to cast beyond 71 wt. % of AP. Mechanical properties were also studied and from the experiments noticed that % elongation decreased with increased AP content from 67 to 71 wt.%, whereas tensile strength and modulus increased. Burn rate increased with increased AP content and observed that pressure exponent also increased and it is high for the propellant containing with 71 wt.% of AP due to increased oxidiser to fuel ratio. Catalysed

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Combustion Instability in Solid Rocket Motor : Implementation of Pressure Coupled Response Function


    S. Saha; D. Chakraborty


    Combustion instability in solid propellant rocket motor is numerically simulated by implementing propellant response function with quasi steady homogeneous one dimensional formulation. The convolution integral of propellant response with pressure history is implemented through a user defined function in commercial computational fluid dynamics software. The methodology is validated against literature reported motor test and other simulation results. Computed amplitude of pressure fluctuations ...

  18. Development of strand burner for solid propellant burning rate studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A; Mamat, R; Ali, W K Wan


    It is well-known that a strand burner is an apparatus that provides burning rate measurements of a solid propellant at an elevated pressure in order to obtain the burning characteristics of a propellant. This paper describes the facilities developed by author that was used in his studies. The burning rate characteristics of solid propellant have be evaluated over five different chamber pressures ranging from 1 atm to 31 atm using a strand burner. The strand burner has a mounting stand that allows the propellant strand to be mounted vertically. The strand was ignited electrically using hot wire, and the burning time was recorded by electronic timer. Wire technique was used to measure the burning rate. Preliminary results from these techniques are presented. This study shows that the strand burner can be used on propellant strands to obtain accurate low pressure burning rate data

  19. Design and Evaluation of a Turbojet Exhaust Simulator, Utilizing a Solid-Propellant Rocket Motor, for use in Free-Flight Aerodynamic Research Models (United States)

    deMoraes, Carlos A.; Hagginbothom, William K., Jr.; Falanga, Ralph A.


    A method has been developed for modifying a rocket motor so that its exhaust characteristics simulate those of a turbojet engine. The analysis necessary to the design is presented along with tests from which the designs are evaluated. Simulation was found to be best if the exhaust characteristics to be duplicated were those of a turbojet engine at high altitudes and with the afterburner operative.

  20. Design of a Subscale Propellant Slag Evaluation Motor Using Two-Phase Fluid Dynamic Analysis (United States)

    Whitesides, R. Harold; Dill, Richard A.; Purinton, David C.; Sambamurthi, Jay K.


    Small pressure perturbations in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) are caused by the periodic expulsion of molten aluminum oxide slag from a pool that collects in the aft end of the motor around the submerged nozzle nose during the last half of motor operation. It is suspected that some motors produce more slag than others due to differences in aluminum oxide agglomerate particle sizes that may relate to subtle differences in propellant ingredient characteristics such as particle size distributions or processing variations. A subscale motor experiment was designed to determine the effect of propellant ingredient characteristics on the propensity for slag production. An existing 5 inch ballistic test motor was selected as the basic test vehicle. The standard converging/diverging nozzle was replaced with a submerged nose nozzle design to provide a positive trap for the slag that would increase the measured slag weights. Two-phase fluid dynamic analyses were performed to develop a nozzle nose design that maintained similitude in major flow field features with the full scale RSRM. The 5 inch motor was spun about its longitudinal axis to further enhance slag collection and retention. Two-phase flow analysis was used to select an appropriate spin rate along with other considerations, such as avoiding bum rate increases due to radial acceleration effects. Aluminum oxide particle distributions used in the flow analyses were measured in a quench bomb for RSRM type propellants with minor variations in ingredient characteristics. Detailed predictions for slag accumulation weights during motor bum compared favorably with slag weight data taken from defined zones in the subscale motor and nozzle. The use of two-phase flow analysis proved successful in gauging the viability of the experimental program during the planning phase and in guiding the design of the critical submerged nose nozzle.

  1. Effect of Chamber Pressurization Rate on Combustion and Propagation of Solid Propellant Cracks (United States)

    Yuan, Wei-Lan; Wei, Shen; Yuan, Shu-Shen


    area of the propellant grain satisfies the designed value. But cracks in propellant grain can be generated during manufacture, storage, handing and so on. The cracks can provide additional surface area for combustion. The additional combustion may significantly deviate the performance of the rocket motor from the designed conditions, even lead to explosive catastrophe. Therefore a thorough study on the combustion, propagation and fracture of solid propellant cracks must be conducted. This paper takes an isolated propellant crack as the object and studies the effect of chamber pressurization rate on the combustion, propagation and fracture of the crack by experiment and theoretical calculation. deformable, the burning inside a solid propellant crack is a coupling of solid mechanics and combustion dynamics. In this paper, a theoretical model describing the combustion, propagation and fracture of the crack was formulated and solved numerically. The interaction of structural deformation and combustion process was included in the theoretical model. The conservation equations for compressible fluid flow, the equation of state for perfect gas, the heat conducting equation for the solid-phase, constitutive equation for propellant, J-integral fracture criterion and so on are used in the model. The convective burning inside the crack and the propagation and fracture of the crack were numerically studied by solving the set of nonlinear, inhomogeneous gas-phase governing equations and solid-phase equations. On the other hand, the combustion experiments for propellant specimens with a precut crack were conducted by RTR system. Predicted results are in good agreement with experimental data, which validates the reasonableness of the theoretical model. Both theoretical and experimental results indicate that the chamber pressurization rate has strong effects on the convective burning in the crack, crack fracture initiation and fracture pattern.

  2. Feasibility Study and Demonstration of an Aluminum and Ice Solid Propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothee L. Pourpoint


    Full Text Available Aluminum-water reactions have been proposed and studied for several decades for underwater propulsion systems and applications requiring hydrogen generation. Aluminum and water have also been proposed as a frozen propellant, and there have been proposals for other refrigerated propellants that could be mixed, frozen in situ, and used as solid propellants. However, little work has been done to determine the feasibility of these concepts. With the recent availability of nanoscale aluminum, a simple binary formulation with water is now feasible. Nanosized aluminum has a lower ignition temperature than micron-sized aluminum particles, partly due to its high surface area, and burning times are much faster than micron aluminum. Frozen nanoscale aluminum and water mixtures are stable, as well as insensitive to electrostatic discharge, impact, and shock. Here we report a study of the feasibility of an nAl-ice propellant in small-scale rocket experiments. The focus here is not to develop an optimized propellant; however improved formulations are possible. Several static motor experiments have been conducted, including using a flight-weight casing. The flight weight casing was used in the first sounding rocket test of an aluminum-ice propellant, establishing a proof of concept for simple propellant mixtures making use of nanoscale particles.

  3. Using PDV to Understand Damage in Rocket Motor Propellants (United States)

    Tear, Gareth; Chapman, David; Ottley, Phillip; Proud, William; Gould, Peter; Cullis, Ian


    There is a continuing requirement to design and manufacture insensitive munition (IM) rocket motors for in-service use under a wide range of conditions, particularly due to shock initiation and detonation of damaged propellant spalled across the central bore of the rocket motor (XDT). High speed photography has been crucial in determining this behaviour, however attempts to model the dynamic behaviour are limited by the lack of precision particle and wave velocity data with which to validate against. In this work Photonic Doppler Velocimetery (PDV) has been combined with high speed video to give accurate point velocity and timing measurements of the rear surface of a propellant block impacted by a fragment travelling upto 1.4 km s-1. By combining traditional high speed video with PDV through a dichroic mirror, the point of velocity measurement within the debris cloud has been determined. This demonstrates a new capability to characterise the damage behaviour of a double base rocket motor propellant and hence validate the damage and fragmentation algorithms used in the numerical simulations.

  4. Parameters Affecting the Erosive Burning of Solid Rocket Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Almostafa


    Full Text Available Increasing the velocity of gases inside solid rocket motors with low port-to-throat area ratios, leading to increased occurrence and severity of burning rate augmentation due to flow of propellant products across burning propellant surfaces (erosive burning, erosive burning of high energy composite propellant was investigated to supply rocket motor design criteria and to supplement knowledge of combustion phenomena, pressure, burning rate and high velocity of gases all of these are parameters affect on erosive burning. Investigate the phenomena of the erosive burning by using the 2’inch rocket motor and modified one. Different tests applied to fulfil all the parameters that calculated out from the experiments and by studying the pressure time curve and erosive burning phenomena.

  5. Rocket Solid Propellant Alternative Based on Ammonium Dinitramide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore CICAN


    Full Text Available Due to the continuous run for a green environment the current article proposes a new type of solid propellant based on the fairly new synthesized oxidizer, ammonium dinitramide (ADN. Apart of having a higher specific impulse than the worldwide renowned oxidizer, ammonium perchlorate, ADN has the advantage, of leaving behind only nitrogen, oxygen and water after decomposing at high temperatures and therefore totally avoiding the formation of hydrogen chloride fumes. Based on the oxidizer to fuel ratios of the current formulations of the major rocket solid booster (e.g. Space Shuttle’s SRB, Ariane 5’s SRB which comprises mass variations of ammonium perchlorate oxidizer (70-75%, atomized aluminum powder (10-18% and polybutadiene binder (12-20% a new solid propellant was formulated. As previously stated, the new propellant formula and its variations use ADN as oxidizer and erythritol tetranitrate as fuel, keeping the same polybutadiene as binder.

  6. Nutation instability of spinning solid rocket motor spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan YANG


    Full Text Available The variation of mass, and moment of inertia of a spin-stabilized spacecraft leads to concern about the nutation instability. Here a careful analysis on the nutation instability is performed on a spacecraft propelled by solid rocket booster (SRB. The influences of specific solid propellant designs on transversal angular velocity are discussed. The results show that the typical SRB of End Burn suppresses the non-principal axial angular velocity. On the contrary, the frequently used SRB of Radial Burn could amplify the transversal angular velocity. The nutation instability caused by a design of Radial Burn could be remedied by the addition of End Burn at the same time based on the study of the combination design of both End Burn and Radial Burn. The analysis of the results proposes the design conception of how to control the nutation motion. The method is suitable to resolve the nutation instability of solid rocket motor with complex propellant patterns.

  7. Transient simulation of chamber flowfield in a rod-and-tube configuration solid rocket motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, J.T.; Stowe, R.A.


    Currently, DRDC Valcartier of the Canadian Department of National Defence is designing a prototype rod-and-tube configuration solid propellant rocket motor that will propel a hypersonic velocity missile. This configuration will incorporate a very low port-to-throat area ratio, which in turn results in very high velocity propellant gas traveling across burning propellant surfaces, particularly near the nozzle end of the rocket. This causes an augmentation in the propellant burning rate. While numerical and lumped parameter models are available to design and analyze solid propellant rocket motors and nozzles, many of them provide solutions based on the assumption of quasi-steady flow. Due to the high pressure, high velocity and highly transient nature of the flows expected in the motor under design, it is believed that a CFD simulation will better model the time-dependent phenomena that occur during the functioning of a motor of this type. This simulation couples the fluid dynamics and heat transfer of the gas flowfield within the rocket port to the nozzle and the regression rate of the propellant. By incorporating the regression of the propellant surfaces into the model, the information provided by the resulting time-accurate solution will enable a much improved understanding of the flow phenomena within this rod-and-tube grain motor and a better prediction of the internal ballistics of the motor, which in turn will help in the design of both the motor and the nozzle. (author)

  8. Transient simulation of chamber flowfield in a rod-and-tube configuration solid rocket motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, J.T. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail:; Stowe, R.A. [Defence R and D Canada - Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec (Canada)


    Currently, DRDC Valcartier of the Canadian Department of National Defence is designing a prototype rod-and-tube configuration solid propellant rocket motor that will propel a hypersonic velocity missile. This configuration will incorporate a very low port-to-throat area ratio, which in turn results in very high velocity propellant gas traveling across burning propellant surfaces, particularly near the nozzle end of the rocket. This causes an augmentation in the propellant burning rate. While numerical and lumped parameter models are available to design and analyze solid propellant rocket motors and nozzles, many of them provide solutions based on the assumption of quasi-steady flow. Due to the high pressure, high velocity and highly transient nature of the flows expected in the motor under design, it is believed that a CFD simulation will better model the time-dependent phenomena that occur during the functioning of a motor of this type. This simulation couples the fluid dynamics and heat transfer of the gas flowfield within the rocket port to the nozzle and the regression rate of the propellant. By incorporating the regression of the propellant surfaces into the model, the information provided by the resulting time-accurate solution will enable a much improved understanding of the flow phenomena within this rod-and-tube grain motor and a better prediction of the internal ballistics of the motor, which in turn will help in the design of both the motor and the nozzle. (author)

  9. Concept and performance study of turbocharged solid propellant ramjet (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Liu, Kai; Liu, Yang; Liu, Shichang


    This study proposes a turbocharged solid propellant ramjet (TSPR) propulsion system that integrates a turbocharged system consisting of a solid propellant (SP) air turbo rocket (ATR) and the fuel-rich gas generator of a solid propellant ramjet (SPR). First, a suitable propellant scheme was determined for the TSPR. A solid hydrocarbon propellant is used to generate gas for driving the turbine, and a boron-based fuel-rich propellant is used to provide fuel-rich gas to the afterburner. An appropriate TSPR structure was also determined. The TSPR's thermodynamic cycle was analysed to prove its theoretical feasibility. The results showed that the TSPR's specific cycle power was larger than those of SP-ATR and SPR and thermal efficiency was slightly less than that of SP-ATR. Overall, TSPR showed optimal performance in a wide flight envelope. The specific impulses and specific thrusts of TSPR, SP-ATR, and SPR in the flight envelope were calculated and compared. TSPR's flight envelope roughly overlapped that of SP-ATR, its specific impulse was larger than that of SP-ATR, and its specific thrust was larger than those of SP-ATR and SPR. Attempts to improve the TSPR off-design performance prompted our proposal of a control plan for off-design codes in which both the turbocharger corrected speed and combustor excess gas coefficient are kept constant. An off-design performance model was established by analysing the TSPR working process. We concluded that TSPR with a constant corrected speed had wider flight envelope, higher thrust, and higher specific impulse than TSPR with a constant physical speed determined by calculating the performance of off-design TSPR codes under different control plans. The results of this study can provide a reference for further studies on TSPRs.

  10. Developments on HNF based high performance and green solid propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizers, H.L.J.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Vliet, L.D. van; Welland-Veltmans, W.H.M.; Ciucci, A.


    Worldwide developments are ongoing to develop new and more energetic composite solid propellant formulations for space transportation and military applications. Since the 90's, the use of HNF as a new high performance oxidiser is being reinvestigated. Within European development programmes,

  11. Improving catalase-based propelled motor endurance by enzyme encapsulation (United States)

    Simmchen, Juliane; Baeza, Alejandro; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel; Vallet-Regí, Maria


    Biocatalytic propulsion is expected to play an important role in the future of micromotors as it might drastically increase the number of available fuelling reactions. However, most of the enzyme-propelled micromotors so far reported still rely on the degradation of peroxide by catalase, in spite of being vulnerable to relatively high peroxide concentrations. To overcome this limitation, herein we present a strategy to encapsulate the catalase and to graft the resulting enzyme capsules on motor particles. Significant improvement of the stability in the presence of peroxide and other aggressive agents has been observed.Biocatalytic propulsion is expected to play an important role in the future of micromotors as it might drastically increase the number of available fuelling reactions. However, most of the enzyme-propelled micromotors so far reported still rely on the degradation of peroxide by catalase, in spite of being vulnerable to relatively high peroxide concentrations. To overcome this limitation, herein we present a strategy to encapsulate the catalase and to graft the resulting enzyme capsules on motor particles. Significant improvement of the stability in the presence of peroxide and other aggressive agents has been observed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02459a

  12. Rheokinetic Analysis of Hydroxy Terminated Polybutadiene Based Solid Propellant Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay K Mahanta


    Full Text Available The cure kinetics of propellant slurry based on hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB and toluene diisocyanate (TDI polyurethane reaction has been studied by viscosity build up method. The viscosity (ɳ–time (t plots conform to the exponential function ɳ = aebt, where a & b are empirical constants. The rate constants (k for viscosity build up at various shear rate (rpm, evaluated from the slope of dɳ/dt versus ɳ plots at different temperatures, were found to vary from 0.0032 to 0.0052 min-1. It was observed that the increasing shear rate did not have significant effect on the reaction rate constants for viscosity build up of the propellant slurry. The activation energy (Eɳ, calculated from the Arrhenius plots, was found to be 13.17±1.78 kJ mole-1, whereas the activation enthalpy (∆Hɳ* and entropy (∆Sɳ* of the propellant slurry, calculated from Eyring relationship, were found to be 10.48±1.78 kJ mole-1 and –258.51± 5.38 J mole-1K-1, respectively. The reaction quenching temperature of the propellant slurry was found to be -9 ° C, based upon the experimental data. This opens up an avenue for a “freeze-and-store”, then “warm-up and cast”, mode of manufacturing of very large solid rocket propellant grains.

  13. MEMS-Based Solid Propellant Rocket Array Thruster (United States)

    Tanaka, Shuji; Hosokawa, Ryuichiro; Tokudome, Shin-Ichiro; Hori, Keiichi; Saito, Hirobumi; Watanabe, Masashi; Esashi, Masayoshi

    The prototype of a solid propellant rocket array thruster for simple attitude control of a 10 kg class micro-spacecraft was completed and tested. The prototype has 10×10 φ0.8 mm solid propellant micro-rockets arrayed at a pitch of 1.2 mm on a 20×22 mm substrate. To realize such a dense array of micro-rockets, each ignition heater is powered from the backside of the thruster through an electrical feedthrough which passes along a propellant cylinder wall. Boron/potassium nitrate propellant (NAB) is used with/without lead rhodanide/potassium chlorate/nitrocellulose ignition aid (RK). Impulse thrust was measured by a pendulum method in air. Ignition required electric power of at least 3 4 W with RK and 4 6 W without RK. Measured impulse thrusts were from 2×10-5 Ns to 3×10-4 Ns after the calculation of compensation for air dumping.

  14. Specific Impulses Losses in Solid Propellant Rockets (United States)


    the solid we go back to the wall flux. Platinum film thermometric probes [77, 78], developed for somewhat similar problems, were used without succ...AS: E Paper 63-41A 207, 1964. [83) A.D. KIDEIR .A XU - J.A. CAHILL - The density of liquid aluminium oxide. J. Inovg. luc.. Chem. vol.14, no 3-4, p...IELLOR - I. GLL.ASIJ - Augo.nted ignition effi ciency for aluminium . Combustion Science rand Tcchnology, vol. I, p. 437, 1970. [90s EIJ. IJJ tBAU

  15. Safety test No. S-6, launch pad abort sequential test Phase II: solid propellant fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.


    In preparation for the Lincoln Laboratory's LES 8/9 space mission, a series of tests was performed to evaluate the nuclear safety capability of the Multi-Hundred Watt (MHW) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) to be used to supply power for the satellite. One such safety test is Test No. S-6, Launch Pad Abort Sequential Test. The objective of this test was to subject the RTG and its components to the sequential environments characteristic of a catastrophic launch pad accident to evaluate their capability to contain the 238 PuO 2 fuel. This sequence of environments was to have consisted of the blast overpressure and fragments, followed by the fireball, low velocity impact on the launch pad, and solid propellant fire. The blast overpressure and fragments were subsequently eliminated from this sequence. The procedures and results of Phase II of Test S-6, Solid Propellant Fire are presented. In this phase of the test, a simulant Fuel Sphere Assembly (FSA) and a mockup of a damaged Heat Source Assembly (HSA) were subjected to single proximity solid propellant fires of approximately 10-min duration. Steel was introduced into both tests to simulate the effects of launch pad debris and the solid rocket motor (SRM) casing that might be present in the fire zone. (TFD)

  16. Longitudinal acoustic instabilities in slender solid propellant rockets : linear analysis


    García Schafer, Juan Esteban; Liñán Martínez, Amable


    To describe the acoustic instabilities in the combustion chambers of laterally burning solid propellant rockets the interaction of the mean flow with the acoustic waves is analysed, using multiple scale techniques, for realistic cases in which the combustion chamber is slender and the nozzle area is small compared with the cross-sectional area of the chamber. Associated with the longitudinal acoustic oscillations we find vorticity and entropy waves, with a wavelength typically small compared ...

  17. Study of combustion properties of a solid propellant by highly time-resolved passive FTIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Lin; Li, Yan; Liu, Bingping; Wang, Junde [Laboratory of Advanced Spectroscopy, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210014 (China)


    With a time resolution of 0.125 s and a spectral resolution of 4 cm{sup -1}, emission spectra of the combustion process of a solid propellant were recorded by highly time-resolved passive FTIR. Some gaseous combustion products, such as H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO and HCl, were distinguished by the characteristic emission band of each molecule. The equation for flame temperature calculation based on the diatomic molecule emission fine structure theory was improved through judicious utilization of the spectral running number 'm' which makes the temperature measurement simpler and faster. Some combustion information of the solid propellant had been given including the characteristic spectral profile, the distribution of the absolute spectral energy, the distribution of the combustion flame temperature, and the concentration distributions of HCl and NO versus burning time. The results will provide theoretical and experimental bases for improving the formula and raising combustion efficiency of solid propellant, and developing the design of rocket motor, infrared guidance and antiguidance systems. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Working-cycle processes in solid-propellant rocket engines (Handbook). Rabochie protsessy v raketnykh dvigateliakh tverdogo topliva /Spravochnik/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkov, A.A.; Panin, S.D.; Rumiantsev, B.V.


    Physical and mathematical models of processes taking place in solid-propellant rocket engines and gas generators are presented in a systematic manner. The discussion covers the main types of solid propellants, the general design and principal components of solid-propellant rocket engines, the combustion of a solid-propellant charge, thermodynamic calculation of combustion and outflow processes, and analysis of gasdynamic processes in solid-propellant rocket engines. 40 refs.

  19. High-Pressure Burning Rate Studies of Solid Rocket Propellants (United States)


    monopropellant burning rate. The self-de§agration rates of neat AP are plotted in Fig. 2 for both pressed pellets and single crystals. There is agreement...rate data from various investigators: 1 ¡ [2]; pressed pellets : 2 ¡ [3], 3 ¡ [4], and 4 ¡ [2]; and single crystals: 5 ¡ [5], and 6 ¡ [6]. Line ¡ AP...7]. Strand or window burners have had more use in the solid propellant community. There are numerous types and styles of combustion vessels, but they

  20. A Study of Flame Physics and Solid Propellant Rocket Physics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buckmaster, John


    ..., the combustion of heterogeneous propellants containing aluminum, the use of a genetic algorithm to optimally define false-kinetics parameters in propellant combustion modeling, the calculation of fluctuations...

  1. Mixing and combustion enhancement of Turbocharged Solid Propellant Ramjet (United States)

    Liu, Shichang; Li, Jiang; Zhu, Gen; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang


    Turbocharged Solid Propellant Ramjet is a new concept engine that combines the advantages of both solid rocket ramjet and Air Turbo Rocket, with a wide operation envelope and high performance. There are three streams of the air, turbine-driving gas and augment gas to mix and combust in the afterburner, and the coaxial intake mode of the afterburner is disadvantageous to the mixing and combustion. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out mixing and combustion enhancement research. In this study, the numerical model of Turbocharged Solid Propellant Ramjet three-dimensional combustion flow field is established, and the numerical simulation of the mixing and combustion enhancement scheme is conducted from the aspects of head region intake mode to injection method in afterburner. The results show that by driving the compressed air to deflect inward and the turbine-driving gas to maintain strong rotation, radial and tangential momentum exchange of the two streams can be enhanced, thereby improving the efficiency of mixing and combustion in the afterburner. The method of injecting augment gas in the transverse direction and making sure the injection location is as close as possible to the head region is beneficial to improve the combustion efficiency. The outer combustion flow field of the afterburner is an oxidizer-rich environment, while the inner is a fuel-rich environment. To improve the efficiency of mixing and combustion, it is necessary to control the injection velocity of the augment gas to keep it in the oxygen-rich zone of the outer region. The numerical simulation for different flight conditions shows that the optimal mixing and combustion enhancement scheme can obtain high combustion efficiency and have excellent applicability in a wide working range.

  2. Dynamic analysis of solid propellant grains subjected to ignition pressurization loading (United States)

    Chyuan, Shiang-Woei


    Traditionally, the transient analysis of solid propellant grains subjected to ignition pressurization loading was not considered, and quasi-elastic-static analysis was widely adopted for structural integrity because the analytical task gets simplified. But it does not mean that the dynamic effect is not useful and could be neglected arbitrarily, and this effect usually plays a very important role for some critical design. In order to simulate the dynamic response for solid rocket motor, a transient finite element model, accompanied by concepts of time-temperature shift principle, reduced integration and thermorheologically simple material assumption, was used. For studying the dynamic response, diverse ignition pressurization loading cases were used and investigated in the present paper. Results show that the dynamic effect is important for structural integrity of solid propellant grains under ignition pressurization loading. Comparing the effective stress of transient analysis and of quasi-elastic-static analysis, one can see that there is an obvious difference between them because of the dynamic effect. From the work of quasi-elastic-static and transient analyses, the dynamic analysis highlighted several areas of interest and a more accurate and reasonable result could be obtained for the engineer.

  3. Effective Mechanical Property Estimation of Composite Solid Propellants Based on VCFEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-Lei Shen


    Full Text Available A solid rocket motor is one of the critical components of solid missiles, and its life and reliability mostly depend on the mechanical behavior of a composite solid propellant (CSP. Effective mechanical properties are critical material constants to analyze the structural integrity of propellant grain. They are estimated by a numerical method that combines the Voronoi cell finite element method (VCFEM and the homogenization method in the present paper. The correctness of this combined method has been validated by comparing with a standard finite element method and conventional theoretical models. The effective modulus and the effective Poisson’s ratio of a CSP varying with volume fraction and component material properties are estimated. The result indicates that the variations of the volume fraction of inclusions and the properties of the matrix have obvious influences on the effective mechanical properties of a CSP. The microscopic numerical analysis method proposed in this paper can also be used to provide references for the design and the analysis of other large volume fraction composite materials.

  4. Solid Propellant Microthruster Design, Fabrication, and Testing for Nanosatellites (United States)

    Sathiyanathan, Kartheephan

    This thesis describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a solid propellant microthruster (SPM), which is a two-dimensional matrix of millimeter-sized rockets each capable of delivering millinewtons of thrust and millinewton-seconds of impulse to perform fine orbit and attitude corrections. The SPM is a potential payload for nanosatellites to increase spacecraft maneuverability and is constrained by strict mass, volume, and power requirements. The dimensions of the SPM in the millimeter-scale result in a number of scaling issues that need consideration such as a low Reynolds number, high heat loss, thermal and radical quenching, and incomplete combustion. The design of the SPM, engineered to address these issues, is outlined. The SPM fabrication using low-cost commercial off-the-shelf materials and standard micromachining is presented. The selection of a suitable propellant and its customization are described. Experimental results of SPM firing to demonstrate successful ignition and sustained combustion are presented for three configurations: nozzleless, sonic nozzle, and supersonic nozzle. The SPM is tested using a ballistic pendulum thrust stand. Impulse and thrust values are calculated and presented. The performance values of the SPM are found to be consistent with existing designs.

  5. Manganese oxalate nanorods as ballistic modifier for composite solid propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Supriya [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P. (India); Chawla, Mohit [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175005, H.P. (India); Siril, Prem Felix, E-mail: [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175005, H.P. (India); Singh, Gurdip [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P. (India)


    Highlights: • Manganese oxalate nanorods were prepared using mild thermal precipitation and aging. • The nanorods were found to be efficient ballistic modifier for solid propellants. • The nanorods sensitized the thermolysis of ammonium perchlorate. • Controlled thermal decomposition of nanorods yielded manganese oxide nanoparticles. • MnO nanoparticles formed insitu in the condensed phase enhance the burning rates. - Abstract: Rod-shaped nanostructures of manganese oxalate (MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were synthesized via mild thermal precipitation and aging process. Chemical composition of the MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods was confirmed using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies revealed the crystal structure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) imaging and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) were employed to study the structural features of the nanorods. The MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods were found to be efficient ballistic modifier for the burning rate enhancement of composite solid propellants (CSPs). Thermal analysis using TGA-DSC showed that MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods sensitized the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and the CSPs. Controlled thermal decomposition of the MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods resulted in the formation of managanese oxide nanoparticles with mesoporosity. A plausible mechanism for the burning rate enhancement using MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods was proposed.

  6. Solid rocket motor cost model (United States)

    Harney, A. G.; Raphael, L.; Warren, S.; Yakura, J. K.


    A systematic and standardized procedure for estimating life cycle costs of solid rocket motor booster configurations. The model consists of clearly defined cost categories and appropriate cost equations in which cost is related to program and hardware parameters. Cost estimating relationships are generally based on analogous experience. In this model the experience drawn on is from estimates prepared by the study contractors. Contractors' estimates are derived by means of engineering estimates for some predetermined level of detail of the SRM hardware and program functions of the system life cycle. This method is frequently referred to as bottom-up. A parametric cost analysis is a useful technique when rapid estimates are required. This is particularly true during the planning stages of a system when hardware designs and program definition are conceptual and constantly changing as the selection process, which includes cost comparisons or trade-offs, is performed. The use of cost estimating relationships also facilitates the performance of cost sensitivity studies in which relative and comparable cost comparisons are significant.

  7. Five-Segment Solid Rocket Motor Development Status (United States)

    Priskos, Alex S.


    In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing a new, more powerful solid rocket motor for space launch applications. To minimize technical risks and development costs, NASA chose to use the Space Shuttle s solid rocket boosters as a starting point in the design and development. The new, five segment motor provides a greater total impulse with improved, more environmentally friendly materials. To meet the mass and trajectory requirements, the motor incorporates substantial design and system upgrades, including new propellant grain geometry with an additional segment, new internal insulation system, and a state-of-the art avionics system. Significant progress has been made in the design, development and testing of the propulsion, and avionics systems. To date, three development motors (one each in 2009, 2010, and 2011) have been successfully static tested by NASA and ATK s Launch Systems Group in Promontory, UT. These development motor tests have validated much of the engineering with substantial data collected, analyzed, and utilized to improve the design. This paper provides an overview of the development progress on the first stage propulsion system.

  8. Parametric Study of Design Options aecting Solid Rocket Motor Start-up and Onset of Pressure Oscillations


    Di Giacinto, M.; Cavallini, E.; Favini, B.; Steelant, Johan


    The start-up represents a very critical phase during the whole operational life of solid rocket motors. This paper provides a detailed study of the eects on the ignition transient of the main design parameters of solid propellant motors. The analysis is made with the use of a Q1D unsteady model of solid rocket ignition transient, extensively validated in the frame of the VEGA program, for ignition transient predictions and reconstructions, during the last ten years. Two baseline soli...

  9. Simulation of Axial Combustion Instability Development and Suppression in Solid Rocket Motors


    David R. Greatrix


    In the design of solid-propellant rocket motors, the ability to understand and predict the expected behaviour of a given motor under unsteady conditions is important. Research towards predicting, quantifying, and ultimately suppressing undesirable strong transient axial combustion instability symptoms necessitates a comprehensive numerical model for internal ballistic simulation under dynamic flow and combustion conditions. An updated numerical model incorporating recent developments in predi...

  10. Design and Experimental Study on Spinning Solid Rocket Motor (United States)

    Xue, Heng; Jiang, Chunlan; Wang, Zaicheng

    The study on spinning solid rocket motor (SRM) which used as power plant of twice throwing structure of aerial submunition was introduced. This kind of SRM which with the structure of tangential multi-nozzle consists of a combustion chamber, propellant charge, 4 tangential nozzles, ignition device, etc. Grain design, structure design and prediction of interior ballistic performance were described, and problem which need mainly considered in design were analyzed comprehensively. Finally, in order to research working performance of the SRM, measure pressure-time curve and its speed, static test and dynamic test were conducted respectively. And then calculated values and experimental data were compared and analyzed. The results indicate that the designed motor operates normally, and the stable performance of interior ballistic meet demands. And experimental results have the guidance meaning for the pre-research design of SRM.

  11. Non-linear analysis of solid propellant burning rate behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junye Wang [Zhejiang Univ. of Technology, College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hanzhou (China)


    The parametric analysis of the thermal wave model of the non-steady combustion of solid propellants is carried out under a sudden compression. First, to observe non-linear effects, solutions are obtained using a computer under prescribed pressure variations. Then, the effects of rearranging the spatial mesh, additional points, and the time step on numerical solutions are evaluated. Finally, the behaviour of the thermal wave combustion model is examined under large heat releases (H) and a dynamic factor ({beta}). The numerical predictions show that (1) the effect of a dynamic factor ({beta}), related to the magnitude of dp/dt, on the peak burning rate increases as the value of beta increases. However, unsteady burning rate 'runaway' does not appear and will return asymptotically to ap{sup n}, when {beta}{>=}10.0. The burning rate 'runaway' is a numerical difficulty, not a solution to the models. (2) At constant beta and m, the amplitude of the burning rate increases with increasing H. However, the increase in the burning rate amplitude is stepwise, and there is no apparent intrinsic instability limit. A damped oscillation of burning rate occurs when the value of H is less. However, when H>1.0, the state of an intrinsically unstable model is composed of repeated, amplitude spikes, i.e. an undamped oscillation occurs. (3) The effect of the time step on the peak burning rate increases as H increases. (Author)

  12. Quantity Distance for the Kennedy Space Center Vehicle Assembly Building for Solid Propellant Fueled Launchers (United States)

    Stover, Steven; Diebler, Corey; Frazier, Wayne


    The NASA KSC VAB was built to process Apollo launchers in the 1960's, and later adapted to process Space Shuttles. The VAB has served as a place to assemble solid rocket motors (5RM) and mate them to the vehicle's external fuel tank and Orbiter before rollout to the launch pad. As Space Shuttle is phased out, and new launchers are developed, the VAB may again be adapted to process these new launchers. Current launch vehicle designs call for continued and perhaps increased use of SRM segments; hence, the safe separation distances are in the process of being re-calculated. Cognizant NASA personnel and the solid rocket contractor have revisited the above VAB QD considerations and suggest that it may be revised to allow a greater number of motor segments within the VAB. This revision assumes that an inadvertent ignition of one SRM stack in its High Bay need not cause immediate and complete involvement of boosters that are part of a vehicle in adjacent High Bay. To support this assumption, NASA and contractor personnel proposed a strawman test approach for obtaining subscale data that may be used to develop phenomenological insight and to develop confidence in an analysis model for later use on full-scale situations. A team of subject matter experts in safety and siting of propellants and explosives were assembled to review the subscale test approach and provide options to NASA. Upon deliberations regarding the various options, the team arrived at some preliminary recommendations for NASA.

  13. Characterization of a Green Solid Electric Propellant Microthruster for Small Spacecraft (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of Solid Electric Propellants is an emerging topic of research with major implications in the field of space propulsion from the micro to macro...

  14. Construction and design of solid-propellant rocket engines. Konstruktsiia i proektirovanie raketnykh dvigatelei tverdogo topliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrutdinov, I.K.; Kotel' nikov, A.V.


    Methods for assessing the durability of different components of solid-propellant rocket engines are presented. The following aspects of engine development are discussed: task formulation, parameter calculation, construction scheme selection, materials, and durability assessment. 45 references.

  15. Analysis of Engine Propeller Matching of DC Motor as a Main Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Setyo Koenhardono


    Full Text Available The development of ship always searches through the most benefits system for reducing costs of propulsion system without increase pollution. Diesel propulsion system or also known as conventional propulsion system is efficient but requires high operating costs and increase high level of marine pollution. Electrical propulsion system is using electric motors as the prime mover of the propeller. There are 2 types of electric motors that will be used for research of electric propulsion system, there are; DC motors and three-phases induction motor. As the use of DC motor as a prime mover for this electrical propulsion system, this study determines the characteristic between voltage terminal with torque and also field current with torque. It results that torque produced by the DC motor is in the same magnitude with the speed (RPM. The higher the speed have shaped the value of the torque. The input and terminal voltages adjusts all variables and results. In this study, different field voltage creates different pattern of motor envelope. Its manner to propeller curve occurs total different results. With field voltage of 50 V, the ranges of motor envelope immoveable in the point of 150% of present speed and 160%. While field voltage of 60 V serves larger ranges of motor envelope which possible to reach further than 50 V curve.

  16. Regarding the perturbed operating process of DB propellant rocket motor at extreme initial grain temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan ION


    Full Text Available Despite many decades of study, the combustion instability of several DB propellants is still of particular concern, especially at extreme grain temperature conditions of rocket motor operating. The purpose of the first part of the paper is to give an overview of our main experimental results on combustion instabilities and pressure oscillations in DB propellant segmented grain rocket motors (SPRM-01, large L/D ratio, working at extreme initial grain temperatures. Thus, we recorded some particular pressure-time traces with significant perturbed pressure signal that was FFT analysed. An updated mathematical model incorporating transient frequency-dependent combustion response, in conjunction with pressure-dependent burning, is applied to investigate and predict the DB propellant combustion instability phenomenon. The susceptibility of the tested motor SPRM-01 with DB propellant to get a perturbed working and to go unstable with pressure was evidenced and this risk has to be evaluated. In the last part of our paper we evaluated the influence of recorded perturbed thrust on the rocket behaviour on the trajectory. The study revealed that at firing-table initial conditions, this kind of perturbed motor operating may not lead to an unstable rocket flight, but the ballistic parameters would be influenced in an unacceptable manner.

  17. Combustion diagnosis for analysis of solid propellant rocket abort hazards: Role of spectroscopy (United States)

    Gill, W.; Cruz-Cabrera, A. A.; Donaldson, A. B.; Lim, J.; Sivathanu, Y.; Bystrom, E.; Haug, A.; Sharp, L.; Surmick, D. M.


    Solid rocket propellant plume temperatures have been measured using spectroscopic methods as part of an ongoing effort to specify the thermal-chemical-physical environment in and around a burning fragment of an exploded solid rocket at atmospheric pressures. Such specification is needed for launch safety studies where hazardous payloads become involved with large fragments of burning propellant. The propellant burns in an off-design condition producing a hot gas flame loaded with burning metal droplets. Each component of the flame (soot, droplets and gas) has a characteristic temperature, and it is only through the use of spectroscopy that their temperature can be independently identified.

  18. Combustion diagnosis for analysis of solid propellant rocket abort hazards: Role of spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, W; Cruz-Cabrera, A A; Bystrom, E; Donaldson, A B; Haug, A; Sharp, L; Lim, J; Sivathanu, Y; Surmick, D M


    Solid rocket propellant plume temperatures have been measured using spectroscopic methods as part of an ongoing effort to specify the thermal-chemical-physical environment in and around a burning fragment of an exploded solid rocket at atmospheric pressures. Such specification is needed for launch safety studies where hazardous payloads become involved with large fragments of burning propellant. The propellant burns in an off-design condition producing a hot gas flame loaded with burning metal droplets. Each component of the flame (soot, droplets and gas) has a characteristic temperature, and it is only through the use of spectroscopy that their temperature can be independently identified

  19. Aluminum Agglomeration and Trajectory in Solid Rocket Motors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coats, Douglas; Hylin, E. C; Babbitt, Deborah; Tullos, James A; Beckstead, Merrill; Webb, Michael; Davis, I. L; Dang, Anthony


    Report developed under STTR contract for Topic AF06-T012. The demand for higher performance rocket motors at a reduced cost requires continuous improvements in understanding and controlling propellant combustion...

  20. Development of Erosive Burning Models for CFD Predictions of Solid Rocket Motor Internal Environments (United States)

    Wang, Qun-Zhen


    Four erosive burning models, equations (11) to (14). are developed in this work by using a power law relationship to correlate (1) the erosive burning ratio and the local velocity gradient at propellant surfaces; (2) the erosive burning ratio and the velocity gradient divided by centerline velocity; (3) the erosive burning difference and the local velocity gradient at propellant surfaces; and (4) the erosive burning difference and the velocity gradient divided by centerline velocity. These models depend on the local velocity gradient at the propellant surface (or the velocity gradient divided by centerline velocity) only and, unlike other empirical models, are independent of the motor size. It was argued that, since the erosive burning is a local phenomenon occurring near the surface of the solid propellant, the erosive burning ratio should be independent of the bore diameter if it is correlated with some local flow parameters such as the velocity gradient at the propellant surface. This seems to be true considering the good results obtained by applying these models, which are developed from the small size 5 inch CP tandem motor testing, to CFD simulations of much bigger motors.

  1. Hydrodynamic Stability Analysis of Particle-Laden Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    Elliott, T. S.; Majdalani, J.


    Fluid-wall interactions within solid rocket motors can result in parietal vortex shedding giving rise to hydrodynamic instabilities, or unsteady waves, that translate into pressure oscillations. The oscillations can result in vibrations observed by the rocket, rocket subsystems, or payload, which can lead to changes in flight characteristics, design failure, or other undesirable effects. For many years particles have been embedded in solid rocket propellants with the understanding that their presence increases specific impulse and suppresses fluctuations in the flowfield. This study utilizes a two dimensional framework to understand and quantify the aforementioned two-phase flowfield inside a motor case with a cylindrical grain perforation. This is accomplished through the use of linearized Navier-Stokes equations with the Stokes drag equation and application of the biglobal ansatz. Obtaining the biglobal equations for analysis requires quantification of the mean flowfield within the solid rocket motor. To that end, the extended Taylor-Culick form will be utilized to represent the gaseous phase of the mean flowfield while the self-similar form will be employed for the particle phase. Advancing the mean flowfield by quantifying the particle mass concentration with a semi-analytical solution the finalized mean flowfield is combined with the biglobal equations resulting in a system of eight partial differential equations. This system is solved using an eigensolver within the framework yielding the entire spectrum of eigenvalues, frequency and growth rate components, at once. This work will detail the parametric analysis performed to demonstrate the stabilizing and destabilizing effects of particles within solid rocket combustion.

  2. Hydrodynamic Stability Analysis of Particle-Laden Solid Rocket Motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, T S; Majdalani, J


    Fluid-wall interactions within solid rocket motors can result in parietal vortex shedding giving rise to hydrodynamic instabilities, or unsteady waves, that translate into pressure oscillations. The oscillations can result in vibrations observed by the rocket, rocket subsystems, or payload, which can lead to changes in flight characteristics, design failure, or other undesirable effects. For many years particles have been embedded in solid rocket propellants with the understanding that their presence increases specific impulse and suppresses fluctuations in the flowfield. This study utilizes a two dimensional framework to understand and quantify the aforementioned two-phase flowfield inside a motor case with a cylindrical grain perforation. This is accomplished through the use of linearized Navier-Stokes equations with the Stokes drag equation and application of the biglobal ansatz. Obtaining the biglobal equations for analysis requires quantification of the mean flowfield within the solid rocket motor. To that end, the extended Taylor-Culick form will be utilized to represent the gaseous phase of the mean flowfield while the self-similar form will be employed for the particle phase. Advancing the mean flowfield by quantifying the particle mass concentration with a semi-analytical solution the finalized mean flowfield is combined with the biglobal equations resulting in a system of eight partial differential equations. This system is solved using an eigensolver within the framework yielding the entire spectrum of eigenvalues, frequency and growth rate components, at once. This work will detail the parametric analysis performed to demonstrate the stabilizing and destabilizing effects of particles within solid rocket combustion

  3. A stochastic pocket model for aluminum agglomeration in solid propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallier, Stany [SNPE Materiaux Energetiques, Vert le Petit (France)


    A new model is derived to estimate the size and fraction of aluminum agglomerates at the surface of a burning propellant. The basic idea relies on well-known pocket models in which aluminum is supposed to aggregate and melt within pocket volumes imposed by largest oxidizer particles. The proposed model essentially relaxes simple assumptions of previous pocket models on propellant structure by accounting for an actual microstructure obtained by packing. The use of statistical tools from stochastic geometry enables to determine a statistical pocket size volume and hence agglomerate diameter and agglomeration fraction. Application to several AP/Al propellants gives encouraging results that are shown to be superior to former pocket models. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Simulation technique on combustion of solid propellant; Kotai suishin`yaku nensho no simyureshon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Akihide.; Bazaki, Hakobu.; Douke, Kiyotaka. [Asahi Chemical Industry Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Oita Plant


    The burning area of propellant grain is one of the most important parameter in conducting of design on solid rocket performance. However, it has been difficult to calculate the burning area of propellant grain with precise and speed by geometrical way since most of propellant configuration have been adopted as complicated. In the present study, the simulation system was developed and produced, which was adapted `particle chasing method` to and made ot compute the burning area transition. Moreover, the reliability on computation by the system was check up on. It was found that the discrepancy of calculation between by the geometrical way and by the system was less than 1%. (author)

  5. Simulation of Axial Combustion Instability Development and Suppression in Solid Rocket Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Greatrix


    Full Text Available In the design of solid-propellant rocket motors, the ability to understand and predict the expected behaviour of a given motor under unsteady conditions is important. Research towards predicting, quantifying, and ultimately suppressing undesirable strong transient axial combustion instability symptoms necessitates a comprehensive numerical model for internal ballistic simulation under dynamic flow and combustion conditions. An updated numerical model incorporating recent developments in predicting negative and positive erosive burning, and transient, frequency-dependent combustion response, in conjunction with pressure-dependent and acceleration-dependent burning, is applied to the investigation of instability-related behaviour in a small cylindrical-grain motor. Pertinent key factors, like the initial pressure disturbance magnitude and the propellant's net surface heat release, are evaluated with respect to their influence on the production of instability symptoms. Two traditional suppression techniques, axial transitions in grain geometry and inert particle loading, are in turn evaluated with respect to suppressing these axial instability symptoms.

  6. Numerical simulation of a liquid propellant rocket motor (United States)

    Salvador, Nicolas M. C.; Morales, Marcelo M.; Migueis, Carlos E. S. S.; Bastos-Netto, Demétrio


    This work presents a numerical simulation of the flow field in a liquid propellant rocket engine chamber and exit nozzle using techniques to allow the results to be taken as starting points for designing those propulsive systems. This was done using a Finite Volume method simulating the different flow regimes which usually take place in those systems. As the flow field has regions ranging from the low subsonic to the supersonic regimes, the numerical code used, initially developed for compressible flows only, was modified to work proficiently in the whole velocity range. It is well known that codes have been developed in CFD, for either compressible or incompressible flows, the joint treatment of both together being complex even today, given the small number of references available in this area. Here an existing code for compressible flow was used and primitive variables, the pressure, the Cartesian components of the velocity and the temperature instead of the conserved variables were introduced in the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. This was done to permit the treatment at any Mach number. Unstructured meshes with adaptive refinements were employed here. The convective terms were treated with upwind first and second order methods. The numerical stability was kept with artificial dissipation and in the spatial coverage one used a five stage Runge-Kutta scheme for the Fluid Mechanics and the VODE (Value of Ordinary Differential Equations) scheme along with the Chemkin II in the chemical reacting solution. During the development of this code simulating the flow in a rocket engine, comparison tests were made with several different types of internal and external flows, at different velocities, seeking to establish the confidence level of the techniques being used. These comparisons were done with existing theoretical results and with other codes already validated and well accepted by the CFD community.

  7. Flow-Structural Interaction in Solid Rocket Motors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murdock, John


    .... The static test failure of the Titan solid rocket motor upgrade (SRMU) that occurred on 1 April, 1991, demonstrated the importance of flow-structural modeling in the design of large, solid rocket motors...

  8. Applied algorithm in the liner inspection of solid rocket motors (United States)

    Hoffmann, Luiz Felipe Simões; Bizarria, Francisco Carlos Parquet; Bizarria, José Walter Parquet


    In rocket motors, the bonding between the solid propellant and thermal insulation is accomplished by a thin adhesive layer, known as liner. The liner application method involves a complex sequence of tasks, which includes in its final stage, the surface integrity inspection. Nowadays in Brazil, an expert carries out a thorough visual inspection to detect defects on the liner surface that may compromise the propellant interface bonding. Therefore, this paper proposes an algorithm that uses the photometric stereo technique and the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier to assist the expert in the surface inspection. Photometric stereo allows the surface information recovery of the test images, while the KNN method enables image pixels classification into two classes: non-defect and defect. Tests performed on a computer vision based prototype validate the algorithm. The positive results suggest that the algorithm is feasible and when implemented in a real scenario, will be able to help the expert in detecting defective areas on the liner surface.

  9. Experimental validation of solid rocket motor damping models (United States)

    Riso, Cristina; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Mastroddi, Franco; Coppotelli, Giuliano; Trequattrini, Francesco; De Vivo, Alessio


    In design and certification of spacecraft, payload/launcher coupled load analyses are performed to simulate the satellite dynamic environment. To obtain accurate predictions, the system damping properties must be properly taken into account in the finite element model used for coupled load analysis. This is typically done using a structural damping characterization in the frequency domain, which is not applicable in the time domain. Therefore, the structural damping matrix of the system must be converted into an equivalent viscous damping matrix when a transient coupled load analysis is performed. This paper focuses on the validation of equivalent viscous damping methods for dynamically condensed finite element models via correlation with experimental data for a realistic structure representative of a slender launch vehicle with solid rocket motors. A second scope of the paper is to investigate how to conveniently choose a single combination of Young's modulus and structural damping coefficient—complex Young's modulus—to approximate the viscoelastic behavior of a solid propellant material in the frequency band of interest for coupled load analysis. A scaled-down test article inspired to the Z9-ignition Vega launcher configuration is designed, manufactured, and experimentally tested to obtain data for validation of the equivalent viscous damping methods. The Z9-like component of the test article is filled with a viscoelastic material representative of the Z9 solid propellant that is also preliminarily tested to investigate the dependency of the complex Young's modulus on the excitation frequency and provide data for the test article finite element model. Experimental results from seismic and shock tests performed on the test configuration are correlated with numerical results from frequency and time domain analyses carried out on its dynamically condensed finite element model to assess the applicability of different equivalent viscous damping methods to describe

  10. Experimental validation of solid rocket motor damping models (United States)

    Riso, Cristina; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Mastroddi, Franco; Coppotelli, Giuliano; Trequattrini, Francesco; De Vivo, Alessio


    In design and certification of spacecraft, payload/launcher coupled load analyses are performed to simulate the satellite dynamic environment. To obtain accurate predictions, the system damping properties must be properly taken into account in the finite element model used for coupled load analysis. This is typically done using a structural damping characterization in the frequency domain, which is not applicable in the time domain. Therefore, the structural damping matrix of the system must be converted into an equivalent viscous damping matrix when a transient coupled load analysis is performed. This paper focuses on the validation of equivalent viscous damping methods for dynamically condensed finite element models via correlation with experimental data for a realistic structure representative of a slender launch vehicle with solid rocket motors. A second scope of the paper is to investigate how to conveniently choose a single combination of Young's modulus and structural damping coefficient—complex Young's modulus—to approximate the viscoelastic behavior of a solid propellant material in the frequency band of interest for coupled load analysis. A scaled-down test article inspired to the Z9-ignition Vega launcher configuration is designed, manufactured, and experimentally tested to obtain data for validation of the equivalent viscous damping methods. The Z9-like component of the test article is filled with a viscoelastic material representative of the Z9 solid propellant that is also preliminarily tested to investigate the dependency of the complex Young's modulus on the excitation frequency and provide data for the test article finite element model. Experimental results from seismic and shock tests performed on the test configuration are correlated with numerical results from frequency and time domain analyses carried out on its dynamically condensed finite element model to assess the applicability of different equivalent viscous damping methods to describe

  11. Numerical Evaluation of the Use of Aluminum Particles for Enhancing Solid Rocket Motor Combustion Stability


    David Greatrix


    The ability to predict the expected internal behaviour of a given solid-propellant rocket motor under transient conditions is important. Research towards predicting and quantifying undesirable transient axial combustion instability symptoms typically necessitates a comprehensive numerical model for internal ballistic simulation under dynamic flow and combustion conditions. On the mitigation side, one in practice sees the use of inert or reactive particles for the suppression of pressure wave ...

  12. Homogenization Issues in the Combustion of Heterogeneous Solid Propellants (United States)

    Chen, M.; Buckmaster, J.; Jackson, T. L.; Massa, L.


    We examine random packs of discs or spheres, models for ammonium-perchlorate-in-binder propellants, and discuss their average properties. An analytical strategy is described for calculating the mean or effective heat conduction coefficient in terms of the heat conduction coefficients of the individual components, and the results are verified by comparison with those of direct numerical simulations (dns) for both 2-D (disc) and 3-D (sphere) packs across which a temperature difference is applied. Similarly, when the surface regression speed of each component is related to the surface temperature via a simple Arrhenius law, an analytical strategy is developed for calculating an effective Arrhenius law for the combination, and these results are verified using dns in which a uniform heat flux is applied to the pack surface, causing it to regress. These results are needed for homogenization strategies necessary for fully integrated 2-D or 3-D simulations of heterogeneous propellant combustion.

  13. A Study of Flame Physics and Solid Propellant Rocket Physics (United States)


    and ellipsoids, and the packing of pellets relevant to igniter modeling. Other topics are the instabilities of smolder waves, premixed flame...instabilities in narrow tubes, and flames supported by a spinning porous plug burner . Much of this work has been reported in the high-quality archival...perchlorate in fuel binder, the combustion of model propellant packs of ellipses and ellipsoids, and the packing of pellets relevant to igniter modeling

  14. Solid Rocket Motor Design Using Hybrid Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Albarado


    Full Text Available A particle swarm/pattern search hybrid optimizer was used to drive a solid rocket motor modeling code to an optimal solution. The solid motor code models tapered motor geometries using analytical burn back methods by slicing the grain into thin sections along the axial direction. Grains with circular perforated stars, wagon wheels, and dog bones can be considered and multiple tapered sections can be constructed. The hybrid approach to optimization is capable of exploring large areas of the solution space through particle swarming, but is also able to climb “hills” of optimality through gradient based pattern searching. A preliminary method for designing tapered internal geometry as well as tapered outer mold-line geometry is presented. A total of four optimization cases were performed. The first two case studies examines designing motors to match a given regressive-progressive-regressive burn profile. The third case study studies designing a neutrally burning right circular perforated grain (utilizing inner and external geometry tapering. The final case study studies designing a linearly regressive burning profile for right circular perforated (tapered grains.

  15. Application of transient burning rate model of solid propellant in electrothermal-chemical launch simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-jie Ni


    Full Text Available A 30 mm electrothermal-chemical (ETC gun experimental system is employed to research the burning rate characteristics of 4/7 high-nitrogen solid propellant. Enhanced gas generation rates (EGGR of propellants during and after electrical discharges are verified in the experiments. A modified 0D internal ballistic model is established to simulate the ETC launch. According to the measured pressure and electrical parameters, a transient burning rate law including the influence of EGGR coefficient by electric power and pressure gradient (dp/dt is added into the model. The EGGR coefficient of 4/7 high-nitrogen solid propellant is equal to 0.005 MW−1. Both simulated breech pressure and projectile muzzle velocity accord with the experimental results well. Compared with Woodley's modified burning rate law, the breech pressure curves acquired by the transient burning rate law are more consistent with test results. Based on the parameters calculated in the model, the relationship among propellant burning rate, pressure gradient (dp/dt and electric power is analyzed. Depending on the transient burning rate law and experimental data, the burning of solid propellant under the condition of plasma is described more accurately.

  16. Cu–Co–O nano-catalysts as a burn rate modifier for composite solid propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chaitanya Kumar Rao


    Full Text Available Nano-catalysts containing copper–cobalt oxides (Cu–Co–O have been synthesized by the citric acid (CA complexing method. Copper (II nitrate and Cobalt (II nitrate were employed in different molar ratios as the starting reactants to prepare three types of nano-catalysts. Well crystalline nano-catalysts were produced after a period of 3 hours by the calcination of CA–Cu–Co–O precursors at 550 °C. The phase morphologies and crystal composition of synthesized nano-catalysts were examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR methods. The particle size of nano-catalysts was observed in the range of 90 nm–200 nm. The prepared nano-catalysts were used to formulate propellant samples of various compositions which showed high reactivity toward the combustion of HTPB/AP-based composite solid propellants. The catalytic effects on the decomposition of propellant samples were found to be significant at higher temperatures. The combustion characteristics of composite solid propellants were significantly improved by the incorporation of nano-catalysts. Out of the three catalysts studied in the present work, CuCo-I was found to be the better catalyst in regard to thermal decomposition and burning nature of composite solid propellants. The improved performance of composite solid propellant can be attributed to the high crystallinity, low agglomeration and lowering the decomposition temperature of oxidizer by the addition of CuCo-I nano-catalyst.

  17. Application of Two-Phase CFD to the Design and Analysis of a Subscale Motor Experiment to Evaluate Propellant Slag Production (United States)

    Whitesides, R. Harold; Dill, Richard A.


    The redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) Pressure Perturbation Investigation Team concluded that the cause of recent pressure spikes during both static and flight motor burns was the expulsion of molten aluminum oxide slag from a pool which collects in the aft end of the motor around the submerged nozzle nose during the last half of motor operation. It is suspected that some motors produce more slag than others due to differences in aluminum oxide agglomerate particle sizes which may relate to subtle differences in propellant ingredient characteristics such as particle size distribution, contaminants, or processing variations. In order to determine the effect of suspect propellant ingredient characteristics on the propensity for slag production in a real motor environment, a subscale motor experiment was designed. An existing 5 inch ballistic test motor was selected as the basic test vehicle due to low cost and quick turn around times. The standard converging/diverging nozzle was replaced with a submerged nozzle nose design to provide a positive trap for the slag which would increase both the quantity and repeatability of measured slag weights. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to assess a variety of submerged nose configurations to identify the design which possessed the best capability to reliably collect slag. CFD also was used to assure that the final selected nozzle design would result in flow field characteristics such as dividing streamline location, nose attach point, and separated flow structure which would have similtude with the RSRM submerged nozzle nose flow field. It also was decided to spin the 5 inch motor about its longitudinal axis to further enhance slag collection quantities. Again, CFD was used to select an appropriate spin rate along with other considerations, including the avoidance of burn rate enhancement from radial acceleration effects.

  18. Performance evaluation of directly photovoltaic powered DC PM (direct current permanent magnet) motorpropeller thrust system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlam, Ozcan; Kolhe, Mohan


    Photovoltaic (PV) powered directly coupled electro-mechanical system has wide applications (e.g. PV powered cooling fans in green houses, PV water pumping system, solar vehicles). The objective of this work is to analyse the operation of directly PV powered DC PM (direct current permanent magnet) motorpropeller system for selection of motor parameters. The performance of such system mainly depends on the incident solar radiation, operating cell temperature, DC motor and propeller load parameters. It is observed that the operating points of the PV DC PM motorpropeller system matches very closely with the maximum power points (MPPs) of the PV array, if the DC PM motorpropeller parameters have been properly selected. It is found that for a specific application of such type of system, matching of torque–speed operating points with respect to the maximum power points of PV array are very important. It is ascertained through results that the DC PM motor's armature resistance, magnetic field constant, starting current to overcome the starting torque and torque coefficient are the main parameters. In designing a PV powered DC PM motor for a specific application, selection of these parameters are important for maximum utilization of the PV array output. The results of this system are useful for designing of directly PV powered DC PM motor's for aerodynamic applications. - Highlights: • We analyse the performance of directly PV powered DC PM motorpropeller system. • We examine PV electro-mechanical system for selection of DC motor parameters. • Matching of torque–speed curve to maximum power points of PV array is important

  19. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, Brandon C., E-mail: [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, Zucrow Laboratories, 500 Allison Rd, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Sippel, Travis R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2025 Black Engineering, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Pfeil, Mark A. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, Zucrow Laboratories, 500 Allison Rd, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Gunduz, I.Emre; Son, Steven F. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, Zucrow Laboratories, 500 Allison Rd, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)


    Highlights: • Al-Li alloy propellant has increased ideal specific impulse over neat aluminum. • Al-Li alloy propellant has a near complete reduction in HCl acid formation. • Reduction in HCl was verified with wet bomb experiments and DSC/TGA-MS/FTIR. - Abstract: Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (I{sub SP}). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal I{sub SP} by ∼7 s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5 ± 4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption.

  20. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, Brandon C.; Sippel, Travis R.; Pfeil, Mark A.; Gunduz, I.Emre; Son, Steven F.


    Highlights: • Al-Li alloy propellant has increased ideal specific impulse over neat aluminum. • Al-Li alloy propellant has a near complete reduction in HCl acid formation. • Reduction in HCl was verified with wet bomb experiments and DSC/TGA-MS/FTIR. - Abstract: Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (I_S_P). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal I_S_P by ∼7 s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5 ± 4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption.

  1. Workshop Report: Fundamental Reactions in Solid Propellant Combustion (United States)


    combustion conditions. 6. What effect might a pressure-induced phase transition to a polymorph other than 6- HMX have on the pressure slope break during...pure HMX as well. Nevertheless, it is recommended that the high pressure polymorphs of HMX and RDX be determined. It was also felt that there...plateau burning phenomena E. Solid phase, surface, gas phase reactions F. Phase transitions : melting, vaporization, polymorphs G. Flame

  2. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy. (United States)

    Terry, Brandon C; Sippel, Travis R; Pfeil, Mark A; Gunduz, I Emre; Son, Steven F


    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (ISP). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal ISP by ∼7s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5±4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Safety test of an improved multihundred watt FSA: launch abort, solid propellant fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabourn, C.M.


    This safety test consisted of exposing a simulant-fueled Improved Multihundred Watt Fuel Sphere Assembly, containing a Pt-3008 sphere holding the fuel simulant, to a single proximity fire of UTP-3001 solid rocket propellant for 10.5 min. The graphite outside shell sustained only minor abrasion damage. It was covered on one side with a heavy deposit of alumina from the fire mixed with silica from the test bed. The Pt-3008 shell had small amounts of carbon, alumina, and silica deposited on its surface but sustained no other damage. The PT-3008 sphere was not breached, and therefore the fuel sphere assembly would not release fuel in a solid-propellant fire of a launch abort. 12 figures

  4. Real-Time Inhibitor Recession Measurements in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    McWhorter, Bruce B.; Ewing, Mark E.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)


    Real-time char line recession measurements were made on propellant inhibitors of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The RSRM FSM-8 static test motor propellant inhibitors (composed of a rubber insulation material) were successfully instrumented with eroding potentiometers and thermocouples. The data was used to establish inhibitor recession versus time relationships. Normally, pre-fire and post-fire insulation thickness measurements establish the thermal performance of an ablating insulation material. However, post-fire inhibitor decomposition and recession measurements are complicated by the fact that most of the inhibitor is back during motor operation. It is therefore a difficult task to evaluate the thermal protection offered by the inhibitor material. Real-time measurements would help this task. The instrumentation program for this static test motor marks the first time that real-time inhibitors. This report presents that data for the center and aft field joint forward facing inhibitors. The data was primarily used to measure char line recession of the forward face of the inhibitors which provides inhibitor thickness reduction versus time data. The data was also used to estimate the inhibitor height versus time relationship during motor operation.

  5. Modeling the Gas Dynamics Environment in a Subscale Solid Rocket Test Motor (United States)

    Eaton, Andrew M.; Ewing, Mark E.; Bailey, Kirk M.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)


    Subscale test motors are often used for the evaluation of solid rocket motor component materials such as internal insulation. These motors are useful for characterizing insulation performance behavior, screening insulation material candidates and obtaining material thermal and ablative property design data. One of the primary challenges associated with using subscale motors however, is the uncertainty involved when extrapolating the results to full-scale motor conditions. These uncertainties are related to differences in such phenomena as turbulent flow behavior and boundary layer development, propellant particle interactions with the wall, insulation off-gas mixing and thermochemical reactions with the bulk flow, radiation levels, material response to the local environment, and other anomalous flow conditions. In addition to the need for better understanding of physical mechanisms, there is also a need to better understand how to best simulate these phenomena using numerical modeling approaches such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD). To better understand and model interactions between major phenomena in a subscale test motor, a numerical study of the internal flow environment of a representative motor was performed. Simulation of the environment included not only gas dynamics, but two-phase flow modeling of entrained alumina particles like those found in an aluminized propellant, and offgassing from wall surfaces similar to an ablating insulation material. This work represents a starting point for establishing the internal environment of a subscale test motor using comprehensive modeling techniques, and lays the groundwork for improving the understanding of the applicability of subscale test data to full-scale motors. It was found that grid resolution, and inclusion of phenomena in addition to gas dynamics, such as two-phase and multi-component gas composition are all important factors that can effect the overall flow field predictions.

  6. Real-Time Inhibitor Recession Measurements in Two Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    McWhorter, B. B.; Ewing, M. E.; Bolton, D. E.; Albrechtsen, K. U.; Earnest, T. E.; Noble, T. C.; Longaker, M.


    Real-time internal motor insulation char line recession measurements have been evaluated for two full-scale static tests of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). These char line recession measurements were recorded on the forward facing propellant grain inhibitors to better understand the thermal performance of these inhibitors. The RSRM propellant grain inhibitors are designed to erode away during motor operation, thus making it difficult to use post-fire observations to determine inhibitor thermal performance. Therefore, this new internal motor instrumentation is invaluable in establishing an accurate understanding of inhibitor recession versus motor operation time. The data for the first test was presented at the 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (AIAA 2001-3280) in July 2001. Since that time, a second full scale static test has delivered additional real-time data on inhibitor thermal performance. The evaluation of this data is presented in this paper. The second static test, in contrast to the first test, used a slightly different arrangement of instrumentation in the inhibitors. This instrumentation has yielded a better understanding of the inhibitor time dependent inboard tip recession. Graphs of inhibitor recession profiles with time are presented. Inhibitor thermal ablation models have been created from theoretical principals. The model predictions compare favorably with data from both tests. This verified modeling effort is important to support new inhibitor designs for a five segment Space Shuttle solid rocket motor. The internal instrumentation project on RSRM static tests is providing unique opportunities for other real-time internal motor measurements that could not otherwise be directly quantified.

  7. The development of the micro-solid propellant thruster array with improved repeatability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daeban; Kwon, Sejin; Lee, Jongkwang


    This paper presents the development of a micro-solid propellant thruster array with improved repeatability. The repeatability and low performance variation of each thruster unit with a high ignition success rate is essential in micro-solid propellant thruster array. To date, the study on the improvement of the repeatability has not yet been reported. As the first step for this study, we propose a new type of micro igniter, using a glass wafer called the heater-contact micro igniter. This igniter is also designed to improve the ignition characteristics of a glass-based micro igniter. The prototype of the igniter array is designed and fabricated to establish its fabrication process and to conduct its performance evaluation. Through the firing test, the performance of the heater-contact micro igniter is verified. The 5 × 5 sized micro-solid propellant thruster array is designed and fabricated applying the developed heater-contact igniter. The measured average thrust of each thruster unit is 2.542 N, and calculated standard deviation is 0.369 N. The calculated average total impulse and its standard deviation are 0.182 and 0.04 mNs, respectively. Based on these results, the improvement of repeatability is verified. Finally, the ignition control system of the micro-thruster array is developed. (paper)

  8. Experimental study on composite solid propellant material burning rate using algorithm MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thunaipragasam Selvakumaran


    Full Text Available In rocketry application, now-a-days instead of monopropellants slowly composite propellants are introduced. Burning rate of a solid state composite propellant depends on many factors like oxidizer-binder ratio, oxidizer particle size and distribution, particle size and its distribution, pressure, temperature, etc. Several researchers had taken the mass varied composite propellant. In that, the ammonium perchlorate mainly varied from 85 to 90%. This paper deals with the oxidizer rich propellant by allowing small variation of fuel cum binder ranging from 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% by mass. Since the percent of the binder is very less compared to the oxidizer, the mixture remains in a powder form. The powder samples are used to make a pressed pellet. Experiments were conducted in closed window bomb set-up at pressures of 2, 3.5, and 7 MN/m2. The burning rates are calculated from the combustion photography (images taken by a high-speed camera. These images were processed frame by frame in MATLAB, detecting the edges in the images of the frames. The burning rate is obtained as the slope of the linear fit from MATLAB and observed that the burn rate increases with the mass variation of constituents present in solid state composite propellant. The result indicates a remarkable increase in burn rate of 26.66%, 20%, 16.66%, and 3.33% for Mix 1, 2, 3, 4 compared with Mix 5 at 7 MN/m2. The percentage variations in burn rate between Mix 1 and Mix 5 at 2, 3.5, and 7 MN/m2 are 25.833%, 32.322%, and 26.185%, respectively.

  9. Elastomeric Thermal Insulation Design Considerations in Long, Aluminized Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    Martin, Heath T.


    An all-new sounding rocket was designed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center that featured an aft finocyl, aluminized solid propellant grain and silica-filled ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (SFEPDM) internal insulation. Upon the initial static firing of the first of this new design, the solid rocket motor (SRM) case failed thermally just upstream of the aft closure early in the burn time. Subsequent fluid modeling indicated that the high-velocity combustion-product jets emanating from the fin-slots in the propellant grain were likely inducing a strongly swirling flow, thus substantially increasing the severity of the convective environment on the exposed portion of the SFEPDM insulation in this region. The aft portion of the fin-slots in another of the motors were filled with propellant to eliminate the possibility of both direct jet impingement on the exposed SFEPDM and the appearance of strongly swirling flow in the aft region of the motor. When static-fired, this motor's case still failed in the same axial location, and, though somewhat later than for the first static firing, still in less than 1/3rd of the desired burn duration. These results indicate that the extreme material decomposition rates of the SFEPDM in this application are not due to gas-phase convection or shear but rather to interactions with burning aluminum or alumina slag. Further comparisons with between SFEPDM performance in this design and that in other hot-fire tests provide insight into the mechanisms of SFEPDM decomposition in SRM aft domes that can guide the upcoming redesign effort, as well as other future SRM designs. These data also highlight the current limitations of modeling elastomeric insulators solely with diffusion-controlled, gas-phase thermochemistry in SRM regions with significant viscous shear and/or condense-phase impingement or flow.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crida, Aurelien; Papaloizou, John C. B.; Rein, Hanno; Charnoz, Sebastien; Salmon, Julien


    Hundred-meter-sized objects have been identified by the Cassini spacecraft in Saturn's A ring through the so-called propeller features they create in the ring. These moonlets should migrate due to their gravitational interaction with the ring; in fact, some orbital variations have been detected. The standard theory of type I migration of planets in protoplanetary disks cannot be applied to the ring system as it is pressureless. Thus, we compute the differential torque felt by a moonlet embedded in a two-dimensional disk of solid particles, with a flat surface density profile, both analytically and numerically. We find that the corresponding migration rate is too small to explain the observed variations of the propeller's orbit in Saturn's A ring. However, local density fluctuations (due to gravity wakes in the marginally gravitationally stable A ring) may exert a stochastic torque on a moonlet. Our simulations show that this torque can be large enough to account for the observations depending on the parameters of the rings. We find that on timescales of several years the migration of propellers is likely to be dominated by stochastic effects (while the former, non-stochastic migration dominates after ∼10 4 -10 5 years). In that case, the migration rates provided by observations so far suggest that the surface density of the A ring should be on the order of 700 kg m -2 . The age of the propellers should not exceed 1-100 million years depending on the dominant migration regime.

  11. Effect of ammonium perchlorate grain sizes on the combustion of solid rocket propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegab, A.; Balabel, A. [Menoufia Univ., Menoufia (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering


    The combustion of heterogeneous solid rocket propellant consisting of ammonium perchlorate (AP) particles was discussed with reference to the chemical and physical complexity of the propellant and the microscopic scale of the combustion zone. This study considered the primary flame between the decomposition products of the binder and the AP oxidizer; the primary diffusion flame from the oxidizer; density and conductivity of the AP and binder; temperature-dependent gas-phase transport properties; and, an unsteady non-planer regression surface. Three different random packing disc models for the AP particles imbedded in a matrix of a hydroxyl terminated polybutadience (HTPB) fuel-binder were used as a base of the combustion code. The models have different AP grain sizes and distribution with the fuel binder. A 2D calculation was developed for the combustion of heterogeneous solid propellant, accounting for the gas phase physics, the solid phase physics and an unsteady non-planar description of the regressing propellant surface. The mathematical model described the unsteady burning of a heterogeneous propellant by simultaneously solving the combustion fields in the gas phase and the thermal field in the solid phase with appropriate jump condition across the gas/solid interface. The gas-phase kinetics was represented by a two-step reaction mechanism for the primary premixed flame and the primary diffusion flame between the decomposition products of the HTPB and the oxidizer. The essentially-non-oscillatory (ENO) scheme was used to describe the propagation of the unsteady non-planer regression surface. The results showed that AP particle size has a significant effect on the combustion surface deformation as well as on the burning rate. This study also determined the effect of various parameters on the surface propagation speed, flame structure, and the burning surface geometry. The speed by which the combustion surface recedes was found to depend on the exposed pressure

  12. Self-Organization of Motor-Propelled Cytoskeletal Filaments at Topographically Defined Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Månsson


    Full Text Available Self-organization phenomena are of critical importance in living organisms and of great interest to exploit in nanotechnology. Here we describe in vitro self-organization of molecular motor-propelled actin filaments, manifested as a tendency of the filaments to accumulate in high density close to topographically defined edges on nano- and microstructured surfaces. We hypothesized that this “edge-tracing” effect either (1 results from increased motor density along the guiding edges or (2 is a direct consequence of the asymmetric constraints on stochastic changes in filament sliding direction imposed by the edges. The latter hypothesis is well captured by a model explicitly defining the constraints of motility on structured surfaces in combination with Monte-Carlo simulations [cf. Nitta et al. (2006] of filament sliding. In support of hypothesis 2 we found that the model reproduced the edge tracing effect without the need to assume increased motor density at the edges. We then used model simulations to elucidate mechanistic details. The results are discussed in relation to nanotechnological applications and future experiments to test model predictions.

  13. Evaluation of Solid Rocket Motor Component Data Using a Commercially Available Statistical Software Package (United States)

    Stefanski, Philip L.


    Commercially available software packages today allow users to quickly perform the routine evaluations of (1) descriptive statistics to numerically and graphically summarize both sample and population data, (2) inferential statistics that draws conclusions about a given population from samples taken of it, (3) probability determinations that can be used to generate estimates of reliability allowables, and finally (4) the setup of designed experiments and analysis of their data to identify significant material and process characteristics for application in both product manufacturing and performance enhancement. This paper presents examples of analysis and experimental design work that has been conducted using Statgraphics®(Registered Trademark) statistical software to obtain useful information with regard to solid rocket motor propellants and internal insulation material. Data were obtained from a number of programs (Shuttle, Constellation, and Space Launch System) and sources that include solid propellant burn rate strands, tensile specimens, sub-scale test motors, full-scale operational motors, rubber insulation specimens, and sub-scale rubber insulation analog samples. Besides facilitating the experimental design process to yield meaningful results, statistical software has demonstrated its ability to quickly perform complex data analyses and yield significant findings that might otherwise have gone unnoticed. One caveat to these successes is that useful results not only derive from the inherent power of the software package, but also from the skill and understanding of the data analyst.

  14. Effect of propellant morphology on acoustics in a planar rocket motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daimon, Y.; Jackson, T.L. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Center for Simulation of Advanced Rockets, Urbana, IL (United States); Topalian, V. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Mechanical Science and Engineering, Urbana, IL (United States); Freund, J.B. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Mechanical Science and Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Urbana, IL (United States); Buckmaster, J. [Buckmaster Research, Urbana, IL (United States)


    This paper reports the results of numerical simulations of the acoustics in a two-dimensional (plane) motor using a high-order accurate, low-dissipation numerical solver. For verification we compare solutions to Culick's (AIAA J 4(8):1462-1464, 1966) asymptotic solution for constant injection, and to recent results of Hegab and Kassoy (AIAA J 44(4):812-826, 2006) for a space- and time-dependent mass injection. We present results when the injection boundary condition is described by propellant morphology and by white noise. Morphology strongly affects the amplitude of the longitudinal acoustic modes, and in this connection white noise is not a suitable surrogate. (orig.)

  15. Forecastable and Guidable Bubble-Propelled Microplate Motors for Cell Transport. (United States)

    Hu, Narisu; Zhang, Bin; Gai, Meiyu; Zheng, Ce; Frueh, Johannes; He, Qiang


    Cell transport is important to renew body functions and organs with stem cells, or to attack cancer cells with immune cells. The main hindrances of this method are the lack of understanding of cell motion as well as proper transport systems. In this publication, bubble-propelled polyelectrolyte microplates are used for controlled transport and guidance of HeLa cells. Cells survive attachment on the microplates and up to 22 min in 5% hydrogen peroxide solution. They can be guided by a magnetic field whereby increased friction of cells attached to microplates decreases the speed by 90% compared to pristine microplates. The motion direction of the cell-motor system is easier to predict due to the cell being opposite to the bubbles. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipupo Olaosebikan Ogunleye


    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of propellant formulation and geometry on the solid propellant grains internal ballistic performance using core, bates, rod and tubular and end-burn geometries. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to analyze and optimize the effect of sucrose, potassium nitrate and carbon on the chamber pressure, temperature, thrust and specific impulse of the solid propellant grains through Central Composite Design (CCD of the experiment. An increase in potassium nitrate increased the specific impulse while an increase in sucrose and carbon decreased specific impulse. The coefficient of determination (R2 for models of chamber pressure, temperature, thrust and specific impulse in terms of composition and geometry were 0.9737, 0.9984, 0.9745 and 0.9589, respectively. The optimum specific impulse of 127.89 s, pressure (462201 Pa, temperature (1618.3 K and thrust (834.83 N were obtained using 0.584 kg of sucrose, 1.364 kg of potassium nitrate and 0.052 kg of carbon as well as bate geometry. There was no significant difference between the calculated and experimented ballistic properties at p < 0.05. The bate grain geometry is more efficient for minimizing the oscillatory pressure in the combustion chamber.

  17. Internal Flow Analysis of Large L/D Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    Laubacher, Brian A.


    Traditionally, Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) internal ballistic performance has been analyzed and predicted with either zero-dimensional (volume filling) codes or one-dimensional ballistics codes. One dimensional simulation of SRM performance is only necessary for ignition modeling, or for motors that have large length to port diameter ratios which exhibit an axial "pressure drop" during the early burn times. This type of prediction works quite well for many types of motors, however, when motor aspect ratios get large, and port to throat ratios get closer to one, two dimensional effects can become significant. The initial propellant grain configuration for the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) was analyzed with 2-D, steady, axi-symmetric computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The results of the CFD analysis show that the steady-state performance prediction at the initial burn geometry, in general, agrees well with 1-D transient prediction results at an early time, however, significant features of the 2-D flow are captured with the CFD results that would otherwise go unnoticed. Capturing these subtle differences gives a greater confidence to modeling accuracy, and additional insight with which to model secondary internal flow effects like erosive burning. Detailed analysis of the 2-D flowfield has led to the discovery of its hidden 1-D isentropic behavior, and provided the means for a thorough and simplified understanding of internal solid rocket motor flow. Performance parameters such as nozzle stagnation pressure, static pressure drop, characteristic velocity, thrust and specific impulse are discussed in detail and compared for different modeling and prediction methods. The predicted performance using both the 1-D codes and the CFD results are compared with measured data obtained from static tests of the RSRM. The differences and limitations of predictions using ID and 2-D flow fields are discussed and some suggestions for the design of large L/D motors and

  18. Measuring the Internal Environment of Solid Rocket Motors During Ignition (United States)

    Weisenberg, Brent; Smith, Doug; Speas, Kyle; Corliss, Adam


    A new instrumentation system has been developed to measure the internal environment of solid rocket test motors during motor ignition. The system leverages conventional, analog gages with custom designed, electronics modules to provide safe, accurate, high speed data acquisition capability. To date, the instrumentation system has been demonstrated in a laboratory environment and on subscale static fire test motors ranging in size from 5-inches to 24-inches in diameter. Ultimately, this system is intended to be installed on a full-scale Reusable Solid Rocket Motor. This paper explains the need for the data, the components and capabilities of the system, and the test results.

  19. The development of an erosive burning model for solid rocket motors using direct numerical simulation (United States)

    McDonald, Brian A.

    A method for developing an erosive burning model for use in solid propellant design-and-analysis interior ballistics codes is described and evaluated. Using Direct Numerical Simulation, the primary mechanisms controlling erosive burning (turbulent heat transfer, and finite rate reactions) have been studied independently through the development of models using finite rate chemistry, and infinite rate chemistry. Both approaches are calibrated to strand burn rate data by modeling the propellant burning in an environment with no cross-flow, and adjusting thermophysical properties until the predicted regression rate matches test data. Subsequent runs are conducted where the cross-flow is increased from M = 0.0 up to M = 0.8. The resulting relationship of burn rate increase versus Mach Number is used in an interior ballistics analysis to compute the chamber pressure of an existing solid rocket motor. The resulting predictions are compared to static test data. Both the infinite rate model and the finite rate model show good agreement when compared to test data. The propellant considered is an AP/HTPB with an average AP particle size of 37 microns. The finite rate model shows that as the cross-flow increases, near wall vorticity increases due to the lifting of the boundary caused by the side injection of gases from the burning propellant surface. The point of maximum vorticity corresponds to the outer edge of the APd-binder flame. As the cross-flow increases, the APd-binder flame thickness becomes thinner; however, the point of highest reaction rate moves only slightly closer to the propellant surface. As such, the net increase of heat transfer to the propellant surface due to finite rate chemistry affects is small. This leads to the conclusion that augmentation of thermal transport properties and the resulting heat transfer increase due to turbulence dominates over combustion chemistry in the erosive burning problem. This conclusion is advantageous in the development of

  20. Injection and swirl driven flowfields in solid and liquid rocket motors (United States)

    Vyas, Anand B.

    In this work, we seek approximate analytical solutions to describe the bulk flow motion in certain types of solid and liquid rocket motors. In the case of an idealized solid rocket motor, a cylindrical double base propellant grain with steady regression rate is considered. The well known inviscid profile determined by Culick is extended here to include the effects of viscosity and steady grain regression. The approximate analytical solution for the cold flow is obtained from similarity principles, perturbation methods and the method of variation of parameters. The velocity, vorticity, pressure gradient and the shear stress distributions are determined and interpreted for different rates of wall regression and injection Reynolds number. The liquid propellant rocket engine considered here is based on a novel design that gives rise to a cyclonic flow. The resulting bidirectional motion is triggered by the tangential injection of an oxidizer just upstream of the chamber nozzle. Velocity, vorticity and pressure gradient distributions are determined for the bulk gas dynamics using a non-reactive inviscid model. Viscous corrections are then incorporated to explain the formation of a forced vortex near the core. Our results compare favorably with numerical simulations and experimental measurements obtained by other researchers. They also indicate that the bidirectional vortex in a cylindrical chamber is a physical solution of the Euler equations. In closing, we investigate the possibility of multi-directional flow behavior as predicted by Euler's equation and as reported recently in laboratory experiments.

  1. Numerical Evaluation of the Use of Aluminum Particles for Enhancing Solid Rocket Motor Combustion Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Greatrix


    Full Text Available The ability to predict the expected internal behaviour of a given solid-propellant rocket motor under transient conditions is important. Research towards predicting and quantifying undesirable transient axial combustion instability symptoms typically necessitates a comprehensive numerical model for internal ballistic simulation under dynamic flow and combustion conditions. On the mitigation side, one in practice sees the use of inert or reactive particles for the suppression of pressure wave development in the motor chamber flow. With the focus of the present study placed on reactive particles, a numerical internal ballistic model incorporating relevant elements, such as a transient, frequency-dependent combustion response to axial pressure wave activity above the burning propellant surface, is applied to the investigation of using aluminum particles within the central internal flow (particles whose surfaces nominally regress with time, as a function of current particle size, as they move downstream as a means of suppressing instability-related symptoms in a cylindrical-grain motor. The results of this investigation reveal that the loading percentage and starting size of the aluminum particles have a significant influence on reducing the resulting transient pressure wave magnitude.

  2. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor - Accomplishments, Lessons, and a Culture of Success (United States)

    Moore, Dennis R.; Phelps, Willie J.


    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor represents the largest solid rocket motor ever flown and the only human rated solid motor. Each Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) provides approximately 3-million lb of thrust to lift the integrated Space Shuttle vehicle from the launch pad. The motors burn out approximately 2 minutes later, separate from the vehicle and are recovered and refurbished. The size of the motor and the need for high reliability were challenges. Thrust shaping, via shaping of the propellant grain, was needed to limit structural loads during ascent. The motor design evolved through several block upgrades to increase performance and to increase safety and reliability. A major redesign occurred after STS-51L with the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor. Significant improvements in the joint sealing systems were added. Design improvements continued throughout the Program via block changes with a number of innovations including development of low temperature o-ring materials and incorporation of a unique carbon fiber rope thermal barrier material. Recovery of the motors and post flight inspection improved understanding of hardware performance, and led to key design improvements. Because of the multidecade program duration material obsolescence was addressed, and requalification of materials and vendors was sometimes needed. Thermal protection systems and ablatives were used to protect the motor cases and nozzle structures. Significant understanding of design and manufacturing features of the ablatives was developed during the program resulting in optimization of design features and processing parameters. The project advanced technology in eliminating ozone-depleting materials in manufacturing processes and the development of an asbestos-free case insulation. Manufacturing processes for the large motor components were unique and safety in the manufacturing environment was a special concern. Transportation and handling approaches were also needed for the large

  3. Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Solid Rocket Motor with Flexible Inhibitors (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff; Harris, Robert E.


    Flexible inhibitors are generally used in solid rocket motors (SRMs) as a means to control the burning of propellant. Vortices generated by the flow of propellant around the flexible inhibitors have been identified as a driving source of instabilities that can lead to thrust oscillations in launch vehicles. Potential coupling between the SRM thrust oscillations and structural vibration modes is an important risk factor in launch vehicle design. As a means to predict and better understand these phenomena, a multidisciplinary simulation capability that couples the NASA production CFD code, Loci/CHEM, with CFDRC's structural finite element code, CoBi, has been developed. This capability is crucial to the development of NASA's new space launch system (SLS). This paper summarizes the efforts in applying the coupled software to demonstrate and investigate fluid-structure interaction (FSI) phenomena between pressure waves and flexible inhibitors inside reusable solid rocket motors (RSRMs). The features of the fluid and structural solvers are described in detail, and the coupling methodology and interfacial continuity requirements are then presented in a general Eulerian-Lagrangian framework. The simulations presented herein utilize production level CFD with hybrid RANS/LES turbulence modeling and grid resolution in excess of 80 million cells. The fluid domain in the SRM is discretized using a general mixed polyhedral unstructured mesh, while full 3D shell elements are utilized in the structural domain for the flexible inhibitors. Verifications against analytical solutions for a structural model under a steady uniform pressure condition and under dynamic modal analysis show excellent agreement in terms of displacement distribution and eigenmode frequencies. The preliminary coupled results indicate that due to acoustic coupling, the dynamics of one of the more flexible inhibitors shift from its first modal frequency to the first acoustic frequency of the solid rocket motor

  4. Propelling Ariane. The Vulcain engines and the solid propellant engines; Propulser Ariane. Les moteurs Vulcain et les moteurs a propergol solide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The development of the Vulcain program was ensured thanks to a European cooperation with an ESA (European Space Agency) financing. The CNES (European Centre for Space Studies) has ensured the technical and financial direction of the program and gave the control of the development to the SEP. The manufacturing of the Vulcain engine is managed under the Arianespace contract, in charge of the marketing of the Ariane 5 launcher. The overall engineering of the engine and its tests were carried out by the SEP in Vernon (France) and Lampoldshausen (Germany) test facilities. SEP has also developed and built the hydrogen turbo-pump, the gas generator and its feeding valves. Several companies are involved in the development of this engine: DASA for the combustion chamber, Fiat Avio for the oxygen turbo-pump, Volvo Aero Corp. for the divergent and the hydrogen and oxygen turbines, Techspace Aero for the chamber injection valves and the drain and hot gases valves, Microtechnica for the electro-valves and check valves, SPE for the firing and start-up equipments, Avica for the feeding lines, Devtec for the supports, and MAN for the cardan and the thermal protection. This paper describes the functioning principle of the Vulcain engine, and of the two solid propellant fuel acceleration stages of the Ariane 5 launcher. Some future projects of the SEP are also described: the dual liquid-fuels engine and the plasma engine. (J.S.)

  5. Parallel computation with molecular-motor-propelled agents in nanofabricated networks. (United States)

    Nicolau, Dan V; Lard, Mercy; Korten, Till; van Delft, Falco C M J M; Persson, Malin; Bengtsson, Elina; Månsson, Alf; Diez, Stefan; Linke, Heiner; Nicolau, Dan V


    The combinatorial nature of many important mathematical problems, including nondeterministic-polynomial-time (NP)-complete problems, places a severe limitation on the problem size that can be solved with conventional, sequentially operating electronic computers. There have been significant efforts in conceiving parallel-computation approaches in the past, for example: DNA computation, quantum computation, and microfluidics-based computation. However, these approaches have not proven, so far, to be scalable and practical from a fabrication and operational perspective. Here, we report the foundations of an alternative parallel-computation system in which a given combinatorial problem is encoded into a graphical, modular network that is embedded in a nanofabricated planar device. Exploring the network in a parallel fashion using a large number of independent, molecular-motor-propelled agents then solves the mathematical problem. This approach uses orders of magnitude less energy than conventional computers, thus addressing issues related to power consumption and heat dissipation. We provide a proof-of-concept demonstration of such a device by solving, in a parallel fashion, the small instance {2, 5, 9} of the subset sum problem, which is a benchmark NP-complete problem. Finally, we discuss the technical advances necessary to make our system scalable with presently available technology.

  6. Plume Particle Collection and Sizing from Static Firing of Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    Sambamurthi, Jay K.


    Thermal radiation from the plume of any solid rocket motor, containing aluminum as one of the propellant ingredients, is mainly from the microscopic, hot aluminum oxide particles in the plume. The plume radiation to the base components of the flight vehicle is primarily determined by the plume flowfield properties, the size distribution of the plume particles, and their optical properties. The optimum design of a vehicle base thermal protection system is dependent on the ability to accurately predict this intense thermal radiation using validated theoretical models. This article describes a successful effort to collect reasonably clean plume particle samples from the static firing of the flight simulation motor (FSM-4) on March 10, 1994 at the T-24 test bed at the Thiokol space operations facility as well as three 18.3% scaled MNASA motors tested at NASA/MSFC. Prior attempts to collect plume particles from the full-scale motor firings have been unsuccessful due to the extremely hostile thermal and acoustic environment in the vicinity of the motor nozzle.

  7. Modeling and simulation of the debonding process of composite solid propellants (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xu, Jin-sheng; Han, Long; Chen, Xiong


    In order to study the damage evolution law of composite solid propellants, the molecular dynamics particle filled algorithm was used to establish the mesoscopic structure model of HTPB(Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene) propellants. The cohesive element method was employed for the adhesion interface between AP(Ammonium perchlorate) particle and HTPB matrix and the bilinear cohesive zone model was used to describe the mechanical response of the interface elements. The inversion analysis method based on Hooke-Jeeves optimization algorithm was employed to identify the parameters of cohesive zone model(CZM) of the particle/binder interface. Then, the optimized parameters were applied to the commercial finite element software ABAQUS to simulate the damage evolution process for AP particle and HTPB matrix, including the initiation, development, gathering and macroscopic crack. Finally, the stress-strain simulation curve was compared with the experiment curves. The result shows that the bilinear cohesive zone model can accurately describe the debonding and fracture process between the AP particles and HTPB matrix under the uniaxial tension loading.

  8. Seismic tests at the HDR facility using explosives and solid propellant rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvin, P.; Steinhilber, H.


    In blast tests the HDR reactor building and its mechanical equipment were subjected to earthquake-type excitations through the soil and the foundation. A series of six tests was carried out, two tests being made with HDR facility under operating conditions (BWR conditions, 285 0 C, 70 bar). The charges were placed in boreholes at a depth of 4 to 10 m and a distance of 16 to 25 m from the reactor building. The tests with solid propellant rockets were made in order to try a new excitation technique. The rockets used in these tests were of compact design and had a short combustion period (500 ms) at high constant thrust (100 kN per combustion chamber). These rockets were fixed to the concrete dome of the building in such a way that the thrust generated during the combustion of the propellant resulted in an impulsive load acting on the building. This type of excitation was selected with a view to investigating the global effects of the load case 'aircraft impact' on the building and the mechanical equipment. In the four tests made so far, up to four rockets were ignited simultaneously, so that the maximum impulse was 2 x 10 5 Ns. The excitation level can be markedly increased by adding further rockets. This excitation technique was characterised by excellent reproducibility of the load parameters. (orig./HP)

  9. Development of a computerized analysis for solid propellant combustion instability with turbulence (United States)

    Chung, T. J.; Park, O. Y.


    A multi-dimensional numerical model has been developed for the unsteady state oscillatory combustion of solid propellants subject to acoustic pressure disturbances. Including the gas phase unsteady effects, the assumption of uniform pressure across the flame zone, which has been conventionally used, is relaxed so that a higher frequency response in the long flame of a double-base propellant can be calculated. The formulation is based on a premixed, laminar flame with a one-step overall chemical reaction and the Arrhenius law of decomposition with no condensed phase reaction. In a given geometry, the Galerkin finite element solution shows the strong resonance and damping effect at the lower frequencies, similar to the result of Denison and Baum. Extended studies deal with the higher frequency region where the pressure varies in the flame thickness. The nonlinear system behavior is investigated by carrying out the second order expansion in wave amplitude when the acoustic pressure oscillations are finite in amplitude. Offset in the burning rate shows a negative sign in the whole frequency region considered, and it verifies the experimental results of Price. Finally, the velocity coupling in the two-dimensional model is discussed.

  10. Computation of turbulent reacting flow in a solid-propellant ducted rocket (United States)

    Chao, Yei-Chin; Chou, Wen-Fuh; Liu, Sheng-Shyang


    A mathematical model for computation of turbulent reacting flows is developed under general curvilinear coordinate systems. An adaptive, streamline grid system is generated to deal with the complex flow structures in a multiple-inlet solid-propellant ducted rocket (SDR) combustor. General tensor representations of the k-epsilon and algebraic stress (ASM) turbulence models are derived in terms of contravariant velocity components, and modification caused by the effects of compressible turbulence is also included in the modeling. The clipped Gaussian probability density function is incorporated in the combustion model to account for fluctuations of properties. Validation of the above modeling is first examined by studying mixing and reacting characteristics in a confined coaxial-jet problem. This is followed by study of nonreacting and reacting SDR combustor flows. The results show that Gibson and Launder's ASM incorporated with Sarkar's modification for compressible turbulence effects based on the general curvilinear coordinate systems yields the most satisfactory prediction for this complicated SDR flowfield.

  11. Evaluation of Flygt Propeller Xixers for Double Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The River Protection Project (RPP) is planning to retrieve radioactive waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) underground at the Hanford Site. This waste will then be transferred to a waste treatment plant to be immobilized (vitrified) in a stable glass form. Over the years, the waste solids in many of the tanks have settled to form a layer of sludge at the bottom. The thickness of the sludge layer varies from tank to tank, from no sludge or a few inches of sludge to about 15 ft of sludge. The purpose of this technology and engineering case study is to evaluate the Flygt{trademark} submersible propeller mixer as a potential technology for auxiliary mobilization of DST HLW solids. Considering the usage and development to date by other sites in the development of this technology, this study also has the objective of expanding the knowledge base of the Flygt{trademark} mixer concept with the broader perspective of Hanford Site tank waste retrieval. More specifically, the objectives of this study delineated from the work plan are described.

  12. Study of solid rocket motor for space shuttle booster, volume 2, book 1 (United States)


    The technical requirements for the solid propellant rocket engine to be used with the space shuttle orbiter are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) propulsion system definition, (2) solid rocket engine stage design, (3) solid rocket engine stage recovery, (4) environmental effects, (5) manrating of the solid rocket engine stage, (6) system safety analysis, and (7) ground support equipment.

  13. Indirect and direct methods for measuring a dynamic throat diameter in a solid rocket motor (United States)

    Colbaugh, Lauren

    In a solid rocket motor, nozzle throat erosion is dictated by propellant composition, throat material properties, and operating conditions. Throat erosion has a significant effect on motor performance, so it must be accurately characterized to produce a good motor design. In order to correlate throat erosion rate to other parameters, it is first necessary to know what the throat diameter is throughout a motor burn. Thus, an indirect method and a direct method for determining throat diameter in a solid rocket motor are investigated in this thesis. The indirect method looks at the use of pressure and thrust data to solve for throat diameter as a function of time. The indirect method's proof of concept was shown by the good agreement between the ballistics model and the test data from a static motor firing. The ballistics model was within 10% of all measured and calculated performance parameters (e.g. average pressure, specific impulse, maximum thrust, etc.) for tests with throat erosion and within 6% of all measured and calculated performance parameters for tests without throat erosion. The direct method involves the use of x-rays to directly observe a simulated nozzle throat erode in a dynamic environment; this is achieved with a dynamic calibration standard. An image processing algorithm is developed for extracting the diameter dimensions from the x-ray intensity digital images. Static and dynamic tests were conducted. The measured diameter was compared to the known diameter in the calibration standard. All dynamic test results were within +6% / -7% of the actual diameter. Part of the edge detection method consists of dividing the entire x-ray image by an average pixel value, calculated from a set of pixels in the x-ray image. It was found that the accuracy of the edge detection method depends upon the selection of the average pixel value area and subsequently the average pixel value. An average pixel value sensitivity analysis is presented. Both the indirect

  14. Mars Ascent Vehicle-Propellant Aging (United States)

    Dankanich, John; Rousseau, Jeremy; Williams, Jacob


    This project is to develop and test a new propellant formulation specifically for the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) for the robotic Mars Sample Return mission. The project was initiated under the Planetary Sciences Division In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program and is continuing under the Mars Exploration Program. The two-stage, solid motor-based MAV has been the leading MAV solution for more than a decade. Additional studies show promise for alternative technologies including hybrid and bipropellant options, but the solid motor design has significant propellant density advantages well suited for physical constraints imposed while using the SkyCrane descent stage. The solid motor concept has lower specific impulse (Isp) than alternatives, but if the first stage and payload remain sufficiently small, the two-stage solid MAV represents a potential low risk approach to meet the mission needs. As the need date for the MAV slips, opportunities exist to advance technology with high on-ramp potential. The baseline propellant for the MAV is currently the carboxyl terminated polybutadiene (CTPB) based formulation TP-H-3062 due to its advantageous low temperature mechanical properties and flight heritage. However, the flight heritage is limited and outside the environments, the MAV must endure. The ISPT program competed a propellant formulation project with industry and selected ATK to develop a new propellant formulation specifically for the MAV application. Working with ATK, a large number of propellant formulations were assessed to either increase performance of a CTPB propellant or improve the low temperature mechanical properties of a hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant. Both propellants demonstrated potential to increase performance over heritage options, but an HTPB propellant formulation, TP-H-3544, was selected for production and testing. The test plan includes propellant aging first at high vacuum conditions, representative of the Mars transit

  15. Operating instabilities in big solid propellant engines; Instabilites de fonctionnement dans les moteurs a propergol solide de grande taille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallier, S.; Guery, J.F.; Godfroy, F. [Groupe SNPE Propulsion/ Centre de Recherches du Boucher, 91 - Vert le Petit (France); Lebreton, P.; Ribereau, D.; Cloutet, P. [Groupe SNPE Propulsion, 33 - Medard en Jalles (France)


    Some solid rocket motors (SRM) may exhibit instabilities during operation. Different kind of instabilities ore liable to occur depending on size or operating conditions. In extreme cases, instabilities may involve overage pressure shift sometimes leading to motor failure. In large SRM's, such as the ones used for space or strategic propulsion, instabilities become apparent as a thrust oscillation implying vibrations which can turn out to be severe for carrying load. In any cases, instabilities are unwanted and should be predicted as early as conception. Active research on instabilities on large SRM's showed they are dominated by some coupling between chamber acoustics and hydrodynamic instability. The latter arises from some vortex shedding stemming either from surface instability or unstable shear layers. Earlier, predictions were based on theoretical developments such as linear acoustic balance. Although still in use for a rough estimation, this approach has progressively been replaced by numerical simulations which now show supremacy for tackling complex geometries or flow patterns. However, simulations need to use adapted schemes and must also be assessed by numerous validations. This validation step is crucial to insure quality and trust for CFD. Indeed the flow inside an actual motor involves complex physics and only pressure is measured due to severe ambient conditions- Hence, CFD is often the only way to get an insight into the flow validation procedure is sustained by experimental data obtained either in large scale motors sub-scale motors or cold flow sub-scale facility. Cold flow experiments make the opportunity to use advanced measurement techniques (such as Laser Doppler Velocimetry or Particle Image Velocimetry) and contribute to enhanced validations, although the flow may differ from an actual motor flow. However, there is still some work left to bring CFD to a reliable prediction tool able to deal with arbitrary geometry or operating

  16. Combustion Stability Assessments of the Black Brant Solid Rocket Motor (United States)

    Fischbach, Sean


    The Black Brant variation of the Standard Brant developed in the 1960's has been a workhorse motor of the NASA Sounding Rocket Project Office (SRPO) since the 1970's. In March 2012, the Black Brant Mk1 used on mission 36.277 experienced combustion instability during a flight at White Sands Missile Range, the third event in the last four years, the first occurring in November, 2009, the second in April 2010. After the 2010 event the program has been increasing the motor's throat diameter post-delivery with the goal of lowering the chamber pressure and increasing the margin against combustion instability. During the most recent combustion instability event, the vibrations exceeded the qualification levels for the Flight Termination System. The present study utilizes data generated from T-burner testing of multiple Black Brant propellants at the Naval Air Warfare Center at China Lake, to improve the combustion stability predictions for the Black Brant Mk1 and to generate new predictions for the Mk2. Three unique one dimensional (1-D) stability models were generated, representing distinct Black Brant flights, two of which experienced instabilities. The individual models allowed for comparison of stability characteristics between various nozzle configurations. A long standing "rule of thumb" states that increased stability margin is gained by increasing the throat diameter. In contradiction to this experience based rule, the analysis shows that little or no margin is gained from a larger throat diameter. The present analysis demonstrates competing effects resulting from an increased throat diameter accompanying a large response function. As is expected, more acoustic energy was expelled through the nozzle, but conversely more acoustic energy was generated due to larger gas velocities near the propellant surfaces.

  17. Simulation of two-dimensional interior ballistics model of solid propellant electrothermal-chemical launch with discharge rod plasma generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-jie Ni


    Full Text Available Instead of the capillary plasma generator (CPG, a discharge rod plasma generator (DRPG is used in the 30 mm electrothermal-chemical (ETC gun to improve the ignition uniformity of the solid propellant. An axisymmetric two-dimensional interior ballistics model of the solid propellant ETC gun (2D-IB-SPETCG is presented to describe the process of the ETC launch. Both calculated pressure and projectile muzzle velocity accord well with the experimental results. The feasibility of the 2D-IB-SPETCG model is proved. Depending on the experimental data and initial parameters, detailed distribution of the ballistics parameters can be simulated. With the distribution of pressure and temperature of the gas phase and the propellant, the influence of plasma during the ignition process can be analyzed. Because of the radial flowing plasma, the propellant in the area of the DRPG is ignited within 0.01 ms, while all propellant in the chamber is ignited within 0.09 ms. The radial ignition delay time is much less than the axial delay time. During the ignition process, the radial pressure difference is less than 5  MPa at the place 0.025 m away from the breech. The radial ignition uniformity is proved. The temperature of the gas increases from several thousand K (conventional ignition to several ten thousand K (plasma ignition. Compare the distribution of the density and temperature of the gas, we know that low density and high temperature gas appears near the exits of the DRPG, while high density and low temperature gas appears at the wall near the breech. The simulation of the 2D-IB-SPETCG model is an effective way to investigate the interior ballistics process of the ETC launch. The 2D-IB-SPETC model can be used for prediction and improvement of experiments.

  18. Determination of the Basis for Temperature Compensation in ETC Ignited Solid Propellant Guns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pesce-Rodriguez, R. A; Beyer, R. A


    A series of experiments and reanalysis of previously published results has led to the discovery of the key interaction between the plasma of an electrothermal igniter and the gun propellant in large caliber cannon...

  19. Studies on Decomposition and Combustion Mechanism of Solid Fuel Rich Propellants (United States)


    thrust to cruise at supersonic speed. This was followed by the test of large diameter ramjet called burner test vehicle (BTV). Advanced low volume...propellant surface. Vernekar et al (43) found that in pressed AP-Al pellets , maximum burn rate is obtained at intermediate metal content. Jain et al...conjunction with high pressure window strand burner . They found that the propellant combustion was irregular and regression rate varied from 0.3 to 3

  20. Finite element method for viscoelastic medium with damage and the application to structural analysis of solid rocket motor grain (United States)

    Deng, Bin; Shen, ZhiBin; Duan, JingBo; Tang, GuoJin


    This paper studies the damage-viscoelastic behavior of composite solid propellants of solid rocket motors (SRM). Based on viscoelastic theories and strain equivalent hypothesis in damage mechanics, a three-dimensional (3-D) nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model incorporating with damage is developed. The resulting viscoelastic constitutive equations are numerically discretized by integration algorithm, and a stress-updating method is presented by solving nonlinear equations according to the Newton-Raphson method. A material subroutine of stress-updating is made up and embedded into commercial code of Abaqus. The material subroutine is validated through typical examples. Our results indicate that the finite element results are in good agreement with the analytical ones and have high accuracy, and the suggested method and designed subroutine are efficient and can be further applied to damage-coupling structural analysis of practical SRM grain.

  1. Hybrids - Best of both worlds. [liquid and solid propellants mated for safe reliable and low cost launch vehicles (United States)

    Goldberg, Ben E.; Wiley, Dan R.


    An overview is presented of hybrid rocket propulsion systems whereby combining solids and liquids for launch vehicles could produce a safe, reliable, and low-cost product. The primary subsystems of a hybrid system consist of the oxidizer tank and feed system, an injector system, a solid fuel grain enclosed in a pressure vessel case, a mixing chamber, and a nozzle. The hybrid rocket has an inert grain, which reduces costs of development, transportation, manufacturing, and launch by avoiding many safety measures that must be taken when operating with solids. Other than their use in launch vehicles, hybrids are excellent for simulating the exhaust of solid rocket motors for material development.

  2. The use of image analysis for the study of interfacial bonding in solid composite propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the framework of this research, the program Image Pro Plus was applied for determining the polymer–oxidizer interactions in HTPB-based composite propellants. In order to improve the interactions, different bonding agents were used, and their efficiency was analyzed. The determination of the quantity, area and radius of non-bonded oxidizer crystals is presented. The position of formed cracks in the specimen and their area has a great influence on the mechanical properties of composite propellant. The preparation of the composite propellant in order to enable the photographing of their structure by means of stereoscopic and metallographic microscopes with the digital camera is also described as well.

  3. Metallized solid rocket propellants based on AN/AP and PSAN/AP for access to space (United States)

    Levi, S.; Signoriello, D.; Gabardi, A.; Molinari, M.; Galfetti, L.; Deluca, L. T.; Cianfanelli, S.; Klyakin, G. F.


    Solid rocket propellants based on dual mixes of inorganic crystalline oxidizers (ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium perchlorate (AP)) with binder and a mixture of micrometric-nanometric aluminum were investigated. Ammonium nitrate is a low-cost oxidizer, producing environment friendly combustion products but with lower specific impulse compared to AP. The better performance obtained with AP and the low quantity of toxic emissions obtained by using AN have suggested an interesting compromise based on a dual mixture of the two oxidizers. To improve the thermal response of raw AN, different types of phase stabilized AN (PSAN) and AN/AP co-crystals were investigated.

  4. Flight Investigation of the Performance of a Two-stage Solid-propellant Nike-deacon (DAN) Meteorological Sounding Rocket (United States)

    Heitkotter, Robert H


    A flight investigation of two Nike-Deacon (DAN) two-stage solid-propellant rocket vehicles indicated satisfactory performance may be expected from the DAN meteorological sounding rocket. Peak altitudes of 356,000 and 350,000 feet, respectively, were recorded for the two flight tests when both vehicles were launched from sea level at an elevation angle of 75 degrees. Performance calculations based on flight-test results show that altitudes between 358,000 feet and 487,000 feet may be attained with payloads varying between 60 pounds and 10 pounds.

  5. U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center Grain Evaluation Software to Numerically Predict Linear Burn Regression for Solid Propellant Grain Geometries (United States)



  6. Space shuttle booster separation motor design (United States)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.


    The separation characteristics of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRBs) are introduced along with the system level requirements for the booster separation motors (BSMs). These system requirements are then translated into specific motor requirements that control the design of the BSM. Each motor component is discussed including its geometry, material selection, and fabrication process. Also discussed is the propellant selection, grain design, and performance capabilities of the motor. The upcoming test program to develop and qualify the motor is outlined.

  7. From one to many: dynamic assembly and collective behavior of self-propelled colloidal motors. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Duan, Wentao; Ahmed, Suzanne; Sen, Ayusman; Mallouk, Thomas E


    The assembly of complex structures from simpler, individual units is a hallmark of biology. Examples include the pairing of DNA strands, the assembly of protein chains into quaternary structures, the formation of tissues and organs from cells, and the self-organization of bacterial colonies, flocks of birds, and human beings in cities. While the individual behaviors of biomolecules, bacteria, birds, and humans are governed by relatively simple rules, groups assembled from many individuals exhibit complex collective behaviors and functions that do not exist in the absence of the hierarchically organized structure. Self-assembly is a familiar concept to chemists who study the formation and properties of monolayers, crystals, and supramolecular structures. In chemical self-assembly, disorder evolves to order as the system approaches equilibrium. In contrast, living assemblies are typically characterized by two additional features: (1) the system constantly dissipates energy and is not at thermodynamic equilibrium; (2) the structure is dynamic and can transform or disassemble in response to stimuli or changing conditions. To distinguish them from equilibrium self-assembled structures, living (or nonliving) assemblies of objects with these characteristics are referred to as active matter. In this Account, we focus on the powered assembly and collective behavior of self-propelled colloids. These nano- and microparticles, also called nano- and micromotors or microswimmers, autonomously convert energy available in the environment (in the form of chemical, electromagnetic, acoustic, or thermal energy) into mechanical motion. Collections of these colloids are a form of synthetic active matter. Because of the analogy to living swimmers of similar size such as bacteria, the dynamic interactions and collective behavior of self-propelled colloids are interesting in the context of understanding biological active matter and in the development of new applications. The progression

  8. The Potential for Ozone Depletion in Solid Rocket Motor Plumes by Heterogeneous Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanning-Lee, M


    ... (hydroxylated alumina), respectively, over the temperature range -60 to 200 degrees C. This work addresses the potential for stratospheric ozone depletion by launch vehicle solid rocket motor exhaust...

  9. Three-dimensional multi-physics coupled simulation of ignition transient in a dual pulse solid rocket motor (United States)

    Li, Yingkun; Chen, Xiong; Xu, Jinsheng; Zhou, Changsheng; Musa, Omer


    In this paper, numerical investigation of ignition transient in a dual pulse solid rocket motor has been conducted. An in-house code has been developed in order to solve multi-physics governing equations, including unsteady compressible flow, heat conduction and structural dynamic. The simplified numerical models for solid propellant ignition and combustion have been added. The conventional serial staggered algorithm is adopted to simulate the fluid structure interaction problems in a loosely-coupled manner. The accuracy of the coupling procedure is validated by the behavior of a cantilever panel subjected to a shock wave. Then, the detailed flow field development, flame propagation characteristics, pressure evolution in the combustion chamber, and the structural response of metal diaphragm are analyzed carefully. The burst-time and burst-pressure of the metal diaphragm are also obtained. The individual effects of the igniter's mass flow rate, metal diaphragm thickness and diameter on the ignition transient have been systemically compared. The numerical results show that the evolution of the flow field in the combustion chamber, the temperature distribution on the propellant surface and the pressure loading on the metal diaphragm surface present a strong three-dimensional behavior during the initial ignition stage. The rupture of metal diaphragm is not only related to the magnitude of pressure loading on the diaphragm surface, but also to the history of pressure loading. The metal diaphragm thickness and diameter have a significant effect on the burst-time and burst-pressure of metal diaphragm.

  10. An analysis of the orbital distribution of solid rocket motor slag (United States)

    Horstman, Matthew F.; Mulrooney, Mark


    The contribution by solid rocket motors (SRMs) to the orbital debris environment is potentially significant and insufficiently studied. Design and combustion processes can lead to the emission of enough by-products to warrant assessment of their contribution to orbital debris. These particles are formed during SRM tail-off, or burn termination, by the rapid solidification of molten Al2O3 slag accumulated during the burn. The propensity of SRMs to generate particles larger than 100μm raises concerns regarding the debris environment. Sizes as large as 1 cm have been witnessed in ground tests, and comparable sizes have been estimated via observations of sub-orbital tail-off events. Utilizing previous research we have developed more sophisticated size distributions and modeled the time evolution of resultant orbital populations using a historical database of SRM launches, propellant, and likely location and time of tail-off. This analysis indicates that SRM ejecta is a significant component of the debris environment.

  11. Analysis of pressure blips in aft-finocyl solid rocket motor (United States)

    Di Giacinto, M.; Favini, B.; Cavallini, E.


    Ballistic anomalies have frequently occurred during the firing of several solid rocket motors (SRMs) (Inertial Upper Stage, Space Shuttle Redesigned SRM (RSRM) and Titan IV SRM Upgrade (SRMU)), producing even relevant and unexpected variations of the SRM pressure trace from its nominal profile. This paper has the purpose to provide a numerical analysis of the following possible causes of ballistic anomalies in SRMs: an inert object discharge, a slag ejection, and an unexpected increase in the propellant burning rate or in the combustion surface. The SRM configuration under investigation is an aft-finocyl SRM with a first-stage/small booster design. The numerical simulations are performed with a quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) unsteady model of the SRM internal ballistics, properly tailored to model each possible cause of the ballistic anomalies. The results have shown that a classification based on the head-end pressure (HEP) signature, relating each other the HEP shape and the ballistic anomaly cause, can be made. For each cause of ballistic anomalies, a deepened discussion of the parameters driving the HEP signatures is provided, as well as qualitative and quantitative assessments of the resultant pressure signals.

  12. Maturation of Structural Health Management Systems for Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    Quing, Xinlin; Beard, Shawn; Zhang, Chang


    Concepts of an autonomous and automated space-compliant diagnostic system were developed for conditioned-based maintenance (CBM) of rocket motors for space exploration vehicles. The diagnostic system will provide real-time information on the integrity of critical structures on launch vehicles, improve their performance, and greatly increase crew safety while decreasing inspection costs. Using the SMART Layer technology as a basis, detailed procedures and calibration techniques for implementation of the diagnostic system were developed. The diagnostic system is a distributed system, which consists of a sensor network, local data loggers, and a host central processor. The system detects external impact to the structure. The major functions of the system include an estimate of impact location, estimate of impact force at impacted location, and estimate of the structure damage at impacted location. This system consists of a large-area sensor network, dedicated multiple local data loggers with signal processing and data analysis software to allow for real-time, in situ monitoring, and longterm tracking of structural integrity of solid rocket motors. Specifically, the system could provide easy installation of large sensor networks, onboard operation under harsh environments and loading, inspection of inaccessible areas without disassembly, detection of impact events and impact damage in real-time, and monitoring of a large area with local data processing to reduce wiring.

  13. Integration of Flex Nozzle System and Electro Hydraulic Actuators to Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    Nayani, Kishore Nath; Bajaj, Dinesh Kumar


    A rocket motor assembly comprised of solid rocket motor and flex nozzle system. Integration of flex nozzle system and hydraulic actuators to the solid rocket motors are done after transportation to the required place where integration occurred. The flex nozzle system is integrated to the rocket motor in horizontal condition and the electro hydraulic actuators are assembled to the flex nozzle systems. The electro hydraulic actuators are connected to the hydraulic power pack to operate the actuators. The nozzle-motor critical interface are insulation diametrical compression, inhibition resin-28, insulation facial compression, shaft seal `O' ring compression and face seal `O' ring compression.

  14. Pulsed plasma solid propellant microthruster for the synchronous meteorological satellite. Task 4: Engineering model fabrication and test report (United States)

    Guman, W. J. (Editor)


    Two flight prototype solid propellant pulsed plasma microthruster propulsion systems for the SMS satellite were fabricated, assembled and tested. The propulsion system is a completely self contained system requiring only three electrical inputs to operate: a 29.4 volt power source, a 28 volt enable signal and a 50 millsec long command fire signal that can be applied at any rate from 50 ppm to 110 ppm. The thrust level can be varied over a range 2.2 to 1 at constant impulse bit amplitude. By controlling the duration of the 28 volt enable either steady state thrust or a series of discrete impulse bits can be generated. A new technique of capacitor charging was implemented to reduce high voltage stress on energy storage capacitors.

  15. Trinitromethyl Heterocyclic Oxidizers as a Solid Propellant Ingredient Final Report CRADA No TC02146.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagoria, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Racoveanu, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC as manager and operator of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSI), to develop a synthesis of two novel energetic heterocyclic oxidizers as possible replacements for ammonium perchlorate (AP) in rocket propellant formulations. This CRADA resulted from the award of the Phase I Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) from DOD. The CRADA consisted of two phases. The goal for Phase 1 was to produce a new oxidizer called TNMDNP. Phase 2 is optional (based on the success of Phase 1) and the goal of Phase 2 (optional) was to produce a new oxidizer called TNMDNT. Phase 2 tasks would be performed based on the successful results of Phase 1.

  16. Real-Time X-ray Radiography Diagnostics of Components in Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    Cortopassi, A. C.; Martin, H. T.; Boyer, E.; Kuo, K. K.


    Solid rocket motors (SRMs) typically use nozzle materials which are required to maintain their shape as well as insulate the underlying support structure during the motor operation. In addition, SRMs need internal insulation materials to protect the motor case from the harsh environment resulting from the combustion of solid propellant. In the nozzle, typical materials consist of high density graphite, carbon-carbon composites and carbon phenolic composites. Internal insulation of the motor cases is typically a composite material with carbon, asbestos, Kevlar, or silica fibers in an ablative matrix such as EPDM or NBR. For both nozzle and internal insulation materials, the charring process occurs when the hot combustion products heat the material intensely. The pyrolysis of the matrix material takes away a portion of the thermal energy near the wall surface and leaves behind a char layer. The fiber reinforcement retains the porous char layer which provides continued thermal protection from the hot combustion products. It is of great interest to characterize both the total erosion rates of the material and the char layer thickness. By better understanding of the erosion process for a particular ablative material in a specific flow environment, the required insulation material thickness can be properly selected. The recession rates of internal insulation and nozzle materials of SRMs are typically determined by testing in some sort of simulated environment; either arc-jet testing, flame torch testing, or subscale SRMs of different size. Material recession rates are deduced by comparison of pre- and post-test measurements and then averaging over the duration of the test. However, these averaging techniques cannot be used to determine the instantaneous recession rates of the material. Knowledge of the variation in recession rates in response to the instantaneous flow conditions during the motor operation is of great importance. For example, in many SRM configurations

  17. Inverter fed high-speed solid-rotor induction motors for industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppunen, J.; Pyrhoenen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (LUT) (Finland); Alamaeki, J. [Rotatek Finland Oy, Lappeenranta (Finland)


    An inverter fed 250 kW, 9000 min{sup -1} solid-rotor induction motor drive for an industrial compressor application is introduced. New designing methods for the electric motor have made it possible to create a high efficiency high-speed solid-rotor induction motor. The results of the research work are new motor structures that are also easy and economical to manufacture. This technology is very reliable and economical for compressor and pump applications in power range from 100 kW to 1000 kW. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of Flygt Propeller Mixers for Double-Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The River Protection Project (RPP) is planning to retrieve radioactive waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) underground at the Hanford Site. This waste will then be transferred to a waste treatment plant to be immobilized (vitrified) in a stable glass form. Over the years, the waste solids in many of the tanks have settled to form a layer of sludge at the bottom. The thickness of the sludge layer varies from tank to tank, from no sludge or a few inches of sludge to about 15 ft of sludge. The purpose of this technology and engineering case study is to evaluate the Flygt(trademark) submersible propeller mixer as a potential technology for auxiliary mobilization of DST HLW solids. Considering the usage and development to date by other sites in the development of this technology, this study also has the objective of expanding the knowledge base of the Flygt(trademark) mixer concept with the broader perspective of Hanford Site tank waste retrieval. More specifically, the objectives of this study delineated from the work plan are described

  19. Development of a new generation solid rocket motor ignition computer code (United States)

    Foster, Winfred A., Jr.; Jenkins, Rhonald M.; Ciucci, Alessandro; Johnson, Shelby D.


    This report presents the results of experimental and numerical investigations of the flow field in the head-end star grain slots of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor. This work provided the basis for the development of an improved solid rocket motor ignition transient code which is also described in this report. The correlation between the experimental and numerical results is excellent and provides a firm basis for the development of a fully three-dimensional solid rocket motor ignition transient computer code.

  20. An Internal Thermal Environment Model of an Aluminized Solid Rocket Motor with Experimental Validation (United States)

    Martin, Heath T.


    Due to the severity of the internal solid rocket motor (SRM) environment, very few direct measurements of that environment exist; therefore, the appearance of such data provides a unique opportunity to assess current thermal/fluid modeling capabilities. As part of a previous study of SRM internal insulation performance, the internal thermal environment of a laboratory-scale SRM featuring aluminized propellant was characterized with two types of custom heat-flux calorimeters: one that measured the total heat flux to a graphite slab within the SRM chamber and another that measured the thermal radiation flux. Therefore, in the current study, a thermal/fluid model of this lab-scale SRM was constructed using ANSYS Fluent to predict not only the flow field structure within the SRM and the convective heat transfer to the interior walls, but also the resulting dispersion of alumina droplets and the radiative heat transfer to the interior walls. The dispersion of alumina droplets within the SRM chamber was determined by employing the Lagrangian discrete phase model that was fully coupled to the Eulerian gas-phase flow. The P1-approximation was engaged to model the radiative heat transfer through the SRM chamber where the radiative contributions of the gas phase were ignored and the aggregate radiative properties of the alumina dispersion were computed from the radiative properties of its individual constituent droplets, which were sourced from literature. The convective and radiative heat fluxes computed from the thermal/fluid model were then compared with those measured in the lab-scale SRM test firings and the modeling approach evaluated.

  1. Design and performance analysis of solid-propellant rocket motors using a simplified computer program (United States)

    Sforzini, R. H.


    An analysis and a computer program are presented which represent a compromise between the more sophisticated programs using precise burning geometric relations and the textbook type of solutions. The program requires approximately 900 computer cards including a set of 20 input data cards required for a typical problem. The computer operating time for a single configuration is approximately 1 minute and 30 seconds on the IBM 360 computer. About l minute and l5 seconds of the time is compilation time so that additional configurations input at the same time require approximately 15 seconds each. The program uses approximately 11,000 words on the IBM 360. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 and is readily adaptable for use on a number of different computers: IBM 7044, IBM 7094, and Univac 1108.

  2. Effects of magnesium-based hydrogen storage materials on the thermal decomposition, burning rate, and explosive heat of ammonium perchlorate-based composite solid propellant. (United States)

    Liu, Leili; Li, Jie; Zhang, Lingyao; Tian, Siyu


    MgH 2 , Mg 2 NiH 4 , and Mg 2 CuH 3 were prepared, and their structure and hydrogen storage properties were determined through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal analyzer. The effects of MgH 2 , Mg 2 NiH 4 , and Mg 2 CuH 3 on the thermal decomposition, burning rate, and explosive heat of ammonium perchlorate-based composite solid propellant were subsequently studied. Results indicated that MgH 2 , Mg 2 NiH 4 , and Mg 2 CuH 3 can decrease the thermal decomposition peak temperature and increase the total released heat of decomposition. These compounds can improve the effect of thermal decomposition of the propellant. The burning rates of the propellant increased using Mg-based hydrogen storage materials as promoter. The burning rates of the propellant also increased using MgH 2 instead of Al in the propellant, but its explosive heat was not enlarged. Nonetheless, the combustion heat of MgH 2 was higher than that of Al. A possible mechanism was thus proposed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. A Green, Safe, Dual-pulse Solid Motor for CubeSat Orbit Changing, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Small satellites such as CubeSats are in need of responsive propulsion, but are limited due to their size. Though single pulse, AP/HTPB fueled solid rocket motors...

  4. Cooperative Threat Reduction: Solid Rocket Motor Disposition Facility Project (D-2003-131)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... DoD contracted with Lockheed Martin Advanced Environmental Systems for $52.4 million to design, develop, fabricate, and test a closed burn, solid rocket motor disposition facility for the Russian Federation in April 1997...

  5. Solid Propellant Subscale Burning Rate Analysis Methods for US and Selected NATO Facilities (United States)


    impossibility of the center of a particle lying closer than its radius from a solid boundary, * Due to surface tension and sedimentation (tends to level...34 effect (for bottom cast or bayonet cast grains) may consist of sedimentation of larger particles against the walls during casting flow, with the...February 2000. 91 Ratti A., "Metodi di Riduzione Dati Balistici per i Boosters a Propellente Solido di Ariane-4 e di Ariane-5," M.Sc. Thesis in Aerospace

  6. Simple-1: Development stage of the data transmission system for a solid propellant mid-power rocket model (United States)

    Yarce, Andrés; Sebastián Rodríguez, Juan; Galvez, Julián; Gómez, Alejandro; García, Manuel J.


    This paper presents the development stage of a communication module for a solid propellant mid-power rocket model. The communication module was named. Simple-1 and this work considers its design, construction and testing. A rocket model Estes Ventris Series Pro II® was modified to introduce, on the top of the payload, several sensors in a CanSat form factor. The Printed Circuit Board (PCB) was designed and fabricated from Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components and assembled in a cylindrical rack structure similar to this small format satellite concept. The sensors data was processed using one Arduino Mini and transmitted using a radio module to a Software Defined Radio (SDR) HackRF based platform on the ground station. The Simple-1 was tested using a drone in successive releases, reaching altitudes from 200 to 300 meters. Different kind of data, in terms of altitude, position, atmospheric pressure and vehicle temperature were successfully measured, making possible the progress to a next stage of launching and analysis.

  7. Determining solid-fluid interface temperature distribution during phase change of cryogenic propellants using transient thermal modeling (United States)

    Bellur, K.; Médici, E. F.; Hermanson, J. C.; Choi, C. K.; Allen, J. S.


    Control of boil-off of cryogenic propellants is a continuing technical challenge for long duration space missions. Predicting phase change rates of cryogenic liquids requires an accurate estimation of solid-fluid interface temperature distributions in regions where a contact line or a thin liquid film exists. This paper described a methodology to predict inner wall temperature gradients with and without evaporation using discrete temperature measurements on the outer wall of a container. Phase change experiments with liquid hydrogen and methane in cylindrical test cells of various materials and sizes were conducted at the Neutron Imaging Facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Two types of tests were conducted. The first type of testing involved thermal cycling of an evacuated cell (dry) and the second involved controlled phase change with cryogenic liquids (wet). During both types of tests, temperatures were measured using Si-diode sensors mounted on the exterior surface of the test cells. Heat is transferred to the test cell by conduction through a helium exchange gas and through the cryostat sample holder. Thermal conduction through the sample holder is shown to be the dominant mode with the rate of heat transfer limited by six independent contact resistances. An iterative methodology is employed to determine contact resistances between the various components of the cryostat stick insert, test cell and lid using the dry test data. After the contact resistances are established, inner wall temperature distributions during wet tests are calculated.

  8. Prilling and Coating of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN Solid Green Propellant in Toluene Mixture Using Ultrasound Sonication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Rahman


    Full Text Available Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN in its generic form has a long needle shaped structure, which hinders higher solid loading. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to optimize its crystal morphology into octagonal shapes. Moreover, the low critical humidity level of ADN renders it unusable in a humid climate. Hence, encapsulation with a hydrophobic polymer is necessary. In the present work, ADN was synthesized by nitration of potassium sulfamate with mixed acid nitration. The product was then mixed with toluene, graphene, citryl ammonium butyl, Cab-o-sil, and coating polymer (Polystyrene or HTPB and treated with ultrasound to obtain semi-spherical ADN-coated particles. The method offers a reduction in operating temperature and elimination of ADN melting in the shape-altering process. In addition, the ADN product has a similar particle size and thermal stability compared to those in a conventional ADN melt-prilling method. The ADN product investigated under SEM confirms the particle morphological change from long needles into semi-spherical shapes. The particle size obtained, in the micrometer range, is ideal for higher theoretical maximum density. Furthermore, the ultrasound-treated ADN particles show significant reduction in moisture absorption, from 68% to 16% at 65% relative humidity. The DSC result shows no degradation of thermal stability of the coated particles.

  9. Development and Characterization of a Novel Additive Manufacturing Technology Capable of Printing Propellants with High Solids Loadings (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ever since rockets have been around, there has been a demand to improve propulsion systems by increasing propellant performance in order to reduce production time...

  10. Investigation of the NACA 4-(3)(8)-045 Two-blade Propellers at Forward Mach Numbers to 0.725 to Determine the Effects of Compressibility and Solidity on Performance (United States)

    Stack, John; Draley, Eugene C; Delano, James B; Feldman, Lewis


    As part of a general investigation of propellers at high forward speeds, tests of two 2-blade propellers having the NACA 4-(3)(8)-03 and NACA 4-(3)(8)-45 blade designs have been made in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel through a range of blade angle from 20 degrees to 60 degrees for forward Mach numbers from 0.165 to 0.725 to establish in detail the changes in propeller characteristics due to compressibility effects. These propellers differed primarily only in blade solidity, one propeller having 50 percent and more solidity than the other. Serious losses in propeller efficiency were found as the propeller tip Mach number exceeded 0.91, irrespective of forward speed or blade angle. The magnitude of the efficiency losses varied from 9 percent to 22 percent per 0.1 increase in tip Mach number above the critical value. The range of advance ratio for peak efficiency decreased markedly with increase of forward speed. The general form of the changes in thrust and power coefficients was found to be similar to the changes in airfoil lift coefficient with changes in Mach number. Efficiency losses due to compressibility effects decreased with increase of blade width. The results indicated that the high level of propeller efficiency obtained at low speeds could be maintained to forward sea-level speeds exceeding 500 miles per hour.

  11. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor - Accomplishment, Lessons, and a Culture of Success (United States)

    Moore, D. R.; Phelps, W. J.


    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) represents the largest solid rocket motor (SRM) ever flown and the only human-rated solid motor. High reliability of the RSRM has been the result of challenges addressed and lessons learned. Advancements have resulted by applying attention to process control, testing, and postflight through timely and thorough communication in dealing with all issues. A structured and disciplined approach was taken to identify and disposition all concerns. Careful consideration and application of alternate opinions was embraced. Focus was placed on process control, ground test programs, and postflight assessment. Process control is mandatory for an SRM, because an acceptance test of the delivered product is not feasible. The RSRM maintained both full-scale and subscale test articles, which enabled continuous improvement of design and evaluation of process control and material behavior. Additionally RSRM reliability was achieved through attention to detail in post flight assessment to observe any shift in performance. The postflight analysis and inspections provided invaluable reliability data as it enables observation of actual flight performance, most of which would not be available if the motors were not recovered. RSRM reusability offered unique opportunities to learn about the hardware. NASA is moving forward with the Space Launch System that incorporates propulsion systems that takes advantage of the heritage Shuttle and Ares solid motor programs. These unique challenges, features of the RSRM, materials and manufacturing issues, and design improvements will be discussed in the paper.

  12. On the importance of reduced scale Ariane 5 P230 solid rocket motor models in the comprehension and prevention of thrust oscillations (United States)

    Hijlkema, J.; Prévost, M.; Casalis, G.


    Down-scaled solid propellant motors are a valuable tool in the study of thrust oscillations and the underlying, vortex-shedding-induced, pressure instabilities. These fluctuations, observed in large segmented solid rocket motors such as the Ariane 5 P230, impose a serious constraint on both structure and payload. This paper contains a survey of the numerous configurations tested at ONERA over the last 20 years. Presented are the phenomena searched to reproduce and the successes and failures of the different approaches tried. The results of over 130 experiments have contributed to numerous studies aimed at understanding the complicated physics behind this thorny problem, in order to pave the way to pressure instability reduction measures. Slowly but surely our understanding of what makes large segmented solid boosters exhibit this type of instabilities will lead to realistic modifications that will allow for a reduction of pressure oscillations. A "quieter" launcher will be an important advantage in an ever more competitive market, giving a easier ride to payload and designers alike.

  13. Numerical and experimental study of liquid breakup process in solid rocket motor nozzle (United States)

    Yen, Yi-Hsin

    Rocket propulsion is an important travel method for space exploration and national defense, rockets needs to be able to withstand wide range of operation environment and also stable and precise enough to carry sophisticated payload into orbit, those engineering requirement makes rocket becomes one of the state of the art industry. The rocket family have been classified into two major group of liquid and solid rocket based on the fuel phase of liquid or solid state. The solid rocket has the advantages of simple working mechanism, less maintenance and preparing procedure and higher storage safety, those characters of solid rocket make it becomes popular in aerospace industry. Aluminum based propellant is widely used in solid rocket motor (SRM) industry due to its avalibility, combusion performance and economical fuel option, however after aluminum react with oxidant of amonimum perchrate (AP), it will generate liquid phase alumina (Al2O3) as product in high temperature (2,700˜3,000 K) combustion chamber enviornment. The liquid phase alumina particles aggromorate inside combustion chamber into larger particle which becomes major erosion calprit on inner nozzle wall while alumina aggromorates impinge on the nozzle wall surface. The erosion mechanism result nozzle throat material removal, increase the performance optimized throat diameter and reduce nozzle exit to throat area ratio which leads to the reduction of exhaust gas velocity, Mach number and lower the propulsion thrust force. The approach to avoid particle erosion phenomenon taking place in SRM's nozzle is to reduce the alumina particle size inside combustion chamber which could be done by further breakup of the alumina droplet size in SRM's combustion chamber. The study of liquid breakup mechanism is an important means to smaller combustion chamber alumina droplet size and mitigate the erosion tack place on rocket nozzle region. In this study, a straight two phase air-water flow channel experiment is set up

  14. Study of solid rocket motors for a space shuttle booster. Volume 1: Executive summary (United States)


    The design, development, production, and launch support analysis for determining the solid propellant rocket engine to be used with the space shuttle are discussed. Specific program objectives considered were: (1) definition of engine designs to satisfy the performance and configuration requirements of the various vehicle/booster concepts, (2) definition of requirements to produce booster stages at rates of 60, 40, 20, and 10 launches per year in a man-rated system, and (3) estimation of costs for the defined SRM booster stages.

  15. Aluminum agglomeration involving the second mergence of agglomerates on the solid propellants burning surface: Experiments and modeling (United States)

    Ao, Wen; Liu, Xin; Rezaiguia, Hichem; Liu, Huan; Wang, Zhixin; Liu, Peijin


    The agglomeration of aluminum particles usually occurs on the burning surface of aluminized composite propellants. It leads to low propellant combustion efficiency and high two-phase flow losses. To reach a thorough understanding of aluminum agglomeration behaviors, agglomeration processes, and particles size distribution of Al/AP/RDX/GAP propellants were studied by using a cinephotomicrography experimental technique, under 5 MPa. Accumulation, aggregation, and agglomeration phenomena of aluminum particles have been inspected, as well as the flame asymmetry of burning agglomerates. Results reveals that the dependency of the mean and the maximum agglomeration diameter to the burning rate and the virgin aluminum size have the same trend. A second-time mergence of multiple agglomerates on the burning surface is unveiled. Two typical modes of second mergence are concluded, based upon vertical and level movement of agglomerates, respectively. The latter mode is found to be dominant and sometimes a combination of the two modes may occur. A new model of aluminum agglomeration on the burning surface of composite propellants is derived to predict the particulates size distribution with a low computational amount. The basic idea is inspired from the well-known pocket models. The pocket size of the region formed by adjacent AP particles is obtained through scanning electron microscopy of the propellant cross-section coupled to an image processing method. The second mergence mechanism, as well as the effect of the burning rate on the agglomeration processes, are included in the present model. The mergence of two agglomerates is prescribed to occur only if their separation distance is less than a critical value. The agglomerates size distribution resulting from this original model match reasonably with the experimental data. Moreover, the present model gives superior results for mean agglomeration diameter compared to common empirical and pocket models. The average prediction

  16. MIR/NIR/FIR characterization of poly-ammo and poly-bamo and their precursors as energetic binders to Be used in solid propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Irineu S. de; Diniz, Milton F.; Kawamoto, Aparecida M.; Dutra, Rita C.L. [Divisao de Quimica (AQI) Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE) do Comando-Geral de Tecnologia Aeroespacial (CTA), Praca Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50 Campus do CTA - Vila das Acacias, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos - SP (Brazil); Keicher, Thomas [Fraunhofer Institut Chemische Technologie (ICT), Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Str. 7, 76327 Pfinztal (Germany)


    To establish the relation between structure and properties of composite solid propellants it is important to know the structure of the elastomeric binder that has been used in the system. Therefore this study is focused on the characterization of polymers containing energetic groups that has been synthesized at ICT. The characterization uses the wide spectral band of infrared, NIR/MIR/FIR. This gives an identification of the analytical bands and allows quantitative and kinetic studies of these compounds. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Development of Displacement Gages Exposed to Solid Rocket Motor Internal Environments (United States)

    Bolton, D. E.; Cook, D. J.


    The Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) has three non-vented segment-to-segment case field joints. These joints use an interference fit J-joint that is bonded at assembly with a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive (PSA) inboard of redundant O-ring seals. Full-scale motor and sub-scale test article experience has shown that the ability to preclude gas leakage past the J-joint is a function of PSA type, joint moisture from pre-assembly humidity exposure, and the magnitude of joint displacement during motor operation. To more accurately determine the axial displacements at the J-joints, two thermally durable displacement gages (one mechanical and one electrical) were designed and developed. The mechanical displacement gage concept was generated first as a non-electrical, self-contained gage to capture the maximum magnitude of the J-joint motion. When it became feasible, the electrical displacement gage concept was generated second as a real-time linear displacement gage. Both of these gages were refined in development testing that included hot internal solid rocket motor environments and simulated vibration environments. As a result of this gage development effort, joint motions have been measured in static fired RSRM J-joints where intentional venting was produced (Flight Support Motor #8, FSM-8) and nominal non-vented behavior occurred (FSM-9 and FSM-10). This data gives new insight into the nominal characteristics of the three case J-joint positions (forward, center and aft) and characteristics of some case J-joints that became vented during motor operation. The data supports previous structural model predictions. These gages will also be useful in evaluating J-joint motion differences in a five-segment Space Shuttle solid rocket motor.

  18. Plume particle collection and sizing from static firing of solid rocket motors (United States)

    Sambamurthi, Jay K.


    A unique dart system has been designed and built at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to collect aluminum oxide plume particles from the plumes of large scale solid rocket motors, such as the space shuttle RSRM. The capability of this system to collect clean samples from both the vertically fired MNASA (18.3% scaled version of the RSRM) motors and the horizontally fired RSRM motor has been demonstrated. The particle mass averaged diameters, d43, measured from the samples for the different motors, ranged from 8 to 11 mu m and were independent of the dart collection surface and the motor burn time. The measured results agreed well with those calculated using the industry standard Hermsen's correlation within the standard deviation of the correlation . For each of the samples analyzed from both MNASA and RSRM motors, the distribution of the cumulative mass fraction of the plume oxide particles as a function of the particle diameter was best described by a monomodal log-normal distribution with a standard deviation of 0.13 - 0.15. This distribution agreed well with the theoretical prediction by Salita using the OD3P code for the RSRM motor at the nozzle exit plane.

  19. Validation of a Solid Rocket Motor Internal Environment Model (United States)

    Martin, Heath T.


    In a prior effort, a thermal/fluid model of the interior of Penn State University's laboratory-scale Insulation Test Motor (ITM) was constructed to predict both the convective and radiative heat transfer to the interior walls of the ITM with a minimum of empiricism. These predictions were then compared to values of total and radiative heat flux measured in a previous series of ITM test firings to assess the capabilities and shortcomings of the chosen modeling approach. Though the calculated fluxes reasonably agreed with those measured during testing, this exercise revealed means of improving the fidelity of the model to, in the case of the thermal radiation, enable direct comparison of the measured and calculated fluxes and, for the total heat flux, compute a value indicative of the average measured condition. By replacing the P1-Approximation with the discrete ordinates (DO) model for the solution of the gray radiative transfer equation, the radiation intensity field in the optically thin region near the radiometer is accurately estimated, allowing the thermal radiation flux to be calculated on the heat-flux sensor itself, which was then compared directly to the measured values. Though the fully coupling the wall thermal response with the flow model was not attempted due to the excessive computational time required, a separate wall thermal response model was used to better estimate the average temperature of the graphite surfaces upstream of the heat flux gauges and improve the accuracy of both the total and radiative heat flux computations. The success of this modeling approach increases confidence in the ability of state-of-the-art thermal and fluid modeling to accurately predict SRM internal environments, offers corrections to older methods, and supplies a tool for further studies of the dynamics of SRM interiors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Sasmito Hadi


    Full Text Available Ketersediaan energi tak terbarukan yang kian menipis akan menjadi permasalahan besar bagi kehidupan manusia, banyak pemikiran sudah dicurahkan oleh para ilmuan guna mengantisipasi adanya kemungkinan krisis energi di masa yang akan datang. Selain dari permasalahan keterbatasan energi yang ada juga timbul masalah baru dari penggunaan energi tak terbarukan tersebut yaitu berupa polusi dan pencemaran lingkungan yang berdampak pada perubahan iklim di dunia. Para pemimpin dari berbagai negara menggelar konferensi tentang perubahan iklim di Bali (UNFCCC, sebagai tindak lanjut dari Protokol Kyoto yang diselenggarakan di Jepang sebelumnya, sehubungan dengan perubahan iklim dunia, beberapa negara sepakat untuk mengurangi emisi gas buang pada mesin berbahan bakar mineral, yang dianggap sebagai penyumbang polusi udara terbanyak, dengan membuat kebijakan yang diharapkan dapat menjadi suatu solusi untuk mengurangi polusi udara, salah satu solusi yang dibahas penulis adalah penggunaan motor listrik sebagai pengganti mesin berbahan bakar mineral, tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menghitung parameter pendukung propeller engine matching (putaran mesin, BHP mesin, dan hambatan kapal , pada kapal ikan tradisional KM Brandal, dan penentuan ukuran propeller yang sesuai dengan kapal ikan KM Brandal dengan menggunakan sistem hybrid. Dalam penelitian ini penulis melakukan pengukuran dan perhitungan pada sistem penggerak kapal baik di lapangan maupun simulasi hybrid, rangkaian hybrid ini terdiri dari beberapa komponen antara lain 2 buah solar cell 100 WP, genset 800 VA, 2 buah baterai 70 Ah, dan motor listrik 12 volt 80 ampere, sedangkan untuk mendapatkan tegangan listrik yang sama pada rangkaian hybrid beberapa komponen seperti baterai, genset, dan solar cell disusun secara paralel. Penelitian tentang Propeller-Engine Matching pada rangkaian hybrid kapal ikan KM Brandal menghasilkan beberapa parameter optimasi propeller antara lain hambatan kapal 1,04 kN, daya efektif

  1. A study of performance and cost improvement potential of the 120 inch (3.05 m) diameter solid rocket motor. Volume 1: Summary report (United States)

    Backlund, S. J.; Rossen, J. N.


    A parametric study of ballistic modifications to the 120 inch diameter solid propellant rocket engine which forms part of the Air Force Titan 3 system is presented. 576 separate designs were defined and 24 were selected for detailed analysis. Detailed design descriptions, ballistic performance, and mass property data were prepared for each design. It was determined that a relatively simple change in design parameters could provide a wide range of solid propellant rocket engine ballistic characteristics for future launch vehicle applications.

  2. PCV Solid Rocket Motor: Design Status of the Motor Case Structure (United States)

    Mataloni, A.; Zallo, A.; Perugini, P.; Di Cosmo, A.; Pasquale, N.; Mucci, R.


    For the VEGA Launch system new developments are running in order to allow: a) performances increase b) cost reduction c) introduction of new technologies.In the VEGA C configuration the PCV SRM replace the P80 in the first stage.The PCV design is based on the consolidate AVIO heritage with important improvements both from the material and from the technological side.Important improvements in skirts manufacturing will be tested as well, with the development of a customized automatic tape laying machine.From the material side a top class fiber will be selected on the bases of extensive trade-off plan which is under completion.The pre-preg material is based on an in-house resin formulation tailored to the specific motor case process requirements.

  3. Study of organic ablative thermal-protection coating for solid rocket motor (United States)

    Hua, Zenggong


    A study is conducted to find a new interior thermal-protection material that possesses good thermal-protection performance and simple manufacturing possibilities. Quartz powder and Cr2O3 are investigated using epoxy resin as a binder and Al2O3 as the burning inhibitor. Results indicate that the developed thermal-protection coating is suitable as ablative insulation material for solid rocket motors.

  4. Edge detection of solid motor' CT image based on gravitation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Guanghui; Lu Hongyi; Zhu Min; Liu Xudong; Hou Zhiqiang


    In order to detect the edge of solid motor' CT image much better, a new edge detection operator base on gravitation model was put forward. The edge of CT image is got by the new operator. The superiority turned out by comparing the edge got by ordinary operator. The comparison among operators with different size shows that higher quality CT images need smaller size operator while the lower need the larger. (authors)

  5. Direct electrical arc ignition of hybrid rocket motors (United States)

    Judson, Michael I., Jr.

    Hybrid rockets motors provide distinct safety advantages when compared to traditional liquid or solid propellant systems, due to the inherent stability and relative inertness of the propellants prior to established combustion. As a result of this inherent propellant stability, hybrid motors have historically proven difficult to ignite. State of the art hybrid igniter designs continue to require solid or liquid reactants distinct from the main propellants. These ignition methods however, reintroduce to the hybrid propulsion system the safety and complexity disadvantages associated with traditional liquid or solid propellants. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of a novel direct electrostatic arc ignition method for hybrid motors. A series of small prototype stand-alone thrusters demonstrating this technology were successfully designed and tested using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic and Gaseous Oxygen (GOX) as propellants. Measurements of input voltage and current demonstrated that arc-ignition will occur using as little as 10 watts peak power and less than 5 joules total energy. The motor developed for the stand-alone small thruster was adapted as a gas generator to ignite a medium-scale hybrid rocket motor using nitrous oxide /and HTPB as propellants. Multiple consecutive ignitions were performed. A large data set as well as a collection of development `lessons learned' were compiled to guide future development and research. Since the completion of this original groundwork research, the concept has been developed into a reliable, operational igniter system for a 75mm hybrid motor using both gaseous oxygen and liquid nitrous oxide as oxidizers. A development map of the direct spark ignition concept is presented showing the flow of key lessons learned between this original work and later follow on development.

  6. New Propellants and Cryofuels (United States)

    Palasezski, Bryan; Sullivan, Neil S.; Hamida, Jaha; Kokshenev, V.


    The proposed research will investigate the stability and cryogenic properties of solid propellants that are critical to NASA s goal of realizing practical propellant designs for future spacecraft. We will determine the stability and thermal properties of a solid hydrogen-liquid helium stabilizer in a laboratory environment in order to design a practical propellant. In particular, we will explore methods of embedding atomic species and metallic nano-particulates in hydrogen matrices suspended in liquid helium. We will also measure the characteristic lifetimes and diffusion of atomic species in these candidate cryofuels. The most promising large-scale advance in rocket propulsion is the use of atomic propellants; most notably atomic hydrogen stabilized in cryogenic environments, and metallized-gelled liquid hydrogen (MGH) or densified gelled hydrogen (DGH). The new propellants offer very significant improvements over classic liquid oxygen/hydrogen fuels because of two factors: (1) the high energy-release, and (ii) the density increase per unit energy release. These two changes can lead to significant reduced mission costs and increased payload to orbit weight ratios. An achievable 5 to 10 percent improvement in specific impulse for the atomic propellants or MGH fuels can result in a doubling or tripling of system payloads. The high-energy atomic propellants must be stored in a stabilizing medium such as solid hydrogen to inhibit or delay their recombination into molecules. The goal of the proposed research is to determine the stability and thermal properties of the solid hydrogen-liquid helium stabilizer. Magnetic resonance techniques will be used to measure the thermal lifetimes and the diffusive motions of atomic species stored in solid hydrogen grains. The properties of metallic nano-particulates embedded in hydrogen matrices will also be studied and analyzed. Dynamic polarization techniques will be developed to enhance signal/noise ratios in order to be able to

  7. Simulation of reactive polydisperse sprays strongly coupled to unsteady flows in solid rocket motors: Efficient strategy using Eulerian Multi-Fluid methods (United States)

    Sibra, A.; Dupays, J.; Murrone, A.; Laurent, F.; Massot, M.


    In this paper, we tackle the issue of the accurate simulation of evaporating and reactive polydisperse sprays strongly coupled to unsteady gaseous flows. In solid propulsion, aluminum particles are included in the propellant to improve the global performances but the distributed combustion of these droplets in the chamber is suspected to be a driving mechanism of hydrodynamic and acoustic instabilities. The faithful prediction of two-phase interactions is a determining step for future solid rocket motor optimization. When looking at saving computational ressources as required for industrial applications, performing reliable simulations of two-phase flow instabilities appears as a challenge for both modeling and scientific computing. The size polydispersity, which conditions the droplet dynamics, is a key parameter that has to be accounted for. For moderately dense sprays, a kinetic approach based on a statistical point of view is particularly appropriate. The spray is described by a number density function and its evolution follows a Williams-Boltzmann transport equation. To solve it, we use Eulerian Multi-Fluid methods, based on a continuous discretization of the size phase space into sections, which offer an accurate treatment of the polydispersion. The objective of this paper is threefold: first to derive a new Two Size Moment Multi-Fluid model that is able to tackle evaporating polydisperse sprays at low cost while accurately describing the main driving mechanisms, second to develop a dedicated evaporation scheme to treat simultaneously mass, moment and energy exchanges with the gas and between the sections. Finally, to design a time splitting operator strategy respecting both reactive two-phase flow physics and cost/accuracy ratio required for industrial computations. Using a research code, we provide 0D validations of the new scheme before assessing the splitting technique's ability on a reference two-phase flow acoustic case. Implemented in the industrial

  8. Qualification Status of Non-Asbestos Internal Insulation in the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program (United States)

    Clayton, Louie


    This paper provides a status of the qualification efforts associated with NASA's RSRMV non-asbestos internal insulation program. For many years, NASA has been actively engaged in removal of asbestos from the shuttle RSRM motors due to occupation health concerns where technicians are working with an EPA banned material. Careful laboratory and subscale testing has lead to the downselect of a organic fiber known as Polybenzimidazol to replace the asbestos fiber filler in the existing synthetic rubber copolymer Nitrile Butadiene - now named PBI/NBR. Manufacturing, processing, and layup of the new material has been a challenge due to the differences in the baseline shuttle RSRM internal insulator properties and PBI/NBR material properties. For this study, data gathering and reduction procedures for thermal and chemical property characterization for the new candidate material are discussed. Difficulties with test procedures, implementation of properties into the Charring Material Ablator (CMA) codes, and results correlation with static motor fire data are provided. After two successful five segment motor firings using the PBI/NBR insulator, performance results for the new material look good and the material should eventually be qualified for man rated use in large solid rocket motor applications.

  9. Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor nozzle natural frequency variations with burn time (United States)

    Lui, C. Y.; Mason, D. R.


    The effects of erosion and thermal degradation on the Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle's structural dynamic characteristics were analytically evaluated. Also considered was stiffening of the structure due to internal pressurization. A detailed NASTRAN finite element model of the nozzle was developed and used to evaluate the influence of these effects at several discrete times during motor burn. Methods were developed for treating erosion and thermal degradation, and a procedure was developed to account for internal pressure stiffening using differential stiffness matrix techniques. Results were verified using static firing test accelerometer data. Fast Fourier Transform and Maximum Entropy Method techniques were applied to the data to generate waterfall plots which track modal frequencies with burn time. Results indicate that the lower frequency nozzle 'vectoring' modes are only slightly affected by erosion, thermal effects and internal pressurization. The higher frequency shell modes of the nozzle are, however, significantly reduced.

  10. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) for the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor (United States)

    Russell, D. L.; Blacklock, K.; Langhenry, M. T.


    The recertification of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) and Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) has included an extensive rewriting of the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL). The evolution of the groundrules and methodology used in the analysis is discussed and compared to standard FMEA techniques. Especially highlighted are aspects of the FMEA/CIL which are unique to the analysis of an SRM. The criticality category definitions are presented and the rationale for assigning criticality is presented. The various data required by the CIL and contribution of this data to the retention rationale is also presented. As an example, the FMEA and CIL for the SRM nozzle assembly is discussed in detail. This highlights some of the difficulties associated with the analysis of a system with the unique mission requirements of the Space Shuttle.

  11. Process for the leaching of AP from propellant (United States)

    Shaw, G. C.; Mcintosh, M. J. (Inventor)


    A method for the recovery of ammonium perchlorate from waste solid rocket propellant is described wherein shredded particles of the propellant are leached with an aqueous leach solution containing a low concentration of surface active agent while stirring the suspension.

  12. Modified computation of the nozzle damping coefficient in solid rocket motors (United States)

    Liu, Peijin; Wang, Muxin; Yang, Wenjing; Gupta, Vikrant; Guan, Yu; Li, Larry K. B.


    In solid rocket motors, the bulk advection of acoustic energy out of the nozzle constitutes a significant source of damping and can thus influence the thermoacoustic stability of the system. In this paper, we propose and test a modified version of a historically accepted method of calculating the nozzle damping coefficient. Building on previous work, we separate the nozzle from the combustor, but compute the acoustic admittance at the nozzle entry using the linearized Euler equations (LEEs) rather than with short nozzle theory. We compute the combustor's acoustic modes also with the LEEs, taking the nozzle admittance as the boundary condition at the combustor exit while accounting for the mean flow field in the combustor using an analytical solution to Taylor-Culick flow. We then compute the nozzle damping coefficient via a balance of the unsteady energy flux through the nozzle. Compared with established methods, the proposed method offers competitive accuracy at reduced computational costs, helping to improve predictions of thermoacoustic instability in solid rocket motors.

  13. Thermo-Structural Response Caused by Structure Gap and Gap Design for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Sun


    Full Text Available The thermo-structural response of solid rocket motor nozzles is widely investigated in the design of modern rockets, and many factors related to the material properties have been considered. However, little work has been done to evaluate the effects of structure gaps on the generation of flame leaks. In this paper, a numerical simulation was performed by the finite element method to study the thermo-structural response of a typical nozzle with consideration of the structure gap. Initial boundary conditions for thermo-structural simulation were defined by a quasi-1D model, and then coupled simulations of different gap size matching modes were conducted. It was found that frictional interface treatment could efficiently reduce the stress level. Based on the defined flame leak criteria, gap size optimization was carried out, and the best gap matching mode was determined for designing the nozzle. Testing experiment indicated that the simulation results from the proposed method agreed well with the experimental results. It is believed that the simulation method is effective for investigating thermo-structural responses, as well as designing proper gaps for solid rocket motor nozzles.

  14. A Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Solid Rocket Motor with Flexible Inhibitors (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff


    A capability to couple NASA production CFD code, Loci/CHEM, with CFDRC's structural finite element code, CoBi, has been developed. This paper summarizes the efforts in applying the installed coupling software to demonstrate/investigate fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between pressure wave and flexible inhibitor inside reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM). First a unified governing equation for both fluid and structure is presented, then an Eulerian-Lagrangian framework is described to satisfy the interfacial continuity requirements. The features of fluid solver, Loci/CHEM and structural solver, CoBi, are discussed before the coupling methodology of the solvers is described. The simulation uses production level CFD LES turbulence model with a grid resolution of 80 million cells. The flexible inhibitor is modeled with full 3D shell elements. Verifications against analytical solutions of structural model under steady uniform pressure condition and under dynamic condition of modal analysis show excellent agreements in terms of displacement distribution and eigen modal frequencies. The preliminary coupled result shows that due to acoustic coupling, the dynamics of one of the more flexible inhibitors shift from its first modal frequency to the first acoustic frequency of the solid rocket motor.

  15. High performance Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) submerged nozzle/combustion cavity flowfield assessment (United States)

    Freeman, J. A.; Chan, J. S.; Murph, J. E.; Xiques, K. E.


    Two and three dimensional internal flowfield solutions for critical points in the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster burn time were developed using the Lockheed Huntsville GIM/PAID Navier-Stokes solvers. These perfect gas, viscous solutions for the high performance motor characterize the flow in the aft segment and nozzle of the booster. Two dimensional axisymmetric solutions were developed at t = 20 and t = 85 sec motor burn times. The t = 85 sec solution indicates that the aft segment forward inhibitor stub produces vortices with are shed and convected downwards. A three dimensional 3.5 deg gimbaled nozzle flowfield solution was developed for the aft segment and nozzle at t = 9 sec motor burn time. This perfect gas, viscous analysis, provided a steady state solution for the core region and the flow through the nozzle, but indicated that unsteady flow exists in the region under the nozzle nose and near the flexible boot and nozzle/case joint. The flow in the nozzle/case joint region is characterized by low magnitude pressure waves which travel in the circumferential direction. From the two and three dimensional flowfield calculations presented it can be concluded that there is no evidence from these results that steady state gas dynamics is the primary mechanism resulting in the nozzle pocketing erosion experienced on SRM nozzles 8A or 17B. The steady state flowfield results indicate pocketing erosion is not directly initiated by a steady state gas dynamics phenomenon.

  16. Radiometric probe design for the measurement of heat flux within a solid rocket motor nozzle (United States)

    Goldey, Charles L.; Laughlin, William T.; Popper, Leslie A.


    Improvements to solid rocket motor (SRM) nozzle designs and material performance is based on the ability to instrument motors during test firings to understand the internal combustion processes and the response of nozzle components to the severe heating environment. Measuring the desired parameters is very difficult because the environment inside of an SRM is extremely severe. Instrumentation can be quickly destroyed if exposed to the internal rocket motor environment. An optical method is under development to quantify the heating of the internal nozzle surface. A radiometric probe designed for measuring the thermal response and material surface recession within a nozzle while simultaneously confining the combustion products has been devised and demonstrated. As part of the probe design, optical fibers lead to calibrated detectors that measure the interior nozzle thermal response. This two color radiometric measurement can be used for a direct determination of the total heat flux impinging on interior nozzle surfaces. This measurement has been demonstrated using a high power CO2 laser to simulate SRM nozzle heating conditions on carbon phenolic and graphite phenolic materials.

  17. Scale effects on quasi-steady solid rocket internal ballistic behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greatrix, D. R. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B2K3 (Canada)


    The ability to predict with some accuracy a given solid rocket motor's performance before undertaking one or several costly experimental test firings is important. On the numerical prediction side, as various component models evolve, their incorporation into an overall internal ballistics simulation program allows for new motor firing simulations to take place, which in turn allows for updated comparisons to experimental firing data. In the present investigation, utilizing an updated simulation program, the focus is on quasi-steady performance analysis and scale effects (influence of motor size). The predicted effects of negative/positive erosive burning and propellant/casing deflection, as tied to motor size, on a reference cylindrical-grain motor's internal ballistics, are included in this evaluation. Propellant deflection has only a minor influence on the reference motor's internal ballistics, regardless of motor size. Erosive burning, on the other hand, is distinctly affected by motor scale. (author)

  18. Technology for low cost solid rocket boosters. (United States)

    Ciepluch, C.


    A review of low cost large solid rocket motors developed at the Lewis Research Center is given. An estimate is made of the total cost reduction obtainable by incorporating this new technology package into the rocket motor design. The propellant, case material, insulation, nozzle ablatives, and thrust vector control are discussed. The effect of the new technology on motor cost is calculated for a typical expandable 260-in. booster application. Included in the cost analysis is the influence of motor performance variations due to specific impulse and weight changes. It is found for this application that motor costs may be reduced by up to 30% and that the economic attractiveness of future large solid rocket motors will be improved when the new technology is implemented.

  19. Flight demonstration of flight termination system and solid rocket motor ignition using semiconductor laser initiated ordnance (United States)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Maxfield, B.; Boucher, C.


    Solid State Laser Initiated Ordnance (LIO) offers new technology having potential for enhanced safety, reduced costs, and improved operational efficiency. Concerns over the absence of programmatic applications of the technology, which has prevented acceptance by flight programs, should be abated since LIO has now been operationally implemented by the Laser Initiated Ordnance Sounding Rocket Demonstration (LOSRD) Program. The first launch of solid state laser diode LIO at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) occurred on March 15, 1995 with all mission objectives accomplished. This project, Phase 3 of a series of three NASA Headquarters LIO demonstration initiatives, accomplished its objective by the flight of a dedicated, all-LIO sounding rocket mission using a two-stage Nike-Orion launch vehicle. LIO flight hardware, made by The Ensign-Bickford Company under NASA's first Cooperative Agreement with Profit Making Organizations, safely initiated three demanding pyrotechnic sequence events, namely, solid rocket motor ignition from the ground and in flight, and flight termination, i.e., as a Flight Termination System (FTS). A flight LIO system was designed, built, tested, and flown to support the objectives of quickly and inexpensively putting LIO through ground and flight operational paces. The hardware was fully qualified for this mission, including component testing as well as a full-scale system test. The launch accomplished all mission objectives in less than 11 months from proposal receipt. This paper concentrates on accomplishments of the ordnance aspects of the program and on the program's implementation and results. While this program does not generically qualify LIO for all applications, it demonstrated the safety, technical, and operational feasibility of those two most demanding applications, using an all solid state safe and arm system in critical flight applications.

  20. Multiple time scale analysis of pressure oscillations in solid rocket motors (United States)

    Ahmed, Waqas; Maqsood, Adnan; Riaz, Rizwan


    In this study, acoustic pressure oscillations for single and coupled longitudinal acoustic modes in Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) are investigated using Multiple Time Scales (MTS) method. Two independent time scales are introduced. The oscillations occur on fast time scale whereas the amplitude and phase changes on slow time scale. Hopf bifurcation is employed to investigate the properties of the solution. The supercritical bifurcation phenomenon is observed for linearly unstable system. The amplitude of the oscillations result from equal energy gain and loss rates of longitudinal acoustic modes. The effect of linear instability and frequency of longitudinal modes on amplitude and phase of oscillations are determined for both single and coupled modes. For both cases, the maximum amplitude of oscillations decreases with the frequency of acoustic mode and linear instability of SRM. The comparison of analytical MTS results and numerical simulations demonstrate an excellent agreement.

  1. Lightweight structural design of a bolted case joint for the space shuttle solid rocket motor (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Stein, Peter A.; Bush, Harold G.


    The structural design of a bolted joint with a static face seal which can be used to join Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) case segments is given. Results from numerous finite element parametric studies indicate that the bolted joint meets the design requirement of preventing joint opening at the O-ring locations during SRM pressurization. A final design recommended for further development has the following parameters: 180 one-in.-diam. studs, stud centerline offset of 0.5 in radially inward from the shell wall center line, flange thickness of 0.75 in, bearing plate thickness of 0.25 in, studs prestressed to 70 percent of ultimate load, and the intermediate alcove. The design has a mass penalty of 1096 lbm, which is 164 lbm greater than the currently proposed capture tang redesign.

  2. Scale Effects on Solid Rocket Combustion Instability Behaviour


    David R. Greatrix


    The ability to understand and predict the expected internal behaviour of a given solid-propellant rocket motor under transient conditions is important. Research towards predicting and quantifying undesirable transient axial combustion instability symptoms necessitates a comprehensive numerical model for internal ballistic simulation under dynamic flow and combustion conditions. A numerical model incorporating pertinent elements, such as a representative transient, frequency-dependent combusti...

  3. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor - V(RSRMV)Nozzle Forward Nose Ring Thermo-Structural Modeling (United States)

    Clayton, J. Louie


    During the developmental static fire program for NASAs Reusable Solid Rocket Motor-V (RSRMV), an anomalous erosion condition appeared on the nozzle Carbon Cloth Phenolic nose ring that had not been observed in the space shuttle RSRM program. There were regions of augmented erosion located on the bottom of the forward nose ring (FNR) that measured nine tenths of an inch deeper than the surrounding material. Estimates of heating conditions for the RSRMV nozzle based on limited char and erosion data indicate that the total heat loading into the FNR, for the new five segment motor, is about 40-50% higher than the baseline shuttle RSRM nozzle FNR. Fault tree analysis of the augmented erosion condition has lead to a focus on a thermomechanical response of the material that is outside the existing experience base of shuttle CCP materials for this application. This paper provides a sensitivity study of the CCP material thermo-structural response subject to the design constraints and heating conditions unique to the RSRMV Forward Nose Ring application. Modeling techniques are based on 1-D thermal and porous media calculations where in-depth interlaminar loading conditions are calculated and compared to known capabilities at elevated temperatures. Parameters such as heat rate, in-depth pressures and temperature, degree of char, associated with initiation of the mechanical removal process are quantified and compared to a baseline thermo-chemical material removal mode. Conclusions regarding postulated material loss mechanisms are offered.

  4. Laser Shearography Inspection of TPS (Thermal Protection System) Cork on RSRM (Reusable Solid Rocket Motors) (United States)

    Lingbloom, Mike; Plaia, Jim; Newman, John


    Laser Shearography is a viable inspection method for detection of de-bonds and voids within the external TPS (thermal protection system) on to the Space Shuttle RSRM (reusable solid rocket motors). Cork samples with thicknesses up to 1 inch were tested at the LTI (Laser Technology Incorporated) laboratory using vacuum-applied stress in a vacuum chamber. The testing proved that the technology could detect cork to steel un-bonds using vacuum stress techniques in the laboratory environment. The next logical step was to inspect the TPS on a RSRM. Although detailed post flight inspection has confirmed that ATK Thiokol's cork bonding technique provides a reliable cork to case bond, due to the Space Shuttle Columbia incident there is a great interest in verifying bond-lines on the external TPS. This interest provided and opportunity to inspect a RSRM motor with Laser Shearography. This paper will describe the laboratory testing and RSRM testing that has been performed to date. Descriptions of the test equipment setup and techniques for data collection and detailed results will be given. The data from the test show that Laser Shearography is an effective technology and readily adaptable to inspect a RSRM.

  5. Interim report on the state-of-the-art of solid-state motor controllers. Part 4. Failure-rate and failure-mode data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaross, R.A.


    An assessment of the reliability of solid-state motor controllers for nuclear power plants is made. Available data on failure-rate and failure-mode data for solid-state motor controllers based on industrial operating experience is meager; the data are augmented by data on other solid-state power electronic devices that are shown to have components similar to those found in solid-state motor controllers. In addition to large nonnuclear solid-state adjustable-speed motor drives, the reliability of nuclear plant inverter systems and high-voltage solid-state dc transmission-line converters is assessed. Licensee Event Report analyses from several sources, the open literature, and personal communications are used to determine the realiability of solid-state devices typical of those expected to be used in nuclear power plants in terms of failures per hour

  6. Solid Rocket Motor for Ultralow Temperature Operation During the Mars Sample Return Mission, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A small Mars (or other celestial body) ascent vehicle is unlikely to achieve the necessary propellant fraction required to achieve orbit. Scaling down of liquid...

  7. Numerical study on similarity of plume infrared radiation between reduced-scale solid rocket motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoying


    Full Text Available This study seeks to determine the similarities in plume radiation between reduced and full-scale solid rocket models in ground test conditions through investigation of flow and radiation for a series of scale ratios ranging from 0.1 to 1. The radiative transfer equation (RTE considering gas and particle radiation in a non-uniform plume has been adopted and solved by the finite volume method (FVM to compute the three dimensional, spectral and directional radiation of a plume in the infrared waveband 2–6 μm. Conditions at wavelengths 2.7 μm and 4.3 μm are discussed in detail, and ratios of plume radiation for reduced-scale through full-scale models are examined. This work shows that, with increasing scale ratio of a computed rocket motor, area of the high-temperature core increases as a 2 power function of the scale ratio, and the radiation intensity of the plume increases with 2–2.5 power of the scale ratio. The infrared radiation of plume gases shows a strong spectral dependency, while that of Al2O3 particles shows spectral continuity of gray media. Spectral radiation intensity of a computed solid rocket plume’s high temperature core increases significantly in peak radiation spectra of plume gases CO and CO2. Al2O3 particles are the major radiation component in a rocket plume. There is good similarity between contours of plume spectral radiance from different scale models of computed rockets, and there are two peak spectra of radiation intensity at wavebands 2.7–3.0 μm and 4.2–4.6 μm. Directed radiation intensity of the entire plume volume will rise with increasing elevation angle.

  8. A novel solid-state control system for the minimization of re-switching transient currents of induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abro, M.R.; Larik, A.S.; Mahar, M.A.


    This work is an investigation into the minimizing re-closure transient currents of induction motors by activating NOVEL solid state control system switching at a matched condition. This emphasis is placed upon-circuit transition starting of cage motors, particularly star-delta switching. The initial study is carried out on single-phase induction motion. This system is capable of effective sensing re-closure of a switched off running single-phase induction motor. Further this scheme could be developed to give sequential delta closure of a switched off running three-phase induction motor during 1st cycles following the opening of the star mode. Consideration is also given to the possibility of using sensed re-closure to minimize transient whenever the supply to a running induction motor is briefly interrupted, irrespective of whether the interruption is by accident design. A brief study is made into the type of transient currents generated by opening the circuit of a running induction motor. The importance of the switching pattern for star-delta starting is explained and emphasized. (author)

  9. Noise from Two-Blade Propellers (United States)

    Stowell, E Z; Deming, A F


    The two-blade propeller, one of the most powerful sources of sound known, has been studied with the view of obtaining fundamental information concerning the noise emission. In order to eliminate engine noise, the propeller was mounted on an electric motor. A microphone was used to pick up the sound whose characteristics were studied electrically. The distribution of noise throughout the frequency range, as well as the spatial distribution about the propeller, was studied. The results are given in the form of polar diagrams. An appendix of common acoustical terms is included.

  10. Influence of different propellant systems on ablation of EPDM insulators in overload state (United States)

    Guan, Yiwen; Li, Jiang; Liu, Yang; Xu, Tuanwei


    This study examines the propellants used in full-scale solid rocket motors (SRM) and investigates how insulator ablation is affected by two propellant formulations (A and B) during flight overload conditions. An experimental study, theoretical analysis, and numerical simulations were performed to discover the intrinsic causes of insulator ablation rates from the perspective of lab-scaled ground-firing tests, the decoupling of thermochemical ablation, and particle erosion. In addition, the difference in propellant composition, and the insulator charring layer microstructure were analyzed. Results reveal that the degree of insulator ablation is positively correlated with the propellant burn rate, particle velocity, and aggregate concentrations during the condensed phase. A lower ratio of energetic additive material in the AP oxidizer of the propellant is promising for the reduction in particle size and increase in the burn rate and pressure index. However, the overall higher velocity of a two-phase flow causes severe erosion of the insulation material. While the higher ratio of energetic additive to the AP oxidizer imparts a smaller ablation rate to the insulator (under lab-scale test conditions), the slag deposition problem in the combustion chamber may cause catastrophic consequences for future large full-scale SRM flight experiments.

  11. Perancangan Propeler Self-Propelled Barge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Teguh kurniawan


    Full Text Available Makalah ini menyampaikan suatu penelitian tentang perancangan propeler yang optimal beserta pemilihan daya mesin yang efisien pada self-propelled barge dengan memperhitungkan besarnya nilai tahanan dari barge tersebut. Dengan penambahan sistem propulsi, diharapkan barge dapat beroperasi dengan lebih efisien dibandingkan saat barge beroperasi menggunakan sistem towing atau ditarik tug boat. Perhitungan tahanan barge dilakukan menggunakan metode Holtrop dan Guldhammer-Harvald sehingga dapat diperhi-tungkan geometri dan jenis propeler yang optimal beserta daya mesin yang efisien untuk barge. Propeler yang dianalisis adalah propeler tipe B-Troost Series, sedangkan variasi yang dilakukan untuk perencanaan propeler pada kajian ini adalah variasi putaran propeler pada rentang antara 310-800 rpm, serta variasi jumlah daun pada rentang tiga, empat, lima, dan enam. Besarnya nilai tahanan self-propelled barge untuk metode Holtrop adalah 105.91 kilonewton, sedangkan hasil per-hitungan dari metode Guldhammer-Harvald didapatkan nilai sebesar 109.14 kilonewton. Tipe propeler yang dipilih setelah dilakukan uji kavitasi adalah tipe Troost Series B4-40, dengan diameter sebesar 2.1 m, efisiensi sebesar 0.421, pitch ratio se-besar 0.591, dengan putaran propeler 400 rpm. Daya mesin yg dibutuhkan barge pada kondisi maksimum (BHPMCR sebesar 1669.5 HP. Dengan mempertimbangkan daya tersebut, maka dipilih mesin jenis Caterpillar tipe Marine 3516B yang mem-punyai daya maksimum sebesar 1285 kilowatt atau 1722.5 horsepower dengan putaran mesin sebesar 1200 rpm

  12. Scale effects on solid rocket combustion instability behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greatrix, D. R. [Ryerson University, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)


    The ability to understand and predict the expected internal behaviour of a given solid-propellant rocket motor under transient conditions is important. Research towards predicting and quantifying undesirable transient axial combustion instability symptoms necessitates a comprehensive numerical model for internal ballistic simulation under dynamic flow and combustion conditions. A numerical model incorporating pertinent elements, such as a representative transient, frequency-dependent combustion response to pressure wave activity above the burning propellant surface, is applied to the investigation of scale effects (motor size, i.e., grain length and internal port diameter) on influencing instability-related behaviour in a cylindrical-grain motor. The results of this investigation reveal that the motor's size has a significant influence on transient pressure wave magnitude and structure, and on the appearance and magnitude of an associated base pressure rise. (author)

  13. Development and implementation of a propeller test capability for GL-10 "Greased Lightning" propeller design (United States)

    Duvall, Brian Edward

    Interest in small unmanned aerial vehicles has increased dramatically in recent years. Hybrid vehicles which allow forward flight as a fixed wing aircraft and a true vertical landing capability have always had applications. Management of the available energy and noise associated with electric propeller propulsion systems presents many challenges. NASA Langley has developed the Greased Lightning 10 (GL-10) vertical takeoff, unmanned aerial vehicle with ten individual motors and propellers. All are used for propulsion during takeoff and contribute to acoustic noise pollution which is an identified nuisance to the surrounding users. A propeller test capability was developed to gain an understanding of how the noise can be reduced while meeting minimum thrust requirements. The designed propeller test stand allowed for various commercially available propellers to be tested for potential direct replacement of the current GL-10 propellers and also supported testing of a newly designed propeller provided by the Georgia Institute of Technology. Results from the test program provided insight as to which factors affect the noise as well as performance characteristics. The outcome of the research effort showed that the current GL-10 propeller still represents the best choice of all the candidate propellers tested.

  14. Solid state circuit controls direction, speed, and braking of dc motor (United States)

    Hanna, M. F.


    Full-wave bridge rectifier circuit controls the direction, speed, and braking of a dc motor. Gating in the circuit of Silicon Controlled Rectifiers /SCRS/ controls output polarity and braking is provided by an SCR that is gated to short circuit the reverse voltage generated by reversal of motor rotation.

  15. Experimental determination of convective heat transfer coefficients in the separated flow region of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (United States)

    Whitesides, R. Harold; Majumdar, Alok K.; Jenkins, Susan L.; Bacchus, David L.


    A series of cold flow heat transfer tests was conducted with a 7.5-percent scale model of the Space Shuttle Rocket Motor (SRM) to measure the heat transfer coefficients in the separated flow region around the nose of the submerged nozzle. Modifications were made to an existing 7.5 percent scale model of the internal geometry of the aft end of the SRM, including the gimballed nozzle in order to accomplish the measurements. The model nozzle nose was fitted with a stainless steel shell with numerous thermocouples welded to the backside of the thin wall. A transient 'thin skin' experimental technique was used to measure the local heat transfer coefficients. The effects of Reynolds number, nozzle gimbal angle, and model location were correlated with a Stanton number versus Reynolds number correlation which may be used to determine the convective heating rates for the full scale Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor nozzle.

  16. The thermal decomposition behavior of ammonium perchlorate and of an ammonium-perchlorate-based composite propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, R.; Minier, L.


    The thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium-perchlorate-based composite propellants is studied using the simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) technique. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate whether the STMBMS can provide new data on these materials that will have sufficient detail on the reaction mechanisms and associated reaction kinetics to permit creation of a detailed model of the thermal decomposition process. Such a model is a necessary ingredient to engineering models of ignition and slow-cookoff for these AP-based composite propellants. Results show that the decomposition of pure AP is controlled by two processes. One occurs at lower temperatures (240 to 270 C), produces mainly H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and HCl, and is shown to occur in the solid phase within the AP particles. 200{micro} diameter AP particles undergo 25% decomposition in the solid phase, whereas 20{micro} diameter AP particles undergo only 13% decomposition. The second process is dissociative sublimation of AP to NH{sub 3} + HClO{sub 4} followed by the decomposition of, and reaction between, these two products in the gas phase. The dissociative sublimation process occurs over the entire temperature range of AP decomposition, but only becomes dominant at temperatures above those for the solid-phase decomposition. AP-based composite propellants are used extensively in both small tactical rocket motors and large strategic rocket systems.

  17. Tip-modified Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul


    The paper deals with tip-modified propellers and the methods which, over a period of two decades, have been applied to develop such propellers. The development is driven by the urge to increase the efficiency of propellers and can be seen as analogous to fitting end plates and winglets to aircraft...... propeller, have efficiency increases of a reasonable magnitude in both open-water and behind-ship conditions....

  18. An Automated Fluid-Structural Interaction Analysis of a Large Segmented Solid Rocket Motor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rex, Brian


    .... The fluid-structural interaction (FSI) analysis of the ETM-3 motor used PYTHON, a powerful programming language, and FEM BUILDER, a pre- and post processor developed by ATK Thiokol Propulsion under contract to the AFRL, to automatically...

  19. Heterogeneous propellant internal ballistics: criticism and regeneration (United States)

    Glick, R. L.


    Although heterogeneous propellant and its innately nondeterministic, chemically discrete morphology dominates applications, ballisticcharacterization deterministic time-mean burning rate and acoustic admittance measures' absence of explicit, nondeterministic information requires homogeneous propellant with a smooth, uniformly regressing burning surface: inadequate boundary conditions for heterogeneous propellant grained applications. The past age overcame this dichotomy with one-dimensional (1D) models and empirical knowledge from numerous, adequately supported motor developments and supplementary experiments. However, current cost and risk constraints inhibit this approach. Moreover, its fundamental science approach is more sensitive to incomplete boundary condition information (garbage-in still equals garbage-out) and more is expected. This work critiques this situation and sketches a path forward based on enhanced ballistic and motor characterizations in the workplace and approximate model and apparatus developments mentored by CSAR DNS capabilities (or equivalent).

  20. Thermal-Flow Code for Modeling Gas Dynamics and Heat Transfer in Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Joints (United States)

    Wang, Qunzhen; Mathias, Edward C.; Heman, Joe R.; Smith, Cory W.


    A new, thermal-flow simulation code, called SFLOW. has been developed to model the gas dynamics, heat transfer, as well as O-ring and flow path erosion inside the space shuttle solid rocket motor joints by combining SINDA/Glo, a commercial thermal analyzer. and SHARPO, a general-purpose CFD code developed at Thiokol Propulsion. SHARP was modified so that friction, heat transfer, mass addition, as well as minor losses in one-dimensional flow can be taken into account. The pressure, temperature and velocity of the combustion gas in the leak paths are calculated in SHARP by solving the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations while the heat conduction in the solid is modeled by SINDA/G. The two codes are coupled by the heat flux at the solid-gas interface. A few test cases are presented and the results from SFLOW agree very well with the exact solutions or experimental data. These cases include Fanno flow where friction is important, Rayleigh flow where heat transfer between gas and solid is important, flow with mass addition due to the erosion of the solid wall, a transient volume venting process, as well as some transient one-dimensional flows with analytical solutions. In addition, SFLOW is applied to model the RSRM nozzle joint 4 subscale hot-flow tests and the predicted pressures, temperatures (both gas and solid), and O-ring erosions agree well with the experimental data. It was also found that the heat transfer between gas and solid has a major effect on the pressures and temperatures of the fill bottles in the RSRM nozzle joint 4 configuration No. 8 test.

  1. Hybrid rocket motor testing at Nammo Raufoss A/S (United States)

    Rønningen, Jan-Erik; Kubberud, Nils


    Hybrid rocket motor technology and the use of hybrid rockets have gained increased interest in recent years in many countries. A typical hybrid rocket consists of a tank containing the oxidizer in either liquid or gaseous state connected to the combustion chamber containing an injector, inert solid fuel grain and nozzle. Nammo Raufoss A/S has for almost 40 years designed and produced high-performance solid propellant rocket motors for many military missile systems as well as solid propellant rocket motors for civil space use. In 2003 an in-house technology program was initiated to investigate and study hybrid rocket technology. On 23 September 2004 the first in-house designed hybrid test rocket motor was static test fired at Nammo Raufoss Test Center. The oxidizer was gaseous oxygen contained in a tank pressurized to 10MPa, flow controlled through a sonic orifice into the combustion chamber containing a multi port radial injector and six bore cartridge-loaded fuel grain containing a modified HTPB fuel composition. The motor was ignited using a non-explosive heated wire. This paper will present what has been achieved at Nammo Raufoss since the start of the program.

  2. ADN – The new oxidizer around the corner for an environmentally friendly smokeless propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Y. Nagamachi


    Full Text Available The search for a smokeless propellant has encouraged scientists and engineers to look for a chlorine-free oxidizer as a substitute for AP (ammonium perchlorate. Endeavors seemed to come to an end when ADN (ammonium dinitramide appeared in the West in the early 1990s. Although some drawbacks soon became apparent by that time, the foremost obstacle for its use in rocket-motors came from the patent originally applied for in the United States in 1990. Furthermore, environmental concerns have also increased during these two decades. Ammonium perchlorate is believed to cause thyroid cancer by contaminating soil and water. In addition, AP produces hydrogen chloride during burning which can cause acid rain and ozone layer depletion. Unlike AP, ADN stands for both smokeless and green propellant. Since then, much progress has been made in its development in synthesis, re-shaping, microencapsulation and solid propellant. The high solubility of ADN in water has also allowed its application as liquid monopropellant. Tests have revealed Isp (specific impulse superior to that normally observed with hydrazine, one of the most harmful and hazardous liquid propellants. With constraints of use, along with the patent near to expiry, scientists and engineers are rushing to complete developments and patents until then.

  3. Numerical Analysis of Ice Impacts on Azimuth Propeller (United States)


    uniformity as one solid object, though the built-on process is recognized as well. The number of blades for this propeller varies to control cavitation ...Figure 7). The CRP allows the hydrodynamic advantage of regaining lost rotational energy from the first propeller, which is the speeds flow through and accelerates it past the propellers. Decelerating duct slows the flow and allows for greatly reduced cavitation and

  4. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL


    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  5. Scale Effects on Solid Rocket Combustion Instability Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Greatrix


    Full Text Available The ability to understand and predict the expected internal behaviour of a given solid-propellant rocket motor under transient conditions is important. Research towards predicting and quantifying undesirable transient axial combustion instability symptoms necessitates a comprehensive numerical model for internal ballistic simulation under dynamic flow and combustion conditions. A numerical model incorporating pertinent elements, such as a representative transient, frequency-dependent combustion response to pressure wave activity above the burning propellant surface, is applied to the investigation of scale effects (motor size, i.e., grain length and internal port diameter on influencing instability-related behaviour in a cylindrical-grain motor. The results of this investigation reveal that the motor’s size has a significant influence on transient pressure wave magnitude and structure, and on the appearance and magnitude of an associated base pressure rise.

  6. Advanced Flow Analysis Tools for Transient Solid Rocket Motor Simulations, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The challenges of designing, developing, and fielding man-rated propulsion systems continue to increase as NASA's mission moves forward with evolving solid...

  7. Star-grain rocket motor - nonsteady internal ballistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loncaric, S.; Greatrix, D.R.; Fawaz, Z. [Ryerson University, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Toronto (Canada)


    The nonsteady internal ballistics of a star-grain solid-propellant rocket motor are investigated through a numerical simulation model that incorporates both the internal flow and surrounding structure. The effects of structural vibration on burning rate augmentation and wave development in nonsteady operation are demonstrated. The amount of damping plays a role in influencing the predicted axial combustion instability symptoms of the motor. The variation in oscillation frequencies about a given star grain section periphery, and along the grain with different levels of burn-back, also influences the means by which the local acceleration drives the combustion and flow behaviour. (authors)

  8. Nozzle erosion characterization and minimization for high-pressure rocket motor applications (United States)

    Evans, Brian

    Understanding of the processes that cause nozzle throat erosion and developing methods for mitigation of erosion rate can allow higher operating pressures for advanced rocket motors. However, erosion of the nozzle throat region, which is a strong function of operating pressure, must be controlled to realize the performance gains of higher operating pressures. The objective of this work was the study the nozzle erosion rates at a broad range of pressures from 7 to 34.5 MPa (1,000 to 5,000 psia) using two different rocket motors. The first is an instrumented solidpropellant motor (ISPM), which uses two baseline solid propellants; one is a non-metallized propellant called Propellant S and the other is a metallized propellant called Propellant M. The second test rig is a non-metallized solid-propellant rocket motor simulator (RMS). The RMS is a gas rocket with the ability to vary the combustion-product species composition by systematically varying the flow rates of gaseous reactants. Several reactant mixtures were utilized in the study to determine the relative importance of different oxidizing species (such as H2O, OH, and CO2). Both test rigs are equipped with a windowed nozzle section for real-time X-ray radiography diagnostics of the instantaneous throat variations for deducing the instantaneous erosion rates. The nozzle test section for both motors can also incorporate a nozzle boundary-layer control system (NBLCS) as a means of nozzle erosion mitigation. The effectiveness of the NBLCS at preventing nozzle throat erosion was demonstrated for both the RMS and the ISPM motors at chamber pressures up to 34 MPa (4930 psia). All tests conducted with the NBLCS showed signs of coning of the propellant surface, leading to increased mass burning rate and resultant chamber pressure. Two correlations were developed for the nozzle erosion rates from solid propellant testing, one for metallized propellant and one for non-metallized propellants. The non-metallized propellant

  9. Spatial distribution of heavy metals in solid adjacent to the Naples-Salerno motor way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imperato, M.; Monetti, V.; Naimo, D.; Stanzione, D.


    This work analyses the distribution of heavy metal in soil adjacent to the Naples-Salerno motor way, an area which typically contains volcanic products from Somma-Vesuvio. The various concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, Cu and Cr found in different portions of the motor way (embankment, road cut, field level) are reported. The data obtained indicate high level of pollution in soil adjacent to the motor way fencing, with maximum concentrations of 1220 ppm Pb, 1.9 ppm Cd and 341 ppm Zn. Gradients of decreasing pollution with distance from the fencing and with altitude from the road surface are highest for Zn followed by Pb and Cd. The presence of these three materials in depth follows an averagely constant falling gradient, with minimum detected values at 50 cm depth. The spatial distribution of Cr does not reveal any significant differences. Relatively big levels are due to the presence in the soil of Chromium-rich minerals such as augite and olivine. Mn and Cu are found, due to local contribution, probably as a consequence of the use of copper compounds in agriculture [it

  10. The operation of a single-sided linear induction motor with squirrel-cage and solid-steel reaction rails (United States)

    Eastham, A. R.; Katz, R. M.


    Two test programs have been conducted to evaluate the performance of a single-sided linear induction motor with a squirrel-cage reaction rail and with a solid steel reaction rail. A 1.73-m-long six-pole stator interacted with the rails mounted on the rim of a 7.6-m-diam wheel. A 64-channel data acquisition system allowed tests to be performed over a wide range of operating conditions at speeds up to 20 m/sec. Typical test results which compare and contrast the mechanical, electrical and magnetic behavior of the SLIMs are presented. The test data are being used to assess the SLIM as an integrated suspension/propulsion system and for other transportation applications.

  11. Structural design of an in-line bolted joint for the space shuttle solid rocket motor case segments (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Stein, Peter A.; Bush, Harold G.


    Results of a structural design study of an in-line bolted joint concept which can be used to assemble Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) case segments are presented. Numerous parametric studies are performed to characterize the in-line bolted joint behavior as major design variables are altered, with the primary objective always being to keep the inside of the joint (where the O-rings are located) closed during the SRM firing. The resulting design has 180 1-inch studs, an eccentricity of -0.5 inch, a flange thickness of 3/4 inch, a bearing plate thickness of 1/4 inch, and the studs are subjected to a preload which is 70% of ultimate. The mass penalty per case segment joint for the in-line design is 346 lbm more than the weight penalty for the proposed capture tang fix.

  12. Propellant Preparation Laboratory Complex (Area1-21) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: Area 1-21 is an explosion resistant complex of nine cells built into the side of a granite ridge. Three solid propellant cutting cells are housed in the...

  13. Effect of ITE and nozzle exit cone erosion on specific impulse of solid rocket motors (United States)

    Smith-Kent, Randall; Ridder, Jeffrey P.; Loh, Hai-Tien; Abel, Ralph


    Specific impulse loss due to the use of a slowly eroding integral throat entrance, or a throat insert, with a faster eroding nozzle exit cone is studied. It is suggested that an oblique shock wave produced by step-off erosion results in loss of specific impulse. This is studied by use of a shock capturing CFD method. The shock loss predictions for first-stage Peacekeeper and Castor 25 motors are found to match the trends of the test data. This work suggests that a loss mechanism, previously unaccounted, should be considered in the specific impulse prediction procedure for nozzles with step-off exit cone erosion.

  14. Performance Analysis Rim Driven Propeller as a Propulsor using Open Water Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agoes Santoso


    Full Text Available The use of duct in propeller is one of the breakthrough in the development of the propeller. Ducting not only claimed to be increasing efficiency of the propeller, but also capable to protect the propeller from impact therefore propeller lifespan is longer. From that idea then RDP is created. RDP propeller blade are designed to be fix at their housing called Rim, in the other word, the driving force came from it’s rim. On current RDP blade used is non-conventional blade. This thesis will discuss about design analysis of Kaplan Propeller Kaplan Ka-70 that modified on it’s thickness distribution. On this thesis data that is varied is motor load. Simulation using Open Water Test. The result, highest value of KT and KQ occur on 30% motor load and highest efficiency is 18,338% achieved on 260 Rpm.

  15. Thrust imbalance of solid rocket motor pairs on Space Shuttle flights (United States)

    Foster, W. A., Jr.; Shu, P. H.; Sforzini, R. H.


    This analysis extends the investigation presented at the 17th Joint Propulsion Conference in 1981 to include fifteen sets of Space Shuttle flight data. The previous report dealt only with static test data and the first flight pair. The objective is to compare the authors' previous theoretical analysis of thrust imbalance with actual Space Shuttle performance. The theoretical prediction method, which involves a Monte Carlo technique, is reviewed briefly as are salient features of the flight instrumentation system and the statistical analysis. A scheme for smoothing flight data is discussed. The effects of changes in design parameters are discussed with special emphasis on the filament wound motor case being developed to replace the steel case. Good agreement between the predictions and the flight data is demonstrated.

  16. Surface acoustic wave solid-state rotational micromotor (United States)

    Shilton, Richie J.; Langelier, Sean M.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.


    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are used to drive a 1 mm diameter rotor at speeds exceeding 9000 rpm and torque of nearly 5 nNm. Unlike recent high-speed SAW rotary motors, however, the present design does not require a fluid coupling layer but interestingly exploits adhesive stiction as an internal preload, a force usually undesirable at these scales; with additional preloads, smaller rotors can be propelled to 15 000 rpm. This solid-state motor has no moving parts except for the rotor and is sufficiently simple to allow integration into miniaturized drive systems for potential use in microfluidic diagnostics, optical switching and microrobotics.

  17. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation...... of an intermittently cavitating propeller in a wake and the pressures and forces it exerts on the shaft and on the ship hull is examined. A final chapter discusses the optimization of efficiency of compound propulsors. The authors have taken care to clearly describe physical concepts and mathematical steps. Appendices...

  18. Autonomous Propellant Loading Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) project consists of three activities. The first is to develop software that will automatically control loading of...

  19. Modeling Propellant Tank Dynamics (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of my work will be to develop accurate models of self-pressurizing propellant tanks for use in designing hybrid rockets. The first key goal is to...

  20. JANNAF 28th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and 17th Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1 (United States)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Mulder, Edwin J. (Editor); Gomez-Knight, Sylvia J. (Editor)


    This volume contains 37 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers that were presented at the JANNAF 28th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) and 17th Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) Joint Meeting, held 26-30 April 1999 at the Town & Country Hotel and the Naval Submarine Base, San Diego, California. Volume II contains 29 unclassified/limited-distribution papers that were presented at the 28th PDCS and 17th S&EPS Joint Meeting. Volume III contains a classified paper that was presented at the 28th PDCS Meeting on 27 April 1999. Topics covered in PDCS sessions include: solid propellant rheology; solid propellant surveillance and aging; propellant process engineering; new solid propellant ingredients and formulation development; reduced toxicity liquid propellants; characterization of hypergolic propellants; and solid propellant chemical analysis methods. Topics covered in S&EPS sessions include: space launch range safety; liquid propellant hazards; vapor detection methods for toxic propellant vapors and other hazardous gases; toxicity of propellants, ingredients, and propellant combustion products; personal protective equipment for toxic liquid propellants; and demilitarization/treatment of energetic material wastes.

  1. Disposal of Liquid Propellants (United States)


    propellant includes an oxi- dizer (hydroxylammoniuin nitrate), a fuel (triethanolammonium nitrate), and water . In an- ticipation of widespread (both...are also included. 20. DISTRIBUTION/ AVAILABILIT ’." OF ABMTRACT 21 ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIF.CATICIN IUNCLASSIFIEDIUNLIMITED 0 SAME AS RPT. 0 OTIC...trieth- anolammoiur nitrate), anG water . In anticipation of widespread (both conti- nental U.S. and abroac) use of the propellant, USATHAMA began a

  2. Heat transfer in heterogeneous propellant combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, M.Q.


    This paper reports that heat transfer plays an important role in several critical areas of heterogeneous, solid-propellant combustion systems. These areas include heat feedback to the propellant surface, heat transfer between burning aluminum droplets and their surroundings, heat transfer to internal insulation systems, and heat transfer to aft-end equipment. Gas conduction dominates heat feedback to the propellant surface in conventional ammonium perchlorate (AP) composite propellants, although particle radiative feedback also plays a significant role in combustion of metalized propellants. Particle radiation plays a dominant role in heat transfer to internal insulation, compared with that of convection. However, conduction by impingement of burning aluminum particles, which has not been extensively studied, may also be significant. Radiative heat loss plays an important role in determining the burning rate of molten aluminum particles due to a highly luminous, oxide particle-laden, detached flame envelope. Radiation by aluminum oxide smoke particles also plays a dominant role in heat transfer from the exhaust plume to aft-end equipment. Uncertainties in aluminum oxide particle-size distribution and optical properties still make it difficult to predict radiative plume heat transfer accurately from first principles

  3. Burning rate characteristics of energetic CMDB propellants. Part 2. Effect of HMX addition; Ko enerugi CMDB suishin yaku no nensho sokudo tokusei ( II ) - HMX tenka no koka -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, I. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. (Japan)


    Burning rate and specific impulse of a solid propellant are extremely important parameters in a design of a solid rocket motor. In this study, the relations between the burning rate and the amount of energy contained in HMX-CMDB propellants wherein the amount of energy is varied by adding HMX (High Melting Point Explosive). The following results are obtained. The final flame temperature is getting higher when the amount of energy is increased by adding HMX into a double-base propellant. The higher the final flame temperature is, the lower the burning rate is. Dark zone temperature, as a physical property, is lowered when the containing amount of energy is increased by adding HMX into the double-base propellant. This is because that, when weight fraction of HMX is increased, reaction heat at burning surface decreases, and the reaction in fizz zone is getting slower. The higher the dark zone temperature is, the higher the burning rate is. 20 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Near noise field characteristics of Nike rocket motors for application to space vehicle payload acoustic qualification (United States)

    Hilton, D. A.; Bruton, D.


    Results of a series of noise measurements that were made under controlled conditions during the static firing of two Nike solid propellant rocket motors are presented. The usefulness of these motors as sources for general spacecraft noise testing was assessed, and the noise expected in the cargo bay of the orbiter was reproduced. Brief descriptions of the Nike motor, the general procedures utilized for the noise tests, and representative noise data including overall sound pressure levels, one third octave band spectra, and octave band spectra were reviewed. Data are presented on two motors of different ages in order to show the similarity between noise measurements made on motors having different loading dates. The measured noise from these tests is then compared to that estimated for the space shuttle orbiter cargo bay.

  5. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (United States)

    Hardy, G. B.


    Details of the design, operation, testing and recovery procedures of the reusable solid rocket boosters (SRB) are given. Using a composite PBAN propellant, they will provide the primary thrust (six million pounds maximum at 20 s after ignition) within a 3 g acceleration constraint, as well as thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle. The drogues were tested to a load of 305,000 pounds, and the main parachutes to 205,000. Insulation in the solid rocket motor (SRM) will be provided by asbestos-silica dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber ('asbestos filled NBR') except in high erosion areas (principally in the aft dome), where a carbon-filled ethylene propylene diene monomer-neopreme rubber will be utilized. Furthermore, twenty uses for the SRM nozzle will be allowed by its ablative materials, which are principally carbon cloth and silica cloth phenolics.

  6. Propellers in Saturn's rings (United States)

    Sremcevic, M.; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.


    Theoretical studies and simulations have demonstrated the effects caused by objects embedded in planetary rings. Even if the objects are too small to be directly observed, each creates a much larger gravitational imprint on the surrounding ring material. These strongly depend on the mass of the object and range from "S" like propeller-shaped structures for about 100m-sized icy bodies to the opening of circumferential gaps as in the case of the embedded moons Pan and Daphnis and their corresponding Encke and Keeler Gaps. Since the beginning of the Cassini mission many of these smaller objects (~data from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) experiments. We show evidence that B ring seems to harbor two distinct populations of propellers: "big" propellers covering tens of degrees in azimuth situated in the densest part of B ring, and "small" propellers in less dense inner B ring that are similar in size and shape to known A ring propellers. The population of "big" propellers is exemplified with a single object which is observed for 5 years of Cassini data. The object is seen as a very elongated bright stripe (40 degrees wide) in unlit Cassini images, and dark stripe in lit geometries. In total we report observing the feature in images at 18 different epochs between 2005 and 2010. In UVIS occultations we observe this feature as an optical depth depletion in 14 out of 93 occultation cuts at corrotating longitudes compatible with imaging data. Combining the available Cassini data we infer that the object is a partial gap located at r=112,921km embedded in the high optical depth region of the B ring. The gap moves at Kepler speed appropriate for its radial location. Radial offsets of the gap locations in UVIS occultations are consistent with an asymmetric propeller shape. The asymmetry of the observed shape is most likely a consequence of the strong surface mass density gradient, as the feature is located at an edge between

  7. Designing Small Propellers for Optimum Efficiency and Low Noise Footprint (United States)


    each one. The GUI contains input boxes for all of the necessary data in order to run QMIL, QPROP, NAFNoise, and to produce Visual Basic ( VBA ) code... VBA macros that will automatically place reference planes for each airfoil section and insert the splined airfoils to their respective reference...Figure 24. Solid propeller exa mple. Figure 25. Hub and spoke propeller design. Figure 26. Alumninum hub design. accessed on May 12, 2015. DC, August

  8. Injection dynamics of gelled propellants (United States)

    Yoon, Changjin

    Gel propellants have been recognized as attractive candidates for future propulsion systems due to the reduced tendency to spill and the energy advantages over solid propellants. One of strong benefits emphasized in gel propellant applications is a throttling capability, but the accurate flow control is more complicated and difficult than with conventional Newtonian propellants because of the unique rheological behaviors of gels. This study is a computational effort directed to enhance understanding of the injector internal flow characteristics for gel propellants under rocket injection conditions. In simulations, the emphasized rheology is a shear-thinning which represents a viscosity decrease with increasing a shear rate. It is described by a generalized Newtonian fluid constitutive equation and Carreau-Yasuda model. Using this rheological model, two injection schemes are considered in the present study: axially-fed and cross-fed injection for single-element and multi-element impinging injectors, respectively. An axisymmetric model is developed to describe the axially-fed injector flows and fully three-dimensional model is utilized to simulate cross-fed injector flows. Under axially-fed injection conditions investigated, three distinct modes, an unsteady, steady, and hydraulic flip mode, are observed and mapped in terms of Reynolds number and orifice design. In an unsteady mode, quasi-periodic oscillations occur near the inlet lip leading mass pulsations and viscosity fluctuations at the orifice exit. This dynamic behavior is characterized using a time-averaged discharge coefficient, oscillation magnitude and frequency by a parametric study with respect to an orifice design, Reynolds number and rheology. As a result, orifice exit flows for gel propellants appear to be significantly influenced by a viscous damping and flow resistance due to a shear thinning behavior and these are observed in each factors considered. Under conditions driven by a manifold crossflow

  9. Accelerated aging of AP/HTPB propellants and the influence of various environmental aging conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizers, H.L.J.


    Preliminary resuits on accelerated aging of lab-scale produced AP/HTPB propellant and propellants from dissectioned rocket motors are discussed, including aging logic, storage conditions, test techniques and resuits on mechanical, ballistic and safety testing. The mam aging effect observed was

  10. The sky is falling III: The effect of deposition from static solid rocket motor tests on juvenile crops. (United States)

    Doucette, William J; Curry, Eric; McNeill, Laurie S; Heavilin, Justin


    A mixture of combustion products (mainly hydrogen chloride, aluminum oxide, and water) and entrained soil, referred to as Test Fire Soil (TFS), can be deposited on crops during static solid rocket motor tests. The impact of a reported worst-case event was previously evaluated by exposing corn and alfalfa to 3200-gTFS/m 2 at 54days after emergence. Exposures via soil and leaves were evaluated separately. Reduced growth (soil exposure) and leaf "scorch" (leaf exposure) were attributed mainly to the high chloride concentrations in the TFS (56,000mg/kg). A follow-up study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a typical deposition event (70-gTFS/m 2 , estimated by radar during several tests) and exposure (soil and leaves simultaneously) on juvenile corn, alfalfa, and winter wheat. Younger crops were used to examine potential age sensitivity differences. Impact was evaluated by comparing the growth, elemental composition, and leaf chlorophyll content of treated and untreated plants. The relationship between deposition exposure and response was also addressed. Growth of corn, alfalfa, and winter wheat exposed to a typical TFS loading was not impacted, although slightly elevated concentrations of aluminum and iron were found in the leaves. At the highest loadings used for the exposure-response experiment, concentrations of chloride and calcium were higher in TFS-exposed corn leaves than in the untreated leaves. Overall results indicate that exposure to a typical deposition event does not adversely impact juvenile crops and that younger plants may be less vulnerable to TFS. However, higher TFS loadings can cause leaf scorch and increase the leaf concentrations of some elements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Technology of foamed propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnlein-Mauss, Jutta; Kroeber, Hartmut [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany)


    Foamed propellants are based on crystalline explosives bonded in energetic reaction polymers. Due to their porous structures they are distinguished by high burning rates. Energy content and material characteristics can be varied by using different energetic fillers, energetic polymers and porous structures. Foamed charges can be produced easily by the reaction injection moulding process. For the manufacturing of foamed propellants a semi-continuous remote controlled production plant in pilot scale was set up and a modified reaction injection moulding process was applied. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Feasibility Study on Cutting HTPB Propellants with Abrasive Water Jet (United States)

    Jiang, Dayong; Bai, Yun


    Abrasive water jet is used to carry out the experiment research on cutting HTPB propellants with three components, which will provide technical support for the engineering treatment of waste rocket motor. Based on the reliability theory and related scientific research results, the safety and efficiency of cutting sensitive HTPB propellants by abrasive water jet were experimentally studied. The results show that the safety reliability is not less than 99.52% at 90% confidence level, so the safety is adequately ensured. The cooling and anti-friction effect of high-speed water jet is the decisive factor to suppress the detonation of HTPB propellant. Compared with pure water jet, cutting efficiency was increased by 5% - 87%. The study shows that abrasive water jets meet the practical use for cutting HTPB propellants.

  13. Nonlinear Longitudinal Mode Instability in Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine Preburners (United States)

    Sims, J. D. (Technical Monitor); Flandro, Gary A.; Majdalani, Joseph; Sims, Joseph D.


    Nonlinear pressure oscillations have been observed in liquid propellant rocket instability preburner devices. Unlike the familiar transverse mode instabilities that characterize primary combustion chambers, these oscillations appear as longitudinal gas motions with frequencies that are typical of the chamber axial acoustic modes. In several respects, the phenomenon is similar to longitudinal mode combustion instability appearing in low-smoke solid propellant motors. An important feature is evidence of steep-fronted wave motions with very high amplitude. Clearly, gas motions of this type threaten the mechanical integrity of associated engine components and create unacceptably high vibration levels. This paper focuses on development of the analytical tools needed to predict, diagnose, and correct instabilities of this type. For this purpose, mechanisms that lead to steep-fronted, high-amplitude pressure waves are described in detail. It is shown that such gas motions are the outcome of the natural steepening process in which initially low amplitude standing acoustic waves grow into shock-like disturbances. The energy source that promotes this behavior is a combination of unsteady combustion energy release and interactions with the quasi-steady mean chamber flow. Since shock waves characterize the gas motions, detonation-like mechanisms may well control the unsteady combustion processes. When the energy gains exceed the losses (represented mainly by nozzle and viscous damping), the waves can rapidly grow to a finite amplitude limit cycle. Analytical tools are described that allow the prediction of the limit cycle amplitude and show the dependence of this wave amplitude on the system geometry and other design parameters. This information can be used to guide corrective procedures that mitigate or eliminate the oscillations.

  14. Propeller TAP flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Bille, Camilla; Wamberg, Peter


    major complications needing additional surgery. One flap was lost due to a vascular problem. Breast reconstruction can be performed by a propeller TAP flap without cutting the descending branch of the thoracodorsal vessels. However, the authors would recommend that a small cuff of muscle is left around...

  15. Dynamic Regime of Ignition of Solid Propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotorev Nikolay


    Full Text Available This article presents a dynamic regime of exposure of the radiant flux on the sample of gun-cotton. Obtained time the ignition of gun-cotton in the heating conditions of increasing heat flux in the range from 0.2 W/cm2 to 22 W/cm2. A comparison of the delay times of the ignition when heated variable and constant heat flux.

  16. The screw propeller (United States)

    Larrabee, E. E.


    Marine and air screw propellers are considered in terms of theoretical hydrodynamics as developed by Joukowsky, Prandtl, and Betz. Attention is given to the flow around wings of finite span where spanwise flow exists and where lift and the bound vorticity must all go smoothly to zero at the wing tips. The concept of a trailing vortex sheet made up of infinitesimal line vortexes roughly aligned with the direction of flight is discussed in this regard. Also considered is induced velocity, which tends to convect the sheet downward at every stage in the roll-up process, the vortex theory of propellers and the Betz-Prandtl circulation distribution. The performance of the Gossamer Albatross and of a pedal-driven biplane called the Chrysalis are also discussed.

  17. Electromagnetic characteristics and static torque of a solid salient poles synchronous motor computed by 3D-finite element method magnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popnikolova Radevska, Mirka; Cundev, Milan; Petkovska, Lidija


    In these paper is presented a methodology for numerical determination and complex analysis of the electromagnetic characteristics of the Solid Salient Poles Synchronous Motor, with rated data: 2.5 kW, 240 V and 1500 r.p.m.. A mathematical model and original algorithm for the nonlinear and iterative calculations by using Finite Element Method in 3D domain will be given. The program package FEM-3D will be used to perform automatically mesh generation of the finite elements in the 3D domain, calculation of the magnetic field distribution, as well as electromagnetic characteristics and Static torque in SSPSM. (Author)

  18. An evaluation of the total quality management implementation strategy for the advanced solid rocket motor project at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. M.S. Thesis - Tennessee Univ. (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Sullivan, Kenneth W.


    An evaluation of the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) strategy to implement Total Quality Management (TQM) in the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Project is presented. The evaluation of the implementation strategy reflected the Civil Service personnel perspective at the project level. The external and internal environments at MSFC were analyzed for their effects on the ASRM TQM strategy. Organizational forms, cultures, management systems, problem solving techniques, and training were assessed for their influence on the implementation strategy. The influence of ASRM's effort was assessed relative to its impact on mature projects as well as future projects at MSFC.

  19. Rotational flow in tapered slab rocket motors (United States)

    Saad, Tony; Sams, Oliver C.; Majdalani, Joseph


    Internal flow modeling is a requisite for obtaining critical parameters in the design and fabrication of modern solid rocket motors. In this work, the analytical formulation of internal flows particular to motors with tapered sidewalls is pursued. The analysis employs the vorticity-streamfunction approach to treat this problem assuming steady, incompressible, inviscid, and nonreactive flow conditions. The resulting solution is rotational following the analyses presented by Culick for a cylindrical motor. In an extension to Culick's work, Clayton has recently managed to incorporate the effect of tapered walls. Here, an approach similar to that of Clayton is applied to a slab motor in which the chamber is modeled as a rectangular channel with tapered sidewalls. The solutions are shown to be reducible, at leading order, to Taylor's inviscid profile in a porous channel. The analysis also captures the generation of vorticity at the surface of the propellant and its transport along the streamlines. It is from the axial pressure gradient that the proper form of the vorticity is ascertained. Regular perturbations are then used to solve the vorticity equation that prescribes the mean flow motion. Subsequently, numerical simulations via a finite volume solver are carried out to gain further confidence in the analytical approximations. In illustrating the effects of the taper on flow conditions, comparisons of total pressure and velocity profiles in tapered and nontapered chambers are entertained. Finally, a comparison with the axisymmetric flow analog is presented.

  20. Burning Characteristics of Ammonium-Nitrate-Based Composite Propellants with a Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene/Polytetrahydrofuran Blend Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kohga


    Full Text Available Ammonium-nitrate-(AN- based composite propellants prepared with a hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB/polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF blend binder have unique thermal decomposition characteristics. In this study, the burning characteristics of AN/HTPB/PTHF propellants are investigated. The specific impulse and adiabatic flame temperature of an AN-based propellant theoretically increases with an increase in the proportion of PTHF in the HTPB/PTHF blend. With an AN/HTPB propellant, a solid residue is left on the burning surface of the propellant, and the shape of this residue is similar to that of the propellant. On the other hand, an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant does not leave a solid residue. The burning rates of the AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant are not markedly different from those of the AN/HTPB propellant because some of the liquefied HTPB/PTHF binder cover the burning surface and impede decomposition and combustion. The burning rates of an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant with a burning catalyst are higher than those of an AN/HTPB propellant supplemented with a catalyst. The beneficial effect of the blend binder on the burning characteristics is clarified upon the addition of a catalyst. The catalyst suppresses the negative influence of the liquefied binder that covers the burning surface. Thus, HTPB/PTHF blend binders are useful in improving the performance of AN-based propellants.

  1. Cooling of Electric Motors Used for Propulsion on SCEPTOR (United States)

    Christie, Robert; Dubois, Authur; Derlaga, Joseph


    Benefits of Electric Power: Reduced energy consumption, Lower emissions, Less noise. Traction motors: Permanent magnet, Synchronous, High torque at low rotational speeds, High power density, (High concentration of heat). Annular inlet: Very compatible with PM motors, (Provides cooling where needed, No need for complicated ducting, Leads to a larger motor diameter which is beneficial for motor torque) Effect of prop wash on heat transfer coefficients: Assumed propeller induced turbulence would increase heat transfer coefficients, Holmes, Obara Yip reported 'propeller slipstream showed little if any apparent effect of the slip stream', Derlaga @ LaRC also found little change in heat transfer in the wake of the propeller.

  2. Strength of Screw Propellers (United States)


    ship because of increese of propeller efficiency and saving on the high cost of difficult to obtain materials (bronze, brass, stainless steel). The...indAjate that. x :axmuin stresses in the blade cross section are the cor-,prc-.,; ivFe norm-al strcs3es at point G. The maximom tensile stres-ses cis a...and stern part of the ship. Because of purely technical difficulties and also because of the relatively high cost of preparations for such tests, only


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program will utilize a well-characterized Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) to test experimental high-energy extinguishable solid propellants (HE), instead of...

  4. Combustion of Solid Propellants (La Combustion des Propergols Solides) (United States)


    the of ether and ethyl alcohol and removing objective of these lectures to give a this solvent. Instead of having a fibrous comprehensive cetto esrne do Les propergols composites, A matrice confifrences une description tout A fait A polymarique charg~o pst, un oxydant at un jour des...rusa., De nouveaux souvant suppos6 qua la vitesa des gaz de oxydes de for ultrafirts mont aujourd’hui combustion est n~gligeable at qua d~velopps pour

  5. Agglomerates, smoke oxide particles, and carbon inclusions in condensed combustion products of an aluminized GAP-based propellant (United States)

    Ao, Wen; Liu, Peijin; Yang, Wenjing


    In solid propellants, aluminum is widely used to improve the performance, however the condensed combustion products especially the large agglomerates generated from aluminum combustion significantly affect the combustion and internal flow inside the solid rocket motor. To clarify the properties of the condensed combustion products of aluminized propellants, a constant-pressure quench vessel was adopted to collect the combustion products. The morphology and chemical compositions of the collected products, were then studied by using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive (SEM-EDS) method. Various structures have been observed in the condensed combustion products. Apart from the typical agglomerates or smoke oxide particles observed before, new structures including the smoke oxide clusters, irregular agglomerates and carbon-inclusions are discovered and investigated. Smoke oxide particles have the highest amount in the products. The highly dispersed oxide particle is spherical with very smooth surface and is on the order of 1-2 μm, but due to the high temperature and long residence time, these small particles will aggregate into smoke oxide clusters which are much larger than the initial particles. Three types of spherical agglomerates have been found. As the ambient gas temperature is much higher than the boiling point of Al2O3, the condensation layer inside which the aluminum drop is burning would evaporate quickly, which result in the fact that few "hollow agglomerates" has been found compared to "cap agglomerates" and "solid agglomerates". Irregular agglomerates usually larger than spherical agglomerates. The formation of irregular agglomerates likely happens by three stages: deformation of spherical aluminum drops; combination of particles with various shape; finally production of irregular agglomerates. EDS results show the ratio of O to Al on the surface of agglomerates is lower in comparison to smoke oxide particles. C and O account for

  6. Exploratory procedures with carbon nanotube-based sensors for propellant degradation determinations (United States)

    Ruffin, Paul B.; Edwards, Eugene; Brantley, Christina; McDonald, Brian


    Exploratory research is conducted at the US Army Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) in order to perform assessments of the degradation of solid propellant used in rocket motors. Efforts are made to discontinue and/or minimize destructive methods and utilize nondestructive techniques to assure the quality and reliability of the weaponry's propulsion system. Collaborative efforts were successfully made between AMRDEC and NASA-Ames for potential add-on configurations to a previously designed sensor that AMRDEC plan to use for preliminary detection of off-gassing. Evaluations were made in order to use the design as the introductory component for the determination of shelf-life degradation rate of rocket motors. Previous and subsequent sensor designs utilize functionalized single-walled carbon nano-tubes (SWCNTs) as the key sensing element. On-going research is conducted to consider key changes that can be implemented (for the existing sensor design) such that a complete wireless sensor system design can be realized. Results should be a cost-saving and timely approach to enhance the Army's ability to develop methodologies for measuring weaponry off-gassing and simultaneously detecting explosives. Expectations are for the resulting sensors to enhance the warfighters' ability to simultaneously detect a greater variety of analytes. Outlined in this paper are the preliminary results that have been accomplished for this research. The behavior of the SWCNT sensor at storage temperatures is outlined, along with the initial sensor response to propellant related analytes. Preparatory computer-based programming routines and computer controlled instrumentation scenarios have been developed in order to subsequently minimize subjective interpretation of test results and provide a means for obtaining data that is reasonable and repetitively quantitative. Typical laboratory evaluation methods are likewise presented, and program limitations

  7. Hull-Propeller Interaction and Its Effect on Propeller Cavitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regener, Pelle Bo

    In order to predict the required propulsion power for a ship reliably and accurately, it is not sufficient to only evaluate the resistance of the hull and the propeller performance in open water alone. Interaction effects between hull and propeller can even be a decisive factor in ship powering...... prediction and design optimization. The hull-propeller interaction coefficients of effective wake fraction, thrust deduction factor, and relative rotative efficiency are traditionally determined by model tests. Self-propulsion model tests consistently show an increase in effective wake fractions when using...... velocities. This offers an opportunity for additional insight into hull-propeller interaction and the propeller’s actual operating condition behind the ship, as the actual (effective) inflow is computed. Self-propulsion simulations at model and full scale were carried out for a bulk carrier, once...

  8. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.


    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  9. An advanced GAP/AN/TAGN propellant : part 2 : stability and storage life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, M.D. [Bristol Aerospace, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Badeen, C.M.; Jones, D.E.G. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory


    An advanced solid propellant was characterized. The propellant was based on a glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) energetic binder with an ammonium nitrate (AN) oxidizer, and contained a significant percentage of triaminoguanidine nitrate (TAGN). Raw ingredient accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was performed to determine self-heating rates. Thermal stability and heat flow calorimetry tests were also conducted. Ballistic analyses were conducted to determine the propellant's burn rate. The propellant was designed to produce non-toxic and non-acidic exhaust products. Results of the tests indicated that the propellant is safe for prolonged storage. The study demonstrated that propellant samples can be heated to temperatures up to 175 degrees C for several hours without combustion response. A mass loss of 62 per cent was observed at temperatures between 160 and 230 degrees C. The samples ignited almost immediately after being placed in a pre-heated block at temperatures higher than 175 degrees C. The propellant's burn rate was approximately twice that of standard AN propellants. The propellant will be further evaluated as a candidate for the propulsion of tactical rockets and missiles. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. Diagnostics of Gun Barrel Propellants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lederman, S


    A preliminary investigation of the applicability of the spontaneous Raman diagnostic technique to the determination of the temperature of the propellant gases in the vicinity of the muzzle of a 2Omm...

  11. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Flight Demonstration development has been canceled in favor of a ground test bed development for of passive/active cryogenic propellant storage, transfer, and...

  12. Cavitation simulation on marine propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo

    Cavitation on marine propellers causes thrust breakdown, noise, vibration and erosion. The increasing demand for high-efficiency propellers makes it difficult to avoid the occurrence of cavitation. Currently, practical analysis of propeller cavitation depends on cavitation tunnel test, empirical...... criteria and inviscid flow method, but a series of model test is costly and the other two methods have low accuracy. Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics by using a viscous flow solver is common for practical industrial applications in many disciplines. Cavitation models in viscous flow solvers have been...... hydrofoils and conventional/highly-skewed propellers are performed with one of three cavitation models proven in 2D analysis. 3D cases also show accuracy and robustness of numerical method in simulating steady and unsteady sheet cavitation on complicated geometries. Hydrodynamic characteristics of cavitation...

  13. Internal Flow Simulation of Enhanced Performance Solid Rocket Booster for the Space Transportation System (United States)

    Ahmad, Rashid A.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)


    An enhanced performance solid rocket booster concept for the space shuttle system has been proposed. The concept booster will have strong commonality with the existing, proven, reliable four-segment Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM) with individual component design (nozzle, insulator, etc.) optimized for a five-segment configuration. Increased performance is desirable to further enhance safety/reliability and/or increase payload capability. Performance increase will be achieved by adding a fifth propellant segment to the current four-segment booster and opening the throat to accommodate the increased mass flow while maintaining current pressure levels. One development concept under consideration is the static test of a "standard" RSRM with a fifth propellant segment inserted and appropriate minimum motor modifications. Feasibility studies are being conducted to assess the potential for any significant departure in component performance/loading from the well-characterized RSRM. An area of concern is the aft motor (submerged nozzle inlet, aft dome, etc.) where the altered internal flow resulting from the performance enhancing features (25% increase in mass flow rate, higher Mach numbers, modified subsonic nozzle contour) may result in increased component erosion and char. To assess this issue and to define the minimum design changes required to successfully static test a fifth segment RSRM engineering test motor, internal flow studies have been initiated. Internal aero-thermal environments were quantified in terms of conventional convective heating and discrete phase alumina particle impact/concentration and accretion calculations via Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. Two sets of comparative CFD simulations of the RSRM and the five-segment (IBM) concept motor were conducted with CFD commercial code FLUENT. The first simulation involved a two-dimensional axi-symmetric model of the full motor, initial grain RSRM. The second set of analyses

  14. Numerical and experimental analysis of heat transfer in injector plate of hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor (United States)

    Cai, Guobiao; Li, Chengen; Tian, Hui


    This paper is aimed to analyze heat transfer in injector plate of hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor by two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical simulations and full-scale firing tests. Long-time working, which is an advantage of hybrid rocket motor over conventional solid rocket motor, puts forward new challenges for thermal protection. Thermal environments of full-scale hybrid rocket motors designed for long-time firing tests are studied through steady-state coupled numerical simulations of flow field and heat transfer in chamber head. The motor adopts 98% hydrogen peroxide (98HP) oxidizer and hydroxyl-terminated poly-butadiene (HTPB) based fuel as the propellants. Simulation results reveal that flowing liquid 98HP in head oxidizer chamber could cool the injector plate of the motor. The cooling of 98HP is similar to the regenerative cooling in liquid rocket engines. However, the temperature of the 98HP in periphery portion of the head oxidizer chamber is higher than its boiling point. In order to prevent the liquid 98HP from unexpected decomposition, a thermal protection method for chamber head utilizing silica-phenolics annular insulating board is proposed. The simulation results show that the annular insulating board could effectively decrease the temperature of the 98HP in head oxidizer chamber. Besides, the thermal protection method for long-time working hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor is verified through full-scale firing tests. The ablation of the insulating board in oxygen-rich environment is also analyzed.

  15. Metal hydride and pyrophoric fuel additives for dicyclopentadiene based hybrid propellants (United States)

    Shark, Steven C.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of reactive energetic fuel additives that have the potential to increase the combustion performance of hybrid rocket propellants in terms of solid fuel regression rate and combustion efficiency. Additives that can augment the combustion flame zone in a hybrid rocket motor by means of increased energy feedback to the fuel grain surface are of great interest. Metal hydrides have large volumetric hydrogen densities, which gives these materials high performance potential as fuel additives in terms of specifc impulse. The excess hydrogen and corresponding base metal may also cause an increase in the hybrid rocket solid fuel regression rate. Pyrophoric additives also have potential to increase the solid fuel regression rate by reacting more readily near the burning fuel surface providing rapid energy feedback. An experimental performance evaluation of metal hydride fuel additives for hybrid rocket motor propulsion systems is examined in this study. Hypergolic ignition droplet tests and an accelerated aging study revealed the protection capabilities of Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) as a fuel binder, and the ability for unaided ignition. Static hybrid rocket motor experiments were conducted using DCPD as the fuel. Sodium borohydride (NabH4) and aluminum hydride (AlH3) were examined as fuel additives. Ninety percent rocket grade hydrogen peroxide (RGHP) was used as the oxidizer. In this study, the sensitivity of solid fuel regression rate and characteristic velocity (C*) efficiency to total fuel grain port mass flux and particle loading is examined. These results were compared to HTPB combustion performance as a baseline. Chamber pressure histories revealed steady motor operation in most tests, with reduced ignition delays when using NabH4 as a fuel additive. The addition of NabH4 and AlH3 produced up to a 47% and 85% increase in regression rate over neat DCPD, respectively. For all test conditions examined C* efficiency ranges

  16. Experimental investigation of atomization characteristics of swirling spray by ADN gelled propellant (United States)

    Guan, Hao-Sen; Li, Guo-Xiu; Zhang, Nai-Yuan


    Due to the current global energy shortage and increasingly serious environmental issues, green propellants are attracting more attention. In particular, the ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-based monopropellant thruster is gaining world-wide attention as a green, non-polluting and high specific impulse propellant. Gel propellants combine the advantages of liquid and solid propellants, and are becoming popular in the field of spaceflight. In this paper, a swirling atomization experimental study was carried out using an ADN aqueous gel propellant under different injection pressures. A high-speed camera and a Malvern laser particle size analyzer were used to study the spray process. The flow coefficient, cone angle of swirl atomizing spray, breakup length of spray membrane, and droplet size distribution were analyzed. Furthermore, the effects of different injection pressures on the swirling atomization characteristics were studied.

  17. Combustion characteristics of SMX and SMX based propellants (United States)

    Reese, David A.

    This work investigates the combustion of the new solid nitrate ester 2,3-hydroxymethyl-2,3-dinitro-1,4-butanediol tetranitrate (SMX, C6H 8N6O16). SMX was synthesized for the first time in 2008. It has a melting point of 85 °C and oxygen balance of 0% to CO 2, allowing it to be used as an energetic additive or oxidizer in solid propellants. In addition to its neat combustion characteristics, this work also explores the use of SMX as a potential replacement for nitroglycerin (NG) in double base gun propellants and as a replacement for ammonium perchlorate in composite rocket propellants. The physical properties, sensitivity characteristics, and combustion behaviors of neat SMX were investigated. Its combustion is stable at pressures of up to at least 27.5 MPa (n = 0.81). The observed flame structure is nearly identical to that of other double base propellant ingredients, with a primary flame attached at the surface, a thick isothermal dark zone, and a luminous secondary flame wherein final recombination reactions occur. As a result, the burning rate and primary flame structure can be modeled using existing one-dimensional steady state techniques. A zero gas-phase activation energy approximation results in a good fit between modeled and observed behavior. Additionally, SMX was considered as a replacement for nitroglycerin in a double base propellant. Thermochemical calculations indicate improved performance when compared with the common double base propellant JA2 at SMX loadings above 40 wt-%. Also, since SMX is a room temperature solid, migration may be avoided. Like other nitrate esters, SMX is susceptible to decomposition over long-term storage due to the presence of excess acid in the crystals; the addition of stabilizers (e.g., derivatives of urea) during synthesis should be sufficient to prevent this. the addition of Both unplasticized and plasticized propellants were formulated. Thermal analysis of unplasticized propellant showed a distinct melt

  18. Development and Testing of a Green-Propellant Micro-Hybrid Thruster with Electrostatic Ignition (United States)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Judson, Michael D.


    , requiring an energy input of 14,850 Joules for catalytic dissociation. The hydrocarbon-seeded micro-hybrid was also adapted as a non-pyrotechnic ignitor for a 900 N (200-lbf) thrust hybrid motor. The motor was successfully ignited 4 consecutive times with no hardware swaps or propellant additions. The amount of ABS seed material that can be fit into the injector cap is the only limit to the number of available repeat firings. This series of tests marks the first time a hybrid motor was ever ignited by other than a solid-propellant pyrotechnic charge or bi-propellant flame ignitor. Nitrous oxide hybrid motors are typically difficult to ignite and usually require multiple solid-propellant charges to initiate combustion, so this nonpyrotechnic ignition is a significant accomplishment. The controlled hydrocarbon-seeding approach is fundamentally different from all other green propellant solutions offered by the aerospace industry. Although the proposed system is more correctly a hybrid technology; the system retains all the simple features of a monopropellant design. To date no optimization study has been performed to identify the best grain geometry for electrostatic ignition. Fortunately, because the grain segments are fabricated using rapid-prototyping technology, changing the grain geometry is as simple as modifying the 3-D printer CAD-file. Vacuum Isp exceeding 270 seconds has been demonstrated (Ref v), a value significantly higher than those offered by competing green monopropellant options. The propellants of choice, N2O/GOX and ABS are 100% non-toxic, non-explosive, and environmentally benign. Because the inert oxidizer and fuel components are mixed only within the combustion chamber, the system retains the inherent safety of a hybrid rocket and can be piggy-backed as a secondary payload with no overall mission risk increase to the primary payload, an excellent characteristic for secondary launch systems.

  19. Closed-loop thrust and pressure profile throttling of a nitrous oxide/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene hybrid rocket motor (United States)

    Peterson, Zachary W.

    Hybrid motors that employ non-toxic, non-explosive components with a liquid oxidizer and a solid hydrocarbon fuel grain have inherently safe operating characteristics. The inherent safety of hybrid rocket motors offers the potential to greatly reduce overall operating costs. Another key advantage of hybrid rocket motors is the potential for in-flight shutdown, restart, and throttle by controlling the pressure drop between the oxidizer tank and the injector. This research designed, developed, and ground tested a closed-loop throttle controller for a hybrid rocket motor using nitrous oxide and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene as propellants. The research simultaneously developed closed-loop throttle algorithms and lab scale motor hardware to evaluate the fidelity of the throttle simulations and algorithms. Initial open-loop motor tests were performed to better classify system parameters and to validate motor performance values. Deep-throttle open-loop tests evaluated limits of stable thrust that can be achieved on the test hardware. Open-loop tests demonstrated the ability to throttle the motor to less than 10% of maximum thrust with little reduction in effective specific impulse and acoustical stability. Following the open-loop development, closed-loop, hardware-in-the-loop tests were performed. The closed-loop controller successfully tracked prescribed step and ramp command profiles with a high degree of fidelity. Steady-state accuracy was greatly improved over uncontrolled thrust.

  20. Propelling Extended Objects (United States)

    Humbert, Richard


    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  1. Propeller Flaps: A Literature Review. (United States)

    Sisti, Andrea; D'Aniello, Carlo; Fortezza, Leonardo; Tassinari, Juri; Cuomo, Roberto; Grimaldi, Luca; Nisi, Giuseppe


    Since their introduction in 1991, propeller flaps are increasingly used as a surgical approach to loss of substance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the indications and to verify the outcomes and the complication rates using this reconstructing technique through a literature review. A search on PubMed was performed using "propeller flap", "fasciocutaneous flap", "local flap" or "pedicled flap" as key words. We selected clinical studies using propeller flaps as a reconstructing technique. We found 119 studies from 1991 to 2015. Overall, 1,315 propeller flaps were reported in 1,242 patients. Most frequent indications included loss of substance following tumor excision, repair of trauma-induced injuries, burn scar contractures, pressure sores and chronic infections. Complications were observed in 281/1242 patients (22.6%) occurring more frequently in the lower limbs (31.8%). Partial flap necrosis and venous congestion were the most frequent complications. The complications' rate was significantly higher in infants (70 years old) but there was not a significant difference between the sexes. Trend of complication rate has not improved during the last years. Propeller flaps showed a great success rate with low morbidity, quick recovery, good aesthetic outcomes and reduced cost. The quality and volume of the transferred soft tissue, the scar orientation and the possibility of direct donor site closure should be considered in order to avoid complications. Indications for propeller flaps are small- or medium-sized defects located in a well-vascularized area with healthy surrounding tissues. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Laser-propelled ram accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasoh, A. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Fluid Science


    The concept of 'laser-propelled ram accelerator (L-RAMAC)' is proposed. Theoretically it is capable of achieving a higher launch speed than that by a chemical ram accelerator because a higher specific energy can be input to the propellant gas. The laser beam is supplied through the muzzle, focused as an annulus behind the base of the projectile. The performance of L-RAMAC is analized based on generalized Rankine-Hugoniot relations, suggesting that a superorbital muzzle speed is achievable out of this device. (orig.)

  3. Large Propellant Tank Cryo-Cooler (LPTC) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In rocket test and launch facilities, cryogenic propellants stored in tanks boils off due to heat leakage, with the following impacts:Ø   Waste, propellants boil off...

  4. Quadcopter thrust optimization with ducted-propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuantama Endrowednes


    Full Text Available In relation to quadcopter body frame model, propeller can be categorized into propeller with ducted and without ducted. This study present differences between those two using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics method. Both categories utilize two blade-propeller with diameter of 406 (mm. Propeller rotation generates acceleration per time unit on the volume of air. Based on the behavior of generated air velocity, ducted propeller can be modeled into three versions. The generated thrust and performance on each model were calculated to determine the best model. The use of ducted propeller increases the total weight of quadcopter and also total thrust. The influence of this modeling were analyzed in detail with variation of angular velocity propeller from 1000 (rpm to 9000 (rpm. Besides the distance between propeller tip and ducted barrier, the size of ducted is also an important part in thrust optimization and total weight minimization of quadcopter.

  5. Seawater Immersion of GEM II Propellant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merrill, Calude


    ... (% AP lost/week aged in seawater) and intercepts that depend on sample size. Friction and impact data on dried aged propellant samples showed no increased burning hazard compared with propellant not exposed to water...

  6. Characteristics of a non-volatile liquid propellant in liquid-fed ablative pulsed plasma thrusters (United States)

    Ling, William Yeong Liang; Schönherr, Tony; Koizumi, Hiroyuki


    In the past several decades, the use of electric propulsion in spacecraft has experienced tremendous growth. With the increasing adoption of small satellites in the kilogram range, suitable propulsion systems will be necessary in the near future. Pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs) were the first form of electric propulsion to be deployed in orbit, and are highly suitable for small satellites due to their inherent simplicity. However, their lifetime is limited by disadvantages such as carbon deposition leading to thruster failure, and complicated feeding systems required due to the conventional use of solid propellants (usually polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)). A promising alternative to solid propellants has recently emerged in the form of non-volatile liquids that are stable in vacuum. This study presents a broad comparison of the non-volatile liquid perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and solid PTFE as propellants on a PPT with a common design base. We show that liquid PFPE can be successfully used as a propellant, and exhibits similar plasma discharge properties to conventional solid PTFE, but with a mass bit that is an order of magnitude higher for an identical ablation area. We also demonstrate that the liquid PFPE propellant has exceptional resistance to carbon deposition, completely negating one of the major causes of thruster failure, while solid PTFE exhibited considerable carbon build-up. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to examine the elemental compositions of the surface deposition on the electrodes and the ablation area of the propellant (or PFPE encapsulator). The results show that based on its physical characteristics and behavior, non-volatile liquid PFPE is an extremely promising propellant for use in PPTs, with an extensive scope available for future research and development.

  7. Innovative boron nitride-doped propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning


    Full Text Available The U.S. military has a need for more powerful propellants with balanced/stoichiometric amounts of fuel and oxidants. However, balanced and more powerful propellants lead to accelerated gun barrel erosion and markedly shortened useful barrel life. Boron nitride (BN is an interesting potential additive for propellants that could reduce gun wear effects in advanced propellants (US patent pending 2015-026P. Hexagonal boron nitride is a good lubricant that can provide wear resistance and lower flame temperatures for gun barrels. Further, boron can dope steel, which drastically improves its strength and wear resistance, and can block the formation of softer carbides. A scalable synthesis method for producing boron nitride nano-particles that can be readily dispersed into propellants has been developed. Even dispersion of the nano-particles in a double-base propellant has been demonstrated using a solvent-based processing approach. Stability of a composite propellant with the BN additive was verified. In this paper, results from propellant testing of boron nitride nano-composite propellants are presented, including closed bomb and wear and erosion testing. Detailed characterization of the erosion tester substrates before and after firing was obtained by electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This promising boron nitride additive shows the ability to improve gun wear and erosion resistance without any destabilizing effects to the propellant. Potential applications could include less erosive propellants in propellant ammunition for large, medium and small diameter fire arms.

  8. Propelling arboriculture into the future (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson


    Research is the engine that propels arboriculture and urban forestry into the future. New knowledge, technologies, and tools provide arborists with improved tree care practices that result in healthier urban forests. The ISA Science and Research Committee (SRC) is composed of 13 professionals and researchers who are dedicated to elevating the importance of research...

  9. Plasma ignition of LOVA propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, C.A. van; Boluijt, A.G.; Schilt, A.


    Ignition experiments were performed using a gun simulator which is equipped with a burst disk. This equipment facilitates the application of propellant loading densities which are comparable to those applied in regular ammunitions. For this study the gun simulator was equipped with a plasma jet


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene


    'Propellers' in planetary rings are disturbances in ring material excited by moonlets that open only partial gaps. We describe a new type of co-orbital resonance that can explain the observed non-Keplerian motions of propellers. The resonance is between the moonlet underlying the propeller and co-orbiting ring particles downstream of the moonlet where the gap closes. The moonlet librates within the gap about an equilibrium point established by co-orbiting material and stabilized by the Coriolis force. In the limit of small libration amplitude, the libration period scales linearly with the gap azimuthal width and inversely as the square root of the co-orbital mass. The new resonance recalls but is distinct from conventional horseshoe and tadpole orbits; we call it the 'frog' resonance, after the relevant term in equine hoof anatomy. For a ring surface density and gap geometry appropriate for the propeller Bleriot in Saturn's A ring, our theory predicts a libration period of ∼4 years, similar to the ∼3.7 year period over which Bleriot's orbital longitude is observed to vary. These librations should be subtracted from the longitude data before any inferences about moonlet migration are made.

  11. Self-propelled supramolecular nanomotors with temperature-responsive speed regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Y.; Peng, F.; Sui, X.; Men, Y.; White, P.B.; van Hest, J.C.M.; Wilson, D.A.


    Self-propelled catalytic micro- and nanomotors have been the subject of intense study over the past few years, but it remains a continuing challenge to build in an effective speed-regulation mechanism. Movement of these motors is generally fully dependent on the concentration of accessible fuel,

  12. Drag and Torque on Locked Screw Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Tabaczek


    Full Text Available Few data on drag and torque on locked propeller towed in water are available in literature. Those data refer to propellers of specific geometry (number of blades, blade area, pitch and skew of blades. The estimation of drag and torque of an arbitrary propeller considered in analysis of ship resistance or propulsion is laborious. The authors collected and reviewed test data available in the literature. Based on collected data there were developed the empirical formulae for estimation of hydrodynamic drag and torque acting on locked screw propeller. Supplementary CFD computations were carried out in order to prove the applicability of the formulae to modern moderately skewed screw propellers.

  13. A research on polyether glycol replaced APCP rocket propellant (United States)

    Lou, Tianyou; Bao, Chun Jia; Wang, Yiyang


    Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) is a modern solid rocket propellant used in rocket vehicles. It differs from many traditional solid rocket propellants by the nature of how it is processed. APCP is cast into shape, as opposed to powder pressing it with black powder. This provides manufacturing regularity and repeatability, which are necessary requirements for use in the aerospace industry. For traditional APCP, ingredients normally used are ammonium peroxide, aluminum, Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene(HTPB), curing agency and other additives, the greatest disadvantage is that the fuel is too expensive. According to the price we collected in our country, a single kilogram of this fuel will cost 200 Yuan, which is about 35 dollars, for a fan who may use tons of the fuel in a single year, it definitely is a great deal of money. For this reason, we invented a new kind of APCP fuel. Changing adhesive agency from cross-linked htpb to cross linked polyether glycol gives a similar specific thrust, density and mechanical property while costs a lower price.

  14. Design and numerical investigation of swirl recovery vanes for the Fokker 29 propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yangang


    Full Text Available Swirl recovery vanes (SRVs are a set of stationary vanes located downstream from a propeller, which may recover some of the residual swirl from the propeller, hoping for an improvement in both thrust and efficiency. The SRV concept design for a scaled version representing the Fokker 29 propeller is performed in this paper, which may give rise to a promotion in propulsive performance of this traditional propeller. Firstly the numerical strategy is validated from two aspects of global quantities and the local flow field of the propeller compared with experimental data, and then the exit flow together with the development of propeller wake is analyzed in detail. Three kinds of SRV are designed with multiple circular airfoils. The numerical results show that the swirl behind the propeller is recovered significantly with Model V3, which is characterized by the highest solidity along spanwise, for various working conditions, and the combination of rotor and vane produced 5.76% extra thrust at the design point. However, a lower efficiency is observed asking for a better vane design and the choice of a working point. The vane position is studied which shows that there is an optimum range for higher thrust and efficiency.

  15. Experimental research on air propellers (United States)

    Durand, William F


    The purposes of the experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers described in this report are as follows: (1) the development of a series of design factors and coefficients drawn from model forms distributed with some regularity over the field of air-propeller design and intended to furnish a basis of check with similar work done in other aerodynamic laboratories, and as a point of departure for the further study of special or individual types and forms; (2) the establishment of a series of experimental values derived from models and intended for later use as a basis for comparison with similar results drawn from certain selected full-sized forms and tested in free flight.

  16. Low-Cost Propellant Launch From a Tethered Balloon (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian


    A document presents a concept for relatively inexpensive delivery of propellant to a large fuel depot in low orbit around the Earth, for use in rockets destined for higher orbits, the Moon, and for remote planets. The propellant is expected to be at least 85 percent of the mass needed in low Earth orbit to support the NASA Exploration Vision. The concept calls for the use of many small ( 10 ton) spin-stabilized, multistage, solid-fuel rockets to each deliver 250 kg of propellant. Each rocket would be winched up to a balloon tethered above most of the atmospheric mass (optimal altitude 26 2 km). There, the rocket would be aimed slightly above the horizon, spun, dropped, and fired at a time chosen so that the rocket would arrive in orbit near the depot. Small thrusters on the payload (powered, for example, by boil-off gases from cryogenic propellants that make up the payload) would precess the spinning rocket, using data from a low-cost inertial sensor to correct for small aerodynamic and solid rocket nozzle misalignment torques on the spinning rocket; would manage the angle of attack and the final orbit insertion burn; and would be fired on command from the depot in response to observations of the trajectory of the payload so as to make small corrections to bring the payload into a rendezvous orbit and despin it for capture by the depot. The system is low-cost because the small rockets can be mass-produced using the same techniques as those to produce automobiles and low-cost munitions, and one or more can be launched from a U.S. territory on the equator (Baker or Jarvis Islands in the mid-Pacific) to the fuel depot on each orbit (every 90 minutes, e.g., any multiple of 6,000 per year).

  17. Development and Optimized Design of Propeller Pump System & Structure with VFD in Low-head Pumping Station (United States)

    Rentian, Zhang; Honggeng, Zhu; Arnold, Jaap; Linbi, Yao


    Compared with vertical-installed pumps, the propeller (bulb tubular) pump systems can achieve higher hydraulic efficiencies, which are particularly suitable for low-head pumping stations. More than four propeller pumping stations are being, or will be built in the first stage of the S-to-N Water Diversion Project in China, diverting water from Yangtze River to the northern part of China to alleviate water-shortage problems and develop the economy. New structures of propeller pump have been developed for specified pumping stations in Jiangsu and Shandong Provinces respectively and Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) are used in those pumping stations to regulate operating conditions. Based on the Navier-Stokes equations and the standard k-e turbulent model, numerical simulations of the flow field and performance prediction in the propeller pump system were conducted on the platform of commercial software CFX by using the SIMPLEC algorithm. Through optimal design of bulb dimensions and diffuser channel shape, the hydraulic system efficiency has improved evidently. Furthermore, the structures of propeller pumps have been optimized to for the introduction of conventional as well as permanent magnet motors. In order to improve the hydraulic efficiency of pumping systems, both the pump discharge and the motor diameter were optimized respectively. If a conventional motor is used, the diameter of the pump casing has to be increased to accommodate the motor installed inside. If using a permanent magnet motor, the diameter of motor casing can be decreased effectively without decreasing its output power, thus the cross-sectional area is enlarged and the velocity of flowing water decreased favorably to reduce hydraulic loss of discharge channel and thereby raising the pumping system efficiency. Witness model tests were conducted after numerical optimization on specific propeller pump systems, indicating that the model system hydraulic efficiencies can be improved by 0.5%˜3.7% in

  18. The Guggenheim Aeronautics Laboratory at Caltech and the creation of the modern rocket motor (1936-1946): How the dynamics of rocket theory became reality (United States)

    Zibit, Benjamin Seth

    This thesis explores and unfolds the story of discovery in rocketry at The California Institute of Technology---specifically at Caltech's Guggenheim Aeronautics Laboratory---in the 1930s and 1940s. Caltech was home to a small group of engineering students and experimenters who, beginning in the winter of 1935--1936, formed a study and research team destined to change the face of rocket science in the United States. The group, known as the Guggenheim Aeronautics Laboratory (GALCIT, for short) Rocket Research Group, invented a new type of solid-rocket propellant, made distinct and influential discoveries in the theory of rocket combustion and design, founded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and incorporated the first American industrial concern devoted entirely to rocket motor production: The Aerojet Corporation. The theoretical work of team members, Frank Malina, Hsueh-shen Tsien, Homer J. Stewart, and Mark Mills, is examined in this thesis in detail. The author scrutinizes Frank Malina's doctoral thesis (both its assumptions and its mathematics), and finds that, although Malina's key assertions, his formulae, hold, his work is shown to make key assumptions about rocket dynamics which only stand the test of validity if certain approximations, rather than exact measurements, are accepted. Malina studied the important connection between motor-nozzle design and thrust; in his Ph.D. thesis, he developed mathematical statements which more precisely defined the design/thrust relation. One of Malina's colleagues on the Rocket Research Team, John Whiteside Parsons, created a new type of solid propellant in the winter of 1941--1942. This propellant, known as a composite propellant (because it simply was a relatively inert amalgam of propellant and oxidizer in non-powder form), became the forerunner of all modern solid propellants, and has become one of the seminal discoveries in the field of Twentieth Century rocketry. The latter chapters of this dissertation discuss the

  19. Ballistic Missile Propellant Evaluation Test Motor System (Super BATES) (United States)


    eiastomeric additive carbon phenolic NBR Buna-N rubber NDT nondestructive testing O&QR operation and quality record P pressure PB.AN polybutadiene...nozzle except for the 450 entrance angle. The same ablative and insulative materials are used in both nozzles. Silica-asbestos filled NBR insulation is...vendor’s option and with UTC approval. The rubber insulation used on the submerged nozzle is fabricated by laying up unvulcanized sheets of rubber to

  20. Multisized Inert Particle Loading for Solid Rocket Axial Combustion Instability Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Greatrix


    Full Text Available In the present investigation, various factors and trends, related to the usage of two or more sets of inert particles comprised of the same material (nominally aluminum but at different diameters for the suppression of axial shock wave development, are numerically predicted for a composite-propellant cylindrical-grain solid rocket motor. The limit pressure wave magnitudes at a later reference time in a given pulsed firing simulation run are collected for a series of runs at different particle sizes and loading distributions and mapped onto corresponding attenuation trend charts. The inert particles’ presence in the central core flow is demonstrated to be an effective means of instability symptom suppression, in correlating with past experimental successes in the usage of particles. However, the predicted results of this study suggest that one needs to be careful when selecting more than one size of particle for a given motor application.

  1. Rocket propellants with reduced smoke and high burning rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menke, K.; Eisele, S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal-Berghausen (Germany)


    Rocket propellants with reduced smoke and high burning rates recommend themselves for use in a rocket motor for high accelerating tactical missiles. They serve for an improved camouflage on the battle field and may enable guidance control due to the higher transmission of their rocket plume compared to traditional aluminized composite propellants. In this contribution the material based ranges of performance and properties of three non aluminized rocket propellants will be introduced and compared to each other. The selected formulations based on AP/HTPB; AP/PU/TMETN and AP/HMX/GAP/TMETN have roughly the same specific impulse of I{sub SP}=2430 Ns/kg at 70:1 expansion ratio. The burning rates in the pressure range from 10-18 MPa vary from to 26-33 mm/s for the AP/HTPB propellant, 52-68 mm/s for the formulation based on AP/PU/TMETN and 28-39 mm/s for the propellant based on AP/HMX/GAP. With 58% and 20% AP-contents the propellants with nitrate ester plasticizers create a much smaller secondary signature than the AP/HTPB representative containing 85% AP. Their disadvantage, however, is the connection of high performance to a high level of energetic plasticizer. For this reason, the very fast burning propellant based on AP/PU/TMETN is endowed with a low elastic modulus and is limited to a grain configuration which isn`t exposed too much to the fast and turbulent airstream. The mechanical properties of the AP/HMX/GAP-propellant are as good or better as those of the AP/HTPB propellant. The first one exhibits the same performance and burn rates as the composite representative but produces only one fifth of HCl exhaust. For this reason it is recommended for missile applications, which must have high accelerating power together with a significantly reduced plume signature and smoke production. (orig.) [Deutsch] Rauchreduzierte Festtreibstoffe mit hohen Abbrandgeschwindigkeiten bieten sich fuer den Antrieb hochbeschleunigender taktischer Flugkoerper an, da sie gegenueber

  2. A theoretical and experimental investigation of propeller performance methodologies (United States)

    Korkan, K. D.; Gregorek, G. M.; Mikkelson, D. C.


    This paper briefly covers aspects related to propeller performance by means of a review of propeller methodologies; presentation of wind tunnel propeller performance data taken in the NASA Lewis Research Center 10 x 10 wind tunnel; discussion of the predominent limitations of existing propeller performance methodologies; and a brief review of airfoil developments appropriate for propeller applications.

  3. The influence of the choice of propeller design tool on propeller performance


    Skåland, Edvard Knutsen


    In this master thesis different propeller design and analysis methods are presented and compared in terms of the accuracy and computational efficiency of their theory. These methods include lifting line, vortex lattice lifting surface and panel methods. A propeller design program based on lifting line theory was developed by the author. This program has been used together with the propeller design programs OpenProp and AKPD to make six propeller designs. The designs are based o...

  4. Propeller Test Facilities Â (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: Three electrically driven whirl test stands are used to determine propeller (or other rotating device) performance at various rotational speeds. These...

  5. High Power Density Motors (United States)

    Kascak, Daniel J.


    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  6. High-Fidelity Microstructural Characterization and Performance Modeling of Aluminized Composite Propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosiba, Graham D.; Wixom, Ryan R.; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.


    Image processing and stereological techniques were used to characterize the heterogeneity of composite propellant and inform a predictive burn rate model. Composite propellant samples made up of ammonium perchlorate (AP), hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), and aluminum (Al) were faced with an ion mill and imaged with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray tomography (micro-CT). Properties of both the bulk and individual components of the composite propellant were determined from a variety of image processing tools. An algebraic model, based on the improved Beckstead-Derr-Price model developed by Cohen and Strand, was used to predict the steady-state burning of the aluminized composite propellant. In the presented model the presence of aluminum particles within the propellant was introduced. The thermal effects of aluminum particles are accounted for at the solid-gas propellant surface interface and aluminum combustion is considered in the gas phase using a single global reaction. In conclusion, properties derived from image processing were used directly as model inputs, leading to a sample-specific predictive combustion model.

  7. Formulation development and characterization of cellulose acetate nitrate based propellants for improved insensitive munitions properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning


    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate nitrate (CAN was used as an insensitive energetic binder to improve the insensitive munitions (IM properties of gun propellants to replace the M1 propellant used in 105 mm artillery charges. CAN contains the energetic nitro groups found in nitrocellulose (NC, but also acetyl functionalities, which lowered the polymer's sensitivity to heat and shock, and therefore improved its IM properties relative to NC. The formulation, development and small-scale characterization testing of several CAN-based propellants were done. The formulations, using insensitive energetic solid fillers and high-nitrogen modifiers in place of nitramine were completed. The small scale characterization testing, such as closed bomb testing, small scale sensitivity, thermal stability, and chemical compatibility were done. The mechanical response of the propellants under high-rate uni-axial compression at, hot, cold, and ambient temperatures were also completed. Critical diameter testing, hot fragment conductive ignition (HFCI tests were done to evaluate the propellants' responses to thermal and shock stimuli. Utilizing the propellant chemical composition, theoretical predictions of erosivity were completed. All the small scale test results were utilized to down-select the promising CAN based formulations for large scale demonstration testing such as the ballistic performance and fragment impact testing in the 105 mm M67 artillery charge configurations. The test results completed in the small and large scale testing are discussed.

  8. Launch Vehicle Performance for Bipropellant Propulsion Using Atomic Propellants With Oxygen (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan


    Atomic propellants for bipropellant launch vehicles using atomic boron, carbon, and hydrogen were analyzed. The gross liftoff weights (GLOW) and dry masses of the vehicles were estimated, and the 'best' design points for atomic propellants were identified. Engine performance was estimated for a wide range of oxidizer to fuel (O/F) ratios, atom loadings in the solid hydrogen particles, and amounts of helium carrier fluid. Rocket vehicle GLOW was minimized by operating at an O/F ratio of 1.0 to 3.0 for the atomic boron and carbon cases. For the atomic hydrogen cases, a minimum GLOW occurred when using the fuel as a monopropellant (O/F = 0.0). The atomic vehicle dry masses are also presented, and these data exhibit minimum values at the same or similar O/F ratios as those for the vehicle GLOW. A technology assessment of atomic propellants has shown that atomic boron and carbon rocket analyses are considered to be much more near term options than the atomic hydrogen rockets. The technology for storing atomic boron and carbon has shown significant progress, while atomic hydrogen is not able to be stored at the high densities needed for effective propulsion. The GLOW and dry mass data can be used to estimate the cost of future vehicles and their atomic propellant production facilities. The lower the propellant's mass, the lower the overall investment for the specially manufactured atomic propellants.

  9. On the combustion mechanisms of ZrH2 in double-base propellant. (United States)

    Yang, Yanjing; Zhao, Fengqi; Yuan, Zhifeng; Wang, Ying; An, Ting; Chen, Xueli; Xuan, Chunlei; Zhang, Jiankan


    Metal hydrides are regarded as a series of promising hydrogen-supplying fuel for solid rocket propellants. Their effects on the energetic and combustion performances of propellants are closely related to their reaction mechanisms. Here we report a first attempt to determine the reaction mechanism of ZrH 2 , a high-density metal hydride, in the combustion of a double-base propellant to evaluate its potential as a fuel. ZrH 2 is determined to possess good resistance to oxidation by nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. Thus its combustion starts with dehydrogenation to generate H 2 and metallic Zr. Subsequently, the newly formed Zr and H 2 participate in the combustion and, especially, Zr melts and then combusts on the burning surface which favors the heat feedback to the propellant. This phenomenon is completely different from the combustion behavior of the traditional fuel Al, where the Al particles are ejected off the burning surface of the propellant to get into the luminous flame zone to burn. The findings in this work validate the potential of ZrH 2 as a hydrogen-supplying fuel for double-base propellants.

  10. A Soft Sensor Development for the Rotational Speed Measurement of an Electric Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchao Ye


    Full Text Available In recent decades, micro air vehicles driven by electric propellers have become a hot topic, and developed quickly. The performance of the vehicles depends on the rotational speed of propellers, thus, improving the accuracy of rotational speed measurement is beneficial to the vehicle’s performance. This paper presents the development of a soft sensor for the rotational speed measurement of an electric propeller. An adaptive learning algorithm is derived for the soft sensor by using Popov hyperstability theory, based on which a one-step-delay adaptive learning algorithm is further proposed to solve the implementation problem of the soft sensor. It is important to note that only the input signal and the commutation instant of the motor are employed as inputs in the algorithm, which makes it possible to be easily implemented in real-time. The experimental test results have demonstrated the learning performance and the accuracy of the soft sensor.

  11. Numerical investigation on the regression rate of hybrid rocket motor with star swirl fuel grain (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Hu, Fan; Zhang, Weihua


    Although hybrid rocket motor is prospected to have distinct advantages over liquid and solid rocket motor, low regression rate and insufficient efficiency are two major disadvantages which have prevented it from being commercially viable. In recent years, complex fuel grain configurations are attractive in overcoming the disadvantages with the help of Rapid Prototyping technology. In this work, an attempt has been made to numerically investigate the flow field characteristics and local regression rate distribution inside the hybrid rocket motor with complex star swirl grain. A propellant combination with GOX and HTPB has been chosen. The numerical model is established based on the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with turbulence, combustion, and coupled gas/solid phase formulations. The calculated fuel regression rate is compared with the experimental data to validate the accuracy of numerical model. The results indicate that, comparing the star swirl grain with the tube grain under the conditions of the same port area and the same grain length, the burning surface area rises about 200%, the spatially averaged regression rate rises as high as about 60%, and the oxidizer can combust sufficiently due to the big vortex around the axis in the aft-mixing chamber. The combustion efficiency of star swirl grain is better and more stable than that of tube grain.

  12. 78 FR 4038 - Critical Parts for Airplane Propellers (United States)


    ... manufacturers are not required to provide information concerning propeller critical part design, manufacture, or... engineering, manufacturing, and service management processes should provide clear information for propeller... manufacture critical parts for airplane propellers update their manuals to record engineering, manufacture...

  13. Developing the World's Most Powerful Solid Booster (United States)

    Priskos, Alex S.; Frame, Kyle L.


    NASA's Journey to Mars has begun. Indicative of that challenge, this will be a multi-decadal effort requiring the development of technology, operational capability, and experience. The first steps are underway with more than 15 years of continuous human operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and development of commercial cargo and crew transportation capabilities. NASA is making progress on the transportation required for deep space exploration - the Orion crew spacecraft and the Space Launch System (SLS) heavy-lift rocket that will launch Orion and large components such as in-space stages, habitat modules, landers, and other hardware necessary for deep-space operations. SLS is a key enabling capability and is designed to evolve with mission requirements. The initial configuration of SLS - Block 1 - will be capable of launching more than 70 metric tons (t) of payload into low Earth orbit, greater mass than any other launch vehicle in existence. By enhancing the propulsion elements and larger payload fairings, future SLS variants will launch 130 t into space, an unprecedented capability that simplifies hardware design and in-space operations, reduces travel times, and enhances two solid propellant five-segment boosters, both based on space shuttle technologies. This paper will focus on development of the booster, which will provide more than 75 percent of total vehicle thrust at liftoff. Each booster is more than 17 stories tall, 3.6 meters (m) in diameter and weighs 725,000 kilograms (kg). While the SLS booster appears similar to the shuttle booster, it incorporates several changes. The additional propellant segment provides additional booster performance. Parachutes and other hardware associated with recovery operations have been deleted and the booster designated as expendable for affordability reasons. The new motor incorporates new avionics, new propellant grain, asbestos-free case insulation, a redesigned nozzle, streamlined manufacturing

  14. KAPPEL Propeller. Development of a Marine Propeller with Non-planar Lifting Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, J.; Andersen, Poul


    The principle of non-planar lifting surfaces is applied to the design of modern aircraft wings to obtain better lift to drag ratios. Whereas a pronounced fin or "winglet" at the wingtip has been developed for aircraft, the application of the non-planar principle to marine propellers, dealt...... with in this paper, has led to the KAPPEL propeller with blades curved towards the suction side integrating the fin or winglet into the propeller blade. The combined theoretical, experimental and practical approach to develop and design marine propellers with non-planar lifting surfaces has resulted in propellers...

  15. Evaluation and comparison of electric propulsion motors for submarines


    Harbour, Joel P.


    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document The Navy has announced its conviction to make its warships run on electric power through the decision to make its newest line of destroyers propelled with an electric propulsion system. Several ship construction firms and electric motor manufacturers are thus striving to develop enabling technology, including high power density motors. The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate some of the proposed motor designs for use in a submarine. Permanen...

  16. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn


    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  17. Supercritical Fluid Processing of Propellant Polymers (United States)


    of insoluble material present in the polymeric neopentyl glycol azelate (NPGA) binder. Laub (2) summarizes (from Refs 3 & 4) the various polymeric...binders used in composite propellant formulations for DOD missile systems. e.g., these include: polyneopentyl glycol azelate (NPGA) in HAWK. Composite smokeless propellants containing polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyethylene glycol adepate (PEGA) and polycaprolactone are currently under

  18. Green plasticizers for multibase gun propellants (Lecture)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoolderman, C.; Driel, C.A. van; Zebregs, M.


    TNO Defence, Security and Safety has a long history of research on gun propellants. Areas investigated are formulating (new ingredients, optimization), manufacturing, charge design and lifetime assessment [1,2,3,4,5]. In conventional propellants inert plasticizers are used to alter performance,

  19. Development of small solid rocket boosters for the ILR-33 sounding rocket (United States)

    Nowakowski, Pawel; Okninski, Adam; Pakosz, Michal; Cieslinski, Dawid; Bartkowiak, Bartosz; Wolanski, Piotr


    This paper gives an overview of the development of a 6000 Newton-class solid rocket motor for suborbital applications. The design configuration and results of interior ballistics calculations are given. The initial use of the motor as the main propulsion system of the H1 experimental in-flight test platform, within the Polish Small Sounding Rocket Program, is presented. Comparisons of theoretical and experimental performance are shown. Both on-ground and in-flight tests are discussed. A novel composite-case manufacturing technology, which enabled to reach high propellant mass fractions, was validated and significant cost-reductions were achieved. This paper focuses on the process of adapting the design for use as the booster stage of the ILR-33 sounding rocket, under development at the Institute of Aviation in Warsaw, Poland. Parallel use of two of the flight-proven rocket motors along with the main stage is planned. The process of adapting the rocket motor for booster application consists of stage integration, aerothermodynamics and reliability analyses. The separation mechanism and environmental impact are also discussed within this paper. Detailed performance analysis with focus on propellant grain geometry is provided. The evolution of the design since the first flights of the H1 rocket is covered and modifications of the manufacturing process are described. Issues of simultaneous ignition of two motors and their non-identical performance are discussed. Further applications and potential for future development are outlined. The presented results are based on the initial work done by the Rocketry Group of the Warsaw University of Technology Students' Space Association. The continuation of the Polish Small Sounding Rocket Program on a larger scale at the Institute of Aviation proves the value of the outcomes of the initial educational project.

  20. Ignition and combustion characteristics of metallized propellants (United States)

    Turns, Stephen R.; Mueller, D. C.


    Experimental and analytical investigations focusing on secondary atomization and ignition characteristics of aluminum/liquid hydrocarbon slurry propellants were conducted. Experimental efforts included the application of a laser-based, two-color, forward-scatter technique to simultaneously measure free-flying slurry droplet diameters and velocities for droplet diameters in the range of 10-200 microns. A multi-diffusion flame burner was used to create a high-temperature environment into which a dilute stream of slurry droplets could be introduced. Narrowband measurements of radiant emission were used to determine if ignition of the aluminum in the slurry droplet had occurred. Models of slurry droplet shell formation were applied to aluminum/liquid hydrocarbon propellants and used to ascertain the effects of solids loading and ultimate particle size on the minimum droplet diameter that will permit secondary atomization. For a 60 weight-percent Al slurry, the limiting critical diameter was predicted to be 34.7 microns which is somewhat greater than the 20-25 micron limiting diameters determined in the experiments. A previously developed model of aluminum ignition in a slurry droplet was applied to the present experiments and found to predict ignition times in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements. A model was also developed that predicts the mechanical stress in the droplet shell and a parametric study was conducted. A one-dimensional model of a slurry-fueled rocket combustion chamber was developed. This model includes the processes of liquid hydrocarbon burnout, secondary atomization, aluminum ignition, and aluminum combustion. Also included is a model for radiant heat transfer from the hot aluminum oxide particles to the chamber walls. Exercising this model shows that only a modest amount of secondary atomization is required to reduce residence times for aluminum burnout, and thereby maintain relatively short chamber lengths. The model also predicts

  1. Tests on thirteen navy type model propellers (United States)

    Durand, W F


    The tests on these model propellers were undertaken for the purpose of determining the performance coefficients and characteristics for certain selected series of propellers of form and type as commonly used in recent navy designs. The first series includes seven propellers of pitch ratio varying by 0.10 to 1.10, the area, form of blade, thickness, etc., representing an arbitrary standard propeller which had shown good results. The second series covers changes in thickness of blade section, other things equal, and the third series, changes in blade area, other things equal. These models are all of 36-inch diameter. Propellers A to G form the series on pitch ratio, C, N. I. J the series on thickness of section, and K, M, C, L the series on area. (author)

  2. Small-Scale Shock Testing of Propellants and Ingredients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawley, S


    .... The use of small-scale gap testing to evaluate the shock sensitivity of individual propellant ingredients and propellant formulations is a valuable method for experimentally establishing shock...

  3. Nonlinear rocket motor stability prediction: Limit amplitude, triggering, and mean pressure shifta) (United States)

    Flandro, Gary A.; Fischbach, Sean R.; Majdalani, Joseph


    High-amplitude pressure oscillations in solid propellant rocket motor combustion chambers display nonlinear effects including: (1) limit cycle behavior in which the fluctuations may dwell for a considerable period of time near their peak amplitude, (2) elevated mean chamber pressure (DC shift), and (3) a triggering amplitude above which pulsing will cause an apparently stable system to transition to violent oscillations. Along with the obvious undesirable vibrations, these features constitute the most damaging impact of combustion instability on system reliability and structural integrity. The physical mechanisms behind these phenomena and their relationship to motor geometry and physical parameters must, therefore, be fully understood if instability is to be avoided in the design process, or if effective corrective measures must be devised during system development. Predictive algorithms now in use have limited ability to characterize the actual time evolution of the oscillations, and they do not supply the motor designer with information regarding peak amplitudes or the associated critical triggering amplitudes. A pivotal missing element is the ability to predict the mean pressure shift; clearly, the designer requires information regarding the maximum chamber pressure that might be experienced during motor operation. In this paper, a comprehensive nonlinear combustion instability model is described that supplies vital information. The central role played by steep-fronted waves is emphasized. The resulting algorithm provides both detailed physical models of nonlinear instability phenomena and the critically needed predictive capability. In particular, the origin of the DC shift is revealed.

  4. The Effect of Propellant Optical Properties on Composite Solid Propellant Combustion (United States)


    10.0 [cal/gJ CpAP . = 1.3 [J/(g K)1 LhrMp =433. [cal/g] CpfTBp = 1.3 [J/(g K)] Using the experimental burning rates, the surface temperatures of the AP...Photo- Flash Lamps." Journatl of the Optical Society of North America, Vol. 37, No. 8. pp. 652-659, 1947. 17. Parry, D.L.. Ph.D. Thesis, The University of...the light emitters in photoflash lamps. In 1947, Brockman 4 made spectroscopic measurements of the light emitted by flash lamps filled with aluminum

  5. Spectral Studies of Solid Propellant Combustion. 3. Emission and Absorption Results for HMX2 Propellant (United States)


    funding from the Anry Productivity Capital Investment Program. vii INTENTioNALLY LEFT BL~ANK viH I. INTRODUCTION During the last several years we...G-23 Dahlgren, VA 22448-5000 1 OSD/SDIO/ IST ATTN: L. Caveny 2 Commander Pentagon Naval Surface Warfare Center Washington, DC 20301-7100 ATTN: R

  6. New Delivery Systems and Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Dolovich


    Full Text Available The removal of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC propellants from industrial and household products has been agreed to by over 165 countires of which more than 135 are developing countries. The timetable for this process is outlined in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer document and in several subsequent amendments. Pressured metered dose inhalers (pMDIs for medical use have been granted temporary exemptions until replacement formulations, providing the same medication via the same route, and with the same efficacy and safety profiles, are approved for human use. Hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs are the alternative propellants for CFCs-12 and -114. Their potential for damage to the ozone layer is nonexistent, and while they are greenhouse gases, their global warming potential is a fraction (one-tenth of that of CFCs. Replacement formulations for almost all inhalant respiratory medications have been or are being produced and tested; in Canada, it is anticipated that the transition to these HFA or CFC-free pMDIs will be complete by the year 2005. Initially, an HFA pMDI was to be equivalent to the CFC pMDI being replaced, in terms of aerosol properties and effective clinical dose. However, this will not necessarily be the situation, particularly for some corticosteroid products. Currently, only one CFC-free formulation is available in Canada – Airomir, a HFA salbutamol pMDI. This paper discusses the in vitro aerosol characteristics, in vivo deposition and clinical data for several HFA pMDIs for which there are data available in the literature. Alternative delivery systems to the pMDI, namely, dry powder inhalers and nebulizers, are briefly reviewed.

  7. Energy coefficients for a propeller series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup


    The efficiency for a propeller is calculated by energy coefficients. These coefficients are related to four types of losses, i.e. the axial, the rotational, the frictional, and the finite blade number loss, and one gain, i.e. the axial gain. The energy coefficients are derived by use...... of the potential theory with the propeller modelled as an actuator disk. The efficiency based on the energy coefficients is calculated for a propeller series. The results show a good agreement between the efficiency based on the energy coefficients and the efficiency obtained by a vortex-lattice method....

  8. Experimental Research on Air Propellers III (United States)

    Durand, W F; Lesley, E P


    Report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of propellers that examined the influence of the following characteristics: (1) nominal pitch ratio 1.3 combined with a certain number of the more common or standard forms and proportions; (2) driving face slightly rounded or convex; (3) change in the location of the maximum thickness ordinate of the blade section; (4) pushing forward the leading edge of the blade, thus giving a rounded convex surface on the leading side of the driving face. (5) a series of values for the constant "angle of attack" in forming propellers with radially increasing pitch. In accordance with these purposes tests were carried out on 28 propellers.

  9. Shuttle APS propellant thermal conditioner study (United States)

    Pearson, W. E.


    A study program was performed to allow selection of thermal conditioner assemblies for superheating O2 and H2 at supercritical pressures. The application was the auxiliary propulsion system (APS) for the space shuttle vehicle. The O2/H2 APS propellant feed system included propellant conditioners, of which the thermal conditioner assemblies were a part. Cryogens, pumped to pressures above critical, were directed to the thermal conditioner assembly included: (1) a gas generator assembly with ignition system and bipropellant valves, which burned superheated O2 and H2 at rich conditions; (2) a heat exchanger assembly for thermal conditioning of the cryogenic propellant; and (3) a dump nozzle for heat exchanger exhaust.

  10. Qualification of Magnesium/Teflon/Viton Pyrotechnic Composition Used in Rocket Motors Ignition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Barros


    Full Text Available The application of fluoropolymers in high-energy-release pyrotechnic compositions is common in the space and defense areas. Pyrotechnic compositions of magnesium/Teflon/Viton are widely used in military flares and pyrogen igniters for igniting the solid propellant of a rocket motor. Pyrotechnic components are considered high-risk products as they may cause catastrophic accidents if initiated or ignited inadvertently. To reduce the hazards involved in the handling, storage and transportation of these devices, the magnesium/Teflon/Viton composition was subjected to various sensitivity tests, DSC and had its stability and compatibility tested with other materials. This composition obtained satisfactory results in all the tests, which qualifies it as safe for production, handling, use, storage and transportation.

  11. 14 CFR 35.23 - Propeller control system. (United States)


    ... propeller effect under the intended operating conditions. (4) The failure or corruption of data or signals... corruption of airplane-supplied data does not result in hazardous propeller effects. (e) The propeller... effect. (2) Failures or malfunctions directly affecting the propeller control system in a typical...

  12. Magnetic levitation configuration incorporating levitation, guidance and linear synchronous motor (United States)

    Coffey, Howard T.


    A propulsion and suspension system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes propulsion windings which form a linear synchronous motor and conductive guideways, adjacent to the propulsion windings, where both combine to partially encircling the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets. A three phase power source is used with the linear synchronous motor to produce a traveling magnetic wave which in conjunction with the magnets propel the vehicle. The conductive guideway combines with the superconducting magnets to provide for vehicle leviation.

  13. Magnetic levitation configuration incorporating levitation, guidance and linear synchronous motor (United States)

    Coffey, H.T.


    A propulsion and suspension system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes propulsion windings which form a linear synchronous motor and conductive guideways, adjacent to the propulsion windings, where both combine to partially encircling the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets. A three phase power source is used with the linear synchronous motor to produce a traveling magnetic wave which in conjunction with the magnets propel the vehicle. The conductive guideway combines with the superconducting magnets to provide for vehicle levitation. 3 figures.

  14. Effect of Propellant Composition to the Temperature Sensitivity of Composite Propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Amir; Mamat, Rizalman; Amin, Makeen; Wan Ali, Wan Khairuddin


    The propellant composition is one of several parameter that influencing the temperature sensitivity of composite propellant. In this paper, experimental investigation of temperature sensitivity in burning rate of composite propellant was conducted. Four sets of different propellant compositions had been prepared with the combination of ammonium perchlorate (AP) as an oxidizer, aluminum (Al) as fuel and hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) as fuel and binder. For each mixture, HTPB binder was fixed at 15% and cured with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). By varying AP and Al, the effect of oxidizer- fuel mixture ratio (O/F) on the whole propellant can be determined. The propellant strands were manufactured using compression molded method and burnt in a strand burner using wire technique over a range of pressure from 1 atm to 31 atm. The results obtained shows that the temperature sensitivity, a, increases with increasing O/F. Propellant p80 which has O/F ratio of 80/20 gives the highest value of temperature sensitivity which is 1.687. The results shows that the propellant composition has significant effect on the temperature sensitivity of composite propellant

  15. Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket (APTR) is a novel concept for propulsion of space exploration or orbit transfer vehicles. APTR propulsion is provided by...

  16. The PROPEL Electrodynamic Tether Demonstration Mission (United States)

    Bilen, Sven G.; Johnson, C. Les; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Alexander, Leslie; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoyt, Robert P.; Elder, Craig H.; Fuhrhop, Keith P.; Scadera, Michael


    The PROPEL ("Propulsion using Electrodynamics") mission will demonstrate the operation of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system in low Earth orbit and advance its technology readiness level for multiple applications. The PROPEL mission has two primary objectives: first, to demonstrate the capability of electrodynamic tether technology to provide robust and safe, near-propellantless propulsion for orbit-raising, de-orbit, plane change, and station keeping, as well as to perform orbital power harvesting and formation flight; and, second, to fully characterize and validate the performance of an integrated electrodynamic tether propulsion system, qualifying it for infusion into future multiple satellite platforms and missions with minimal modification. This paper provides an overview of the PROPEL system and design reference missions; mission goals and required measurements; and ongoing PROPEL mission design efforts.

  17. In-Space Manufacture of Storable Propellants (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many deep-space, missions, especially those that return material or crews to near-Earth space, are severely limited by the need to carry propellants and heat shields...

  18. Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous Martian propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.


    This paper considers a novel concept for a Martian descent and ascent vehicle, called NIMF (for nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel), the propulsion for which will be provided by a nuclear thermal reactor which will heat an indigenous Martian propellant gas to form a high-thrust rocket exhaust. The performance of each of the candidate Martian propellants, which include CO2, H2O, CH4, N2, CO, and Ar, is assessed, and the methods of propellant acquisition are examined. Attention is also given to the issues of chemical compatibility between candidate propellants and reactor fuel and cladding materials, and the potential of winged Mars supersonic aircraft driven by this type of engine. It is shown that, by utilizing the nuclear landing craft in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear thermal interplanetary vehicle and a heavy lift booster, it is possible to achieve a manned Mars mission in one launch. 6 refs

  19. Propeller performance analysis using lifting line theory


    Flood, Kevin M.


    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited Propellers are typically optimized to provide the maximum thrust for the minimum torque at a specific number of revolutions per minute (RPM) at a particular ship speed. This process allows ships to efficiently travel at their design speed. However, it is useful to know how the propeller performs during off-design conditions. This is especially true for naval warships whose missions req...

  20. Potential low cost, safe, high efficiency propellant for future space program (United States)

    Zhou, D.


    Mixtures of nanometer or micrometer sized carbon powder suspended in hydrogen and methane/hydrogen mixtures are proposed as candidates for low cost, high efficiency propellants for future space programs. While liquid hydrogen has low weight and high heat of combustion per unit mass, because of the low mass density the heat of combustion per unit volume is low, and the liquid hydrogen storage container must be large. The proposed propellants can produce higher gross heat combustion with small volume with trade off of some weight increase. Liquid hydrogen can serve as the fluid component of the propellant in the mixtures and thus used by current rocket engine designs. For example, for the same volume a mixture of 5% methane and 95% hydrogen, can lead to an increase in the gross heat of combustion by about 10% and an increase in the Isp (specific impulse) by 21% compared to a pure liquid hydrogen propellant. At liquid hydrogen temperatures of 20.3 K, methane will be in solid state, and must be formed as fine granules (or slush) to satisfy the requirement of liquid propellant engines.

  1. HMX based enhanced energy LOVA gun propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanghavi, R.R. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India)]. E-mail:; Kamale, P.J. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Shaikh, M.A.R. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Shelar, S.D. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Kumar, K. Sunil [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Singh, Amarjit [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India)


    Efforts to develop gun propellants with low vulnerability have recently been focused on enhancing the energy with a further improvement in its sensitivity characteristics. These propellants not only prevent catastrophic disasters due to unplanned initiation of currently used gun propellants (based on nitrate esters) but also realize enhanced energy levels to increase the muzzle velocity of the projectiles. Now, in order to replace nitroglycerine, which is highly sensitive to friction and impact, nitramines meet the requirements as they offer superior energy due to positive heat of formation, typical stoichiometry with higher decomposition temperatures and also owing to negative oxygen balance are less sensitive than stoichiometrically balanced NG. RDX has been widely reported for use in LOVA propellant. In this paper we have made an effort to present the work on scantily reported nitramine HMX based LOVA gun propellant while incorporating energetic plasticizer glycidyl azide polymer to enhance the energy level. HMX is known to be thermally stable at higher temperature than RDX and also proved to be less vulnerable to small scale shaped charge jet attack as its decomposition temperature is 270 deg. C. HMX also offers improved impulse due to its superior heat of formation (+17 kcal/mol) as compared to RDX (+14 kcal/mol). It has also been reported that a break point will not appear until 35,000 psi for propellant comprising of 5 {mu}m HMX. Since no work has been reported in open literature regarding replacement of RDX by HMX, the present studies were carried out.

  2. Propeller installation effects on turboprop aircraft acoustics (United States)

    Chirico, Giulia; Barakos, George N.; Bown, Nicholas


    Propeller installation options for a twin-engined turboprop aircraft are evaluated at cruise conditions, aiming to identify the quieter configuration. Computational fluid dynamics is used to investigate the near-field acoustics and transfer functions are employed to estimate the interior cabin noise. Co-rotating and counter-rotating installation options are compared. The effect of propeller synchrophasing is also considered. The employed method captures the complexity of the acoustic field generated by the interactions of the propeller sound fields among each other and with the airframe, showing also the importance of simulating the whole problem to predict the actual noise on a flying aircraft. Marked differences among the various layouts are observed. The counter-rotating top-in option appears the best in terms of acoustics, the top-out propeller rotation leading to louder noise because of inflow conditions and the occurrence of constructive acoustic interferences. Synchrophasing is shown to be beneficial for co-rotating propellers, specially regarding the interior noise, because of favorable effects in the interaction between the propeller direct sound field and the noise due to the airframe. An angle closer to the maximum relative blade shift was found to be the best choice, yielding, however, higher sound levels than those provided by the counter-rotating top-in layout.

  3. Combustion of metal agglomerates in a solid rocket core flow (United States)

    Maggi, Filippo; Dossi, Stefano; DeLuca, Luigi T.


    The need for access to space may require the use of solid propellants. High thrust and density are appealing features for different applications, spanning from boosting phase to other service applications (separation, de-orbiting, orbit insertion). Aluminum is widely used as a fuel in composite solid rocket motors because metal oxidation increases enthalpy release in combustion chamber and grants higher specific impulse. Combustion process of metal particles is complex and involves aggregation, agglomeration and evolution of reacting particulate inside the core flow of the rocket. It is always stated that residence time should be enough in order to grant complete metal oxidation but agglomerate initial size, rocket grain geometry, burning rate, and other factors have to be reconsidered. New space missions may not require large rocket systems and metal combustion efficiency becomes potentially a key issue to understand whether solid propulsion embodies a viable solution or liquid/hybrid systems are better. A simple model for metal combustion is set up in this paper. Metal particles are represented as single drops trailed by the core flow and reacted according to Beckstead's model. The fluid dynamics is inviscid, incompressible, 1D. The paper presents parametric computations on ideal single-size particles as well as on experimental agglomerate populations as a function of operating rocket conditions and geometries.

  4. Cavitation noise studies on marine propellers (United States)

    Sharma, S. D.; Mani, K.; Arakeri, V. H.


    Experimental observations are described of cavitation inception and noise from five model propellers, three basic and two modified, tested in the open jet section of the Indian Institute of Science high-speed water tunnel facility. Extensive experiments on the three basic propellers of different design, which included visualization of cavitation and measurements of noise, showed that the dominant type of cavitation was in the form of tip vortex cavitation, accompanied by leading edge suction side sheet cavitation in its close vicinity, and the resultant noise depended on parameters such as the advance coefficient, the cavitation number, and the propeller geometry. Of these, advance coefficient was found to have the maximum influence not only on cavitation noise but also on the inception of cavitation. Noise levels and frequencies of spectra obtained from all the three basic propellers at conditions near inception and different advance coefficient values, when plotted in the normalized form as suggested by Blake, resulted in a universal spectrum which would be useful for predicting cavitation noise at prototype scales when a limited extent of cavitation is expected in the same form as observed on the present models. In an attempt to delay the onset of tip vortex cavitation, the blades of two of the three basic propellers were modified by drilling small holes in the tip and leading edge areas. Studies on the modified propellers showed that the effectiveness of the blade modification was apparently stronger at low advance coefficient values and depended on the blade sectional profile. Measurements of cavitation noise indicated that the modification also improved the acoustic performance of the propellers as it resulted in a complete attenuation of the low-frequency spectral peaks, which were prominent with the basic propellers. In addition to the above studies, which were conducted under uniform flow conditions, one of the basic propellers was tested in the simulated

  5. Recent advances in the prediction of SRM thrust oscillations; Progres recents dans la prevision des oscillations de poussee des moteurs a propergol solide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuillot, F. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France); Le Breton, P. [SNPE, 33 - Saint Medard en Jalles (France); Guery, J.F. [SNPE, Centre de Recherche du Bouchet, 91 - Vert le Petit (France); Prevost, M. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 31 - Mauzac (France)


    A sub-scale experimental and numerical program has been carried out in order to improve the knowledge of vortex shedding driven pressure oscillations phenomena in segmented solid rocket motors. Full Navier-Stokes simulations have provided pressure amplitudes in the same range than the experimental ones, for different configurations of non-metallized propellant sub-scale motors having metallic restrictors or no restrictor on the last segment forward face. An original scenario has been proposed which rely mostly on surface vortex shedding originating on the burning surface of the propellant. This phenomenon is particularly present in the no-restrictor configuration but also in some configurations with metallic restrictors whose shape (bent versus non bent) has been identified as an influent parameter. First numerical computations of all the firing of a motor, done with SNPE MOPTI suite, shows instabilities zones very close to experimental ones. A new scenario proposed by ONERA relying on aluminum distributed combustion in surface vortex-shedding area is proposed to explain the levels of pressure oscillation obtained at full scale. (authors)

  6. Propeller and inflow vortex interaction : vortex response and impact on the propeller performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Zhou, T; Sciacchitano, A.; Veldhuis, L.L.M.; Eitelberg, G.


    The aerodynamic operating conditions of a propeller can include complex situations where vorticity from sources upstream can enter the propeller plane. In general, when the vorticity enters in a concentrated form of a vortex, the interaction between the vortex and blade is referred to as

  7. Thermal Vacuum Test Correlation of a Zero Propellant Load Case Thermal Capacitance Propellant Gauging Analytical Model (United States)

    Mckim, Stephen A.


    This thesis describes the development and correlation of a thermal model that forms the foundation of a thermal capacitance spacecraft propellant load estimator. Specific details of creating the thermal model for the diaphragm propellant tank used on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft using ANSYS and the correlation process implemented are presented. The thermal model was correlated to within plus or minus 3 degrees Celsius of the thermal vacuum test data, and was determined sufficient to make future propellant predictions on MMS. The model was also found to be relatively sensitive to uncertainties in applied heat flux and mass knowledge of the tank. More work is needed to improve temperature predictions in the upper hemisphere of the propellant tank where predictions were found to be 2 to 2.5 C lower than the test data. A road map for applying the model to predict propellant loads on the actual MMS spacecraft toward its end of life in 2017-2018 is also presented.

  8. Advances in LO2 Propellant Conditioning (United States)

    Mehta, Gopal; Orth, Michael; Stone, William; Perry, Gretchen; Holt, Kimberly; Suter, John


    This paper describes the cryogenic testing and analysis that has recently been completed as part of a multi-year effort to develop a new, more robust and operable LO2 propellant conditioning system. Phase 1 of the program consisted of feasibility demonstrations ot four novel propellant conditioning concepts. A no-bleed, passive propellant conditioning option was shown for the first time to successfully provide desired propellant inlet conditions. The benefits of passive conditioning are reduced operations costs, decreased hardware costs, enhanced operability and increased reliability on future expendable launch vehicles In Phase 2 of the test program, effects of major design parameters were studied and design correlation for future vehicle design were developed. Simultaneously, analytical models were developed and validated. Over 100 tests were conducted with a full-scale feedline using LN2 as the test fluid. A circulation pump provided a range of pressure and flow conditions. The test results showed that the passive propellant conditioning system is insensitive to variations in many of the parameters. The test program provides the validation necessary to incorporate the passive conditioning system into the baseline of future vehicles. Modeling of these systems using computational fluid dynamics seems highly promising.

  9. In-Space Propellant Production Using Water (United States)

    Notardonato, William; Johnson, Wesley; Swanger, Adam; McQuade, William


    A new era of space exploration is being planned. Manned exploration architectures under consideration require the long term storage of cryogenic propellants in space, and larger science mission directorate payloads can be delivered using cryogenic propulsion stages. Several architecture studies have shown that in-space cryogenic propulsion depots offer benefits including lower launch costs, smaller launch vehicles, and enhanced mission flexibility. NASA is currently planning a Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) technology demonstration mission that will use existing technology to demonstrate long duration storage, acquisition, mass gauging, and transfer of liquid hydrogen in low Earth orbit. This mission will demonstrate key technologies, but the CPST architecture is not designed for optimal mission operations for a true propellant depot. This paper will consider cryogenic propellant depots that are designed for operability. The operability principles considered are reusability, commonality, designing for the unique environment of space, and use of active control systems, both thermal and fluid. After considering these operability principles, a proposed depot architecture will be presented that uses water launch and on orbit electrolysis and liquefaction. This could serve as the first true space factory. Critical technologies needed for this depot architecture, including on orbit electrolysis, zero-g liquefaction and storage, rendezvous and docking, and propellant transfer, will be discussed and a developmental path forward will be presented. Finally, use of the depot to support the NASA Science Mission Directorate exploration goals will be presented.

  10. Results of Propellant Mixing Variable Study Using Precise Pressure-Based Burn Rate Calculations (United States)

    Stefanski, Philip L.


    A designed experiment was conducted in which three mix processing variables (pre-curative addition mix temperature, pre-curative addition mixing time, and mixer speed) were varied to estimate their effects on within-mix propellant burn rate variability. The chosen discriminator for the experiment was the 2-inch diameter by 4-inch long (2x4) Center-Perforated (CP) ballistic evaluation motor. Motor nozzle throat diameters were sized to produce a common targeted chamber pressure. Initial data analysis did not show a statistically significant effect. Because propellant burn rate must be directly related to chamber pressure, a method was developed that showed statistically significant effects on chamber pressure (either maximum or average) by adjustments to the process settings. Burn rates were calculated from chamber pressures and these were then normalized to a common pressure for comparative purposes. The pressure-based method of burn rate determination showed significant reduction in error when compared to results obtained from the Brooks' modification of the propellant web-bisector burn rate determination method. Analysis of effects using burn rates calculated by the pressure-based method showed a significant correlation of within-mix burn rate dispersion to mixing duration and the quadratic of mixing duration. The findings were confirmed in a series of mixes that examined the effects of mixing time on burn rate variation, which yielded the same results.

  11. Design and simulation on the morphing composite propeller (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Chen, Fanlong; Li, Qinyu; Liu, Liwu; Lan, Xin; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong


    As one of the most crucial part of the unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV), the composite propeller plays an important role on the UUV's performance. As the composite propeller behaves excellent properties in hydroelastic facet and acoustic suppression, it attracts increasing attentions all over the globe. This paper goes a step further based on this idea, and comes up with a novel concept of "morphing composite propeller" (MCP) to improve the performance of the conventional composite propeller (CCP) to anticipate the improved propeller can perform better to propel the UUV. Based on the new concept, a novel MCP is designed. Each blade of the propeller is assembled with an active rotatable flap (ARF) to change the blade's local camber with flap rotation. Then the transmission mechanism (TM) has been designed and housed in the propeller blade to push the ARF. With the ARF rotating, the UUV can be propelled by different thrusts under certain rotation velocities of the propeller. Based on the design, the Fluent is exploited to analyze the fluid dynamics around the propeller. Finally, based on the design and hydrodynamic analysis, the structural response for the novel morphing composite propeller is calculated. The propeller blade is simplified and layered with composite materials. And the structure response of an MCP is obtained with various rotation angle under the hydrodynamic pressure. This simulation can instruct the design and fabrication techniques of the MCP.

  12. Erythrocyte membrane modified janus polymeric motors for thrombus therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Jingxin; Abdelghani, Mona; Shen, Guizhi; Cao, Shoupeng; Williams, David S.; van Hest, Jan C.M.


    We report the construction of erythrocyte membrane-cloaked Janus polymeric motors (EM-JPMs) which are propelled by near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation and are successfully applied in thrombus ablation. Chitosan (a natural polysaccharide with positive charge, CHI) and heparin (glycosaminoglycan

  13. High-speed AC motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, T.; Arkkio, A. [Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Electromechanics, Otaniemi (Finland)


    The paper deals with various types of highspeed electric motors, and their limiting powers. Standard machines with laminated rotors can be utilised if the speed is moderate. The solid rotor construction makes it possible to reach higher power and speed levels than those of laminated rotors. The development work on high-speed motors done at Helsinki University of Technology is presented, too. (orig.) 12 refs.

  14. Iridium-catalyst-based autonomous bubble-propelled graphene micromotors with ultralow catalyst loading. (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Sofer, Zdeněk; Eng, Alex Yong Sheng; Pumera, Martin


    A novel concept of an iridium-based bubble-propelled Janus-particle-type graphene micromotor with very high surface area and with very low catalyst loading is described. The low loading of Ir catalyst (0.54 at %) allows for fast motion of graphene microparticles with high surface area of 316.2 m(2)  g(-1). The micromotor was prepared with a simple and scalable method by thermal exfoliation of iridium-doped graphite oxide precursor composite in hydrogen atmosphere. Oxygen bubbles generated from the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide at the iridium catalytic sites provide robust propulsion thrust for the graphene micromotor. The high surface area and low iridium catalyst loading of the bubble-propelled graphene motors offer great possibilities for dramatically enhanced cargo delivery. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. CFD simulation on Kappel propeller with a hull wake field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo; Andersen, Poul; Møller Bering, Rasmus


    Marine propellers are designed not for the open-water operation, but for the operation behind a hull due to the inhomogeneous hull wake and thrust deduction. The adaptation for the hull wake is important for the propulsive efficiency and cavitation risk especially on single-screw ships. CFD...... simulations for a propeller with a hull model have showed acceptable agreement with a model test result in the thrust and torque (Larsson et al. 2010). In the current work, a measured hull wake is applied to the simulation instead of modelling a hull, because the hull geometry is mostly not available...... for propeller designers and the computational effort can be reduced by excluding the hull. The CFD simulation of a propeller flow with a hull wake is verified in order to use CFD as a propeller design tool. A Kappel propeller, which is an innovative tip-modified propeller, is handled. Kappel propellers...

  16. Neural Network Predictions of the 4-Quadrant Wageningen Propeller Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roddy, Robert F; Hess, David E; Faller, Will


    .... This report describes the development of feedforward neural network (FFNN) predictions of four-quadrant thrust and torque behavior for the Wageningen B-Screw Series of propellers and for two Wageningen ducted propeller series...

  17. Innovative Swirl Injector for LOX and Hydrocarbon Propellants, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gases trapped in the propellant feed lines of space-based rocket engines due to cryogenic propellant boil-off or pressurant ingestion can result in poor combustion...

  18. Propellant Gelation for Green In-Space Propulsion, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Concerns in recent years about the toxicity and safe handling of the storable class of propellants have led to efforts in greener monopropellants and bi-propellants....

  19. Ionic liquid propellants: future fuels for space propulsion. (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghua; Shreeve, Jean'ne M


    Use of green propellants is a trend for future space propulsion. Hypergolic ionic liquid propellants, which are environmentally-benign while exhibiting energetic performances comparable to hydrazine, have shown great potential to meet the requirements of developing nontoxic high-performance propellant formulations for space propulsion applications. This Concept article presents a review of recent advances in the field of ionic liquid propellants. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The sky is falling II: Impact of deposition produced during the static testing of solid rocket motors on corn and alfalfa. (United States)

    Doucette, William J; Mendenhall, Scout; McNeill, Laurie S; Heavilin, Justin


    Tests of horizontally restrained rocket motors at the ATK facility in Promontory, Utah, USA result in the deposition of an estimated 1.5million kg of entrained soil and combustion products (mainly aluminum oxide, gaseous hydrogen chloride and water) on the surrounding area. The deposition is referred to as test fire soil (TFS). Farmers observing TFS deposited on their crops expressed concerns regarding the impact of this material. To address these concerns, we exposed corn and alfalfa to TFS collected during a September 2009 test. The impact was evaluated by comparing the growth and tissue composition of controls relative to the treatments. Exposure to TFS, containing elevated levels of chloride (1000 times) and aluminum (2 times) relative to native soils, affected the germination, growth and tissue concentrations of various elements, depending on the type and level of exposure. Germination was inhibited by high concentrations of TFS in soil, but the impact was reduced if the TFS was pre-leached with water. Biomass production was reduced in the TFS amended soils and corn grown in TFS amended soils did not develop kernels. Chloride concentrations in corn and alfalfa grown in TFS amended soils were two orders of magnitude greater than controls. TFS exposed plants contained higher concentrations of several cations, although the concentrations were well below livestock feed recommendations. Foliar applications of TFS had no impact on biomass, but some differences in the elemental composition of leaves relative to controls were observed. Washing the TFS off the leaves lessened the impact. Results indicate that the TFS deposition could have an effect, depending on the amount and growth stage of the crops, but the impact could be mitigated with rainfall or the application of additional irrigation water. The high level of chloride associated with the TFS is the main cause of the observed impacts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)


    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Changing of ballistic parameters from aged gun propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.P.C. de; Driel, C.A. van


    The various properties of an SB and a DB gun propellant were investigated before and after artificial ageing. It was found that the decrease of nitrocellulose (NC) molecular weight, due to ageing of gun propellants, leads to a decrease of the mechanical integrity of the propellant grains. The effect

  3. Burning properties and mechanical integrity of aged gun propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, C.A. van; Klerk, W.P.C. de


    Conventional gun propellants exhibit the phenomenon of nitrocellulose (NC) decomposition. Besides an effect on thermal stability of propellants, decomposition of NC has an effect on the mechanical integrity of the propellant grains. Enhanced grain fracture may lead to unacceptable changes of the

  4. 14 CFR 25.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller vibration and fatigue. 25.907... vibration and fatigue. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood propellers of conventional design. (a... propeller to show that failure due to fatigue will be avoided throughout the operational life of the...

  5. 14 CFR 23.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller vibration and fatigue. 23.907... General § 23.907 Propeller vibration and fatigue. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood... evaluation of the propeller to show that failure due to fatigue will be avoided throughout the operational...

  6. Design Procedure of 4-Bladed Propeller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 1, 2013 ... West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research Vol.8 No.1 September 2013 ..... Number of blades. 5. Taylor's wake friction (w). The speed of ship (Vs), the number of propeller revolution (n), the blade number (Z) and the blade area ratio.... .... moment of inertia of a blade, the approximate.

  7. Spray and Combustion of Gelled Hypergolic Propellants (United States)


    moisture absorption on the fumed silica surface correlates directly to the ambient humidity , and can reach 12% by weight at an atmospheric humidity of...propellant interface, the liquid at the interface can be heated to the homogeneous vapor nucleation temperature rather than the boiling point. At this

  8. Atmospheric surveillance self-propelling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartoux, Gerard.


    The atmospheric surveillance self-propelling device of the Saclay Nuclear Research Center can, by its conception (autonomy, rapid put into service, multiplicity of sampling and measurements), be used for all kind of measuring campains: pollution radioactive or not, routine or accidental situation, technical and logistic support and as a coordination or investigation vehicle [fr

  9. 75 FR 12148 - Airworthiness Directives; Ontic Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc. Propeller Governors, Part... (United States)


    ... propeller pitch by regulating oil pressure to the propeller pitch change mechanism. Changes in governor oil..., the propeller governor cannot control oil pressure to the propeller pitch control mechanism. This... proposing this AD to prevent loss of propeller pitch control, damage to the propeller governor, and internal...

  10. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon


    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depot servicing platforms to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) systems such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support a new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid and Mars Missions. New vehicle design concepts are presented that can be launched on current 5 meter diameter ELV systems. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot, L1 Depot and missions beyond L1; a new reusable lunar lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface; and Mars orbital Depot are based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. Data provided includes the number of launches required for each mission utilizing current ELV systems (Delta IV Heavy or equivalent) and the approximate vehicle masses and propellant requirements. Also included is a discussion on affordability with ideas on technologies that could reduce the number of launches required and thoughts on how this infrastructure include competitive bidding for ELV flights and propellant services, developments of new reusable in-space vehicles and development of a multiuse infrastructure that can support many government and commercial missions simultaneously.

  11. Propellant Slosh Force and Mass Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hunt


    Full Text Available We have used electrical capacitance tomography (ECT to instrument a demonstration tank containing kerosene and have successfully demonstrated that ECT can, in real time, (i measure propellant mass to better than 1% of total in a range of gravity fields, (ii image propellant distribution, and (iii accurately track propellant centre of mass (CoM. We have shown that the ability to track CoM enables the determination of slosh forces, and we argue that this will result in disruptive changes in a propellant tank design and use in a spacecraft. Ground testing together with real-time slosh force data will allow an improved tank design to minimize and mitigate slosh forces, while at the same time keeping the tank mass to a minimum. Fully instrumented Smart Tanks will be able to provide force vector inputs to a spacecraft inertial navigation system; this in turn will (i eliminate or reduce navigational errors, (ii reduce wait time for uncertain slosh settling, since actual slosh forces will be known, and (iii simplify slosh control hardware, hence reducing overall mass. ECT may be well suited to space borne liquid measurement applications. Measurements are independent of and unaffected by orientation or levels of g. The electronics and sensor arrays can be low in mass, and critically, the technique does not dissipate heat into the propellant, which makes it intrinsically safe and suitable for cryogenic liquids. Because of the limitations of operating in earth-bound gravity, it has not been possible to check the exact numerical accuracy of the slosh force acting on the vessel. We are therefore in the process of undertaking a further project to (i build a prototype integrated “Smart Tank for Space”, (ii undertake slosh tests in zero or microgravity, (iii develop the system for commercial ground testing, and (iv qualify ECT for use in space.

  12. High-Lift Propeller Noise Prediction for a Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Jones, William T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.


    Over the past several years, the use of electric propulsion technologies within aircraft design has received increased attention. The characteristics of electric propulsion systems open up new areas of the aircraft design space, such as the use of distributed electric propulsion (DEP). In this approach, electric motors are placed in many different locations to achieve increased efficiency through integration of the propulsion system with the airframe. Under a project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR), NASA is designing a flight demonstrator aircraft that employs many "high-lift propellers" distributed upstream of the wing leading edge and two cruise propellers (one at each wingtip). As the high-lift propellers are operational at low flight speeds (take-off/approach flight conditions), the impact of the DEP configuration on the aircraft noise signature is also an important design consideration. This paper describes efforts toward the development of a mulit-fidelity aerodynamic and acoustic methodology for DEP high-lift propeller aeroacoustic modeling. Specifically, the PAS, OVERFLOW 2, and FUN3D codes are used to predict the aerodynamic performance of a baseline high-lift propeller blade set. Blade surface pressure results from the aerodynamic predictions are then used with PSU-WOPWOP and the F1A module of the NASA second generation Aircraft NOise Prediction Program to predict the isolated high-lift propeller noise source. Comparisons of predictions indicate that general trends related to angle of attack effects at the blade passage frequency are captured well with the various codes. Results for higher harmonics of the blade passage frequency appear consistent for the CFD based methods. Conversely, evidence of the need for a study of the effects of increased azimuthal grid resolution on the PAS based results is indicated and will be pursued in future work. Overall, the results indicate that the computational

  13. Development of a Marine Propeller With Nonplanar Lifting Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Friesch, Jürgen; Kappel, Jens J.


    The principle of non-planar lifting surfaces is applied to the design of modern aircraft wings to obtain better lift to drag ratios. Whereas a pronounced fin or winglet at the wingtip has been developed for aircraft, the application of the nonplanar principle to marine propellers, dealt...... with in this paper, has led to the KAPPEL propeller with blades curved toward the suction side integrating the fin or winglet into the propeller blade. The combined theoretical, experimental, and practical approach to develop and design marine propellers with nonplanar lifting surfaces has resulted in propellers...

  14. Structural optimization of the Halbach array PM rim thrust motor (United States)

    Cao, Haichuan; Chen, Weihu


    The Rim-driven Thruster (RDT) integrates the thrust motor and the propeller, which can effectively reduce the space occupied by the propulsion system, improve the propulsion efficiency, and thus has important research value and broad market prospects. The Halbach Permanent Magnet Rim Thrust Motor (HPMRTM) can improve the torque density of the propulsion motor by utilizing the unilateral magnetic field of the Halbach array. In this paper, the numerical method is used to study the electromagnetic performance of the motor under different Halbach array parameters. The relationship between motor parameters such as air-gap flux density, electromagnetic torque and Halbach array parameters is obtained, and then the motor structure is optimized. By comparing with Common Permanent Magnet RTM, the advantages of HPMRTM are verified.

  15. Motor homopolar


    Martín Muñoz, Agustín


    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  16. Investigation on utilization of liquid propellant in ballistic range experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saso, Akihiro; Oba, Shinji; Takayama, Kazuyoshi [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)


    Experiments were conducted in a ballistic range using a HAN (hydroxylammonium nitrate)-based liquid monopropellant, LP1846. In a 25-mm-bore single-stage gun, using bulk-loaded propellant of 10 to 35 g, a muzzle speed up to 1.0 km/s was obtained. Time variations of propellant chamber pressures and in-tube projectile velocity profiles were measured. The liquid propellant combustion was initiated accompanying a delay time which was created due to the pyrolysis of the propellant. In order to obtain reliable ballistic range performance, the method of propellant loading was revealed to be critical. Since the burning rate of the liquid propellant is relatively low, the peak acceleration and the muzzle speed strongly depend on the rupture pressure of a diaphragm that was inserted between the launch tube and the propellant chamber. (author)

  17. Catalytic micromotor generating self-propelled regular motion through random fluctuation (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daigo; Mukai, Atsushi; Okita, Naoaki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Shioi, Akihisa


    Most of the current studies on nano/microscale motors to generate regular motion have adapted the strategy to fabricate a composite with different materials. In this paper, we report that a simple object solely made of platinum generates regular motion driven by a catalytic chemical reaction with hydrogen peroxide. Depending on the morphological symmetry of the catalytic particles, a rich variety of random and regular motions are observed. The experimental trend is well reproduced by a simple theoretical model by taking into account of the anisotropic viscous effect on the self-propelled active Brownian fluctuation.

  18. Inverse Leidenfrost effect: self-propelling drops on a bath (United States)

    Gauthier, Anais; van der Meer, Devaraj; Lohse, Detlef; Physics of Fluids Team


    When deposited on very hot solid, volatile drops can levitate over a cushion of vapor, in the so-called Leidenfrost state. This phenomenon can also be observed on a hot bath and similarly to the solid case, drops are very mobile due to the absence of contact with the substrate that sustains them. We discuss here a situation of ``inverse Leidenfrost effect'' where room-temperature drops levitate on a liquid nitrogen pool - the vapor is generated here by the bath sustaining the relatively hot drop. We show that the drop's movement is not random: the liquid goes across the bath in straight lines, a pattern only disrupted by elastic bouncing on the edges. In addition, the drops are initially self-propelled; first at rest, they accelerate for a few seconds and reach velocities of the order of a few cm/s, before slowing down. We investigate experimentally the parameters that affect their successive acceleration and deceleration, such as the size and nature of the drops and we discuss the origin of this pattern.

  19. Analytical Solution and Physics of a Propellant Damping Device (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; Peugeot, John


    NASA design teams have been investigating options for "detuning" Ares I to prevent oscillations originating in the vehicle solid-rocket main stage from synching up with the natural resonance of the rest of the vehicle. An experimental work started at NASA MSFC center in 2008 using a damping device showed great promise in damping the vibration level of an 8 resonant tank. However, the mechanisms of the vibration damping were not well understood and there were many unknowns such as the physics, scalability, technology readiness level (TRL), and applicability for the Ares I vehicle. The objectives of this study are to understand the physics of intriguing slosh damping observed in the experiments, to further validate a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software in propellant sloshing against experiments with water, and to study the applicability and efficiency of the slosh damper to a full scale propellant tank and to cryogenic fluids. First a 2D fluid-structure interaction model is built to model the system resonance of liquid sloshing and structure vibration. A damper is then added into the above model to simulate experimentally observed system damping phenomena. Qualitative agreement is found. An analytical solution is then derived from the Newtonian dynamics for the thrust oscillation damper frequency, and a slave mass concept is introduced in deriving the damper and tank interaction dynamics. The paper will elucidate the fundamental physics behind the LOX damper success from the derivation of the above analytical equation of the lumped Newtonian dynamics. Discussion of simulation results using high fidelity multi-phase, multi-physics, fully coupled CFD structure interaction model will show why the LOX damper is unique and superior compared to other proposed mitigation techniques.

  20. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  1. Environmental fate and transport of nitroglycerin from propellant residues at firing positions in the unsaturated zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellavance-Godin, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Eau, Terre et Environnement; Martel, R. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Varennes, PQ (Canada). Eau, Terre et Environnement, Earth Sciences


    In response to environmental concerns, the Canadian Forces Base (CFB) have initiated studies to better evaluate the impact of various military activities. This paper presented the results of a study in which the fate of propellant residues on large soil columns was investigated. The sites selected for the study were the antitank ranges at Garrison Valcartier, Quebec and those at the CFB Petawawa, Ontario. The shoulder rockets fired on those ranges were propelled by solid propellants based on a nitrocellulose matrix in which nitroglycerine and ammonium perchlorate were dispersed as oxidizer and energetic materials. Propellant residues accumulated in the surface soils because the combustion processes in the rockets was incomplete. This study evaluated the contaminants transport through the unsaturated zone. Sampling was conducted in 2 steps. The first involved collecting uncontaminated soil samples representative of the geological formations of the 2 sites. The second step involved collecting soils containing high levels of propellant residues behind antitank firing positions, which was later spread across the surface of the uncontaminated soil columns and which were representative of the contaminated zone. The soils were watered in the laboratory following the precipitation patterns of the respective regions and interstitial water output of the columns was also sampled. The compounds of interest were nitroglycerine and its degradation metabolites, dinitroglycerine, mononitroglycerine and nitrates as well as perchlorate and bromides. Results presented high concentrations of nitrites, nitrates and perchlorates. Both the NG and its degradation products were monitored using a newly developed analytical method that provides for a better understanding of NG degradation pathways in anaerobic conditions. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  2. On shear rheology of gel propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, Shai; Peretz, Arie [RAFAEL, MANOR Propulsion and Explosive Systems Division, Haifa (Israel); Natan, Benveniste [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)


    Selected fuel, oxidizer and simulant gels were prepared and rheologically characterized using a rotational rheometer. For fuel gelation both organic and inorganic gellants were utilized, whereas oxidizers and simulants were gelled with addition of silica and polysaccharides, respectively. The generalized Herschel-Bulkley constitutive model was found to most adequately represent the gels studied. Hydrazine-based fuels, gelled with polysaccharides, were characterized as shear-thinning pseudoplastic fluids with low shear yield stress, whereas inhibited red-fuming nitric acid (IRFNA) and hydrogen peroxide oxidizers, gelled with silica, were characterized as yield thixotropic fluids with significant shear yield stress. Creep tests were conducted on two rheological types of gels with different gellant content and the results were fitted by Burgers-Kelvin viscoelastic constitutive model. The effect of temperature on the rheological properties of gel propellant simulants was also investigated. A general rheological classification of gel propellants and simulants is proposed. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Laser Initiated Ignition of Liquid Propellant (United States)


    containers held in a water bath of constant temperature 70*C. A larger vessel containing approximately 2ml of propellant was also heated in each experiment and...controller. A stirrer and forced water circulation ensured that all samples were kept at the same temperature. The water wai first heated to the final 5... electrolysed samples. 3 .. .. ....... ......................... volume of 10 ....... . 5 ....... I • . ... .. . .... .. ...... .. . . .. . . ... . .61.8 2 22i

  4. Cryogenic Propellant Feed System Analytical Tool Development (United States)

    Lusby, Brian S.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Collins, Jacob A.


    The Propulsion Systems Branch at NASA s Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has developed a parametric analytical tool to address the need to rapidly predict heat leak into propellant distribution lines based on insulation type, installation technique, line supports, penetrations, and instrumentation. The Propellant Feed System Analytical Tool (PFSAT) will also determine the optimum orifice diameter for an optional thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to counteract heat leak into the feed line and ensure temperature constraints at the end of the feed line are met. PFSAT was developed primarily using Fortran 90 code because of its number crunching power and the capability to directly access real fluid property subroutines in the Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP) Database developed by NIST. A Microsoft Excel front end user interface was implemented to provide convenient portability of PFSAT among a wide variety of potential users and its ability to utilize a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) developed in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The focus of PFSAT is on-orbit reaction control systems and orbital maneuvering systems, but it may be used to predict heat leak into ground-based transfer lines as well. PFSAT is expected to be used for rapid initial design of cryogenic propellant distribution lines and thermodynamic vent systems. Once validated, PFSAT will support concept trades for a variety of cryogenic fluid transfer systems on spacecraft, including planetary landers, transfer vehicles, and propellant depots, as well as surface-based transfer systems. The details of the development of PFSAT, its user interface, and the program structure will be presented.

  5. Bistable (latching) solenoid actuated propellant isolation valve (United States)

    Wichmann, H.; Deboi, H. H.


    The design, fabrication, assembly and test of a development configuration bistable (latching) solenoid actuated propellant isolation valve suitable for the control hydrazine and liquid fluorine to an 800 pound thrust rocket engine is described. The valve features a balanced poppet, utilizing metal bellows, a hard poppet/seat interface and a flexure support system for the internal moving components. This support system eliminates sliding surfaces, thereby rendering the valve free of self generated particles.

  6. Engineering Model Propellant Feed System Development for an Iodine Hall Thruster Demonstration Mission (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.


    CUBESATS are relatively new spacecraft platforms that are typically deployed from a launch vehicle as a secondary payload, providing low-cost access to space for a wide range of end-users. These satellites are comprised of building blocks having dimensions of 10x10x10 cu cm and a mass of 1.33 kg (a 1-U size). While providing low-cost access to space, a major operational limitation is the lack of a propulsion system that can fit within a CubeSat and is capable of executing high (Delta)v maneuvers. This makes it difficult to use CubeSats on missions requiring certain types of maneuvers (i.e. formation flying, spacecraft rendezvous). Recently, work has been performed investigating the use of iodine as a propellant for Hall-effect thrusters (HETs) 2 that could subsequently be used to provide a high specific impulse path to CubeSat propulsion. 3, 4 Iodine stores as a dense solid at very low pressures, making it acceptable as a propellant on a secondary payload. It has exceptionally high ?Isp (density times specific impulse), making it an enabling technology for small satellite near-term applications and providing the potential for systems-level advantages over mid-term high power electric propulsion options. Iodine flow can also be thermally regulated, subliming at relatively low temperature (engineering model propellant feed system for iSAT (see Fig. 1). The feed system is based around an iodine propellant reservoir and two proportional control valves (PFCVs) that meter the iodine flow to the cathode and anode. The flow is split upstream of the PFCVs to both components can be fed from a common reservoir. Testing of the reservoir is reported to demonstrate that the design is capable of delivering the required propellant flow rates to operate the thruster. The tubing and reservoir are fabricated from hastelloy to resist corrosion by the heated gaseous iodine propellant. The reservoir, tubing, and PFCVs are heated to ensure the sublimed propellant will not re

  7. Small transport aircraft technology propeller study (United States)

    Black, B. M.; Magliozzi, B.; Rohrbach, C.


    A study to define potential benefits of advanced technology propeller for 1985-1990 STAT commuter airplanes was completed. Two baselines, a Convair, 30 passenger, 0.47 Mach number airplane and a Lockheed, 50 passenger, 0.70 Mach number airplane, were selected from NASA-Ames sponsored airframe contracts. Parametric performance, noise level, weight and cost trends for propellers with varying number of blades, activity factor, camber and diameter incorporating blade sweep, tip proplets, advanced composite materials, advanced airfoils, advanced prevision synchrophasing and counter-rotation are presented. The resulting DOC, fuel burned, empty weight and acquisition cost benefits are presented for resizings of the two baseline airplanes. Six-bladed propeller having advanced composite blades, advanced airfoils, tip proplets and advanced prevision synchrophasers provided the maximum DOC improvements for both airplanes. DOC and fuel burned were reduced by 8.3% and 17.0% respectively for the Convair airplane and by 24.9% and 41.2% respectively for the Lockheed airplane. The larger reductions arose from a baseline definition with very heavy fuselage acoustic treatment. An alternate baseline, with a cabin noise 13dB in excess of the objective, was also studied.

  8. Self-propelled x-ray flaw detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, L.S.; Krasilnikov, S.B.; Lozovoi, L.N.; Losev, J.F.; Morgovsky, L.Y.; Pelix, E.A.; Khakimyanov, R.R.


    A self-propelled X-ray flaw detector for radiographic inspection of welded joints in pipelines comprises a carriage mounting a motor, a detector having two Geiger counters, a pulsed X-ray generator, and an exposure and carriage electronic control system. A memory unit in the control system has four storage elements containing information about the motion of the carriage. As the carriage moves in direction A, first one and then the other of the Geiger counters receives radiation from an isotope source positioned near a joint, and by means of logic circuitry in the control system, the information in the storage elements is modified to stop the carriage and to operate a timer to expose the weld. During exposure the X-rays may interfere with the information in the storage elements, but by means of a square-wave generator and the logic circuitry, the stored information is correctly reset in order to eliminate false operation of the memory unit. (author)

  9. Effect of Propeller Angle Relative to Flow on Aerodynamic Characteristics (United States)

    Schueller, Joseph; Hubner, Paul


    As the interest in small unmanned air systems (UASs) for delivery and surveillance grows, new hybrid designs are being studied to take advantage of both quadcopters and fixed-wing aircraft. The tiltrotor design is able to combine the vertical take-off, hover, and landing of a multi-rotor copter with the efficiency of forward flight of a conventional airplane. However, literature documenting aerodynamic performance of the rotor as it rotates between the forward-flight and hover positions, especially in this low Reynolds number range, is limited. This data is critical for validating computational models and developing safe transition corridors. The objective of this research was to design, build and test a rotor thrust stand capable of rotating between the forward-flight and hover configurations suitable for senior design studies at low Reynolds number research. The poster covers the design of the rotating mechanism, the range and resolution of the load cell, and the thrust, torque and efficiency results for a conventional UAS motor and propeller for various advance ratios and thrust-line orientations. NSF Grant: EEC 1659710.

  10. Development of HAN-based Liquid Propellant Thruster (United States)

    Hisatsune, K.; Izumi, J.; Tsutaya, H.; Furukawa, K.


    Many of propellants that are applied to the conventional spacecraft propulsion system are toxic propellants. Because of its toxicity, considering the environmental pollution or safety on handling, it will be necessary to apply the "green" propellant to the spacecraft propulsion system. The purpose of this study is to apply HAN based liquid propellant (LP1846) to mono propellant thruster. Compared to the hydrazine that is used in conventional mono propellant thruster, HAN based propellant is not only lower toxic but also can obtain higher specific impulse. Moreover, HAN based propellant can be decomposed by the catalyst. It means there are the possibility of applying to the mono propellant thruster that can leads to the high reliability of the propulsion system.[1],[2] However, there are two technical subjects, to apply HAN based propellant to the mono propellant thruster. One is the high combustion temperature. The catalyst will be damaged under high temperature condition. The other is the low catalytic activity. It is the serious problem on application of HAN based propellant to the mono propellant thruster that is used for attitude control of spacecraft. To improve the catalytic activity of HAN based propellant, it is necessary to screen the best catalyst for HAN based propellant. The adsorption analysis is conducted by Monte Carlo Simulation to screen the catalyst metal for HAN and TEAN. The result of analysis shows the Iridium is the best catalyst metal for HAN and TEAN. Iridium is the catalyst metal that is used at conventional mono propellant thruster catalyst Shell405. Then, to confirm the result of analysis, the reaction test about catalyst is conducted. The result of this test is the same as the result of adsorption analysis. That means the adsorption analysis is effective in screening the catalyst metal. At the evaluating test, the various types of carrier of catalyst are also compared to Shell 405 to improve catalytic activity. The test result shows the

  11. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.


    A mixer pump is described used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump. 10 figs

  12. A Portable Burn Pan for the Disposal of Excess Propellants (United States)


    2013 - 06/01/2016 A Portable Burn Pan for the Disposal of Excess Propellants Michael Walsh USA CRREL USA CRREL 72 Lyme Road Hanover, NH 03755...Army Alaska XRF X-Ray Florescence vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Project ER-201323, A Portable Burn Pan for the Disposal of Gun Propellants, was a very...contamination problem while allowing troops to train as they fight, we have developed a portable training device for burning excess gun propellants. 1.1

  13. Computer aided design and development of mixed-propeller pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaoyal, B.C.


    This paper deals with the design principle of mixed propeller hydraulic aided by CADD software developed by author for generation of the hydraulic profile of the mixed propeller and diffuser geometry. The design methodology for plotting the vane profile of mixed propeller pump has been discussed in detail with special reference to conformal transformation in cylindrical as well as conical plane. (author). 10 refs., 11 figs

  14. Parametric study and performance analysis of hybrid rocket motors with double-tube configuration (United States)

    Yu, Nanjia; Zhao, Bo; Lorente, Arnau Pons; Wang, Jue


    The practical implementation of hybrid rocket motors has historically been hampered by the slow regression rate of the solid fuel. In recent years, the research on advanced injector designs has achieved notable results in the enhancement of the regression rate and combustion efficiency of hybrid rockets. Following this path, this work studies a new configuration called double-tube characterized by injecting the gaseous oxidizer through a head end injector and an inner tube with injector holes distributed along the motor longitudinal axis. This design has demonstrated a significant potential for improving the performance of hybrid rockets by means of a better mixing of the species achieved through a customized injection of the oxidizer. Indeed, the CFD analysis of the double-tube configuration has revealed that this design may increase the regression rate over 50% with respect to the same motor with a conventional axial showerhead injector. However, in order to fully exploit the advantages of the double-tube concept, it is necessary to acquire a deeper understanding of the influence of the different design parameters in the overall performance. In this way, a parametric study is carried out taking into account the variation of the oxidizer mass flux rate, the ratio of oxidizer mass flow rate injected through the inner tube to the total oxidizer mass flow rate, and injection angle. The data for the analysis have been gathered from a large series of three-dimensional numerical simulations that considered the changes in the design parameters. The propellant combination adopted consists of gaseous oxygen as oxidizer and high-density polyethylene as solid fuel. Furthermore, the numerical model comprises Navier-Stokes equations, k-ε turbulence model, eddy-dissipation combustion model and solid-fuel pyrolysis, which is computed through user-defined functions. This numerical model was previously validated by analyzing the computational and experimental results obtained for

  15. High Impulse Nanoparticulate-Based Gel Propellants, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I addresses the development of advanced gel propellants and determination of their suitability for...

  16. Slip control for LIM propelled transit vehicles (United States)

    Wallace, A. K.; Parker, J. H.; Dawson, G. E.


    Short stator linear induction motors, with an iron-backed aluminum sheet reaction rail and powered by a controlled inverter, have been selected as the propulsion system for transit vehicles in an intermediate capacity system (12-20,000 pphpd). The linear induction motor is capable of adhesion independent braking and acceleration levels which permit safe, close headways. In addition, simple control is possible allowing moving block automatic train control. This paper presents a slip frequency control scheme for the LIM. Experimental results for motoring and braking obtained from a test vehicle are also presented. These values are compared with theoretical predictions.

  17. 75 FR 62333 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Propellers Model 247F Propellers (United States)


    ...., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this proposed AD, the regulatory... that the 247F propeller blades, P/N 817370-1, S/Ns FR2449 to FR2958 inclusive, FR20010710 to FR20010722 inclusive, and FR20010723RT to FR20020127RT inclusive, manufactured since January 1999, might also have...

  18. 76 FR 25534 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Propellers Model 247F Propellers (United States)


    ... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this AD, the... through FR2279 inclusive, FR 2398, FR2449 to FR2958 inclusive, FR20010710 to FR20010722 inclusive, and FR20010723RT to FR20020127RT inclusive, installed. Propeller blades reworked to Hamilton Sundstrand Service...

  19. Thermal Vacuum Test Correlation of A Zero Propellant Load Case Thermal Capacitance Propellant Gauging Analytics Model (United States)

    McKim, Stephen A.


    This thesis describes the development and test data validation of the thermal model that is the foundation of a thermal capacitance spacecraft propellant load estimator. Specific details of creating the thermal model for the diaphragm propellant tank used on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft using ANSYS and the correlation process implemented to validate the model are presented. The thermal model was correlated to within plus or minus 3 degrees Centigrade of the thermal vacuum test data, and was found to be relatively insensitive to uncertainties in applied heat flux and mass knowledge of the tank. More work is needed, however, to refine the thermal model to further improve temperature predictions in the upper hemisphere of the propellant tank. Temperatures predictions in this portion were found to be 2-2.5 degrees Centigrade lower than the test data. A road map to apply the model to predict propellant loads on the actual MMS spacecraft toward its end of life in 2017-2018 is also presented.

  20. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas


    anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light...... propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation...

  1. PHM Enabled Autonomous Propellant Loading Operations (United States)

    Walker, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando


    The utility of Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) software capability applied to Autonomous Operations (AO) remains an active research area within aerospace applications. The ability to gain insight into which assets and subsystems are functioning properly, along with the derivation of confident predictions concerning future ability, reliability, and availability, are important enablers for making sound mission planning decisions. When coupled with software that fully supports mission planning and execution, an integrated solution can be developed that leverages state assessment and estimation for the purposes of delivering autonomous operations. The authors have been applying this integrated, model-based approach to the autonomous loading of cryogenic spacecraft propellants at Kennedy Space Center.

  2. High Power Flex-Propellant Arcjet Performance (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.


    A MW-class electrothermal arcjet based on a water-cooled, wall-stabilized, constricted arc discharge configuration was subjected to extensive performance testing using hydrogen and simulated ammonia propellants with the deliberate aim of advancing technology readiness level for potential space propulsion applications. The breadboard design incorporates alternating conductor/insulator wafers to form a discharge barrel enclosure with a 2.5-cm internal bore diameter and an overall length of approximately 1 meter. Swirling propellant flow is introduced into the barrel, and a DC arc discharge mode is established between a backplate tungsten cathode button and a downstream ringanode/ spin-coil assembly. The arc-heated propellant then enters a short mixing plenum and is accelerated through a converging-diverging graphite nozzle. This innovative design configuration differs substantially from conventional arcjet thrusters, in which the throat functions as constrictor and the expansion nozzle serves as the anode, and permits the attainment of an equilibrium sonic throat (EST) condition. During the test program, applied electrical input power was varied between 0.5-1 MW with hydrogen and simulated ammonia flow rates in the range of 4-12 g/s and 15-35 g/s, respectively. The ranges of investigated specific input energy therefore fell between 50-250 MJ/kg for hydrogen and 10-60 MJ/kg for ammonia. In both cases, observed arc efficiencies were between 40-60 percent as determined via a simple heat balance method based on electrical input power and coolant water calorimeter measurements. These experimental results were found to be in excellent agreement with theoretical chemical equilibrium predictions, thereby validating the EST assumption and enabling the utilization of standard TDK nozzle expansion analyses to reliably infer baseline thruster performance characteristics. Inferred specific impulse performance accounting for recombination kinetics during the expansion process

  3. Shock loading and reactive flow modeling studies of void induced AP/AL/HTPB propellant (United States)

    Miller, P. J.; Lindfors, A. J.


    The unreactive Hugoniot of a class 1.3 propellant has been investigated by shock compression experiments. The results are analyzed in terms of an ignition and growth reactive flow model using the DYNA2D hydrocode. The calculated shock ignition parameters of the model show a linear dependence on measured void volume which appears to reproduce the observed gauge records well. Shock waves were generated by impact in a 75 mm single stage powder gun. Manganin and PVDF pressure gauges provided pressure-time histories to 140 kbar. The propellants were of similar formulation differing only in AP particle size and the addition of a burn rate modifer (Fe2O3) from that of previous investigations. Results show neglible effect of AP particle size on shock response in contrast to the addition of Fe2O3 which appears to `stiffen' the unreactive Hugoniot and enhances significantly the reactive rates under shock. The unreactive Hugoniot, within experimental error, compares favorably to the solid AP Hugoniot. Shock experiments were performed on propellant samples strained to induce insitu voids. The material state was quantified by uniaxial tension dialatometry. The experimental records show a direct correlation between void volume (0 to 1.7%) and chemical reactivity behind the shock front. These results are discussed in terms of `hot spot' ignition resulting from the shock collapse of the voids.

  4. Radiative Ignition of fine-ammonium perchlorate composite propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, Jeremy; Brewster, M. Quinn [Department of Mechanical Science and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)


    Radiative ignition of quasi-homogeneous mixtures of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and hydroxyterminated polybutadiene (HTPB) binder has been investigated experimentally. Solid propellants consisting of fine AP (2 {mu}m) and HTPB binder ({proportional_to}76/24% by mass) were ignited by CO{sub 2} laser radiation. The lower boundary of a go/no-go ignition map (minimum ignition time vs. heat flux) was obtained. Opacity was varied by adding carbon black up to 1% by mass. Ignition times ranged from 0.78 s to 0.076 s for incident fluxes ranging from 60 W/cm{sup 2} to 400 W/cm{sup 2}. It was found that AP and HTPB are sufficiently strongly absorbing of 10.6 {mu}m CO{sub 2} laser radiation (absorption coefficient {approx}250 cm{sup -1}) so that the addition of carbon black in amounts typical of catalysts or opacitymodifying agents (up to 1%) would have only a small influence on radiative ignition times at 10.6 {mu}m. A simple theoretical analysis indicated that the ignition time-flux data are consistent with in-depth absorption effects. Furthermore, this analysis showed that the assumption of surface absorption is not appropriate, even for this relatively opaque system. For broadband visible/near-infrared radiation, such as from burning metal/oxide particle systems, the effects of in-depth absorption would probably be even stronger. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Blade Section Lift Coefficients for Propellers at Extreme Off-Design Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Young


    The Propeller Force Module (PFM) code developed by Analytical Methods Inc. (AMI) for calculating propeller side forces during maneuvering simulation studies requires inputs of propeller blade sectional lift, drag, and moment data...

  6. Mars Propellant Liquefaction Modeling in Thermal Desktop (United States)

    Desai, Pooja; Hauser, Dan; Sutherlin, Steven


    NASAs current Mars architectures are assuming the production and storage of 23 tons of liquid oxygen on the surface of Mars over a duration of 500+ days. In order to do this in a mass efficient manner, an energy efficient refrigeration system will be required. Based on previous analysis NASA has decided to do all liquefaction in the propulsion vehicle storage tanks. In order to allow for transient Martian environmental effects, a propellant liquefaction and storage system for a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) was modeled using Thermal Desktop. The model consisted of a propellant tank containing a broad area cooling loop heat exchanger integrated with a reverse turbo Brayton cryocooler. Cryocooler sizing and performance modeling was conducted using MAV diurnal heat loads and radiator rejection temperatures predicted from a previous thermal model of the MAV. A system was also sized and modeled using an alternative heat rejection system that relies on a forced convection heat exchanger. Cryocooler mass, input power, and heat rejection for both systems were estimated and compared against sizing based on non-transient sizing estimates.

  7. Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous extraterrestrial propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.


    A preliminary examination of a concept for a Mars and outer solar system exploratory vehicle is presented. Propulsion is provided by utilizing a nuclear thermal reactor to heat a propellant volatile indigenous to the destination world to form a high thrust rocket exhaust. Candidate propellants, whose performance, materials compatibility, and ease of acquisition are examined and include carbon dioxide, water, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and argon. Ballistics and winged supersonic configurations are discussed. It is shown that the use of this method of propulsion potentially offers high payoff to a manned Mars mission. This is accomplished by sharply reducing the initial mission mass required in low earth orbit, and by providing Mars explorers with greatly enhanced mobility in traveling about the planet through the use of a vehicle that can refuel itself each time it lands. Thus, the nuclear landing craft is utilized in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear-thermal interplanetary launch. By utilizing such a system in the outer solar system, a low level aerial reconnaissance of Titan combined with a multiple sample return from nearly every satellite of Saturn can be accomplished in a single launch of a Titan 4 or the Space Transportation System (STS). Similarly a multiple sample return from Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa can also be accomplished in one launch of a Titan 4 or the STS

  8. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variable and reversible pitch propellers. 35.21 Section 35.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.21 Variable and...

  9. Prediction of propeller-induced hull-pressure fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijngaarden, H.C.J.


    The cavitating propeller often forms the primary source of noise and vibration on board ships. The propeller induces hydroacoustic pressure fluctuations due to the passing blades and, more importantly, the dynamic activity of cavities in the propeller’s immediate vicinity. The accurate prediction of

  10. Self-propelled oil droplets consuming "fuel" surfactant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyota, Taro; Maru, Naoto; Hanczyc, Martin M


    A micrometer-sized oil droplet of 4-octylaniline containing 5 mol % of an amphiphilic catalyst exhibited a self-propelled motion, producing tiny oil droplets, in an aqueous dispersion of an amphiphilic precursor of 4-octylaniline. The tiny droplets on the surface of the self-propelled droplet wer...

  11. Propellant and Purge System Contamination "2007: A Summer of Fun" (United States)

    Galloway, Randy


    This slide presentation reviews the propellant and purge system contamination that occurred during the summer of 2007 at Stennis Space Center. During this period Multiple propellant/pressurant system contamination events prompted a thorough investigation, the results of which are reviewed.

  12. Propeller flaps for lower-limb trauma | Rogers | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The propeller flap has become a versatile and important component in our reconstructive algorithm following complex lower limb trauma. First described by Hyakusoku in 1991, it has since been adapted and modified by Hallock and Teo. This article outlines our experience specifically with perforator pedicled propeller flaps ...

  13. Current state of the art of HNF based composite propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciucci, A.; Frota, O.; Welland, W.H.M.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Leeming, B.; Bellerby, J.M.; Brotzu, A.


    The main activities currently performed for the development of HNF-based propellants are presented. The objectives and approach adopted are described. The results obtained on the HNF decomposition mechanism and on the re- and co-crystallisation of HNF with potential propellant ingredients are

  14. Jidosha's Motors


    Shirakawa Okuma, Rosely; Calderón Orejuela, Javier


    La tesis narra la situación de una empresa concesionaria de vehículos nuevos, Jidosha's Motors, perteneciente a una corporación japonesa que cuenta con una cultura muy arraigada de ética y de cumplimiento. Se plantean respuestas, se identifican problemas y sus alternativas de solución para una toma adecuada de decisiones por parte de los directivos, siguiendo una estructura de análisis de situaciones de negocios (ASN). Tesis

  15. EFD and CFD Characterization of a CLT Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bertetta


    Full Text Available In the present paper an experimental and numerical analysis of an unconventional CLT propeller is carried out. Two different numerical approaches, a potential panel method and an RANSE solver, are employed. Cavitation tunnel experiments are carried out in order to measure, as usual, thrust, torque, and cavity extension for different propeller working points. Moreover, LDV measurements are performed to have a deep insight into the complex wake behind the propeller and to analyze the dynamics of generated tip vortexes. The numerical/experimental analysis and comparison of results highlight the peculiarities of this kind of propellers, the possibility to increase efficiency and reduce cavitation risk, in order to exploit the design approaches already well proven for conventional propellers also in the case of these unconventional geometries.

  16. Image based measurement techniques for aircraft propeller flow diagnostics : Propeller slipstream investigations at high-lift conditions and thrust reverse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosenboom, E.W.M.


    The aim of the thesis is to measure the propeller slipstream properties (velocity and vorticity) and to assess the unsteady and instantaneous behavior of the propeller flow field at high disk loadings, zero thrust and thrust reverse using the image based measurement techniques. Along with its

  17. Possibilities of Using Hydrogen as Motor Vehicle Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Bukljaš


    Full Text Available Hydrogen is the fuel of the future, since it is the element ofwater (H20 whichsun·ounds us and the resources of which areunlimited. First water is divided into hydrogen and oxygen. Thepaper presents the laboratory and industrial methods of obtain·ing hydrogen, types of fuel cells for various purposes, hydrogen-propelled motor vehicles, as well as advantages and drawbacksof hydrogen used as fuel under the conditions that haveto be met in order to use it as propulsion energy for motor vehicles.

  18. NASA's Space Launch System: Developing the World's Most Powerful Solid Booster (United States)

    Priskos, Alex


    NASA's Journey to Mars has begun. Indicative of that challenge, this will be a multi-decadal effort requiring the development of technology, operational capability, and experience. The first steps are under way with more than 15 years of continuous human operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and development of commercial cargo and crew transportation capabilities. NASA is making progress on the transportation required for deep space exploration - the Orion crew spacecraft and the Space Launch System (SLS) heavy-lift rocket that will launch Orion and large components such as in-space stages, habitat modules, landers, and other hardware necessary for deep-space operations. SLS is a key enabling capability and is designed to evolve with mission requirements. The initial configuration of SLS - Block 1 - will be capable of launching more than 70 metric tons (t) of payload into low Earth orbit, greater mass than any other launch vehicle in existence. By enhancing the propulsion elements and larger payload fairings, future SLS variants will launch 130 t into space, an unprecedented capability that simplifies hardware design and in-space operations, reduces travel times, and enhances the odds of mission success. SLS will be powered by four liquid fuel RS-25 engines and two solid propellant five-segment boosters, both based on space shuttle technologies. This paper will focus on development of the booster, which will provide more than 75 percent of total vehicle thrust at liftoff. Each booster is more than 17 stories tall, 3.6 meters (m) in diameter and weighs 725,000 kilograms (kg). While the SLS booster appears similar to the shuttle booster, it incorporates several changes. The additional propellant segment provides additional booster performance. Parachutes and other hardware associated with recovery operations have been deleted and the booster designated as expendable for affordability reasons. The new motor incorporates new avionics, new propellant

  19. Relativistic Spacecraft Propelled by Directed Energy (United States)

    Kulkarni, Neeraj; Lubin, Philip; Zhang, Qicheng


    Achieving relativistic flight to enable extrasolar exploration is one of the dreams of humanity and the long-term goal of our NASA Starlight program. We derive a relativistic solution for the motion of a spacecraft propelled by radiation pressure from a directed energy (DE) system. Depending on the system parameters, low-mass spacecraft can achieve relativistic speeds, thus enabling interstellar exploration. The diffraction of the DE system plays an important role and limits the maximum speed of the spacecraft. We consider “photon recycling” as a possible method to achieving higher speeds. We also discuss recent claims that our previous work on this topic is incorrect and show that these claims arise from an improper treatment of causality.

  20. Experimental research on air propellers V (United States)

    Durand, W F; Lesley, E P


    In previous reports on experimental research on air propellers, by W. F. Durand and E. P. Lesley, as contained in the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics reports nos. 14, 30, and 64, the investigations were made progressively and each without reference to results given in preceding reports and covering only information relating to forms perhaps adjacent in geometrical form and proportion. This report is a review of the entire series of results of the preceding reports with a view of examining through graphical and other appropriate means the nature of the history of the characteristics of operation as related to the systematic variations in characteristics of forms, etc., through the series of such characteristics.

  1. Space shuttle aps propellant thermal conditioner study (United States)

    Fulton, D. L.


    An analytical and experimental effort was completed to evaluate a baffle type thermal conditioner for superheating O2 and H2 at supercritical pressures. The thermal conditioner consisted of a heat exchanger and an integral reactor (gas generator) operating on O2/H2 propellants. Primary emphasis was placed on the hydrogen conditioner with some effort on the oxygen conditioner and a study completed of alternate concepts for use in conditioning oxygen. A hydrogen conditioner was hot fire tested under a range of conditions to establish ignition, heat exchange and response parameters. A parallel technology task was completed to further evaluate the integral reactor and heat exchanger with the side mounted electrical spark igniter.

  2. A review of research in low earth orbit propellant collection (United States)

    Singh, Lake A.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.


    This comprehensive review examines the efforts of previous researchers to develop concepts for propellant-collecting spacecraft, estimate the performance of these systems, and understand the physics involved. Rocket propulsion requires the spacecraft to expend two fundamental quantities: energy and propellant mass. A growing number of spacecraft collect the energy they need to execute propulsive maneuvers in-situ with solar panels. In contrast, every spacecraft using rocket propulsion has carried all of the propellant mass needed for the mission from the ground, which limits the range and mission capabilities. Numerous researchers have explored the concept of collecting propellant mass while in space. These concepts have varied in scale and complexity from chemical ramjets to fusion-driven interstellar vessels. Research into propellant-collecting concepts occurred in distinct eras. During the Cold War, concepts tended to be large, complex, and nuclear powered. After the Cold War, concepts transitioned to solar power sources and more effort has been devoted to detailed analysis of specific components of the propellant-collecting architecture. By detailing the major contributions and limitations of previous work, this review concisely presents the state-of-the-art and outlines five areas for continued research. These areas include air-compatible cathode technology, techniques to improve propellant utilization on atmospheric species, in-space compressor and liquefaction technology, improved hypersonic and hyperthermal free molecular flow inlet designs, and improved understanding of how design parameters affect system performance.

  3. Investigation of Post-Flight Solid Rocket Booster Thermal Protection System (United States)

    Nelson, Linda A.


    After every Shuttle mission, the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) are recovered and observed for missing material. Most of the SRB is covered with a cork-based thermal protection material (MCC-l). After the most recent shuttle mission, STS-114, the forward section of the booster appeared to have been impacted during flight. The darkened fracture surfaces indicated that this might have occurred early in flight. The scope of the analysis included microscopic observations to assess the degree of heat effects and locate evidence of the impact source as well as chemical analysis of the fracture surfaces and recovered foreign material using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. The amount of heat effects and presence of soot products on the fracture surface indicated that the material was impacted prior to SRB re-entry into the atmosphere. Fragments of graphite fibers found on these fracture surfaces were traced to slag inside the Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) that forms during flight as the propellant is spent and is ejected throughout the descent of the SRB after separation. The direction of the impact mark matches with the likely trajectory of SRBs tumbling prior to re-entry.

  4. Enhanced propellant performance via environmentally friendly curable surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning


    Full Text Available Surface coating of granular propellants is widely used in a multiplicity of propellants for small, medium and large caliber ammunition. All small caliber ball propellants exhibit burning progressivity due to application of effective deterrent coatings. Large perforated propellant grains have also begun utilizing plasticizing and impregnated deterrent coatings with the purpose of increasing charge weights for greater energy and velocity for the projectile. The deterrent coating and impregnation process utilizes volatile organic compounds (VOCs and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs which results in propellants that need to be forced air dried which impacts air quality. Propellants undergo temperature fluctuations during their life. Diffusion coefficients vary exponentially with variations in temperature. A small temperature increase can induce a faster migration, even over a short period of time, which can lead to large deviations in the concentration. This large concentration change in the ammunition becomes a safety or performance liability. The presence of both polymeric deterrents and nitroglycerin(NG in the nitrocellulose matrix and organic solvents leads to higher diffusion rates. This results in continued emissions of VOCs and HAPs. Conventional polymers tend to partition within the propellant matrix. In other words, localized mixing can occur between the polymer and underlying propellant. This is due to solvent induced softening of the polymer vehicle over the propellant grain. In effect this creates a path where migration can occur. Since nitrate esters, like NG, are relatively small, it can exude to the surface and create a highly unstable and dangerous situation for the warfighter. Curable polymers do not suffer from this partitioning due to “melting” because no VOC solvents are present. They remain surface coated. The small scale characterization testing, such as closed bomb testing, small scale sensitivity, thermal stability, and

  5. Discovery Of B Ring Propellers In Cassini UVIS, And ISS (United States)

    Sremcevic, Miodrag; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.


    We present evidence for the existence of propellers in Saturn's B ring by combining data from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) experiments. We identify two propeller populations: (1) tens of degrees wide propellers in the dense B ring core, and (2) smaller, more A ring like, propellers populating the inner B ring. The prototype of the first population is an object observed at 18 different epochs between 2005 and 2010. The ubiquitous propeller "S" shape is seen both in UVIS occultations as an optical depth depletion and in ISS as a 40 degrees wide bright stripe in unlit geometries and dark in lit geometries. Combining the available Cassini data we infer that the object is a partial gap embedded in the high optical depth region of the B ring. The gap moves at orbital speed consistent with its radial location. From the radial separation of the propeller wings we estimate that the embedded body, which causes the propeller structure, is about 1.5km in size located at a=112,921km. The UVIS occultations indicate an asymmetric propeller "S" shape. Since the object is located at an edge between high and relatively low optical depth, this asymmetry is most likely a consequence of the strong surface mass density gradient. We estimate that there are possibly dozen up to 100 other propeller objects in Saturn's B ring. The location of the discovered body, at an edge of a dense ringlet within the B ring, suggests a novel mechanism for the up to now illusive B ring irregular large-scale structure of alternating high and low optical depth ringlets. We propose that this B ring irregular structure may have its cause in the presence of many embedded bodies that shepherd the individual B ring ringlets.

  6. Prevention of Dealloying in Manganese Aluminium Bronze Propeller: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napachat Tareelap


    Full Text Available Due to the failure of manganese aluminium bronze (MAB propeller caused by dealloying corrosion as described in Part I [1], this work aims to study the prevention of dealloying corrosion using aluminium and zinc sacrificial anodes. The results indicated that both of the sacrificial anodes could prevent the propeller from dealloying. Moreover, the dealloying in seawater was less than that found in brackish water. It was possible that hydroxide ions, from cathodic reaction, reacted with calcium in seawater to form calcium carbonate film protecting the propeller from corrosion.

  7. Air propellers and their environmental problems on ACV's (United States)

    Soley, D. H.

    The development of ACV blade protection against erosion, both on the propeller blade faces and leading edge, is considered. Polyurethane spray coating is now the standard protection applied to all Dowty Rotol propellers, with thicknesses from 0.015-0.020 on aircraft, and up to 0.080 on the ACV. The bolt-on guard reduced leading edge replacement time by 50 percent, and makes possible replacement in all weather conditions. Typical damage and repairs to ACV blades are discussed, and the propeller installation on the LCAC craft being built for the U.S. Navy is addressed.

  8. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.


    A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs

  9. Impact initiation of explosives and propellants via statistical crack mechanics (United States)

    Dienes, J. K.; Zuo, Q. H.; Kershner, J. D.


    A statistical approach has been developed for modeling the dynamic response of brittle materials by superimposing the effects of a myriad of microcracks, including opening, shear, growth and coalescence, taking as a starting point the well-established theory of penny-shaped cracks. This paper discusses the general approach, but in particular an application to the sensitivity of explosives and propellants, which often contain brittle constituents. We examine the hypothesis that the intense heating by frictional sliding between the faces of a closed crack during unstable growth can form a hot spot, causing localized melting, ignition, and fast burn of the reactive material adjacent to the crack. Opening and growth of a closed crack due to the pressure of burned gases inside the crack and interactions of adjacent cracks can lead to violent reaction, with detonation as a possible consequence. This approach was used to model a multiple-shock experiment by Mulford et al. [1993. Initiation of preshocked high explosives PBX-9404, PBX-9502, PBX-9501, monitored with in-material magnetic gauging. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Detonation Symposium, pp. 459-467] involving initiation and subsequent quenching of chemical reactions in a slab of PBX 9501 impacted by a two-material flyer plate. We examine the effects of crack orientation and temperature dependence of viscosity of the melt on the response. Numerical results confirm our theoretical finding [Zuo, Q.H., Dienes, J.K., 2005. On the stability of penny-shaped cracks with friction: the five types of brittle behavior. Int. J. Solids Struct. 42, 1309-1326] that crack orientation has a significant effect on brittle behavior, especially under compressive loading where interfacial friction plays an important role. With a reasonable choice of crack orientation and a temperature-dependent viscosity obtained from molecular dynamics calculations, the calculated particle velocities compare well with those measured using

  10. Study of optimum propellant production facilities for launch of space shuttle vehicles (United States)

    Laclair, L. M.


    An integrated propellant manufacturing plant and distribution system located at Kennedy Space Center is studied. The initial planned propellant and pressurant production amounted to 160 tons/day (TPD) LH2, 10 TPD GH2, 800 TPD LO2, 400 TPD LN2, and 120 TPD GN2. This was based on a shuttle launch frequency of 104 per year. During the study, developments occurred which may lower cryogen requirements. A variety of plant and processing equipment sizes and costs are considered for redundancy and supply level considerations. Steam reforming is compared to partial oxidation as a means of generating hydrogen. Electric motors, steam turbines, and gas turbines are evaluated for driving compression equipment. Various sites on and off Government property are considered to determine tradeoffs between costs and problems directly associated with the site, product delivery and storage costs, raw material costs, and energy costs. Coproduction of other products such as deuterium, methanol, and ammonia are considered. Legal questions are discussed concerning a private company's liabilities and its rights to market commercial products under Government tax and cost shelters.

  11. Modeling and simulation of combustion chamber and propellant dynamics and issues in active control of combustion instabilities (United States)

    Isella, Giorgio Carlo

    A method for a comprehensive approach to analysis of the dynamics of an actively controlled combustion chamber, with detailed analysis of the combustion models for the case of a solid rocket propellant, is presented here. The objective is to model the system as interconnected blocks describing the dynamics of the chamber, combustion and control. The analytical framework for the analysis of the dynamics of a combustion chamber is based on spatial averaging, as introduced by Culick. Combustion dynamics are analyzed for the case of a solid propellant. Quasi-steady theory is extended to include the dynamics of the gas-phase and also of a surface layer. The models are constructed so that they produce a combustion response function for the solid propellant that can be immediately introduced in the our analytical framework. The principal objective mechanisms responsible for the large sensitivity, observed experimentally, of propellant response to small variations. We show that velocity coupling, and not pressure coupling, has the potential to be the mechanism responsible for that high sensitivity. We also discuss the effect of particulate modeling on the global dynamics of the chamber and revisit the interpretation of the intrinsic stability limit for burning of solid propellants. Active control is also considered. Particular attention is devoted to the effect of time delay (between sensing and actuation); several methods to compensate for it are discussed, with numerical examples based on the approximate analysis produced by our framework. Experimental results are presented for the case of a Dump Combustor. The combustor exhibits an unstable burning mode, defined through the measurement of the pressure trace and shadowgraph imaging. The transition between stable and unstable modes of operation is characterized by the presence of hysteresis, also observed in other experimental works, and hence not a special characteristic of this combustor. Control is introduced in the

  12. Fine motor control (United States)

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  13. Advanced electric motor technology flux mapping (United States)

    Doane, George B., III; Campbell, Warren; Dean, Garvin


    Design of electric motors which fulfill the needs of Thrust Vector Control (TVC) actuators used in large rocket propelled launch vehicles is covered. To accomplish this end the methodology of design is laid out in some detail. In addition a point design of a motor to fulfill the requirements of a certain actuator specified by MSFC is accomplished and reported upon. In the course of this design great stress has been placed on ridding the actuator of internally generated heat. To conduct the heat out of the motor use is made of the unique properties of the in house MSFC designed driving electronics. This property is that as along as they are operated in a quasi-linear mode the electronics nullify the effects of armature inductance as far as the phase of the armature current versus the rotor position is concerned. Actually the additional inductance due to the extended end turns in this design is of benefit because in the shorted armature failure mode the armature current in the fault (caused by the rotor flux sweeping past the armature) is diminished at a given rotor speed when compared to a more conventional motor with lower inductance. The magnetic circuit is analyzed using electromagnetic finite element methods.

  14. Advanced Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Propellant Storage Applications, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Materials Technology, Inc responds to the NASA solicitation Topic X9 entitled "Propulsion and Propellant Storage" under subtopic X9-01, "Long Term Cryogenic...

  15. Propellant Flow Actuated Piezoelectric Rocket Engine Igniter, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spark ignition of a bi-propellant rocket engine is a classic, proven, and generally reliable process. However, timing can be critical, and the control logic,...

  16. Propellant Flow Actuated Piezoelectric Rocket Engine Igniter, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under a Phase 1 effort, IES successfully developed and demonstrated a spark ignition concept where propellant flow drives a very simple fluid mechanical oscillator...

  17. Dynamical Model of Rocket Propellant Loading with Liquid Hydrogen (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A dynamical model describing the multi-stage process of rocket propellant loading has been developed. It accounts for both the nominal and faulty regimes of...

  18. Gun barrel erosion - Comparison of conventional and LOVA gun propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, A.C.; Leurs, O.


    The research department Energetic Materials within TNO Defence, Security and Safety is involved in the development and (safety and insensitive munitions) testing of conventional (nitro cellulose based) and thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) based gun propellants. Recently our testing capabilities have

  19. Particle swarm optimization: an alternative in marine propeller optimization? (United States)

    Vesting, F.; Bensow, R. E.


    This article deals with improving and evaluating the performance of two evolutionary algorithm approaches for automated engineering design optimization. Here a marine propeller design with constraints on cavitation nuisance is the intended application. For this purpose, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is adapted for multi-objective optimization and constraint handling for use in propeller design. Three PSO algorithms are developed and tested for the optimization of four commercial propeller designs for different ship types. The results are evaluated by interrogating the generation medians and the Pareto front development. The same propellers are also optimized utilizing the well established NSGA-II genetic algorithm to provide benchmark results. The authors' PSO algorithms deliver comparable results to NSGA-II, but converge earlier and enhance the solution in terms of constraints violation.

  20. Model-based Diagnostics for Propellant Loading Systems (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The loading of spacecraft propellants is a complex, risky operation. Therefore, diagnostic solutions are neces- sary to quickly identify when a fault occurs, so that...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Červinka


    Full Text Available The significance of the influence of operating propellers on the aircraft aerodynamic characteristics is well-known. Wind tunnel testing of an airplane model with operating propellers is a complex task regarding the required similarity of the full-scale and the model case. Matching sufficient similarity in axial and rotational velocities in the propeller slipstream is the primordial condition for the global aerodynamic similarity of the windtunnel testing. An example of the model power units with related devices is presented. Examples of the wind tunnel testing results illustrate the extent of the propeller influence on aerodynamic characteristics of an aircraft of unconventional configuration with power units positioned at the fuselage afterbody.

  2. Numerical Prediction of Hydromechanical Behaviour of Controllable Pitch Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Tarbiat


    Full Text Available The research described in this paper was carried out to predict hydrodynamic and frictional forces of controllable pitch propeller (CPP that bring about fretting problems in a blade bearing. The governing equations are Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS and are solved by OpenFOAM solver for hydrodynamic forces behind the ship’s wake. Frictional forces are calculated by practical mechanical formulae. Different advance velocities with constant rotational speed for blades are used to achieve hydrodynamic coefficients in open water and the wake behind the propeller. Results are compared at four different pitches. Detailed numerical results of 3D modelling of the propeller, hydrodynamic characteristics, and probability of the fretting motion in the propeller are presented. Results show that the probability of the fretting movement is related to the pitch.

  3. An Additively Manufactured Torch Igniter for Liquid Propellants (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Consistent and reliable rocket engine ignition has yet to be proven through an additively manufactured torch igniter for liquid propellants. The coupling of additive...

  4. A fractional calculus perspective of distributed propeller design (United States)

    Tenreiro Machado, J.; Galhano, Alexandra M.


    A new generation of aircraft with distributed propellers leads to operational performances superior to those exhibited by standard designs. Computational simulations and experimental tests show a reduction of fuel consumption and noise. This paper proposes an analogy between aerodynamics and electrical circuits. The model reveals properties similar to those of fractional-order systems and gives a deeper insight into the dynamics of multi-propeller coupling.

  5. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Engineering Development Unit Hydrogen Tank (United States)

    Werkheiser, Arthur


    The Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) project has been a long-running program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate to enhance the knowledge and technology related to handling cryogenic propellants, specifically liquid hydrogen. This particular effort, the CPST engineering development unit (EDU), was a proof of manufacturability effort in support of a flight article. The EDU was built to find and overcome issues related to manufacturability and collect data to anchor the thermal models for use on the flight design.

  6. PIV-based load determination in aircraft propellers


    Ragni, D.


    The thesis describes the application of particle image velocimetry (PIV) to study the aerodynamic loads of airfoils and aircraft propellers. The experimental work focuses on the development of a measurement procedure to infer the pressure of the flow field from the velocity distribution obtained by PIV velocimetry. The technique offers important advantages in aircraft propellers, since the loads can be locally inspected without the need to install pressure sensors and momentum balances in rot...

  7. Study on Combustion Characteristics and Propelling Projectile Motion Process of Bulk-Loaded Liquid Propellant (United States)

    Xue, Xiaochun; Yu, Yonggang; Mang, Shanshan


    Data are presented showing that the problem of gas-liquid interaction instability is an important subject in the combustion and the propellant projectile motion process of a bulk-loaded liquid propellant gun (BLPG). The instabilities themselves arise from the sources, including fluid motion, to form a combustion gas cavity called Taylor cavity, fluid turbulence and breakup caused by liquid motion relative to the combustion chamber walls, and liquid surface breakup arising from a velocity mismatch on the gas-liquid interface. Typically, small disturbances that arise early in the BLPG combustion interior ballistic cycle can become amplified in the absence of burn rate limiting characteristics. Herein, significant attention has been given to developing and emphasizing the need for better combustion repeatability in the BLPG. Based on this goal, the concept of using different geometries of the combustion chamber is introduced and the concept of using a stepped-wall structure on the combustion chamber itself as a useful means of exerting boundary control on the combustion evolution to thus restrain the combustion instability has been verified experimentally in this work. Moreover, based on this background, the numerical simulation is devoted to a special combustion issue under transient high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, namely, studying the combustion mechanism in a stepped-wall combustion chamber with full monopropellant on one end that is stationary and the other end can move at high speed. The numerical results also show that the burning surface of the liquid propellant can be defined geometrically and combustion is well behaved as ignition and combustion progressivity are in a suitable range during each stage in this combustion chamber with a stepped-wall structure.

  8. Low-Cost Propellant Launch to LEO from a Tethered Balloon - 'Propulsion Depots' Not 'Propellant Depots' (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Schneider, Evan G.; Vaughan, David A.; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Yu, Chi Yau


    As we have previously reported, it may be possible to launch payloads into low-Earth orbit (LEO) at a per-kilogram cost that is one to two orders of magnitude lower than current launch systems, using only a relatively small capital investment (comparable to a single large present-day launch). An attractive payload would be large quantities of high-performance chemical rocket propellant (e.g. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Hydrogen (LO2/LH2)) that would greatly facilitate, if not enable, extensive exploration of the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  9. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships (United States)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.


    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  10. WOW: light print, light propel, light point (United States)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew; Aabo, Thomas; Palima, Darwin


    We are presenting so-called Wave-guided Optical Waveguides (WOWs) fabricated by two-photon polymerization and capable of being optically manipulated into any arbitrary orientation. By integrating optical waveguides into the structures we have created freestanding waveguides which can be positioned anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation. In a broader context, this research shows that optically trapped micro-fabricated structures can potentially help bridge the diffraction barrier. This structure-mediated paradigm may be carried forward to open new possibilities for exploiting beams from far-field optics down to the sub-wavelength domain.

  11. Stereospecific Winding of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons into Trinacria Propellers. (United States)

    Mosca, Dario; Stopin, Antoine; Wouters, Johan; Demitri, Nicola; Bonifazi, Davide


    The stereospecific trimerization of enantiomerically pure binaphthols with hexakis(bromomethyl)benzene gives access in one step to enantiomerically pure molecular propellers, in which three binaphthyl rings are held together with dioxecine rings. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that three out the six naphthyl moieties are folded in a (EF) 3 -type arrangement held by three intramolecular C-H⋅⋅⋅π interactions. This slips outward the three remaining naphthyl rings in a blade-like fashion, just like in three-folded propeller components. This peculiar conformation shows striking similarity to the mythological Sicilian symbol of Trinacria, from which the name "trinacria propeller" derives. The propeller conformation is also preserved in chlorinated solutions, as displayed by the presence of a peak at 4.7 ppm typical of an aromatic proton resonance engaged in a C-H⋅⋅⋅π interaction. The denaturation of the propeller-like conformation is obtained at high temperature, corresponding to activation energy for the ring inversion of ca. 18.2 kcal mol -1 . Notably, halide-functionalized molecular propellers exposing I-atoms at the leading and trailing edges could be prepared stereo- and regiospecifically by choosing the relevant iodo-bearing BINOL derivative. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Numerical study of hub taper angle on podded propeller performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.F.; Veitch, B.; Bose, N.; Liu, P.


    Presently, the majority of podded propulsion systems are of the pulling type, because this type provides better hydrodynamic efficiency than the pushing type. There are several possible explanations for the better overall performance of a puller type podded propulsor. One is related to the difference in hub shape. Puller and pusher propellers have opposite hub taper angles, hence different hub and blade root shape. These differences cause changes in the flow condition and possibly influence the overall performance. The current study focuses on the variation in performance of pusher and puller propellers with the same blade sections, but different hub taper angles. A hyperboloidal low order source doublet steady/unsteady time domain panel method code was modified and used to evaluate effects of hub taper angle on the open water propulsive performance of some fixed pitch screw propellers used in podded propulsion systems. The modified code was first validated against measurements of two model propellers in terms of average propulsive performance and good agreement was found. Major findings include significant effects of hub taper angle on propulsive performance of tapered hub propellers and noticeable effects of hub taper angle on sectional pressure distributions of tapered hub propeller blades. (author)

  13. Effects of superhydrophobic surface on the propeller wake (United States)

    Choi, Hongseok; Lee, Jungjin; Park, Hyungmin


    This study investigates the change in propeller wake when the superhydrophobic surface is applied on the propeller blade. The propeller rotates in a quiescent water tank, facing its bottom, with a rotational Reynolds number of 96000. To measure the three-dimensional flow fields, we use stereo PIV and a water prism is installed at the camera-side tank wall. Two cameras are tilted 30 degrees from the normal axis of the tank wall, satisfying schiempflug condition. Superhydrophobic surface is made by coating hydrophobic nanoparticles on the propeller blade. Measurements are done on two vertical planes (at the center of propeller hub and the blade tip), and are ensemble averaged being classified by blade phase of 0 and 90 degrees. Velocity fluctuation, turbulent kinetic energy, and vorticity are evaluated. With superhydrophobic surface, it is found that the turbulence level is significantly (20 - 30 %) reduced with a small penalty (less than 5%) in the streamwise momentum (i.e., thrust) generation. This is because the cone shaped propeller wake gets narrower and organized vortex structures are broken with the superhydrophobic surfaces. More detailed flow analysis will be given. Supported by NRF (NRF-2016R1C1B2012775, NRF-2016M2B2A9A02945068) programs of Korea government.

  14. Studies of pellet acceleration with arc discharge heated propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuresko, D.D.


    An arc discharge has been utilized to heat gaseous propellants in a pneumatic pellet gun. A cylindrical arc chamber is interposed between the propellant inlet valve and the gun breech and fitted with a ceramic insert for generating swirl in the incoming gas stream. The arc is initiated after the propellant valve opens and the breech pressure starts to rise; a typical discharge lasts 300 microseconds with peak currents up to 2 kA at arc voltages ranging from 100-400 V. The system is instrumented with piezoelectric pressure transducers at the propellant valve outlet, gun breech, and gun muzzle. The gun has been operated with 4 mm diameter polyurethane foam pellets (density = 0.14 g/cm 3 ), a 40 cm-long barrel, and various gas propellants at pressures exceeding 70 bar. At I/sub arc/ = 1 kA, V/sub arc/ = 200 V, with helium propellant, the arc produces a 2-3 fold prompt increase in P/sub breech/ and a delayed increase in P/sub muzzle/; the pellets exit the gun from 0.5-1.0 ms earlier than with the gas alone at 40% higher speeds. Comparisons with the so-called ideal gun theory and with full one-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations of the pellet acceleration will be presented

  15. Studies of pellet acceleration with arc discharge heated propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuresko, D.D.


    An arc discharge has been utilized to heat gaseous propellants in a pneumatic pellet gun. A cylindrical arc chamber is interposed between the propellant inlet valve and the gun breech and fitted with a ceramic insert for generating swirl in the incoming gas stream. The arc is initiated after the propellant valve opens and the breech pressure starts to rise; a typical discharge lasts 300 microseconds with peak currents u to 2 kA at arc voltages ranging from 100 to 400 V. The system is instrumented with piezoelectric pressure transducers at the propellant valve outlet, gun breech, and gun muzzle. The gun has been operated with 4 mm diameter polyurethane foam pellets (density = 0.14 g/cm 3 ), a 40 cm-long barrel, and various gas propellants at pressures exceeding 70 bar. At I/sub arc/ = 1 kA, V/sub arc/ = 200 V, with helium propellant, the arc produces a 2 to 3 fold prompt increase in P/sub breech/ and a delayed increase in P/sub muzzle/; the pellets exit the gun from 0.5 to 1.0 ms earlier than with the gas alone at 40% higher speeds. Comparisons with the so-called ideal gun theory and with full one-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations of the pellet acceleration will be presented

  16. A Simple Method for High-Lift Propeller Conceptual Design (United States)

    Patterson, Michael; Borer, Nick; German, Brian


    In this paper, we present a simple method for designing propellers that are placed upstream of the leading edge of a wing in order to augment lift. Because the primary purpose of these "high-lift propellers" is to increase lift rather than produce thrust, these props are best viewed as a form of high-lift device; consequently, they should be designed differently than traditional propellers. We present a theory that describes how these props can be designed to provide a relatively uniform axial velocity increase, which is hypothesized to be advantageous for lift augmentation based on a literature survey. Computational modeling indicates that such propellers can generate the same average induced axial velocity while consuming less power and producing less thrust than conventional propeller designs. For an example problem based on specifications for NASA's Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology and Operations Research (SCEPTOR) flight demonstrator, a propeller designed with the new method requires approximately 15% less power and produces approximately 11% less thrust than one designed for minimum induced loss. Higher-order modeling and/or wind tunnel testing are needed to verify the predicted performance.

  17. Motor control for a brushless DC motor (United States)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)


    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  18. In-Bore Liquid Injection for Barrel Cooling: Comparison of Liquid and Solid Additives Using Constant Breach Pressure Ideal Gun Calculations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kotlar, Anthony


    .... These calculations give limiting values for projectile muzzle kinetic energy (KE), assuming complete mixing of the liquid additive and the solid propellant This is a worst-case scenario for the new concept to reduce gun barrel heating...

  19. performance characteristics of an armature voltage controlled dc motor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    . INTRODUCTION. The good control properties of the d.c. motor have made possible its initial large scale application in industry [1]. In spite of the present superiority of the solid state squirrel cage induction motor drive, especially at supply ...

  20. Ignition of Propellants Through Nanostructured Materials (United States)


    aluminum nano-particles and solid oxidizers such as ammonium perchlorate on the photo-ignition characteristics. We found that by mixing carbon...sensitive microphone (Piezotronic Inc. model S05692) for detection of any photo-acoustic signal, and an XYZ traversing stage with a filter wheel for

  1. Magnetically levitated railway with common reaction rail for a linear motor drive and an electro dynamic side guidance arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, R


    The invention concerns a magnetically levitated railway with common reaction rail for the linear motor drive and the electrical side guidance arrangement. While the electro-dynamic hovering process requires a high electrical conductivity of the reaction rails in order to reduce eddy current losses, these should show a relatively high resistance for the asynchronous linear motor to reduce losses of propelling force. These contradictory requirements can be fulfilled for a common reaction rail made of homogeneous material of high electrical conductivity according to the invention, by providing slits at right angles to the driving axis in the part of the reaction rail allocated to the linear motor. Thus the guidance system retains a low ohmic resistance, while the part of the reaction rail allocated to the windings of the linear motor has a relatively low ohmic secondary resistance, by which the border and end effects which reduce the propelling force can be appreciably reduced.

  2. Nanoconfined catalytic Ångström-size motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colberg, Peter H., E-mail:; Kapral, Raymond, E-mail: [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)


    Self-propelled chemically powered synthetic micron and nano-scale motors are being intensively studied because of the wide range of potential applications that exploit their directed motion. This paper considers even smaller Ångström-size synthetic motors. Such very small motors in bulk solution display effects arising from their self-propulsion. Recent experiments have shown that small-molecule catalysts and single enzyme molecules exhibit properties that have been attributed to their chemical activity. Molecular dynamics is used to investigate the properties of very small Ångström-size synthetic chemically powered sphere-dimer motors in a simple atomic-like solvent confined between walls separated by distances of tens of nanometers. Evidence for strong structural ordering of the motors between the walls, which reflects the finite size of solvent molecules and depends on solvent depletion forces, is provided. Dynamical properties, such as average motor velocity, orientational relaxation, and mean square displacement, are anisotropic and depend on the distance from the walls. This research provides information needed for potential applications that use molecular-scale motors in the complex confined geometries encountered in biology and the laboratory.

  3. Nanoconfined catalytic Ångström-size motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colberg, Peter H.; Kapral, Raymond


    Self-propelled chemically powered synthetic micron and nano-scale motors are being intensively studied because of the wide range of potential applications that exploit their directed motion. This paper considers even smaller Ångström-size synthetic motors. Such very small motors in bulk solution display effects arising from their self-propulsion. Recent experiments have shown that small-molecule catalysts and single enzyme molecules exhibit properties that have been attributed to their chemical activity. Molecular dynamics is used to investigate the properties of very small Ångström-size synthetic chemically powered sphere-dimer motors in a simple atomic-like solvent confined between walls separated by distances of tens of nanometers. Evidence for strong structural ordering of the motors between the walls, which reflects the finite size of solvent molecules and depends on solvent depletion forces, is provided. Dynamical properties, such as average motor velocity, orientational relaxation, and mean square displacement, are anisotropic and depend on the distance from the walls. This research provides information needed for potential applications that use molecular-scale motors in the complex confined geometries encountered in biology and the laboratory

  4. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)


    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  5. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)


    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  6. Characterization of Hall effect thruster propellant distributors with flame visualization (United States)

    Langendorf, S.; Walker, M. L. R.


    A novel method for the characterization and qualification of Hall effect thruster propellant distributors is presented. A quantitative measurement of the azimuthal number density uniformity, a metric which impacts propellant utilization, is obtained from photographs of a premixed flame anchored on the exit plane of the propellant distributor. The technique is demonstrated for three propellant distributors using a propane-air mixture at reservoir pressure of 40 psi (gauge) (377 kPa) exhausting to atmosphere, with volumetric flow rates ranging from 15-145 cfh (7.2-68 l/min) with equivalence ratios from 1.2 to 2.1. The visualization is compared with in-vacuum pressure measurements 1 mm downstream of the distributor exit plane (chamber pressure held below 2.7 × 10-5 Torr-Xe at all flow rates). Both methods indicate a non-uniformity in line with the propellant inlet, supporting the validity of the technique of flow visualization with flame luminosity for propellant distributor characterization. The technique is applied to a propellant distributor with a manufacturing defect in a known location and is able to identify the defect and characterize its impact. The technique is also applied to a distributor with numerous small orifices at the exit plane and is able to resolve the resulting non-uniformity. Luminosity data are collected with a spatial resolution of 48.2-76.1 μm (pixel width). The azimuthal uniformity is characterized in the form of standard deviation of azimuthal luminosities, normalized by the mean azimuthal luminosity. The distributors investigated achieve standard deviations of 0.346 ± 0.0212, 0.108 ± 0.0178, and 0.708 ± 0.0230 mean-normalized luminosity units respectively, where a value of 0 corresponds to perfect uniformity and a value of 1 represents a standard deviation equivalent to the mean.

  7. Unsteady Aerodynamic Investigation of the Propeller-Wing Interaction for a Rocket Launched Unmanned Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Q. Zhang


    Full Text Available The aerodynamic characteristics of propeller-wing interaction for the rocket launched UAV have been investigated numerically by means of sliding mesh technology. The corresponding forces and moments have been collected for axial wing placements ranging from 0.056 to 0.5D and varied rotating speeds. The slipstream generated by the rotating propeller has little effects on the lift characteristics of the whole UAV. The drag can be seen to remain unchanged as the wing's location moves progressively closer to the propeller until 0.056D away from the propeller, where a nearly 20% increase occurred sharply. The propeller position has a negligible effect on the overall thrust and torque of the propeller. The efficiency affected by the installation angle of the propeller blade has also been analyzed. Based on the pressure cloud and streamlines, the vortices generated by propeller, propeller-wing interaction, and wing tip have also been captured and analyzed.

  8. A Self-Propelled Wheel for Wheeled Vehicles. (United States)


    embodiments of both types, in 16 general the axial permanent magnet motors feature a stator disk, 17 or drum, with a central opening and electrical...6 In general, in radial permanent magnet motors , the stator is 7 annularly-shaped and is concentrically disposed around a 8 generally to provide a motor 6 assembly which is more efficient than the presently available 7 axial permanent magnet motors and radial permanent magnet motors 8

  9. A Theoretical Evaluation of Secondary Atomization Effects on Engine Performance for Aluminum Gel Propellants (United States)

    Mueller, D. C.; Turns, S. R.


    A one-dimensional model of a gel-fueled rocket combustion chamber has been developed. This model includes the processes of liquid hydrocarbon burnout, secondary atomization. aluminum ignition, and aluminum combustion. Also included is a model of radiative heat transfer from the solid combustion products to the chamber walls. Calculations indicate that only modest secondary atomization is required to significantly reduce propellant burnout distances, aluminum oxide residual size and radiation heat wall losses. Radiation losses equal to approximately 2-13 percent of the energy released during combustion were estimated. A two-dimensional, two-phase nozzle code was employed to estimate radiation and nozzle two-phase flow effects on overall engine performance. Radiation losses yielded a 1 percent decrease in engine I(sub sp). Results also indicate that secondary atomization may have less effect on two-phase losses than it does on propellant burnout distance and no effect if oxide particle coagulation and shear induced droplet breakup govern oxide particle size. Engine I(sub sp) was found to decrease from 337.4 to 293.7 seconds as gel aluminum mass loading was varied from 0-70 wt percent. Engine I(sub sp) efficiencies, accounting for radiation and two-phase flow effects, on the order of 0.946 were calculated for a 60 wt percent gel, assuming a fragmentation ratio of 5.

  10. Discharge characteristics of an ablative pulsed plasma thruster with non-volatile liquid propellant (United States)

    Ling, William Yeong Liang; Schönherr, Tony; Koizumi, Hiroyuki


    Pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs) are a form of electric spacecraft propulsion. They have an extremely simple structure and are highly suitable for nano/micro-spacecraft with weights in the kilogram range. Such small spacecraft have recently experienced increased growth but still lack suitable efficient propulsion systems. PPTs operate in a pulsed mode (one discharge = one shot) and typically use solid polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as a propellant. However, new non-volatile liquids in the perfluoropolyether (PFPE) family have recently been found to be promising alternatives. A recent study presented results on the physical characteristics of PFPE vs. PTFE, showing that PFPE is superior in terms of physical characteristics such as its resistance to carbon deposition. This letter will examine the electrical discharge characteristics of PFPE vs. PTFE. The results demonstrate that PFPE has excellent shot-to-shot repeatability and a lower discharge resistance when compared with PTFE. Taken together with its physical characteristics, PFPE appears to be a strong contender to PTFE as a PPT propellant.

  11. Producing propellants from water in lunar soil using solar lasers (United States)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    The exploration of the Solar System is directly related to the efficiency of engines designed to explore it, and consequently, to the propulsion techniques, materials and propellants for those engines. With the present day propulsion techniques it is necessary great quantities of propellants to impulse a manned spacecraft to Mars and beyond in the Solar System, which makes these operations financially very expensive because of the costs involved in launching it from planet Earth, due to its high gravity field strength. To solve this problem, it is needed a planetary place with smaller gravity field strength, near to the Earth and with great quantities of substances at the surface necessary for the in-situ production of propellants for spacecrafts. The only place available is Earth's natural satellite the Moon. So, here in this paper, I propose the creation of a Lunar Propellant Manufacturer. It is a robot-spacecraft which can be launched from Earth using an Energia Rocket, and to land on the Moon in an area (principally near to the north pole where it was discovered water molecules ice recently) with great quantities of oxygen and hydrogen (propellants) in the silicate soil, previously observed and mapped by spacecrafts in lunar orbit, for the extraction of those molecules from the soil and the in-situ production of the necessary propellants. The Lunar Propellant Manufacturer (LPM) spacecraft consists of: 1) a landing system with four legs (extendable) and rovers -when the spacecraft touches down, the legs retract in order that two apparatuses, analogue to tractor's wheeled belts parallel sided and below the spacecraft, can touch firmly the ground -it will be necessary for the displacement of the spacecraft to new areas with richer propellants content, when the early place has already exhausted in propellants; 2) a digging machine -a long, resistant extendable arm with an excavator hand, in the outer part of the spacecraft -it will extend itself to the ground

  12. Numerical Prediction of Magnetic Cryogenic Propellant Storage in Reduced Gravity (United States)

    Marchetta, J. G.; Hochstein, J. I.


    Numerical Prediction of Magnetic Cryogenic Propellant Storage in Reduced strong evidence that a magnetic positioning system may be a feasible alternative technology for use in the management of cryogenic propellants onboard spacecraft. The results of these preliminary studies have indicated that further investigation of the physical processes and potential reliability of such a system is required. The utility of magnetic fields as an alternative method in cryogenic propellant management is dependent on its reliability and flexibility. Simulations and experiments have previously yielded evidence in support of the magnetic positive positioning (MPP) process to predictably reorient LOX for a variety of initial conditions. Presently, though, insufficient evidence has been established to support the use of magnetic fields with respect to the long-term storage of cryogenic propellants. Current modes of propellant storage have met with a moderate level of success and are well suited for short duration missions using monopropellants. However, the storage of cryogenic propellants warrants additional consideration for long-term missions. For example, propellant loss during storage is due to vaporization by incident solar radiation and the vaporized ullage must be vented to prevent excessive pressurization of the tank. Ideally, positioning the fluid in the center of the tank away from the tank wall will reduce vaporization by minimizing heat transfer through the tank wall to the liquid. A second issue involves the capability of sustaining a stable fluid configuration at tank center under varying g-levels or perturbations propellant storage. Results presented herein include comparisons illustrating the influence of gravity, fluid volume, and the magnetic field on a paramagnetic fluid, LOX. The magnetic Bond number is utilized as predictive correlating parameter for investigating these processes. A dimensionless relationship between the Bom and Bo was sought with the goal of

  13. Equivalence Between Squirrel Cage and Sheet Rotor Induction Motor (United States)

    Dwivedi, Ankita; Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, R. K.


    Due to topological changes in dual stator induction motor and high cost of its fabrication, it is convenient to replace the squirrel cage rotor with a composite sheet rotor. For an experimental machine, the inner and outer stator stampings are normally available whereas the procurement of rotor stampings is quite cumbersome and is not always cost effective. In this paper, the equivalence between sheet/solid rotor induction motor and squirrel cage induction motor has been investigated using layer theory of electrical machines, so as to enable one to utilize sheet/solid rotor in dual port experimental machines.

  14. Plane boundary effects on characteristics of propeller jets (United States)

    Wei, Maoxing; Chiew, Yee-Meng; Hsieh, Shih-Chun


    The flow properties of a propeller jet in the presence of a plane bed boundary were investigated using the particle image velocimetry technique. Three clearance heights, Z b = 2 D p, D p, and 0.5 D p, where D p = propeller diameter, were used to examine boundary effects on the development of the jet. In each case, the mean flow properties and turbulence characteristics were measured in a larger field of view than those used in past studies. Both the streamwise and transverse flow fields were measured to obtain the three-dimensional characteristics of the propeller jet. Similar to a confined offset jet, the propeller jet also exhibits a wall attachment behavior when it is placed near a plane boundary. As a result, in contrast to its unconfined counterpart, the confined propeller jet features three regions, namely the free jet, impingement and wall jet regions. The study shows that the extent of each region varies under different clearance heights. The development of the mean flow and turbulence characteristics associated with varying clearance heights are compared to illustrate boundary effects in these regions. In the impingement region, the measured transverse flow fields provide new insights on the lateral motions induced by the impingement of the swirling jet. In the wall jet region, observations reveal that the jet behaves like a typical three-dimensional wall jet and its axial velocity profiles show good agreement with the classical wall jet similarity function.

  15. Reconstruction of pressure sores with perforator-based propeller flaps. (United States)

    Jakubietz, Rafael G; Jakubietz, Danni F; Zahn, Robert; Schmidt, Karsten; Meffert, Rainer H; Jakubietz, Michael G


    Perforator flaps have been successfully used for reconstruction of pressure sores. Although V-Y advancement flaps approximate debrided wound edges, perforator-based propeller flaps allow rotation of healthy tissue into the defect. Perforator-based propeller flaps were planned in 13 patients. Seven pressure sores were over the sacrum, five over the ischial tuberosity, and one on the tip of the scapula. Three patients were paraplegic, six were bedridden, and five were ambulatory. In three patients, no perforators were found. In 10 patients, propeller flaps were transferred. In two patients, total flap necrosis occurred, which was reconstructed with local advancement flaps. In two cases, a wound dehiscence occurred and had to be revised. One hematoma required evacuation. No further complications were noted. No recurrence at the flap site occurred. Local perforator flaps allow closure of pressure sores without harvesting muscle. The propeller version has the added benefit of transferring tissue from a distant site, avoiding reapproximation of original wound edges. Twisting of the pedicle may cause torsion and venous obstruction. This can be avoided by dissecting a pedicle of at least 3 cm. Propeller flaps are a safe option for soft tissue reconstruction of pressure sores. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  16. Recent Advances and Applications in Cryogenic Propellant Densification Technology (United States)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.


    This purpose of this paper is to review several historical cryogenic test programs that were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Cleveland, Ohio over the past fifty years. More recently these technology programs were intended to study new and improved denser forms of liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) cryogenic rocket fuels. Of particular interest are subcooled cryogenic propellants. This is due to the fact that they have a significantly higher density (eg. triple-point hydrogen, slush etc.), a lower vapor pressure and improved cooling capacity over the normal boiling point cryogen. This paper, which is intended to be a historical technology overview, will trace the past and recent development and testing of small and large-scale propellant densification production systems. Densifier units in the current GRC fuels program, were designed and are capable of processing subcooled LH2 and L02 propellant at the X33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) scale. One final objective of this technical briefing is to discuss some of the potential benefits and application which propellant densification technology may offer the industrial cryogenics production and end-user community. Density enhancements to cryogenic propellants (LH2, LO2, CH4) in rocket propulsion and aerospace application have provided the opportunity to either increase performance of existing launch vehicles or to reduce the overall size, mass and cost of a new vehicle system.

  17. Probing intracellular motor protein activity using an inducible cargo trafficking assay. (United States)

    Kapitein, Lukas C; Schlager, Max A; van der Zwan, Wouter A; Wulf, Phebe S; Keijzer, Nanda; Hoogenraad, Casper C


    Although purified cytoskeletal motor proteins have been studied extensively with the use of in vitro approaches, a generic approach to selectively probe actin and microtubule-based motor protein activity inside living cells is lacking. To examine specific motor activity inside living cells, we utilized the FKBP-rapalog-FRB heterodimerization system to develop an in vivo peroxisomal trafficking assay that allows inducible recruitment of exogenous and endogenous kinesin, dynein, and myosin motors to drive specific cargo transport. We demonstrate that cargo rapidly redistributes with distinct dynamics for each respective motor, and that combined (antagonistic) actions of more complex motor combinations can also be probed. Of importance, robust cargo redistribution is readily achieved by one type of motor protein and does not require the presence of opposite-polarity motors. Simultaneous live-cell imaging of microtubules and kinesin or dynein-propelled peroxisomes, combined with high-resolution particle tracking, revealed that peroxisomes frequently pause at microtubule intersections. Titration and washout experiments furthermore revealed that motor recruitment by rapalog-induced heterodimerization is dose-dependent but irreversible. Our assay directly demonstrates that robust cargo motility does not require the presence of opposite-polarity motors, and can therefore be used to characterize the motile properties of specific types of motor proteins. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Facility design consideration for continuous mix production of class 1.3 propellant (United States)

    Williamson, K. L.; Schirk, P. G.


    In November of 1989, NASA awarded the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) contract to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) for production of advanced solid rocket motors using the continuous mix process. Aerojet ASRM division (AAD) was selected as the facility operator and RUST International Corporation provided the engineering, procurement, and construction management services. The continuous mix process mandates that the mix and cast facilities be 'close-coupled' along with the premix facilities, creating unique and challenging requirements for the facility designer. The classical approach to handling energetic materials-division into manageable quantities, segregation, and isolation-was not available due to these process requirements and quantities involved. This paper provides a description of the physical facilities, the continuous mix process, and discusses the monitoring and detection techniques used to mitigate hazards and prevent an incident.

  19. Iodine Hall Thruster Propellant Feed System for a CubeSat (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.


    There has been significant work recently in the development of iodine-fed Hall thrusters for in-space propulsion applications.1 The use of iodine as a propellant provides many advantages over present xenon-gas-fed Hall thruster systems. Iodine is a solid at ambient temperature (no pressurization required) and has no special handling requirements, making it safe for secondary flight opportunities. It has exceptionally high ?I sp (density times specific impulse), making it an enabling technology for small satellite near-term applications and providing system level advantages over mid-term high power electric propulsion options. Iodine provides thrust and efficiency that are comparable to xenonfed Hall thrusters while operating in the same discharge current and voltage regime, making it possible to leverage the development of flight-qualified xenon Hall thruster power processing units for the iodine application. Work at MSFC is presently aimed at designing, integrating, and demonstrating a flight-like iodine feed system suitable for the Hall thruster application. This effort represents a significant advancement in state-of-the-art. Though Iodine thrusters have demonstrated high performance with mission enabling potential, a flight-like feed system has never been demonstrated and iodine compatible components do not yet exist. Presented in this paper is the end-to-end integrated feed system demonstration. The system includes a propellant tank with active feedback-control heating, fill and drain interfaces, latching and proportional flow control valves (PFCV), flow resistors, and flight-like CubeSat power and control electronics. Hardware is integrated into a CubeSat-sized structure, calibrated and tested under vacuum conditions, and operated under under hot-fire conditions using a Busek BHT-200 thruster designed for iodine. Performance of the system is evaluated thorugh accurate measurement of thrust and a calibrated of mass flow rate measurement, which is a function of

  20. Performance Analysis Rim Driven Propeller as a Propulsor using Open Water Test


    Agoes Santoso; Irfan Syarif Arief; Anggara Tio Kurniawan


    The use of duct in propeller is one of the breakthrough in the development of the propeller. Ducting not only claimed to be increasing efficiency of the propeller, but also capable to protect the propeller from impact therefore propeller lifespan is longer. From that idea then RDP is created. RDP propeller blade are designed to be fix at their housing called Rim, in the other word, the driving force came from it’s rim. On current RDP blade used is non-conventional blade. This thesis will disc...

  1. Induction motor for superconducting synchronous/asynchronous motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litz, D.C.; Haller, H.E. III.


    An induction motor structure for use on the outside of a superconducting rotor comprising a cylindrical shell of solid and laminated, magnetic iron with squirrel cage windings embedded in the outer circumference of said shell is described. The sections of the shell between the superconducting windings of the rotor are solid magnetic iron. The sections of the shell over the superconducting windings are made of laminations of magnetic iron. These laminations are parallel to the axis of the machine and are divided in halves with the laminations in each half oriented in diagonal opposition so that the intersection of the laminations forms a V. This structure presents a relatively high reluctance to leakage flux from the superconducting windings in the synchronous operating mode, while presenting a low reluctance path to the stator flux during asynchronous operation

  2. Wireless powering for a self-propelled and steerable endoscopic capsule for stomach inspection. (United States)

    Carta, R; Tortora, G; Thoné, J; Lenaerts, B; Valdastri, P; Menciassi, A; Dario, P; Puers, R


    This paper describes the integration of an active locomotion module in a wirelessly powered endoscopic capsule. The device is a submersible capsule optimized to operate in a fluid environment in a liquid-distended stomach. A 3D inductive link is used to supply up to 400mW to the embedded electronics and a set of 4 radio-controlled motor propellers. The design takes advantage of a ferrite-core in the receiving coil-set. This approach significantly improves the coupling with the external field source with respect to earlier work by the group. It doubles the power that can be received with a coreless coil-set under identical external conditions. The upper limit of the received power was achieved complying with the strict regulations for safe exposure of biological tissue to variable magnetic fields. The wireless transferred power was proven to be sufficient to achieve the speed of 7cm/s in any directions. An optimized locomotion strategy was defined which limits the power consumption by running only 2 motors at a time. A user interface and a joystick controller allow to fully drive the capsule in an intuitive manner. The device functionalities were successfully tested in a dry and a wet environment in a laboratory set-up.

  3. Joint High Speed Sealift (JHSS) Baseline Shaft & Strut (BSS) Model 5653-3: Series 2, Propeller Disk LDV Wake Survey; and Series 3, Stock Propeller Powering and Stern Flap Evaluation Experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cusanelli, Dominic S; Chesnakas, Christopher J


    ...) and Stock Propeller Powering and Stern Flap Evaluation tests (Series 3. In order to assist in the design of a propeller for the BSS hull, the nominal wakes in the inboard and outboard starboard propeller planes were measured using LDV...

  4. Comparison of the characteristics of granular propellant movement in interior ballistics based on the interphase drag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Oh, Seok Hawn; Roh, Tae Seong


    Interior ballistics are completed in tens of milliseconds, as are all gun-firing phenomena. Thus, some data cannot be measured directly through experimentation. Therefore, such complex gun-firing phenomena are traditionally clarified by numerical analysis. In the two phase flow of interior ballistics, interphase drag has a strong effect on propellant particle movement. This drag is a momentum sink in the gas phase and a corresponding source of momentum for the solid phase. Previous studies have calculated the drag force on the propellant particles using Ergun's empirical equation, which was developed for a dense bed and relates the drag to the pressure drop through porous media. However, the particulate bed is fluidized in the course of the cycle of interior ballistics, thus indicating that the flow field is ransient with regions of high Reynolds number beyond the range of experimental data. The Ergun equation is examined through a compensation study and calibrated based on the Reynolds number using the numerical method. Moreover, the influence of different drag models on flow behavior and propellant movement in interior ballistics is analyzed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Yarovenko


    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to develop the method for calculating the transient modes of electric ships’ propelling electric plants during maneuver. This will allow us to evaluate and improve the maneuverability of vessels with electric motion. Methodology. The solution to the problems is proposed to be carried out on the basis of mathematical modeling of maneuvering modes. The duration of transient modes in an electric power plant at electric ships’ maneuvers is commensurable with the transient operation modes of the vessel itself. Therefore, the analysis of the electric power plants’ maneuvering modes should be made in unity with all the components of the ship’s propulsion complex. Results. A specified mathematical model of transient regimes of electric ship’s propulsion complex, including thermal motors, synchronous generators, electric power converters, propulsion motors, propellers, rudder, ship’s hull is developed. The model is universal. It covers the vast majority of modern and promising electric ships with a traditional type of propulsors. It allows calculating the current values of the basic mode indicators and assessing the quality indicators of maneuvering. The model is made in relative units. Dimensionless parameters of the complex are obtained. These parameters influence the main indicators of the quality of maneuvering. The adequacy of the suggested specified mathematical model and the developed computation method based on it were confirmed. To do this, the results of mathematical modeling for a real electric ship were compared with the data obtained in the course of field experiments conducted by other researchers. Originality. The mathematical description of a generator unit, as an integral part of an indivisible ship’s propulsion complex, makes it possible to calculate the dynamic operation modes of electric power sources during electric vessels’ maneuvering. There is an opportunity to design the electric ships

  6. Propelling a water drop with the vapor-mediated Marangoni effect (United States)

    Kim, Seungho; Kim, Ho-Young


    We show that a water drop on solid surfaces can be propelled just by placing a volatile alcohol drop nearby. It is found to be because the water-air interface near the alcohol drop mixes with alcohol vapor, thereby locally lowering the surface tension. The surface-tension-gradient induces the motion of the water drop, enabling the trajectory control of water drops through the motion of remote alcohol drops. This vapor-mediated Marangoni effect also gives rise to other interesting interfacial flow phenomena, such as nucleation of holes on a water film and ballooning of a water drop hanging from a syringe needle with the approach of an alcohol drop. We visualize such interfacial dynamics with a high-speed camera and rationalize their salient features by scaling analysis. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (grant no. 2012-008023).

  7. Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Orthorhombic Ammonium Perchlorate (o-AP) and an 0-AP/HTPB-Based Propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    A study to characterize the low-temperature reactive processes for o-AP and an AP/HTPB-based propellant (class 1.3) is being conducted in the laboratory using the techniques of simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results presented in this paper are a follow up of the previous work that showed the overall decomposition to be complex and controlled by both physical and chemical processes. The decomposition is characterized by the occurrence of one major event that consumes up to(approx)35% of the AP, depending upon particle size, and leaves behind a porous agglomerate of AP. The major gaseous products released during this event include H(sub 2)O, O(sub 2), Cl(sub 2), N(sub 2)O and HCl. The recent efforts provide further insight into the decomposition processes for o-AP. The temporal behaviors of the gas formation rates (GFRs) for the products indicate that the major decomposition event consists of three chemical channels. The first and third channels are affected by the pressure in the reaction cell and occur at the surface or in the gas phase above the surface of the AP particles. The second channel is not affected by pressure and accounts for the solid-phase reactions characteristic of o-AP. The third channel involves the interactions of the decomposition products with the surface of the AP. SEM images of partially decomposed o-AP provide insight to how the morphology changes as the decomposition progresses. A conceptual model has been developed, based upon the STMBMS and SEM results, that provides a basic description of the processes. The thermal decomposition characteristics of the propellant are evaluated from the identities of the products and the temporal behaviors of their GFRs. First, the volatile components in the propellant evolve from the propellant as it is heated. Second, the hot AP (and HClO(sub 4)) at the AP-binder interface oxidize the binder through reactions that

  8. Flow measurement around a model ship with propeller and rudder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van, S H; Yoon, H S; Lee, Y Y; Park, I R [Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, KORDI, Marine Transportation Systems Laboratory, Daejeon (Korea); Kim, W J [Mokpo National University, Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Jeonnam (Korea)


    For the design of hull forms with better resistance and propulsive performance, it is essential to understand flow characteristics, such as wave and wake development, around a ship. Experimental data detailing the local flow characteristics are invaluable for the validation of the physical and numerical modeling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, which are recently gaining attention as efficient tools for hull form evaluation. This paper describes velocity and wave profiles measured in the towing tank for the KRISO 138,000 m{sup 3} LNG carrier model with propeller and rudder. The effects of propeller and rudder on the wake and wave profiles in the stern region are clearly identified. The results contained in this paper can provide an opportunity to explore integrated flow phenomena around a model ship in the self-propelled condition, and can be added to the International Towing Tank Conference benchmark data for CFD validation as the previous KCS and KVLCC cases. (orig.)

  9. Flow measurement around a model ship with propeller and rudder (United States)

    van, S. H.; Kim, W. J.; Yoon, H. S.; Lee, Y. Y.; Park, I. R.


    For the design of hull forms with better resistance and propulsive performance, it is essential to understand flow characteristics, such as wave and wake development, around a ship. Experimental data detailing the local flow characteristics are invaluable for the validation of the physical and numerical modeling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, which are recently gaining attention as efficient tools for hull form evaluation. This paper describes velocity and wave profiles measured in the towing tank for the KRISO 138,000 m3 LNG carrier model with propeller and rudder. The effects of propeller and rudder on the wake and wave profiles in the stern region are clearly identified. The results contained in this paper can provide an opportunity to explore integrated flow phenomena around a model ship in the self-propelled condition, and can be added to the International Towing Tank Conference benchmark data for CFD validation as the previous KCS and KVLCC cases.

  10. Wind tunnel tests of stratospheric airship counter rotating propellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxi Chen


    Full Text Available Aerodynamic performance of the high-altitude propeller, especially the counter rotation effects, is experimentally studied. Influences of different configurations on a stratospheric airship, included 2-blade counter-rotating propeller (CRP, dual 2-blade single rotation propellers (SRPs and 4-blade SRP, are also indicated. This research indicates that the effect of counter rotation can greatly improve the efficiency. It shows that the CRP configuration results in a higher efficiency than the dual 2-blade SRPs configuration or 4-blade SRP configuration under the same advance ratio, and the CRP configuration also gains the highest efficiency whether under the situation of providing the same trust or absorbing the same power. It concludes that, for a stratospheric airship, the CRP configuration is better than the multiple SRPs configuration or a multi-blade SRP one.

  11. Bifurcations of propellant burning rate at oscillatory pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novozhilov, Boris V. [N. N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Science, 4 Kosygina St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)


    A new phenomenon, the disparity between pressure and propellant burning rate frequencies, has revealed in numerical studies of propellant burning rate response to oscillatory pressure. As is clear from the linear approximation, under small pressure amplitudes, h, pressure and propellant burning rate oscillations occur with equal period T (T-solution). In the paper, however, it is shown that at a certain critical value of the parameter h the system in hand undergoes a bifurcation so that the T-solution converts to oscillations with period 2T (2T-solution). When the bifurcation parameter h increases, the subsequent behavior of the system becomes complicated. It is obtained a sequence of period doubling to 4T-solution and 8T-solution. Beyond a certain value of the bifurcation parameter h an apparently fully chaotic solution is found. These effects undoubtedly should be taken into account in studies of oscillatory processes in combustion chambers. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. The Effect of Slipstream Obstructions on Air Propellers (United States)

    Lesley, E P; Woods, B M


    The screw propeller on airplanes is usually placed near other objects, and hence its performance may be modified by them. Results of tests on propellers free from slip stream obstructions, both fore and aft, are therefore subject to correction, for the effect of such obstructions and the purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect upon the thrust and torque coefficients and efficiency, for previously tested air propellers, of obstructions placed in the slip stream, it being realized that such previous tests had been conducted under somewhat ideal conditions that are impracticable of realization in flight. Simple geometrical forms were used for the initial investigation. Such forms offered the advantage of easy, exact reproduction at another time or in other laboratories, and it was believed that the effects of obstructions usually encountered might be deduced or surmise from those chosen.

  13. Towards a renewal of the propeller in aeronautics (United States)

    Berger, D.; Jacquet, P.


    The reasons for reconsidering the propeller for aircraft propulsion, the areas of application, and necessary developments are considered. Rising fuel costs and an increasing theoretical and experimental data base for turboprop engines have demonstrated that significant cost savings can be realized by the use of propellers. Propellers are well-suited to powering aircraft traveling at speeds up to Mach 0.65. Work is progressing on the development of a 150 seat aircraft which has a cruise speed of Mach 0.8, powered by a turboprop attached to an engine of 15,000 shp. Aeroelasticity analyses ae necessary in order to characterize the behavior of thin profile propfan blades, particularly to predict the oscillations through the entire functional range. High-power reducers must be developed, and the level of cabin noise must be controlled to less than 90 dB. Commercial applications are predicted for turboprops in specific instances.

  14. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J


    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  15. Model Studies of the Dynamics of Bacterial Flagellar Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, F; Lo, C; Berry, R; Xing, J


    The Bacterial Flagellar Motor is a rotary molecular machine that rotates the helical filaments which propel swimming bacteria. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies exist on the structure, assembly, energy input, power generation and switching mechanism of the motor. In our previous paper, we explained the general physics underneath the observed torque-speed curves with a simple two-state Fokker-Planck model. Here we further analyze this model. In this paper we show (1) the model predicts that the two components of the ion motive force can affect the motor dynamics differently, in agreement with the latest experiment by Lo et al.; (2) with explicit consideration of the stator spring, the model also explains the lack of dependence of the zero-load speed on stator number in the proton motor, recently observed by Yuan and Berg; (3) the model reproduces the stepping behavior of the motor even with the existence of the stator springs and predicts the dwelling time distribution. Predicted stepping behavior of motors with two stators is discussed, and we suggest future experimental verification.

  16. Model Studies of the Dynamics of Bacterial Flagellar Motors (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Lo, Chien-Jung; Berry, Richard M.; Xing, Jianhua


    Abstract The bacterial flagellar motor is a rotary molecular machine that rotates the helical filaments that propel swimming bacteria. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies exist on the structure, assembly, energy input, power generation, and switching mechanism of the motor. In a previous article, we explained the general physics underneath the observed torque-speed curves with a simple two-state Fokker-Planck model. Here, we further analyze that model, showing that 1), the model predicts that the two components of the ion motive force can affect the motor dynamics differently, in agreement with latest experiments; 2), with explicit consideration of the stator spring, the model also explains the lack of dependence of the zero-load speed on stator number in the proton motor, as recently observed; and 3), the model reproduces the stepping behavior of the motor even with the existence of the stator springs and predicts the dwell-time distribution. The predicted stepping behavior of motors with two stators is discussed, and we suggest future experimental procedures for verification. PMID:19383460

  17. Nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, H.


    Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals, the crystal size of which is a few (typically 1 to 10) nanometres so that 50% or more of the solid consists of incoherent interfaces between crystals of different orientations. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures because the atomic arrangement formed in the core of an interface is known to be an arrangement of minimum energy in the potential field of the two adjacent crystal lattices with different crystallographic orientations on either side of the boundary core. These boundary conditions result in atomic structures in the interfacial cores which cannot be formed elsewhere (e.g. in glasses or perfect crystals). Nanocrystalline solids are of interest for the following four reasons: (1) Nanocrystalline solids exhibit an atomic structure which differs from that of the two known solid states: the crystalline (with long-range order) and the glassy (with short-range order). (2) The properties of nanocrystalline solids differ (in some cases by several orders of magnitude) from those of glasses and/or crystals with the same chemical composition, which suggests that they may be utilized technologically in the future. (3) Nanocrystalline solids seem to permit the alloying of conventionally immiscible components. (4) If small (1 to 10 nm diameter) solid droplets with a glassy structure are consolidated (instead of small crystals), a new type of glass, called nanoglass, is obtained. Such glasses seem to differ structurally from conventional glasses. (orig.)

  18. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A


    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  19. An investigation on thermal decomposition of DNTF-CMDB propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Wei; Wang, Jiangning; Ren, Xiaoning; Zhang, Laying; Zhou, Yanshui [Xi' an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Xi' an 710065 (China)


    The thermal decomposition of DNTF-CMDB propellants was investigated by pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). The results show that there is only one decomposition peak on DSC curves, because the decomposition peak of DNTF cannot be separated from that of the NC/NG binder. The decomposition of DNTF can be obviously accelerated by the decomposition products of the NC/NG binder. The kinetic parameters of thermal decompositions for four DNTF-CMDB propellants at 6 MPa were obtained by the Kissinger method. It is found that the reaction rate decreases with increasing content of DNTF. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Utilizing Solar Power Technologies for On-Orbit Propellant Production (United States)

    Fikes, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Henley, Mark W.


    The cost of access to space beyond low Earth orbit may be reduced if vehicles can refuel in orbit. The cost of access to low Earth orbit may also be reduced by launching oxygen and hydrogen propellants in the form of water. To achieve this reduction in costs of access to low Earth orbit and beyond, a propellant depot is considered that electrolyzes water in orbit, then condenses and stores cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen. Power requirements for such a depot require Solar Power Satellite technologies. A propellant depot utilizing solar power technologies is discussed in this paper. The depot will be deployed in a 400 km circular equatorial orbit. It receives tanks of water launched into a lower orbit from Earth, converts the water to liquid hydrogen and oxygen, and stores up to 500 metric tons of cryogenic propellants. This requires a power system that is comparable to a large Solar Power Satellite capable of several 100 kW of energy. Power is supplied by a pair of solar arrays mounted perpendicular to the orbital plane, which rotates once per orbit to track the Sun. The majority of the power is used to run the electrolysis system. Thermal control is maintained by body-mounted radiators; these also provide some shielding against orbital debris. The propellant stored in the depot can support transportation from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit, the Moon, LaGrange points, Mars, etc. Emphasis is placed on the Water-Ice to Cryogen propellant production facility. A very high power system is required for cracking (electrolyzing) the water and condensing and refrigerating the resulting oxygen and hydrogen. For a propellant production rate of 500 metric tons (1,100,000 pounds) per year, an average electrical power supply of 100 s of kW is required. To make the most efficient use of space solar power, electrolysis is performed only during the portion of the orbit that the Depot is in sunlight, so roughly twice this power level is needed for operations in sunlight