WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid polymer layers

  1. Automated solid-phase extraction of phenolic acids using layered double hydroxide-alumina-polymer disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Milad; Palomino Cabello, Carlos; Saraji, Mohammad; Manuel Estela, Jose; Cerdà, Víctor; Turnes Palomino, Gemma; Maya, Fernando

    2018-01-26

    The application of layered double hydroxide-Al 2 O 3 -polymer mixed-matrix disks for solid-phase extraction is reported for the first time. Al 2 O 3 is embedded in a polymer matrix followed by an in situ metal-exchange process to obtain a layered double hydroxide-Al 2 O 3 -polymer mixed-matrix disk with excellent flow-through properties. The extraction performance of the prepared disks is evaluated as a proof of concept for the automated extraction using sequential injection analysis of organic acids (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid) following an anion-exchange mechanism. After the solid-phase extraction, phenolic acids were quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection using a core-shell silica-C18 stationary phase and isocratic elution (acetonitrile/0.5% acetic acid in pure water, 5:95, v/v). High sensitivity and reproducibility were obtained with limits of detection in the range of 0.12-0.25 μg/L (sample volume, 4 mL), and relative standard deviations between 2.9 and 3.4% (10 μg/L, n = 6). Enrichment factors of 34-39 were obtained. Layered double hydroxide-Al 2 O 3 -polymer mixed-matrix disks had an average lifetime of 50 extractions. Analyte recoveries ranged from 93 to 96% for grape juice and nonalcoholic beer samples. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Solid state double layer capacitor based on a polyether polymer electrolyte blend and nanostructured carbon black electrode composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavall, Rodrigo L.; Borges, Raquel S.; Calado, Hallen D.R.; Welter, Cezar; Trigueiro, Joao P.C.; Silva, Glaura G. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Rieumont, Jacques [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Habana, Habana 10400 (Cuba); Neves, Bernardo R.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2008-03-01

    An all solid double layer capacitor was assembled by using poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene glycol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene glycol)-bis(2-aminopropyl ether) blend (PEO-NPPP) and LiClO{sub 4} as polymer electrolyte layer and PEO-NPPP-carbon black (CB) as electrode film. High molecular weight PEO and the block copolymer NPPP with molecular mass of 2000 Da were employed, which means that the design is safe from the point of view of solvent or plasticizer leakage and thus, a separator is not necessary. Highly conductive with large surface area nanostructured carbon black was dispersed in the polymer blend to produce the electrode composite. The electrolyte and electrode multilayers prepared by spray were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity as a function of temperature was fitted with the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation, which indicates a conductivity mechanism typical of solid polymer electrolyte. AFM images of the nanocomposite electrode showed carbon black particles of approximately 60 nm in size well distributed in a semicrystalline and porous polymer blend coating. The solid double layer capacitor with 10 wt.% CB was designed with final thickness of approximately 130 {mu}m and delivered a capacitance of 17 F g{sup -1} with a cyclability of more than 1000 cycles. These characteristics make possible the construction of a miniature device in complete solid state which will avoid electrolyte leakage and present a performance superior to other similar electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) presented in literature, as assessed in specific capacitance by total carbon mass. (author)

  3. Scattering-layer-induced energy storage function in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2015-03-09

    Photo-self-charging cells (PSCs) are compact devices with dual functions of photoelectric conversion and energy storage. By introducing a scattering layer in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, two-electrode PSCs with highly compact structure were obtained. The charge storage function stems from the formed ion channel network in the scattering layer/polymer electrolyte system. Both the photoelectric conversion and the energy storage functions are integrated in only the photoelectrode of such PSCs. This design of PSC could continuously output power as a solar cell with considerable efficiency after being photo-charged. Such PSCs could be applied in highly-compact mini power devices.

  4. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  5. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is .gtoreq.2 and is the number of selective layers.

  6. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  7. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  8. Polymer liquids fracture like solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Hassager, Ole

    2017-01-01

    While fracture in brittle solids has been studied for centuries until today, there are few studies on fracture in polymer liquids. Recent developments in experimental techniques, especially the combination of controlled filament stretching rheometry and high speed imaging, have opened new windows...... into the detailed study of fracture processes for polymer liquids. High speed imaging shows that polymer liquids fracture like solids with initiation and propagation of an edge fracture. However, remarkable features such as highly reproducible critical stress, independent appearance of multiple fractures...

  9. Polymer-Layer Silicate Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potarniche, Catalina-Gabriela

    Nowadays, some of the material challenges arise from a performance point of view as well as from recycling and biodegradability. Concerning these aspects, the development of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites can provide possible solutions. This study investigates how to obtain polymer layered...... with a spectacular improvement up to 300 % in impact strength were obtained. In the second part of this study, layered silicate bio-nanomaterials were obtained starting from natural compounds and taking into consideration their biocompatibility properties. These new materials may be used for drug delivery systems...... and as biomaterials due to their high biocompatible properties, and because they have the advantage of being biodegradable. The intercalation process of natural compounds within silicate platelets was investigated. By uniform dispersing of binary nanohybrids in a collagen matrix, nanocomposites with intercalated...

  10. Systems for production of polymer encapsuated solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, William L.; Aines, Roger D.; Baker, Sarah E.; Duoss, Eric B.; Maiti, Amitesh; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Vericella, John J.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Hardin, IV, James O.; Floyd, III, William C.

    2017-11-21

    Encapsulated solids are made by first encapsulating precursor materials in a polymer shell. The precursors are some combination of solids, liquids, gases, and/or gels. The precursors are then transformed into solids by emplacement of the capsule in an environment where gas or fluid transport into or out of the polymer shell causes transformation into solids.

  11. Magnetic resonance studies of solid polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenk, R.

    1969-01-01

    This paper is a review of the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to solid polymers. In the first, theoretical part, the elements of the theory of NMR, which are necessary for the study of the properties of solid polymers are discussed: the moments method, nuclear relaxation and the distribution of correlation times. In the second part the experimental results are presented. (author) [fr

  12. Solid-state electric double layer capacitors fabricated with plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes: Effective role of electrolyte anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleman, Mohd; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Flexible gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) thick films incorporated with solutions of lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (Li-triflate or LiTf) and lithium bis trifluoromethane-sulfonimide (LiTFSI) in a plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN), entrapped in poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) have been prepared and characterized. The films have been used as electrolytes in the electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Coconut-shell derived activated carbon with high specific surface area (∼2100 m 2 g −1 ) and mixed (micro- and meso-) porosity has been used as EDLC electrodes. The structural, thermal, and electrochemical characterization of the GPEs have been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The high ionic conductivity (∼10 −3 S cm −1 at 25 °C), good electrochemical stability window (>4.0 V) and flexible nature of the free-standing films of GPEs show their competence in the fabrication of EDLCs. The EDLCs have been tested using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and charge–discharge studies. The EDLCs using LiTf based electrolyte have been found to give higher values of specific capacitance, specific energy, power density (240–280 F g −1 , ∼39 Wh kg −1 and ∼19 kW kg −1 , respectively) than the EDLC cell with LiTFSI based gel electrolyte. EDLCs have been found to show stable performance for ∼10 4 charge–discharge cycles. The comparative studies indicate the effective role of electrolyte anions on the capacitive performance of the solid-state EDLCs. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Flexible EDLCs with succinonitrile based gel electrolyte membranes are reported. • Anionic size of salts in gel electrolytes plays important role on capacitive performance. • Li-triflate incorporated gel electrolyte shows better performance over LiTFSI-based gel.

  13. Solid-state electric double layer capacitors fabricated with plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes: Effective role of electrolyte anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suleman, Mohd; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S.A., E-mail: sahashmi@physics.du.ac.in

    2015-08-01

    Flexible gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) thick films incorporated with solutions of lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (Li-triflate or LiTf) and lithium bis trifluoromethane-sulfonimide (LiTFSI) in a plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN), entrapped in poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) have been prepared and characterized. The films have been used as electrolytes in the electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Coconut-shell derived activated carbon with high specific surface area (∼2100 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and mixed (micro- and meso-) porosity has been used as EDLC electrodes. The structural, thermal, and electrochemical characterization of the GPEs have been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The high ionic conductivity (∼10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} at 25 °C), good electrochemical stability window (>4.0 V) and flexible nature of the free-standing films of GPEs show their competence in the fabrication of EDLCs. The EDLCs have been tested using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and charge–discharge studies. The EDLCs using LiTf based electrolyte have been found to give higher values of specific capacitance, specific energy, power density (240–280 F g{sup −1}, ∼39 Wh kg{sup −1} and ∼19 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively) than the EDLC cell with LiTFSI based gel electrolyte. EDLCs have been found to show stable performance for ∼10{sup 4} charge–discharge cycles. The comparative studies indicate the effective role of electrolyte anions on the capacitive performance of the solid-state EDLCs. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Flexible EDLCs with succinonitrile based gel electrolyte membranes are reported. • Anionic size of salts in gel electrolytes plays important role on capacitive performance. • Li-triflate incorporated gel electrolyte shows better

  14. Nanocomposites from polymers and layered minerals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Gielgens, L.H.; Koster, T.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Composites consisting of polymer matrix materials and natural or synthetic layered minerals e.g. clays were prepared by using special compatibilizing agents betsveen these two intrinsically non-miscible components. Block or graft copolymers combining one part of the polymer that is identically

  15. Evaluation of a new method for chemical coating of aluminum wire with molecularly imprinted polymer layer. Application for the fabrication of triazines selective solid-phase microextraction fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djozan, Djavanshir, E-mail: djozan@tabrizu.ac.ir [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Bahram [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahkam, Mehrdad [Chemistry Department, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farajzadeh, Mir Ali [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-26

    A new solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber is fabricated through ultra violet irradiation polymerization of ametryn-molecularly imprinted polymer on the surface of anodized-silylated aluminum wire. The prepared fiber is durable with very good chemical and thermal stability which can be coupled to GC and GC/MS. The effective parameters on the fabrication and application procedures such as spraying mode, ultra violet irradiation (polymerization) time, number of sprayings and polymerizations, pH and ionic strength of sample and extraction time were optimized. This fiber shows high selectivity with great extraction capacity toward triazines. SPME and GC analysis of ametryn, prometryn, terbutryn, atrazine, simazine, propazine and cyanazine using the fabricated fiber result in the detection limits of 9, 32, 27, 43, 51, 74 and 85 ng mL{sup -1}, respectively. The reliability of the prepared fiber in real samples has been investigated and proved by using spiked tap water, rice, maize and onion samples.

  16. Evaluation of a new method for chemical coating of aluminum wire with molecularly imprinted polymer layer. Application for the fabrication of triazines selective solid-phase microextraction fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djozan, Djavanshir; Ebrahimi, Bahram; Mahkam, Mehrdad; Farajzadeh, Mir Ali

    2010-01-01

    A new solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber is fabricated through ultra violet irradiation polymerization of ametryn-molecularly imprinted polymer on the surface of anodized-silylated aluminum wire. The prepared fiber is durable with very good chemical and thermal stability which can be coupled to GC and GC/MS. The effective parameters on the fabrication and application procedures such as spraying mode, ultra violet irradiation (polymerization) time, number of sprayings and polymerizations, pH and ionic strength of sample and extraction time were optimized. This fiber shows high selectivity with great extraction capacity toward triazines. SPME and GC analysis of ametryn, prometryn, terbutryn, atrazine, simazine, propazine and cyanazine using the fabricated fiber result in the detection limits of 9, 32, 27, 43, 51, 74 and 85 ng mL -1 , respectively. The reliability of the prepared fiber in real samples has been investigated and proved by using spiked tap water, rice, maize and onion samples.

  17. Functional solid additive modified PEDOT:PSS as an anode buffer layer for enhanced photovoltaic performance and stability in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Binrui; Gopalan, Sai-Anand; Gopalan, Anantha-Iyengar; Muthuchamy, Nallal; Lee, Kwang-Pill; Lee, Jae-Sung; Jiang, Yu; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Sae-Wan; Kim, Ju-Seong; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Kwon, Jin-Beon; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

    2017-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is most commonly used as an anode buffer layer in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs). However, its hygroscopic and acidic nature contributes to the insufficient electrical conductivity, air stability and restricted photovoltaic (PV) performance for the fabricated PSCs. In this study, a new multifunctional additive, 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DOH), has been used in the PEDOT: PSS buffer layer to obtain modified properties for PEDOT: PSS@DOH and achieve high PV performances. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS@DOH films was markedly improved compared with that of PEDOT:PSS. The PEDOT:PSS@DOH film exhibited excellent optical characteristics, appropriate work function alignment, and good surface properties in BHJ-PSCs. When a poly(3-hexylthiohpene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend system was applied as the photoactive layer, the power conversion efficiency of the resulting PSCs with PEDOT:PSS@DOH(1.0%) reached 3.49%, outperforming pristine PEDOT:PSS, exhibiting a power conversion enhancement of 20%. The device fabricated using PEDOT:PSS@DOH (1.0 wt%) also exhibited improved thermal and air stability. Our results also confirm that DOH, a basic pyridine derivative, facilitates adequate hydrogen bonding interactions with the sulfonic acid groups of PSS, induces the conformational transformation of PEDOT chains and contributes to the phase separation between PEDOT and PSS chains. PMID:28338088

  18. Tungsten atomic layer deposition on polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); McCormick, J.A. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424 (United States); Cavanagh, A.S. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0390 (United States); Goldstein, D.N. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); Weimer, A.W. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424 (United States); George, S.M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424 (United States)], E-mail: Steven.George@Colorado.Edu

    2008-07-31

    Tungsten (W) atomic layer deposition (ALD) was investigated on a variety of polymer films and polymer particles. These polymers included polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, polycarbonate, polypropylene and polymethylmethacrylate. The W ALD was performed at 80 {sup o}C using WF{sub 6} and Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} as the gas phase reactants. W ALD on flat polymer films can eventually nucleate and grow after more than 60 AB cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of W ALD on polystyrene after 50 AB cycles suggested that tungsten nanoclusters are present in the W ALD nucleation regime. The W ALD nucleation is greatly facilitated by a few cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD. W ALD films were grown at 80 {sup o}C on spin-coated polymers on silicon wafers after 10 AB cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD. The W ALD film was observed to grow linearly with a growth rate of 3.9 A per AB cycle on the polymer films treated with the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD seed layer. The W ALD films displayed an excellent, mirror-like optical reflectivity. The resistivity was 100-400 {mu}{omega} cm for W ALD films with thicknesses from 95-845 A. W ALD was also observed on polymer particles after W ALD in a rotary reactor. Without the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD seed layer, the nucleation of W ALD directly on the polymer particles at 80 {sup o}C required > 50 AB cycles. In contrast, the polymer particles treated with only 5 AB cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD were observed to blacken after 25 AB cycles of W ALD. W ALD on polymers may have applications for flexible optical mirrors, electromagnetic interference shielding and gas diffusion barriers.

  19. SOLID STATE BATTERIES WITH CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bénière , F.; Boils , D.; Cánepa , H.; Franco , J.; Le Corre , A.; Louboutin , J.

    1983-01-01

    The conducting polymers like (CH)x are very interesting materials for electrodes in electrochemical cells. We have combined such electrodes with solid electrolytes to build "all solid-state" batteries. The first prototypes using a silver anode and a silver conducting electrolyte have been working satisfactorily since two years. The performances have been tested with many batteries to study the electrical properties as well as the thermodynamical parameters. A number of cycles of charge-discha...

  20. Adsorbed Polymer Nanolayers on Solids: Mechanism, Structure and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Mani Kuntal

    In this thesis, by combining various advanced x-ray scattering, spectroscopic and other surface sensitive characterization techniques, I report the equilibrium polymer chain conformations, structures, dynamics and properties of polymeric materials at the solid-polymer melt interfaces. Following the introduction, in chapter 2, I highlight that the backbone chains (constituted of CH and CH2 groups) of the flattened polystyrene (PS) chains preferentially orient normal to the weakly interactive substrate surface via thermal annealing regardless of the initial chain conformations, while the orientation of the phenyl rings becomes randomized, thereby increasing the number of surface-segmental contacts (i.e., enthalpic gain) which is the driving force for the flattening process of the polymer chains even onto a weakly interactive solid. In chapter 3, I elucidate the flattened structures in block copolymer (BCP) thin films where both blocks lie flat on the substrate, forming a 2D randomly phase-separated structure irrespective of their microdomain structures and interfacial energetics. In chapter 4, I reveal the presence of an irreversibly adsorbed BCP layer which showed suppressed dynamics even at temperatures far above the individual glass transition temperatures of the blocks. Furthermore, this adsorbed BCP layer plays a crucial role in controlling the microdomain orientation in the entire film. In chapter 5, I report a radically new paradigm of designing a polymeric coating layer of a few nanometers thick ("polymer nanolayer") with anti-biofouling properties.

  1. Hyperbranched polymers from polymerization in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaz, Vivian A.; Silva, Rafael; Muniz, Edvani C.; Rubira, Adley F.

    2009-01-01

    The macroscopic properties of polymers are directly related to the chemical characteristics of the monomeric units and also with the geometric arrangement of polymer chains. Thus, polymers were synthesized from two well-known chelators EDTA and EDA. We evaluated the conditions for the polymerization of the precursors in the solid state. The polymerization was carried out varying the proportions of reagents, aiming the polymers with different degrees of chain branching and the materials were characterized by FTIR. The materials obtained from the best condition for synthesis were purified by size-exclusion chromatography of and were subjected to characterization by FTIR and NMR of 1 H and 13 C. The content of end groups in these samples was determined by back titration. (author)

  2. All-solid-state reference electrodes based on conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Anna; Marcisz, Honorata; Michalska, Agata; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof

    2005-12-01

    A novel construction of solution free (pseudo)reference electrodes, compatible with all-solid-state potentiometric indicator electrodes, has been proposed. These electrodes use conducting polymers (CP): polypyrrole (PPy) or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Two different arrangements have been tested: solely based on CP and those where the CP phase is covered with a poly(vinyl chloride) based outer membrane of tailored composition. The former arrangement was designed to suppress or compensate cation- and anion-exchange, using mobile perchlorate ions and poly(4-styrenesulfonate) or dodecylbenzenesulfonate anions as immobilized dopants. The following systems were used: (i) polypyrrole layers doped simultaneously by two kinds of anions, both mobile and immobilized in the polymer layer; (ii) bilayers of polypyrrole with anion exchanging inner layer and cation-exchanging outer layer; (iii) polypyrrole doped by surfactant dodecylbenzenesulfonate ions, which inhibit ion exchange on the polymer/solution interface. For the above systems, recorded potentials have been found to be practically independent of electrolyte concentration. The best results, profound stability of potentials, have been obtained for poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or polypyrrole doped by poly(4-styrenesulfonate) anions covered by a poly(vinyl chloride) based membrane, containing both anion- and cation-exchangers as well as solid potassium chloride and silver chloride with metallic silver. Differently to the cases (i)-(iii) these electrodes are much less sensitive to the influence of redox and pH interferences. This arrangement has been also characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronopotentiometry.

  3. Application of Photocured Polymer Ion Selective Membranes for Solid-State Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Abramova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of conducting polymers with additional functional groups for a solid contact formation and photocurable membranes as sensitive elements of solid-state chemical sensors is discussed. Problems associated with application of UV-curable polymers for sensors are analyzed. A method of sensor fabrication using copolymerized conductive layer and sensitive membrane is presented and the proof of concept is confirmed by two examples of solid-contact electrodes for Ca ions and pH.

  4. An electroactive conducting polymer actuator based on NBR/RTIL solid polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M. S.; Seo, H. J.; Nam, J. D.; Choi, H. R.; Koo, J. C.; Lee, Y.

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports the fabrication of a dry-type conducting polymer actuator using nitrile rubber (NBR) as the base material in a solid polymer electrolyte. The conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), was synthesized on the surface of the NBR layer by using a chemical oxidation polymerization technique. Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) based on imidazolium salts, e.g. 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium X (where X = BF4-, PF6-, (CF3SO2)2N-), were absorbed into the composite film. The compatibility between the ionic liquids and the NBR polymer was confirmed by DMA. The effect of the anion size of the ionic liquids on the displacement of the actuator was examined. The displacement increased with increasing anion size of the ionic liquids. The cyclic voltammetry responses and the redox switching dynamics of the actuators were examined in different ionic liquids.

  5. Effects of supercritical carbon dioxide on immobile bound polymer chains on solid substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Mani; Asada, Mitsunori; Jiang, Naisheng; Endoh, Maya K.; Akgun, Bulent; Satija, Sushil; Koga, Tadanori

    2013-03-01

    Adsorbed polymer layers formed on flat solid substrates have recently been the subject of extensive studies because it is postulated to control the dynamics of technologically relevant polymer thin films, for example, in lithography. Such adsorbed layers have been reported to hinder the mobility of polymer chains in thin films even at a large length scale. Consequently, this bound layer remains immobile regardless of processing techniques (i.e. thermal annealing, solvent dissolution, etc). Here, we investigate the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as a novel plasticizer for bound polystyrene layers formed on silicon substrates. In-situ swelling and interdiffusion experiments using neutron reflectivity were performed. As a result, we found the anomalous plasticization effects of scCO2 on the bound polymer layers near the critical point where the anomalous adsorption of CO2 molecules in polymer thin films has been reported previously. Acknowledgement: We acknowledge the financial support from NSF Grant No. CMMI-084626.

  6. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauzi, Iqbal, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Groups, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup −6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup −4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup −3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  7. Solid-State NMR Study of New Copolymers as Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Daigle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the analysis of comb-like polymers by solid-state NMR. The polymers were previously evaluated as solid-polymer-electrolytes (SPE for lithium-polymer-metal batteries that have suitable ionic conductivity at 60 °C. We propose to develop a correlation between 13C solid-state NMR measurements and phase segregation. 13C solid-state NMR is a perfect tool for differentiating polymer phases with fast or slow motions. 7Li was used to monitor the motion of lithium ions in the polymer, and activation energies were calculated.

  8. Deuteron NMR and modelling in solid polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschinger, J.

    1992-01-01

    Deuteron NMR techniques are described and some recent applications to the study of rotational motions in solid polymers are reviewed. The information content and the domain of applicability of each technique are presented. Ultra-slow motions are studied in real time without any motional model consideration. For very fast motions, computer molecular dynamics simulations are shown to complement the NMR results. Experimental examples deal with the chain motion in the crystalline α-phase of poly(vinylidenefluoride) and nylon 6,6

  9. Tunable fractional-order capacitor using layered ferroelectric polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat; Patole, Shashikant P.; Bagci, Hakan; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    Pairs of various Polyvinylidene fluoride P(VDF)-based polymers are used for fabricating bilayer fractional order capacitors (FOCs). The polymer layers are constructed using a simple drop casting approach. The resulting FOC has two advantages: It can

  10. Evidence for Bulk Ripplocations in Layered Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jacob; Lang, Andrew C.; Griggs, Justin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2016-09-01

    Plastically anisotropic/layered solids are ubiquitous in nature and understanding how they deform is crucial in geology, nuclear engineering, microelectronics, among other fields. Recently, a new defect termed a ripplocation-best described as an atomic scale ripple-was proposed to explain deformation in two-dimensional solids. Herein, we leverage atomistic simulations of graphite to extend the ripplocation idea to bulk layered solids, and confirm that it is essentially a buckling phenomenon. In contrast to dislocations, bulk ripplocations have no Burgers vector and no polarity. In graphite, ripplocations are attracted to other ripplocations, both within the same, and on adjacent layers, the latter resulting in kink boundaries. Furthermore, we present transmission electron microscopy evidence consistent with the existence of bulk ripplocations in Ti3SiC2. Ripplocations are a topological imperative, as they allow atomic layers to glide relative to each other without breaking the in-plane bonds. A more complete understanding of their mechanics and behavior is critically important, and could profoundly influence our current understanding of how graphite, layered silicates, the MAX phases, and many other plastically anisotropic/layered solids, deform and accommodate strain.

  11. Recent advances in solid polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingqing Zhang; Kai Liu; Fei Ding; Xingjiang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are light-weight,flexible,and non-flammable and provide a feasible solution to the safety issues facing lithium-ion batteries through the replacement of organic liquid electrolytes.Substantial research efforts have been devoted to achieving the next generation of solid-state polymer lithium batteries.Herein,we provide a review of the development of solid polymer electrolytes and provide comprehensive insights into emerging developments.In particular,we discuss the different molecular structures of the solid polymer matrices,including polyether,polyester,polyacrylonitrile,and polysiloxane,and their interfacial compatibility with lithium,as well as the factors that govern the properties of the polymer electrolytes.The discussion aims to give perspective to allow the strategic design of state-of-the-art solid polymer electrolytes,and we hope it will provide clear guidance for the exploration of high-performance lithium batteries.

  12. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han [Waltham, MA; LaConti, Anthony B [Lynnfield, MA; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K [Natick, MA; McCallum, Thomas J [Ashland, MA

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  13. Solid particle erosion of polymers and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, K.; Almajid, A. A.

    2014-05-01

    After a general introduction to the subject of solid particle erosion of polymers and composites, the presentation focusses more specifically on the behavior of unidirectional carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites under such loadings, using different impact conditions and erodents. The data were analyzed on the basis of a newly defined specific erosive wear rate, allowing a better comparison of erosion data achieved under various testing conditions. Characteristic wear mechanisms of the CF/PEEK composites consisted of fiber fracture, matrix cutting and plastic matrix deformation, the relative contribution of which depended on the impingement angles and the CF orientation. The highest wear rates were measured for impingement angles between 45 and 60°. Using abrasion resistant neat polymer films (in this case PEEK or thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) ones) on the surface of a harder substrate (e.g. a CF/PEEK composite plate) resulted in much lower specific erosive wear rates. The use of such polymeric films can be considered as a possible method to protect composite surfaces from damage caused by minor impacts and erosion. In fact, they are nowadays already successfully applied as protections for wind energy rotor blades.

  14. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  15. Solid polymer composite electrolytes for PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, S M.J.; Mikhailenko, S D; Kaliaguine, S

    1998-07-01

    Composite electrolyte membranes for fuel cell technology were prepared from solid state proton conductors and polymer binders. The polymers were partially sulfonated and non-sulfonated polysulfone (PS), porous polyetherimide (PEI) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). As proton conductors H-chabazite, tungstophosphoric acid and its Na-salt and non-stoichiometric boron phosphate were employed. All membranes prepared using sulfonated PS as a binder with sulfonation degree higher than 50% were found to be mechanically unstable. They possess however reasonably high conductivity up to 6{times}10{sup {minus}3} S/cm. Introducing the tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) into the nonsulfonated porous PS makes possible to obtain strong and flexible membranes with s=4{times}10{sup {minus}3} S/cm, while use of boron phosphate in that case results in the conductivity of about 10{sup {minus}5} S/cm. Porous PEI impregnated with aqueous solution of TPA retains its original tensile strength and exhibited the conductivity s=2{times}10{sup {minus}4} S/cm. It however fell to 3{times}10{sup {minus}5} S/cm when the binder was modified with 2% of propionic acid, which caused a decrease in polymer pore size. Incorporation of the sodium acid salt of TPA into PEI allows one to obtain a composite with reasonably good mechanical properties and a conductivity of ca 10{sup {minus}5} S/cm for membranes prepared by the cast method. Using the phase inversion technique for preparation of the membranes of the same composition makes possible to increase their conductivity up to 10{sup {minus}4} S/cm. When boron phosphate was used in lieu of TPA salt the conductivity obtained is still higher reaching 3{times}10{sup {minus}5} and 3{times}10{sup {minus}4} S/cm for membranes prepared by cast and phase inversion techniques respectively. The PMMA based membranes were mechanically stable even when a solid content reached 55wt.%. Among PMMA membranes the highest conductivity of 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm was registered for

  16. Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT...prospects for a variety of emerging applications in a broad range of fields, such as electronics, energy conversion and storage, catalysis and polymer

  17. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohit; Gur, Ilan; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2012-09-18

    The present invention relates generally to electrolyte materials. According to an embodiment, the present invention provides for a solid polymer electrolyte material that is ionically conductive, mechanically robust, and can be formed into desirable shapes using conventional polymer processing methods. An exemplary polymer electrolyte material has an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.6 Pa at 90 degrees C. and is characterized by an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm-1 at 90 degrees C. An exemplary material can be characterized by a two domain or three domain material system. An exemplary material can include material components made of diblock polymers or triblock polymers. Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher energy density, better thermal and environmental stability, lower rates of self-discharge, enhanced safety, lower manufacturing costs, and novel form factors.

  18. Investigation of a nanoconfined, ceramic composite, solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasekara, Indumini; Poyner, Mark; Teeters, Dale

    2017-01-01

    The challenges for further development of lithium rechargeable batteries are finding electrolyte materials that are safe, have mechanical and thermal stability and have sufficiently high ionic conduction. Polymer electrolytes have many of these advantages, but suffer with low ionic conduction. This study involves the use of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes having nanochannels filled with polymer electrolyte to make composite solid electrolytes having ionic conductivity several orders of magnitude higher (10 −4 Ω ‐1 cm −1 ) than non-confined polymer. SEM, ac impedance spectroscopy, temperature dependence studies, XRD, ATR- FTIR and DSC studies were done in order to characterize and understand the behavior of nanoconfined polymer electrolytes. The composite polymer electrolyte was found to be more amorphous with polymer chains aligned in the direction of the nanochannels, which is felt to promote ion conduction. The electrolyte systems, confined in nanoporous membranes, can be used as electrolytes for the fabrication of a room temperature all solid state battery.

  19. Modeling of ionic transport in solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheang, P L; Teo, L L; Lim, T L

    2010-01-01

    A Monte Carlo model describing the ionic trans port in solid polyme relectrolyte is developed. Single cation simulation is carried out using hopping rate to study the transport mechanism of a thermally activated ion in solid polymer electrolyte. In our model, the ion is able to hop along a polymer chain and to jump between different chains, surmounting energy barriers that consist of polymer's activation energy and the externally applied electric field. The model is able to trace the motion of ion across polymer electrolyte. The mean hopping distance is calculated based on the available open bond in the next nearest side. Random numbers are used to determine the hopping distances, free flight times, final energy and direction of the cation after successful hop. Drift velocity and energy of cation are simulated in our work. The model is expected to be able to simulate the lithium-polymer battery in future.

  20. PEO nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for solid state symmetric

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Physical and electrochemical properties of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based nanocomposite solid polymer electrolytes (NPEs) were investigated for symmetric capacitor applications. Nanosize fillers, i.e., Al2O3 and SiO2 incorporated polymer electrolyte exhibited higher ionic conductivity than those with filler-free composites ...

  1. From Spheric to Aspheric Solid Polymer Lenses: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Yung Hung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach in the use of MEMS technology to fabricate micro-optofluidic polymer solid lenses in order to achieve the desired profile, focal length, numerical aperture, and spot size. The resulting polymer solid lenses can be applied in optical data storage systems, imaging systems, and automated optical inspection systems. In order to meet the various needs of different applications, polymer solid lenses may have a spherical or aspherical shape. The method of fabricating polymer solid lenses is different from methods used to fabricate tunable lenses with variable focal length or needing an external control system to change the lens geometry. The current trend in polymer solid lenses is toward the fabrication of microlenses with a high numerical aperture, small clear aperture (<2 mm, and high transmittance. In this paper we focus on the use of thermal energy and electrostatic force in shaping the lens profile, including both spherical and aspherical lenses. In addition, the paper discusses how to fabricate a lens with a high numerical aperture of 0.6 using MEMS and also compares the optical characteristics of polymer lens materials, including SU-8, Norland Optical Adhesive (NOA, and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC. Finally, new concepts and applications related to micro-optofluidic lenses and polymer materials are also discussed.

  2. Secondary lithium solid polymer electrolyte cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, K.A.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    A strategy for developing morphologically invariant lithium/solid polymer electrolyte interface is being investigated via the use of lithium intercalated electrodes. Emphasis is being placed upon the rutile material Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ 0.1 < x < 1.0. An absence of shape change at this interface is expected to result in both long cycle life electrochemical cells and the simultaneous maintenance of small interelectrode spacing so that low IR losses can be maintained. During fabrication of cells investigated here both electrochemical and chemical lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2/ was pursued. In the case of larger WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially prepared for fully discharged state cells, electrochemical intercalation during cell charge was found to require significant time, and the reproducible achievement of complete uniform intercalation across the negative electrode became an issue. Emphasis was consequently placed upon cells fabricated using Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially chemically intercalated by lithium prior to cell assembly. Previous work has demonstrated direct lithium intercalation of metal dichalcogenides using n-BuLi. Lithium activity in n-BuLi is, however, insufficient to achieve lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2//sup 4/. However, recent work has shown that WO/sub 2/ can be directly lithium intercalated upon immersion in lithium naphthalide. Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes prepared in this work were intercalated using lithium naphthalide (0.8M) in 2MeTHF. Lithium intercalation was found to readily occur at room temperature, being initially rapid and slowing as bulk intercalation within the electrode proceeded. For electrodes intercalated in this manner, a relationship was identified between the degree of lithium intercalation and initial open-circuit potential in liquid non-aqueous electrolyte

  3. Synthesis of new solid polymer electrolyte and actuator based on PEDOT/NBR/ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M. S.; Seo, H. J.; Nam, J. D.; Choi, H. R.; Koo, J. C.; Lee, Y.

    2006-03-01

    The conducting polymer actuator was presented. The solid polymer electrolyte based on nitrile rubber (NBR) activated with different ionic liquids was prepared. The three different grades of NBR films were synthesized by emulsion polymerization with different amount of acrylonitrile, 23, 35, and 40 mol. %, respectively. The effect of acrylonitrile content on the ionic conductivity and dielectric constant of solid polymer electrolytes was characterized. A conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), was synthesized on the surface of the NBR layer by using a chemical oxidation polymerization technique, and room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) based on imidazolium salts, e.g. 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium X [where X= BF 4 -, PF 6 -, (CF 3SO II) IIN -], were absorbed into the composite film. The effects of the anion size of the ionic liquids on the displacement of the actuator were examined. The displacement increased with increasing the anion-size of the ionic liquids.

  4. PIV measurement of turbulent mixing layer flow with polymer additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, T; Guo, F; Chen, B; Zhang, X

    2009-01-01

    Turbulent mixing layer flow with polymer additives was experimentally investigated by PIV in present paper. The velocity ratio between high and low speed is 4:1 and the Reynolds number for pure water case based on the velocity differences of two steams and hydraulic diameter of the channel ranges from 14667∼73333. Flow field and turbulent quantities of turbulent mixing layer with 200ppm polymer additives were measured and compared with pure water mixing layer flow. It is shown that the dynamic development of mixing layer is greatly influenced by polymer addictives. The smaller vortices are eliminated and the coherent structure is much clearer. Similar with pure water case, Reynolds stress and vorticity still concentrate in a coniform area of central part of mixing layer and the width will increase with the Reynolds number increasing. However, compared with pure water case, the coniform width of polymer additives case is larger, which means the polymer additives will lead to the diffusion of coherent structure. The peak value of vorticity in different cross section will decrease with the development of mixing layer. Compared with pure water case, the vorticity is larger at the beginning of the mixing layer but decreases faster in the case with polymer additives.

  5. Adsorption of copolymers at polymer/air and polymer/solid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslanec, Robert

    Using mainly low-energy forward recoil spectrometry (LE-FRES) and neutron reflectivity (NR), copolymer behavior at polymer/air and polymer/solid interfaces is investigated. For a miscible blend of poly(styrene-ran-acrylonitrile) copolymers, the volume fraction profile of the copolymer with lower acrylonitrile content is flat near the surface in contrast to mean field predictions. Including copolymer polydispersity into a self consistent mean field (SCMF) model does not account for this profile shape. LE-FRES and NR is also used to study poly(deuterated styrene-block-methyl-methacrylate) (dPS-b-PMMA) adsorption from a polymer matrix to a silicon oxide substrate. The interfacial excess, zsp*, layer thickness, L, and layer-matrix width, w, depend strongly on the number of matrix segments, P, for P 2N, the matrix chains are repelled from the adsorbed layer and the layer characteristics become independent of P. An SCMF model of block copolymer adsorption is developed. SCMF predictions are in qualitative agreement with the experimental behavior of zsp*, L, and w as a function of P. Using this model, the interaction energy of the MMA block with the oxide substrate is found to be -8ksb{B}T. In a subsequent experiment, the matrix/dPS interaction is made increasingly unfavorable by increasing the 4-bromostyrene mole fraction, x, in a poly(styrene-ran-4-bromostyrene) (PBrsbxS) matrix. Whereas experiments show that zsp* slightly decreases as x increases, the SCMF model predicts that zsp* should increase as the matrix becomes more unfavorable. Upon including a small matrix attraction for the substrate, the SCMF model shows that zsp* decreases with x because of competition between PBrsbxS and dPS-b-PMMA for adsorbing sites. In thin film dewetting experiments on silicon oxide, the addition of dPS-b-PMMA to PS coatings acts to slow hole growth and prevent holes from impinging. Dewetting studies show that longer dPS-b-PMMA chains are more effective stabilizing agents than shorter

  6. New Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Improved Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify, synthesize and incorporate into a working prototype, next-generation solid polymer electrolytes, that allow our pre-existing solid-state lithium battery to function better under extreme conditions. We have synthesized polymer electrolytes in which emphasis was placed on the temperature-dependent performance of these candidate electrolytes. This project was designed to produce and integrate novel polymer electrolytes into a lightweight thin-film battery that could easily be scaled up for mass production and adapted to different applications.

  7. Strain hardening and anisotropy in solid polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senden, D.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical properties of polymers strongly depend on the underlying microstructure. For instance, processing-induced molecular orientation may, in semi-crystalline polymers, lead to differences in lifetime up to a factor of 500 within a single injection molded product. Furthermore, enormous

  8. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  9. Solid Polymer Fuel Cells. Electrode and membrane performance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller-Holst, S.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis studies aspects of fuel cell preparation and performance. The emphasis is placed on preparation and analysis of low platinum-loading solid polymer fuel cell (SPEC) electrodes. A test station was built and used to test cells within a wide range of real operating conditions, 40-150{sup o}C and 1-10 bar. Preparation and assembling equipment for single SPFCs was designed and built, and a new technique of spraying the catalyst layer directly onto the membrane was successfully demonstrated. Low Pt-loading electrodes (0.1 mg Pt/cm{sup 2}) prepared by the new technique exhibited high degree of catalyst utilization. The performance of single cells holding these electrodes is comparable to state-of-the-art SPFCs. Potential losses in single cell performance are ascribed to irreversibilities by analysing the efficiency of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by means of the second law of thermodynamics. The water management in membranes is discussed for a model system and the results are relevant to fuel cell preparation and performance. The new spray deposition technique should be commercially interesting as it involves few steps as well as techniques that are adequate for larger scale production. 115 refs., 43 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Solid Polymer Fuel Cells. Electrode and membrane performance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller-Holst, S

    1997-12-31

    This doctoral thesis studies aspects of fuel cell preparation and performance. The emphasis is placed on preparation and analysis of low platinum-loading solid polymer fuel cell (SPEC) electrodes. A test station was built and used to test cells within a wide range of real operating conditions, 40-150{sup o}C and 1-10 bar. Preparation and assembling equipment for single SPFCs was designed and built, and a new technique of spraying the catalyst layer directly onto the membrane was successfully demonstrated. Low Pt-loading electrodes (0.1 mg Pt/cm{sup 2}) prepared by the new technique exhibited high degree of catalyst utilization. The performance of single cells holding these electrodes is comparable to state-of-the-art SPFCs. Potential losses in single cell performance are ascribed to irreversibilities by analysing the efficiency of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by means of the second law of thermodynamics. The water management in membranes is discussed for a model system and the results are relevant to fuel cell preparation and performance. The new spray deposition technique should be commercially interesting as it involves few steps as well as techniques that are adequate for larger scale production. 115 refs., 43 figs., 18 tabs.

  11. Understanding Molecular Interactions within Chemically Selective Layered Polymer Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary J. Blanchard

    2009-06-30

    This work focuses on two broad issues. These are (1) the molecular origin of the chemical selectivity achieved with ultrathin polymer multilayers, and (2) how the viscoelastic properties of the polymer layers are affected by exposure to solvent and analytes. These issues are inter-related, and to understand them we need to design experiments that probe both the energetic and kinetic aspects of interfacial adsorption processes. This project focuses on controling the chemical structure, thickness, morphology and sequential ordering of polymer layers bound to interfaces using maleimide-vinyl ether and closely related alternating copolymerization chemistry and efficient covalent cross-linking reactions that allow for layer-by-layer polymer deposition. This chemistry has been developed during the funding cycle of this Grant. We have measure the equilibrium constants for interactions between specific layers within the polymer interfaces and size-controlled, surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles. The ability to control both size and functionality of gold nanoparticle model analytes allows us to evaluate the average “pore size” that characterizes our polymer films. We have measured the “bulk” viscosity and shear modulus of the ultrathin polymer films as a function of solvent overlayer identity using quartz crystal microbalance complex impedance measurements. We have measured microscopic viscosity at specific locations within the layered polymer interfaces with time-resolved fluorescence lifetime and depolarization techniques. We combine polymer, cross-linking and nanoparticle synthetic expertise with a host of characterization techniques, including QCM gravimetry and complex impedance analysis, steady state and time-resolved spectroscopies.

  12. Solid Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Polyphenols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Filler, Robert

    1998-01-01

    In the Phase-I study, Tech Drive synthesized several phenol monomers. Two of these monomers, one of which is new, were converted to phenolic polymers by enzymatic means, using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide...

  13. Development of Functional Thin Polymer Films Using a Layer-by-Layer Deposition Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    Functional thin films containing insulin were prepared using layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of insulin and negatively- or positively-charged polymers on the surface of solid substrates. LbL films composed of insulin and negatively-charged polymers such as poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(vinylsulfate) (PVS), and dextran sulfate (DS) were prepared through electrostatic affinity between the materials. The insulin/PAA, insulin/PVS, and insulin/DS films were stable in acidic solutions, whereas they decomposed under physiological conditions as a result of a change in the net electric charge of insulin from positive to negative. Interestingly, the insulin-containing LbL films were stable even in the presence of a digestive-enzyme (pepcin) at pH 1.4 (stomach pH). In contrast, LbL films consisting of insulin and positively-charged polymers such as poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) decomposed in acidic solutions due to the positive charges of insulin generated in acidic media. The insulin-containing LbL films can be prepared not only on the surface of flat substrates, such as quartz slides, but also on the surface of microparticles, such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) microbeads. Thus, insulin-containing LbL film-coated PLA microbeads can be handled as a powder. In addition, insulin-containing microcapsules were prepared by coating LbL films on the surface of insulin-doped calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) microparticles, followed by dissolution of the CaCO 3 core. The release of insulin from the microcapsules was accelerated at pH 7.4, whereas it was suppressed in acidic solutions. These results suggest the potential use of insulin-containing microcapsules in the development of oral formulations of insulin.

  14. S-Layer Based Bio-Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-09

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0161 S-Layer Based Bio- Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers Dietmar Pum ZENTRUM FUER NANOBIOTECHNOLOGIE Final Report 07/09...COVERED (From - To)      01-06-2012 to 31-05-2015 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE S-Layer Based Bio- Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT...technology for the fabrication of nano patterned thin film imprints by using functional S-layer protein arrays as templates. The unique feature of

  15. Initial Drug Dissolution from Amorphous Solid Dispersions Controlled by Polymer Dissolution and Drug-Polymer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuejie; Wang, Shujing; Wang, Shan; Liu, Chengyu; Su, Ching; Hageman, Michael; Hussain, Munir; Haskell, Roy; Stefanski, Kevin; Qian, Feng

    2016-10-01

    To identify the key formulation factors controlling the initial drug and polymer dissolution rates from an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD). Ketoconazole (KTZ) ASDs using PVP, PVP-VA, HMPC, or HPMC-AS as polymeric matrix were prepared. For each drug-polymer system, two types of formulations with the same composition were prepared: 1. Spray dried dispersion (SDD) that is homogenous at molecular level, 2. Physical blend of SDD (80% drug loading) and pure polymer (SDD-PB) that is homogenous only at powder level. Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ) between KTZ and the four polymers were obtained by Flory-Huggins model fitting. Solution (13)C NMR and FT-IR were conducted to investigate the specific drug-polymer interaction in the solution and solid state, respectively. Intrinsic dissolution of both the drug and the polymer from ASDs were studied using a Higuchi style intrinsic dissolution apparatus. PXRD and confocal Raman microscopy were used to confirm the absence of drug crystallinity on the tablet surface before and after dissolution study. In solid state, KTZ is completely miscible with PVP, PVP-VA, or HPMC-AS, demonstrated by the negative χ values of -0.36, -0.46, -1.68, respectively; while is poorly miscible with HPMC shown by a positive χ value of 0.23. According to solution (13)C NMR and FT-IR studies, KTZ interacts with HPMC-AS strongly through H-bonding and dipole induced interaction; with PVPs and PVP-VA moderately through dipole-induced interactions; and with HPMC weakly without detectable attractive interaction. Furthermore, the "apparent" strength of drug-polymer interaction, measured by the extent of peak shift on NMR or FT-IR spectra, increases with the increasing number of interacting drug-polymer pairs. For ASDs with the presence of considerable drug-polymer interactions, such as KTZ/PVPs, KTZ/PVP-VA, or KTZ /HPMC-AS systems, drug released at the same rate as the polymer when intimate drug-polymer mixing was ensured (i.e., the SDD systems

  16. Thermodynamic phase behavior of API/polymer solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, Anke; Ji, Yuanhui; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2014-07-07

    To improve the bioavailability of poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), these materials are often integrated into a polymer matrix that acts as a carrier. The resulting mixture is called a solid dispersion. In this work, the phase behaviors of solid dispersions were investigated as a function of the API as well as of the type and molecular weight of the carrier polymer. Specifically, the solubility of artemisinin and indomethacin was measured in different poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG 400, PEG 6000, and PEG 35000). The measured solubility data and the solubility of sulfonamides in poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) K10 and PEG 35000 were modeled using the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). The results show that PC-SAFT predictions are in a good accordance with the experimental data, and PC-SAFT can be used to predict the whole phase diagram of an API/polymer solid dispersion as a function of the kind of API and polymer and of the polymer's molecular weight. This remarkably simplifies the screening process for suitable API/polymer combinations.

  17. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  18. Polymer/Layered Silicate Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhit, M.E.E.H.

    2012-01-01

    Polymer–clay nano composites have attracted the attention of many researchers and experimental results are presented in a large number of recent papers and patents because of the outstanding mechanical properties and low gas permeabilities that are achieved in many cases. Polymer-clay nano composites are a new class of mineral-field polymer that contain relatively small amounts (<10%) of nanometer-sized clay particles. Polymer/clay nano composites have their origin in the pioneering research conducted at Toyota Central Research Laboratories and the first historical record goes back to 1987. The matrix was nylon-6 and the filler MMT. Because of its many advantages such as high mechanical properties, good gas barrier, flame retardation, etc. polymer/clay nano composites have been intensely investigated and is currently the subject of many research programs. Nano composite materials are commercially important and several types of products with different shapes and applications including food packaging films and containers, engine parts, dental materials, etc. are now available in markets. A number of synthesis routes have been developed in the recent years to prepare these materials, which include intercalation of polymers or prepolymers from solution, in-situ polymerization, melt intercalation etc. In this study, new nano composite materials were produced from the components of rubber (Nbr, SBR and EPDM) as the polymeric matrix and organically modified quaternary alkylammonium montmorillonite in different contents (3, 5, 7, and 10 phr) as the filler by using an extruder then, the rubber nano composite sheets were irradiated at a dose of 0, 50, 75, 100 and 150 KGy using Electron beam Irradiation technique as a crosslinking agent. These new materials can be characterized by using various analytical techniques including X-ray diffractometer XRD, Thermogravimetric analyzer TGA, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM),Fourier transform

  19. Interfacial Layer Engineering for Performance Enhancement in Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Improving power conversion efficiency and device performance stability is the most critical challenge in polymer solar cells for fulfilling their applications in industry at large scale. Various methodologies have been developed for realizing this goal, among them interfacial layer engineering has shown great success, which can optimize the electrical contacts between active layers and electrodes and lead to enhanced charge transport and collection. Interfacial layers also show profound impacts on light absorption and optical distribution of solar irradiation in the active layer and film morphology of the subsequently deposited active layer due to the accompanied surface energy change. Interfacial layer engineering enables the use of high work function metal electrodes without sacrificing device performance, which in combination with the favored kinetic barriers against water and oxygen penetration leads to polymer solar cells with enhanced performance stability. This review provides an overview of the recent progress of different types of interfacial layer materials, including polymers, small molecules, graphene oxides, fullerene derivatives, and metal oxides. Device performance enhancement of the resulting solar cells will be elucidated and the function and operation mechanism of the interfacial layers will be discussed.

  20. POROUS MEMBRANE TEMPLATED SYNTHESIS OF POLYMER PILLARED LAYER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-wei Niu; Dan Li; Zhen-zhong Yang

    2003-01-01

    The anodic porous alumina membranes with a definite pore diameter and aspect ratio were used as templates to synthesize polymer pillared layer structures. The pillared polymer was produced in the template membrane pores, and the layer on the template surfaces. Rigid cured epoxy resin, polystyrene and soft hydrogel were chosen to confirm the methodology. The pillars were in the form of either tubes or fibers, which were controlled by the alumina membrane pore surface wettability. The structural features were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy results.

  1. Boundary layers of aqueous surfactant and block copolymer solutions against hydrophobic and hydrophilic solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steitz, Roland; Schemmel, Sebastian; Shi Hongwei; Findenegg, Gerhard H

    2005-01-01

    The boundary layer of aqueous surfactants and amphiphilic triblock copolymers against flat solid surfaces of different degrees of hydrophobicity was investigated by neutron reflectometry (NR), grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering (GISANS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Solid substrates of different hydrophobicities were prepared by appropriate surface treatment or by coating silicon wafers with polymer films of different chemical natures. For substrates coated with thin films (20-30 nm) of deuterated poly(styrene) (water contact angle θ w ∼ 90), neutron reflectivity measurements on the polymer/water interface revealed a water depleted liquid boundary layer of 2-3 nm thickness and a density about 90% of the bulk water density. No pronounced depletion layer was found at the interface of water against a less hydrophobic polyelectrolyte coating (θ w ∼ 63). It is believed that the observed depletion layer at the hydrophobic polymer/water interface is a precursor of the nanobubbles which have been observed by AFM at this interface. Decoration of the polymer coatings by adsorbed layers of nonionic C m E n surfactants improves their wettability by the aqueous phase at surfactant concentrations well below the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Here, GISANS experiments conducted on the system SiO 2 /C 8 E 4 /D 2 O reveal that there is no preferred lateral organization of the C 8 E 4 adsorption layers. For amphiphilic triblock copolymers (PEO-PPO-PEO) it is found that under equilibrium conditions they form solvent-swollen brushes both at the air/water and the solid/water interface. In the latter case, the brushes transform to uniform, dense layers after extensive rinsing with water and subsequent solvent evaporation. The primary adsorption layers maintain properties of the precursor brushes. In particular, their thickness scales with the number of ethylene oxide units (EO) of the block copolymer. In the case of dip-coating without

  2. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se -Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-28

    A lithium metal thin-film battery composite structure is provided that includes a combination of a thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18] such as Lipon, designed in use to be in contact with a lithium metal anode layer; and a rapid-deposit solid electrolyte layer [16] such as LiAlF.sub.4 in contact with the thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18]. Batteries made up of or containing these structures are more efficient to produce than other lithium metal batteries that use only a single solid electrolyte. They are also more resistant to stress and strain than batteries made using layers of only the stable, solid electrolyte materials. Furthermore, lithium anode batteries as disclosed herein are useful as rechargeable batteries.

  3. Optical response of heterogeneous polymer layers containing silver nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Carlberg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the study of the optical properties of silver nanostructures embedded in a polymer host matrix. The introduction of silver nanostructures in polymer thin films is assumed to result in layers having adaptable optical properties. Thin film layers with inclusions of differently shaped nanoparticles, such as nanospheres and nanoprisms, and of different sizes, are optically characterized. The nanoparticles are produced by a simple chemical synthesis at room temperature in water. The plasmonic resonance peaks of the different colloidal solutions range from 390 to 1300 nm. The non-absorbing, transparent polymer matrix poly(vinylpyrrolidone (PVP was chosen because of its suitable optical and chemical properties. The optical studies of the layers include spectrophotometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements, which provide information about the reflection, transmission, absorption of the material as well as the complex optical indices, n and k. Finite difference time domain simulations of nanoparticles in thin film layers allow the visualization of the nanoparticle interactions or the electric field enhancement on and around the nanoparticles to complete the optical characterization. A simple analysis method is proposed to obtain the complex refractive index of nanospheres and nanoprisms in a polymer matrix.

  4. Cementation of the solid radioactive waste with polymer-cement solutions using the method of impregnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunova, O.

    2015-01-01

    Cementation of solid radioactive waste (SRW), i.e. inclusion of solid radioactive waste into cement matrix without cavities - is one of the main technological processes used for conditioning low and intermediate level radioactive waste. At FSUE 'Radon' the industrialized method of impregnation has been developed and since 2003 has been using for cementation of solid radioactive waste. The technology is that the polymer-cement solution, having high penetrating properties, is supplied under pressure through a tube to the bottom of the container in which solid radioactive waste has preliminarily been placed. The polymer-cement solution is evenly moving upwards through the channels between the particles of solid radioactive waste, fills the voids in the bulk volume of the waste and hardens, forming a cement compound, the amount of which is equal to the original volume. The aim of the investigation was a selection of a cement solution suitable for SRW impregnation (including fine particles) without solution depletion and bottom layers stuffing. It has been chosen a polymer: PHMG (polyhexamethylene-guanidine), which is a stabilizing and water-retaining component of the cement solution. The experiments confirm that the polymer increases the permeability of the cement solution by a 2-2.5 factor, the viscosity by a 1.2 factor, the stability of the consistency by a 1.5-1.7 factor, and extends the operating range of the W/C ratio to 0.5-1.1. So it is possible to penetrate a volume of SRW bigger by a 1.5-2.0 factor. It has been proved, that PHMG polymer increases strength and frost-resistance of the final compounds by a 1.8-2.7 factor, and contributes to fast strength development at the beginning of hardening and it decreases Cs-137 leashing rate by a 1.5-2 factor

  5. Electrodeposition of Polymer Nanostructures using Three Diffuse Double Layers: Polymerization beyond the Liquid/Liquid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, Velpula; Sangaranarayanan, M. V.

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured conducting polymers have received immense attention during the past few decades on account of their phenomenal usefulness in diverse contexts, while the interface between two immiscible liquids is of great interest in chemical and biological applications. Here we propose a novel Electrode(solid)/Electrolyte(aqueous)/Electrolyte(organic) Interfacial assembly for the synthesis of polymeric nanostructures using a novel concept of three diffuse double layers. There exist remarkable differences between the morphologies of the polymers synthesized using the conventional electrode/electrolyte method and that of the new approach. In contrast to the commonly employed electrodeposition at liquid/liquid interfaces, these polymer modified electrodes can be directly employed in diverse applications such as sensors, supercapacitors etc.

  6. Magnetic resonance studies of solid polymers; Etude des polymeres solides par resonance magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenk, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This paper is a review of the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to solid polymers. In the first, theoretical part, the elements of the theory of NMR, which are necessary for the study of the properties of solid polymers are discussed: the moments method, nuclear relaxation and the distribution of correlation times. In the second part the experimental results are presented. (author) [French] Cette etude est une recherche bibliographique sur l'application de la resonance magnetique nucleaire (RMN) aux polymeres solides. Dans la premiere partie theorique on discute les elements de la theorie de RMN, necessaires pour l'etude des proprietes des polymeres solides: la methode des moments, la relaxation nucleaire et la distribution des temps de correlation. La deuxieme partie presente les resultats des experiences. (auteur)

  7. Physical stability of API/polymer-blend amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkemper, Kristin; Kyeremateng, Samuel O; Bartels, Mareike; Degenhardt, Matthias; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2018-03-01

    The preparation of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) is a well-established strategy for formulating active pharmaceutical ingredients by embedding them in excipients, usually amorphous polymers. Different polymers can be combined for designing ASDs with desired properties like an optimized dissolution behavior. One important criterion for the development of ASD compositions is the physical stability. In this work, the physical stability of API/polymer-blend ASDs was investigated by thermodynamic modeling and stability studies. Amorphous naproxen (NAP) and acetaminophen (APAP) were embedded in blends of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) and either poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) or poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVPVA64). Parameters for modeling the API solubility in the blends and the glass-transition temperature curves of the water-free systems with Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory and Kwei equation, respectively, were correlated to experimental data. The phase behavior for standardized storage conditions (0%, 60% and 75% relative humidity (RH)) was predicted and compared to six months-long stability studies. According to modeling and experimental results, the physical stability was reduced with increasing HPMCAS content and increasing RH. This trend was observed for all investigated systems, with both APIs (NAP and APAP) and both polymer blends (PVP/HPMCAS and PVPVA64/HPMCAS). PC-SAFT and the Kwei equation turned out to be suitable tools for modeling and predicting the physical stability of the investigated API/polymer-blends ASDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tunable fractional-order capacitor using layered ferroelectric polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat

    2017-09-05

    Pairs of various Polyvinylidene fluoride P(VDF)-based polymers are used for fabricating bilayer fractional order capacitors (FOCs). The polymer layers are constructed using a simple drop casting approach. The resulting FOC has two advantages: It can be easily integrated with printed circuit boards, and its constant phase angle (CPA) can be tuned by changing the thickness ratio of the layers. Indeed, our experiments show that the CPA of the fabricated FOCs can be tuned within the range from -83° to -65° in the frequency band changing from 150 kHz to 10 MHz. Additionally, we provide an empirical formula describing the relationship between the thickness ratio and the CPA, which is highly useful for designing FOCs with the desired CPA.

  9. Study of Hydrophobic and Ionizable Hydrophilic Copolymers at Polymer/Solid and Polymer/Liquid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perahia, Dvora

    2011-11-01

    Joint experimental-computational efforts were set to characterize the interfacial effects on the structure and dynamics of polymers consisting of highly rigid hydrophilic-ionizable and hydrophobic sub-units within one polymeric chain casted into thin films of several molecular dimensions. Focusing on the ultra thin film region we separate out the interfacial effects from bulk characteristics. Specifically, the study sought to: identify the parameters that control the formation of a stable polymer-solid interface. The study consists of two components, experimental investigations and computational efforts. The experimental component was designed to derive empirical trends that can be used to correlate the set of coupled polymer molecular parameters with the interfacial characteristics of these polymers, and their response to presence of solvents. The computational study was designed to provide molecular insight into the ensemble averages provided by the experimental efforts on multiple length scales from molecular dimensions, to the nanometer lengths to a macroscopic understanding of solvent interactions with structured polymers. With the ultimate goal of correlating molecular parameters to structure, dynamics and properties of ionic polymers, the first stage of the research began with the study of two systems, one which allowed tailoring the flexibility of the backbone without the presence of ionic groups, but with a potential to sulfonate groups at a later stage, and a polymer whose backbone is rigid and the density of the ionic group can be varied. The combined experimental and computational studies significantly extended the understanding of polymers at interfaces from model systems to polydispersed copolymers with blocks of varying nature and complexity. This new insight directly affects the design of polymers for sustainable energy applications from batteries and fuel cells to solar energy.

  10. Shadowgraphy investigation of laser-induced forward transfer: Front side and back side ablation of the triazene polymer sacrificial layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardel, Romain; Nagel, Matthias; Nueesch, Frank; Lippert, Thomas; Wokaun, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of a photodecomposible triazene polymer are used as sacrificial layer for the micro-deposition of sensitive materials by laser-induced forward transfer. To understand the ablation process of this sacrificial layer, the ultraviolet laser ablation of triazene films was investigated by time-resolved shadowgraphy. Irradiation from the film side shows a complete decomposition into gaseous fragments, while ablation through the substrate causes ejection of a solid flyer of polymer. The occurence of the flyer depends on the film thickness as well as on the applied fluence, and a compact flyer is obtaind when these two parameters are optimized

  11. Chitosan-gold-Lithium nanocomposites as solid polymer electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, S N Suraiya; Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Aswal, Vinod K; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal

    2014-08-01

    Lithium micro batteries are emerging field of research. For environmental safety biodegradable films are preferred. Recently biodegradable polymers have gained wide application in the field of solid polymer electrolytes. To make biodegradable polymers films plasticizers are usually used. However, use of plasticizers has disadvantages such as inhomogenities in phases and mechanical instability that will affect the performance of Lithium micro batteries. We have in this research used gold nanoparticles that are environmentally friendly, instead of plasticizers. Gold nanoparticles were directly template upon chitosan membranes by reduction process so as to enhance the interactions of Lithium with the polymer. In this article, for the first time the characteristics of Chitosan-gold-Lithium nanocomposite films are investigated. The films were prepared using simple solution casting technique. We have used various characterization tools such as Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), XRD, FTIR, Raman, FESEM, and AFM, Light scattering, Dielectric and electrical conductivity measurements. Our investigations show that incorporation of gold results in enhancement of conductivity in Lithium containing Chitosan films. Also it affects the dielectric characteristics of the films. We conclude through various characterization tools that the enhancement in the conductivity was due to the retardation of crystal growth of lithium salt in the presence of gold nanoparticles. A model is proposed regarding the formation of the new nanocomposite. The conductivity of these biodegradable films is comparable to those of the current inorganic Lithium micro batteries. This new chitosan-Au-Li nanocomposite has potential applications in the field of Lithium micro batteries.

  12. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-02-16

    In this study, we report the fabrication of solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on conducting polymer electrodes on a plastic substrate. Nanostructured conducting polymers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, and polyaniline (PANI) are deposited electrochemically over Au-coated polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrates. Due to the electron donating nature of the oxygen groups in the PEDOT, reduction potentials are higher, allowing it to be used as a negative electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid state supercapacitors with PANI as a positive electrode while employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. The ASCs exhibit a maximum power density of 2.8 W cm−3 at an energy density of 9 mW h cm−3, which is superior to the carbonaceous and metal oxide based ASC solid state devices. Furthermore, the tandem configuration of asymmetric supercapacitors is shown to be capable of powering a red light emitting diode for about 1 minute after charging for 10 seconds.

  13. Robust solid polymer electrolyte for conducting IPN actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festin, Nicolas; Maziz, Ali; Plesse, Cédric; Teyssié, Dominique; Chevrot, Claude; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) as first component and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as second component were synthesized and used as a solid polymer electrolyte film in the design of a mechanically robust conducting IPN actuator. IPN mechanical properties and morphologies were mainly investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis and transmission electron microscopy. For 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide (EMITFSI) swollen IPNs, conductivity values are close to 1 × 10 −3 S cm −1 at 25 ° C. Conducting IPN actuators have been synthesized by chemical polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) within the PEO/NBR IPN. A pseudo-trilayer configuration has been obtained with PEO/NBR IPN sandwiched between two interpenetrated PEDOT electrodes. The robust conducting IPN actuators showed a free strain of 2.4% and a blocking force of 30 mN for a low applied potential of ±2 V. (paper)

  14. Robust solid polymer electrolyte for conducting IPN actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festin, Nicolas; Maziz, Ali; Plesse, Cédric; Teyssié, Dominique; Chevrot, Claude; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) as first component and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as second component were synthesized and used as a solid polymer electrolyte film in the design of a mechanically robust conducting IPN actuator. IPN mechanical properties and morphologies were mainly investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis and transmission electron microscopy. For 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide (EMITFSI) swollen IPNs, conductivity values are close to 1 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 ° C. Conducting IPN actuators have been synthesized by chemical polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) within the PEO/NBR IPN. A pseudo-trilayer configuration has been obtained with PEO/NBR IPN sandwiched between two interpenetrated PEDOT electrodes. The robust conducting IPN actuators showed a free strain of 2.4% and a blocking force of 30 mN for a low applied potential of ±2 V.

  15. Tritium separation from heavy water by electrolysis with solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Y.; Ohtani, N.; Kotaka, M.

    2003-01-01

    A tritium separation from heavy water by electrolysis using a solid polymer electrode layer was specified. The cathode was made of stainless steel or nickel. The electrolysis was performed for 1 hour at 5, 10, 20, and 30 deg C. Using a palladium catalyst, generated hydrogen and oxygen gases were recombined, which was collected with a cold trap. The activities of the samples were measured by a liquid scintillation counter. The apparent tritium separation factors of the heavy and light water at 20 deg C were ∼2 and ∼12, respectively. (author)

  16. Fuel cells with solid polymer electrolyte and their application on vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fateev, V.

    1996-04-01

    In Russia, solid polymer electrolyte MF-4-SK has been developed for fuel cells. This electrolyte is based on perfluorinated polymer with functional sulfogroups. Investigations on electrolyte properties and electrocatalysts have been carried out.

  17. Thiophene Rings Improve the Device Performance of Conjugated Polymers in Polymer Solar Cells with Thick Active Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, C.; Gao, K.; Colberts, F. J. M.; Liu, F.; Meskers, S. C. J.; Wienk, M. M.; Janssen, R. A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Developing novel materials that tolerate thickness variations of the active layer is critical to further enhance the efficiency of polymer solar cells and enable large-scale manufacturing. Presently, only a few polymers afford high efficiencies at active layer thickness exceeding 200 nm and

  18. Solid polymer fuel cell stationary power generation design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyke, S.H.; Wood, A.; Williams, G.J.; Kearney, P.

    2000-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating potential markets for solid polymer fuel cells (SPFC) stationary power generating systems and evaluating design options for grid connected and stand-alone systems. The specification of potential application for SPFC systems, initial modelling and economic analysis of twelve candidate SPFC applications, and the ranking and evaluation of candidate applications are examined. Details are given of performance modelling and economic analysis of four preferred SPFC systems (domestic, commercial, light industrial, and transportable generation), and comparison of SPFC with competing technologies. The economics of SPFC and conventional technologies for commercial applications are compared and market opportunities and potential barriers to commercialisation are identified.

  19. Automated Solid-Phase Radiofluorination Using Polymer-Supported Phosphazenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiessen, Bente; Zhuravlev, Fedor

    2013-01-01

    of [18F]FDG. The combination of compact form factor, simplicity of [18F]F− recovery and processing, and column reusability can make solid phase radiofluorination an attractive radiochemistry platform for the emerging dose-on-demand instruments for bedside production of PET radiotracers.......The polymer supported phosphazene bases PS-P2tBu and the novel PS-P2PEG allowed for efficient extraction of [18F]F− from proton irradiated [18O]H2O and subsequent radiofluorination of a broad range of substrates directly on the resin. The highest radiochemical yields were obtained with aliphatic...

  20. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eitouni, Hany; Yang, Jin; Pratt, Russell; Wang, Xiao; Grape, Ulrik

    2014-09-29

    The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a high energy lithium based technology with targets of over 500 Wh/l and 325 Wh/kg. Seeo would leverage the work already achieved with its unique proprietary solid polymer DryLyteTM technology in cells which had a specific energy density of 220 Wh/kg. The development work was focused on establishing a dual electrolyte system, coated cathode particle techniques, various types of additives, and different conductive salts. The program had a duration of three years, with Seeo delivering the final cells at the end of 2014 for evaluation by a DOE laboratory.

  1. Lithium carbon batteries with solid polymer electrolyte; Accumulateur lithium carbone a electrolyte solide polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieu, X.; Boudin, F. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium carbon batteries studied in this paper use plasticized polymer electrolytes made with passive polymer matrix swollen by a liquid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup -3} S/cm at 25 deg. C). The polymers used to prepare the gels are polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and vinylidene poly-fluoride (PVdF). The electrochemical and physical properties of these materials are analyzed according to their composition. The behaviour of solid electrolytes with different materials of lithium ion insertion (graphite and LiNiO{sub 2}) are studied and compared to liquid electrolytes. The parameters taken into account are the reversible and irreversible capacities, the cycling performance and the admissible current densities. Finally, complete lithium ion batteries with gelled electrolytes were manufactured and tested. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  2. Lithium carbon batteries with solid polymer electrolyte; Accumulateur lithium carbone a electrolyte solide polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieu, X; Boudin, F [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lithium carbon batteries studied in this paper use plasticized polymer electrolytes made with passive polymer matrix swollen by a liquid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup -3} S/cm at 25 deg. C). The polymers used to prepare the gels are polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and vinylidene poly-fluoride (PVdF). The electrochemical and physical properties of these materials are analyzed according to their composition. The behaviour of solid electrolytes with different materials of lithium ion insertion (graphite and LiNiO{sub 2}) are studied and compared to liquid electrolytes. The parameters taken into account are the reversible and irreversible capacities, the cycling performance and the admissible current densities. Finally, complete lithium ion batteries with gelled electrolytes were manufactured and tested. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  3. Cross-Linked Solid Polymer Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben youcef, Hicham; Garcia-Calvo, Oihane; Lago, Nerea; Devaraj, Shanmukaraj; Armand, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Semi-interpenetrated network Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) were fabricated by UV-induced cross-linking of poly(ethyleneglycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and divinylbenzene (DVB) within a poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO) matrix (M v = 5 × 10 6 g mol −1 ), comprising lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide salt (LiTFSI), at a molar ratio of EO:Li ∼ 30:1. The influence of the DVB content on the final SPE properties was investigated in detail. An increase of DVB concentration resulted in self-standing polymer electrolytes. The DVB cross-linker incorporation was found to decrease the crystallinity of the PEO matrix from 34% to 23%, with a decrease in the melting temperature (T m ) of the membrane from 50 °C to 34 °C. Moreover, the influence of the DVB concentration on the ionic conductivity was determined for polymer electrolytes with 0, 10, 20 and 45% DVB from room temperature (RT) to 80 °C. The resulting SPEs showed a high electrochemical stability of 4.3 V as well as practical conductivity values exceeding 10 −4 S cm −1 at 70 °C. Cycling performance of these semi-interpenetrated SPE’s have been shown with a Li metal polymer battery and all solid -state Li sulphur battery.

  4. Driving mechanisms of ionic polymer actuators having electric double layer capacitor structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Satoru; Kato, Yuichi; Kokubo, Hisashi; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2012-04-26

    Two solid polymer electrolytes, composed of a polyether-segmented polyurethaneurea (PEUU) and either a lithium salt (lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide: Li[NTf2]) or a nonvolatile ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide: [C2mim][NTf2]), were prepared in order to utilize them as ionic polymer actuators. These salts were preferentially dissolved in the polyether phases. The ionic transport mechanism of the polyethers was discussed in terms of the diffusion coefficients and ionic transference numbers of the incorporated ions, which were estimated by means of pulsed-field gradient spin-echo (PGSE) NMR. There was a distinct difference in the ionic transport properties of each polymer electrolyte owing to the difference in the magnitude of interactions between the cations and the polyether. The anionic diffusion coefficient was much faster than that of the cation in the polyether/Li[NTf2] electrolyte, whereas the cation diffused faster than the anion in the polyether/[C2mim][NTf2] electrolyte. Ionic polymer actuators, which have a solid-state electric-double-layer-capacitor (EDLC) structure, were prepared using these polymer electrolyte membranes and ubiquitous carbon materials such as activated carbon and acetylene black. On the basis of the difference in the motional direction of each actuator against applied voltages, a simple model of the actuation mechanisms was proposed by taking the difference in ionic transport properties into consideration. This model discriminated the behavior of the actuators in terms of the products of transference numbers and ionic volumes. The experimentally observed behavior of the actuators was successfully explained by this model.

  5. Highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chuizhou; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Luzhuo; Hu, Chunhua; Fan, Shoushan

    2010-10-13

    In recent years, much effort have been dedicated to achieve thin, lightweight and even flexible energy-storage devices for wearable electronics. Here we demonstrate a novel kind of ultrathin all-solid-state supercapacitor configuration with an extremely simple process using two slightly separated polyaniline-based electrodes well solidified in the H(2)SO(4)-polyvinyl alcohol gel electrolyte. The thickness of the entire device is much comparable to that of a piece of commercial standard A4 print paper. Under its highly flexible (twisting) state, the integrate device shows a high specific capacitance of 350 F/g for the electrode materials, well cycle stability after 1000 cycles and a leakage current of as small as 17.2 μA. Furthermore, due to its polymer-based component structure, it has a specific capacitance of as high as 31.4 F/g for the entire device, which is more than 6 times that of current high-level commercial supercapacitor products. These highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors may bring new design opportunities of device configuration for energy-storage devices in the future wearable electronic area.

  6. Decoupling of Solid 4He Layers under the Superfluid Overlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Kenji; Hiraide, Jo; Taniguchi, Junko; Suzuki, Masaru

    2018-03-01

    It has been reported that in a large oscillation amplitude, the mass decoupling of multilayer 4He films adsorbed on graphite results from the depinning of the second solid atomic layer. This decoupling suddenly vanishes below a certain low temperature TD due to the cancellation of mass decoupling by the superfluid counterflow of the the overylayer. We studied the relaxation of the depinned state at various temperatures, after reduction of oscillation amplitude below TD . It was found that above the superfluid transition temperature the mass decoupling revives with a relaxation time of several 100 s. It strongly supports that the depinned state of the second solid atomic layer remains underneath the superfluid overlayer.

  7. Polymer coatings as separator layers for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.

    2011-03-01

    Membrane separators reduce oxygen flux from the cathode into the anolyte in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but water accumulation and pH gradients between the separator and cathode reduces performance. Air cathodes were spray-coated (water-facing side) with anion exchange, cation exchange, and neutral polymer coatings of different thicknesses to incorporate the separator into the cathode. The anion exchange polymer coating resulted in greater power density (1167 ± 135 mW m-2) than a cation exchange coating (439 ± 2 mW m-2). This power output was similar to that produced by a Nafion-coated cathode (1114 ± 174 mW m-2), and slightly lower than the uncoated cathode (1384 ± 82 mW m-2). Thicker coatings reduced oxygen diffusion into the electrolyte and increased coulombic efficiency (CE = 56-64%) relative to an uncoated cathode (29 ± 8%), but decreased power production (255-574 mW m-2). Electrochemical characterization of the cathodes ex situ to the MFC showed that the cathodes with the lowest charge transfer resistance and the highest oxygen reduction activity produced the most power in MFC tests. The results on hydrophilic cathode separator layers revealed a trade off between power and CE. Cathodes coated with a thin coating of anion exchange polymer show promise for controlling oxygen transfer while minimally affecting power production. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Polymer-Layered Silicate Nanocomposites for Cryotank Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Meador, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous composite cryotank designs have relied on the use of conventional composite materials to reduce microcracking and permeability. However, revolutionary advances in nanotechnology derived materials may enable the production of ultra-lightweight cryotanks with significantly enhanced durability and damage tolerance, as well as reduced propellant permeability. Layered silicate nanocomposites are especially attractive in cryogenic storage tanks based on results that have been reported for epoxy nanocomposite systems. These materials often exhibit an order of magnitude reduction in gas permeability when compared to the base resin. In addition, polymer-silicate nanocomposites have been shown to yield improved dimensional stability, strength, and toughness. The enhancement in material performance of these systems occurs without property trade-offs which are often observed in conventionally filled polymer composites. Research efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center have led to the development of epoxy-clay nanocomposites with 70% lower hydrogen permeability than the base epoxy resin. Filament wound carbon fiber reinforced tanks made with this nanocomposite had a five-fold lower helium leak rate than the corresponding tanks made without clay. The pronounced reduction observed with the tank may be due to flow induced alignment of the clay layers during processing. Additionally, the nanocomposites showed CTE reductions of up to 30%, as well as a 100% increase in toughness.

  9. Investigation of thin polymer layers for biosensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saftics, András; Agócs, Emil [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences–H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Fodor, Bálint [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences–H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Doctoral School of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Pécs, 7624 Pécs, Ifjúság útja 6 (Hungary); Patkó, Dániel; Petrik, Péter [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences–H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Doctoral School of Molecular- and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, H-8200 Egyetem u.10, Veszprém (Hungary); Kolari, Kai; Aalto, Timo [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PL 1000, Tietotie 3, 02044 Espoo (Finland); Fürjes, Péter [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences–H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Horvath, Robert [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences–H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Doctoral School of Molecular- and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, H-8200 Egyetem u.10, Veszprém (Hungary); Kurunczi, Sándor, E-mail: kurunczi.sandor@ttk.mta.hu [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences–H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Doctoral School of Molecular- and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, H-8200 Egyetem u.10, Veszprém (Hungary)

    2013-09-15

    Novel biosensors made of polymers may offer advantages over conventional technology such as possibility of mass production and tunability of the material properties. With the ongoing work on the polymer photonic chip fabrication in our project, simple model samples were tested parallel for future immobilization and accessing conditions for applications in typical aqueous buffers. The model samples consist of a thin, high refractive index polyimide film on top of TEOS on Si wafer. These model samples were measured by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry using different aqueous buffers. The experiments revealed a high drift in aqueous solutions; the drift in the ellipsometric parameters (delta, psi) can be evaluated and presented as changes in thickness and refractive index of the polyimide layer. The first molecular layer of immobilization is based on polyethyleneimine (PEI). The signal for the PEI adsorption was detected on a stable baseline, only after a long conditioning. The stability of polyimide films in aqueous buffer solutions should be improved toward the real biosensor application. Preliminary results are shown on the possibilities to protect the polyimide. Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy (OWLS) has been used to demonstrate the shielding effect of the thin TiO{sub 2} adlayer in biosensor applications.

  10. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy to Study Diffusion of Polymer Chains within Layered Hydrogen-Bonded Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pristinski, Denis; Kharlampieva, Evguenia; Sukhishvili, Svetlana

    2002-03-01

    Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) has been used to probe molecular motions within polymer multilayers formed by hydrogen-bonding sequential self-assembly. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules were end-labeled with the fluorescent tags, and self-assembled with polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) using layer-by-layer deposition. We have found that molecules included in the top adsorbed layer have significant mobility at the millisecond time scale, probably due to translational diffusion. However, their dynamics deviate from classical Brownian motion with a single diffusion time. Possible reasons for the deviation are discussed. We found that motions were significantly slowed with increasing depth within the PEG/PMAA multilayer. This phenomena occured in a narrow pH range around 4.0 in which intermolecular interactions were relatively weak.

  11. Electrode of solid state polymer electrolyte type electrochemical cell; Kobunshi kotai denkaisitsugata denki kagaku seru yo denkyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, M [Yamanashi, (Japan); Inoue, M [Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-12

    The solid state polymer electrolyte type electrochemical cell (PEMFC) has such problem that the gas diffusion from the resin surface to the catalyst surface is prevented when the coating thickness of cation exchange resin on the catalyst particle and the number of micropores which conduct the gas flow in the catalyst layer are reduced. Resultingly, a sufficiently large current cannot be taken out of the cell. This invention solves the problem. The catalyst layer of electrode of PEMFC consists of a mixture of the conductive catalyst carrier coated with cation exchange resin and the conductive carrier coated with fluorinated hydrocarbon polymer. Adding the water repellent material to the electrode in this way improves the air-passing porosity. As for the cation exchange resin, perfluorocarbon sulfonate or perfluorocarbon carboxylate can be used. For the fluorinated hydrocarbon polymer, fluorinated polyethylene is preferably used. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising a porous support and a solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K; Norman, Timothy J; Griffith, Arthur E; LaConti, Anthony B

    2015-02-24

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a thin, rigid, dimensionally-stable, non-electrically-conducting support, the support having a plurality of cylindrical, straight-through pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores are unevenly distributed, with some or no pores located along the periphery and more pores located centrally. The pores are completely filled with a solid polymer electrolyte, the solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide. The solid polymer electrolyte may also be deposited over the top and/or bottom surfaces of the support.

  13. Polymer-Induced Swelling of Solid-Supported Lipid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kreuzer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the interaction of charged polymers with solid-supported 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC membranes by in-situ neutron reflectivity. We observe an enormous swelling of the oligolamellar lipid bilayer stacks after incubation in solutions of poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH in D2O. The positively charged polyelectrolyte molecules interact with the lipid bilayers and induce a drastic increase in their d-spacing by a factor of ~4. Temperature, time, and pH influence the swollen interfacial lipid linings. From our study, we conclude that electrostatic interactions introduced by the adsorbed PAH are the main cause for the drastic swelling of the lipid coatings. The DMPC membrane stacks do not detach from their solid support at T > Tm. Steric interactions, also introduced by the PAH molecules, are held responsible for the stabilizing effect. We believe that this novel system offers great potential for fundamental studies of biomembrane properties, keeping the membrane’s natural fluidity and freedom, decoupled from a solid support at physiological conditions.

  14. A conducting polymer nucleation scheme for efficient solid-state supercapacitors on paper

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra; Park, Jihoon; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a thin nucleation layer is used to tune the morphology of conducting polymer electrodes and to optimize the performance of paper based solid-state supercapacitors. It is found that using an acid-treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) nucleation layer, prior to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, electrochemical deposition, gives 5-6 times higher areal capacitance compared to a gold metal nucleation layer. Specifically, PEDOT supercapacitors with a high volumetric capacitance of 327 F cm-3, higher than any other PEDOT based supercapacitors reported in the literature, is achieved on the PEDOT:PSS nucleation layer; for the same devices, an areal capacitance of 242 mF cm-2 and an energy density of 14.5 mW h cm-3 at a power density of 350 mW cm-3 are obtained. Furthermore, these optimized PEDOT/PEDOT:PSS/paper electrodes are employed to fabricate solid-state supercapacitors using aqueous and ion gel electrolytes, with 32 and 11 mF cm-2 cell capacitance, respectively. The solid-state PEDOT device showed an energy density of 1.5 mW h cm-3 (normalised to the volume of the whole cell, including both the electrodes and the electrolyte), which is higher than the best reported ppy/paper (E = 1 mW h cm-3) and PAni/pencil/paper (E = 0.32 mW h cm-3) solid-state devices. The cycling performance showed that capacitance retention up to 80% is achieved after 10000 cycles. This journal is

  15. A conducting polymer nucleation scheme for efficient solid-state supercapacitors on paper

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2014-08-19

    In this study, a thin nucleation layer is used to tune the morphology of conducting polymer electrodes and to optimize the performance of paper based solid-state supercapacitors. It is found that using an acid-treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) nucleation layer, prior to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, electrochemical deposition, gives 5-6 times higher areal capacitance compared to a gold metal nucleation layer. Specifically, PEDOT supercapacitors with a high volumetric capacitance of 327 F cm-3, higher than any other PEDOT based supercapacitors reported in the literature, is achieved on the PEDOT:PSS nucleation layer; for the same devices, an areal capacitance of 242 mF cm-2 and an energy density of 14.5 mW h cm-3 at a power density of 350 mW cm-3 are obtained. Furthermore, these optimized PEDOT/PEDOT:PSS/paper electrodes are employed to fabricate solid-state supercapacitors using aqueous and ion gel electrolytes, with 32 and 11 mF cm-2 cell capacitance, respectively. The solid-state PEDOT device showed an energy density of 1.5 mW h cm-3 (normalised to the volume of the whole cell, including both the electrodes and the electrolyte), which is higher than the best reported ppy/paper (E = 1 mW h cm-3) and PAni/pencil/paper (E = 0.32 mW h cm-3) solid-state devices. The cycling performance showed that capacitance retention up to 80% is achieved after 10000 cycles. This journal is

  16. Hybrid n-Alkylamine Intercalated Layered Titanates for Solid Lubrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, P.; Yuan, H.; van den Nieuwenhuijzen, Karin Jacqueline Huberta; Lette, W.; Schipper, Dirk J.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2016-01-01

    The intercalation of different primary n-alkylamines in the structure of a layered titanate of the lepidocrocite type (H1.07Ti1.73O4) for application in high-temperature solid lubrication is reported. The intercalation process of the amines was explored by means of in situ small-angle X-ray

  17. Evaluation of solid polymer electrolytes for use in conducting polymer/nanotube actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Trevor W.; Kim, B. C.; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2000-06-01

    The stringent requirements for a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) in solid state devices such as batteries or supercapacitors are even more demanding when used in electromechanical actuators. Not only is the SPE expected to exhibit good conductivity, mechanical properties, adhesion and mechanical/electrical stability, but it must also be flexible, maintained good adhesion while flexing, be easily processible and be able to function in air. In this work polyacrylonitrile and Kynar based non-aqueous SPEs and water based polyacrylamide hydrogel ion source/sinks containing various perchlorate salts were tested for their applicability to polypyrrole and carbon nanotube actuators and supercapacitors. The results indicate that the optimum SPE for both polypyrrole and carbon nanotube actuators would be a polyacrylonitrile plasticized with propylene carbonate and ethylene carbonate containing 1.0M NaClO4. It is also apparent that the same SPE would be the most suitable for supercapacitor applications with these materials.

  18. Layer-by-Layer technique employed to construct multitask interfaces in polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Sá Vitorino

    Full Text Available Abstract The properties of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites are closely related to the fiber-matrix interface. Interfacial treatments to improve mechanical properties are usually limited to enhance interfacial adhesion. In this work, Layer-by-Layer (LbL technique was introduced to build a novel interface in polymer composites. Different numbers of bilayers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate with carbon nanotubes were deposited through LbL on the surface of woven glass fibers (GFs. Polypropylene composites containing the modified GFs were prepared by compression molding. Thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy proved that multilayers of polymers with carbon nanotubes could be deposited on GFs surface. Mechanical tests on composites with modified GFs revealed an increase in Flexural Modulus and toughness. The overall results attested that the LbL technique can be used to design interfaces with different compositions to perform diverse tasks, such as to improve the stiffness of composites and to encapsulate active nanocomponents.

  19. Improved antifouling properties of polymer membranes using a ‘layer-by-layer’ mediated method

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lin; Thé rien-Aubin, Hé loï se; Wong, Mavis C. Y.; Hoek, Eric M. V.; Ober, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric reverse osmosis membranes were modified with antifouling polymer brushes through a 'layer by layer' (LBL) mediated method. Based on pure physical electrostatic interaction, the attachment of LBL films did not alter separation performance

  20. The mechanisms of drug release from solid dispersions in water-soluble polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Duncan Q M

    2002-01-14

    Solid dispersions in water-soluble carriers have attracted considerable interest as a means of improving the dissolution rate, and hence possibly bioavailability, of a range of hydrophobic drugs. However, despite the publication of numerous original papers and reviews on the subject, the mechanisms underpinning the observed improvements in dissolution rate are not yet understood. In this review the current consensus with regard to the solid-state structure and dissolution properties of solid dispersions is critically assessed. In particular the theories of carrier- and drug-controlled dissolution are highlighted. A model is proposed whereby the release behaviour from the dispersions may be understood in terms of the dissolution or otherwise of the drug into the concentrated aqueous polymer layer adjacent to the solid surface, including a derivation of an expression to describe the release of intact particles from the dispersions. The implications of a deeper understanding of the dissolution mechanisms are discussed, with particular emphasis on optimising the choice of carrier and manufacturing method and the prediction of stability problems.

  1. Superhydrophobic Thin Films Fabricated by Reactive Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Azlactone-Functionalized Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Maren E; Schwartz, Sarina C; Lynn, David M

    2010-09-11

    We report an approach to the fabrication of superhydrophobic thin films that is based on the 'reactive' layer-by-layer assembly of azlactone-containing polymer multilayers. We demonstrate that films fabricated from alternating layers of the azlactone functionalized polymer poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone) (PVDMA) and poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) exhibit micro- and nanoscale surface features that result in water contact angles in excess of 150º. Our results reveal that the formation of these surface features is (i) dependent upon film thickness (i.e., the number of layers of PEI and PVDMA deposited) and (ii) that it is influenced strongly by the presence (or absence) of cyclic azlactone-functionalized oligomers that can form upon storage of the 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone (VDMA) used to synthesize PVDMA. For example, films fabricated using polymers synthesized in the presence of these oligomers exhibited rough, textured surfaces and superhydrophobic behavior (i.e., advancing contact angles in excess of 150º). In contrast, films fabricated from PVDMA polymerized in the absence of this oligomer (e.g., using freshly distilled monomer) were smooth and only moderately hydrophobic (i.e., advancing contact angles of ~75º). The addition of authentic, independently synthesized oligomer to samples of distilled VDMA at specified and controlled concentrations permitted reproducible fabrication of superhydrophobic thin films on the surfaces of a variety of different substrates. The surfaces of these films were demonstrated to be superhydrophobic immediately after fabrication, but they became hydrophilic after exposure to water for six days. Additional experiments demonstrated that it was possible to stabilize and prolong the superhydrophobic properties of these films (e.g., advancing contact angles in excess of 150° even after complete submersion in water for at least six weeks) by exploiting the reactivity of residual azlactones to functionalize the surfaces of the films

  2. High-performance polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidecker, Matthew J.

    High-performance layered-silicate nanocomposites of Polycarbonate (PC), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and their blends were produced via conventional melt-blending techniques. The focus of this thesis was on the fundamentals of dispersion, control of thermal stability, maintenance of melt-blending processing conditions, and on optimization of the composites' mechanical properties via the design of controlled and thermodynamically favorable nano-filler dispersions within the polymer matrices. PET and PC require high temperatures for melt-processing, rendering impractical the use of conventional/commercial organically-modified layered-silicates, since the thermal degradation temperatures of their ammonium surfactants lies below the typical processing temperatures. Thus, different surfactant chemistries must be employed in order to develop melt-processable nanocomposites, also accounting for polymer matrix degradation due to water (PET) or amine compounds (PC). Novel high thermal-stability surfactants were developed and employed in montmorillonite nanocomposites of PET, PC, and PC/PET blends, and were compared to the respective nanocomposites based on conventional quaternary-ammonium modified montmorillonites. Favorable dispersion was achieved in all cases, however, the overall material behavior -- i.e., the combination of crystallization, mechanical properties, and thermal degradation -- was better for the nanocomposites based on the thermally-stable surfactant fillers. Studies were also done to trace, and ultimately limit, the matrix degradation of Polycarbonate/montmorillonite nanocomposites, through varying the montmorillonite surfactant chemistry, processing conditions, and processing additives. Molecular weight degradation was, maybe surprisingly, better controlled in the conventional quaternary ammonium based nanocomposites -- even though the thermal stability of the organically modified montmorillonites was in most cases the lowest. Dependence of the

  3. Two-Dimensional Polymer Synthesized via Solid-State Polymerization for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ulaganathan, Mani; Abdelwahab, Ibrahim; Luo, Xin; Chen, Zhongxin; Rong Tan, Sherman Jun; Wang, Xiaowei; Liu, Yanpeng; Geng, Dechao; Bao, Yang; Chen, Jianyi; Loh, Kian Ping

    2018-01-23

    Two-dimensional (2-D) polymer has properties that are attractive for energy storage applications because of its combination of heteroatoms, porosities and layered structure, which provides redox chemistry and ion diffusion routes through the 2-D planes and 1-D channels. Here, conjugated aromatic polymers (CAPs) were synthesized in quantitative yield via solid-state polymerization of phenazine-based precursor crystals. By choosing flat molecules (2-TBTBP and 3-TBQP) with different positions of bromine substituents on a phenazine-derived scaffold, C-C cross coupling was induced following thermal debromination. CAP-2 is polymerized from monomers that have been prepacked into layered structure (3-TBQP). It can be mechanically exfoliated into micrometer-sized ultrathin sheets that show sharp Raman peaks which reflect conformational ordering. CAP-2 has a dominant pore size of ∼0.8 nm; when applied as an asymmetric supercapacitor, it delivers a specific capacitance of 233 F g -1 at a current density of 1.0 A g -1 , and shows outstanding cycle performance.

  4. Solid-state polymerisation via [2+2] cycloaddition reaction involving coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medishetty, Raghavender; Park, In-Hyeok; Lee, Shim Sung; Vittal, Jagadese J

    2016-03-14

    Highly crystalline metal ions containing organic polymers are potentially useful to manipulate the magnetic and optical properties to make advanced multifunctional materials. However, it is challenging to synthesise monocrystalline metal complexes of organic polymers and single-phase hybrid materials made up of both coordination and organic polymers by traditional solution crystallisation. This requires an entirely different approach in the solid-state by thermal or photo polymerisation of the ligands. Among the photochemical methods available, [2+2] cycloaddition reaction has been recently employed to generate cyclobutane based coordination polymers from the metal complexes. Cyclobutane polymers have also been integrated into coordination polymers in this way. Recent advancements in the construction of polymeric chains of cyclobutane rings through photo-dimerisation reaction in the monocrystalline solids containing metal complexes, coordination polymers and metal-organic framework structures are discussed here.

  5. Thermostable gel polymer electrolyte based on succinonitrile and ionic liquid for high-performance solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaind P.; Liu, Tao; Hancock, Cody; Li, Yonghui; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan; Li, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A flexible, free-standing, thermostable gel polymer electrolyte based on plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMImBF4) entrapped in copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) is prepared and optimized for application in solvent-free solid-state supercapacitors. The synthesized gel polymer electrolyte exhibits a high ionic conductivity over a wide temperature range (from ∼5 × 10-4 S cm-1 at -30 °C up to ∼1.5 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 80 °C) with good electrochemical stability window (-2.9 to 2.5 V). Thermal studies confirm that the SN containing gel polymer electrolyte remains stable in the same gel phase over a wide temperature range from -30 to 90 °C. The electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have been fabricated using activated carbon as active materials and new gel polymer electrolytes. Electrochemical performance of the EDLCs is assessed through cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling and impedance spectroscopy. The EDLC cells with the proper SN-containing gel polymer electrolyte has been found to give high specific capacitance 176 F g-1 at 0.18 A g-1 and 138 F g-1 at 8 A g-1. These solid-state EDLC cells show good cycling stability and the capability to retain ∼80% of the initial capacitance after 10,000 cycles.

  6. Solid oxide fuel cells with bi-layered electrolyte structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinge; Robertson, Mark; Deces-Petit, Cyrille; Xie, Yongsong; Hui, Rob; Qu, Wei; Kesler, Olivera; Maric, Radenka; Ghosh, Dave [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council Canada, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5 (Canada)

    2008-01-10

    In this work, we have developed solid oxide fuel cells with a bi-layered electrolyte of 2 {mu}m SSZ and 4 {mu}m SDC using tape casting, screen printing, and co-firing processes. The cell reached power densities of 0.54 W cm{sup -2} at 650 C and 0.85 W cm{sup -2} at 700 C, with open circuit voltage (OCV) values larger than 1.02 V. The electrical leaking between anode and cathode through an SDC electrolyte has been blocked in the bi-layered electrolyte structure. However, both the electrolyte resistance (R{sub el}) and electrode polarization resistance (R{sub p,a+c}) increased in comparison to cells with single-layered SDC electrolytes. The formation of a solid solution of (Ce, Zr)O{sub 2-x} during sintering process and the flaws in the bi-layered electrolyte structure seem to be the main causes for the increase in the R{sub el} value (0.32 {omega} cm{sup 2}) at 650 C, which is almost one order of magnitude higher than the calculated value. (author)

  7. Electrocatalysis in Water Electrolysis with Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasten, Egil

    2001-10-01

    Development and optimization of the electrodes in a water electrolysis system using a polymer membrane as electrolyte have been carried out in this work. A cell voltage of 1.59 V (energy consumption of about 3.8 kWh/Nm{sub 3} H{sub 2}) has been obtained at practical operation conditions of the electrolysis cell (10 kA . m2, 90{sup o}C) using a total noble metal loading of less than 2.4 mg.cm{sub 2} and a Nafion -115 membrane. It is further shown that a cell voltage of less than 1.5 V is possible at the same conditions by combination of the best electrodes obtained in this work. The most important limitation of the electrolysis system using polymer membrane as electrolyte has proven to be the electrical conductivity of the catalysts due to the porous backing/current collector system, which increases the length of the current path and decreases the cross section compared to the apparent one. A careful compromise must therefore be obtained between electrical conductivity and active surface area, which can be tailored by preparation and annealing conditions of the metal oxide catalysts. Anode catalysts of different properties have been developed. The mixed oxide of Ir-Ta (85 mole% Ir) was found to exhibit highest voltage efficiency at a current density of 10 kA.m{sub 2} or below, whereas the mixed oxide of Ir and Ru (60-80 mole% Ir) was found to give the highest voltage efficiency for current densities of above 10 kA.m{sub 2}. Pt on carbon particles, was found to be less suitable as cathode catalyst in water electrolysis. The large carbon particles introduced an unnecessary porosity into the catalytic layer, which resulted in a high ohmic drop. Much better voltage efficiency was obtained by using Pt-black as cathode catalyst, which showed a far better electrical conductivity. Ru-oxide as cathode catalyst in water electrolysis systems using a polymer electrolyte was not found to be of particular interest due to insufficient electrochemical activity and too low

  8. Compact hydrogen production systems for solid polymer fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledjeff-Hey, K.; Formanski, V.; Kalk, Th.; Roes, J.

    Generally there are several ways to produce hydrogen gas from carbonaceous fuels like natural gas, oil or alcohols. Most of these processes are designed for large-scale industrial production and are not suitable for a compact hydrogen production system (CHYPS) in the power range of 1 kW. In order to supply solid polymer fuel cells (SPFC) with hydrogen, a compact fuel processor is required for mobile applications. The produced hydrogen-rich gas has to have a low level of harmful impurities; in particular the carbon monoxide content has to be lower than 20 ppmv. Integrating the reaction step, the gas purification and the heat supply leads to small-scale hydrogen production systems. The steam reforming of methanol is feasible at copper catalysts in a low temperature range of 200-350°C. The combination of a small-scale methanol reformer and a metal membrane as purification step forms a compact system producing high-purity hydrogen. The generation of a SPFC hydrogen fuel gas can also be performed by thermal or catalytic cracking of liquid hydrocarbons such as propane. At a temperature of 900°C the decomposition of propane into carbon and hydrogen takes place. A fuel processor based on this simple concept produces a gas stream with a hydrogen content of more than 90 vol.% and without CO and CO2.

  9. Ambient Layer-by-Layer ZnO Assembly for Highly Efficient Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed Samir; El Labban, Abdulrahman; Cruciani, Federico; Usman, Anwar; Beaujuge, Pierre; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of metal oxide interlayers in polymer solar cells has great potential because metal oxides are abundant, thermally stable, and can be used in fl exible devices. Here, a layer-by-layer (LbL) protocol is reported as a facile, room

  10. In-syringe extraction using dissolvable layered double hydroxide-polymer sponges templated from hierarchically porous coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Milad; Frizzarin, Rejane M; Maya, Fernando; Cerdà, Víctor

    2016-07-01

    Herein we report the use of cobalt porous coordination polymers (PCP) as intermediates to prepare advanced extraction media based on layered double hydroxides (LDH) supported on melamine polymer foam. The obtained dissolvable Ni-Co LDH composite sponges can be molded and used as sorbent for the in-syringe solid-phase extraction (SPE) of phenolic acids from fruit juices. The proposed sorbent is obtained due to the surfactant-assisted self-assembly of Co(II)/imidazolate PCPs on commercially available melamine foam, followed by the in situ conversion of the PCP into the final dissolvable LDH coating. Advantageous features for SPE are obtained by using PCPs with hierarchical porosity (HPCPs). The LDH-sponge prepared using intermediate HPCPs (HLDH-sponge) is placed in the headspace of a glass syringe, enabling flow-through extraction followed by analyte elution by the dissolution of the LDH coating in acidic conditions. Three phenolic acids (gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and caffeic acid) were extracted and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Using a 5mL sample volume, the obtained detection limits were 0.15-0.35μgL(-1). The proposed method for the preparation of HLDH-sponges showed a good reproducibility as observed from the intra- and inter-day RSD's, which were <10% for all analytes. The batch-to-batch reproducibility for three different batches of HLDH-sponges was 10.6-11.2%. Enrichment factors of 15-21 were obtained. The HLDH-sponges were applied satisfactorily to the determination of phenolic acids in natural and commercial fruit juices, obtaining relative recoveries among 89.7-95.3%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple Linear Regression Modeling To Predict the Stability of Polymer-Drug Solid Dispersions: Comparison of the Effects of Polymers and Manufacturing Methods on Solid Dispersion Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridgeirsdottir, Gudrun A; Harris, Robert J; Dryden, Ian L; Fischer, Peter M; Roberts, Clive J

    2018-03-29

    Solid dispersions can be a successful way to enhance the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Here 60 solid dispersion formulations were produced using ten chemically diverse, neutral, poorly soluble drugs, three commonly used polymers, and two manufacturing techniques, spray-drying and melt extrusion. Each formulation underwent a six-month stability study at accelerated conditions, 40 °C and 75% relative humidity (RH). Significant differences in times to crystallization (onset of crystallization) were observed between both the different polymers and the two processing methods. Stability from zero days to over one year was observed. The extensive experimental data set obtained from this stability study was used to build multiple linear regression models to correlate physicochemical properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) with the stability data. The purpose of these models is to indicate which combination of processing method and polymer carrier is most likely to give a stable solid dispersion. Six quantitative mathematical multiple linear regression-based models were produced based on selection of the most influential independent physical and chemical parameters from a set of 33 possible factors, one model for each combination of polymer and processing method, with good predictability of stability. Three general rules are proposed from these models for the formulation development of suitably stable solid dispersions. Namely, increased stability is correlated with increased glass transition temperature ( T g ) of solid dispersions, as well as decreased number of H-bond donors and increased molecular flexibility (such as rotatable bonds and ring count) of the drug molecule.

  12. Non-equilibrium dynamics of single polymer adsorption to solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panja, D.; Barkema, G.T.; Kolomeisky, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of polymers to surfaces is crucial for understanding many fundamental processes in nature. Recent experimental studies indicate that the adsorption dynamics is dominated by non-equilibrium effects. We investigate the adsorption of a single polymer of length N to a planar solid surface

  13. Natural polymers: Best carriers for improving bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs in solid dispersions

    OpenAIRE

    Sandip Sapkal; Mahesh Narkhede; Mukesh Babhulkar; Gautam Mehetre; Ashish Rathi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTNatural polymers and its modified forms can be used as best alternative for improving bioavailabilityof poorly water soluble drugs in solid dispersion. Most of the natural polymersare hydrophilic and having high swelling capacity. Recent trend towards the use of naturalpolymer demands the replacement of synthetic additives with natural ones. Many plant derivednatural polymers are studied for use in solid dispersion systems, out of which naturalgums, cyclodextrin and carbohydrate are m...

  14. Dehydration Process of Hofmann-Type Layered Solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilso Reguera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the dehydration process of layered solids with formula unit M(H2O2[Ni(CN4]·nH2O, M = Ni, Co, Mn; n = 1, 2, 4 is studied using modulated thermogravimetry. The results show that water molecules need to overcome an energetic barrier (activation energy between 63 and 500 kJ/mol in order to diffuse through the interlayer region. The related kinetic parameters show a dependence on the water partial pressure. On the other hand, X-ray diffraction results provide evidence that the dehydration process is accompanied by framework collapse, limiting the structural reversibility, except for heating below 80 °C where the ordered structure remains. Removal of water molecules from the interlayer region disrupts the long-range structural order of the solid.

  15. Fabrication of Polymer Solar Cells Using Aqueous Processing for All Layers Including the Metal Back Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar; Helgesen, Martin; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    The challenges of printing all layers in polymer solar cells from aqueous solution are met by design of inks for the electron-, hole-, active-, and metallic back electrode-layers. The conversion of each layer to an insoluble state after printing enables multilayer formation from the same solvent...

  16. Stacking layered structure of polymer light emitting diodes prepared by evaporative spray deposition using ultradilute solution for improving carrier balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Youichi; Shakutsui, Masato; Fujita, Katsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) with staking layered structures are prepared by the evaporative spray deposition using ultradilute solution (ESDUS) method, which has enabled forming a polymer layer onto another polymer layer even if both polymers are soluble in a solvent used for the preparation. By this method, polymers having various HOMO and LUMO levels can be stacked as a hole transport layer, an emitting layer and an electron transport layer as commonly employed in small molecule-based organic light emitting diodes. Here we demonstrated that a PLED having a tri-layer structure using three kinds of polymers showed significant improvement in quantum efficiency compared with those having a single or bi-layer structure of corresponding polymers.

  17. Micro-fabricated solid state dye lasers based on a photo-definable polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Balslev, Søren; Gregersen, Misha Marie

    2005-01-01

    the commercially available laser dye Rhodamine 6G, which is incorporated into the SU-8 polymer matrix. The single-mode slab waveguide is formed by three-step spin-coating deposition: a buffer layer of undoped SU-8, a core layer of SU-8 doped with Rhodamine, and a cladding layer of undoped SU-8. (c) 2005 Optical...

  18. Porous double-layer polymer tubing for the potential use in heterogeneous continuous flow reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Gordon; Hornung, Christian H; Peeters, Gary; Ebdon, Nicholas; Savage, G Paul

    2014-12-24

    Functional polymer tubing with an OD of 1/16 or 1/8 in. was fabricated by a simple polymer coextrusion process. The tubing was made of an outer impervious polypropylene layer and an inner layer, consisting of a blend of a functional polymer, polyethylene-co-methacrylic acid, and a sacrificial polymer, polystyrene. After a simple solvent leaching step using common organic solvents, the polystyrene was removed, leaving behind a porous inner layer that contains functional carboxylic acid groups, which could then be used for the immobilization of target molecules. Solution-phase reactions using amines or isocyanates have proven successful for the immobilization of a series of small molecules and polymers. This flexible multilayered functional tubing can be easily cut to the desired length and connected via standard microfluidic fittings.

  19. Quantum dot doped solid polymer electrolyte for device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pramod K.; Kim, Kang Wook; Rhee, Hee-Woo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea)

    2009-06-15

    ZnS capped CdSe quantum dots embedded in PEO:KI:I{sub 2} polymer electrolyte matrix have been synthesized and characterized for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The complex impedance spectroscopy shows enhance in ionic conductivity ({sigma}) due to charges provide by quantum dots (QD) while AFM affirm the uniform distribution of QD into polymer electrolyte matrix. Cyclic voltammetry revealed the possible interaction between polymer electrolyte, QD and iodide/iodine. The photovoltaic performances of the DSSC containing quantum dots doped polymer electrolyte was also found to improve. (author)

  20. Theoretical voltammetric response of electrodes coated by solid polymer electrolyte membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Marín, Ana M; Hernández-Ortíz, Juan P

    2014-09-24

    A model for the differential capacitance of metal electrodes coated by solid polymer electrolyte membranes, with acid/base groups attached to the membrane backbone, and in contact with an electrolyte solution is developed. With proper model parameters, the model is able to predict a limit response, given by Mott-Schottky or Gouy-Chapman-Stern theories depending on the dissociation degree and the density of ionizable acid/base groups. The model is also valid for other ionic membranes with proton donor/acceptor molecules as membrane counterions. Results are discussed in light of the electron transfer rate at membrane-coated electrodes for electrochemical reactions that strongly depend on the double layer structure. In this sense, the model provides a tool towards the understanding of the electro-catalytic activity on modified electrodes. It is shown that local maxima and minima in the differential capacitance as a function of the electrode potential may occur as consequence of the dissociation of acid/base molecular species, in absence of specific adsorption of immobile polymer anions on the electrode surface. Although the model extends the conceptual framework for the interpretation of cyclic voltammograms for these systems and the general theory about electrified interfaces, structural features of real systems are more complex and so, presented results only are qualitatively compared with experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of polymer nanocomposites based on layered double hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipusic, J.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric nanocomposites are commonly considered as systems composed of a polymeric matrix and - usually inorganic - filler. The types of nanofillers are indicated in Fig. 1. Beside wellknown layered silicate fillers, recent attention is attracted to layered double hydroxide fillers (LDH, mainly of synthetic origin. The structure of LDH is based on brucite, or magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH2 and is illustrated in Fig. 2. The modification of LDHs is commonly done by organic anions, to increase the original interlayer distance and to improve the organophilicity of the filler, keeping in mind their final application as fillers for, usually hydrophobic, polymer matrices. We have used the modified rehydration procedure for preparing organically modified LDH. The stoichiometric quantities of Ca33Al2O6, CaO and benzoic (B (or undecenoic (U acid were mixed with water and some acetone. After long and vigorous shaking, the precipitated fillers were washed, dried and characterized. X-ray diffraction method (XRD has shown the increase of the original interlayer distance for unmodified LDH (OH–-saturated of 0.76 nm to the 1.6 nm in LDH-B or LDH-U fillers (Fig. 3. Infrared spectroscopy method (FTIR has confirmed the incorporation of benzoic anion within the filler layers (Fig. 4. For the preparation of LDH-B and LDH-U composites with polystyrene (PS, poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA and copolymer (SMMA matrices, a two-step in situ bulk radical polymerization was selected (Table 1 for recipes, azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator, using conventional stirred tank reactor in the first step, and heated mold with the movable wall (Fig. 6 in the second step of polymerization. All the prepared composites with LDH-U fillers were macroscopically phase-separated, as was the PMMA/LDH-B composite.PS/LDH-B and SMMA/LDH-B samples were found to be transparent and were further examined for deduction of their structure (Fig. 5 and thermal properties. FTIR measurements showed that

  2. DECORATIVE SANDWICH CONCRETES WITH A PROTECTIVE POLYMER LAYER ENSURING IMPROVED FRACTURE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseenko Ksenija Sergeevna

    2012-10-01

    Pre-set theoretical provisions were applied to develop recommendations aimed at the optimization of the composition and characteristics of the technology of production of double-layer decorative and protective products based on polymer and mineral binders.

  3. Comparative evaluation of concrete sealers and multiple layer polymer concrete overlays. Interim report no. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The report presents comparisons of initial evaluations of several concrete sealers and multiple layer polymer concrete overlays. The sealers evaluated included a solvent-dlspersed epoxy, a water-dlspersed epoxy, a silane, and a high molecular weight ...

  4. 3D morphology of photoactive layers of polymer solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavel, van S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured polymer solar cells (PSCs) have emerged as a promising low-cost alternative to conventional silicon-based photovoltaic devices. Since PSCs can be fabricated by processing polymers, eventually together with other organic materials, from solution and depositing them onto different types

  5. Atomic layer deposition on polymer based flexible packaging materials: Growth characteristics and diffusion barrier properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, Tommi O.; Maydannik, Philipp; Cameron, David C.; Lahtinen, Kimmo; Johansson, Petri; Kuusipalo, Jurkka

    2011-01-01

    One of the most promising areas for the industrial application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is for gas barrier layers on polymers. In this work, a packaging material system with improved diffusion barrier properties has been developed and studied by applying ALD on flexible polymer based packaging materials. Nanometer scale metal oxide films have been applied to polymer-coated papers and their diffusion barrier properties have been studied by means of water vapor and oxygen transmission rates. The materials for the study were constructed in two stages: the paper was firstly extrusion coated with polymer film, which was then followed by the ALD deposition of oxide layer. The polymers used as extrusion coatings were polypropylene, low and high density polyethylene, polylactide and polyethylene terephthalate. Water vapor transmission rates (WVTRs) were measured according to method SCAN-P 22:68 and oxygen transmission rates (O 2 TRs) according to a standard ASTM D 3985. According to the results a 10 nm oxide layer already decreased the oxygen transmission by a factor of 10 compared to uncoated material. WVTR with 40 nm ALD layer was better than the level currently required for most common dry flexible packaging applications. When the oxide layer thickness was increased to 100 nm and above, the measured WVTRs were limited by the measurement set up. Using an ALD layer allowed the polymer thickness on flexible packaging materials to be reduced. Once the ALD layer was 40 nm thick, WVTRs and O 2 TRs were no longer dependent on polymer layer thickness. Thus, nanometer scale ALD oxide layers have shown their feasibility as high quality diffusion barriers on flexible packaging materials.

  6. Atomic layer deposition on polymer based flexible packaging materials: Growth characteristics and diffusion barrier properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, Tommi O., E-mail: tommi.kaariainen@lut.f [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Prikaatinkatu 3 E, 50100 Mikkeli (Finland); Maydannik, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.maydannik@lut.f [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Prikaatinkatu 3 E, 50100 Mikkeli (Finland); Cameron, David C., E-mail: david.cameron@lut.f [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Prikaatinkatu 3 E, 50100 Mikkeli (Finland); Lahtinen, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.lahtinen@tut.f [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 541, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Johansson, Petri, E-mail: petri.johansson@tut.f [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 541, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Kuusipalo, Jurkka, E-mail: jurkka.kuusipalo@tut.f [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 541, 33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2011-03-01

    One of the most promising areas for the industrial application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is for gas barrier layers on polymers. In this work, a packaging material system with improved diffusion barrier properties has been developed and studied by applying ALD on flexible polymer based packaging materials. Nanometer scale metal oxide films have been applied to polymer-coated papers and their diffusion barrier properties have been studied by means of water vapor and oxygen transmission rates. The materials for the study were constructed in two stages: the paper was firstly extrusion coated with polymer film, which was then followed by the ALD deposition of oxide layer. The polymers used as extrusion coatings were polypropylene, low and high density polyethylene, polylactide and polyethylene terephthalate. Water vapor transmission rates (WVTRs) were measured according to method SCAN-P 22:68 and oxygen transmission rates (O{sub 2}TRs) according to a standard ASTM D 3985. According to the results a 10 nm oxide layer already decreased the oxygen transmission by a factor of 10 compared to uncoated material. WVTR with 40 nm ALD layer was better than the level currently required for most common dry flexible packaging applications. When the oxide layer thickness was increased to 100 nm and above, the measured WVTRs were limited by the measurement set up. Using an ALD layer allowed the polymer thickness on flexible packaging materials to be reduced. Once the ALD layer was 40 nm thick, WVTRs and O{sub 2}TRs were no longer dependent on polymer layer thickness. Thus, nanometer scale ALD oxide layers have shown their feasibility as high quality diffusion barriers on flexible packaging materials.

  7. Fabrication of three-dimensional polymer quadratic nonlinear grating structures by layer-by-layer direct laser writing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bich Do, Danh; Lin, Jian Hung; Diep Lai, Ngoc; Kan, Hung-Chih; Hsu, Chia Chen

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a three-dimensional (3D) polymer quadratic nonlinear (χ(2)) grating structure. By performing layer-by-layer direct laser writing (DLW) and spin-coating approaches, desired photobleached grating patterns were embedded in the guest--host dispersed-red-1/poly(methylmethacrylate) (DR1/PMMA) active layers of an active-passive alternative multilayer structure through photobleaching of DR1 molecules. Polyvinyl-alcohol and SU8 thin films were deposited between DR1/PMMA layers serving as a passive layer to separate DR1/PMMA active layers. After applying the corona electric field poling to the multilayer structure, nonbleached DR1 molecules in the active layers formed polar distribution, and a 3D χ(2) grating structure was obtained. The χ(2) grating structures at different DR1/PMMA nonlinear layers were mapped by laser scanning second harmonic (SH) microscopy, and no cross talk was observed between SH images obtained from neighboring nonlinear layers. The layer-by-layer DLW technique is favorable to fabricating hierarchical 3D polymer nonlinear structures for optoelectronic applications with flexible structural design.

  8. Morphology and structure of polymer layers protecting dental enamel against erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Markus; Reichert, Jörg; Sigusch, Bernd W; Watts, David C; Jandt, Klaus D

    2012-10-01

    Human dental erosion caused by acids is a major factor for tooth decay. Adding polymers to acidic soft drinks is one important approach to reduce human dental erosion caused by acids. The aim of this study was to investigate the thickness and the structure of polymer layers adsorbed in vitro on human dental enamel from polymer modified citric acid solutions. The polymers propylene glycol alginate (PGA), highly esterified pectin (HP) and gum arabic (GA) were used to prepare polymer modified citric acids solutions (PMCAS, pH 3.3). With these PMCAS, enamel samples were treated for 30, 60 and 120s respectively to deposit polymer layers on the enamel surface. Profilometer scratches on the enamel surface were used to estimate the thickness of the polymer layers via atomic force microscopy (AFM). The composition of the deposited polymer layers was investigated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In addition the polymer-enamel interaction was investigated with zeta-potential measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It has been shown that the profilometer scratch depth on the enamel with deposited polymers was in the range of 10nm (30s treatment time) up to 25nm (120s treatment time). Compared to this, the unmodified CAS-treated surface showed a greater scratch depth: from nearly 30nm (30s treatment time) up to 60nm (120s treatment time). Based on XPS measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and zeta-potential measurements, a model was hypothesized which describes the layer deposited on the enamel surface as consisting of two opposing gradients of polymer molecules and hydroxyapatite (HA) particles. In this study, the structure and composition of polymer layers deposited on in vitro dental enamel during treatment with polymer modified citric acid solutions were investigated. Observations are consistent with a layer consisting of two opposing gradients of hydroxyapatite particles and polymer molecules. This leads to reduced erosive effects of

  9. Liquid-like thermal conduction in intercalated layered crystalline solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Wang, H.; Kawakita, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Feygenson, M.; Yu, H. L.; Wu, D.; Ohara, K.; Kikuchi, T.; Shibata, K.; Yamada, T.; Ning, X. K.; Chen, Y.; He, J. Q.; Vaknin, D.; Wu, R. Q.; Nakajima, K.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2018-03-01

    As a generic property, all substances transfer heat through microscopic collisions of constituent particles1. A solid conducts heat through both transverse and longitudinal acoustic phonons, but a liquid employs only longitudinal vibrations2,3. As a result, a solid is usually thermally more conductive than a liquid. In canonical viewpoints, such a difference also serves as the dynamic signature distinguishing a solid from a liquid. Here, we report liquid-like thermal conduction observed in the crystalline AgCrSe2. The transverse acoustic phonons are completely suppressed by the ultrafast dynamic disorder while the longitudinal acoustic phonons are strongly scattered but survive, and are thus responsible for the intrinsically ultralow thermal conductivity. This scenario is applicable to a wide variety of layered compounds with heavy intercalants in the van der Waals gaps, manifesting a broad implication on suppressing thermal conduction. These microscopic insights might reshape the fundamental understanding on thermal transport properties of matter and open up a general opportunity to optimize performances of thermoelectrics.

  10. Robust, functional nanocrystal solids by infilling with atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yao; Gibbs, Markelle; Perkins, Craig L.; Tolentino, Jason; Zarghami, Mohammad H.; Bustamante, Jr., J.; Law, Matt

    2011-12-14

    Thin films of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are inherently metatstable materials prone to oxidative and photothermal degradation driven by their large surface-to-volume ratios and high surface energies. The fabrication of practical electronic devices based on NC solids hinges on preventing oxidation, surface diffusion, ripening, sintering, and other unwanted physicochemical changes that can plague these materials. Here we use low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) to infill conductive PbSe NC solids with metal oxides to produce inorganic nanocomposites in which the NCs are locked in place and protected against oxidative and photothermal damage. Infilling NC field-effect transistors and solar cells with amorphous alumina yields devices that operate with enhanced and stable performance for at least months in air. Furthermore, ALD infilling with ZnO lowers the height of the inter-NC tunnel barrier for electron transport, yielding PbSe NC films with electron mobilities of 1 cm² V-1 s-1. Our ALD technique is a versatile means to fabricate robust NC solids for optoelectronic devices.

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation aiming at interfacial characteristics of polymer chains on nanotubes with different layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Gu, Boqin; Zhu, Wanfu

    2017-03-01

    A molecular dynamics (MD) simulations study is performed on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)/acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) composites. The physisorption and interfacial characteristics between the various MWNTs and polymer macromolecular chains are identified. The effects of nanotube layers on the nanotubes/polymer interactions are examined. Each of the situation result and surface features is characterized by binding energy (Eb). It is shown that the binding energy (Eb) increase with the number of layers.

  12. Layered double hydroxides/polymer thin films grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birjega, R.; Matei, A.; Mitu, B.; Ionita, M.D.; Filipescu, M.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest–Magurele (Romania); Zavoianu, R.; Pavel, O.D. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology and Catalysis, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Bd., Bucharest (Romania); Corobea, M.C. [National R. and S. Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, ICECHIM, 202 Splaiul Independentei Str., CP-35-274, 060021, Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-09-30

    Due to their highly tunable properties, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are an emerging class of the favorably layered crystals used for the preparation of multifunctional polymer/layered crystal nanocomposites. In contrast to cationic clay materials with negatively charge layers, LDHs are the only host lattices with positively charged layers (brucite-like), with interlayer exchangeable anions and intercalated water. In this work, the deposition of thin films of Mg and Al based LDH/polymers nanocomposites by laser techniques is reported. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation was the method used for thin films deposition. The Mg–Al LDHs capability to act as a host for polymers and to produce hybrid LDH/polymer films has been investigated. Polyethylene glycol with different molecular mass compositions and ethylene glycol were used as polymers. The structure and surface morphology of the deposited LDH/polymers films were examined by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Hybrid composites deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). • Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are used. • Mixtures of PEG1450 and LDH were deposited by MAPLE. • Deposited thin films preserve the properties of the starting material. • The film wettability can be controlled by the amount of PEG.

  13. Performance of a Polymer Flood with Shear-Thinning Fluid in Heterogeneous Layered Systems with Crossflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Sang Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the potential of a polymer flood for mobility control requires an accurate model on the viscosities of displacement fluids involved in the process. Because most polymers used in EOR exhibit shear-thinning behavior, the effective viscosity of a polymer solution is a highly nonlinear function of shear rate. A reservoir simulator including the model for the shear-rate dependence of viscosity was used to investigate shear-thinning effects of polymer solution on the performance of the layered reservoir in a five-spot pattern operating under polymer flood followed by waterflood. The model can be used as a quantitative tool to evaluate the comparative studies of different polymer flooding scenarios with respect to shear-rate dependence of fluids’ viscosities. Results of cumulative oil recovery and water-oil ratio are presented for parameters of shear-rate dependencies, permeability heterogeneity, and crossflow. The results of this work have proven the importance of taking non-Newtonian behavior of polymer solution into account for the successful evaluation of polymer flood processes. Horizontal and vertical permeabilities of each layer are shown to impact the predicted performance substantially. In reservoirs with a severe permeability contrast between horizontal layers, decrease in oil recovery and sudden increase in WOR are obtained by the low sweep efficiency and early water breakthrough through highly permeable layer, especially for shear-thinning fluids. An increase in the degree of crossflow resulting from sufficient vertical permeability is responsible for the enhanced sweep of the low permeability layers, which results in increased oil recovery. It was observed that a thinning fluid coefficient would increase injectivity significantly from simulations with various injection rates. A thorough understanding of polymer rheology in the reservoir and accurate numerical modeling are of fundamental importance for the exact estimation

  14. Modification and intercalation of layered zirconium phosphates: a solid-state NMR monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmutov, Vladimir I; Kan, Yuwei; Sheikh, Javeed Ahmad; González-Villegas, Julissa; Colón, Jorge L; Clearfield, Abraham

    2017-07-01

    Several layered zirconium phosphates treated with Zr(IV) ions, modified by monomethoxy-polyethyleneglycol-monophosphate and intercalated with doxorubicin hydrochloride have been studied by solid-state MAS NMR techniques. The organic components of the phosphates have been characterized by the 13 C{ 1 H} CP MAS NMR spectra compared with those of initial compounds. The multinuclear NMR monitoring has provided to establish structure and covalent attachment of organic/inorganic moieties to the surface and interlayer spaces of the phosphates. The MAS NMR experiments including kinetics of proton-phosphorus cross polarization have resulted in an unusual structure of zirconium phosphate 6 combining decoration of the phosphate surface by polymer units and their partial intercalation into the interlayer space. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Theoretical voltammetric response of electrodes coated by solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Marín, Ana M.; Hernández-Ortíz, Juan P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Discretized model for an interface of covered electrodes. • Two limiting behaviors are capture: double-layer and conductive interfaces. • Additional phenomena are included easily: acid/base equilibrium, ion mobility. • The model provides explanations to observed phenomena that is vaguely explained in the literature. • Implications on electrodes in fuel cells are given and it opens avenues to understand and design such systems. - Abstract: A model for the differential capacitance of metal electrodes coated by solid polymer electrolyte membranes, with acid/base groups attached to the membrane backbone, and in contact with an electrolyte solution is developed. With proper model parameters, the model is able to predict a limit response, given by Mott–Schottky or Gouy–Chapman–Stern theories depending on the dissociation degree and the density of ionizable acid/base groups. The model is also valid for other ionic membranes with proton donor/acceptor molecules as membrane counterions. Results are discussed in light of the electron transfer rate at membrane-coated electrodes for electrochemical reactions that strongly depend on the double layer structure. In this sense, the model provides a tool towards the understanding of the electro-catalytic activity on modified electrodes. It is shown that local maxima and minima in the differential capacitance as a function of the electrode potential may occur as consequence of the dissociation of acid/base molecular species, in absence of specific adsorption of immobile polymer anions on the electrode surface. Although the model extends the conceptual framework for the interpretation of cyclic voltammograms for these systems and the general theory about electrified interfaces, structural features of real systems are more complex and so, presented results only are qualitatively compared with experiments

  16. Ambient Layer-by-Layer ZnO Assembly for Highly Efficient Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed Samir

    2015-02-04

    The use of metal oxide interlayers in polymer solar cells has great potential because metal oxides are abundant, thermally stable, and can be used in fl exible devices. Here, a layer-by-layer (LbL) protocol is reported as a facile, room-temperature, solution-processed method to prepare electron transport layers from commercial ZnO nanoparticles and polyacrylic acid (PAA) with a controlled and tunable porous structure, which provides large interfacial contacts with the active layer. Applying the LbL approach to bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with an optimized ZnO layer thickness of H25 nm yields solar cell power-conversion effi ciencies (PCEs) of ≈6%, exceeding the effi ciency of amorphous ZnO interlayers formed by conventional sputtering methods. Interestingly, annealing the ZnO/PAA interlayers in nitrogen and air environments in the range of 60-300 ° C reduces the device PCEs by almost 20% to 50%, indicating the importance of conformational changes inherent to the PAA polymer in the LbL-deposited fi lms to solar cell performance. This protocol suggests a new fabrication method for solution-processed polymer solar cell devices that does not require postprocessing thermal annealing treatments and that is applicable to fl exible devices printed on plastic substrates.

  17. Mass and Heat Transfer in Ion-Exchange Membranes Applicable to Solid Polymer Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otteroey, M

    1996-04-01

    In this doctoral thesis, an improved emf method for determination of transference numbers of two counter ions in ion-exchange membranes is presented. Transference numbers were obtained as a continuous function of the composition. The method avoids problems with diffusion by using a stack of membranes. Water transference coefficients in ion-exchange membranes is discussed and reversible and irreversible water transfer is studied by emf methods. Efforts were made to get data relevant to the solid polymer fuel cell. The results support the findings of other researchers that the reversible water transfer is lower than earlier predicted. A chapter on the conductivity of ion-exchange membranes establishes a method to separate the very thin liquid layers surrounding the membranes in a stack. Using the method it was found that the conductivity is obtained with high accuracy and that the liquid layer in a membrane stack can contribute significantly to the total measured resistance. A four point impedance method was tested to measure the conductivity of membranes under fuel cell conditions. Finally, there is a discussion of reversible heat effects and heat transfer in ion-exchange membranes. 155 refs., 45 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Low-Cost and Green Fabrication of Polymer Electronic Devices by Push-Coating of the Polymer Active Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Varun; Mróz, Wojciech; Inaba, Shusei; Porzio, William; Giovanella, Umberto; Galeotti, Francesco

    2017-08-02

    Because of both its easy processability and compatibility with roll-to-roll processes, polymer electronics is considered to be the most promising technology for the future generation of low-cost electronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and solar cells. However, the state-of-the-art deposition technique for polymer electronics (spin-coating) generates a high volume of chlorinated solution wastes during the active layer fabrication. Here, we demonstrate that devices with similar or higher performances can be manufactured using the push-coating technique in which a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) layer is simply laid over a very small amount of solution (less than 1μL/covered cm 2 ), which is then left for drying. Using mm thick PDMS provides a means to control the solvent diffusion kinetics (sorption/retention) and removes the necessity for additional applied pressure to generate the desired active layer thickness. Unlike spin-coating, push-coating is a slow drying process that induces a higher degree of crystallinity in the polymer thin film without the necessity for a post-annealing step. The polymer light-emitting diodes and solar cells prepared by push-coating exhibit slightly higher performances with respect to the reference spin-coated devices, whereas at the same time reduce the amounts of active layer materials and chlorinated solvents by 50 and 20 times, respectively. These increased performances can be correlated to the higher polymer crystallinities obtained without applying a post-annealing treatment. As push-coating is a roll-to-roll compatible method, the results presented here open the path to low-cost and eco-friendly fabrication of a wide range of emerging devices based on conjugated polymer materials.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of new polymer matrix for solid-phase extraction of nonylphenol from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, António; Soares, Ana; Piletska, Elena; Mattiasson, Bo; Piletsky, Sergey

    2008-03-31

    Molecularly imprinted (MIP) and blank polymers with affinity for nonylphenol were designed using computational modelling. Chromatographic tests demonstrated higher affinity of imprinted polymers towards the template nonylphenol as compared with blank polymers. The performance of both polymers in solid-phase extraction was however very similar. Both blank and imprinted polymers appeared to be suitable for the removal and pre-concentration of nonylphenol from contaminated water samples with 99% efficiency of the recovery. The commercial resins PH(EC) (Biotage) and C18 (Varian) tested in the same conditions used for comparative purposes had recovery rate <84%. The polymer capacity for nonylphenol was 231 mg g(-1) for blank and 228 mg g(-1) for MIP. The synthesised materials can have significance for sample pre-concentration and environmental analysis of this class of compounds.

  20. Polymer/layered silicates nanocomposites for barrier technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, Philip W

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available and metals, is their relatively high permeability to gases and vapors. Specifically in food and beverage packaging, low permeability to oxygen is critical. This area of research has challenged polymer scientists, material scientists, physicists, and chemists...

  1. Numerical Well Testing Interpretation Model and Applications in Crossflow Double-Layer Reservoirs by Polymer Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents numerical well testing interpretation model and analysis techniques to evaluate formation by using pressure transient data acquired with logging tools in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. A well testing model is established based on rheology experiments and by considering shear, diffusion, convection, inaccessible pore volume (IPV, permeability reduction, wellbore storage effect, and skin factors. The type curves were then developed based on this model, and parameter sensitivity is analyzed. Our research shows that the type curves have five segments with different flow status: (I wellbore storage section, (II intermediate flow section (transient section, (III mid-radial flow section, (IV crossflow section (from low permeability layer to high permeability layer, and (V systematic radial flow section. The polymer flooding field tests prove that our model can accurately determine formation parameters in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. Moreover, formation damage caused by polymer flooding can also be evaluated by comparison of the interpreted permeability with initial layered permeability before polymer flooding. Comparison of the analysis of numerical solution based on flow mechanism with observed polymer flooding field test data highlights the potential for the application of this interpretation method in formation evaluation and enhanced oil recovery (EOR.

  2. Effect of hole injection layer/hole transport layer polymer and device structure on the properties of white OLED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ho Young; Park, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin-Hoo; Park, Lee Soon

    2008-10-01

    Copolymers containing carbazole and aromatic amine unit were synthesized by using Pd-catalyzed polycondensation reaction. The polymers were characterized in terms of their molecular weight and thermal stability and their UV and PL properties in solution and film state. The band gap energy of the polymers was also determined by the UV absorption and HOMO energy level data. The polymers had high HOMO energy level of 5.19-5.25 eV and work function close to that of ITO. The polymers were thus tested as hole injection/transport layer in the white organic light emitting diodes (OLED) by using 4,4'-bis(2,2-diphenyl-ethen-1-yl)diphenyl (DPVBi) as blue emitting material and 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (Rubrene) as orange emitting dopant. The synthesized polymer, poly bis[6-bromo-N-(2-ethylhexyl)-carbazole-3-yl] was found to be useful as hole injection layer/hole transport layer (HIL/HTL) multifunctional material with high luminance efficiency and stable white color coordinate in the wide range of applied voltage.

  3. Efficient polymer white-light-emitting diodes with a single-emission layer of fluorescent polymer blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Qiaoli; Xu Yunhua; Jiang Jiaxing; Peng Junbiao; Cao Yong

    2007-01-01

    Efficient polymer white-light-emitting diodes (WPLEDs) have been fabricated with a single layer of fluorescent polymer blend. The device structure consists of ITO/PEDOT/PVK/emissive layer/Ba/Al. The emissive layer is a blend of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO), phenyl-substituted PPV derivative (P-PPV) and a copolymer of 9,9-dioctylfluorene and 4,7-di(4-hexylthien-2-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (PFO-DHTBT), which, respectively, emits blue, green and red light. The emission of pure and efficient white light was implemented by tuning the blend weight ratio of PFO: P-PPV: PFO-DHTBT to 96:4:0.4. The maximum current efficiency and luminance are, respectively, 7.6 cd/A at 6.7 V and 11930 cd/m 2 at 11.2 V. The CIE coordinates of white-light emission were stable with the drive voltages

  4. Formation and Characterization of Stacked Nanoscale Layers of Polymers and Silanes on Silicon Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Rosie; Davis, Brian; Conley, Hiram; Hurd, Katie; Linford, Matthew R.; Davis, Robert C.

    2008-10-01

    Chemical surface patterning at the nanoscale is a critical component of chemically directed assembly of nanoscale devices or sensitive biological molecules onto surfaces. Complete and consistent formation of nanoscale layers of silanes and polymers is a necessary first step for chemical patterning. We explored methods of silanizing silicon substrates for the purpose of functionalizing the surfaces. The chemical functionalization, stability, flatness, and repeatability of the process was characterized by use of ellipsometry, water contact angle, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). We found that forming the highest quality functionalized surfaces was accomplished through use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Specifically, surfaces were plasma cleaned and hydrolyzed before the silane was applied. A polymer layer less then 2 nm in thickness was electrostatically bound to the silane layer. The chemical functionalization, stability, flatness, and repeatability of the process was also characterized for the polymer layer using ellipsometry, water contact angle, and AFM.

  5. A tunnelling study on polymer/1T-LixTaS2 layered nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Takai, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Hajime; Lerner, Michael M

    2004-01-01

    Electronic structures near the Fermi level of polymer/1T-Li x TaS 2 layered nanocomposites have been studied by tunnelling spectroscopy. Polymer/1T-Li x TaS 2 layered nanocomposites were synthesized by using the exfoliation-adsorption technique. Single crystals of 1T-TaS 2 were used as host materials. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) with different molecular weights were adopted as guest intercalants. Powder x-ray diffraction patterns showed that all samples of the polymer/1T-Li x TaS 2 layered nanocomposites contain organic polymer between all individual 1T-TaS 2 sheets. Although 1T-TaS 2 single crystal is well known to show quite unique temperature dependences of the resistivity due to the charge density wave (CDW), the resistivities of all polymer/1T-Li x TaS 2 nanocomposites showed semiconductor-like temperature dependences. The tunnelling spectra of polymer/1T-Li x TaS 2 nanocomposites revealed that the CDW gap disappears in the density of states near the Fermi level of polymer/1T-Li x TaS 2 nanocomposites and their electronic structures show a metallic behaviour

  6. Shape memory polymer cellular solid design for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nardo, L; Bertoldi, S; Tanzi, M C; Farè, S; Haugen, H J

    2011-01-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are an emerging class of active materials whose response can be easily tailored via modifications of the molecular parameters and optimization of the transformation processes. In this work, we originally demonstrated that a correct coupling of polymer transformation processes (co-extrusion with chemical blowing agents, salt co-extrusion/particulate leaching, solvent casting/particulate leaching) and SMPs allows one to obtain porous structures with a broad spectrum of morphological properties resulting in tunable thermo-mechanical and shape recovery properties. Such a wide range of properties could fulfil the specifications of medical applications in which the use of SMP-based foams can be envisaged

  7. Functional Polymer Electrolytes for Multidimensional All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Pressing demands for high power and high energy densities in novel electrical energy storage units have caused reconsiderations regarding both the choice of battery chemistry and design. Practical concerns originating in the conventional use of flammable liquid electrolytes have renewed the interests of using solvent-free polymer electrolytes (SPEs) as solid ionic conductors for safer batteries. In this thesis work, SPEs developed from two polymer host structures, polyethers and polycarbonate...

  8. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Alkaline Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Addition of Bamboo Charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Lidan Fan; Mengyue Wang; Zhen Zhang; Gang Qin; Xiaoyi Hu; Qiang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Natural bamboo charcoal (BC) powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE) by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm) distributed inside a...

  9. Study and modeling of the ironing process on a multi-layered polymer coated low-carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selles Canto, Miguel Angel

    The ironing process is the most crucial step in the manufacture of cans. Sheet steel covered by three polymer layers can be used as the starting material, but this coating must neither break nor fail in any manner in order to be considered as a viable and effective alternative to traditional practice. During ironing, the deformations are severe and high pressures exist at the tool-workpiece interface. Thickness reductions inherent in ironing require a large amount of surface generation. Deterioration of the coating in this delicate operation might enable direct contact of the stored food or drink with the metal. As can be appreciated, the key to the use of polymer-coated steel sheets in the manufacture of cans lies in the survival of these layers during the ironing process. Another important issue is the roughness of the newly-generated surface, because it should be possible to decorate the can without any difficulty. Changing the traditional manufacture of metallic containers such as cans and using this new coated material permits great reduction in environmental contaminants produced as a result of avoiding the formation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) during the manufacture of the polymer layers. This reduction is even greater because of not using additional lubricants due to the self-lubricanting property of the solid polymer coating layers during the drawing process. These objectives, together with the improvement of the mechanical characteristics and the adhesion of the painting or decorative priming, are realized by the use of the proposed material. In the existing bibliography about ironing processes on coated materials, some authors propose the use of the Upper Bound Theorem for modeling the material behavior. The present research shows for the first time the modeling of the ironing process on a three-layer polymer coated material. In addition, it takes into account the cases in which successful ironing is produced and those in which ones the ironing

  10. The conductivity and stability of polymer composite solid electrolyte upon addition of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Farzana Abd.; Salleh, Fauzani Md.; Mohamed, Nor Sabirin

    2017-12-01

    The effect of graphene composition on the conductivity and stability of polymer composite solid electrolyte was studied. These polymer composite solid electrolytes were synthesized by sol gel method and prepared via the solution-casting technique. The compositions of graphene were varied between 10 wt% to 70 wt%. The changes in the functional group of polymer composite after the addition of graphene were characterized by Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was conducted at ambient temperature in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz to study the conductivity of the polymer composite. The highest conductivity was obtained at 60 wt% graphene with the value of 2.85×10-4 Scm-1. Sample without the addition of graphene showed the lowest conductivity value of 1.77×10-7 Scm-1 and acts as an insulator. The high conductivity at 60 wt% graphene loading is related to dehydration of cellulose. This is supported by the FTIR spectrum where the absorption peaks of C-O stretching vibrations of polymer composite is weakened and the hydroxyl group is slightly shifted compared to the FTIR spectrum without the addition of graphene. Linear sweep voltammetry results demonstrated that the polymer composite solid electrolyte exhibited electrochemical stability up to 3.2 V.

  11. Improved contrast polymer light-emitting diode with optical interference layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.Y.; Sun, R.G.; Yang, K.X.; Peng, J.B.; Cao, Y.; Joo, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    An improved contrast polymer light diode based on the destructive optical interference layers deposited between the glass substrate and ITO anode is fabricated. It is unnecessary to be considered that the additional optical interference structure will impede carrier injection from the electrode to the carrier-transporting layer. Due to the quarter-wavelength thickness of medial ITO layer, the reflected light from first Cr layer is inverted 180 o out of phase with the reflected light from second Cr layer, resulting in the destructive interference. It is evident that the contrast ratio of the device with the optical interference structure is about three times higher than that of the conventional device

  12. A Study of Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate/Polymer Nanocomposites Fabricated Using the Layer-By-Layer Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Kamali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH/polymer nanocomposites were synthesized with the layer-by-layer (LBL method, and their morphology and mechanical properties were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging and AFM nanoindentation. Different sets of polymers were used to produce CSH/polymer nanocomposites. The effect of different factors including dipping time, calcium to silicate ratios (C/S ratios and pH on morphology was investigated. CSH/polymer nanocomposites made with different sets of polymers showed variation in morphologies. However, the Young’s modulus did not seem to reveal significant differences between the nanocomposites studied here. In nanocomposites containing graphene oxide (GO nanosheet, an increase in the density of CSH particles was observed on the GO nanosheet compared to areas away from the GO nanosheet, providing evidence for improved nucleation of CSH in the presence of GO nanosheets. An increase in roughness and a reduction in the packing density in nanocomposites containing GO nanosheets was observed.

  13. Polymer-layered silicate nano composite by UV-radiation curing: an original synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, L.; Decker, C.; Zahouily, K.; Miehe-Brendle, J.; Le Meins, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.Because of the many hopes which they raise, the nano composite materials are the subject of an increasing number of scientific publications. Indeed, the intimate association of a polymer matrix and silicate nano-platelets leads to the formation of materials having mechanical and barriers properties improved (fire, gas, humidity...). A literature survey shows that these materials are generally produced by a thermal polymerization, which presents two major disadvantages: the use of organic solvents and a great consumption of energy. To overcome such limitations, photo initiated polymerization was chosen to synthesize nano composite materials. By this technology, called UV radiation curing, a solvent-free resin is transformed within seconds into a solid polymer upon exposure to UV-radiation at ambient temperature. The principal objective of this study was to develop photopolymerizable systems with clay particles having a layer structure (phyllosilicates). The clay mineral was made organophilic by treatment with an alkylammonium salt to allow the acrylate resin to penetrate into the expanded galleries. A morphological characterization of the materials obtained was carried out by X-rays diffraction and electronic microscopy transmission. The polymerization of the various resins under the UV exposure was followed in situ by using the real-time infrared spectroscopy (RT-FTIR) and attenuated total reflection (ATR). The results obtained show that the presence of the organo clay does not modify much the polymerization kinetics. The nano composite material thus obtained is transparent, insoluble in the organic solvents and presents improved mechanical properties, compared to the neat resin and the micro composite, for a load factor ranging between 2 and 5%wt. The addition of nanoparticles also makes it possible to reduce efficiently the brightness of coatings UV and finally confers to this material barriers properties higher than that of the photo crosslinked

  14. Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites by UV-radiation curing: an original synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, L.; Decker, C.; Zahouily, K.; Miehe-Brendle, J.; Le Meins, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.Because of the many hopes which they raise, the nanocomposite materials are the subject of an increasing number of scientific publications. Indeed, the intimate association of a polymer matrix and silicate nano-platelets leads to the formation of materials having mechanical and barriers properties improved (fire, gas, humidity,...). A literature survey shows that these materials are generally produced by a thermal polymerization, which presents two major disadvantages: the use of organic solvents and a great consumption of energy. To overcome such limitations, photoinitiated polymerization was chosen to synthesize nanocomposite materials. By this technology, called UV radiation curing, a solvent-free resin is transformed within seconds into a solid polymer upon exposure to UV-radiation at ambient temperature. The principal objective of this study was to develop photopolymerizable systems with clay particles having a layer structure (phyllosilicates). The clay mineral was made organophilic by treatment with an alkylammonium salt to allow the acrylate resin to penetrate into the expanded galleries. A morphological characterization of the materials obtained was carried out by X-rays diffraction and electronic microscopy transmission. The polymerization of the various resins under the UV exposure was followed in situ by using the real-time infrared spectroscopy (RT-FTIR) and attenuated total reflection (ATR). The results obtained show that the presence of the organoclay does not modify much the polymerization kinetics. The nanocomposite material thus obtained is transparent, insoluble int eh organic solvents and presents improved mechanical properties, compared to the neat resin and the microcomposite, for a load factor ranging between 2 and 5% wt. The addition of nanoparticles also makes it possible to reduce efficiently the brightness of coatings UV and finally confers to this material barriers properties higher than that of the photocrosslinked polymeric

  15. Impact of in situ polymer coating on particle dispersion into solid laser-generated nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Philipp; Brandes, Gudrun; Schwenke, Andreas; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2011-03-21

    The crucial step in the production of solid nanocomposites is the uniform embedding of nanoparticles into the polymer matrix, since the colloidal properties or specific physical properties are very sensitive to particle dispersion within the nanocomposite. Therefore, we studied a laser-based generation method of a nanocomposite which enables us to control the agglomeration of nanoparticles and to increase the single particle dispersion within polyurethane. For this purpose, we ablated targets of silver and copper inside a polymer-doped solution of tetrahydrofuran by a picosecond laser (using a pulse energy of 125 μJ at 33.3 kHz repetition rate) and hardened the resulting colloids into solid polymers. Electron microscopy of these nanocomposites revealed that primary particle size, agglomerate size and particle dispersion strongly depend on concentration of the polyurethane added before laser ablation. 0.3 wt% polyurethane is the optimal polymer concentration to produce nanocomposites with improved particle dispersion and adequate productivity. Lower polyurethane concentration results in agglomeration whereas higher concentration reduces the production rate significantly. The following evaporation step did not change the distribution of the nanocomposite inside the polyurethane matrix. Hence, the in situ coating of nanoparticles with polyurethane during laser ablation enables simple integration into the structural analogue polymer matrix without additives. Furthermore, it was possible to injection mold these in situ-stabilized nanocomposites without affecting particle dispersion. This clarifies that sufficient in situ stabilization during laser ablation in polymer solution is able to prevent agglomeration even in a hot polymer melt.

  16. Modification of a Turbulent Boundary Layer within a Homogeneous Concentration of Drag reducing Polymer Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsiani, Yasaman; Elbing, Brian

    2017-11-01

    High molecular weight polymer solutions in wall-bounded flows can reduce the local skin friction by as much as 80%. External flow studies have typical focused on injection of polymer within a developing turbulent boundary layer (TBL), allowing the concentration and drag reduction level to evolve with downstream distance. Modification of the log-law region of the TBL is directly related to drag reduction, but recent results suggest that the exact behavior is dependent on flow and polymer properties. Weissenberg number and the viscosity ratio (ratio of solvent viscosity to the zero-shear viscosity) are concentration dependent, thus the current study uses a polymer ocean (i.e. a homogenous concentration of polymer solution) with a developing TBL to eliminate uncertainty related to polymer properties. The near-wall modified TBL velocity profiles are acquired with particle image velocimetry. In the current presentation the mean velocity profiles and the corresponding flow (Reynolds number) and polymer (Weissenberg number, viscosity ratio, and length ratio) properties are reported. Note that the impact of polymer degradation on molecular weight will also be quantified and accounted for when estimating polymer properties This work was supported by NSF Grant 1604978.

  17. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra; Wang, Ruiqi; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid

  18. Multiscale structure, interfacial cohesion, adsorbed layers, miscibility and properties in dense polymer-particle mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Ken

    2012-02-01

    A major goal in polymer nanocomposite research is to understand and predict how the chemical and physical nature of individual polymers and nanoparticles, and thermodynamic state (temperature, composition, solvent dilution, filler loading), determine bulk assembly, miscibility and properties. Microscopic PRISM theory provides a route to this goal for equilibrium disordered mixtures. A major prediction is that by manipulating the net polymer-particle interfacial attraction, miscibility is realizable via the formation of thin thermodynamically stable adsorbed layers, which, however, are destroyed by entropic depletion and bridging attraction effects if interface cohesion is too weak or strong, respectively. This and related issues are quantitatively explored for miscible mixtures of hydrocarbon polymers, silica nanospheres, and solvent using x-ray scattering, neutron scattering and rheology. Under melt conditions, quantitative agreement between theory and silica scattering experiments is achieved under both steric stabilization and weak depletion conditions. Using contrast matching neutron scattering to characterize the collective structure factors of polymers, particles and their interface, the existence and size of adsorbed polymer layers, and their consequences on microstructure, is determined. Failure of the incompressible RPA, accuracy of PRISM theory, the nm thickness of adsorbed layers, and qualitative sensitivity of the bulk modulus to interfacial cohesion and particle size are demonstrated for concentrated PEO-silica-ethanol nanocomposites. Temperature-dependent complexity is discovered when water is the solvent, and nonequilibrium effects emerge for adsorbing entangled polymers that strongly impact structure. By varying polymer chemistry, the effect of polymer-particle attraction on the intrinsic viscosity is explored with striking non-classical effects observed. This work was performed in collaboration with S.Y.Kim, L.M.Hall, C.Zukoski and B.Anderson.

  19. Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    UNIVERSITY- INDUSTRY FOUNDATION Final Report 06/15/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF Office Of Scientific Research...ES) YONSEI UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY- INDUSTRY FOUNDATION 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-g SEOUL, 120-749 KR 8.  PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...polymers for potential practical applications such as nanocomposites and thin film fabrications. Our approaches are based on the modification of LIMs

  20. Diffusion of drag-reducing polymer solutions within a rough-walled turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian R.; Dowling, David R.; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2010-04-01

    The influence of surface roughness on diffusion of wall-injected, drag-reducing polymer solutions within a turbulent boundary layer was studied with a 0.94 m long flat-plate test model at speeds of up to 10.6 m s-1 and Reynolds numbers of up to 9×106. The surface was hydraulically smooth, transitionally rough, or fully rough. Mean concentration profiles were acquired with planar laser induced fluorescence, which was the primary flow diagnostic. Polymer concentration profiles with high injection concentrations (≥1000 wppm) had the peak concentration shifted away from the wall, which was partially attributed to a lifting phenomenon. The diffusion process was divided into three zones—initial, intermediate, and final. Studies of polymer injection into a polymer ocean at concentrations sufficient for maximum drag reduction indicated that the maximum initial zone length is of the order of 100 boundary layer thicknesses. The intermediate zone results indicate that friction velocity and roughness height are important scaling parameters in addition to flow and injection conditions. Lastly, the current results were combined with those in Petrie et al. ["Polymer drag reduction with surface roughness in flat-plate turbulent boundary layer flow," Exp. Fluids 35, 8 (2003)] to demonstrate that the influence of polymer degradation increases with increased surface roughness.

  1. Improved Efficiency of Polymer Solar Cells by means of Coating Hole Transporting Layer as Double Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonsut, T.; Kayunkid, N.; Rahong, S.; Rangkasikorn, A.; Wirunchit, S.; Kaewprajak, A.; Kumnorkaew, P.; Nukeaw, J.

    2017-09-01

    Polymer solar cells is one of the promising technologies that gain tremendous attentions in the field of renewable energy. Optimization of thickness for each layer is an important factor determining the efficiency of the solar cells. In this work, the optimum thickness of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythione): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), a famous polymer widely used as hole transporting layer in polymer solar cells, is determined through the analyzing of device’s photovoltaic parameters, e.g. short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF) as well as power conversion efficiency (PCE). The solar cells were prepared with multilayer of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PCDTBT:PC70BM/TiOx/Al by rapid convective deposition. In such preparation technique, the thickness of the thin film is controlled by the deposition speed. The faster deposition speed is used, the thicker film is obtained. Furthermore, double layer deposition of PEDOT:PSS was introduced as an approach to improve solar cell efficiency. The results obviously reveal that, with the increase of PEDOT:PSS thickness, the increments of Jsc and FF play the important role to improve PCE from 3.21% to 4.03%. Interestingly, using double layer deposition of PEDOT:PSS shows the ability to enhance the performance of the solar cells to 6.12% under simulated AM 1.5G illumination of 100 mW/cm2.

  2. Polymer-encapsulated carbon capture liquids that tolerate precipitation of solids for increased capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Stolaroff, Joshuah K

    2015-02-03

    A system for carbon dioxide capture from flue gas and other industrial gas sources utilizes microcapsules with very thin polymer shells. The contents of the microcapsules can be liquids or mixtures of liquids and solids. The microcapsules are exposed to the flue gas and other industrial gas and take up carbon dioxide from the flue gas and other industrial gas and eventual precipitate solids in the capsule.

  3. Semiconducting Polymer Photodetectors with Electron and Hole Blocking Layers: High Detectivity in the Near-Infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Gong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensing from the ultraviolet-visible to the infrared is critical for a variety of industrial and scientific applications. Photodetectors with broad spectral response, from 300 nm to 1,100 nm, were fabricated using a narrow-band gap semiconducting polymer blended with a fullerene derivative. By using both an electron-blocking layer and a hole-blocking layer, the polymer photodetectors, operating at room temperature, exhibited calculated detectivities greater than 1013 cm Hz1/2/W over entire spectral range with linear dynamic range approximately 130 dB. The performance is comparable to or even better than Si photodetectors.

  4. Structural and optical characterization of PVA:KMnO4 based solid polymer electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omed Gh. Abdullah

    Full Text Available Solid polymer electrolyte films of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA doped with a different weight percent of potassium permanganate (KMnO4 were prepared by standard solution cast method. XRD and FTIR techniques were performed for structural study. Complex formation between the PVA polymer and KMnO4 salt was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The description of crystalline nature of the solid polymer electrolyte films has been confirmed by XRD analysis. The UV-Visible absorption spectra were analyzed in terms of absorption formula for non-crystalline materials. The fundamental optical parameters such as optical band gap energy, refractive index, optical conductivity, and dielectric constants have been investigated and showed a clear dependence on the KMnO4 concentration. The observed value of optical band gap energy for pure PVA is about 6.27 eV and decreases to a value 3.12 eV for the film sample formed with 4 wt% KMnO4 salt. The calculated values of refractive index and the dielectric constants of the polymer electrolyte films increase with increasing KMnO4 content. Keywords: Solid polymer electrolyte, XRD analysis, FTIR study, Optical band gap, Dielectric constant, Refractive index

  5. Applications of Polymers as Pharmaceutical Excipients in Solid Oral Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debotton, Nir; Dahan, Arik

    2017-01-01

    Over the last few decades, polymers have been extensively used as pharmaceutical excipients in drug delivery systems. Pharmaceutical polymers evolved from being simply used as gelatin shells comprising capsule to offering great formulation advantages including enabling controlled/slow release and specific targeting of drugs to the site(s) of action (the "magic bullets" concept), hence hold a significant clinical promise. Oral administration of solid dosage forms (e.g., tablets and capsules) is the most common and convenient route of drug administration. When formulating challenging molecules into solid oral dosage forms, polymeric pharmaceutical excipients permit masking undesired physicochemical properties of drugs and consequently, altering their pharmacokinetic profiles to improve the therapeutic effect. As a result, the number of synthetic and natural polymers available commercially as pharmaceutical excipients has increased dramatically, offering potential solutions to various difficulties. For instance, the different polymers may allow increased solubility, swellability, viscosity, biodegradability, advanced coatings, pH dependency, mucodhesion, and inhibition of crystallization. The aim of this article is to provide a wide angle prospect of the different uses of pharmaceutical polymers in solid oral dosage forms. The various types of polymeric excipients are presented, and their distinctive role in oral drug delivery is emphasized. The comprehensive know-how provided in this article may allow scientists to use these polymeric excipients rationally, to fully exploit their different features and potential influence on drug delivery, with the overall aim of making better drug products. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The development and application of solid polymer electrolysis enrichment device of tritium in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xuelian; Yang Hailan Wu Bin; Yang Huaiyuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the working principle of solid polymer electrolysis enrichment device of tritium in water, presents experiments and works in development of SPE tritium automatic electrolysis enrichment device by CIRP, with which the water samples had been processed for TRIC2000, and the measurement results are satisfied

  7. Compact reformer for the solid polymer fuel cell policy and best

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulding, P.S.; Deegan, M.; Gough, A. [Newcastle University (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the feasibility of the Compact Reformer concept, and examining its design and manufacture. The development and testing of a hybrid reformer and thin coat catalyst systems are described, and details of the modeling of the reactor, and the optimisation and costing of the solid polymer fuel cell are given. (UK)

  8. Mesoscopic layered structure in conducting polymer thin film fabricated by potential-programmed electropolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujitsuka, Mamoru (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Nakahara, Reiko (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Iyoda, Tomokazu (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Shimidzu, Takeo (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Tomita, Shigehisa (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Hatano, Yayoi (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Soeda, Fusami (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Ishitani, Akira (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Tsuchiya, Hajime (Nitto Technical Information Center Co., Ltd., Shimohozumi Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Ohtani, Akira (Central Research Lab., Nitto Denko Co., Ltd., Shimohozumi Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan))

    1992-11-01

    Mesoscopic layered structures in conducting polymer thin films are fabricated by the potential-programmed electropolymerization method. High lateral quality in the layered structure is realized by the improvement of polymerization conditions, i.e., a mixture of pyrrole and bithiophene as monomers, a silicon single-crystal wafer as a working electrode and propylene carbonate as a solvent. SIMS depth profiling of the resulting layered films indicates a significant linear correlation between the electric charge passed and the thickness of the individual layers on a 100 A scale. (orig.)

  9. Role of organically modified layered silicate both as an active interfacial modifier and nanofiller for immiscible polymer blends.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ray, SS

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available ) revealed efficient mixing of the polymers in the presence of organically modified layered silicate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observations showed that silicate layers were either intercalated or exfoliated...

  10. PEO nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for solid state symmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cells/supercapacitors) to electro-chromic displays, smart windows and ... electrolytes and their usage in lithium ion rechargeable solid state batteries are well .... the experimental plot using the Arrhenius relationship σ = σ0exp(−Ea/kT) where ...

  11. Solid structures of the stepwise self-assembled copillar[5]arene-based supramolecular polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yeon Sil; Hwang, Seong Min; Shin, Jae Yeon; Paek, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Chemistry, Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Development of supramolecular polymer has attracted much interest because of their interesting properties such as stimuli-responsiveness, recycling, self-healing and degradability, and their consequential applications. The essential feature of this class of polymers is the self-assembly of discrete monomeric subunits via non-covalent interactions or dynamic covalent bonds. Among the many monomeric subunits, pillar[n]arenes have been ideal building blocks for the fabrication of polymeric supramolecules because of their intrinsic characteristics. The ring-shaped morphologies in supramolecular polymer P are probably due to the tendency of the end-to-end connection in the solid state of long flexible supramolecular chains. The size increase of nano-rings as the stepwise addition increases might be due to the fact that the linear supramolecular polymer P in solution seems to be maintained until the nano-ring formation by solidification.

  12. Solid structures of the stepwise self-assembled copillar[5]arene-based supramolecular polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeon Sil; Hwang, Seong Min; Shin, Jae Yeon; Paek, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Development of supramolecular polymer has attracted much interest because of their interesting properties such as stimuli-responsiveness, recycling, self-healing and degradability, and their consequential applications. The essential feature of this class of polymers is the self-assembly of discrete monomeric subunits via non-covalent interactions or dynamic covalent bonds. Among the many monomeric subunits, pillar[n]arenes have been ideal building blocks for the fabrication of polymeric supramolecules because of their intrinsic characteristics. The ring-shaped morphologies in supramolecular polymer P are probably due to the tendency of the end-to-end connection in the solid state of long flexible supramolecular chains. The size increase of nano-rings as the stepwise addition increases might be due to the fact that the linear supramolecular polymer P in solution seems to be maintained until the nano-ring formation by solidification

  13. Fundamental characteristics of degradation-recoverable solid-state DFB polymer laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Hiroaki; Yang, Yu; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Oki, Yuji

    2012-02-13

    A novel solid-state dye laser with degradation recovery was proposed and demonstrated. Polydimethylsiloxane was used as a nanoporous solid matrix to enable the internal circulation of dye molecules in the solid state. An internal circulation model for the dye molecules was also proposed and verified numerically by assuming molecular mobility and using a proposed diffusion equation. The durability of the laser was increased 20.5-fold compared with that of a conventional polymethylmethacrylate laser. This novel laser solves the low-durability problem of dye-doped polymer lasers.

  14. Effect of Mass Proportion of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Layer to Municipal Solid Waste Layer on the Cu and Zn Discharge from Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingna; Qiu, Zhanhong; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is often used as the protection layer for the geomembrane and intermediate layer in the landfill. In this study, three sets of simulated landfills with different mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to municipal solid waste (MSW) layer were operated. Cu and Zn concentrations in the leachates and MSW were monitored to investigate the effect of MSWI bottom ash layer on the Cu and Zn discharge from the landfill. The results showed that the Zn discharge was dependent on the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer. The pH of landfill was not notably increased when the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to MSW layer was 1 : 9, resulting in the enhancement of the Zn discharge. However, Zn discharge was mitigated when the mass proportion was 2 : 8, as the pH of landfill was notably promoted. The discharge of Cu was not dependent on the mass proportion, due to the great affinity of Cu to organic matter. Moreover, Cu and Zn contents of the sub-MSW layer increased due to the MSWI bottom ash layer. Therefore, the MSWI bottom ash layer can increase the potential environmental threat of the landfill. PMID:28044139

  15. Effect of Mass Proportion of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Layer to Municipal Solid Waste Layer on the Cu and Zn Discharge from Landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingna; Yao, Jun; Qiu, Zhanhong; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is often used as the protection layer for the geomembrane and intermediate layer in the landfill. In this study, three sets of simulated landfills with different mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to municipal solid waste (MSW) layer were operated. Cu and Zn concentrations in the leachates and MSW were monitored to investigate the effect of MSWI bottom ash layer on the Cu and Zn discharge from the landfill. The results showed that the Zn discharge was dependent on the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer. The pH of landfill was not notably increased when the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to MSW layer was 1 : 9, resulting in the enhancement of the Zn discharge. However, Zn discharge was mitigated when the mass proportion was 2 : 8, as the pH of landfill was notably promoted. The discharge of Cu was not dependent on the mass proportion, due to the great affinity of Cu to organic matter. Moreover, Cu and Zn contents of the sub-MSW layer increased due to the MSWI bottom ash layer. Therefore, the MSWI bottom ash layer can increase the potential environmental threat of the landfill.

  16. Adhesion and friction in polymer films on solid substrates: conformal sites analysis and corresponding surface measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Rong; Huang, Liangliang; Mineart, Kenneth P; Dong, Yihui; Spontak, Richard J; Gubbins, Keith E

    2017-05-21

    In this work, we present a statistical mechanical analysis to elucidate the molecular-level factors responsible for the static and dynamic properties of polymer films. This analysis, which we term conformal sites theory, establishes that three dimensionless parameters play important roles in determining differences from bulk behavior for thin polymer films near to surfaces: a microscopic wetting parameter, α wx , defined as the ratio of polymer-substrate interaction to polymer-polymer interaction; a dimensionless film thickness, H*; and dimensionless temperature, T*. The parameter α wx introduced here provides a more fundamental measure of wetting than previous metrics, since it is defined in terms of intermolecular forces and the atomic structure of the substrate, and so is valid at the nanoscale for gas, liquid or solid films. To test this theoretical analysis, we also report atomic force microscopy measurements of the friction coefficient (μ), adhesion force (F A ) and glass transition temperature (T g ) for thin films of two polymers, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS), on two planar substrates, graphite and silica. Both the friction coefficient and the glass transition temperature are found to increase as the film thickness decreases, and this increase is more pronounced for the graphite than for the silica surface. The adhesion force is also greater for the graphite surface. The larger effects encountered for the graphite surface are attributed to the fact that the microscopic wetting parameter, α wx , is larger for graphite than for silica, indicating stronger attraction of polymer chains to the graphite surface.

  17. Structural Modifications and Photophysical Studies of Fluorescent Conjugated Polymers for Solid State Sensor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anting

    Fluorescent conjugated polymers (FCPs) represent an exciting area of research in chemosensors and biosensors. Previously, the polymer tmeda-PPETE, N,N,N'-trimethylethylenediamino (tmeda) receptors on a poly[2,5-thiophenediyl-1,2-ethynediyl-1,4-phenylenediyl-1,2-ethynediyl] (PPETE) backbone, showed significant quenching when copper(II) was added. Tmeda-PPETE polymer preloaded with copper(II) was found to be a fluorescent "turn-on" sensor for iron cations. Additional investigation of this metallopolymer revealed a selective sensory system toward carbonate and phosphorus anions through a competitive binding of copper(II) between the polymer tmeda-PPETE and the anions. Fluorescent turn-on response under systematically varied pH was affected by the equilibrium shift of the ionization of polyprotic ions. A sterically hindered pentiptycene group was introduced to the PPETE polymer backbone aiming to reduce aggregation and self-quenching in the solid state. A new FCP, tmeda-PPpETE (poly[(pentiptycene ethynylene)-alt-(thienylene ethynylene)] with tmeda receptors, has been designed and synthesized via Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction. Absorption and emission spectra of tmeda-PPpETE showed blue shifting from tmeda-PPETE, suggesting increased rigidity of polymer backbone. Tmeda-PPpETE showed a high selectivity towards copper(II) with improved sensitivity compared to tmeda-PPETE. The fluorescent quenching response is over 120-fold at emission maximum, and the detection limit is 1.04 ppb, significantly lower than the EPA action level of 1.3 ppm for copper(II). A small turn-off fluorescent response of tmeda-PPpETE was also observed upon addition of iron cations. To further investigate the interaction between pentiptycene containing polymers and iron cations, tmpda-PPpETE containing N,N,N'-trimethylpropylenediamino (tmpda) receptors was designed and synthesized. The absorption and emission spectra for tmpda-PPpETE were analogous to those of tmeda-PPpETE, with a higher quantum

  18. Enhancing the performance of green solid-state electric double-layer capacitor incorporated with fumed silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mee Yoke; Numan, Arshid; Liew, Chiam-Wen; Ng, H. M.; Ramesh, K.; Ramesh, S.

    2018-06-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) based on fumed silica nanoparticles as nanofillers, hydroxylethyl cellulose (HEC) as host polymer, magnesium trifluoromethanesulfonate salt and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ionic liquid is prepared by solution casting technique. The ionic conductivity, interactions of adsorbed ions on the host polymer, structural crystallinity and thermal stability are evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. Ionic conductivity studies at room temperature reveals that the SPE with 2 wt. % of fumed silica nanoparticles gives the highest conductivity compared to its counterpart. The XRD and FTIR studies confirm the dissolution of salt, ionic liquid and successful incorporation of fumed silica nanoparticles with host polymer. In order to examine the performance of SPEs, electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) are fabricated by using activated carbon electrodes. EDLC studies demonstrate that SPE incorporated with 2 wt. % fumed silica nanoparticles gives high specific capacitance (25.0 F/g) at a scan rate of 5 mV/s compared to SPE without fumed silica. Additionally, it is able to withstand 71.3% of capacitance from its initial capacitance value over 1600 cycles at a current density of 0.4 A/g.

  19. Zinc oxide nanowire-poly(methyl methacrylate) dielectric layers for polymer capacitive pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Sheng; Hsieh, Gen-Wen; Chen, Shih-Ping; Tseng, Pin-Yen; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-14

    Polymer capacitive pressure sensors based on a dielectric composite layer of zinc oxide nanowire and poly(methyl methacrylate) show pressure sensitivity in the range of 2.63 × 10(-3) to 9.95 × 10(-3) cm(2) gf(-1). This represents an increase of capacitance change by as much as a factor of 23 over pristine polymer devices. An ultralight load of only 10 mg (corresponding to an applied pressure of ∼0.01 gf cm(-2)) can be clearly recognized, demonstrating remarkable characteristics of these nanowire-polymer capacitive pressure sensors. In addition, optical transmittance of the dielectric composite layer is approximately 90% in the visible wavelength region. Their low processing temperature, transparency, and flexible dielectric film makes them a highly promising means for flexible touching and pressure-sensing applications.

  20. Buckle initiation and delamination of patterned ITO layers on a polymer substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdallah, Amir; Bouten, P.C.P.; Toonder, den J.M.J.; With, de G.

    2011-01-01

    Buckle initiation and delamination of patterned ITO layers on a polymer substrate were studied. Various buckle modes have been observed depending on the type of etch defects and the crack patterns. The buckle density was found to be dependent on the number of etch defects, imperfections, applied

  1. Polymer-metal organic framework composite films as affinity layer for capacitive sensor devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachdeva, Sumit; Soccol, Dimitri; Gravesteijn, Dirk J.; Kapteijn, Freek; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Gascon, Jorge; Smet, de L.C.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple method for sensor development using polymer-
    MOF composite films. Nanoparticles of NH2-MIL-53(Al) dispersed in a Matrimid
    polyimide were applied as a thin film on top of capacitive sensor devices with planar electrodes. These drop-cast films act as an affinity layer.

  2. Study of Organosilicon Plasma Polymer Used in Composite Layers with Biomedical Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeva, E.; Pramatarova, L.; Pecheva, E.; Hikov, T.; Fingarova, D.; Iacob, E.; Vanzetti, L.; Dimitrova, R.; Krasteva, N.; Spassov, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we study the ability of plasma polymer (PP) films obtained from hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) on silica glass (SG) to induce hydroxyapatite (HA)-based composite layers from a mixture of simulated body fluid (SBF) and clear solution of detonation nanodiamond (DND) by a biomimetic process. The grown composites (PPHMDS/HADND) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) techniques. FTIR spectra of the PPHMDS indicated diminishing of the polymer characteristic bands when the polymer is immersed in DND clear solution. Furthermore, after sample immersion in the SBF-DND mixture, the FTIR spectra showed the presence of carbonate-containing HA through the characteristic vibration modes of P-O in the phosphate group and C-O in the carbonate group. The formation of HA layers, rich in silica and/or carbon was confirmed by RBS and SEM. The cell viability measured after 7 days on the polymer surface is more then 95% for all samples. The results show that the PPHMDS is promising as a substrate for growing HA/DND layers and that the materials obtained are biocompatible. The variations of plasma polymerization conditions and modification of the composite layers will aid in using such materials for biomedical applications.

  3. Adsorbed polymers in aqueous media. The relation between zeta-potential, layer thickness and ionic strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Mulder, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Streaming potentials for glass capillaries with and without adsorbed poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) were used to determine the thickness of the adsorbed polymer layer. It was found that the thickness determined in this way is a strong function of the ionic strength of the solution. The results are compared

  4. Synthesis of polymer nanocomposites using layered hydroxide salts (LHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Paula F. de M.P.B.; Lona, Liliane M.F.; Marangoni, Rafael; Wypych, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    In this work latexes of poly (methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via emulsion polymerization using layered hydroxide salts (LHS) as reinforcements: zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn 5 (OH) 8 (NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O) and copper hydroxide acetate (Cu 2 (OH) 3 CH 3 COO.H 2 O). The LHSs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Mastersizer analysis indicated the particle diameter of the latexes. Molecular weights and conversion data were also obtained. (author)

  5. Ion beam irradiation as a tool to improve the ionic conductivity in solid polymer electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunatha, H., E-mail: h-manjunath@blr.amrita.edu; Kumaraswamy, G. N. [Department of Physics, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Bengaluru-560 035 (India); Damle, R. [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bengaluru-560 056 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have potential applications in solid state electronic and energy devices. The optimum conductivity of SPEs required for such applications is about 10{sup −1} – 10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1}, which is hard to achieve in these systems. It is observed that ionic conductivity of SPEs continuously increase with increasing concentration of inorganic salt in the host polymer. However, there is a critical concentration of the salt beyond which the conductivity of SPEs decreases due to the formation of ion pairs. In the present study, solid polymer thin films based on poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) complexed with NaBr salt with different concentrations have been prepared and the concentration at which ion pair formation occurs in PEO{sub x}NaBr is identified. The microstructure of the SPE with highest ionic conductivity is modified by irradiating it with low energy O{sup +1} ion (100 keV) of different fluencies. It is observed that the ionic conductivity of irradiated SPEs increases by one order in magnitude. The increase in ionic conductivity may be attributed to the enhanced segmental motion of the polymer chains due to radiation induced micro structural modification.

  6. Structural properties of ultraviolet cured polysilazane gas barrier layers on polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlier, Arnaud; Cros, Stéphane; Garandet, Jean-Paul; Alberola, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Perhydropolysilazane (PHPS) conversion to silica through high energy ultraviolet irradiation has been studied. Precursor conversion speed and structural properties of the UV cured PHPS have been investigated and showed that this conversion method is fast but that complete conversion into silica is not achieved in an oxygen depleted atmosphere for layer thicknesses higher than 30 nm, resulting in a composite structure with concentration gradients. We further show that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data allow investigating the local structure and composition over the depth of the obtained layers. Gas permeability of the thin UV cured PHPS layers deposited on polymers has been studied. We used a high sensitivity permeation measurement technique to determine water vapor and oxygen permeabilities of the barrier layers and show the correlation between helium, oxygen and water permeability of these materials. Oxygen and water vapor transmission rates of respectively 0.06 cm 3 /m 2 /day/bar and 0.2 g/m 2 /day have been obtained with layers deposited on a polymer substrate. - Highlights: • Perhydropolysilazane has been converted into dense layers by vacuum UV irradiation. • Cured perhydropolysilazane layers have an inhomogeneous structure. • The cured material consists in 3 spontaneously formed layers. • Oxygen and water transmission rates of 0.06 cm 3 /m 2 /day/bar and 0.02 g/m 2 /day are reached

  7. Polymer thin film as coating layer to prevent corrosion of metal/metal oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman; Kundu, Sarathi

    2018-04-01

    Thin film of polymer is used as coating layer and the corrosion of metal/metal oxide layer is studied with the variation of the thickness of the coating layer. The thin layer of polystyrene is fabricated using spin coating method on copper oxide (CuO) film which is deposited on glass substrate using DC magnetron sputtering technique. Thickness of the polystyrene and the CuO layers are determined using X-ray reflectivity (XRR) technique. CuO thin films coated with the polystyrene layer are exposed to acetic acid (2.5 v/v% aqueous CH3COOH solution) environments and are subsequently analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surface morphology of the film before and after interaction with the acidic environment is determined using AFM. Results obtained from the XRR and UV-Vis spectroscopy confirm that the thin film of polystyrene acts as an anticorrosion coating layer and the strength of the coating depends upon the polymer layer thickness at a constant acid concentration.

  8. Ion beam effects in organic molecular solids and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, T.; Calcagno, L.; Elman, B.S.; Foti, G.

    1987-01-01

    In general ion implantation leads to irreversible changes in organic films and hence it is important to understand the damage mechanisms in these solids. Most of the technology based on irradiation effects in organics must somehow make use of the fact that the chemistry of the organic films is easily changed. This chapter is organized to explore the various ion induced chemical changes in the organic films followed by a description of the optical and electrical property changes produced in the films due to the ion irradiation

  9. Efficient and Stable Photovoltaic Characteristics of Quasi-Solid State DSSC using Polymer Gel Electrolyte Based on Ionic Liquid in Organosiloxane Polymer Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiarti, H.; Arsyad, W. S.; Shobih; Muliani, L.; Hidayat, R.

    2018-04-01

    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is still one of the promising solar cell types among the third generation of solar cells because of easiness of fabrication and variety of available materials. In this type of solar cell, the electrolyte is one of the important components for regenerating excited dyes and transporting electric charge carriers to the counter electrode. Indeed, the power conversion efficiency of DSSC can be then significantly affected by the chemical and physical properties of the electrolyte. The simplest electrolyte system of an I-/I3 - redox couple in an organic solvent, however, has some drawbacks due to corrosive properties, volatile and leakage problem. Use of solid phase or gel phase electrolyte may overcome those problems, but it is often considered to suppress the efficiency due to low ion diffusion. Here, we report the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSC using polymer gel electrolyte (PGE), which is composed of ionic liquid and an organosiloxane polymer gel. The better cell performance with power conversion efficiency of about 6% has been obtained by optimizing the mesoporous size of the TiO2 layer and the PGE viscosity.

  10. Carbazole/triarylamine based polymers as a hole injection/transport layer in organic light emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Ryu, Jeong-Tak; Kwon, Younghwan

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the influence of the charge injection barriers on the performance of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) using polymers with a stepwise tuned ionization potential (I(p) approximately -5.01 - -5.29 eV) between the indium tin oxide (ITO) (phi approximately -4.8 eV) anode and tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminium (Alq3) (I(p) approximately -5.7 eV) layer. The energy levels of the polymers were tuned by structural modification. Double layer devices were fabricated with a configuration of ITO/polymer/Alq3/LiF/Al, where the polymers, Alq3, and LiF/Al were used as the hole injection/transport layer, emissive electron transport layer, and electron injection/cathode, respectively. Using the current density-voltage (J-V), luminescence-voltage (L-V) and efficiencies in these double layer devices, the device performance was evaluated in terms of the energy level alignments at the interfaces, such as the hole injection barriers (phi(h)(iTO/polymer) and phi(h)(polymer/Alq3)) from ITO through the polymers into the Alq3 layer, and the electron injection barrier (phi(e)(polymer/Alq3) or electron/exciton blocking barrier) at the polymer/Alq3 interface.

  11. Enhanced polymer light-emitting diode property using fluorescent conducting polymer-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as active emissive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jyoti Prakash; Saha, Uttam; Jaiswal, Rimpa; Anand, Raghubir Singh; Srivastava, Anurag; Goswami, Thako Hari

    2014-11-01

    The present article reports the polymer light-emitting diode property of the nanocomposite comprising poly 9,9-dioctyl fluorene- alt-bithiophene and reduced graphene oxide used as an emissive layer. Two times repetition of Hummers oxidation and hydrazine hydrate reduction method produce reduced graphene oxide (term as rGO2) with more uniform distribution in size and thickness. In addition, this uniquely synthesized rGO2 induces favorable shift in balance of electron and hole recombination zone toward the center of emissive layer owing to increase in in-plane crystallite size and high localize aromatic confinement. Five times increase in maximum device efficiency (Cd/A) and three times increase in maximum brightness (Cd/m2) are achieved with the LED device using nanocomposite as emissive layer compared to neat polymer. Also, the fabricated device requires relatively low turn-on voltage (4 V) because of low energy barrier between PEDOT work function (-5.0 eV) and HOMO levels of bi-thiophene copolymer -5.67 eV) and nanocomposite (-5.66 eV).

  12. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE FLASH TRANSLATION LAYER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention include a method for storing a data page d on a solid-state storage device, wherein the solid-state storage device is configured to maintain a mapping table in a Log-Structure Merge (LSM) tree having a C0 component which is a random access memory (RAM) device...

  13. Polymer donors of nitric oxide improve the treatment of experimental solid tumours with nanosized polymer therapeutics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šírová, Milada; Horková, Veronika; Etrych, Tomáš; Chytil, Petr; Říhová, Blanka; Studenovský, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, 9-10 (2017), s. 796-808 ISSN 1061-186X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12742S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-28600A Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Drug delivery * HPMA copolymers * enhanced EPR effect Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) OBOR OECD: Microbiology; Polymer science (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 3.068, year: 2016

  14. Micro-fabricated Liquid Encapsulated Energy Harvester with Polymer Barrier Layer as Liquid Electret Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu, L; Xu, H Y; Xu, B J; Song, L

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the electret discharge issue for liquid based electret energy harvesters. An interface structure of PDMS/PTFE polymer barrier layer between liquid and electrets is introduced, achieving 75% charge retain rate over 100h, compared with 0% without the proposed layer over 100h. Further, the PDMS/PTFE layer is introduced into liquid encapsulated energy harvester (LEEH) and is compatible with micro-fabrication process. The retain rate of device voltage is about 47%∼65% over 100h. At 100h after corona charging, the device generates maximally 3.7V, 0.55μW @1Hz rotation

  15. Single-mode solid-state polymer dye laser fabricated with standard I-line UV lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Mironov, Andrej; Nilsson, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    We present single-mode solid-state polymer dye lasers fabricated with standard UV lithography. The lasers use a high-order Bragg grating and rely on index-tuning of a photosensitive polymer for waveguiding. The gain medium is Rhodamine 6G.......We present single-mode solid-state polymer dye lasers fabricated with standard UV lithography. The lasers use a high-order Bragg grating and rely on index-tuning of a photosensitive polymer for waveguiding. The gain medium is Rhodamine 6G....

  16. PIV measurement of turbulent bubbly mixing layer flow with polymer additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, T; Guo, F; Chen, B; Zhang, X

    2009-01-01

    Based on experimental investigation of single-phase turbulent mixing layer flow with polymer additives, bubbly mixing layer was experimentally investigated by PIV. The velocity ratio between high and low speed is 4:1 and the Reynolds number based on the velocity difference of two steams and hydraulic diameter of the channel ranges is 73333. Gas bubbles with about 0.5% gas fraction were injected into pure water mixing layer with/without polymer additives from three different parts at the end of the splitter plate. The comparison between single phase and bubbly mixing layer shows clearly that the dynamic development of mixing layer is great influenced by the bubble injection. Similar with single phase, the Reynolds stress and vorticity still concentrate in a coniform area of central mixing flow field part and the width will increase with increasing the Reynolds number. Mean Reynolds stress will decrease with bubble injection in high Reynolds numbers and the decreasing of Reynolds stress with polymer additives is much more than pure water case.

  17. Pore-Network Modeling of Water and Vapor Transport in the Micro Porous Layer and Gas Diffusion Layer of a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, C.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; van Oosterhout, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the cathode side of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), a micro porous layer (MPL) added between the catalyst layer (CL) and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) plays an important role in water management. In this work, by using both quasi-static and dynamic pore-network models, water and vapor

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell cathode with oxygen-reducing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdoval, Wayne A.; Berry, David A.; Shultz, Travis

    2018-04-03

    The disclosure provides a SOFC comprised of an electrolyte, anode, and cathode, where the cathode comprises an MIEC and an oxygen-reducing layer. The oxygen-reducing layer is in contact with the MIEC, and the MIEC is generally between and separating the oxygen-reducing layer and the electrolyte. The oxygen-reducing layer is comprised of single element oxides, single element carbonates, or mixtures thereof, and has a thickness of less than about 30 nm. In a particular embodiment, the thickness is less than 5 nm. In another embodiment, the thickness is about 3 monolayers or less. The oxygen-reducing layer may be a continuous film or a discontinuous film with various coverage ratios. The oxygen-reducing layer at the thicknesses described may be generated on the MIEC surface using means known in the art such as, for example, ALD processes.

  19. A two-dimensional layered Cd(II) coordination polymer with a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture incorporating mixed multidentate N- and O-donor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiu-Ying; Su, Ming-Yang; Meng, Xiang-Ru

    2015-06-01

    The combination of N-heterocyclic and multicarboxylate ligands is a good choice for the construction of metal-organic frameworks. In the title coordination polymer, poly[bis{μ2-1-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)methyl]-1H-tetrazole-κ(2)N(3):N(4)}(μ4-butanedioato-κ(4)O(1):O(1'):O(4):O(4'))(μ2-butanedioato-κ(2)O(1):O(4))dicadmium], [Cd(C4H4O4)(C9H8N6)]n, each Cd(II) ion exhibits an irregular octahedral CdO4N2 coordination geometry and is coordinated by four O atoms from three carboxylate groups of three succinate (butanedioate) ligands and two N atoms from two 1-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)methyl]-1H-tetrazole (bimt) ligands. Cd(II) ions are connected by two kinds of crystallographically independent succinate ligands to generate a two-dimensional layered structure with bimt ligands located on each side of the layer. Adjacent layers are further connected by hydrogen bonding, leading to a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture in the solid state. Thermogravimetric analysis of the title polymer shows that it is stable up to 529 K and then loses weight from 529 to 918 K, corresponding to the decomposition of the bimt ligands and succinate groups. The polymer exhibits a strong fluorescence emission in the solid state at room temperature.

  20. An all-solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitor based on a plastic crystal electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eaabouimrane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A plastic crystal, solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate salt, (C4H94NPF6, (10 molar % with succinonitrile, SCN, (N C−CH2−CH2−C N, [SCN-10%TBA-PF6]. The resultant waxy material shows a plastic crystalline phase that extend from -36 °C up to its melting at 23 °C. It shows a high ionic conductivity reaching 4 × 10−5 S/cm in the plastic crystal phase (15 °C and ~ 3 × 10−3 S/cm in the molten state (25 °C. These properties along with the high electrochemical stability rendered the use of this material as an electrolyte in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC. The EDLC was assembled and its performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge methods. Specific capacitance values in the range of 4-7 F/g. (of electrode active material were obtained in the plastic crystal phase at 15 °C, that although compare well with those reported for some polymer electrolytes, can be still enhanced with further development of the device and its components, and only demonstrate their great potential use for capacitors as a new application.

  1. An All-Solid-State Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor Based on a Plastic Crystal Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Belharouak, Ilias [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar); Abu-Lebdeh, Yaser A., E-mail: yaser.abu-lebdeh@nrc.gc.ca [Energy, Mining and Environment Portfolio and Automotive and Surface Transportation Portfolio, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-08-18

    A plastic crystal, solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate salt, (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}-NPF{sub 6}, (10 molar %) with succinonitrile, SCN, (N≡C−CH{sub 2}−CH{sub 2}−C≡N), [SCN-10%TBA-PF{sub 6}]. The resultant waxy material shows a plastic crystalline phase that extends from −36°C up to its melting at 23°C. It shows a high ionic conductivity reaching 4 × 10{sup -5} S/cm in the plastic crystal phase (15°C) and ~ 3 × 10{sup -3} S/cm in the molten state (25°C). These properties along with the high electrochemical stability rendered the use of this material as an electrolyte in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC). The EDLC was assembled, and its performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge–discharge methods. Specific capacitance values in the range of 4–7 F/g (of electrode active material) were obtained in the plastic crystal phase at 15°C, that although compare well with those reported for some polymer electrolytes, can be still enhanced with further development of the device and its components, and only demonstrate their great potential use for capacitors as a new application.

  2. An All-Solid-State Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor Based on a Plastic Crystal Electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Belharouak, Ilias; Abu-Lebdeh, Yaser A.

    2015-01-01

    A plastic crystal, solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate salt, (C 4 H 9 ) 4 -NPF 6 , (10 molar %) with succinonitrile, SCN, (N≡C−CH 2 −CH 2 −C≡N), [SCN-10%TBA-PF 6 ]. The resultant waxy material shows a plastic crystalline phase that extends from −36°C up to its melting at 23°C. It shows a high ionic conductivity reaching 4 × 10 -5 S/cm in the plastic crystal phase (15°C) and ~ 3 × 10 -3 S/cm in the molten state (25°C). These properties along with the high electrochemical stability rendered the use of this material as an electrolyte in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC). The EDLC was assembled, and its performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge–discharge methods. Specific capacitance values in the range of 4–7 F/g (of electrode active material) were obtained in the plastic crystal phase at 15°C, that although compare well with those reported for some polymer electrolytes, can be still enhanced with further development of the device and its components, and only demonstrate their great potential use for capacitors as a new application.

  3. A Flexible Solid Electrolyte Interphase Layer for Long-Life Lithium Metal Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nian-Wu; Shi, Yang; Yin, Ya-Xia; Zeng, Xian-Xiang; Li, Jin-Yi; Li, Cong-Ju; Wan, Li-Jun; Wen, Rui; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2018-02-05

    Lithium (Li) metal is a promising anode material for high-energy density batteries. However, the unstable and static solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) can be destroyed by the dynamic Li plating/stripping behavior on the Li anode surface, leading to side reactions and Li dendrites growth. Herein, we design a smart Li polyacrylic acid (LiPAA) SEI layer high elasticity to address the dynamic Li plating/stripping processes by self-adapting interface regulation, which is demonstrated by in situ AFM. With the high binding ability and excellent stability of the LiPAA polymer, the smart SEI can significantly reduce the side reactions and improve battery safety markedly. Stable cycling of 700 h is achieved in the LiPAA-Li/LiPAA-Li symmetrical cell. The innovative strategy of self-adapting SEI design is broadly applicable, providing opportunities for use in Li metal anodes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. All solid-state polymer electrolytes prepared from a hyper-branched graft polymer using atom transfer radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higa, Mitsuru; Fujino, Yukiko; Koumoto, Taihei; Kitani, Ryousuke; Egashira, Satsuki

    2005-01-01

    We propose an all solid-state (liquid free) polymer electrolyte (SPE) prepared from a hyper-branched graft copolymer. The graft copolymer consisting of a poly(methyl methacrylate) main chain and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate side chains was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization changing the average chain distance between side chains, side chain length and branched chain length of the proposed structure of the graft copolymer. The ionic conductivity of the SPEs increases with increasing the side chain length, branched chain length and/or average distance between the side chains. The ionic conductivity of the SPE prepared from POEM 9 whose POEM content = 51 wt% shows 2 x 10 -5 S/cm at 30 deg. C. The tensile strength of the SPEs decreases with increases the side chain length, branched chain length and/or average distance between the side chains. These results indicate that a SPE prepared from the hyper-branched graft copolymer has potential to be applied to an all-solid polymer electrolyte

  5. Performance of electrical double layer capacitors fabricated with gel polymer electrolytes containing Li+ and K+-salts: A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manoj K.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The comparative performance of the solid-state electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) based on the multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes and poly (vinaylidinefluoride-co-hexafluoropropyline) (PVdF-HFP) based gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) containing potassium and lithium salts have been studied. The room temperature ionic conductivity of the GPEs have been found to be ∼3.8×10 −3 and 5.9×10 −3 S cm −1 for lithium and potassium based systems. The performance of EDLC cells studied by impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and constant current charge-discharge techniques, indicate that the EDLC with potassium salt containing GPE shows excellent performance almost equivalent to the EDLC with Li-salt-based GPE

  6. Alkaline solid polymer electrolytes and their application to rechargeable batteries; Electrolytes solides polymeres alcalins application aux generateurs electrochimiques rechargeables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinot, S

    1996-03-15

    A new family of solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) based on polyoxyethylene (POE), KOH and water is investigated in view of its use in rechargeable batteries. After a short review on rechargeable batteries, the preparation of various electrolyte compositions is described. Their characterization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and microscopy confirm a multi-phasic structure. Conductivity measurements give values up to 10 sup -3 S cm sup -1 at room temperature. Their use in cells with nickel as negative electrode and cadmium or zinc as positive electrode has been tested; cycling possibility has been shown to be satisfactory. (C.B.) 113 refs.

  7. Specific features of laser selective sintering of loose powder layers of metal-polymer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolochko, N.K.; Sobolenko, N.V.; Mozzharov, S.E.; Yadrojtsev, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental study was carried out into laser sintering of metal and polymer powder mixtures containing 75 vol.% of nickel base alloy (spherical particles 60-70 μm in diameter) and 25 vol.% of PEP-219 polymer (angular isometric particles 50-100 μm in size). The powder mixture was deposited on a stainless steel substrate and heated by continuous laser beam directed normally to powder layer. Geometrical and structural parameters of single and multilayer sintered products are shown to depend on both laser processing conditions and heat transfer. Some recommendations are given aimed at manufacturing articles of required shape, surface properties and material strength. 6 refs.; 4 figs

  8. Hybrid polymer-CdS solar cell active layers formed by in situ growth of CdS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masala, S.; Del Gobbo, S.; Borriello, C.; Bizzarro, V.; La Ferrara, V.; Re, M.; Pesce, E.; Minarini, C.; De Crescenzi, M.; Di Luccio, T.

    2011-01-01

    The integration of semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) into a polymeric matrix has the potential to enhance the performance of polymer-based solar cells taking advantage of the physical properties of NPs and polymers. We synthesize a new class of CdS-NPs-based active layer employing a low-cost and low temperature route compatible with large-scale device manufacturing. Our approach is based on the controlled in situ thermal decomposition of a cadmium thiolate precursor in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The casted P3HT:precursor solid foils were heated up from 200 to 300 °C to allow the precursor decomposition and the CdS-NP formation within the polymer matrix. The CdS-NP growth was controlled by varying the annealing temperature. The polymer:precursor weight ratio was also varied to investigate the effects of increasing the NP volume fraction on the solar cell performances. The optical properties were studied by using UV–Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy at room temperature. To investigate the photocurrent response of P3HT:CdS nanocomposites, ITO/P3HT:CdS/Al solar cell devices were realized. We measured the external quantum efficiency (EQE) as a function of the wavelength. The photovoltaic response of the devices containing CdS-NPs showed a variation compared with the devices with P3HT only. By changing the annealing temperature the EQE is enhanced in the 400–600 nm spectral region. By increasing the NPs volume fraction remarkable changes in the EQE spectra were observed. The data are discussed also in relation to morphological features of the interfaces studied by Focused Ion Beam technique.

  9. Redox responsive nanotubes from organometallic polymers by template assisted layer by layer fabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Jing; Janczewski, D.J.; Guo, Y.Y.; Guo, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jianwei; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2013-01-01

    Redox responsive nanotubes were fabricated by the template assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method and employed as platforms for molecular payload release. Positively and negatively charged organometallic poly(ferrocenylsilane)s (PFS) were used to construct the nanotubes, in combination with

  10. A solution-processed binary cathode interfacial layer facilitates electron extraction for inverted polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyuan; Li, Zhiqi; Liu, Chunyu; Guo, Jiaxin; Shen, Liang; Guo, Wenbin

    2018-03-15

    The charge transfer and separation are significantly affected by the electron properties of the interface between the electron-donor layer and the carrier-transporting layer in polymer solar cells (PSCs). In this study, we investigate the electron extraction mechanism of PSCs with a low temperature solution-processed ZnO/PEI as electron transport layer. The incorporation of PEI layer can decrease the work function of ZnO and reduce interfacial barrier, which facilitates electron extraction and suppresses bimolecular recombination, leading to a significant performance enhancement. Furthermore, PEI layer can induce phase separation and passivite inorganic surface trap states as well as shift the interfacial energy offset between metal oxide and organic materials. This work offers a simple and effective way to improve the charge transporting property of organic photovoltaic devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Salt-Driven Deposition of Thermoresponsive Polymer-Coated Metal Nanoparticles on Solid Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyue; Maji, Samarendra; da Fonseca Antunes, André B; De Rycke, Riet; Hoogenboom, Richard; De Geest, Bruno G

    2016-06-13

    Here we report on a simple, generally applicable method for depositing metal nanoparticles on a wide variety of solid surfaces under all aqueous conditions. Noble-metal nanoparticles obtained by citrate reduction followed by coating with thermoresponsive polymers spontaneously form a monolayer-like structure on a wide variety of substrates in presence of sodium chloride whereas this phenomenon does not occur in salt-free medium. Interestingly, this phenomenon occurs below the cloud point temperature of the polymers and we hypothesize that salt ion-induced screening of electrostatic charges on the nanoparticle surface entropically favors hydrophobic association between the polymer-coated nanoparticles and a hydrophobic substrate. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Charged Porous Polymers using a Solid C-O Cross-Coupling Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Jiang, Xueguang; Wan, Shun; Dai, Sheng

    2015-07-15

    Here in this paper, we report a green, fast, efficient mechanochemical strategy for charged porous polymers (CPPs). A cationic CPP with basic anions and an anionic CPP with Li+ cations were fabricated by solid grinding under solvent-free conditions. Compared with solution-based synthesis, mechanochemical grinding can shorten the reaction time from dozens of hours to several minutes (60–90 min) to form polymers possessing a high molecular mass and low polydispersity. During the construction of CPPs, a Pd-catalyzed solid polycondensation based on unactivated organic linkers was introduced. In particular, CPPs with basic phenolic or proline anions showed good activity and stability in SO2 capture, and Li+-functionalized CPPs can be post-modified to CPPs with other metal ions by ion exchange, highlighting the tailorable feature of ionic-modified CPPs.

  13. Charged Porous Polymers using a Solid C-O Cross-Coupling Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Jiang, Xueguang; Wan, Shun; Dai, Sheng

    2015-07-15

    Herein, we report a green, fast, efficient mechanochemical strategy for charged porous polymers (CPPs). A cationic CPP with basic anions and an anionic CPP with Li+ cations were fabricated by solid grinding under solvent-free conditions. Compared with solution-based synthesis, mechanochemical grinding can shorten the reaction time from dozens of hours to several minutes (60–90 min) to form polymers possessing a high molecular mass and low polydispersity. During the construction of CPPs, a Pd-catalyzed solid polycondensation based on unactivated organic linkers was introduced. In particular, CPPs with basic phenolic or proline anions showed good activity and stability in SO2 capture, and Li+-functionalized CPPs can be post-modified to CPPs with other metal ions by ion exchange, highlighting the tailorable feature of ionic-modified CPPs.

  14. Polycarbonate-based polyurethane as a polymer electrolyte matrix for all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Junjie; Shi, Gaojian; Tao, Can; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Chen; Cheng, Liang; Qian, Gang; Chen, Chunhua

    2018-06-01

    Four kinds of polycarbonate-based polyurethane with 8-14 wt% hard segments content are synthesized via reactions of polycarbonatediol, hexamethylene diisocyanate and diethylene glycol. The mechanical strength of the polyurethanes increase with the increase of hard segments content. Solid polymer electrolytes composed of the polycarbonate-based polyurethanes and LiTFSI exhibits fascinating characteristics for all-solid-state lithium batteries with a high ionic conductivity of 1.12 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 80 °C, an electrochemical stability window up to 4.5 V (vs. Li+/Li), excellent mechanical strength and superior interfacial stability against lithium metal. The all-solid-state batteries using LiFePO4 cathode can deliver high discharge capacities (161, 158, 134 and 93 mAh g-1 at varied rates of 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 C) at 80 °C and excellent cycling performance (with 91% capacity retention after 600 cycles at 1 C). All the results indicate that such a polyurethane-based solid polymer electrolyte can be a promising candidate for all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  15. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte: Effect of lithium salt addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, G. P.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Performance characteristics of the solid-state supercapacitors fabricated with ionic liquid (IL) incorporated gel polymer electrolyte and acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have been studied. The effect of Li-salt (LiPF6) addition in the IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate, EMImFAP) based gel electrolyte on the performance of supercapacitors has been specifically investigated. The LiPF6/IL/poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte film possesses excellent electrochemical window of 4 V (from -2.0 to 2.0 V), high ionic conductivity ∼2.6 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 20 °C and high enough thermal stability. The comparative performance of supercapacitors employing electrolytes with and without lithium salt has been evaluated by impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies. The acid-treated MWCNT electrodes show specific capacitance of ∼127 F g-1 with IL/LiPF6 containing gel polymer electrolyte as compared to that with the gel polymer electrolyte without Li-salt, showing the value of ∼76 F g-1. The long cycling stability of the solid state supercapacitor based on the Li-salt containing gel polymer electrolyte confirms the electrochemical stability of the electrolyte.

  16. Mixing Acid Salts and Layered Double Hydroxides in Nanoscale under Solid Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Hirokazu; Hayashi, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The immobilization of potassium sorbate, potassium aspartate and sorbic acid in layered double hydroxide under solid condition was examined. By simply mixing two solids, immobilization of sorbate and aspartate in the interlayer space of nitrate-type layered double hydroxide, so called intercalation reaction, was achieved, and the uptakes, that is, the amount of immobilized salts and the interlayer distances of intercalation compounds were almost the same as those obtained in aqueous solution...

  17. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides using molecularly imprinted polymer solid phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Syairah Salleh; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymer solid phase extraction (MIP-SPE) method has been developed for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in water samples. The MIP was prepared by thermo-polymerization method using methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinker, acetonitrile as porogenic solvent and quinalphos as the template molecule. The three OPPs (diazinon, quinalphos and chloropyrifos) were selected as target analytes as they are widely used in agriculture sector. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the imprinted polymers have been evaluated to optimize the selective preconcentration of OPPs from aqueous samples. The characteristics of the MIP-SPE method were validated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The accuracy and selectivity of the MIP-SPE process developed were verified using non-imprinted polymer solid phase extraction (NIP-SPE) and a commercial C 18 -SPE was used for comparison. The recoveries of the target analytes obtained using the MIPs as the solid phase sorbent ranged from 83% to 98% (RSDs 1.05 - 1.98 %; n=3) for water sample. The developed MIP-SPE method demonstrates that it could be applied for the determination of OPPs in water samples. (author)

  18. Conductive polymer layers to limit transfer of fuel reactants to catalysts of fuel cells to reduce reactant crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanis, Ronald J.; Lambert, Timothy N.

    2016-12-06

    An apparatus of an aspect includes a fuel cell catalyst layer. The fuel cell catalyst layer is operable to catalyze a reaction involving a fuel reactant. A fuel cell gas diffusion layer is coupled with the fuel cell catalyst layer. The fuel cell gas diffusion layer includes a porous electrically conductive material. The porous electrically conductive material is operable to allow the fuel reactant to transfer through the fuel cell gas diffusion layer to reach the fuel cell catalyst layer. The porous electrically conductive material is also operable to conduct electrons associated with the reaction through the fuel cell gas diffusion layer. An electrically conductive polymer material is coupled with the fuel cell gas diffusion layer. The electrically conductive polymer material is operable to limit transfer of the fuel reactant to the fuel cell catalyst layer.

  19. Adaptive sliding mode control of tri-layer conjugated polymer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiangjiang; Alici, Gursel; Nguyen, Chuc Huu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive sliding mode control methodology to enhance the positioning ability of conducting polymer actuators typified by tri-layer conjugated polymer actuators. This is motivated by the search for an effective control strategy to command such actuators to a desired configuration in the presence of parametric uncertainties and unmodeled disturbances. After analyzing the stability of the adaptive sliding mode control system, experiments were conducted to demonstrate its satisfactory tracking ability, based on a series of experimental results. Implementation of the control law requires a valid model of the conducting polymer actuator and boundaries of the uncertainties and disturbances. Based on the theoretical and experimental results presented, the adaptive sliding mode control methodology is very attractive in the field of smart actuators which contain significant uncertainties and disturbances. (paper)

  20. Solidification of liquid electrolyte with imidazole polymers for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Miao; Lin Yuan; Zhou Xiaowen; Xiao Xurui; Yang Lei; Feng Shujing; Li Xueping

    2008-01-01

    Quasi-solid-state electrolytes were prepared by employing the imidazole polymers to solidify the liquid electrolyte containing lithium iodide, iodine and ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) mixed solvent. The ionic conductivity and diffusion behavior of triiodide in the quasi-solid-state electrolytes were examined in terms of the polymer content. Application of the quasi-solid-state electrolytes to the dye-sensitized solar cells, the maximum energy conversion efficiency of 7.6% (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm -2 ) was achieved. The dependence of the photovoltaic performance on the polymer content and on the different anions of the imidazole polymers was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The results indicate the charge transfer behaviors occurred at nanocrystalline TiO 2 /electrolyte and Pt/electrolyte interface play an important role in influencing the photovoltaic performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

  1. Studies on the Properties of Plasticizer and Lithium Salt on PMMA-based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, K. W.; Tan, C. G.; Osman, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of plasticizer and lithium salt on PMMA-based solid polymer electrolyte have been investigated. In current project, three system samples consisted of pure poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA) system, plasticized poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA-EC) system and the LiCF 3 SO 3 salted-poly(methyl methacrylate) containing a fixed amount of plasticizer ([PMMA-EC]-LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system have been prepared using solution casting technique. The conductivities of the films from each system are characterized by impedance spectroscopy and infrared spectrum. With the addition of plasticizer, results show improvement on the ionic conductivity value where the value of 6.25x10 -10 Scm -1 is obtained. This may be due to the nature of plasticizer that softens the polymer and hence enhanced the ionic transportation across the polymer. The room temperature conductivity for the highest conducting sample in the ([PMMA-EC]-LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system is 1.36x10 -5 Scm -1 . Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicates complexation between the polymer and the plasticizer and the polymer, the plasticizer and the salts, and the result of XRD further supports the observation.

  2. Non-equilibrium dynamics of single polymer adsorption to solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panja, Debabrata; Barkema, Gerard T; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of polymers to surfaces is crucial for understanding many fundamental processes in nature. Recent experimental studies indicate that the adsorption dynamics is dominated by non-equilibrium effects. We investigate the adsorption of a single polymer of length N to a planar solid surface in the absence of hydrodynamic interactions. We find that for weak adsorption energies the adsorption timescales ∼N (1+2ν)/(1+ν) , where ν is the Flory exponent for the polymer. We argue that in this regime the single chain adsorption is closely related to a field-driven polymer translocation through narrow pores. Surprisingly, for high adsorption energies the adsorption time becomes longer, as it scales as ∼N 1+ν , which is explained by strong stretching of the unadsorbed part of the polymer close to the adsorbing surface. These two dynamic regimes are separated by an energy scale that is characterized by non-equilibrium contributions during the adsorption process. (fast track communication)

  3. Numerical simulation of viscoelastic layer rearrangement in polymer melts using OpenFOAM®

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köpplmayr, Thomas, E-mail: tkoepplmayr@gmail.com; Mayrhofer, Elias [Institute of Polymer Extrusion and Compounding, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-05-22

    In addition to their shear-thinning behavior, polymer melts are characterized by first and second normal stress differences, which cause secondary motions. Polymer coextrusion processes involve viscoelastic two-phase flows that influence layer formation. Using polymer melts with different pigmentation makes visible the layers deformed by second normal stress differences. We used a new solver for the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox which handles viscoelastic two-phase flows. A derivative of the volume-of-fluid (VoF) methodology was employed to describe the interface. Different types of polymer melt, such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were investigated. In a coextrusion process, the less viscous phase usually tends to encapsulate the more viscous one. However, the different viscoelastic properties of the melts also influence interface deformation. The materials were characterized by small-amplitude oscillatory-shear rheometry, and a multimode Giesekus model was used to fit shear viscosity, storage and loss modulus. Our simulations also took interfacial tension into account. Experimental observations and corresponding numerical simulations were found to be in good accordance.

  4. Numerical simulation of viscoelastic layer rearrangement in polymer melts using OpenFOAM®

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köpplmayr, Thomas; Mayrhofer, Elias

    2015-01-01

    In addition to their shear-thinning behavior, polymer melts are characterized by first and second normal stress differences, which cause secondary motions. Polymer coextrusion processes involve viscoelastic two-phase flows that influence layer formation. Using polymer melts with different pigmentation makes visible the layers deformed by second normal stress differences. We used a new solver for the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox which handles viscoelastic two-phase flows. A derivative of the volume-of-fluid (VoF) methodology was employed to describe the interface. Different types of polymer melt, such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were investigated. In a coextrusion process, the less viscous phase usually tends to encapsulate the more viscous one. However, the different viscoelastic properties of the melts also influence interface deformation. The materials were characterized by small-amplitude oscillatory-shear rheometry, and a multimode Giesekus model was used to fit shear viscosity, storage and loss modulus. Our simulations also took interfacial tension into account. Experimental observations and corresponding numerical simulations were found to be in good accordance

  5. Solid-state, polymer-based fiber solar cells with carbon nanotube electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianyi; Zhao, Mingyan; Li, Yan; Bian, Zuqiang; Zhang, Luhui; Shang, Yuanyuan; Xia, Xinyuan; Zhang, Sen; Yun, Daqin; Liu, Zhiwei; Cao, Anyuan; Huang, Chunhui

    2012-12-21

    Most previous fiber-shaped solar cells were based on photoelectrochemical systems involving liquid electrolytes, which had issues such as device encapsulation and stability. Here, we deposited classical semiconducting polymer-based bulk heterojunction layers onto stainless steel wires to form primary electrodes and adopted carbon nanotube thin films or densified yarns to replace conventional metal counter electrodes. The polymer-based fiber cells with nanotube film or yarn electrodes showed power conversion efficiencies in the range 1.4% to 2.3%, with stable performance upon rotation and large-angle bending and during long-time storage without further encapsulation. Our fiber solar cells consisting of a polymeric active layer sandwiched between steel and carbon electrodes have potential in the manufacturing of low-cost, liquid-free, and flexible fiber-based photovoltaics.

  6. Benzocyclobutene (BCB) Polymer as Amphibious Buffer Layer for Graphene Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Zou, Jianjun; Huo, Shuai; Lu, Haiyan; Kong, Yuecan; Chen, Tangshen; Wu, Wei; Xu, Jingxia

    2015-08-01

    Owing to the scattering and trapping effects, the interfaces of dielectric/graphene or substrate/graphene can tailor the performance of field-effect transistor (FET). In this letter, the polymer of benzocyclobutene (BCB) was used as an amphibious buffer layer and located at between the layers of substrate and graphene and between the layers of dielectric and graphene. Interestingly, with the help of nonpolar and hydrophobic BCB buffer layer, the large-scale top-gated, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene transistors was prepared on Si/SiO2 substrate, its cutoff frequency (fT) and the maximum cutoff frequency (fmax) of the graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) can be reached at 12 GHz and 11 GHz, respectively.

  7. White-light-emitting diode based on a single-layer polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B. Z.; Zhang, X. P.; Liu, H. M.

    2013-05-01

    A broad-band light-emitting diode was achieved in a single-layer device based on pure poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) (PFB). Electromer emission was observed in the red with a center wavelength of about 620 nm in electroluminescence (EL) spectrum. This kind of emission exhibits strong dependence on the thickness of the PFB layer, so that the shape of the EL spectrum may be adjusted through changing the thickness of the active polymer layer to balance between the intrinsic PFB emission in the blue and the electromer emission in the red. Thus, white light emission may be achieved from such a single-layer single-material diode.

  8. Efficient Polymer Solar Cells with Alcohol-Soluble Zirconium(IV Isopropoxide Cathode Buffer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Luo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interfacial materials are essential to the performance and stability of polymer solar cells (PSCs. Herein, solution-processed zirconium(IV isopropoxide (Zr[OCH(CH32]4, ZrIPO has been employed as an efficient cathode buffer layer between the Al cathode and photoactive layer. The ZrIPO buffer layer is prepared simply via spin-coating its isopropanol solution on the photoactive layer at room temperature without any post-treatment. When using ZrIPO/Al instead of the traditionally used Ca/Al cathode in PSCs, the short-circuit current density (Jsc is significantly improved and the series resistance of the device is decreased. The power conversion efficiency (PCE of the P3HT:PCBM-based device with ZrIPO buffer layer reaches 4.47% under the illumination of AM1.5G, 100 mW/cm2. A better performance with PCE of 8.07% is achieved when a low bandgap polymer PBDTBDD is selected as donor material. The results indicate that ZrIPO is a promising electron collection material as a substitute of the traditional low-work-function cathode for high performance PSCs.

  9. Efficiency of solution-processed multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes using charge blocking layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparek, Christian; Rörich, Irina; Blom, Paul W. M.; Wetzelaer, Gert-Jan A. H.

    2018-01-01

    By blending semiconducting polymers with the cross-linkable matrix ethoxylated-(4)-bisphenol-a-dimethacrylate (SR540), an insoluble layer is acquired after UV-illumination. Following this approach, a trilayer polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) consisting of a blend of poly[N,N'-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine] (poly-TPD) and SR540 as an electron-blocking layer, Super Yellow-Poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (SY-PPV) blended with SR540 as an emissive layer, and poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) as a hole-blocking layer is fabricated from solution. The trilayer PLED shows a 23% increase in efficiency at low voltage as compared to a single layer SY-PPV PLED. However, at higher voltage, the advantage in current efficiency gradually decreases. A combined experimental and modelling study shows that the increased efficiency is not only due to the elimination of exciton quenching at the electrodes but also due to suppressed nonradiative trap-assisted recombination due to carrier confinement. At high voltages, holes can overcome the hole-blocking barrier, which explains the efficiency roll-off.

  10. Optical characterizations of silver nanoprisms embedded in polymer thin film layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Miriam; Pourcin, Florent; Margeat, Olivier; Le Rouzo, Judikael; Berginc, Gerard; Sauvage, Rose-Marie; Ackermann, Jorg; Escoubas, Ludovic

    2017-10-01

    The precise control of light-matter interaction has a wide range of applications and is currently driven by the use of nanoparticles (NPs) by the recent advances in nanotechnology. Taking advantage of the material, size, shape, and surrounding media dependence of the optical properties of plasmonic NPs, thin film layers with tunable optical properties are achieved. The NPs are synthesized by wet chemistry and embedded in a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer thin film layer. Spectrophotometer and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements are coupled to finite-difference time domain numerical modeling to optically characterize the heterogeneous thin film layers. Silver nanoprisms of 10 to 50 nm edge size exhibit high absorption through the visible wavelength range. A simple optical model composed of a Cauchy law and a Lorentz law, accounting for the optical properties of the nonabsorbing polymer and the absorbing property of the nanoprisms, fits the spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Knowing the complex optical indices of heterogeneous thin film layers let us design layers of any optical properties.

  11. Recent Advances in Gas Barrier Thin Films via Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Polymers and Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priolo, Morgan A; Holder, Kevin M; Guin, Tyler; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2015-05-01

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly has emerged as the leading non-vacuum technology for the fabrication of transparent, super gas barrier films. The super gas barrier performance of LbL deposited films has been demonstrated in numerous studies, with a variety of polyelectrolytes, to rival that of metal and metal oxide-based barrier films. This Feature Article is a mini-review of LbL-based multilayer thin films with a 'nanobrick wall' microstructure comprising polymeric mortar and nano-platelet bricks that impart high gas barrier to otherwise permeable polymer substrates. These transparent, water-based thin films exhibit oxygen transmission rates below 5 × 10(-3) cm(3) m(-2) day(-1) atm(-1) and lower permeability than any other barrier material reported. In an effort to put this technology in the proper context, incumbent technologies such as metallized plastics, metal oxides, and flake-filled polymers are briefly reviewed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Evaluation of the Effect of Exhausts from Liquid and Solid Rockets on Ozone Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Yoshiki; Ishimaki, Tetsuya

    This paper reports the analytical results of the influences of solid rocket and liquid rocket exhausts on ozone layer. It is worried about that the exhausts from solid propellant rockets cause the ozone depletion in the ozone layer. Some researchers try to develop the analytical model of ozone depletion by rocket exhausts to understand its physical phenomena and to find the effective design of rocket to minimize its effect. However, these models do not include the exhausts from liquid rocket although there are many cases to use solid rocket boosters with a liquid rocket at the same time in practical situations. We constructed combined analytical model include the solid rocket exhausts and liquid rocket exhausts to analyze their effects. From the analytical results, we find that the exhausts from liquid rocket suppress the ozone depletion by solid rocket exhausts.

  13. An Approach to Solid-State Electrical Double Layer Capacitors Fabricated with Graphene Oxide-Doped, Ionic Liquid-Based Solid Copolymer Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, N F A; Ng, H M; Mahipal, Y K; Numan, Arshid; Ramesh, S; Ramesh, K

    2016-06-06

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) composed of semi-crystalline poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) [P(VdF-HFP)] copolymer, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl sulphonyl) imide [EMI-BTI] and graphene oxide (GO) was prepared and its performance evaluated. The effects of GO nano-filler were investigated in terms of enhancement in ionic conductivity along with the electrochemical properties of its electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC). The GO-doped SPE shows improvement in ionic conductivity compared to the P(VdF-HFP)-[EMI-BTI] SPE system due to the existence of the abundant oxygen-containing functional group in GO that assists in the improvement of the ion mobility in the polymer matrix. The complexation of the materials in the SPE is confirmed in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies. The electrochemical performance of EDLC fabricated with GO-doped SPE is examined using cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge techniques. The maximum specific capacitance obtained is 29.6 F∙g -1 , which is observed at a scan rate of 3 mV/s in 6 wt % GO-doped, SPE-based EDLC. It also has excellent cyclic retention as it is able keep the performance of the EDLC at 94% even after 3000 cycles. These results suggest GO doped SPE plays a significant role in energy storage application.

  14. An Approach to Solid-State Electrical Double Layer Capacitors Fabricated with Graphene Oxide-Doped, Ionic Liquid-Based Solid Copolymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. A. Fattah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE composed of semi-crystalline poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene [P(VdF-HFP] copolymer, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl sulphonyl imide [EMI-BTI] and graphene oxide (GO was prepared and its performance evaluated. The effects of GO nano-filler were investigated in terms of enhancement in ionic conductivity along with the electrochemical properties of its electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC. The GO-doped SPE shows improvement in ionic conductivity compared to the P(VdF-HFP-[EMI-BTI] SPE system due to the existence of the abundant oxygen-containing functional group in GO that assists in the improvement of the ion mobility in the polymer matrix. The complexation of the materials in the SPE is confirmed in X-ray diffraction (XRD and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA studies. The electrochemical performance of EDLC fabricated with GO-doped SPE is examined using cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge techniques. The maximum specific capacitance obtained is 29.6 F∙g−1, which is observed at a scan rate of 3 mV/s in 6 wt % GO-doped, SPE-based EDLC. It also has excellent cyclic retention as it is able keep the performance of the EDLC at 94% even after 3000 cycles. These results suggest GO doped SPE plays a significant role in energy storage application.

  15. Ambipolar Organic Phototransistors with p-Type/n-Type Conjugated Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Light-Sensing Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungho; Han, Hyemi; Seo, Jooyeok; Song, Myeonghun; Kim, Hwajeong; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; McCulloch, Iain; Bradley, Donal D C; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2016-01-01

    Ambipolar organic phototransistors with sensing channel layers, featuring p-type and n-type conjugated polymer bulk heterojunctions, exhibit outstanding light-sensing characteristics in both p-channel and n-channel sensing operation modes.

  16. Ambipolar Organic Phototransistors with p-Type/n-Type Conjugated Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Light-Sensing Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungho

    2016-11-18

    Ambipolar organic phototransistors with sensing channel layers, featuring p-type and n-type conjugated polymer bulk heterojunctions, exhibit outstanding light-sensing characteristics in both p-channel and n-channel sensing operation modes.

  17. All-solid state flexible supercapacitors based on graphene/polymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Won; Choi, Bong Gill, E-mail: bgchoi@kangwon.ac.kr

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronic equipment has led to advancements in the development of sufficiently compact and flexible energy storage. A challenge remains to integrate the storage elements as closely as possible within a fully flexible device. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of all-solid state flexible supercapacitors with the integration of two electrodes that consist of graphene/polymer composites. Robust conductive free-standing thin graphene/polymer composite electrodes were prepared through a simple “physical grinding” process. As-prepared composite electrodes store energy up to a reversible gravimetric capacitance of 90.6 F/g, at a constant current density of 0.5 A/g while also delivering long-term durability (90% retention) for excess of five-thousands of cycles. Notably, the enhancement of mechanical properties of supercapacitors enables them to maintain their electrochemical performance even when twisted or folded. This straightforward approach to the fabrication of fully flexible supercapacitors provides new design opportunities within wearable electronics and electrochemical applications. - Highlights: • All solid-sate supercapacitors were fabricated using graphene/polymer composite electrodes. • Supercapacitor devices show an excellent mechanical flexibility. • High electrochemical performances were demonstrated.

  18. Development of andrographolide molecularly imprinted polymer for solid-phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaoying; Liu, Qingshan; Jiang, Yifan; Luo, Yongming

    2011-06-01

    A method employing molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as selective sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) to pretreat samples was developed. The polymers were prepared by precipitation polymerization with andrographolide as template molecule. The structure of MIP was characterized and its static adsorption capacity was measured by the Scatchard equation. In comparison with C 18-SPE and non-imprinted polymer (NIP) SPE column, MIP-SPE column displays high selectivity and good affinity for andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide for extract of herb Andrographis paniculata ( Burm.f.) Nees (APN). MIP-SPE column capacity was 11.9 ± 0.6 μmol/g and 12.1 ± 0.5 μmol/g for andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide, respectively and was 2-3 times higher than that of other two columns. The precision and accuracy of the method developed were satisfactory with recoveries between 96.4% and 103.8% (RSD 3.1-4.3%, n = 5) and 96.0% and 104.2% (RSD 2.9-3.7%, n = 5) for andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide, respectively. Various real samples were employed to confirm the feasibility of method. This developed method demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for rapid, selective, and effective sample pretreatment.

  19. Characterization of the polymer Durolon as a solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliesi, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    The polymer Durolon has been characterized as a solid state nuclear track detector. In these detectors a track, resulting from the damages in its molecular structure, induced by a heavy charged particle, is the testimony of the passage of the particle through the polymer. In order to characterize the Durolon the track diameter, track production rate, light transmission through the polymer and the critical angle of incidence of the particle have been studied. The main objective of such studies was to provide the necessary subsidies to understand the information registered. The damages have been induced by alpha particles from the nuclear reaction 10 B(n,α) 7 Li, by irradiating a boron screen in a thermal neutron field from an experimental facility installed in the beam-hole 08 of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The study of the parameters have been performed by using a digital system developed in the present work. Its use has provided a higher quality and quickness regarding data acquisition and data analysis as well as the opportunity to quantify several other parameters regarding the imaging formation theory in solid state nuclear track detectors. The characteristics of the Durolon have been compared with the ones of two other detectors Makrofol-E and Makrofol-DE and have demonstrated its potentiality to use. (author)

  20. All-solid state flexible supercapacitors based on graphene/polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Won; Choi, Bong Gill

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronic equipment has led to advancements in the development of sufficiently compact and flexible energy storage. A challenge remains to integrate the storage elements as closely as possible within a fully flexible device. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of all-solid state flexible supercapacitors with the integration of two electrodes that consist of graphene/polymer composites. Robust conductive free-standing thin graphene/polymer composite electrodes were prepared through a simple “physical grinding” process. As-prepared composite electrodes store energy up to a reversible gravimetric capacitance of 90.6 F/g, at a constant current density of 0.5 A/g while also delivering long-term durability (90% retention) for excess of five-thousands of cycles. Notably, the enhancement of mechanical properties of supercapacitors enables them to maintain their electrochemical performance even when twisted or folded. This straightforward approach to the fabrication of fully flexible supercapacitors provides new design opportunities within wearable electronics and electrochemical applications. - Highlights: • All solid-sate supercapacitors were fabricated using graphene/polymer composite electrodes. • Supercapacitor devices show an excellent mechanical flexibility. • High electrochemical performances were demonstrated

  1. Highly efficient polymer solar cells with printed photoactive layer: rational process transfer from spin-coating

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui

    2016-09-05

    Scalable and continuous roll-to-roll manufacturing is at the heart of the promise of low-cost and high throughput manufacturing of solution-processed photovoltaics. Yet, to date the vast majority of champion organic solar cells reported in the literature rely on spin-coating of the photoactive bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer, with the performance of printed solar cells lagging behind in most instances. Here, we investigate the performance gap between polymer solar cells prepared by spin-coating and blade-coating the BHJ layer for the important class of modern polymers exhibiting no long range crystalline order. We find that thickness parity does not always yield performance parity even when using identical formulations. Significant differences in the drying kinetics between the processes are found to be responsible for BHJ nanomorphology differences. We propose an approach which benchmarks the film drying kinetics and associated BHJ nanomorphology development against those of the champion laboratory devices prepared by spin-coating the BHJ layer by adjusting the process temperature. If the optimization requires the solution concentration to be changed, then it is crucial to maintain the additive-to-solute volume ratio. Emulating the drying kinetics of spin-coating is also shown to help achieve morphological and performance parities. We put this approach to the test and demonstrate printed PTB7:PC71BM polymer solar cells with efficiency of 9% and 6.5% PCEs on glass and flexible PET substrates, respectively. We further demonstrate performance parity for two other popular donor polymer systems exhibiting rigid backbones and absence of a long range crystalline order, achieving a PCE of 9.7%, the highest efficiency reported to date for a blade coated organic solar cell. The rational process transfer illustrated in this study should help the broader and successful adoption of scalable printing methods for these material systems.

  2. Effect of thermal annealing treatment with titanium chelate on buffer layer in inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhiyong [College of Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Wang, Ning, E-mail: ning_wang@outlook.com [School of Electrical and Electronic and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University 639798 (Singapore); Fu, Yan, E-mail: 1060945062@qq.com [College of Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The TIPD layer as electron extraction layer and instead of Ca or LiF. • Impact of the work function of TIPD layer by thermal annealing treatment. • Importance of TIPD layer as electron extraction layer for work function and potential barrier. - Abstract: The solution processable electron extraction layer (EEL) is crucial for polymer solar cells (PSCs). Here, we investigated titanium (diisopropoxide) bis(2,4-pentanedionate) (TIPD) as an EEL and fabricated inverted PSCs with a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) acting as the photoactive layer, with a structure of ITO/TIPD/P3HT:ICBA/MoO{sub 3}/Ag. After thermal annealing treatment at 150 °C for 15 min, the PSC performances increased from 3.85% to 6.84% and they achieve stable power conversion efficiency (PCE), with a similar PCE compared with TiO{sub 2} as an EEL by the vacuum evaporated method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) confirmed that the TIPD decomposed and formed the Ti=O bond, and the energy level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital increased. The space charge limited current (SCLC) measurements further confirmed the improvement in electron collection and the transport ability using TIPD as the EEL and thermal annealing.

  3. Flexible inverted polymer solar cells with an indium-free tri-layer cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hajj, Ahmad; Lucas, Bruno; Schirr-Bonnans, Martin; Ratier, Bernard; Kraft, Thomas M.; Torchio, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO)-free inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) have been fabricated without the need of an additional electron transport layer. The indium-free transparent electrode consists of a tri-layer stack ZnO (30 nm)/Ag (14 nm)/ZnO (30 nm) deposited on glass and plastic substrates via ion-beam sputtering. The tri-layer electrodes exhibit similar physical properties to its ITO counterpart, specifically yielding high transmittance and low resistivity (76.5% T at 550 nm, R sq of 8 Ω/◻) on plastic substrates. The novel tri-layer electrode allows for the fabrication of inverted PSCs without the additional ZnO interfacial layer commonly deposited between ITO and the photoactive layer. This allows for the preparation of thinner plastic solar cells using less material than conventional architectures. Initial studies involving the newly realized architecture (tri-layer electrode/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag) have shown great promise for the transition from ITO to other viable electrodes in organic electronics

  4. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Alkaline Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Addition of Bamboo Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan Fan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural bamboo charcoal (BC powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm distributed inside and on the surface of the membranes, indicating a three-dimension network formed in the polymer framework. The ionic conductivity was measured by the alternating-current (AC impedance method, and the highest conductivity value of 6.63 × 10−2 S·cm−1 was obtained with 16 wt % of BC content and mKOH:mPVA = 2:1.5 at 30 °C. The contents of BC and KOH could significantly influence the conductivity. The temperature dependence of the bulk electrical conductivity displayed a combination of Arrhenius nature, and the activation energy for the ion in polymer electrolyte has been calculated. The electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte membrane was over 1.6 V. The thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the degradation temperatures of PVA-BC-KOH ASPE membranes shifted toward higher with adding BC. A simple nickel-hydrogen battery containing PVA-BC-KOH electrolyte membrane was assembled with a maximum discharge capacity of 193 mAh·g−1.

  5. Conductivity and optical studies of plasticized solid polymer electrolytes doped with carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Suriani, E-mail: sue_83@um.edu.my [Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ahmad, Roslina; Johan, Mohd Rafie [Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-01-15

    Solid polymer electrolyte films based on Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) complexed with lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF{sub 6}), ethylene carbonate (EC) and amorphous carbon nanotube ({alpha}CNTs) were prepared by the solution cast technique. The conductivity increases from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -5} Scm{sup -1} upon the addition of salt. The incorporation of EC and {alpha}CNTs to the salted polymer enhances the conductivity significantly to 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3} Scm{sup -1}. The complexation of doping materials with polymer were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and infrared studies. Optical properties like direct band gap and indirect band gap were investigated for pure and doped polymer films in the wavelength range 200-400 nm. It was found that the energy gaps and band edge values shifted to lower energies on doping. - Highlights: > Optical band gap values show the decreasing trend with an increasing dopant concentration. > It is also observed that the absorption edge shifted to longer wavelength on doping. > Results of the optical measurements indicate the presence of a well-defined {pi}{yields}{pi}* transition associated with the formation of a conjugated C=O and/or C=O electronic structure.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Alkaline Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Addition of Bamboo Charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lidan; Wang, Mengyue; Zhang, Zhen; Qin, Gang; Hu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Qiang

    2018-04-26

    Natural bamboo charcoal (BC) powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE) by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm) distributed inside and on the surface of the membranes, indicating a three-dimension network formed in the polymer framework. The ionic conductivity was measured by the alternating-current (AC) impedance method, and the highest conductivity value of 6.63 × 10 −2 S·cm −1 was obtained with 16 wt % of BC content and m KOH : m PVA = 2:1.5 at 30 °C. The contents of BC and KOH could significantly influence the conductivity. The temperature dependence of the bulk electrical conductivity displayed a combination of Arrhenius nature, and the activation energy for the ion in polymer electrolyte has been calculated. The electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte membrane was over 1.6 V. The thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the degradation temperatures of PVA-BC-KOH ASPE membranes shifted toward higher with adding BC. A simple nickel-hydrogen battery containing PVA-BC-KOH electrolyte membrane was assembled with a maximum discharge capacity of 193 mAh·g −1 .

  7. Conductivity and optical studies of plasticized solid polymer electrolytes doped with carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Suriani; Ahmad, Roslina; Johan, Mohd Rafie

    2012-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte films based on Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) complexed with lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6 ), ethylene carbonate (EC) and amorphous carbon nanotube (αCNTs) were prepared by the solution cast technique. The conductivity increases from 10 -10 to 10 -5 Scm -1 upon the addition of salt. The incorporation of EC and αCNTs to the salted polymer enhances the conductivity significantly to 10 -4 and 10 -3 Scm -1 . The complexation of doping materials with polymer were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and infrared studies. Optical properties like direct band gap and indirect band gap were investigated for pure and doped polymer films in the wavelength range 200-400 nm. It was found that the energy gaps and band edge values shifted to lower energies on doping. - Highlights: → Optical band gap values show the decreasing trend with an increasing dopant concentration. → It is also observed that the absorption edge shifted to longer wavelength on doping. → Results of the optical measurements indicate the presence of a well-defined π→π* transition associated with the formation of a conjugated C=O and/or C=O electronic structure.

  8. Ion transport property studies on PEO-PVP blended solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Angesh; Agrawal, R C; Mahipal, Y K

    2009-01-01

    The ion transport property studies on Ag + ion conducting PEO-PVP blended solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membranes, (1 - x)[90PEO : 10AgNO 3 ] : xPVP, where x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 (wt%), are reported. SPE films were caste using a novel hot-press technique instead of the traditional solution cast method. The conventional solid polymeric electrolyte (SPE) film, (90PEO : 10AgNO 3 ), also prepared by the hot-press method and identified as the highest conducting composition at room temperature on the basis of PEO-AgNO 3 -salt concentration dependent conductivity studies, was used as the first-phase polymer electrolyte host into which PVP were dispersed as second-phase dispersoid. A two-fold conductivity enhancement from that of the PEO host could be achieved at room temperature for PVP blended SPE film composition: 98(90PEO : 10AgNO 3 ) : 2PVP. This has been referred to as optimum conducting composition (OCC). The formation of SPE membranes and material characterizations were done with the help of the XRD and DSC techniques. The ion transport mechanism in this SPE OCC has been characterized with the help of basic ionic parameters, namely ionic conductivity (σ), ionic mobility (μ), mobile ion concentration (n) and ionic transference number (t ion ). Solid-state polymeric batteries were fabricated using OCC as electrolyte and the cell-potential discharge characteristics were studied under different load conditions.

  9. Oil sands tailings treatment via surface modification of solids with polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soane, D.; Ware, W.; Mahoney, R.; Kincaid, K. [Soane Energy, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Oil sands fine tailings require large containment area and long-term storage. A recent directive has been established to reduce fluid tailings storage by 30 percent by 2012. This PowerPoint presentation described a method of treating oil sands tailings by modifying the surfaces of solids with polymers. The ATA process divided whole tailings into fines and coarse streams. The coarse stream was used to prepare anchor particles with a monolayer of tether polymers. An activator was added to the fine tailings in order to aggregate. The process cause a Velcro-like attraction between the activated fines and the tether-coated anchor particles. The solid ATA matrix trapped the fines and allowed water to drain more easily. Photographs of the process were provided. An analysis of the process demonstrated that 70 percent of the water in the tailings was recovered in less than 5 minutes. The water was clear, with less than 0.2 percent of suspended solids. The process is applicable to live tailings and mature fine tailings (MFT). tabs., figs.

  10. Carbonate-linked poly(ethylene oxide) polymer electrolytes towards high performance solid state lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Weisheng; Cui, Zili; Liu, Xiaochen; Cui, Yanyan; Chai, Jingchao; Zhou, Xinhong; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei

    2017-01-01

    The classic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) based solid polymer electrolyte suffers from poor ionic conductivity of ambient temperature, low lithium ion transference number and relatively narrow electrochemical window (<4.0 V vs. Li + /Li). Herein, the carbonate-linked PEO solid polymer such as poly(diethylene glycol carbonate) (PDEC) and poly(triethylene glycol carbonate) (PTEC) were explored to find out the feasibility of resolving above issues. It was proven that the optimized ionic conductivity of PTEC based electrolyte reached up to 1.12 × 10 −5 S cm −1 at 25 °C with a decent lithium ion transference number of 0.39 and a wide electrochemical window about 4.5 V vs. Li + /Li. In addition, the PTEC based Li/LiFePO 4 cell could be reversibly charged and discharged at 0.05 C-rates at ambient temperature. Moreover, the higher voltage Li/LiFe 0.2 Mn 0.8 PO 4 cell (cutoff voltage 4.35 V) possessed considerable rate capability and excellent cycling performance even at ambient temperature. Therefore, these carbonate-linked PEO electrolytes were demonstrated to be fascinating candidates for the next generation solid state lithium batteries simultaneously with high energy and high safety.

  11. Fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds through solid-state foaming of immiscible polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changchun; Li Wei; Ma Liang; Yao Donggang

    2011-01-01

    In scaffold-based tissue engineering, the fabrication process is important for producing suitable microstructures for seeded cells to grow and reformulate. In this paper, we present a new approach to scaffold fabrication by combining the solid-state foaming and the immiscible polymer-blending method. The proposed approach has the advantage of being versatile and able to create a wide range of pore size and porosity. The proposed method is studied with polylactic acid (PLA) and polystyrene (PS) blends. The interconnected porous structure was created by first foaming the PLA/PS blend and then extracting the PS phase. The solid-state foaming experiments were conducted under various conditions to achieve the desired pore sizes. It is shown that the PS phase of the PLA/PS blend can be extracted much faster in the foamed samples and the pore size of the scaffolds can be easily controlled with proper gas foaming parameters. The average pore size achieved in the foaming process ranged from 20 to 70 μm. After PS extraction, both pore size and porosity can be further improved. For example, the pore size and porosity increased from 48 μm and 49% to 59 μm and 67%, respectively, after the PS extraction process. The fabricated porous scaffolds were used to culture human osteoblast cells. Cells grew well and gradually formed a fibrous structure. The combined solid-state foaming and immiscible polymer blending method provides a new technique for fabricating tissue-engineering scaffolds.

  12. Graphene: Polymer composites as moisture barrier and charge transport layer toward solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakorikar, Tushar; Kavitha, M. K.; Tong, Shi Wun; Vayalamkuzhi, Pramitha; Loh, Kian Ping; Jaiswal, Manu

    2018-05-01

    Graphene: polymer composite based electrically conducting films are realized by a facile solution processable method. Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) measurements on the composite films, reveal a low work function of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) obtained from hydrazine hydrate reduction of graphene oxide (GO). We suggest that the low work function could potentially make rGO: PMMA composite suitable for electron conducting layer in perovskite solar cells in place of traditionally used expensive PCBM ([6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) layer. Further, we demonstrate from the gravimetric experiments conducted on rGO: PMMA films, that the same coating is also resistant to moisture permeation. This latter property can be used to realize a protective coating layer for perovskite films, which are prone to moisture induced degradation. Thus, dual functionality of rGO-PMMA films is demonstrated towards integration with perovskite solar cells. Architecture of perovskite solar cell based on these concepts is proposed.

  13. Electrochemical fabrication and modelling of mechanical behavior of a tri-layer polymer actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaynak, Akif; Yang Chunhui; Lim, Yang C.; Kouzani, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Stability and performance of electrochemically synthesized tri-layer polypyrrole based actuators were reported. Concentrations were optimized as 0.05 M pyrrole and 0.05 M tetrabutylammonium hexaflurophosphate in propylene carbonate (PC). The force output of the actuators ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 mN. Cyclic deflection tests on PC based actuators for a duration of 3 h indicated that the displacement decreased by 60%. However, actuation could be regenerated by immersing the actuator into the electrolyte solution. Surface resistivity measurements on the actuators prior to and after 3 h continuous deflection did not show any significant change in the resistivity of the PPy layer. A triple-layer model of the polymer actuator was developed based on the classic bending beam theory by considering strain continuity between PPy and PVDF. Results predicted by the model were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Atomic-Layer-Deposited AZO Outperforms ITO in High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kan, Zhipeng

    2018-05-11

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) transparent conducting electrodes are widely used across the display industry, and are currently the cornerstone of photovoltaic device developments, taking a substantial share in the manufacturing cost of large-area modules. However, cost and supply considerations are set to limit the extensive use of indium for optoelectronic device applications and, in turn, alternative transparent conducting oxide (TCO) materials are required. In this report, we show that aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are sufficiently conductive and transparent to outperform ITO as the cathode in inverted polymer solar cells. Reference polymer solar cells made with atomic-layer-deposited AZO cathodes, PCE10 as the polymer donor and PC71BM as the fullerene acceptor (model systems), reach power conversion efficiencies of ca. 10% (compared to ca. 9% with ITO-coated glass), without compromising other figures of merit. These ALD-grown AZO electrodes are promising for a wide range of optoelectronic device applications relying on TCOs.

  15. Improved antifouling properties of polymer membranes using a ‘layer-by-layer’ mediated method

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric reverse osmosis membranes were modified with antifouling polymer brushes through a \\'layer by layer\\' (LBL) mediated method. Based on pure physical electrostatic interaction, the attachment of LBL films did not alter separation performance of the membranes. In addition, the incorporation of an LBL film also helped to amplify the number of potential reaction sites on the membrane surfaces for attachment of antifouling polymer brushes, which were then attached to the surface. Attachment of the brushes included two different approaches, grafting to and grafting from. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurements showed successful growth of the LBL films and subsequently the polymer brushes. Using this method to modify reverse osmosis membranes, preliminary performance testing showed the antifouling properties of the as-modified membranes were much better than the virgin membrane with no significant loss in water flux and salt rejection. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Kinetics of protein adsorption/desorption mediated by pH-responsive polymer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Hang; Lei, Qun-Li; Ren, Chun-Lai

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new way of regulating protein adsorption by using a pH-responsive polymer. According to the theoretical results obtained from the molecular theory and kinetic approaches, both thermodynamics and kinetics of protein adsorption are verified to be well controlled by the solution pH. The kinetics and the amount of adsorbed proteins at equilibrium are greatly increased when the solution environment changes from acid to neutral. The reason is that the increased pH promotes the dissociation of the weak polyelectrolyte, resulting in more charged monomers and more stretched chains. Thus the steric repulsion within the polymer layer is weakened, which effectively lowers the barrier felt by the protein during the process of adsorption. Interestingly, we also find that the kinetics of protein desorption is almost unchanged with the variation of pH. It is because although the barrier formed by the polymer layer changes along with the change of pH, the potential at contact with the surface varies equally. Our results may provide useful insights into controllable protein adsorption/desorption in practical applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21274062, 11474155, and 91027040).

  17. Kinetics of protein adsorption/desorption mediated by pH-responsive polymer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Xiao-Hang; Lei Qun-Li; Ren Chun-Lai

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new way of regulating protein adsorption by using a pH-responsive polymer. According to the theoretical results obtained from the molecular theory and kinetic approaches, both thermodynamics and kinetics of protein adsorption are verified to be well controlled by the solution pH. The kinetics and the amount of adsorbed proteins at equilibrium are greatly increased when the solution environment changes from acid to neutral. The reason is that the increased pH promotes the dissociation of the weak polyelectrolyte, resulting in more charged monomers and more stretched chains. Thus the steric repulsion within the polymer layer is weakened, which effectively lowers the barrier felt by the protein during the process of adsorption. Interestingly, we also find that the kinetics of protein desorption is almost unchanged with the variation of pH. It is because although the barrier formed by the polymer layer changes along with the change of pH, the potential at contact with the surface varies equally. Our results may provide useful insights into controllable protein adsorption/desorption in practical applications. (paper)

  18. Atomic-Layer-Deposited AZO Outperforms ITO in High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kan, Zhipeng; Wang, Zhenwei; Firdaus, Yuliar; Babics, Maxime; Alshareef, Husam N.; Beaujuge, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) transparent conducting electrodes are widely used across the display industry, and are currently the cornerstone of photovoltaic device developments, taking a substantial share in the manufacturing cost of large-area modules. However, cost and supply considerations are set to limit the extensive use of indium for optoelectronic device applications and, in turn, alternative transparent conducting oxide (TCO) materials are required. In this report, we show that aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are sufficiently conductive and transparent to outperform ITO as the cathode in inverted polymer solar cells. Reference polymer solar cells made with atomic-layer-deposited AZO cathodes, PCE10 as the polymer donor and PC71BM as the fullerene acceptor (model systems), reach power conversion efficiencies of ca. 10% (compared to ca. 9% with ITO-coated glass), without compromising other figures of merit. These ALD-grown AZO electrodes are promising for a wide range of optoelectronic device applications relying on TCOs.

  19. Long-Range Electron Effects upon Irradiation of Molecular Solids and Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    Long-range electron effects are responsible for specific localization and selectivity of the radiation-induced chemical transformations occurring in molecular solids and polymers, when the classic diffusion mobility is essentially restricted. In particullar, understanding of the effects of this kind may be of key significance for establishing new ways to control the radiation sensitivity of macromolecules and organized polymeric systems, nanomaterials and biopolymers. This talk will present an overview of model studies of the long-range electron effects with the characteristic scale from several angstroms to ten nanometers. The following aspects of the problem will be analyzed: (1) Positive hole delocalization in ionized molecules. This phenomenon has been demonstrated experimentally and confirmed by quantum chemical calculations for a number of various-type molecules (alkanes, conjugated polyenes, bifunctional compounds). The effective delocalization length was found to be up to 2 nm (or even larger). The role of this effect in site-selective radiation chemistry will be discussed in the frame of concepts of distributed reactivity and 'switching' between delocalized and localized states. (2) Trap-to-trap positive hole and electron migration between isolated molecules or functional groups. The characteristic distance for this process was estimated to be 2 to 4 nm. Special impact will be made on the possible role of this process in selection of specific isomers or conformers upon irradiation of complex systems and macromolecules. (3) The effects of long-range scavenging of low-energy secondary electrons in polymers and organized polymeric systems. As revealed by model experiments, the radius of electron capture in solid polymers may be in the range of 1 to 10 nm. Possible implications of scavenging effects for controlling the radiation chemistry of polymers and organized polymeric systems will be considered

  20. Scaling of Polymer Degradation Rate within a High-Reynolds-Number Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian; Solomon, Michael; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David; Ceccio, Steven

    2009-11-01

    An experiment conducted at the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model produced the first quantitative measurements of polymer molecular weight within a turbulent boundary layer. Testing was conducted at speeds to 20 m/s and downstream distance based Reynolds numbers to 220 million. These results showed that the rate of polymer degradation by scission of the polymer chains increases with increased speed, downstream distance and surface roughness. With the surface fully rough at 20 m/s there was no measureable level of drag reduction at the first measurement location (0.56 m downstream of injection). These results are scaled with the assumption that the rate of degradation is dependent on the polymer residence time in the flow and the local shear rate. A successful collapse of the data within the measurement uncertainty was achieved over a range of flow speed (6.6 to 20 m/s), surface roughness (smooth and fully rough) and downstream distance from injection (0.56 to 9.28 m).

  1. Investigation of liquid water in gas diffusion layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells using X-ray tomographic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flueckiger, Reto [Electrochemistry Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Marone, Federica [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Stampanoni, Marco [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zurich, Gloriastrasse 35, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Wokaun, Alexander [Electrochemistry Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Buechi, Felix N., E-mail: felix.buechi@psi.c [Electrochemistry Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-02-01

    In polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), condensation of water within the pore network of the gas diffusion layers (GDL) can influence the gas transport properties and thus reduce the electrochemical conversion rates. The use of X-ray tomographic microscopy (XTM), which allows for a resolution in the order of one micrometer is investigated for studying ex situ the local saturation in GDL's. The strength of XTM is the high spatial resolution with simultaneous contrast for water and carbon, allowing for non-destructive 3D-imaging of the solid and the contained water. The application of this method for imaging the ex situ water intrusion into the porous network of GDLs is explored using absorption and phase contrast methods. It is shown that the inhomogeneous filling behavior of GDL materials can indeed be visualized with sufficient resolution. For Toray paper TGP-H-060 the local saturation was measured as function of the water pressure. The results, evaluated in 1D, 2D and 3D show a liquid water retention effect at the denser layers near the surface. A comparison with established capillary pressure functions is presented. Altogether, the results show the potential of the XTM-method as a tool for studying the liquid water behavior in PEFC on a microscopic scale.

  2. Investigation of liquid water in gas diffusion layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells using X-ray tomographic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flueckiger, Reto; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Wokaun, Alexander; Buechi, Felix N.

    2011-01-01

    In polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), condensation of water within the pore network of the gas diffusion layers (GDL) can influence the gas transport properties and thus reduce the electrochemical conversion rates. The use of X-ray tomographic microscopy (XTM), which allows for a resolution in the order of one micrometer is investigated for studying ex situ the local saturation in GDL's. The strength of XTM is the high spatial resolution with simultaneous contrast for water and carbon, allowing for non-destructive 3D-imaging of the solid and the contained water. The application of this method for imaging the ex situ water intrusion into the porous network of GDLs is explored using absorption and phase contrast methods. It is shown that the inhomogeneous filling behavior of GDL materials can indeed be visualized with sufficient resolution. For Toray paper TGP-H-060 the local saturation was measured as function of the water pressure. The results, evaluated in 1D, 2D and 3D show a liquid water retention effect at the denser layers near the surface. A comparison with established capillary pressure functions is presented. Altogether, the results show the potential of the XTM-method as a tool for studying the liquid water behavior in PEFC on a microscopic scale.

  3. Epitaxially grown polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on solid-phase crystallised seed layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili.unsw@gmail.com; Varlamov, Sergey; Xue, Chaowei

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Crystallisation kinetic is used to analyse seed layer surface cleanliness. • Simplified RCA cleaning for the seed layer can shorten the epitaxy annealing duration. • RTA for the seed layer can improve the quality for both seed layer and epi-layer. • Epitaxial poly-Si solar cell performance is improved by RTA treated seed layer. - Abstract: This paper presents the fabrication of poly-Si thin film solar cells on glass substrates using seed layer approach. The solid-phase crystallised P-doped seed layer is not only used as the crystalline template for the epitaxial growth but also as the emitter for the solar cell structure. This paper investigates two important factors, surface cleaning and intragrain defects elimination for the seed layer, which can greatly influence the epitaxial grown solar cell performance. Shorter incubation and crystallisation time is observed using a simplified RCA cleaning than the other two wet chemical cleaning methods, indicating a cleaner seed layer surface is achieved. Cross sectional transmission microscope images confirm a crystallographic transferal of information from the simplified RCA cleaned seed layer into the epi-layer. RTA for the SPC seed layer can effectively eliminate the intragrain defects in the seed layer and improve structural quality of both of the seed layer and the epi-layer. Consequently, epitaxial grown poly-Si solar cell on the RTA treated seed layer shows better solar cell efficiency, V{sub oc} and J{sub sc} than the one on the seed layer without RTA treatment.

  4. Status of solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology and potential for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J. F.; Nuttall, L. J.

    The solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell represents the first fuel cell technology known to be used operationally. Current activities are mainly related to the development of a space regenerative fuel cell system for energy storage on board space stations, or other large orbiting vehicles and platforms. During 1981, a study was performed to determine the feasibility of using SPE fuel cells for automotive or other vehicular applications, using methanol as the fuel. The results of this study were very encouraging. Details concerning a conceptual automotive fuel cell power plant study are discussed, taking into account also a layout of major components for compact passenger car installation.

  5. Solid polymer electrolyte on the basis of polyethylene carbonate-lithium perchlorate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukhanin, G.P.; Dumler, S.A.; Sablin, A.N.; Novakov, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reaction in the system polyethylene carbonate-lithium perchlorate was investigated by IR spectroscopy, differential thermal and X-ray structural analyses. Specific electric conductivity of the prepared composition has been measured. Solid polymer electrolytes on the basis of polyethylene carbonate have conducting properties as electrolytes on the basis of unmodified polyethylene oxide. Compositions of polyethylene carbonate : LiClO 4 =10 : 1Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 possess maximum value of electrical conductivity. Activation energies of the process is calculated for all investigated compositions, and dependence of these values from concentration of lithium perchlorate is established

  6. Properties of polymer foils used as solid-state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.

    1973-05-01

    Polymer foils were studied with a view to their application as solid-state alpha track detectors. The detection efficiency was determined as was its alpha energy dependence and the quality of the surface and the natural background of the foils were evaluated. The kinetics of etching was studied in three selected type of foils. Characteristic constants for the selected foils and methods of etching were calculated. The possible applications of the foils as track detectors are discussed and the effect is dealt with of the selected foil and of the method of chemical etching on the foil applicability in nuclear sciences, especially in fast neutron dosimetry and in alpha spectrometry. (author)

  7. Radon diffusion in polymer vessels using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Rocha, Zildete; Pereira, Marcio Tadeu, E-mail: andreccarneiro@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: zildete@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Santos, Talita de Oliveira; Lara, Evelise Gomes; Braga, Mario Roberto Martins S.S., E-mail: mariomartins@gmail.com, E-mail: evelise.lara@gmail.com, E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    At CDTN/CNEN, the method to determine {sup 226}Ra in several matrices by gamma spectrometry is already established; however, the method should be improved. This paper is about the first step of this improvement. Several polymer vessels were studied verifying the effect of radiolysis on the walls of the vessel. A test about the diffusion of {sup 222}Rn through the walls was carried out using the CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector. The results pointed out that the vessel made up by acrylic material is the best candidate to replace the vessel actually used. (author)

  8. Theoretical performance of hydrogen-bromine rechargeable SPE fuel cell. [Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinell, R. F.; Fritts, S. D.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.

  9. Properties of solid polymer electrolyte fluorocarbon film. [used in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The ionic fluorocarbon film used as the solid polymer electrolyte in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells was found to exhibit delamination failures. Polarized light microscopy of as-received film showed a lined region at the center of the film thickness. It is shown that these lines were not caused by incomplete saponification but probably resulted from the film extrusion process. The film lines could be removed by an annealing process. Chemical, physical, and tensile tests showed that annealing improved or sustained the water contents, spectral properties, thermo-oxidative stability, and tensile properties of the film. The resistivity of the film was significantly decreased by the annealing process.

  10. Layer-by-layer films assembled from natural polymers for sustained release of neurotrophin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhiling; Li, Qianqi; Han, Lin; Zhong, Yinghui

    2015-01-01

    Cortical neural prostheses (CNPs) hold great promise for paralyzed patients by recording neural signals from the brain and translating them into movement commands. However, these electrodes normally fail to record neural signals weeks to months after implantation due to inflammation and neuronal loss around the implanted neural electrodes. Sustained local delivery of neurotrophins from biocompatible coatings on CNPs can potentially promote neuron survival and attract the nearby neurons to migrate toward the electrodes to increase neuron density at the electrode/brain interface, which is important for maintaining the recording quality and long-term performance of the implanted CNPs. However, sustained release of neurotrophins from biocompatible ultrathin coatings is very difficult to achieve. In this study, we investigated the potential of several biocompatible natural polyanions including heparin, dextran sulfate, and gelatin to form layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly with positively charged neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) and its model protein lysozyme, and whether sustained release of NGF and lysozyme can be achieved from the nanoscale thin LbL coatings. We found that gelatin, which is less negatively charged than heparin and dextran sulfate, showed the highest efficacy in loading proteins into the LbL films because other interactions in addition to electrostatic interactions were involved in LbL assembly. Sustained release of NGF and lysozymes for approximately 2 weeks was achieved from the gelatin-based LbL coatings. Released NGF maintained the bioactivity to stimulate neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells. Gelatin is generally recognized as safe by the FDA. Thus, the biocompatible LbL coating developed in this study is highly promising to be used for implanted CNPs to improve their long-term performance in human patients. (paper)

  11. Structure and conductive properties of poly(ethylene oxide)/layered double hydroxide nanocomposite polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, C.-S.; Ye, W.-B.

    2004-01-01

    The oligo(ethylene oxide) modified layered double hydroxide (LDH) prepared by template method was added as a nanoscale nucleating agent into poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) to form PEO/OLDH nanocomposite electrolytes. The effects of OLDH addition on morphology and conductivities of nanocomposite electrolytes were studied using wide-angle X-ray diffractometer, polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and ionic conductivity measurement. The results show that the exfoliated morphology of nanocomposites is formed due to the surface modification of LDH layers with PEO matrix compatible oligo(ethylene oxide)s. The nanoscale dispersed OLDH layers inhibit the crystal growth of PEO crystallites and result in a plenty amount of intercrystalline grain boundary within PEO/OLDH nanocomposites. The ionic conductivities of nanocomposite electrolytes are enhanced by three orders of magnitude compared to the pure PEO polymer electrolytes at ambient temperature. It can be attributed to the ease transport of Li + along intercrystalline amorphous phase. This novel nanocomposite electrolytes system with high conductivities will be benefited to fabricate the thin-film type of Li-polymer secondary battery

  12. Polyethers with pendent phenylvinyl substituted carbazole rings as polymers for hole transporting layers of OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griniene, R.; Liu, L.; Tavgeniene, D.; Sipaviciute, D.; Volyniuk, D.; Grazulevicius, J. V.; Xie, Z.; Zhang, B.; Leduskrasts, K.; Grigalevicius, S.

    2016-01-01

    Polyethers containing pendent 3-(2-phenylvinyl)carbazole moieties have been synthesized by the multi-step synthetic routes. Full characterization of their structures is presented. The polymers represent materials of high thermal stability with initial thermal degradation temperatures exceeding 370 °C. The glass transition temperatures of the amorphous materials were in the range of 56-658 °C. The electron photoemission spectra of thin layers of the polymers showed ionization potentials of about 5.6 eV. Hole-transporting properties of the polymeric materials were tested in the structures of organic light emitting diodes with Alq3 as the green emitter and electron transporting layer. The device containing hole-transporting layers of poly{9-[6-(3-methyloxetan-3-ylmethoxy)hexyl]-3-(2-phenylvinyl)carbazole} exhibited the best overall performance with a maximum photometric efficiency of about 4.0 cd/A and maximum brightness exceeding 6430 cd/m2.

  13. Modification of inkjet printer for polymer sensitive layer preparation on silicon-based gas sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjian Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inkjet printing is a versatile, low cost deposition technology with the capabilities for the localized deposition of high precision, patterned deposition in a programmable way, and the parallel deposition of a variety of materials. This paper demonstrates a new method of modifying the consumer inkjet printer to prepare polymer-sensitive layers on silicon wafer for gas sensor applications. A special printing tray for the modified inkjet printer to support a 4-inch silicon wafer is designed. The positioning accuracy of the deposition system is tested, based on the newly modified printer. The experimental data show that the positioning errors in the horizontal direction are negligibly small, while the positioning errors in the vertical direction rise with the increase of the printing distance of the wafer. The method for making suitable ink to be deposited to form the polymer-sensitive layer is also discussed. In the testing, a solution of 0.1 wt% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA was used as ink to prepare a sensitive layer with certain dimensions at a specific location on the surface of the silicon wafer, and the results prove the feasibility of the methods presented in this article.

  14. A perfectly matched layer for fluid-solid problems: Application to ocean-acoustics simulations with solid ocean bottoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Zhinan; Matzen, René; Cristini, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A time-domain Legendre spectral-element method is described for full-wave simulation of ocean acoustics models, i.e., coupled fluid-solid problems in unbounded or semi-infinite domains, taking into account shear wave propagation in the ocean bottom. The technique can accommodate range-dependent a......A time-domain Legendre spectral-element method is described for full-wave simulation of ocean acoustics models, i.e., coupled fluid-solid problems in unbounded or semi-infinite domains, taking into account shear wave propagation in the ocean bottom. The technique can accommodate range......-dependent and depth-dependent wave speed and density, as well as steep ocean floor topography. For truncation of the infinite domain, to efficiently absorb outgoing waves, a fluid-solid complex-frequency-shifted unsplit perfectly matched layer is introduced based on the complex coordinate stretching technique....... The complex stretching is rigorously taken into account in the derivation of the fluid-solid matching condition inside the absorbing layer, which has never been done before in the time domain. Two implementations are designed: a convolutional formulation and an auxiliary differential equation formulation...

  15. A mathematical model of the solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, D.M.; Verbrugge, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of the solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell and apply it to (i) investigate factors that limit cell performance and (ii) elucidate the mechanism of species transport in the complex network of gas, liquid, and solid phases of the cell. Calculations of cell polarization behavior compare favorably with existing experimental data. For most practical electrode thicknesses, model results indicate that the volume fraction of the cathode available for gas transport must exceed 20% in order to avoid unacceptably low cell-limiting current densities. It is shown that membrane dehydration can also pose limitations on operating current density; circumvention of this problem by appropriate membrane and electrode design and efficient water-management schemes is discussed. The authors' model results indicate that for a broad range of practical current densities there are no external water requirements because the water produced at the cathode is enough to satisfy the water requirement of the membrane

  16. Mixing Acid Salts and Layered Double Hydroxides in Nanoscale under Solid Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hirokazu; Hayashi, Aki

    2014-07-30

    The immobilization of potassium sorbate, potassium aspartate and sorbic acid in layered double hydroxide under solid condition was examined. By simply mixing two solids, immobilization of sorbate and aspartate in the interlayer space of nitrate-type layered double hydroxide, so called intercalation reaction, was achieved, and the uptakes, that is, the amount of immobilized salts and the interlayer distances of intercalation compounds were almost the same as those obtained in aqueous solution. However, no intercalation was achieved for sorbic acid. Although intercalation of sorbate and aspartate into chloride-type layered double hydroxide was possible, the uptakes for these intercalation compounds were lower than those obtained using nitrate-type layered double hydroxide. The intercalation under solid condition could be achieved to the same extent as for ion-exchange reaction in aqueous solution, and the reactivity was similar to that observed in aqueous solution. This method will enable the encapsulation of acidic drug in layered double hydroxide as nano level simply by mixing both solids.

  17. Mixing Acid Salts and Layered Double Hydroxides in Nanoscale under Solid Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Nakayama

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The immobilization of potassium sorbate, potassium aspartate and sorbic acid in layered double hydroxide under solid condition was examined. By simply mixing two solids, immobilization of sorbate and aspartate in the interlayer space of nitrate-type layered double hydroxide, so called intercalation reaction, was achieved, and the uptakes, that is, the amount of immobilized salts and the interlayer distances of intercalation compounds were almost the same as those obtained in aqueous solution. However, no intercalation was achieved for sorbic acid. Although intercalation of sorbate and aspartate into chloride-type layered double hydroxide was possible, the uptakes for these intercalation compounds were lower than those obtained using nitrate-type layered double hydroxide. The intercalation under solid condition could be achieved to the same extent as for ion-exchange reaction in aqueous solution, and the reactivity was similar to that observed in aqueous solution. This method will enable the encapsulation of acidic drug in layered double hydroxide as nano level simply by mixing both solids.

  18. Ploughing in simulated radioactive layer on farming solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, J.

    1983-09-01

    In case of a nuclear disaster, farmland would be contaminated by nuclear fallout. The possibilities of restoring such land by different means is under investigation at the Department of Radioecology. One of these means is mouldboard ploughing for placing a contaminated surface layer deep in comparison to the subsequent soil managment operations. The placement efficiencies obtained under varying experimental conditions are given in this report. Different widths of cut, working depths and driving speeds have been studied as well as different jointers, a foreplough and a trash board. A double-depth plough, a -parallellplough- and a plough with a deep-digging body were included in the test. Large cutting width and great working depth proved benficial, while neither use jointers, foreplough, trash board nor changes in driving speed had any apparent effect on the result of the ploughing. The double-depth plough worked as well as a conventional plough with the same width of cut, while the -parallellplough- did not perform well. The best results were experienced with the deep-digging body (cutting width 600 mm, 24) when used at great working depth (500 mm, 20). This type of plough is, however, rare in Sweden. (author)

  19. Lithiated Nafion as polymer electrolyte for solid-state lithium sulfur batteries using carbon-sulfur composite cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Sun, Chunshui; Xu, Lei; Chen, Jian; Wang, Chong; Guo, Decai; Chen, Hao

    2018-04-01

    Due to flexible property and light weight, the lithiated Nafion membrane swollen with PC (PC-Li-Nafion) has been employed as both solid-state electrolyte and separator to fabricate solid-state Li-S cells. The electrochemical measurements of PC-Li-Nafion membrane show that its Li-ion transference number is 0.928, ionic conductivity of 2.1 × 10-4 S cm-1 can be achieved at 70 °C and its electrochemical window is 0 ∼ +4.1 V vs. Li+/Li. It is observed that the Li dendrites are suppressed by using PC-Li-Nafion membrane due to its single-ion conducting property. The amounts of Li-Nafion resin binder and conductive carbon in the cathode are optimized as 40% and 10% respectively to make a balance of ionic and electronic conductivities. A thin-layer Li-Nafion resin with a thickness of around 2 μm is fabricated between the cathode and PC-Li-Nafion membrane to improve the interfacial contact and further enhance the specific capacity of the cell. When measured at 70 °C, the Li-S cell delivers a reversible specific capacity of 1072.8 mAh g-1 (S) at 0.05 C and 895 mAh g-1 (S) at 1 C. The capacity retention at 1 C is 89% after 100 cycles. These results suggest that high-performance solid-state Li-S cells can be fabricated with the Li-Nafion polymer electrolyte.

  20. Solid-Contact pH Sensor without CO2 Interference with a Superhydrophobic PEDOT-C14 as Solid Contact: The Ultimate "Water Layer" Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzinski, Marcin; Jarvis, Jennifer M; D'Orazio, Paul; Izadyar, Anahita; Pendley, Bradford D; Lindner, Ernő

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to find a conducting polymer-based solid contact (SC) for ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) that could become the ultimate, generally applicable SC, which in combination with all kinds of ion-selective membranes (ISMs) would match the performance characteristics of conventional ISEs. We present data collected with electrodes utilizing PEDOT-C 14 , a highly hydrophobic derivative of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, as SC and compare its performance characteristics with PEDOT-based SC ISEs. PEDOT-C 14 has not been used in SC ISEs previously. The PEDOT-C 14 -based solid contact (SC) ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) (H + , K + , and Na + ) have outstanding performance characteristics (theoretical response slope, short equilibration time, excellent potential stability, etc.). Most importantly, PEDOT-C 14 -based SC pH sensors have no CO 2 interference, an essential pH sensors property when aimed for whole-blood analysis. The superhydrophobic properties (water contact angle: 136 ± 5°) of the PEDOT-C 14 SC prevent the detachment of the ion-selective membrane (ISM) from its SC and the accumulation of an aqueous film between the ISM and the SC. The accumulation of an aqueous film between the ISM and its SC has a detrimental effect on the sensor performance. Although there is a test for the presence of an undesirable water layer, if the conditions for this test are not selected properly, it does not provide an unambiguous answer. On the other hand, recording the potential drifts of SC electrodes with pH-sensitive membranes in samples with different CO 2 levels can effectively prove the presence or absence of a water layer in a short time period.

  1. Fabrication Processes to Generate Concentration Gradients in Polymer Solar Cell Active Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Shusei; Vohra, Varun

    2017-01-01

    Polymer solar cells (PSCs) are considered as one of the most promising low-cost alternatives for renewable energy production with devices now reaching power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) above the milestone value of 10%. These enhanced performances were achieved by developing new electron-donor (ED) and electron-acceptor (EA) materials as well as finding the adequate morphologies in either bulk heterojunction or sequentially deposited active layers. In particular, producing adequate vertical concentration gradients with higher concentrations of ED and EA close to the anode and cathode, respectively, results in an improved charge collection and consequently higher photovoltaic parameters such as the fill factor. In this review, we relate processes to generate active layers with ED–EA vertical concentration gradients. After summarizing the formation of such concentration gradients in single layer active layers through processes such as annealing or additives, we will verify that sequential deposition of multilayered active layers can be an efficient approach to remarkably increase the fill factor and PCE of PSCs. In fact, applying this challenging approach to fabricate inverted architecture PSCs has the potential to generate low-cost, high efficiency and stable devices, which may revolutionize worldwide energy demand and/or help develop next generation devices such as semi-transparent photovoltaic windows. PMID:28772878

  2. Analytical modeling of effect of interlayer on effective moduli of layered graphene-polymer nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.C.Roach; Y.C.Lu

    2017-01-01

    Nanocomposites enhanced with two-dimensional,layered graphene fillers are a new class of engineering materials that exhibit superior properties and characteristics to composites with conventional fillers.However,the roles of "interlayers" in layered graphene fillers have yet to be fully explored.This paper examines the effect of interlayers on mechanical properties of layered graphene polymer composites.As an effective filler,the fundamental properties (in-plane Young's modulus EL1,out-of-plane Young's modulus EL2;shear modulus GL12,major Poisson's ratio 1L12) of the layered graphene were computed by using the Arridge's lamellar model.The effects of interlayers on effective moduli of layered graphene epoxy composites were examined through the Tandon-Weng model.The properties of the interlayer show noticeable impact on elastic properties of the composites,particular the out-of-plane properties (Young's modulus E2 and shear modulus G12).The interlayer spacing is seen to have much great influence on properties of the composites.As the interlayer spacing increases from 0.34 nm to 2 nm,all elastic properties of the composites have been greatly decreased.

  3. Comparison of the half-value layer: ionization chambers vs solid-state meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.C.S.; Navarro, V.C.C.; Navarro, M.V.T.; Macedo, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Generally, the half value layer (HVL) is determined by using ionization chambers and aluminum filters. However, some solid-state dosimeters allow simultaneous measurements of X-ray's parameters, among which the HVL. The main objective of this study was to compare the HVL's values indicated by four different solid-state dosimeters, whose values were measured by ionization chambers. The maximum difference found between the two methods was 11.42%, one the solid-state dosimeters, showing that the use these instruments to determine CSR in industrial X-ray should be subject to a more thorough evaluation. (author)

  4. The effects of functional ionic liquid on properties of solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Yongxin; Cheng Xinqun; Zuo Pengjian; Liao Lixia; Yin Geping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The functional ionic liquid(IL)-polymer electrolytes were successfully prepared. → The ionic conductivity of PEO electrolytes was raised to above 10-4 S.cm-1 at room temperature by functional IL. → The cells using functional IL-PEO electrolyte show higher reversible capacity and long cycle life. - Abstract: Polyethylene oxide (PEO) based solid state electrolytes have been thought as promising electrolytes to replace the organic liquid electrolyte for lithium ion batteries. But the lower ionic conductivities at room temperature restrict their application. In this paper, functional ionic liquid and polymer mixed electrolytes are prepared from N-methyoxymethyl-N-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PP1.1O1TFSI) and polyethylene oxide. The PP1.1O1TFSI, a kind of room-temperature molten salt, was added to the conventional P(EO) 20 LiTFSI polymer electrolyte and resulted in a significant improvement of the ionic conductivity at room temperature. LiFePO 4 /Li and Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /Li cells using this kind of electrolyte show high reversible capacity and stable cycle performance.

  5. Location of radiation-induced grafted chains in polymers studied by solid-state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittacker, A.; Liu, H.

    1998-01-01

    In this study styrene and N-phenyl maleimide monomers were grafted onto poly(ethylene) (PE) chains using gamma radiation. Of main interest is the distribution of grafted chains within the polymer matrix, as this will determine the efficacy of mixing with the glassy polymers. It is expected that grafting will occur within the amorphous regions, and especially near the interface of the crystalline and amorphous regions. A suitable method for characterising the location of the grafted chains is solid-state 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The 13 C CPMAS spectrum of the blend of PE and N-phenyl maleimide mixed in the melt at 150 deg C , prior to reaction, is shown above. The spectrum shows the typical peaks for poly(ethylene) due to the amorphous and crystalline phase at 30.5 and 32.5 ppm, respectively. Peaks are also seen in the aromatic and carbonyl region due to the maleimide (not plotted). Experiments will be described where the NMR magnetisation is prepared in either the crystalline and amorphous regions of the poly(ethylene) prior to spin diffusion to the maleimide and styrene fractions. The location of the grafted monomers can then be determined by monitoring the changes in signal of polymer and graft with time

  6. Preparation of hydroxide ion conductive KOH–layered double hydroxide electrolytes for an all-solid-state iron–air secondary battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Tsuneishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anion conductive solid electrolytes based on Mg–Al layered double hydroxide (LDH were prepared for application in an all-solid-state Fe–air battery. The ionic conductivity and the conducting ion species were evaluated from impedance and electromotive force measurements. The ion conductivity of LDH was markedly enhanced upon addition of KOH. The electromotive force in a water vapor concentration cell was similar to that of an anion-conducting polymer membrane. The KOH–LDH obtained was used as a hydroxide ion conductive electrolyte for all-solid-state Fe–air batteries. The cell performance of the Fe–air batteries was examined using a mixture of KOH–LDH and iron-oxide-supported carbon as the negative electrode.

  7. Development of "all natural" layer-by-layer redispersible solid lipid nanoparticles by nano spray drying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taoran; Hu, Qiaobin; Zhou, Mingyong; Xia, Yan; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Luo, Yangchao

    2016-10-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have gained tremendous attraction as carriers for controlled drug delivery. Despite numerous advances in the field, one long-standing historical challenge for their practical applications remains unmet: redispersibility after drying. In this work, a novel design of SLNs using a layer-by-layer (LbL) technique was developed and the formulations were optimized by surface response methodology (Box-Behnken design). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the fabrication of SLNs from all natural ingredients in the absence of any synthetic surfactants or coatings. The SLNs were prepared by a combined solvent-diffusion and hot homogenization method, with soy lecithin as natural emulsifier (first layer), followed by the subsequent coating with sodium caseinate (second layer) and pectin (third layer), both of which are natural food biopolymers. The adsorption of pectin coating onto caseinate was reinforced by hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions induced by a pH-driven process along with thermal treatment. The innovative nano spray drying technology was further explored to obtain ultra-fine powders of SLNs. Compared to uncoated or single-layer coated SLNs powders, which showed severe aggregation after spray drying, the well-separated particles with spherical shape and smooth surface were obtained for layer-by-layer (LbL) SLNs, which were redispersible into water without variation of dimension, shape and morphology. The SLNs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared and high-performance differential scanning calorimetry for their physical properties. The LbL-coated SLNs based on all natural ingredients have promising features for future applications as drug delivery systems, overcoming the major obstacles in conventional spray drying and redispersing SLNs-based formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cross-linking of polymer and ionic liquid as high-performance gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xiongwei; Tang, Jun; Cao, Lujie; Kong, Weiguang; Sun, Zheng; Cheng, Hua; Lu, Zhouguang; Pan, Hui; Xu, Baomin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A facile method to prepare gel polymer electrolyte with high conductivity is proposed. •A flexible symmetric capacitor based on the prepared GPE shows ultra-flexibility. •The capacitor with high voltage can power up a 3.0 V LED even bended to a angle of 180°. -- Abstract: It is highly desirable to develop flexible solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) with non-liquid electrolyte. However, it is still a great challenge to prepare gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) possessing high ionic conductivity and good mechanical property. In this work, a simple and novel method to improve the conductivity and mechanical properties of GPE film for their applications as electrolyte and separator in EDLC is presented. The GPE film is prepared by cross-linking ionic liquid (IL) with poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and benzophenone (Bp) followed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Then, a non-woven cellulose separator (FPC) is used to absorb the GPE. By tuning the mass ratio (n) between IL and PEO, the flexible EDLC cooperated with low-cost active carbon and the electrolyte film with n = 10 has a high capacitance of 70.84 F∙g −1 , a wide and stable electrochemical window of 3.5 V, an energy density of 30.13 Wh∙kg −1 and a power density of 874.8 W∙kg −1 at a current density of 1 A∙g −1 , which can drive a 3.0 V light-emitting diode (LED). Importantly, the excellent performance of the flexible and low-cost EDLC can be maintained at a bending angle up to 180°, indicating the ultra-flexibility. It is expected that the IL-PEO-FPC electrolyte film is a promising candidate of GPE for flexible devices and energy storage systems.

  9. Recombination barrier layers in solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Roelofs, Katherine E.

    2012-06-01

    By replacing the dye in the dye-sensitized solar cell design with semiconductor quantum dots as the light-absorbing material, solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (ss-QDSSCs) were fabricated. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots (QDs) were grown in situ by successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Aluminum oxide recombination barrier layers were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at the TiO2/hole-conductor interface. For low numbers of ALD cycles, the Al2O3 barrier layer increased open circuit voltage, causing an increase in device efficiency. For thicker Al2O3 barrier layers, photocurrent decreased substantially, leading to a decrease in device efficiency. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Enhanced solid-state order and field-effect hole mobility through control of nanoscale polymer aggregation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Mark S.

    2013-12-26

    Efficient charge carrier transport in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) often requires thin films that display long-range order and close π-π packing that is oriented in-plane with the substrate. Although some polymers have achieved high field-effect mobility with such solid-state properties, there are currently few general strategies for controlling the orientation of π-stacking within polymer films. In order to probe structural effects on polymer-packing alignment, furan-containing diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) polymers with similar optoelectronic properties were synthesized with either linear hexadecyl or branched 2-butyloctyl side chains. Differences in polymer solubility were observed and attributed to variation in side-chain shape and polymer backbone curvature. Averaged field-effect hole mobilities of the polymers range from 0.19 to 1.82 cm2/V·s, where PDPP3F-C16 is the least soluble polymer and provides the highest maximum mobility of 2.25 cm2/V·s. Analysis of the films by AFM and GIXD reveal that less soluble polymers with linear side chains exhibit larger crystalline domains, pack considerably more closely, and align with a greater preference for in-plane π-π packing. Characterization of the polymer solutions prior to spin-coating shows a correlation between early onset nanoscale aggregation and the formation of films with highly oriented in-plane π-stacking. This effect is further observed when nonsolvent is added to PDPP3F-BO solutions to induce aggregation, which results in films with increased nanostructural order, in-plane π-π orientation, and field-effect hole mobilities. Since nearly all π-conjugated materials may be coaxed to aggregate, this strategy for enhancing solid-state properties and OFET performance has applicability to a wide variety of organic electronic materials. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Enhanced solid-state order and field-effect hole mobility through control of nanoscale polymer aggregation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Mark S.; Lee, Olivia P.; Niskala, Jeremy R.; Yiu, Alan T.; Tassone, Christopher J.; Schmidt, Kristin; Beaujuge, Pierre M.; Onishi, Seita S.; Toney, Michael F.; Zettl, Alex K.; Frechet, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Efficient charge carrier transport in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) often requires thin films that display long-range order and close π-π packing that is oriented in-plane with the substrate. Although some polymers have achieved high field-effect mobility with such solid-state properties, there are currently few general strategies for controlling the orientation of π-stacking within polymer films. In order to probe structural effects on polymer-packing alignment, furan-containing diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) polymers with similar optoelectronic properties were synthesized with either linear hexadecyl or branched 2-butyloctyl side chains. Differences in polymer solubility were observed and attributed to variation in side-chain shape and polymer backbone curvature. Averaged field-effect hole mobilities of the polymers range from 0.19 to 1.82 cm2/V·s, where PDPP3F-C16 is the least soluble polymer and provides the highest maximum mobility of 2.25 cm2/V·s. Analysis of the films by AFM and GIXD reveal that less soluble polymers with linear side chains exhibit larger crystalline domains, pack considerably more closely, and align with a greater preference for in-plane π-π packing. Characterization of the polymer solutions prior to spin-coating shows a correlation between early onset nanoscale aggregation and the formation of films with highly oriented in-plane π-stacking. This effect is further observed when nonsolvent is added to PDPP3F-BO solutions to induce aggregation, which results in films with increased nanostructural order, in-plane π-π orientation, and field-effect hole mobilities. Since nearly all π-conjugated materials may be coaxed to aggregate, this strategy for enhancing solid-state properties and OFET performance has applicability to a wide variety of organic electronic materials. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. Quantitative characterization of water transport and flooding in the diffusion layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalegno, A.; Colombo, L.; Galbiati, S.; Marchesi, R. [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Optimization of water management in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) is a very important factor for the achievement of high performances and long lifetime. A good hydration of the electrolyte membrane is essential for high proton conductivity; on the contrary water in excess may lead to electrode flooding and severe reduction in performances. Many studies on water transport across the gas diffusion layer (GDL) have been carried out to improve these components; anyway efforts in this field are affected by lack of effective experimental methods. The present work reports an experimental investigation with the purpose to determine the global coefficient of water transport across different diffusion layers under real operating conditions. An appropriate and accurate experimental apparatus has been designed and built to test the single GDL under a wide range of operating conditions. Data analysis has allowed quantification of both the water vapor transport across different diffusion layers, and the effects of micro-porous layers; furthermore flooding onset and its consequences on the mass transport coefficient have been characterized by means of suitably defined parameters. (author)

  13. A New All-Solid-State Hyperbranched Star Polymer Electrolyte for Lithium Ion Batteries: Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ailian; Xu, Hao; Zhou, Qian; Liu, Xu; Li, Zhengyao; Gao, Rui; Wu, Na; Guo, Yuguo; Li, Huayi; Zhang, Liaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hyperbranched multi-arm star polymer was successfully synthesized. • The star polymer electrolyte has good thermal stability and forming-film property. • The ion conductivity electrolyte can reach 8.3 × 10"−"5 S cm"−"1 at room temperature. • The star polymer electrolyte has wide electrochemical windows of 4.7 V. - Abstract: A new hyperbranched multi-arm star polymer with hyperbranched polystyrene (HBPS) as core and polymethyl methacrylate-block-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate(PMMA-b-PPEGMA) as arms was firstly synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization. The obtained hyperbranched multi-arm star polymer (HBPS-(PMMA-b-PPEGMA)_x) exhibited good thermal stability with a thermal decomposition temperature of 372 °C. The transparent, free-standing, flexible polymer electrolyte film of the blending of HBPS-(PMMA-b-PPEGMA)_x and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) was successfully fabricated by a solution casting method. The ionic conductivity of the hyperbranched star polymer electrolyte with a molar ratio of [EO]/[Li] of 30 could reach 8.3 × 10"−"5 S cm"−"1 at 30 °C (with the content of PPEGMA of 83.7%), and 2.0 × 10"−"4 S cm"−"1 at 80 °C (with the content of PPEGMA of 51.6%). The effect of the concentration of lithium salts on ionic conductivity was also investigated. The obtained all-solid-state polymer electrolyte possessed a wide electrochemical stability window of 4.7 V (vs. Li"+/Li), and a lithium-ion transference number (t_L_i"+) up to 0.31. The interfacial impedance of the fabricated LiÔöépolymer electrolyteÔöéLi symmetric cell based on hyperbranched star multi-arm polymer electrolyte exhibited good interfacial compatibility between all-solid-state polymer electrolyte and electrodes. The excellent properties of the hyperbranched star polymer electrolyte made it attractive as solid-state polymer electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Technology of solid-fuel-layer targets for laser-fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musinski, D.L.; Henderson, T.M.; Pattinson, T.R.; Tarvin, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus which produces uniform solid-fuel layers in glass-shell targets for laser irradiation is described. A low-power cw laser pulse is used to vaporize the fuel within a previously frozen target which is maintained in a cold-helium environment by a cryogenic shroud. The rapid refreezing that follows the pulse forms a uniform fuel layer on the inner surface of the glass shell. This apparatus and technique meet the restrictions imposed by the experimental target chamber. The method does not perturb the target position; nor does it preclude the usual diagnostic experimets since the shroud is retracted before the main laser pulse arrives. Successful laser irradiation and implosion of solid-fuel-layer targets at KMSF have confirmed the effectiveness and reliability of this system and extended the range of laser-target-interaction studies in the cryogenic regime

  15. Trace and surface analysis of ceramic layers of solid oxide fuel cells by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J S; Breuer, U; Westheide, J; Saprykin, A I; Holzbrecher, H; Nickel, H; Dietze, H J

    1996-06-01

    For the trace analysis of impurities in thick ceramic layers of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sensitive solid-state mass spectrometric methods, such as laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and radiofrequency glow discharge mass spectrometry (rf-GDMS) have been developed and used. In order to quantify the analytical results of LA-ICP-MS, the relative sensitivity coefficients of elements in a La(0.6)Sr(0.35)MnO(3) matrix have been determined using synthetic standards. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) - as a surface analytical method - has been used to characterize the element distribution and diffusion profiles of matrix elements on the interface of a perovskite/Y-stabilized ZrO(2) layer. The application of different mass spectrometric methods for process control in the preparation of ceramic layers for the SOFC is described.

  16. Atomic layer deposition of lithium phosphates as solid-state electrolytes for all-solid-state microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biqiong; Liu, Jian; Sun, Qian; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2014-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been shown as a powerful technique to build three-dimensional (3D) all-solid-state microbattery, because of its unique advantages in fabricating uniform and pinhole-free thin films in 3D structures. The development of solid-state electrolyte by ALD is a crucial step to achieve the fabrication of 3D all-solid-state microbattery by ALD. In this work, lithium phosphate solid-state electrolytes were grown by ALD at four different temperatures (250, 275, 300, and 325 °C) using two precursors (lithium tert-butoxide and trimethylphosphate). A linear dependence of film thickness on ALD cycle number was observed and uniform growth was achieved at all four temperatures. The growth rate was 0.57, 0.66, 0.69, and 0.72 Å/cycle at deposition temperatures of 250, 275, 300, and 325 °C, respectively. Furthermore, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the compositions and chemical structures of lithium phosphates deposited by ALD. Moreover, the lithium phosphate thin films deposited at 300 °C presented the highest ionic conductivity of 1.73 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 323 K with ∼0.51 eV activation energy based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity was calculated to be 3.3 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 26 °C (299 K). (paper)

  17. Reduction of birefringence in a skin-layer of injection molded polymer strips using CO{sub 2} laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosaki, Yasuo; Satoh, Isao; Saito, Takushi [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Intelligent Systems Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Injection molding of polymers is currently utilized for numerous industrial applications. Because of high productivity and stable quality of molded products, the injection-molding process makes the production costs lower, and therefore, is expected to spread more widely in the future. This paper deals with a technique for improving the optical quality of injection molded polymer products using radiative heating. The birefringence frozen in a skin-layer of the molded part was reduced by CO{sub 2} laser heating, and the efficiency of this technique was investigated experimentally. Namely, a simple numerical calculation was performed to estimate the heating efficiency of CO{sub 2} laser in the polymer, effects of radiation heating on the skin-layer of the molded polymer were observed by using a mold with transparent windows, and the residual birefringence frozen in the final molded specimen was measured. The results clearly showed that the birefringence in the skin-layer of injection molded polymer strips was reduced with CO{sub 2} laser heating. The authors believe that the proposed method for reducing the birefringence frozen in injection-molded polymer products is suitable for practical molding, because process time required for the injection-molding is only slightly increased with this method.

  18. Development of layered anode structures supported over Apatite-type Solid Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandis P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apatite-type lanthanum silicates (ATLS materials have attracted interest in recent literature as solid electrolytes for SOFCs. The fabrication of an ATLS based fuel cell with the state-of-art electrodes (NiO/YSZ as anode and LSCF or LSM as cathode can show degradation after long operation hours due to Si diffusion mainly towards the anode. In this work, we report a “layer-by-layer anodic electrodes” fabrication by means of spin coating and physical spraying. The overall aim of this work is the successful fabrication of such a layered structure including suitable blocking layers towards the inhibition of Si interdiffusion from the apatite electrolyte to the anode. The results showed that the deposition of 3 layers of LFSO/GDC (3μm, NiO/GDC (4μm and the final NiO/YSZ anode layer provided a stable half-cell, with no solid state reaction occurring among the electrodes and no Si diffusion observed towards the anode after thermal treatment at 800°C for 120h.

  19. Quasi-solid polymer electrolytes using photo-cross-linked polymers. Lithium and divalent cation conductors and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shoichiro; Mori, Yoichi; Furuhashi, Yuri; Masuda, Hideki; Yamamoto, Osamu

    In this report, we will present the results on the photo-cross-linked poly-(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) based quasi-solid, i.e. gel, polymer electrolyte systems with lithium, magnesium and zinc trifluoromethanesulfonates [triflate; M n(CF 3SO 3) n] and their preliminary applications to primary cells. The Celgard® membrane-impregnated electrolytes were prepared in the same manner as Abraham et al. [K.M. Abraham, M. Alamgir, D.K. Hoffman, J. Electrochem. Soc. 142 (1995) 683]. The precursor solutions were composed of metal triflates, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, and tetraethylene glycol diacrylate. The Celgard® #3401 membrane was soaked overnight in the precursor solution, then clamped between two Pyrex glass plates and irradiated with UV light to form a gel electrolyte. The maxima of the conductivity obtained were 4.5×10 -4 S cm -1 at 12 mol% for LiCF 3SO 3, 1.7×10 -4 S cm -1 at 1 mol% for Mg(CF 3SO 3) 2, and 2.1×10 -4 S cm -1 at 4 mol% for Zn(CF 3SO 3) 2 system, respectively. The Arrhenius plots of the conductivities are almost linear between 268 and 338 K with 15-25 kJ/mol of activation energy for conduction. The cell, Li|LiCF 3SO 3-SPE+Celgard® #3401|(CH 3) 4NI 5+acetylene black, showed 2.86 V of OCV and could discharge up to 25% with respect to the cathode active material at a discharging current of 0.075 mA/cm 2.

  20. Quasi-solid polymer electrolytes using photo-cross-linked polymers. Lithium and divalent cation conductors and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Shoichiro; Mori, Yoichi; Furuhashi, Yuri; Masuda, Hideki [Nagoya Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Yamamoto, Osamu [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-09-01

    In this report, we will present the results on the photo-cross-linked poly-(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) based quasi-solid, i.e. gel, polymer electrolyte systems with lithium, magnesium and zinc trifluoromethanesulfonates [triflate; M{sup n}(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub n}] and their preliminary applications to primary cells. The Celgard{sup trademark} membrane-impregnated electrolytes were prepared in the same manner as Abraham et al. [K.M. Abraham, M. Alamgir, D.K. Hoffmann, J. Electrochem. Soc. 142 (1995) 683]. The precursor solutions were composed of metal triflates, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, and tetraethylene glycol diacrylate. The Celgard{sup trademark} aa3401 membrane was soaked overnight in the precursor solution, then clamped between two Pyrex glass plates and irradiated with UV light to form a gel electrolyte. The maxima of the conductivity obtained were 4.5 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 12 mol% for LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, 1.7 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 1 mol% for Mg(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and 2.1 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 4 mol% Zn(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} system, respectively. The Arrhenius plots of the conductivities are almost linear between 268 and 338 K with 15-25 kJ/mol of activation energy for conduction. The cell, li vertical stroke LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}-SPE+Celgard{sup trademark} aa3401 vertical stroke (CH{sub 3}){sub 4}NI{sub 5}+acetylene black, showed 2.86 V of OCV and could discharge up to 25% with respect to the cathode active material at a discharging current of 0.075 mA/cm{sup 2}. (orig.)

  1. Solid-state dewetting of Au-Ni bi-layer films mediated through individual layer thickness and stacking sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Andreas; Theska, Felix; Rossberg, Diana; Kups, Thomas; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, the solid-state dewetting of Au-Ni bi-layer thin films deposited on SiO2/Si is systematically studied with respect to individual layer thickness and stacking sequence. For this purpose, a rapid heat treatment at medium temperatures is applied in order to examine void formation at the early stages of the dewetting. Compositional variations are realized by changing the thickness ratio of the bi-layer films, while the total thickness is maintained at 20 nm throughout the study. In the event of Au/Ni films annealed at 500 °C, crystal voids exposing the substrate are missing regardless of chemical composition. In reverse order, the number of voids per unit area in two-phase Au-Ni thin films is found to be governed by the amount of Au-rich material. At higher temperatures up to 650 °C, a decreased probability of nucleation comes at the expense of a major portion of cavities, resulting in the formation of bubbles in 15 nm Ni/5 nm Au bi-layers. Film buckling predominantly occurred at phase boundaries crossing the bubbles.

  2. Photoluminescence and solid state properties of rigid pi- conjugated polymers with applications to LED: Alkyl- substituted p-phenyleneethynylene polymers and triblock copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Yao

    A series of substituted poly(p-phenyleneethynylene)s, PPE, were synthesized by alkyne metathesis. The substituents dibutyl (a), dioctyl (b), ditetradecyl (c), di-2-ethylhexyl (d) and di-2-cyclohexylethyl; (e)were placed on the 2,5 positions of the phenyl rings. X-ray diffraction studies indicated that the main chains of each polymer were arranged in regular, layered arrays. Liquid crystalline structures were observed by polarized optical microscopy in PPE 4b, 4c and 4d. The temperatures of isotropization of the liquid crystalline structures coincided with the disordering temperatures determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The UV absorption spectra showed a gradual blue shift of the λmax for all these polymers, suggesting a decrease in the electronic delocalization along the chain as the size and geometry of the side group changed. The photoluminescence spectra in dilute toluene solutions are consistent with vibronic coupling and emission from localized excited states. The emission spectra of thin films show characteristics typical of excimer or aggregate formation in the solid state. Lastly, an improved method of molecular weight determination by end group analysis was devised. Molecular organization and orientation in thin films (~100 nm) of a triblock copolymer, PPEPEG, was studied. The morphology of the thin film can be visualized as consisting of PMMA as the major phase in which domains of vertically oriented triblock copolymers are dispersed with PEG groups facing the air-film interface. The molecular and supramolecular structure of a series of well-defined fully conjugated poly(2,5- diakyl-p-phenyleneethynylene)s, PPE, in toluene has been studied in the sol state and in the gel state by surface tension and photoluminescence measurements. Poly (2,6[4- phenyl quinoline]), I, and poly (2,6[p-phenylene] 4- phenyl quinoline), II, were synthesized by the self- condensation of 5-acetyl-2-aminobezophenone and 4-amino- 4 '-acetyl-3-benzoyl biphenyl

  3. Diffraction of Elastic Waves in Fluid-Layered Solid Interfaces by an Integral Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Basaldúa-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present communication, scattering of elastic waves in fluid-layered solid interfaces is studied. The indirect boundary element method is used to deal with this wave propagation phenomenon in 2D fluid-layered solid models. The source is represented by Hankel’s function of second kind and this is always applied in the fluid. Our method is an approximate boundary integral technique which is based upon an integral representation for scattered elastic waves using single-layer boundary sources. This approach is typically called indirect because the sources’ strengths are calculated as an intermediate step. In addition, this formulation is regarded as a realization of Huygens’ principle. The results are presented in frequency and time domains. Various aspects related to the different wave types that emerge from this kind of problems are emphasized. A near interface pulse generates changes in the pressure field and can be registered by receivers located in the fluid. In order to show the accuracy of our method, we validated the results with those obtained by the discrete wave number applied to a fluid-solid interface joining two half-spaces, one fluid and the other an elastic solid.

  4. Solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis system development. [to generate oxygen for manned space station applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte technology used in a water electrolysis system (WES) to generate oxygen and hydrogen for manned space station applications was investigated. A four-man rated, low pressure breadboard water electrolysis system with the necessary instrumentation and controls was fabricated and tested. A six man rated, high pressure, high temperature, advanced preprototype WES was developed. This configuration included the design and development of an advanced water electrolysis module, capable of operation at 400 psig and 200 F, and a dynamic phase separator/pump in place of a passive phase separator design. Evaluation of this system demonstrated the goal of safe, unattended automated operation at high pressure and high temperature with an accumulated gas generation time of over 1000 hours.

  5. Development status of solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis for manned spacecraft life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, L. J.; Titterington, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the design and system verification test results are presented for a six-man-rated oxygen generation system. The system configuration incorporates components and instrumentation for computer-controlled operation with automatic start-up/shutdown sequencing, fault detection and isolation, and with self-contained sensors and controls for automatic safe emergency shutdown. All fluid and electrical components, sensors, and electronic controls are designed to be easily maintainable under zero-gravity conditions. On-board component spares are utilized in the system concept to sustain long-term operation (six months minimum) in a manned spacecraft application. The system is centered on a 27-cell solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis module which, combined with the associated system components and controls, forms a total system envelope 40 in. high, 40 in. wide, and 30 in. deep.

  6. Strength Analysis of the Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Polymer Impeller Based on Fluid Solid Coupling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbao Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-fiber reinforced polymer material impeller is designed for the centrifugal pump to deliver corrosive, toxic, and abrasive media in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The pressure-velocity coupling fields in the pump are obtained from the CFD simulation. The stress distribution of the impeller couple caused by the flow water pressure and rotation centrifugal force of the blade is analyzed using one-way fluid-solid coupling method. Results show that the strength of the impeller can meet the requirement of the centrifugal pumps, and the largest stress occurred around the blades root on a pressure side of blade surface. Due to the existence of stress concentration at the blades root, the fatigue limit of the impeller would be reduced greatly. In the further structure optimal design, the blade root should be strengthened.

  7. Biodegradable polymer for sealing porous PEO layer on pure magnesium: An in vitro degradation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabbasi, Alyaa; Mehjabeen, Afrin; Kannan, M. Bobby; Ye, Qingsong; Blawert, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Poly(L-lactide) was used to seal the porous PEO layer on Mg. • The dual-layer coating improved the in vitro degradation resistance of Mg. • Localized degradation was inhibited in the dual-layer coated Mg. - Abstract: An attempt was made to seal the porous silicate-based plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) layer on pure magnesium (Mg) with a biodegradable polymer, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA), to delay the localized degradation of magnesium-based implants in body fluid for better in-service mechanical integrity. Firstly, a silicate-based PEO coating on pure magnesium was performed using a pulsed constant current method. In order to seal the pores in the PEO layer, PLLA was coated using a two-step spin coating method. The performance of the PEO–PLLA Mg was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The EIS results showed that the polarization resistance (R p ) of the PEO–PLLA Mg was close to two orders of magnitude higher than that of the PEO Mg. While the corrosion current density (i corr ) of the pure Mg was reduced by 65% with the PEO coating, the PEO–PLLA coating reduced the i corr by almost 100%. As expected, the R p of the PEO–PLLA Mg decreased with increase in exposure time. However, it was noted that the R p of the PEO–PLLA Mg even after 100 h was six times higher than that of the PEO Mg after 48 h exposure, and did not show any visible localized attack

  8. Biodegradable polymer for sealing porous PEO layer on pure magnesium: An in vitro degradation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabbasi, Alyaa; Mehjabeen, Afrin [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Queensland (Australia); Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Queensland (Australia); Ye, Qingsong [Discipline of Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Queensland (Australia); Blawert, Carsten [Magnesium Innovation Centre, Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht 21502 (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Poly(L-lactide) was used to seal the porous PEO layer on Mg. • The dual-layer coating improved the in vitro degradation resistance of Mg. • Localized degradation was inhibited in the dual-layer coated Mg. - Abstract: An attempt was made to seal the porous silicate-based plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) layer on pure magnesium (Mg) with a biodegradable polymer, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA), to delay the localized degradation of magnesium-based implants in body fluid for better in-service mechanical integrity. Firstly, a silicate-based PEO coating on pure magnesium was performed using a pulsed constant current method. In order to seal the pores in the PEO layer, PLLA was coated using a two-step spin coating method. The performance of the PEO–PLLA Mg was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The EIS results showed that the polarization resistance (R{sub p}) of the PEO–PLLA Mg was close to two orders of magnitude higher than that of the PEO Mg. While the corrosion current density (i{sub corr}) of the pure Mg was reduced by 65% with the PEO coating, the PEO–PLLA coating reduced the i{sub corr} by almost 100%. As expected, the R{sub p} of the PEO–PLLA Mg decreased with increase in exposure time. However, it was noted that the R{sub p} of the PEO–PLLA Mg even after 100 h was six times higher than that of the PEO Mg after 48 h exposure, and did not show any visible localized attack.

  9. Matrix supported tailored polymer for solid phase extraction of fluoride from variety of aqueous streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Neha; Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Wagh, D.N.; Das, Sadananda; Pandey, Ashok K.; Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Th complexed with poly (bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyl]phosphate) as tailored polymer membranes. ► Membranes offered high capacity and selectivity for fluoride in aqueous media. ► Quantitative uptake (80 ± 5%) of fluoride. ► Fast sorption kinetics. ► Reusability of polymer membranes. - Abstract: Fluoride related health hazards (fluorosis) are a major environmental problem in many regions of the world. It affects teeth; skeleton and its accumulation over a long period can lead to changes in the DNA structure. It is thus absolutely essential to bring down the fluoride levels to acceptable limits. Here, we present a new inorganic–organic hybrid polymer sorbent having tailored fixed-sites for fluoride sorption. The matrix supported poly (bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyl]phosphate) was prepared by photo-initiator induced graft-polymerization in fibrous and microporous (sheet) host poly(propylene) substrates. These substrates were conditioned for selective fluoride sorption by forming thorium complex with phosphate groups on bis[2-methacryloyloxy)-ethyl] phosphate (MEP). These tailored sorbents were studied for their selectivity towards fluoride in aqueous media having different chemical conditions. The fibrous sorbent was found to take up fluoride with a faster rate (15 min for ≈76% sorption) than the sheet sorbent. But, the fluoride loading capacity of sheet sorbent (4320 mg kg −1 ), was higher than fibrous and any other sorbent reported in the literature so far. The sorbent developed in the present work was found to be reusable after desorption of fluoride using NaOH solution. It was tested for solid phase extraction of fluoride from natural water samples.

  10. Chemically durable polymer electrolytes for solid-state alkaline water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Joo; Capuano, Christopher B.; Ayers, Katherine E.; Bae, Chulsung

    2018-01-01

    Generation of high purity hydrogen using electrochemical splitting of water is one of the most promising methods for sustainable fuel production. The materials to be used as solid-state electrolytes for alkaline water electrolyzer require high thermochemical stability against hydroxide ion attack in alkaline environment during the operation of electrolysis. In this study, two quaternary ammonium-tethered aromatic polymers were synthesized and investigated for anion exchange membrane (AEM)-based alkaline water electrolyzer. The membranes properties including ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, swelling degree, and anion conductivity were studied. The membranes composed of all C-C bond polymer backbones and flexible side chain terminated by cation head groups exhibited remarkably good chemical stability by maintaining structural integrity in 1 M NaOH solution at 95 °C for 60 days. Initial electrochemical performance and steady-state operation performance were evaluated, and both membranes showed a good stabilization of the cell voltage during the steady-state operation at the constant current density at 200 mA/cm2. Although both membranes in current form require improvement in mechanical stability to afford better durability in electrolysis operation, the next generation AEMs based on this report could lead to potentially viable AEM candidates which can provide high electrolysis performance under alkaline operating condition.

  11. Preparation and characterization of plasticized palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, Farah Nadia; Ahmad, Azizan; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2013-01-01

    Palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte was prepared via prepolymerization method between palm kernel oil based polyols (PKO-p) and 2,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (2,4’-MDI) in acetone at room temperature with the vary amount of lithium trifuoromethanesulfonate (LiCF 3 SO 3 ) salt and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The film was analyzed using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). EIS result indicated ionic conductivity obtained with 30 wt% LiCF3SO3 increased to 6.55 × 10 −6 S cm −1 when 10 wt.% of plasticizer was added into the system. FTIR analysis showed the interaction between lithium ions and amine (-N-H) at 3600–3100 cm −1 , carbonyl (-C=O) at 1750–1650 cm −1 and ether (-C-O-C-) at 1150–1000 cm −1 of the polyurethane forming polymer-salt complexes. The XRD result confirmed that LiCF 3 SO 3 salt completely dissociated within the polyurethane film with the absence of crystalline peaks of LiCF 3 SO 3

  12. Enhancement in ionic conductivity on solid polymer electrolytes containing large conducting species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen, D. [Department of Physics, Amrita Viswha Vidyapeetham, Bangalore, India, E-mail: d-praveen@blr.amrita.edu (India); Damle, Ramakrishna [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore, India. E-mail: ramkrishnadamle@bub.ernet.in (India)

    2016-05-23

    Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) lack better conducting properties at ambient temperatures. Various methods to enhance their ionic conductivity like irradiation with swift heavy ions, γ-rays, swift electrons and quenching at low temperature etc., have been explored in the literature. Among these, one of the oldest methods is incorporation of different conducting species into the polymer matrix and/or addition of nano-sized inert particles into SPEs. Various new salts like LiBr, Mg(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}, NH{sub 4}I etc., have already been tried in the past with some success. Also various nanoparticles like Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} etc., have been tried in the past. In this article, we have investigated an SPE containing Rubidium as a conducting species. Rubidium has a larger ionic size compared to lithium and sodium ions which have been investigated in the recent past. In the present article, we have investigated the conductivity of large sized conducting species and shown the enhancement in the ionic conductivity by addition of nano-sized inert particles.

  13. Synthesis of f metal coordination polymers: properties and conversion into inorganic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demars, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Coordination polymers (CP) are of great academic and industrial interest due to flexible structure and composition and offer prospects for original chemical (catalysis, soft-hard materials conversion..) and physical properties (magnetism, optics..). The major interest of these studies is to check the transfer of the structure, meso-structure and composition from the CP to the ceramic via a thermal treatment. In this context, this thesis describes studies on conversion of coordination polymers obtained by self-assembly of 4f and 5f metal ions with 2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DHBQ). Aqueous and anhydrous synthetic ways were developed, which yielded different kinds of CPs (4f, 4f-4f, 4f-5f); solid solutions were obtained with the mixed compounds. The products were characterized and their behaviour under thermal treatment was studied. The main results show that the DHBQ-based precursors obtained by aqueous way have a micrometric meso-structure, formed by the assembly of micro-crystalline subunits which all posses the same crystallographic structure. The study of the assembly of the meso-structure allowed controlling the morphology of the elementary grain (cylinder, cube, disk...) with very good size distribution. The implementation of anhydrous systems in a controlled atmosphere allowed yielded a wider range of micro-structural parameters (surface area, porosity...). For all CP-type compounds, the thermal conversion to ceramic has barely altered the morphology of the materials. The microstructural aspects could be controlled via the method of synthesis. (author) [fr

  14. Preparation and characterization of plasticized palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, Farah Nadia; Ahmad, Azizan; Badri, Khairiah Haji [School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte was prepared via prepolymerization method between palm kernel oil based polyols (PKO-p) and 2,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (2,4’-MDI) in acetone at room temperature with the vary amount of lithium trifuoromethanesulfonate (LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) salt and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The film was analyzed using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). EIS result indicated ionic conductivity obtained with 30 wt% LiCF3SO3 increased to 6.55 × 10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} when 10 wt.% of plasticizer was added into the system. FTIR analysis showed the interaction between lithium ions and amine (-N-H) at 3600–3100 cm{sup −1}, carbonyl (-C=O) at 1750–1650 cm{sup −1} and ether (-C-O-C-) at 1150–1000 cm{sup −1} of the polyurethane forming polymer-salt complexes. The XRD result confirmed that LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} salt completely dissociated within the polyurethane film with the absence of crystalline peaks of LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}.

  15. Knitting aromatic polymers for efficient solid-phase microextraction of trace organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuqin; Hu, Qingkun; Zheng, Juan; Xie, Lijun; Wei, Songbo; Jiang, Ruifen; Zhu, Fang; Liu, Yuan; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-06-10

    A series of knitting aromatic polymers (KAPs) were successfully synthesized using a simple one-step Friedel-Crafts alkylation of aromatic monomers and were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Then, as-synthesized KAPs with large surface areas, unique pore structures and high thermal stability were prepared as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coatings that exhibited good extraction abilities for a series of benzene compounds (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene, which are referred to as BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Under the optimized conditions, the methodologies established for the determination of BTEX and PAHs using the KAPs-triPB and KAPs-B coatings, respectively, possessed wide linear ranges, low limits of detection (LODs, 0.10-1.13ngL(-1) for BTEX and 0.05-0.49ngL(-1) for PAHs) and good reproducibility. Finally, the proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of BTEX and PAHs in environmental water samples, and satisfactory recoveries (93.6-124.2% for BTEX and 77.2-113.3% for PAHs) were achieved. This study provides a benchmark for exploiting novel microporous organic polymers (MOPs) for SPME applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrical, thermal and structural properties of plasticized waste cooking oil-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzaizi, Rahmatina Mohd; Tahir, Syuhada Mohd; Mahbor, Kamisah Mohamad

    2017-12-01

    Waste cooking oil-based polyol was synthesized using epoxidation and hydroxylation methods. The polyol was combined with 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate to produce polyurethane (PU) to be used as polymer host in solid polymer electrolyte. 30 wt% LiClO4 was added as doping salt and two types of plasticizers were used; ethylene carbonate (PU-EC) and polyethylene glycol (PU-PEG). The SPE films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The highest conductivity achieved was 8.4 x 10-8 S cm-1 upon addition of 10 wt% EC. The XRD results showed a decrease of crystalline peaks in PU-EC and the increase in PU-PEG. DSC results revealed that the films; PU, PU-EC and PU-PEG had glass transition temperatures of 159.7, 106.0 and 179.7 °C, respectively. The results showed that the addition of EC increased the amorphous region and the free volume in the SPE structure, thus resulted in higher ionic conductivity.

  17. Temperature dependent dielectric properties and ion transportation in solid polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengwa, R. J., E-mail: rjsengwa@rediffmail.com; Dhatarwal, Priyanka, E-mail: dhatarwalpriyanka@gmail.com; Choudhary, Shobhna, E-mail: shobhnachoudhary@rediffmail.com [Dielectric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur – 342 005 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film consisted of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blend matrix with lithium tetrafluroborate (LiBF{sub 4}) as dopant ionic salt and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as plasticizer has been prepared by solution casting method followed by melt pressing. Dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of the SPE film at different temperatures have been determined by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. It has been observed that the dc ionic conductivity of the SPE film increases with increase of temperature and also the decrease of relaxation time. The temperature dependent relaxation time and ionic conductivity values of the electrolyte are governed by the Arrhenius relation. Correlation observed between dc conductivity and relaxation time confirms that ion transportation occurs with polymer chain segmental dynamics through hopping mechanism. The room temperature ionic conductivity is found to be 4 × 10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} which suggests the suitability of the SPE film for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  18. Enhancement in ionic conductivity on solid polymer electrolytes containing large conducting species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen, D.; Damle, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) lack better conducting properties at ambient temperatures. Various methods to enhance their ionic conductivity like irradiation with swift heavy ions, γ-rays, swift electrons and quenching at low temperature etc., have been explored in the literature. Among these, one of the oldest methods is incorporation of different conducting species into the polymer matrix and/or addition of nano-sized inert particles into SPEs. Various new salts like LiBr, Mg(ClO_4)_2, NH_4I etc., have already been tried in the past with some success. Also various nanoparticles like Al_2O_3, TiO_2 etc., have been tried in the past. In this article, we have investigated an SPE containing Rubidium as a conducting species. Rubidium has a larger ionic size compared to lithium and sodium ions which have been investigated in the recent past. In the present article, we have investigated the conductivity of large sized conducting species and shown the enhancement in the ionic conductivity by addition of nano-sized inert particles.

  19. SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES: PERFORMANCE OF A POLYMER SEALANT COATING IN AN ARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COWGILL, M.G.; MOSKOWITZ, P.D.; CHERNAENKO, L.M.; NAZARIAN, A.; GRIFFITH, A.; DIASHEV, A.; ENGOY, T.

    2000-01-01

    This first project, under the auspices of the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) forum, Project 1.4-1 Solid Radioactive Waste Storage Technologies, successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using a polymer-based coating to seal concrete and steel surfaces from permanent radioactive contamination in an Arctic marine environment. A mobile, self-sufficient spraying device, was developed to specifications provided by the Russian Ministry of Defence Northern Navy and was deployed at the RTP Atomflot site, Murmansk, Russia. Demonstration coatings of Polibrid 705 were applied to concrete surfaces exposed to conditions ranging from indoor pedestrian usage to heavy vehicle passage and container handling in a loading bay. A large steel container was also coated with the polymer, filled with solid radwaste, sealed, and left out of doors and exposed to the full 12 month Arctic weather cycle. The field tests were accompanied by a series of laboratory qualification tests carried out at the research laboratory of ICC Nuclide in St. Petersburg. During the 12-month field tests, the sealant coating showed little sign of degradation except for a few chips and gouge marks on the loading bay surface that were readily repaired. Contamination resulting from radwaste handling was easily removed and the surface was not degraded by contact with the decontamination agents. In the laboratory testing, Polibrid 705 met all the Russian qualification requirements with the exception of flammability. In this last instance, it was decided to restrict application of the coating to land-based facilities. The Russian technical experts from the Ministry of Defence quickly familiarized themselves with the equipment and were able to identify several areas of potential improvement as deployment of the equipment progressed. The prime among these was the desirability of extending the range of the equipment through enlarged gasoline tanks (to permit extended operational times) and longer

  20. SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES: PERFORMANCE OF A POLYMER SEALANT COATING IN AN ARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWGILL,M.G.; MOSKOWITZ,P.D.; CHERNAENKO,L.M.; NAZARIAN,A.; GRIFFITH,A.; DIASHEV,A.; ENGOY,T.

    2000-06-14

    This first project, under the auspices of the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) forum, Project 1.4-1 Solid Radioactive Waste Storage Technologies, successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using a polymer-based coating to seal concrete and steel surfaces from permanent radioactive contamination in an Arctic marine environment. A mobile, self-sufficient spraying device, was developed to specifications provided by the Russian Ministry of Defence Northern Navy and was deployed at the RTP Atomflot site, Murmansk, Russia. Demonstration coatings of Polibrid 705 were applied to concrete surfaces exposed to conditions ranging from indoor pedestrian usage to heavy vehicle passage and container handling in a loading bay. A large steel container was also coated with the polymer, filled with solid radwaste, sealed, and left out of doors and exposed to the full 12 month Arctic weather cycle. The field tests were accompanied by a series of laboratory qualification tests carried out at the research laboratory of ICC Nuclide in St. Petersburg. During the 12-month field tests, the sealant coating showed little sign of degradation except for a few chips and gouge marks on the loading bay surface that were readily repaired. Contamination resulting from radwaste handling was easily removed and the surface was not degraded by contact with the decontamination agents. In the laboratory testing, Polibrid 705 met all the Russian qualification requirements with the exception of flammability. In this last instance, it was decided to restrict application of the coating to land-based facilities. The Russian technical experts from the Ministry of Defence quickly familiarized themselves with the equipment and were able to identify several areas of potential improvement as deployment of the equipment progressed. The prime among these was the desirability of extending the range of the equipment through enlarged gasoline tanks (to permit extended operational times) and longer

  1. Electron and Hole Transport Layers: Their Use in Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Lattante

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (BHJ PSCs are very promising organic-based devices for low-cost solar energy conversion, compatible with roll-to-roll or general printing methods for mass production. Nevertheless, to date, many issues should still be addressed, one of these being the poor stability in ambient conditions. One elegant way to overcome such an issue is the so-called “inverted” BHJ PSC, a device geometry in which the charge collection is reverted in comparison with the standard geometry device, i.e., the electrons are collected by the bottom electrode and the holes by the top electrode (in contact with air. This reverted geometry allows one to use a high work function top metal electrode, like silver or gold (thus avoiding its fast oxidation and degradation, and eliminates the need of a polymeric hole transport layer, typically of an acidic nature, on top of the transparent metal oxide bottom electrode. Moreover, this geometry is fully compatible with standard roll-to-roll manufacturing in air and is less demanding for a good post-production encapsulation process. To date, the external power conversion efficiencies of the inverted devices are generally comparable to their standard analogues, once both the electron transport layer and the hole transport layer are fully optimized for the particular device. Here, the most recent results on this particular optimization process will be reviewed, and a general outlook regarding the inverted BHJ PSC will be depicted.

  2. Sodium bromide electron-extraction layers for polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhi; Qu, Bo; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian; Zhang, Lipei; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-01-01

    Inexpensive and non-toxic sodium bromide (NaBr) was introduced into polymer solar cells (PSCs) as the cathode buffer layer (CBL) and the electron extraction characteristics of the NaBr CBL were investigated in detail. The PSCs based on NaBr CBL with different thicknesses (i.e., 0 nm, 0.5 nm, 1 nm, and 1.5 nm) were prepared and studied. The optimal thickness of NaBr was 1 nm according to the photovoltaic data of PSCs. The open-circuit voltage (V oc ), short-circuit current density (J sc ), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSC with 1 nm NaBr were evaluated to be 0.58 V, 7.36 mA/cm 2 , 0.63, and 2.70%, respectively, which were comparable to those of the reference device with the commonly used LiF. The optimized photovoltaic performance of PSC with 1 nm NaBr was ascribed to the improved electron transport and extraction capability of 1 nm NaBr in PSCs. In addition, the NaBr CBL could prevent the diffusion of oxygen and water vapor into the active layer and prolong the lifetime of the devices to some extent. Therefore, NaBr layer could be considered as a promising non-toxic CBL for PSCs in future

  3. Grafted polymers layers: neutral chains to charged chains; Couches de polymeres greffes: des chaines neutres aux chaines chargees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mir, Y

    1995-09-29

    This work concerns an experimental study, by small angle neutrons scattering, of neutral or charged grafted polymers layers structures. The method consisted in exploiting the acknowledges got on neutral brushes, to reach the problem of grafted polyelectrolyte layers. The difficulty of charged layers making has been, until this day, an important obstacle to the experimental study of these systems. It has been partially resolved in the case of sodium sulfonate polystyrene layers, and allowed to study their structure. (N.C.). 72 refs., 74 figs., 24 tabs.

  4. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of polymer thin films: chain conformation, dynamics, and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreddine, V.F.

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation presents solid-state NMR studies of the chain conformation, dynamics and morphology of three adsorbed polymer systems: two random semi-crystalline copolymers, poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (PEA) and poly(propylene-co-acrylic acid) (PPA), and an amorphous homopolymer, poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PnBMA). Zirconia (ZrO 2 ) was chosen as the substrate for all three polymers since the binding of carboxylic acids to this metal oxide is well understood. The choice of polymers was based on their particular bulk conformational and dynamic properties as well as their common use in polymer coatings. These studies are motivated by the general lack of a microscopic picture of adsorbed polymers, which can be provided by NMR, and the relevance of chain conformation and dynamics to important polymer film properties such as adhesion. First the chain conformation and surface binding of adsorbed PEA as a function of acrylic acid content are characterized by 13 C cross polarization - magic angle spinning (CP-MAS), 2D 1 H- 13 C wideline separation (WISE) and 1 H spin diffusion NMR experiments and FTIR-PAS (Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy) measurements. The most important finding is that the chain conformation of adsorbed PEA is determined primarily by the sticker group density rather than the surface coverage. The second study of PEA concerns the chain dynamics in the bulk and adsorbed states. Variable temperature NMR experiments provide evidence that ethylene segments of adsorbed PEA form partially folded loops rather than flat extended trains. Finally 129 Xe NMR studies, used to probe the morphology of adsorbed PEA, show a bulk-like signal only for the highest loadings. The second system investigated, PPA, is another semi-crystalline random copolymer which binds to zirconia via carboxylate linkages. The 13 C CP-MAS NMR spectra of adsorbed PPAC unexpectedly show splittings normally associated with chain-chain packing in the crystalline regions

  5. A method for the densification of ceramic layers, especially ceramic layers within solid oxide cell (SOC) technology, and products obtained by the method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic layer, especially for use in solid oxide cell (SOC) technology, is densified in a method comprising (a) providing a multilayer system by depositing the porous ceramic layer, which is to be densified, onto the selected system of ceramic layers on a support, (b) pre-sintering the resulting......(s) in the porous layer surface and (e) performing a thermal treatment at a temperature T2, where T2 > ?1, to obtain densification of and grain growth in the porous layer formed in step (b). The method makes it possible to obtain dense ceramic layers at temperatures, which are compatible with the other materials...... present in a ceramic multilayer system....

  6. Biomimetic piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor with chloramphenicol-imprinted polymer sensing layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebarvia, Benilda S; Ubando, Isaiah E; Sevilla, Fortunato B

    2015-11-01

    The measurement of banned antibiotic like chloramphenicol is significant for customer protection and safety. The presence of residual antibiotics in foods and food products of animal origin could pose as health hazards and affect food quality for global acceptance. In this study, the potential of a chloramphenicol sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) coupled with a piezoelectric quartz crystal was explored. The MIP was prepared by precipitation polymerization at 60 °C. Methacrylic acid was used as monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) as crosslinker, and chloramphenicol as the template. Template removal on the resulting polymer was done by extraction using methanol-acetic acid. Characterization of the MIP and NIP were conducted by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. These further supported the imprinting and rebinding process of chloramphenicol to the polymer matrix. The chloramphenicol sensor was devised by spin-coating onto one side of the 10 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal the MIP suspension in polyvinylchloride-tetrahydrofuran (6:2:1 w/w/v) solution. Optimization of sensor response was performed by varying the type of cross-linker, amount of MIP sensing layer, curing time, and pH. The sensor exhibited good sensitivity of about 73 Hz/log (conc., µg mL(-1)) and good repeatability (rsd<10%). A linear relationship (r(2)=0.9901) between frequency shift and chloramphenicol concentration in the range of 1×10(-6) up to 1×10(-1) µg/mL was obtained. The sensor response was highly selective to chloramphenicol than with other compounds of similar chemical structures. Acceptable percent recovery was obtained for real sample analysis using the sensor. The proposed sensor could be a promising low cost and highly sensitive approach for residual chloramphenicol quantification in food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Learning from Natural Nacre: Constructing Layered Polymer Composites with High Thermal Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guiran; Yao, Yimin; Zeng, Xiaoliang; Sun, Jiajia; Hu, Jiantao; Sun, Rong; Xu, Jian-Bin; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2017-09-27

    Inspired by the microstructures of naturally layered and highly oriented materials, such as natural nacre, we report a thermally conductive polymer composite that consists of epoxy resin and Al 2 O 3 platelets deposited with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Owing to their unique two-dimensional structure, Al 2 O 3 platelets are stacked together via a hot-pressing technique, resulting in a brick-and-mortar structure, which is similar to the one of natural nacre. Moreover, the AgNPs deposited on the surfaces of the Al 2 O 3 platelets act as bridges that link the adjacent Al 2 O 3 platelets due to the reduced melting point of the AgNPs. As a result, the polymer composite with 50 wt % filler achieves a maximum thermal conductivity of 6.71 W m -1 K -1 . In addition, the small addition of AgNPs (0.6 wt %) minimally affects the electrical insulation of the composites. Our bioinspired approach will find uses in the design and fabrication of thermally conductive materials for thermal management in modern electronics.

  8. Recent advances in polymer supporting layered double hydroxides nanocomposite for electrochemical biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, T.; Padmanaban, A.; Gnanamoorthy, G.; Manigandan, R.; Praveen Kumar, S.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) materials having emerging due to their ability of intercalate a variety of anions, either organic or inorganic molecules. The most significance of the LDHs has been found potential applications in catalysis, wastewater treatment, and electrochemical sensors. The Mg-Al LDHs (MAL) and Poly-o-phenylenediamine @ Mg-Al LDHs (P-MAL) was prepared via simple one step hydrothermal method. As prepared material was characterized using many techniques such as, the structural and crystal phase was determined from XRD and Raman analyses. The functional groups were depicted using FT-IR spectroscopy. The optical propertied studied using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy UV-vis spectroscopy and the emission property were analyzed from Photoluminescence spectroscopy. The surface morphology and average particle size was analyzed using FESEM microscopy. The prepared polymer composite material P-MAL was further used for highly sensitive electrochemical detection towards dopamine (DA).

  9. A copper-based layered coordination polymer: synthesis, magnetic properties and electrochemical performance in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Liu, Xiuxiu; Shi, Changdong; Zhang, Yanpeng; Feng, Xuejun; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Su, Seng; Gu, Jiande

    2015-11-28

    A copper-based layered coordination polymer ([Cu(hmt)(tfbdc)(H2O)]; hmt = hexamethylenetetramine, tfbdc = 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoroterephthalate; Cu-LCP) has been synthesized, and it has been structurally and magnetically characterized. The Cu-LCP shows ferromagnetic interactions between the adjacent copper(II) ions. Density functional theory calculations on the special model of Cu-LCP support the occurrence of ferromagnetic interactions. As an electrode material for supercapacitors, Cu-LCP exhibits a high specific capacitance of 1274 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) in 1 M LiOH electrolyte, and the capacitance retention is about 88% after 2000 cycles.

  10. Liquid water breakthrough location distances on a gas diffusion layer of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junliang; Froning, Dieter; Reimer, Uwe; Lehnert, Werner

    2018-06-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method is adopted to simulate the three dimensional dynamic process of liquid water breaking through the gas diffusion layer (GDL) in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. 22 micro-structures of Toray GDL are built based on a stochastic geometry model. It is found that more than one breakthrough locations are formed randomly on the GDL surface. Breakthrough location distance (BLD) are analyzed statistically in two ways. The distribution is evaluated statistically by the Lilliefors test. It is concluded that the BLD can be described by the normal distribution with certain statistic characteristics. Information of the shortest neighbor breakthrough location distance can be the input modeling setups on the cell-scale simulations in the field of fuel cell simulation.

  11. Associate host in single-layer co-host polymer electrophosphorescent devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuanmin; Teng Feng; Feng Bin; Wang Yongsheng; Xu Xurong

    2006-01-01

    The definition and role of 'host' in polymer LED materials are studied in the present work. 'Primary host' and 'associate host' have been proposed and the rules of how to select an associate host are reported. Based on our experiments and the analysis of the energy scheme of the devices, we suggest that the values of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) are critical determinant in selecting a suitable associate host. On one hand, the associate host should be a hole-blocking material. This can confine the excitons in the active layer. On the other hand, the associate host should have a suitable LUMO that is convenient for electrons to transport

  12. Ionic liquids in a poly ethylene oxide cross-linked gel polymer as an electrolyte for electrical double layer capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudoy, V.; Tran Van, F.; Deschamps, M.; Ghamouss, F.

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, we developed a gel polymer electrolyte via the incorporation of a room temperature ionic liquid into a cross-linked polymer matrix. The cross-linked gel electrolyte was prepared using a free radical polymerization of methacrylate and dimethacrylate oligomers dissolved in 1-propyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide. Combining the advantages of the ionic liquids and of conventional polymers, the cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte was used both as a separator and as an electrolyte for a leakage-free and non-flammable EDLC supercapacitor. The quasi-all solid-state supercapacitors showed rather good capacitance, power and energy densities by comparison to a liquid electrolyte-based EDLC.

  13. Catalytic reaction in a porous solid subject to a boundary layer flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihail, R; Teddorescu, C

    1978-01-01

    A mathematical model of a boundary layer flowing past a catalytic slab was developed which included an analysis of the coupled mass and heat transfer and the heterogeneous chemical reaction. The porous flat plate was used to illustrate the interaction of boundary layer flow with chemical reaction within a porous catalytic body. The model yielded systems of transcendental equations which were solved numerically by means of a superposition integral in connection with a norm reduction procedure. A parametric study was conducted and an analysis of the possible multiplicity of steady states was developed and illustrated for the extreme case of infinite solid thermal conductivity. Tables, diagrams, graphs, and 12 references.

  14. Slow molecular dynamics in the β relaxation of semicrystalline polymers studied by pure exchange 13C solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Eduardo R. de; Becker-Guedes, Fabio; Bonagamba, Tito J.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Iowa State University, Ames, IA

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics in the amorphous regions of semicrystalline polymers exert important influences on mechanical properties, but have been notoriously difficult to characterize. Two new solid-state NMR techniques, PUREX (pure exchange) and CODEX (center band-only detection of exchange) NMR, make it possible to analyze the molecular motions near the glass transition in the amorphous regions of semicrystalline polymers. This is achieved by selectively suppressing the otherwise dominant signals of the static segments in the crystallites. We have applied both NMR techniques to study the slow motions near the glass transition in semicrystalline polymers (β relaxation) and in fully amorphous samples for reference. The studied polymers were isotactic poly(1-butene) (iPB1) (form I), syndiotactic and atactic polypropylenes (sPP, and aPP, respectively), as well as polyisobutylene (PIB). We have analyzed the geometry and time scale of the slow molecular motion for all samples and determined the apparent activation energies. (author)

  15. Atomic layer deposition on polymer fibers and fabrics for multifunctional and electronic textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozena, Alexandra H.; Oldham, Christopher J.; Parsons, Gregory N., E-mail: gnp@ncsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Textile materials, including woven cotton, polymer knit fabrics, and synthetic nonwoven fiber mats, are being explored as low-cost, flexible, and light-weight platforms for wearable electronic sensing, communication, energy generation, and storage. The natural porosity and high surface area in textiles is also useful for new applications in environmental protection, chemical decontamination, pharmaceutical and chemical manufacturing, catalytic support, tissue regeneration, and others. These applications raise opportunities for new chemistries, chemical processes, biological coupling, and nanodevice systems that can readily combine with textile manufacturing to create new “multifunctional” fabrics. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has a unique ability to form highly uniform and conformal thin films at low processing temperature on nonuniform high aspect ratio surfaces. Recent research shows how ALD can coat, modify, and otherwise improve polymer fibers and textiles by incorporating new materials for viable electronic and other multifunctional capabilities. This article provides a current overview of the understanding of ALD coating and modification of textiles, including current capabilities and outstanding problems, with the goal of providing a starting point for further research and advances in this field. After a brief introduction to textile materials and current textile treatment methods, the authors discuss unique properties of ALD-coated textiles, followed by a review of recent electronic and multifunctional textiles that use ALD coatings either as direct functional components or as critical nucleation layers for active materials integration. The article concludes with possible future directions for ALD on textiles, including the challenges in materials, manufacturing, and manufacturing integration that must be overcome for ALD to reach its full potential in electronic and other emerging multifunctional textile systems.

  16. Layer-by-layer fabrication of chemical-bonded graphene coating for solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suling; Du, Zhuo; Li, Gongke

    2011-10-01

    A new fabrication strategy of the graphene-coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber is developed. Graphite oxide was first used as starting coating material that covalently bonded to the fused-silica substrate using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as cross-linking agent and subsequently deoxidized by hydrazine to give the graphene coating in situ. The chemical bonding between graphene and the silica fiber improve its chemical stability, and the obtained fiber was stable enough for more than 150 replicate extraction cycles. The graphene coating was wrinkled and folded, like the morphology of the rough tree bark. Its performance is tested by headspace (HS) SPME of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) followed by GC/MS analysis. The results showed that the graphene-coated fiber exhibited higher enrichment factors (EFs) from 2-fold for naphthalene to 17-fold for B(b)FL as compared to the commercial polydimethylsioxane (PDMS) fiber, and the EFs increased with the number of condensed rings of PAHs. The strong adsorption affinity was believed to be mostly due to the dominant role of π-π stacking interaction and hydrophobic effect, according to the results of selectivity study for a variety of organic compounds including PAHs, the aromatic compounds with different substituent groups, and some aliphatic hydrocarbons. For PAHs analysis, the graphene-coated fiber showed good precision (<11%), low detection limits (1.52-2.72 ng/L), and wide linearity (5-500 ng/L) under the optimized conditions. The repeatability of fiber-to-fiber was 4.0-10.8%. The method was applied to simultaneous analysis of eight PAHs with satisfactory recoveries, which were 84-102% for water samples and 72-95% for soil samples, respectively.

  17. Solid-Phase Synthesis of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Nanoparticles with a Reusable Template - "Plastic Antibodies".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Alessandro; Guerreiro, Antonio; Whitcombe, Michael J; Piletska, Elena V; Turner, Anthony P F; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2013-06-13

    Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) are generic alternatives to antibodies in sensors, diagnostics and separations. To displace biomolecules without radical changes in infrastructure in device manufacture, MIPs should share their characteristics (solubility, size, specificity and affinity, localized binding domain) whilst maintaining the advantages of MIPs (low-cost, short development time and high stability) hence the interest in MIP nanoparticles. Herein we report a reusable solid-phase template approach (fully compatible with automation) for the synthesis of MIP nanoparticles and their precise manufacture using a prototype automated UV photochemical reactor. Batches of nanoparticles (30-400 nm) with narrow size distributions imprinted with: melamine (d = 60 nm, K d = 6.3 × 10 -8 m), vancomycin (d = 250 nm, K d = 3.4 × 10 -9 m), a peptide (d = 350 nm, K d = 4.8 × 10 -8 m) and proteins have been produced. Our instrument uses a column packed with glass beads, bearing the template. Process parameters are under computer control, requiring minimal manual intervention. For the first time we demonstrate the reliable re-use of molecular templates in the synthesis of MIPs (≥ 30 batches of nanoMIPs without loss of performance). NanoMIPs are produced template-free and the solid-phase acts both as template and affinity separation medium.

  18. Influence of the charge double layer on solid oxide fuel cell stack behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiston, Michael M.; Bilec, Melissa M.; Schaefer, Laura A.

    2015-10-01

    While the charge double layer effect has traditionally been characterized as a millisecond phenomenon, longer timescales may be possible under certain operating conditions. This study simulates the dynamic response of a previously developed solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack model that incorporates the charge double layer via an equivalent circuit. The model is simulated under step load changes. Baseline conditions are first defined, followed by consideration of minor and major deviations from the baseline case. This study also investigates the behavior of the SOFC stack with a relatively large double layer capacitance value, as well as operation of the SOFC stack under proportional-integral (PI) control. Results indicate that the presence of the charge double layer influences the SOFC stack's settling time significantly under the following conditions: (i) activation and concentration polarizations are significantly increased, or (ii) a large value of the double layer capacitance is assumed. Under normal (baseline) operation, on the other hand, the charge double layer effect diminishes within milliseconds, as expected. It seems reasonable, then, to neglect the charge double layer under normal operation. However, careful consideration should be given to potential variations in operation or material properties that may give rise to longer electrochemical settling times.

  19. Solid Catalyst with Ionic Liquid Layer (SCILL). A concept to improve the selectivity of selective hydrogenations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jess, A.; Korth, W. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Chair of Chemical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Catalytic hydrogenations are important for refinery processes, petrochemical applications as well as for numerous processes of the fine chemicals industry. In some cases, hydrogenations consist of a sequence of consecutive reactions, and the desired product is the intermediate. An important goal is then a high yield and selectivity to the intermediate, if possible at a high conversion degree. The selectivity to an intermediate primarily depends on the chemical nature of the catalyst, but may also be influenced by diffusion processes. Ionic liquids (ILs) are low melting salts (< 100 C) and represent a promising solvent class. This paper focuses on the concept of a Solid Catalyst with Ionic Liquid Layer (SCILL), where the solid catalyst is coated with a thin IL layer to improve the selectivity. (orig.)

  20. Solid-State Electrochromic Device Consisting of Amorphous WO3 and Various Thin Oxide Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizukuishi, Makoto; Shimizu, Isamu; Inoue, Eiichi

    1980-11-01

    A mixed oxide containing Cr2O3 was introduced into an amorphous WO3 solid-state electrochromic device (ECD) in order to improve its colour memory effect. The electrochromic characteristics were greatly affected by the chemical constituents of a dielectric layer on the a-WO3 layer. Particularly, long memory effect and low power dissipation were attained in a solid-state ECD consisting of a-WO3 and Cr2O3\\cdotV2O5(50 wt.%). Some electrochromic characteristics of the a-WO3/Cr2O3\\cdotV2O5 ECD and the role of V2O5 were investigated.

  1. Recent advances in polymer solar cells: realization of high device performance by incorporating water/alcohol-soluble conjugated polymers as electrode buffer layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhicai; Wu, Hongbin; Cao, Yong

    2014-02-01

    This Progress Report highlights recent advances in polymer solar cells with special attention focused on the recent rapid-growing progress in methods that use a thin layer of alcohol/water-soluble conjugated polymers as key component to obtain optimized device performance, but also discusses novel materials and device architectures made by major prestigious institutions in this field. We anticipate that due to drastic improvements in efficiency and easy utilization, this method opens up new opportunities for PSCs from various material systems to improve towards 10% efficiency, and many novel device structures will emerge as suitable architectures for developing the ideal roll-to-roll type processing of polymer-based solar cells. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell bi-layer anode with gadolinia-doped ceria for utilization of solid carbon fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, Isaiah D. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 290A Toomey Hall, 400 West 13th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 223 McNutt Hall, 1400 N. Bishop, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Koylu, Umit O. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 290A Toomey Hall, 400 West 13th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Dogan, Fatih [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 223 McNutt Hall, 1400 N. Bishop, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Pyrolytic carbon was used as fuel in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and a bi-layer anode composed of nickel oxide gadolinia-doped ceria (NiO-GDC) and NiO-YSZ. The common problems of bulk shrinkage and emergent porosity in the YSZ layer adjacent to the GDC/YSZ interface were avoided by using an interlayer of porous NiO-YSZ as a buffer anode layer between the electrolyte and the NiO-GDC primary anode. Cells were fabricated from commercially available component powders so that unconventional production methods suggested in the literature were avoided, that is, the necessity of glycine-nitrate combustion synthesis, specialty multicomponent oxide powders, sputtering, or chemical vapor deposition. The easily-fabricated cell was successfully utilized with hydrogen and propane fuels as well as carbon deposited on the anode during the cyclic operation with the propane. A cell of similar construction could be used in the exhaust stream of a diesel engine to capture and utilize soot for secondary power generation and decreased particulate pollution without the need for filter regeneration. (author)

  3. All-Solid-State Textile Batteries Made from Nano-Emulsion Conducting Polymer Inks for Wearable Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapani Ryhänen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A rollable and all-solid-state textile lithium battery based on fabric matrix and polymer electrolyte that allows flexibility and fast-charging capability is reported. When immerged into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT nano-emulsion inks, an insulating fabric is converted into a conductive battery electrode for a fully solid state lithium battery with the highest specific energy capacity of 68 mAh/g. This is superior to most of the solid-state conducting polymer primary and/or secondary batteries reported. The bending radius of such a textile battery is less than 1.5 mm while lightening up an LED. This new material combination and inherent flexibility is well suited to provide an energy source for future wearable and woven electronics.

  4. Fabrication of Hybrid Polymer Solar Cells By Inverted Structure Based on P3HT:PCBM Active Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobih Shobih

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid polymer solar cell has privilege than its conventional structure, where it usually has structure of (ITO/PEDOT:PSS/Active Layer/Al. In humid environment the PEDOT:PSS will absorb water and hence can easily etch the ITO. Therefore it is necessary to use an alternative method to avoid this drawback and obtain more stable polymer solar cells, namely by using hybrid polymer solar cells structure with an inverted device architecture from the conventional, by reversing the nature of charge collection. In this paper we report the results of the fabrication of inverted bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM as active layer, utilizing ZnO interlayer as buffer layer between the ITO and active layer with a stacked structure of ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag. The ZnO interlayer is formed through short route, i.e. by dissolving ZnO nanoparticles powder in chloroform-methanol solvent blend rather than by sol-gel process. Based on the measurement results on electrical characteristics of inverted polymer solar cells under 500 W/m2 illumination and AM 1.5 direct filter at room temperature, cell with annealing process of active layer at 110 °C for 10 minutes results in higher cell performance than without annealing, with an open-circuit voltage of 0.21 volt, a short-circuit current density of 1.33 mA/cm2 , a fill factor of 43.1%, and a power conversion efficiency of 0.22%. The low cell’s performance is caused by very rough surface of ZnO interlayer.

  5. Spray pyrolysis of doped-ceria barrier layers for solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczewska, Dagmara; Chrzan, Aleksander; Karczewski, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Gadolinium doped ceria (Ce0.8Gd0.2O2 − x-CGO) layer fabricated by spray pyrolysis is investigated as the diffusion barrier for solid oxide fuel cell. It is deposited between the La0.6Sr0.4FeO3 − δ cathode and the yttria stabilized zirconia electrolyte to mitigate harmful interdiffusion...

  6. High-Reynolds-number turbulent-boundary-layer wall-pressure fluctuations with dilute polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian R.; Winkel, Eric S.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R.

    2010-08-01

    Wall-pressure fluctuations were investigated within a high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer (TBL) modified by the addition of dilute friction-drag-reducing polymer solutions. The experiment was conducted at the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model with the surface hydraulically smooth (k+<0.2) and achieving downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220×106. The polymer (polyethylene oxide) solution was injected into the TBL through a slot in the surface. The primary flow diagnostics were skin-friction drag balances and an array of flush-mounted dynamic pressure transducers 9.8 m from the model leading edge. Parameters varied included the free-stream speed (6.7, 13.4, and 20.2 m s-1) and the injection condition (polymer molecular weight, injection concentration, and volumetric injection flux). The behavior of the pressure spectra, convection velocity, and coherence, regardless of the injection condition, were determined primarily based on the level of drag reduction. Results were divided into two regimes dependent on the level of polymer drag reduction (PDR), nominally separated at a PDR of 40%. The low-PDR regime is characterized by decreasing mean-square pressure fluctuations and increasing convection velocity with increasing drag reduction. This shows that the decrease in the pressure spectra with increasing drag reduction is due in part to the moving of the turbulent structures from the wall. Conversely, with further increases in drag reduction, the high-PDR regime has negligible variation in the mean-squared pressure fluctuations and convection velocity. The convection velocity remains constant at approximately 10% above the baseline-flow convection velocity, which suggests that the turbulent structures no longer move farther from the wall with increasing drag reduction. In light of recent numerical work, the coherence results indicate that in the low-PDR regime, the turbulent structures are being elongated in

  7. Solid particle effects on heat transfer in a multi-layered molten pool with gas injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao y Leon, Rosa Marina; Corradini, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    In the very unlikely event of a severe reactor accident involving core melt and pressure vessel failure, it is important to identify the circumstances that would allow the molten core material to cool down and resolidify, bringing core debris to a stable coolable state. To achieve this, it has been proposed to flood the cavity with water from above forming a layered structure where upward heat loss from the molten pool to the water will cause the core material to quench and solidify. In this situation the molten pool would become a three-phase mixture: e.g., a solid and liquid slurry formed by the molten pool as it cools to a temperature below the temperature of liquidus, agitated by the gases formed in the concrete ablation process. The present work quantifies the partition of the heat losses upward and downward in this multi-layered configuration, considering the influence of the viscosity and the solid fraction in the pool, from test data obtained from intermediate scale experiments at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. These experimental results show heat transfer behavior for multi-layered pools for a range of viscosities and solid fractions. These results are compared to previous experimental studies and well known correlations and models

  8. Micro-patterning of self-supporting layers with conducting polymer wires for 3D-chip interconnection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, J.; Videlot, C.; Nguyen, T.N.; Wang, L.; Sarro, P.M.; Crawley, D.; Nikolic, K.; Forshaw, M.

    2003-01-01

    Highly conducting polymers have attracted much interest because of their potential applications in sensors and electronic devices. By the use of templates like porous membranes during polymerization conducting molecular wires can be formed with highly anisotropic properties which can be used as interconnecting layers in a three-dimensional (3D)-chip stacking. We focussed on two electrochemical polymerization (ECP) techniques to produce molecular wires based on polypyrrole (PPy) embedded in isolating porous polycarbonate membranes as self-supporting layers. The growth of the polymer through the membrane pores was investigated in order to achieve a good conductivity through the pores, but with a small cross-talk between them. A new polymerization technique based on a structured cathode has been developed in order to control the polymerization locally. By that technique micro-patterned membranes with separated conducting polymer wires could be produced

  9. Large area flexible polymer solar cells with high efficiency enabled by imprinted Ag grid and modified buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Shudi; Lin, Jie; Liu, Kong; Yue, Shizhong; Ren, Kuankuan; Tan, Furui; Wang, Zhijie; Jin, Peng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    To take a full advantage of polymer semiconductors on realization of large-area flexible photovoltaic devices, herein, we fabricate polymer solar cells on the basis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) with imprinted Ag grid as transparent electrode. The key fabrication procedure is the adoption of a modified PEDOT:PSS (PH1000) solution for spin-coating the buffer layer to form a compact contact with the substrate. In comparison with the devices with intrinsic PEDOT:PSS buffer layer, the advanced devices present a much higher efficiency of 6.51%, even in a large device area of 2.25 cm"2. Subsequent characterizations reveal that such devices show an impressive performance stability as the bending angle is enlarged to 180° and bending time is up to 1000 cycles. Not only providing a general methodology to construct high efficient and flexible polymer solar cells, this paper also involves deep insights on device working mechanism in bending conditions.

  10. Diffusion of Supercritical Fluids through Single-Layer Nanoporous Solids: Theory and Molecular Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulebsir, Fouad; Vermorel, Romain; Galliero, Guillaume

    2018-01-16

    With the advent of graphene material, membranes based on single-layer nanoporous solids appear as promising devices for fluid separation, be it liquid or gaseous mixtures. The design of such architectured porous materials would greatly benefit from accurate models that can predict their transport and separation properties. More specifically, there is no universal understanding of how parameters such as temperature, fluid loading conditions, or the ratio of the pore size to the fluid molecular diameter influence the permeation process. In this study, we address the problem of pure supercritical fluids diffusing through simplified models of single-layer porous materials. Basically, we investigate a toy model that consists of a single-layer lattice of Lennard-Jones interaction sites with a slit gap of controllable width. We performed extensive equilibrium and biased molecular dynamics simulations to document the physical mechanisms involved at the molecular scale. We propose a general constitutive equation for the diffusional transport coefficient derived from classical statistical mechanics and kinetic theory, which can be further simplified in the ideal gas limit. This transport coefficient relates the molecular flux to the fluid density jump across the single-layer membrane. It is found to be proportional to the accessible surface porosity of the single-layer porous solid and to a thermodynamic factor accounting for the inhomogeneity of the fluid close to the pore entrance. Both quantities directly depend on the potential of mean force that results from molecular interactions between solid and fluid atoms. Comparisons with the simulations data show that the kinetic model captures how narrowing the pore size below the fluid molecular diameter lowers dramatically the value of the transport coefficient. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our general constitutive equation allows for a consistent interpretation of the intricate effects of temperature and fluid loading

  11. A facile route to inverted polymer solar cells using a precursor based zinc oxide electron transport layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, P. de; Moet, D.J.D.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Inverted polymer:fullerene solar cells with ZnO and MoO3 transport layers are demonstrated. ZnO films are prepared through spin casting of a zinc acetylacetonate hydrate solution, followed by low temperature annealing under ambient conditions. The performance of solar cells with an inverted

  12. N-type polymers as electron extraction layers in hybrid perovskite solar cells with improved ambient stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, S.; Chen, Z.; Fang, H. -H.; ten Brink, G. H.; Bartesaghi, D.; Adjokatse, S.; Koster, L. J. A.; Kooi, B. J.; Facchetti, A.; Loi, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We studied three n-type polymers of the naphthalenediimide-bithiophene family as electron extraction layers (EELs) in hybrid perovskite solar cells. The recombination mechanism in these devices is found to be heavily influenced by the EEL transport properties. The maximum efficiency of the devices

  13. A facile route to inverted polymer solar cells using a precursor based zinc oxide electron transport layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruyn, P.; Moet, D. J. D.; Blom, P. W. M.

    Inverted polymer: fullerene solar cells with ZnO and MoO(3) transport layers are demonstrated. ZnO films are prepared through spin casting of a zinc acetylacetonate hydrate solution, followed by low temperature annealing under ambient conditions. The performance of solar cells with an inverted

  14. Preparation and Evaluation of Core–Shell Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Solid-Phase Extraction and Determination of Sterigmatocystin in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Min Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs, combination of outstanding magnetism with specific selective binding capability for target molecules, have proven to be attractive in separation science and bio-applications. Herein, we proposed the core–shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for food analysis, employing the Fe3O4 particles prepared by co-precipitation protocol as the magnetic core and MMIP film onto the silica layer as the recognition and adsorption of target analytes. The obtained MMIPs materials have been fully characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, and re-binding experiments. Under the optimal conditions, the fabricated Fe3O4@MIPs demonstrated fast adsorption equilibrium, a highly improved imprinting capacity, and excellent specificity to target sterigmatocystin (ST, which have been successfully applied as highly efficient solid-phase extraction materials followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The MMIP-based solid phase extraction (SPE method gave linear response in the range of 0.05–5.0 mg·L−1 with a detection limit of 9.1 µg·L−1. Finally, the proposed method was used for the selective isolation and enrichment of ST in food samples with recoveries in the range 80.6–88.7% and the relative standard deviation (RSD <5.6%.

  15. Deformation sensor based on polymer-supported discontinuous graphene multi-layer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotenuto, G.; Schiavo, L.; Romeo, V.; Nicolais, L.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene can be conveniently used in the modification of polymer surfaces. Graphene macromolecules are perfectly transparent to the visible light and electrically conductive, consequently these two properties can be simultaneously provided to polymeric substrates by surface coating with thin graphene layers. In addition, such coating process provides the substrates of: water-repellence, higher surface hardness, low-friction, self-lubrication, gas-barrier properties, and many other functionalities. Polyolefins have a non-polar nature and therefore graphene strongly sticks on their surface. Nano-crystalline graphite can be used as graphene precursor in some chemical processes (e.g., graphite oxide synthesis by the Hummer method), in addition it can be directly applied to the surface of a polyolefin substrate (e.g., polyethylene) to cover it by a thin graphene multilayer. In particular, the nano-crystalline graphite perfectly exfoliate under the application of a combination of shear and friction forces and the produced graphene single-layers perfectly spread and adhere on the polyethylene substrate surface. Such polymeric materials can be used as ITO (indium-tin oxide) substitute and in the fabrication of different electronic devices. Here the fabrication of transparent resistive deformation sensors based on low-density polyethylene films coated by graphene multilayers is described. Such devices are very sensible and show a high reversible and reproducible behavior

  16. Influence of emissive layer thickness on electrical characteristics of polyfluorene copolymer based polymer light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, D; Gopikrishna, P; Singh, A; Dey, A; Iyer, P K

    2016-01-01

    Polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) with a device configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PFONPN01 [Poly [2,7-(9,9’-dioctylfluorene)-co-N-phenyl-1,8-naphthalimide (99:01)]/LiF/Al have been fabricated by varying the emissive layer (EML) thickness (40/65/80/130 nm) and the influence of EML thickness on the electrical characteristics of PLED has been studied. PLED can be modelled as a simple combination of resistors and capacitors. The impedance spectroscopy analysis showed that the devices with different EML thickness had different values of parallel resistance (R P ) and the parallel capacitance (C P ). The impedance of the devices is found to increase with increasing EML thickness resulting in an increase in the driving voltage. The device with an emissive layer thickness of 80nm, spin coated from a solution of concentration 15 mg/mL is found to give the best device performance with a maximum brightness value of 5226 cd/m 2 . (paper)

  17. Biodegradable polymer for sealing porous PEO layer on pure magnesium: An in vitro degradation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabbasi, Alyaa; Mehjabeen, Afrin; Kannan, M. Bobby; Ye, Qingsong; Blawert, Carsten

    2014-05-01

    An attempt was made to seal the porous silicate-based plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) layer on pure magnesium (Mg) with a biodegradable polymer, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA), to delay the localized degradation of magnesium-based implants in body fluid for better in-service mechanical integrity. Firstly, a silicate-based PEO coating on pure magnesium was performed using a pulsed constant current method. In order to seal the pores in the PEO layer, PLLA was coated using a two-step spin coating method. The performance of the PEO-PLLA Mg was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The EIS results showed that the polarization resistance (Rp) of the PEO-PLLA Mg was close to two orders of magnitude higher than that of the PEO Mg. While the corrosion current density (icorr) of the pure Mg was reduced by 65% with the PEO coating, the PEO-PLLA coating reduced the icorr by almost 100%. As expected, the Rp of the PEO-PLLA Mg decreased with increase in exposure time. However, it was noted that the Rp of the PEO-PLLA Mg even after 100 h was six times higher than that of the PEO Mg after 48 h exposure, and did not show any visible localized attack.

  18. Inert Layered Silicate Improves the Electrochemical Responses of a Metal Complex Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Miharu; Momotake, Masako; Inoue, Fumie; Oshima, Takayoshi; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Higuchi, Masayoshi

    2017-10-11

    A chemically inert, insulating layered silicate (saponite; SP) and an iron(II)-based metallo-supramolecular complex polymer (polyFe) were combined via electrostatic attraction to improve the electrochromic properties of polyFe. Structural characterization indicated that polyFe was intercalated into the SP nanosheets. Interestingly, the redox potential of polyFe was lowered by combining it with SP, and the current was measurable despite the insulating nature of SP. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the decrease in the redox potential observed in the SP-polyFe hybrid was caused by the electrostatic neutralization of the Fe cation in polyFe by the negative charge on SP. Electrochemical analyses indicated that electron transfer occurred through electron hopping across the SP-polyFe hybrid. Control experiments using a metal complex composed of Fe and two 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine ligands (terpyFe) showed that SP contributes to the effective electron hopping. This modulation of the electrochemical properties by the layered silicates could be applied to other electrochemical systems, including hybrids of the redox-active ionic species and ion-exchangeable adsorbents.

  19. Molecular motion in polymer electrolytes. An investigation of methods for improving the conductivity of solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Mark Ian

    2002-01-01

    Three methods were explored with a view to enhancing the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes; namely the addition of an inert, inorganic filler, the addition of a plasticizer and the incorporation of the electrolyte in the pores of silica matrices. There have been a number of reports, which suggest the addition of nanocrystalline oxides to polymer electrolytes increases the ionic conductivities by about a factor of two. In this thesis studies of the polymer electrolyte NaSCN.P(EO) 8 with added nanocrystalline alumina powder are reported which show no evidence of enhanced conductivity. The addition of a plasticizer to polymer electrolytes will increase the ionic conductivity. A detailed study was made of the polymer electrolytes LiT.P(EO) 10 and LiClO 4 .P(EO) 10 with added ethylene carbonate plasticizer. The conductivities showed an enhancement, however this disappeared on heating under vacuum. The present work suggests that the plasticised system is not thermodynamically stable and will limit the applications of the material. A series of samples were prepared from the polymer electrolyte LiT.P(EO) 8 and a range of porous silicas. The silicas were selected to give a wide range of pore size and included Zeolite Y, ZSM5, mesoporous silica and a range of porous glasses. This gave pore sizes from less than one nm to 50 nm. A variety of experiments, including X-ray diffraction, DSC and NMR, showed that the polymer electrolyte entered to pores of the silica. As a result the polymer was amorphous and the room temperature conductivity was enhanced. The high temperature conductivity was not increased above that for the pure electrolyte. The results suggest that this could be employed in applications, however would require higher conducting electrolytes to be of practical benefit. (author)

  20. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid gel polymer electrolyte based on poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene), carbon nanotubes, and metal oxides nanocomposites for electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Amr M.

    Clean and renewable energy systems have emerged as an important area of research having diverse and significant new applications. These systems utilize different energy storage methods such as the batteries and supercapacitors. Supercapacitors are electrochemical energy storage devices that are designed to bridge the gap between batteries and conventional capacitors. Supercapacitors which store electrical energy by electrical double layer capacitance are based on large surface area structured carbons. The materials systems in which the Faradaic reversible redox reactions store electrical energy are the transition metal oxides and electronically conducting polymers. Among the different types of conducting polymers, poly (3, 4- ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is extensively investigated owing to its chemical and mechanical stability. Due to instability of aqueous electrolytes at high voltages and toxicity of organic electrolytes, potential of supercapacitors has not been fully exploited. A novel aspect of this work is in utilizing the ionic liquid gel polymer electrolyte to design solid-state supercapacitors for energy storage. Various electrochemical systems were investigated including graphene, PEDOT, PEDOT-carbon nanotubes, PEDOT-manganese oxide, and PEDOT-iron oxide nanocomposites. The electrochemical performance of solid-state supercapacitor devices was evaluated based on cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge (CD), prolonged cyclic tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Raman spectroscopy technique was also utilized to analyze the bonding structure of the electrode materials. The graphene solid-state supercapacitor system displayed areal capacitance density of 141.83 mF cm-2 based on high potential window up to 4V. The PEDOT solid-state supercapacitor system was synthesized in acetonitrile and aqueous mediums achieving areal capacitance density of 219.17 mF cm-2. The hybrid structure of solid-state supercapacitors was also

  1. Present status of solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells and dye sensitized solar cells using PEO-based polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar; Nagarale, R K; Pandey, S P; Rhee, H W

    2011-01-01

    Due to energy crises in the future, much effort is being directed towards alternate sources. Solar energy is accepted as a novel substitute for conventional sources of energy. Out of the long list of various types of solar cells available on the market, solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells (SSPECs) and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are proposed as an alternative to costly crystalline solar cell. This review provides a common platform for SSPECs and DSSCs using polymer electrolyte, particularly on polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes. Due to numerous advantageous properties of PEO, it is frequently used as an electrolyte in both SSPECs as well as DSSCs. In DSSCs, so far high efficiency (more than 11%) has been obtained only by using volatile liquid electrolyte, which suffers many disadvantages, such as corrosion, leakage and evaporation. The PEO-based solid polymer proves its importance and could be used to solve the problems stated above. The recent developments in SSPECs and DSSCs using modified PEO electrolytes by adding nano size inorganic fillers, blending with low molecular weight polymers and ionic liquid (IL) are discussed in detail. The role of ionic liquid in modifying the electrical, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of PEO polymer electrolytes is also described. (review)

  2. Present status of solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells and dye sensitized solar cells using PEO-based polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Nagarale, R. K.; Pandey, S. P.; Rhee, H. W.; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar

    2011-06-01

    Due to energy crises in the future, much effort is being directed towards alternate sources. Solar energy is accepted as a novel substitute for conventional sources of energy. Out of the long list of various types of solar cells available on the market, solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells (SSPECs) and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are proposed as an alternative to costly crystalline solar cell. This review provides a common platform for SSPECs and DSSCs using polymer electrolyte, particularly on polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes. Due to numerous advantageous properties of PEO, it is frequently used as an electrolyte in both SSPECs as well as DSSCs. In DSSCs, so far high efficiency (more than 11%) has been obtained only by using volatile liquid electrolyte, which suffers many disadvantages, such as corrosion, leakage and evaporation. The PEO-based solid polymer proves its importance and could be used to solve the problems stated above. The recent developments in SSPECs and DSSCs using modified PEO electrolytes by adding nano size inorganic fillers, blending with low molecular weight polymers and ionic liquid (IL) are discussed in detail. The role of ionic liquid in modifying the electrical, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of PEO polymer electrolytes is also described.

  3. Morphological evolution of carbon nanofibers encapsulating SnCo alloys and its effect on growth of the solid electrolyte interphase layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jungwoo; Ryu, Won-Hee; Park, Kyu-Sung; Kim, Il-Doo

    2013-08-27

    Two distinctive one-dimensional (1-D) carbon nanofibers (CNFs) encapsulating irregularly and homogeneously segregated SnCo nanoparticles were synthesized via electrospinning of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymers containing Sn-Co acetate precursors and subsequent calcination in reducing atmosphere. CNFs synthesized with PVP, which undergoes structural degradation of the polymer during carbonization processes, exhibited irregular segregation of heterogeneous alloy particles composed of SnCo, Co3Sn2, and SnO with a size distribution of 30-100 nm. Large and exposed multiphase SnCo particles in PVP-driven amorphous CNFs (SnCo/PVP-CNFs) kept decomposing liquid electrolyte and were partly detached from CNFs during cycling, leading to a capacity fading at the earlier cycles. The closer study of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers formed on the CNFs reveals that the gradual growth of fiber radius due to continuous increment of SEI layer thickness led to capacity fading. In contrast, SnCo particles in PAN-driven CNFs (SnCo/PAN-CNFs) showed dramatically reduced crystallite sizes (<10 nm) of single phase SnCo nanoparticles which were entirely embedded in dense, semicrystalline, and highly conducting 1-D carbon matrix. The growth of SEI layer was limited and saturated during cycling. As a result, SnCo/PAN-CNFs showed much improved cyclability (97.9% capacity retention) and lower SEI layer thickness (86 nm) after 100 cycles compared to SnCo/PVP-CNFs (capacity retention, 71.9%; SEI layer thickness, 593 nm). This work verifies that the thermal behavior of carbon precursor is highly responsible for the growth mechanism of SEI layer accompanied with particles detachment and cyclability of alloy particle embedded CNFs.

  4. Solution-processed high-LUMO-level polymers in n-type organic field-effect transistors: a comparative study as a semiconducting layer, dielectric layer, or charge injection layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chuan; Xu, Yong; Liu, Xuying; Minari, Takeo; Sirringhaus, Henning; Noh, Yong-Young

    2015-01-01

    In solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), the polymers with high level of lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs, > −3.5 eV) are especially susceptible to electron-trapping that causes low electron mobility and strong instability in successive operation. However, the role of high-LUMO-level polymers could be different depending on their locations relative to the semiconductor/insulator interface, or could even possibly benefit the device in some cases. We constructed unconventional polymer heterojunction n-type OFETs to control the location of the same polymer with a high LUMO level, to be in, under, or above the accumulation channel. We found that although the devices with the polymer in the channel suffer from dramatic instability, the same polymer causes much less instability when it acts as a dielectric modification layer or charge injection layer. Especially, it may even improve the device performance in the latter case. This result helps to improve our understanding of the electron-trapping and explore the value of these polymers in OFETs. (invited article)

  5. Polymer chemistry (revised edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Mum

    1987-02-01

    This book deals with polymer chemistry, which is divided into fourteen chapters. The contents of this book are development of polymer chemistry, conception of polymer, measurement of polymer chemistry, conception of polymer, measurement of polymer, molecule structure of polymer, thermal prosperities of solid polymer, basic theory of polymerization, radical polymerization, ion polymerization, radical polymerization, copolymerization, polymerization by step-reaction, polymer reaction, crown polymer and inorganic polymer on classification and process of creation such as polymeric sulfur and carbon fiber.

  6. Performance of solid state supercapacitors based on polymer electrolytes containing different ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruye, Girum Ayalneh; Muñoz-Torrero, David; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2016-09-01

    Four Ionic Liquid based Polymer Electrolytes (IL-b-PE) were prepared by blending a Polymeric Ionic Liquid, Poly(diallyldimethylammonium) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PILTFSI), with four different ionic liquids: 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR14TFSI) (IL-b-PE1), 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PYR14FSI) (IL-b-PE2), 1-(2-hydroxy ethyl)-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (HEMimTFSI) (IL-b-PE3), and 1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, (PYR14DCA) (IL-b-PE4). Physicochemical properties of IL-b-PE such as ionic conductivity, thermal and electrochemical stability were found to be dependent on the IL properties. For instance, ionic conductivity was significantly higher for IL-b-PE2 and IL-b-PE4 containing IL with small size anions (FSI and DCA) than IL-b-PE1 and IL-b-PE3 bearing IL with bigger anion (TFSI). On the other hand, wider electrochemical stability window (ESW) was found for IL-b-PE1 and IL-b-PE2 having ILs with electrochemically stable pyrrolidinium cation and FSI and TFSI anions. Solid state Supercapacitors (SCs) were assembled with activated carbon electrodes and their electrochemical performance was correlated with the polymer electrolyte properties. Best performance was obtained with SC having IL-b-PE2 that exhibited a good compromise between ionic conductivity and electrochemical window. Specific capacitance (Cam), real energy (Ereal) & real power densities (Preal) as high as 150 F g-1, 36 Wh kg-1 & 1170 W kg-1 were found at operating voltage of 3.5 V.

  7. Development of orodispersible polymer films with focus on the solid state characterization of crystalline loperamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woertz, Christina; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The formulation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) as orodispersible films is gaining interest among novel oral drug delivery systems due to their small size, enhanced flexibility and improved patient compliance. The aim of this work was the preparation and characterization of orodispersible films containing loperamide hydrochloride (LPH) as model drug. As loperamide hydrochloride is poorly soluble in water it was used in crystalline form with a loading of 2mg/6cm(2) film. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and different types of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) in different concentrations were used as film forming polymers whereas arabic gum, xanthan gum and tragacanth served as thickening agents. Films were characterized with respect to the content uniformity, morphology, thermal behavior and crystallinity. Suspensions were investigated regarding their viscosity using a rotational rheometer and the crystal structure of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) was analyzed using polarized light microscopy. The development of flexible, non-brittle and homogeneous films of LPH was feasible. Two polymorphic forms of LPH appeared in the film formulations dependent on the utilized polymer. While in presence of HPMC the original polymorphic form I remained stable in suspension and films, the polymorphic form II occurred in presence of HPC. Both polymorphic forms were prepared separately and a solid state characterization was performed. Polymorph I showed isometric crystals whereas polymorph II showed needle shaped crystals. Tragacanth was able to prevent the transformation to polymorph II, if it was dissolved first before HPC. When HPC was added first to the suspension, the conversion to form II occurred irreversibly also after further addition of tragacanth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. MULPEX: A compact multi-layered polymer foil collector for micrometeoroids and orbital debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Graham, G. A.; Burchell, M. J.; Taylor, E. A.; Drolshagen, G.; Chater, R. J.; McPhail, D.

    Detailed studies of preserved hypervelocity impact residues on spacecraft multi-layer insulation foils have yielded important information about the flux of small particles from different sources in low-Earth orbit (LEO). We have extended our earlier research on impacts occurring in LEO to design and testing of a compact capture device. MUlti- Layer Polymer EXperiment (MULPEX) is simple, cheap to build, lightweight, of no power demand, easy to deploy, and optimised for the efficient collection of impact residue for analysis on return to Earth. The capture medium is a stack of very thin (8 and 40 μm) polyimide foils, supported on poly-tetrafluoroethylene sheet frames, surrounded by a protective aluminium casing. The uppermost foil has a very thin metallic coating for thermal protection and resistance to atomic oxygen and ultra-violet exposure. The casing provides a simple detachable interface for deployment on the spacecraft, facing into the desired direction for particle collection. On return to the laboratory, the stacked foils are separated for examination in a variable pressure scanning electron microscope, without need for surface coating. Analysis of impact residue is performed using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers. Our laboratory experiments, utilising buck-shot firings of analogues to micrometeoroids (35-38 μm olivine) and space debris (4 μm alumina and 1 mm stainless steel) in a light gas gun, have shown that impact residue is abundant within the foil layers, and preserves a record of the impacting particle, whether of micrometer or millimetre dimensions. Penetrations of the top foil are easily recognised, and act as a proxy for dimensions of the penetrating particle. Impact may cause disruption and melting, but some residue retains sufficient crystallographic structure to show clear Raman lines, diagnostic of the original mineral.

  9. Ultrahigh-vacuum in situ electrochemistry with solid polymer electrolyte and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of polypyrrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skotheim, T.A.; Florit, M.I.; Melo, A.; O'Grady, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    A new in situ combined electrochemistry and x-ray-photoelectron-spectroscopy (XPS) technique using solid polymer electrolytes has been used to characterize electrically conducting films of polypyrrole perchlorate. The technique allows in situ electrochemical oxidation and reduction (doping and undoping) in ultrahigh vacuum and the simultaneous study of the polymer with XPS as a function of its electrochemical potential. We demonstrate that some anion species interact strongly electrostatically with the nitrogen heteroatoms. We also show conclusively that the electrochemistry of polypyrrole is highly irreversible

  10. Truly quasi-solid-state lithium cells utilizing carbonate free polymer electrolytes on engineered LiFePO_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Jijeesh R.; Cíntora-Juárez, Daniel; Pérez-Vicente, Carlos; Tirado, José L.; Ahmad, Shahzada; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbonate free truly quasi-solid-state polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries. • Simple and easy up scalable preparation by solvent free thermal curing. • LiFePO_4 cathode engineered by PEDOT:PSS interphase at the current collector. • Direct polymerization over the engineered electrode surface in one pot. • Stable lithium polymer cells operating in a wide temperature range. - Abstract: Stable and safe functioning of a Li-ion battery is the demand of modern generation. Herein, we are demonstrating the application of an in-situ free radical polymerisation process (thermal curing) to fabricate a polymer electrolyte that possesses mechanical robustness, high thermal stability, improved interfacial and ion transport characteristics along with stable cycling at ambient conditions. The polymer electrolyte is obtained by direct polymerization over the electrode surface in one pot starting from a reactive mixture comprising an ethylene oxide-based dimethacrylic oligomer (BDM), dimethyl polyethylene glycol (DPG) and lithium salt. Furthermore, an engineered cathode is used, comprising a LiFePO_4/PEDOT:PSS interface at the current collector that improves the material utilization at high rates and mitigates the corrosive effects of LiTFSI on aluminium current collector. The lithium cell resulting from the newly elaborated multiphase assembly of the composite cathode with the DPG-based carbonate-free polymer electrolyte film exhibits excellent reversibility upon prolonged cycling at ambient as well as elevated temperatures, which is found to be superior compared to previous reports on uncoated electrodes with polymer electrolytes.

  11. Engineering of a polymer layered bio-hybrid heart valve scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnavi, S., E-mail: jani84@gmail.com [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, TN (India); Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Trivandrum, Kerala 695012 (India); Kumary, T.V., E-mail: tvkumary@yahoo.com [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Trivandrum, Kerala 695012 (India); Bhuvaneshwar, G.S., E-mail: gs.bhuvnesh@gmail.com [Trivitron Innovation Centre, Department of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, TN (India); Natarajan, T.S., E-mail: tsniit@gmail.com [Conducting Polymer laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai 600036, TN (India); Verma, R.S., E-mail: vermars@iitm.ac.in [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, TN (India)

    2015-06-01

    Current treatment strategy for end stage valve disease involves either valvular repair or replacement with homograft/mechanical/bioprosthetic valves. In cases of recurrent stenosis/ regurgitation, valve replacement is preferred choice of treatment over valvular repair. Currently available mechanical valves primarily provide durability whereas bioprosthetic valves have superior tissue compatibility but both lack remodelling and regenerative properties making their utility limited in paediatric patients. With advances in tissue engineering, attempts have been made to fabricate valves with regenerative potential using various polymers, decellularized tissues and hybrid scaffolds. To engineer an ideal heart valve, decellularized bovine pericardium extracellular matrix (DBPECM) is an attractive biocompatible scaffold but has weak mechanical properties and rapid degradation. However, DBPECM can be modified with synthetic polymers to enhance its mechanical properties. In this study, we developed a Bio-Hybrid scaffold with non-cross linked DBPECM in its native structure coated with a layer of Polycaprolactone-Chitosan (PCL-CH) nanofibers that displayed superior mechanical properties. Surface and functional studies demonstrated integration of PCL-CH to the DBPECM with enhanced bio and hemocompatibility. This engineered Bio-Hybrid scaffold exhibited most of the physical, biochemical and functional properties of the native valve that makes it an ideal scaffold for fabrication of cardiac valve with regenerative potential. - Highlights: • A Bio-Hybrid scaffold was fabricated with PCL-CH blend and DBPECM. • PCL-CH functionally interacted with decellularized matrix without cross linking. • Modified scaffold exhibited mechanical properties similar to native heart valve. • Supported better fibroblast and endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation. • The developed scaffold can be utilized for tissue engineering of heart valve.

  12. Ordered conducting polymer multilayer films and its application for hole injection layers in organic light-emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jianhua; Yang Yajie; Yu Junsheng; Jiang Yadong

    2009-01-01

    We reported a controlled architecture growth of layer-ordered multilayer film of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) via a modified Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. An in situ polymerization of 3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene (EDOT) monomer in multilayer LB film occurred for the formation of ordered conducting polymer embedded multilayer film. The well-distribution of conducting polymer particles was characterized by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The conducting film consisting of ordered PEDOT ultrathin layers was investigated as a hole injection layer for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The results showed that, compared to conventional spin-coating PEDOT film and electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) film, the improved performance of OLEDs was obtained after using ordered PEDOT LB film as hole injection layer. It also indicated that well-ordered structure of hole injection layer was attributed to the improvement of OLED performance, leading to the increase of charged carrier mobility in hole injection layer and the recombination rate of electrons and holes in the electroluminescent layer.

  13. Formulation of bi-layer matrix tablets of tramadol hydrochloride: Comparison of rate retarding ability of the incorporated hydrophilic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Hasanul; Al-Masum, Abdullah; Sharmin, Florida; Reza, Selim; Sm Islam, Sm Ashraful

    2015-05-01

    Bi-layer tablets of tramadol hydrochloride were prepared by direct compression technique. Each tablet contains an instant release layer with a sustained release layer. The instant release layer was found to release the initial dose immediately within minutes. The instant release layer was combined with sustained release matrix made of varying quantity of Methocel K4M, Methocel K15MCR and Carbomer 974P. Bi-layer tablets were evaluated for various physical tests including weight variation, thickness and diameter, hardness and percent friability. Drug release from bi-layer tablet was studied in acidic medium and buffer medium for two and six hours respectively. Sustained release of tramadol hydrochloride was observed with a controlled fashion that was characteristic to the type and extent of polymer used. % Drug release from eight-hour dissolution study was fitted with several kinetic models. Mean dissolution time (MDT) and fractional dissolution values (T25%, T50% and T80%) were also calculated as well, to compare the retarding ability of the polymers. Methocel K15MCR was found to be the most effective in rate retardation of freely water-soluble tramadol hydrochloride compared to Methocel K4M and Capbomer 974P, when incorporated at equal ratio in the formulation.

  14. Localization of excitons by molecular layer formation in a polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Datta, A.

    2005-01-01

    Spin coated films of atactic polystyrene of two different molecular weights have been studied with uv spectroscopy and x-ray reflectivity, the film thickness (d) varying from ∼2R g to ∼12R g where R g is the unperturbed radius of gyration of the polymer. uv extinction due to the pure electronic singlet 1 A 1g → 1 E 1u is seen to increase with d -1 for 4R g ≤d≤12R g (region 1). This suggests excitonic interaction along d. The variation of total exciton energy (E) of the A 1g →E 1u singlet with d in region 1 can be well explained by formation of linear J-aggregates of polystyrene molecules, in a lattice with spacing 'a' (in A) R g g , along d. Atomic force microscopic images of the films show the presence of 'spheres' distributed randomly on film surfaces with in-plane dimensions matching a. From the variation of E with d -2 the effective mass (m eff ) of the exciton is also determined. For R g g (region 2) the extinction and E become essentially independent of d, indicating exciton localization along d, and the value of m eff becomes very large. This enhancement in the effective mass maybe used to quantify localization. The variations of electron density (ρ) with d, i.e., the electron density profiles (EDPs) of the films extracted from x-ray reflectivity studies, indicate formation of layers with period 'b' (in A), R g g parallel to substrate surface in region 2 and a constant ρ film in region 1. On raising the temperature of a typical film to 60 deg. C, the layering was seen to almost vanish, as obtained from both the EDP and the Patterson function of the reflectivity profile. The close correspondence between 'a' and 'b' indicates that the molecules forming the J-aggregates form the layers, too. The average difference in ρ between successive extrema in the EDPs in region 2, denoted by δ, can be used as the order parameter for the layering transition. For PS-5, δ>0 at d≅4R g , where the exciton is still delocalized. Layering reduces the Hamaker

  15. Three-dimensional bioprinting of cell-laden constructs with polycaprolactone protective layers for using various thermoplastic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Soo; Jang, Jinah; Chae, Suhun; Gao, Ge; Kong, Jeong-Sik; Ahn, Minjun; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-08-22

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell-printed constructs have been recognized as promising biological substitutes for tissue/organ regeneration. They provide tailored physical properties and biological cues via multi-material printing process. In particular, hybrid bioprinting, enabling to use biodegradable synthetic polymers as framework, has been an attractive method to support weak hydrogels. The constructs with controlled architecture and high shape fidelity were fabricated through this method, depositing spatial arrangement of multi-cell types into microscale constructs. Among biodegradable synthetic polymers, polycaprolactone (PCL) has been commonly chosen in fabrication of cell-printed constructs because of its low melting temperature of 60 °C to be dispensed with extrusion-based bioprinting system. However, in addition to PCL, various synthetic polymers have been widely applied for tissue regeneration. These polymers have distinctive characteristics essential for tissue/organ regeneration. Nevertheless, it is difficult to use some polymers, such as poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and polylactic acid (PLA) with 3D bioprinting technology because of their high melting temperature to be dispensed, which can result in thermal damage to the cells in the printed constructs during the fabrication process. We present a novel bioprinting method to use various synthetic polymers in fabrication of cell-printed constructs. PCL was introduced as a protective layer to prevent thermal damage caused by high temperature of polymers during fabrication. Remarkable improvement in cellular activities in the printed constructs with PCL layers was observed compared with the construct without PCL. This bioprinting method can be applied to fabricate more tissue-like constructs through the use of various biomaterials.

  16. Multi-layer thin-film electrolytes for metal supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Markus; Ortner, Kai; Franco, Thomas; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Menzler, Norbert H.; Stöver, Detlev; Bräuer, Günter; Venskutonis, Andreas; Sigl, Lorenz S.; Buchkremer, Hans-Peter; Vaßen, Robert

    2014-06-01

    A key to the development of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (MSCs) is the manufacturing of gas-tight thin-film electrolytes, which separate the cathode from the anode. This paper focuses the electrolyte manufacturing on the basis of 8YSZ (8 mol.-% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2). The electrolyte layers are applied by a physical vapor deposition (PVD) gas flow sputtering (GFS) process. The gas-tightness of the electrolyte is significantly improved when sequential oxidic and metallic thin-film multi-layers are deposited, which interrupt the columnar grain structure of single-layer electrolytes. Such electrolytes with two or eight oxide/metal layers and a total thickness of about 4 μm obtain leakage rates of less than 3 × 10-4 hPa dm3 s-1 cm-2 (Δp: 100 hPa) at room temperature and therefore fulfill the gas tightness requirements. They are also highly tolerant with respect to surface flaws and particulate impurities which can be present on the graded anode underground. MSC cell tests with double-layer and multilayer electrolytes feature high power densities more than 1.4 W cm-2 at 850 °C and underline the high potential of MSC cells.

  17. Proof of the identity between the depletion layer thickness and half the average span for an arbitrary polymer chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanwei; Peters, Günther H.J.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    2008-01-01

    point in the polymer chain (such as the center of mass, middle segment, and end segments) can be computed as a function of the confinement size solely based on a single sampling of the configuration space of a polymer chain in bulk. Through a simple analysis based on the CABS approach in the case...... of a single wall, we prove rigorously that (i) the depletion layer thickness delta is the same no matter which reference point is used to describe the depletion profile and (ii) the value of delta equals half the average span (the mean projection onto a line) of the macromolecule in free solution. Both...

  18. Surface morphology and structure of Ge layer on Si(111) after solid phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryoma; Tosaka, Aki; Shigeta, Yukichi

    2018-05-01

    The surface morphology change of a Ge layer on a Si(111) surface formed by solid phase epitaxy has been investigated with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The Ge film was deposited at room temperature and annealed at 400 °C or 600 °C. The STM images of the sample surface after annealing at 400 °C show a flat wetting layer (WL) with small three-dimensional islands on the WL. After annealing at 600 °C, the STM images show a surface roughening with large islands. From the relation between the average height of the roughness and the deposited layer thickness, it is confirmed that the diffusion of Ge atoms becomes very active at 600 °C. The Si crystal at the interface is reconstructed and the intermixing occurs over 600 °C. However, the intermixing is fairly restricted in the solid phase epitaxy growth at 400 °C. The surface morphology changes with the crystallization at 400 °C are discussed by the shape of the islands formed on the WL surface. It is shown that the diffusion of the Ge atoms in the amorphous phase is active even at 400 °C.

  19. Nano- and Micro-sized Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Particles on Solid Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kamra, Tripta

    2015-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are artificial receptors made by imprinting template molecules in a polymer matrix followed by their removal through washing to obtain a specific and selective template cavities. This property of the MIPs have made them a very efficient material for diverse applications such as chromatography, purification, drug sensing, etc. Recently, zero-dimensional polymer materials, in the present case molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MIP nanoparticles), ...

  20. Modification of a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolyser to ensure tritium compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichelhardt, F.; Cristescu, I.; Michling, R.; Welte, S.

    2010-01-01

    A Water Detritiation System (WDS) is required for the ITER Tritium Plant in order to process tritiated water which is accumulated in various subsystems (e.g. the hall ventilation systems). For the ITER-WDS, the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process with an electrolyser unit as one of the major components is envisaged. An experimental WDS was built and commissioned at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) for the investigation of various subsystems of the CECE process in tritium environment. The TLK-WDS consists of an 8 m Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange column and two Solid Polymer Electrolyte electrolysers, each with a maximum hydrogen output of 1 m 3 /h. The commercially available Hogen40 electrolyser units from Proton Energy Systems are not tritium compatible concerning materials, joints and quality documentation (e.g. necessary certificates). In order to process tritiated water with tritium concentrations up to 370 GBq/kg, tritium compatibility had to be ensured by appropriate modifications. Up to now, the modified system has been operated with tritiated water for 3500 h, the maximum tritium concentration in the electrolysers being 190 GBq/kg. This contribution reports on the necessary modifications of the electrolyser units and the experiences gained thereby. The results are equally important for the ITER-WDS, where the maximum tritium concentration in the feed water of the electrolyser units will be even higher with 11 TBq/kg.

  1. Hydrogen production by electrochemical decomposition of formic acid via solid polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Ebru Oender [KOSGEB Bursa Business Development Center, Besevler Kucuk Sanayi Sitesi 16149 Nilufer/Bursa (Turkey); Koparal, Ali Savas; Oeguetveren, Uelker Bakir [Anadolu University, Iki Eylul Campus, Applied Research Center for Environmental Problems 26555 Eskisehir (Turkey); Anadolu University, Iki Eylul Campus, Department of Environmental Engineering, 26555 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of simultaneous hydrogen production by electrochemical decomposition of formic acid via solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) in an electrochemical reactor. Titanium oxide coated with iridium oxide as anode and carbon fibre with Pt catalyst as cathode were used in the experiments. Effects of applied current density, flow rates and temperature of formic acid solution, concentration of supporting electrolyte and pH of the solution on performance of the process have been investigated. The effect of membrane thickness has also been examined. The results suggest that electrolysis using SPE is a promising method for the treatment of organic pollutants. Hydrogen with purity of 99.999% at ambient temperature by using carbon fibre cathode with Pt catalyst can be produced simultaneously and COD removal efficiency of 95% has been achieved not requiring any chemical addition and temperature increase. Also complete electrochemical oxidation of formic acid at the original pH to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O without production of intermediate has been proved by HPLC analysis. (author)

  2. Radiation durability of polymeric materials in solid polymer electrolyzer for fusion tritium plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hiroki, Akihiro; Tamada, Masao

    2009-02-01

    This document presents the radiation durability of various polymeric materials applicable to a solid-polymer-electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer to be used in the tritium facility of fusion reactor. The SPE water electrolyzers are applied to the water detritiation system (WDS) of the ITER. In the ITER, an electrolyzer should keep its performance during two years operation in the tritiated water of 9TBq/kg, the design tritium concentration of the ITER. The tritium exposure of 9TBq/kg for two years is corresponding to the irradiation of no less than 530 kGy. In this study, the polymeric materials were irradiated with γ-rays or with electron beams at various conditions up to 1600 kGy at room temperature or at 343 K. The change in mechanical and functional properties were investigated by stress-strain measurement, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), and so on. Our selection of polymeric materials for a SPE water electrolyzer used in a radiation environment was Pt + Ir applied Nafion N117 ion exchange membrane, VITON O-ring seal and polyimide insulator. (author)

  3. Enzymatic logic calculation systems based on solid-state electrochemiluminescence and molecularly imprinted polymer film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Wenjing; Liang, Jiying; Shen, Li; Jin, Yue; Liu, Hongyun

    2018-02-15

    The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) films were electropolymerized on the surface of Au electrodes with luminol and pyrrole (PY) as the two monomers and ampicillin (AM) as the template molecule. The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) intensity peak of polyluminol (PL) of the AM-free MIP films at 0.7V vs Ag/AgCl could be greatly enhanced by AM rebinding. In addition, the ECL signals of the MIP films could also be enhanced by the addition of glucose oxidase (GOD)/glucose and/or ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH) 2 ) in the testing solution. Moreover, Fc(COOH) 2 exhibited cyclic voltammetric (CV) response at the AM-free MIP film electrodes. Based on these results, a binary 3-input/6-output biomolecular logic gate system was established with AM, GOD and Fc(COOH) 2 as inputs and the ECL responses at different levels and CV signal as outputs. Some functional non-Boolean logic devices such as an encoder, a decoder and a demultiplexer were also constructed on the same platform. Particularly, on the basis of the same system, a ternary AND logic gate was established. The present work combined MIP film electrodes, the solid-state ECL, and the enzymatic reaction together, and various types of biomolecular logic circuits and devices were developed, which opened a novel avenue to construct more complicated bio-logic gate systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical and Electrical Characteristics of Silver Ion Conducting Nanocomposite Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shujahadeen B.; Rasheed, Mariwan A.; Abidin, Zul H. Z.

    2017-10-01

    Optical and electrical properties of nanocomposite solid polymer electrolytes based on chitosan have been investigated. Incorporation of alumina nanoparticles into the chitosan:silver triflate (AgTf) system broadened the surface plasmon resonance peaks of the silver nanoparticles and shifted the absorption edge to lower photon energy. A clear decrease of the optical bandgap in nanocomposite samples containing alumina nanoparticles was observed. The variation of the direct-current (DC) conductivity and dielectric constant followed the same trend with alumina concentration. The DC conductivity increased by two orders of magnitude, which can be attributed to hindrance of silver ion reduction. Transmission electron microscopy was used to interpret the space-charge and blocking effects of alumina nanoparticles on the DC conductivity and dielectric constant. The ion conduction mechanism was interpreted based on the dependences of the electrical and dielectric parameters. The dependence of the DC conductivity on the dielectric constant is explained empirically. Relaxation processes associated with conductivity and viscoelasticity were distinguished based on the incomplete semicircular arcs in plots of the real and imaginary parts of the electric modulus.

  5. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2015-05-22

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  6. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  7. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps

  8. Fabrication of Covalently Crosslinked and Amine-Reactive Microcapsules by Reactive Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Azlactone-Containing Polymer Multilayers on Sacrificial Microparticle Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurer, Eric M.; Flessner, Ryan M.; Buck, Maren E.; Lynn, David M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of covalently crosslinked and amine-reactive hollow microcapsules using ‘reactive’ layer-by-layer assembly to deposit thin polymer films on sacrificial microparticle templates. Our approach is based on the alternating deposition of layers of a synthetic polyamine and a polymer containing reactive azlactone functionality. Multilayered films composed of branched poly(ethylene imine) (BPEI) and poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone) (PVDMA) were fabricated layer-by-layer on the surfaces of calcium carbonate and glass microparticle templates. After fabrication, these films contained residual azlactone functionality that was accessible for reaction with amine-containing molecules. Dissolution of the calcium carbonate or glass cores using aqueous ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) or hydrofluoric acid (HF), respectively, led to the formation of hollow polymer microcapsules. These microcapsules were robust enough to encapsulate and retain a model macromolecule (FITC-dextran) and were stable for at least 22 hours in high ionic strength environments, in low and high pH solutions, and in several common organic solvents. Significant differences in the behaviors of capsules fabricated on CaCO3 and glass cores were observed and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Whereas capsules fabricated on CaCO3 templates collapsed upon drying, capsules fabricated on glass templates remained rigid and spherical. Characterization using EDS suggested that this latter behavior results, at least in part, from the presence of insoluble metal fluoride salts that are trapped or precipitate within the walls of capsules after etching of the glass cores using HF. Our results demonstrate that the assembly of BPEI/PVDMA films on sacrificial templates can be used to fabricate reactive microcapsules of potential use in a wide range of fields, including catalysis, drug and gene delivery, imaging, and

  9. Nanotube liquid crystal elastomers: photomechanical response and flexible energy conversion of layered polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xiaoming; King, Benjamin C; Loomis, James; Panchapakesan, Balaji; Campo, Eva M; Hegseth, John; Cohn, Robert W; Terentjev, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Elastomeric composites based on nanotube liquid crystals (LCs) that preserve the internal orientation of nanotubes could lead to anisotropic physical properties and flexible energy conversion. Using a simple vacuum filtration technique of fabricating nanotube LC films and utilizing a transfer process to poly (dimethyl) siloxane wherein the LC arrangement is preserved, here we demonstrate unique and reversible photomechanical response of this layered composite to excitation by near infra-red (NIR) light at ultra-low nanotube mass fractions. On excitation by NIR photons, with application of small or large pre-strains, significant expansion or contraction of the sample occurs, respectively, that is continuously reversible and three orders of magnitude larger than in pristine polymer. Schlieren textures were noted in these LC composites confirming long range macroscopic nematic order of nanotubes within the composites. Order parameters of LC films ranged from S optical  = 0.51–0.58 from dichroic measurements. Film concentrations, elastic modulus and photomechanical stress were all seen to be related to the nematic order parameter. For the same nanotube concentration, the photomechanical stress was almost three times larger for the self-assembled LC nanotube actuator compared to actuator based on randomly oriented carbon nanotubes. Investigation into the kinetics of photomechanical actuation showed variation in stretching exponent β with pre-strains, concentration and orientation of nanotubes. Maximum photomechanical stress of ∼0.5 MPa W −1 and energy conversion of ∼0.0045% was achieved for these layered composites. The combination of properties, namely, optical anisotropy, reversible mechanical response to NIR excitation and flexible energy conversion all in one system accompanied with low cost makes nanotube LC elastomers important for soft photochromic actuation, energy conversion and photo-origami applications. (paper)

  10. Evaluating Mechanical Properties of Few Layers MoS2 Nanosheets-Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bilal Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reinforcement effects of liquid exfoliated molybdenum disulphide (MoS2 nanosheets, dispersed in polystyrene (PS matrix, are evaluated here. The range of composites (0~0.002 volume fraction (Vf MoS2-PS is prepared via solution casting. Size selected MoS2 nanosheets (3~4 layers, with a lateral dimension L 0.5~1 µm, have improved Young’s modulus up to 0.8 GPa for 0.0002 Vf MoS2-PS as compared to 0.2 GPa observed for PS only. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS is improved considerably (~×3 with a minute addition of MoS2 nanosheets (0.00002 Vf. The MoS2 nanosheets lateral dimension and number of layers are approximated using atomic force microscopy (AFM. The composites formation is confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Theoretical predicted results (Halpin-Tsai model are well below the experimental findings, especially at lower concentrations. Only at maximum concentrations, the experimental and theoretical results coincide. The high aspect ratio of MoS2 nanosheets, homogeneous dispersion inside polymer, and their probable planar orientation are the possible reasons for the effective stress transfer, resulting in enhanced mechanical characteristics. Moreover, the micro-Vickers hardness (HV of the MoS2-PS is also improved from 19 (PS to 23 (0.002 Vf MoS2-PS as MoS2 nanosheets inclusion may hinder the deformation more effectively.

  11. Cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Yanxun; Deng Mingxi

    2008-01-01

    The physical process of cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate is presented by using the second-order perturbation and the technique of nonlinear reflection of acoustic waves at an interface. In general, the cumulative second-harmonic generation of a dispersive guided wave propagation does not occur. However, the present paper shows that the second-harmonic of Lamb wave propagation arising from the nonlinear interaction of the partial bulk acoustic waves and the restriction of the three boundaries of the solid plates does have a cumulative growth effect if some conditions are satisfied. Through boundary condition and initial condition of excitation, the analytical expression of cumulative second-harmonic of Lamb waves propagation is determined. Numerical results show the cumulative effect of Lamb waves on second-harmonic field patterns. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  12. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIP for Selective Solid Phase Extraction of Celecoxib in Urine Samples Followed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Ansari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, for the analysis of human urine samples, a novel method explained for the determination of celecoxib, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The synthesis of the MIP was performed by precipitation polymerization in methacrylic acid (MAA, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA, chloroform, 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN and celecoxib as the functional monomer, cross-linker monomer, solvent, initiator and target drug, respectively. The celecoxib imprinted polymer was utilized as a specific sorbent for the solid phase extraction (SPE of celecoxib from samples. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP performance was compared with the synthesized non-molecularly imprinted polymer (NIP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-VIS spectrophotometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG were used for characterizing the synthesized polymers. Moreover, the MISPE procedure parameters such as pH, eluent solvent flow rate, eluent volume and sorbent mass that probably influence the extraction process have been optimized to achieve the highest celecoxib extraction efficiency. The relative standard deviation (RSD %, recovery percent, limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ of this proposed method were 1.12%, 96%, 8 µg L-1 and 26.7 µg L-1, respectively. The proposed MISPE-HPLC-UV method can be used for the separation and enrichment of trace amounts of celecoxib in human urine and biological samples.

  13. Isothermal curing of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites based upon epoxy resin by means of anionic homopolymerisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Román, Frida; Calventus, Yolanda; Colomer, Pere; Hutchinson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanocomposite with low content of clay displayed improved thermal properties. • The vitrification was observed in the isothermal curing. • Dielectric relaxations outside and inside of the clay galleries were detected. - Abstract: The use of an initiator, 4-(dimethylamino) pyridine (DMAP), to promote an anionic homopolymerisation reaction for the isothermal cure of polymer layered silicate (PLS) nanocomposites based on an epoxy resin, as well as the effect of the nanoclay content, have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The vitrification phenomenon was observed during the isothermal cure process, and it was found that the nanocomposite with a low clay content (2 wt%), denoted EDM2, shows improved thermal properties with respect to the unreinforced resin (denoted ED), while the nanocomposite with a higher clay content (5 wt%), denoted EDM5, displayed inferior properties. The cure kinetics were analysed by different methods, and it was observed that the activation energy and kinetic parameters of EDM2 were lower compared to the other two systems. Examination of the nanostructure of the cured EDM2 nanocomposite showed partial exfoliation, while the EDM5 system retains an intercalated nanostructure. In the DRS studies of the curing process of the EDM2 system, two dielectric relaxations were detected, which are associated with the molecular mobility in the curing reaction which takes place both outside and inside the clay galleries

  14. Characterization of multi-layered impact damage in polymer matrix composites using lateral thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Travis; Sathish, Shamachary

    2017-02-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are increasingly being integrated into aircraft structures. However, these components are susceptible to impact related delamination, which, on aircrafts, can occur due to a number of reasons during aircraft use and maintenance. Quantifying impact damage is an important aspect for life-management of aircraft and requires in-depth knowledge of the damage zone on a ply-by-ply level. Traditionally, immersion ultrasound has provided relative high resolution images of impact damage. Ultrasonic time-of-flight data can be used to determine the front surface delamination depth and an approximation of the delaminated area. However, such inspections require the material to be immersed in water and can be time consuming. The objective of this work is to develop a quick and robust methodology to non-destructively characterize multi-layered impact damage using lateral thermography. Initial results suggest lateral heat flow is sensitive to the depth of impact damage. The anticipated outcome of this project is to estimate the extent of through-thickness impact damage. Initial results are shown and future efforts are discussed.

  15. Thermal conductivity of catalyst layer of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells: Part 1 - Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Mohammad; Tam, Mickey; Saha, Madhu S.; Stumper, Jürgen; Bahrami, Majid

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a new methodology is proposed for measuring the through-plane thermal conductivity of catalyst layers (CLs) in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The proposed methodology is based on deconvolution of bulk thermal conductivity of a CL from measurements of two thicknesses of the CL, where the CLs are sandwiched in a stack made of two catalyst-coated substrates. Effects of hot-pressing, compression, measurement method, and substrate on the through-plane thermal conductivity of the CL are studied. For this purpose, different thicknesses of catalyst are coated on ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) and aluminum (Al) substrates by a conventional Mayer bar coater and measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The through-plane thermal conductivity of the CLs is measured by the well-known guarded heat flow (GHF) method as well as a recently developed transient plane source (TPS) method for thin films which modifies the original TPS thin film method. Measurements show that none of the studied factors has any effect on the through-plane thermal conductivity of the CL. GHF measurements of a non-hot-pressed CL on Al yield thermal conductivity of 0.214 ± 0.005 Wṡm-1ṡK-1, and TPS measurements of a hot-pressed CL on ETFE yield thermal conductivity of 0.218 ± 0.005 Wṡm-1ṡK-1.

  16. Structural optimization of interpenetrated pillared-layer coordination polymers for ethylene/ethane separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Keisuke; Horike, Satoshi; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Tahara, Mina; Inubushi, Yasutaka; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2014-06-01

    With the goal of achieving effective ethylene/ethane separation, we evaluated the gas sorption properties of four pillared-layer-type porous coordination polymers with double interpenetration, [Zn2(tp)2(bpy)]n (1), [Zn2(fm)2(bpe)]n (2), [Zn2(fm)2(bpa)]n (3), and [Zn2(fm)2(bpy)]n (4) (tp = terephthalate, bpy = 4,4'-bipyridyl, fm = fumarate, bpe = 1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethylene and bpa = 1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane). It was found that 4, which contains the narrowest pores of all of these compounds, exhibited ethylene-selective sorption profiles. The ethylene selectivity of 4 was estimated to be 4.6 at 298 K based on breakthrough experiments using ethylene/ethane gas mixtures. In addition, 4 exhibited a good regeneration ability compared with a conventional porous material. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The kinetics of solid phase epitaxy in As-doped buried amorphous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The kinetics of dopant-enhanced solid phase epitaxy (SPE) have been measured in buried a-Si layers doped with arsenic. SPE rates were measured over the temperature range 480 - 660 deg C for buried a-Si layers containing ten different As concentrations. In the absence of H-retardation effects, the dopant-enhanced SPE rate is observed to depend linearly on the As concentration over the entire range of concentrations, 1-16 x 10 19 cm -3 covered in the study. The Fermi level energy was calculated as a function of doping and find an equation that can provide good fits to the data. The implications of these results for models of the SPE process is discussed

  18. Incorporating an Electrode Modification Layer with a Vertical Phase Separated Photoactive Layer for Efficient and Stable Inverted Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenzhen; Liu, Hao; Wang, Yaping; Li, Jinyan; Bai, Yiming; Wang, Fuzhi; Bian, Xingming; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Tan, Zhan'ao

    2017-12-20

    For bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs), the donors and acceptors featuring specific phase separation and concentration distribution within the electron donor/acceptor blends crucially affect the exciton dissociation and charge transportation. Herein, efficient and stable nonfullerene inverted PSCs incorporating a phase separated photoactive layer and a titanium chelate electrode modification layer are demonstrated. Water contact angle (WCA), scanning kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques are implemented to characterize the morphology of photoactive layers. Compared with the control conventional device, the short-circuit current density (J sc ) is enhanced from 14.74 to 17.45 mAcm -2 . The power conversion efficiency (PCE) for the inverted PSCs with a titanium (diisopropoxide)-bis-(2,4-pentanedionate) (TIPD) layer increases from 9.67% to 11.69% benefiting from the declined exciton recombination and fairly enhanced charge transportation. Furthermore, the nonencapsulated inverted device with a TIPD layer demonstrates the best long-term stability, 85% of initial PCE remaining and an almost undecayed open-circuit voltage (V oc ) after 1440 h. Our results reveal that the titanium chelate is an excellent electrode modification layer to incorporate with a vertical phase separated photoactive layer for producing high-efficiency and high-stability inverted nonfullerene PSCs.

  19. Polymer ferroelectric field-effect memory device with SnO channel layer exhibits record hole mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2014-06-10

    Here we report for the first time a hybrid p-channel polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistor memory device with record mobility. The memory device, fabricated at 200C on both plastic polyimide and glass substrates, uses ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE) as the gate dielectric and transparent p-type oxide (SnO) as the active channel layer. A record mobility of 3.3 cm 2V-1s-1, large memory window (~16 V), low read voltages (~-1 V), and excellent retention characteristics up to 5000 sec have been achieved. The mobility achieved in our devices is over 10 times higher than previously reported polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistor memory with p-type channel. This demonstration opens the door for the development of non-volatile memory devices based on dual channel for emerging transparent and flexible electronic devices.

  20. Polymer ferroelectric field-effect memory device with SnO channel layer exhibits record hole mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso; Khan, M. A.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report for the first time a hybrid p-channel polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistor memory device with record mobility. The memory device, fabricated at 200C on both plastic polyimide and glass substrates, uses ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE) as the gate dielectric and transparent p-type oxide (SnO) as the active channel layer. A record mobility of 3.3 cm 2V-1s-1, large memory window (~16 V), low read voltages (~-1 V), and excellent retention characteristics up to 5000 sec have been achieved. The mobility achieved in our devices is over 10 times higher than previously reported polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistor memory with p-type channel. This demonstration opens the door for the development of non-volatile memory devices based on dual channel for emerging transparent and flexible electronic devices.

  1. Microvoid channel polymer photonic crystals with large infrared stop gaps and a multitude of higher-order bandgaps fabricated by femtosecond laser drilling in solid resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, M.; Ventura, M.; Gu, M.

    2004-01-01

    Photosensitive polymer materials are ideally suited for laser-induced micro- and nanostructuring, as structural and compositional changes are achieved already under exposure to moderate intensities of high-repetition rate ultrashort-pulsed light. Photonic crystals with bandgaps in the infrared or the visible spectral region are a particularly interesting application, because highly correlated structural elements at a size of only a few hundred nanometers are required. We fabricated infrared photonic crystals based on microvoid channels inside solid polymer material. Femtosecond-pulsed visible light was focused into UV-cured Norland NOA63 resin by a high numerical aperture objective. In the focal spot microexplosions drive the material out of the center of the focus. Void channels of 0.7-1.3 μm diameter are generated by translating the sample along a preprogrammed pathway. Woodpile structures of void channels at layer spacings of 1.6-2.6 μm and in-plane channel spacings of 1.2-1.3 μm allowed for bandgap-induced suppression of infrared transmission in the stacking direction of as much as 86% by only 20 layers. As these structures are highly correlated and do not contain many imperfections, up to three higher-order stop gaps are observed. Consistent with theory, the number and gapwidth of higher-order gaps strongly increases with the ratio between layer- and in-plane spacing. Due to their low refractive index contrast and the missing interconnectivity of voids our structures do not provide complete photonic bandgaps. However, their manifold of sizable higher-order gaps allows for the engineering of photonic stop gaps down to the near-infrared wavelength region using comparatively large structural dimensions

  2. Evolution of carboxymethyl cellulose layer morphology on hydrophobic mineral surfaces: variation of polymer concentration and ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Beattie, David A

    2010-06-15

    The adsorption of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the basal planes of talc and molybdenite has been studied using in situ atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging. These experiments were partnered with quantitative adsorption isotherm determinations on particulate samples. The isotherms revealed a clear increase of the CMC adsorbed amount upon increasing the solution ionic strength for adsorption on both minerals. In addition, the shapes of the isotherms changed in response to the change in the electrolyte concentration, with CMC on talc displaying stepped (10(-3) M KCl), Langmuir (10(-2) M KCl), then Freundlich isotherm shapes (10(-1) M KCl), and CMC on molybdenite displaying stepped (10(-3) M KCl), Freundlich (10(-2) M KCl), then Langmuir isotherm shapes (10(-1) M KCl). AFM imaging of the polymer layer on the mineral surfaces with varying solution conditions mirrored and confirmed the conclusions from the isotherms: as the polymer solution concentration increased, coverage on the basal plane increased; as the ionic strength increased, coverage on the basal plane increased and the morphology of the layer changed from isolated well-distributed polymer domains to extensive adsorption and formation of dense, uneven polymer domains/features. In addition, comparison of the talc and molybdenite datasets points toward the presence of different binding mechanisms for CMC adsorption on the talc and molybdenite basal plane surfaces. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Using quantitative magnetic resonance methods to understand better the gel-layer formation on polymer-matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikac, Urša; Kristl, Julijana; Baumgartner, Saša

    2011-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful, non-invasive technique that can help improve our understanding of the hydrogel layer formed on swellable, polymer-matrix tablets, as well as the layer's properties and its influence on drug release. In this paper, the authors review the NMR and MRI investigations of hydrophilic, swellable polymers published since 1994. The review covers NMR studies on the properties of water and drugs within hydrated polymers. In addition, MRI studies using techniques for determining the different moving-front positions within the swollen tablets, the polymer concentration profiles across them, the influence of the incorporated drug, and so on, are presented. Some complementary methods are also briefly presented and discussed. Using MRI, the formation of a hydrogel along with simultaneous determination of the drug's position within it can be observed non-invasively. However, the MRI parameters can influence the signal's intensity and therefore they need to be considered carefully in order to prevent any misinterpretation of the results. MRI makes possible an in situ investigation of swollen-matrix tablets and provides valuable information that can lead, when combined with other techniques, to a better understanding of polymeric systems and a more effective development of optimal dosage forms.

  4. The kinetics of solid phase epitaxy in As-doped buried amorphous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Ion implantation is the principal method used to introduce dopants into silicon for fabrication of semiconductor devices. During ion implantation, damage accumulates in the crystalline silicon lattice and amorphisation may occur over the depth range of the ions if the implant dose is sufficiently high. As device dimensions shrink, the need to produce shallower and shallower highly-doped layers increases and the probability of amorphisation also increases. To achieve dopant-activation, the amorphous or damaged material must be returned to the crystalline state by thermal annealing. Amorphous silicon layers can be crystallised by the solid-state process of solid phase epitaxy (SPE) in which the amorphous layer transforms to crystalline silicon (c-Si) layer by layer using the underlying c-Si as a seed. The atomic mechanism that is responsible for the crystallisation is thought to involve highly-localised bond-breaking and rearrangement processes at the amorphous/crystalline (a/c) interface but the defect responsible for these bond rearrangements has not yet been identified. Since the bond breaking process necessarily generates dangling bonds, it has been suggested that the crystallisation process may solely involve the formation and migration of dangling bonds at the interface. One of the key factors which may shed further light on the nature of the SPE defect is the observed dopant-dependence of the rate of crystallisation. It has been found that moderate concentrations of dopants enhance the SPE crystallisation rate while the presence of equal concentrations of an n-type and a p-type dopant (impurity compensation) returns the SPE rate to the intrinsic value. This provides crucial evidence that the SPE mechanism is sensitive to the position of the Fermi level in the bandgap of the crystalline and/or the amorphous silicon phases and may lead to identification of an energy level within the bandgap that can be associated with the defect. This paper gives details of SPE

  5. Deposition of yttria stabilized zirconia layer for solid oxide fuel cell by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, John T.; Dubey, Vivekanand; Kain, Vivekanand; Dey, Gautham Kumar; Prakash, Deep

    2011-01-01

    Free energy associated with a chemical reaction can be converted into electricity, if we can split the reaction into an anodic reaction and a cathodic reaction and carry out the reactions in an electrochemical cell using electrodes that will catalyze the reactions. We also have to use a suitable electrolyte, that serves to isolate the chemical species in the two compartments from getting mixed directly but allow an ion produced in one of the reactions to proceed to the other side and complete the reaction. For this reason cracks and porosity are not tolerated in the electrolyte. First generation solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) uses yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the electrolyte. In spite of the fact that several solid electrolytes with higher conductivities at lower temperature are being investigated and developed, 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) is considered to be the most favored electrolyte for the SOFC today. The electrolyte should be present as a thin, impervious layer of uniform thickness with good adherence, chemical and mechanical stability, in between the porous cathode and anode. Efforts to produce the 8YSZ coatings on porous lanthanum strontium manganite tubes by electrochemical vapor deposition (ECVD) have met with unexpected difficulties such as impurity pick up and chemical and mechanical instability of the LSM tubes in the ECVD environment. It was also difficult to keep the chemical composition of the YSZ coating at exactly 8 mol% Yttria in zirconia and to control the coating thickness in tight control. These problems were overcome by a two step deposition process where a YSZ layer of required thickness was produced by electrophoretic coating from an acetyl acetone bath at a voltage of 30-300V DC and sintered at 1300 deg C. The resulting porous YSZ layer was made impervious by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) by the reaction between a mixture of vapors of YCl 3 and ZrCl 4 and steam at 1300 deg C as in the case of ECVD for a short

  6. Supramolecular ionics: electric charge partition within polymers and other non-conducting solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO GALEMBECK

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic phenomena in insulators have been known for the past four centuries, but many related questions are still unanswered, for instance: which are the charge-bearing species in an electrified organic polymer, how are the charges spatially distributed and which is the contribution of the electrically charged domains to the overall polymer properties? New scanning probe microscopies were recently introduced, and these are suitable for the mapping of electric potentials across a solid sample thus providing some answers for the previous questions. In this work, we report results obtained with two of these techniques: scanning electric potential (SEPM and electric force microscopy (EFM. These results were associated to images acquired by using analytical electron microscopy (energy-loss spectroscopy imaging in the transmission electron microscope, ESI-TEM for colloid polymer samples. Together, they show domains with excess electric charges (and potentials extending up to hundreds of nanometers and formed by large clusters of cations or anions, reaching supramolecular dimensions. Domains with excess electric charge were also observed in thermoplastics as well as in silica, polyphosphate and titanium oxide particles. In the case of thermoplastics, the origin of the charges is tentatively assigned to their tribochemistry, oxidation followed by segregation or the Mawell-Wagner-Sillars and Costa Ribeiro effects.A eletrificação de sólidos é conhecida há quatro séculos, mas há muitas questões importantes sobre este assunto, ainda não respondidas: por exemplo, quais são as espécies portadoras de cargas em um polímero isolante eletrificado, como estas cargas estão espacialmente distribuídas e qual é a contribuição destas cargas para as propriedades do polímero? Técnicas microscópicas introduzidas recentemente são apropriadas para o mapeamento de potenciais elétricos ao longo de uma superfície sólida, portanto podem responder a

  7. Interplay of Interfacial Layers and Blend Composition To Reduce Thermal Degradation of Polymer Solar Cells at High Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dkhil, Sadok; Pfannmöller, Martin; Schröder, Rasmus R; Alkarsifi, Riva; Gaceur, Meriem; Köntges, Wolfgang; Heidari, Hamed; Bals, Sara; Margeat, Olivier; Ackermann, Jörg; Videlot-Ackermann, Christine

    2018-01-31

    The thermal stability of printed polymer solar cells at elevated temperatures needs to be improved to achieve high-throughput fabrication including annealing steps as well as long-term stability. During device processing, thermal annealing impacts both the organic photoactive layer, and the two interfacial layers make detailed studies of degradation mechanism delicate. A recently identified thermally stable poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  8. Inverted polymer solar cells with Nafion® as the hole extraction layer: efficiency and lifetime studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manceau, Matthieu; Berson, Solenn

    2014-01-01

    The use of Nafion ®  as the hole extraction layer in polymer solar cells is demonstrated in this work. Inverted devices were built on plastic foil with the following architecture: PET/ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/Nafion ® /Ag. The Nafion ®  was processed from a surfactant-free solution in alcoholic solvents on top of the active layer. Optimization of film thickness and annealing yielded fully functional devices with power conversion efficiency similar to others referenced, along with good operational stability. (paper)

  9. Enhanced Efficiency of Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes by Dispersing Dehydrated Nanotube Titanic Acid in the Hole-buffer Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, L., E-mail: qian_lei@126.com; Xu, Z.; Teng, F.; Duan, X.-X. [Beijing Jiaotong University, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology (China); Jin, Z.-S.; Du, Z.-L. [Henan University, Key Laboratory on special functional materials (China); Li, F.-S.; Zheng, M.-J. [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Peking University, Department of Physics (China); Wang, Y.-S. [Beijing Jiaotong University, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology (China)

    2007-06-15

    Efficiency of polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) with poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) as an emitting layer was improved if a dehydrated nanotubed titanic acid (DNTA) doped hole-buffer layer polyethylene dioxythiophene (PEDOT) was used. Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectra indicated a stronger interaction between DNTA and sulfur atom in thiophene of PEDOT, which suppresses the chemical interaction between vinylene of MEH-PPV and thiophene of PEDOT. The interaction decreases the defect states in an interface region to result in enhancement in device efficiency, even though the hole transporting ability of PEDOT was decreased.

  10. Enhanced Efficiency of Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes by Dispersing Dehydrated Nanotube Titanic Acid in the Hole-buffer Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, L.; Xu, Z.; Teng, F.; Duan, X.-X.; Jin, Z.-S.; Du, Z.-L.; Li, F.-S.; Zheng, M.-J.; Wang, Y.-S.

    2007-06-01

    Efficiency of polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) with poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl hexyloxy)- p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) as an emitting layer was improved if a dehydrated nanotubed titanic acid (DNTA) doped hole-buffer layer polyethylene dioxythiophene (PEDOT) was used. Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectra indicated a stronger interaction between DNTA and sulfur atom in thiophene of PEDOT, which suppresses the chemical interaction between vinylene of MEH-PPV and thiophene of PEDOT. The interaction decreases the defect states in an interface region to result in enhancement in device efficiency, even though the hole transporting ability of PEDOT was decreased.

  11. Inverted polymer solar cells with Nafion® as the hole extraction layer: efficiency and lifetime studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manceau, Matthieu; Berson, Solenn

    2014-01-01

    The use of Nafion® as the hole extraction layer in polymer solar cells is demonstrated in this work. Inverted devices were built on plastic foil with the following architecture: PET/ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/Nafion®/Ag. The Nafion® was processed from a surfactant-free solution in alcoholic solvents on top of the active layer. Optimization of film thickness and annealing yielded fully functional devices with power conversion efficiency similar to others referenced, along with good operational stability.

  12. A Study on Load Carrying Capacity of Fly Ash Based Polymer Concrete Columns Strengthened Using Double Layer GFRP Wrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nagan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitability of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP sheets in strengthening of fly ash based polymer members under compression. Experimental results revealed that load carrying capacity of the confined columns increases with GFRP sheets wrapping. Altogether 18 specimens of M30 and G30 grade short columns were fabricated. The G30 specimens were prepared separately in 8 molarity and 12 molarity of sodium hydroxide concentration. Twelve specimens for low calcium fly ash based reinforced polymer concrete and six specimens of ordinary Portland cement reinforced concrete were cast. Three specimens from each molarity fly ash based reinforced polymer concrete and ordinary Portland cement reinforced concrete were wrapped with double layer of GFRP sheets. The load carrying capacity of fly ash based polymer concrete was tested and compared with control specimens. The results show increase in load carrying capacity and ductility index for all strengthened elements. The maximum increase in load carrying capacity was 68.53% and is observed in strengthened G30 specimens.

  13. MoS2 solid-lubricating film fabricated by atomic layer deposition on Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yazhou; Liu, Lei; Lv, Jun; Yang, Junjie; Sha, Jingjie; Chen, Yunfei

    2018-04-01

    How to reduce friction for improving efficiency in the usage of energy is a constant challenge. Layered material like MoS2 has long been recognized as an effective surface lubricant. Due to low interfacial shear strengths, MoS2 is endowed with nominal frictional coefficient. In this work, MoS2 solid-lubricating film was directly grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Si substrate using MoCl5 and H2S. Various methods were used to observe the grown MoS2 film. Moreover, nanotribological properties of the film were observed by an atomic force microscope (AFM). Results show that MoS2 film can effectively reduce the friction force by about 30-45% under different loads, indicating the huge application value of the film as a solid lubricant. Besides the interlayer-interfaces-sliding, the smaller capillary is another reason why the grown MoS2 film has smaller friction force than that of Si.

  14. Analysis of the vertical penetration of a heated fluid layer in a solid, miscible bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, G.

    1982-03-01

    The present study investigates the mass and heat transfer for the vertical penetration of a heated fluid layer in a solid, miscible bed using water-salt solutions (ZnBr 2 , NaBr) and polyethylenglycol 1500 (PEG) as simulation materials. The time depending spatial distribution of the molten material (PEG) has been measured for the first time with conductivity probes. The dependence of the downward heat flux on the density ratio rho*, i.e. the density of the fluid / the density of the molten solid, has been investigated with two different methods of heating, planar heating with a heat exchanger in a defined initial distance to the PEG-surface and electrolytical volume heating with a defined and timely constant power input. For 1 2 two layers have been observed in the fluid. This phenomenon is caused among other things by an anomality of the mixture density of the system salt solution-PEG. This process affects the downward heat flux so strongly, that it is impossible to transfer the results of such a system in this region of rho* to another system, for example to a corecatcher. The discrepancies between the measured heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients of this study and that of other authors can be explained by the different construction of the planar heater, or by different boundary conditions in the case of volume heating. (orig.) [de

  15. Solid-state chelation of metal ions by ethylenediaminetetraacetate intercalated in a layered double hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Konstantin A; O'Hare, Dermot; Isupov, Vitaly P

    2003-03-24

    The solid-state chelation of transition metal ions (Co(2+), Ni(2+), and Cu(2+)) from aqueous solutions into the lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide ([LiAl(2)(OH)(6)]Cl x 0.5H(2)O or LDH) which has been pre-intercalated with EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate) ligand has been investigated. The intercalated metal cations form [M(edta)](2)(-) complexes between the LDH layers as indicated by elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and IR and UV-vis spectroscopies. If metal chloride or nitrate salts are used in the reaction with the LDH then co-intercalation of either the Cl(-) or NO(3)(-) anions is observed. In the case of metal acetate salts the cations intercalate without the accompanying anion. This can be explained by the different intercalation selectivity of the anions in relation to the LDH. In the latter case the introduction of the positive charge into LDH structure was compensated for by the release from the solid of the equivalent quantity of lithium and hydrogen cations. Time-resolved in-situ X-ray diffraction measurements have revealed that the chelation/intercalation reactions proceed very quickly. The rate of the reaction found for nickel acetate depends on concentration as approximately k[Ni(Ac)(2)](3).

  16. Tailoring of the morphology and chemical composition of thin organosilane microwave plasma polymer layers on metal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmeier, G.; Thiemann, P.; Carpentier, J.; Shirtcliffe, N.; Stratmann, M

    2004-01-01

    The growth of thin microwave organosilicon plasma polymers on model zinc surfaces was investigated as a function of the film thickness and the oxygen partial pressure during film deposition. The evolution of the topology of the film was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nano- and micro-roughness was investigated at the inner and the outer surfaces of the plasma polymers. A special etching procedure was developed to reveal the underside of the plasma polymer and thereby its inner surface. Rough films contained voids at the interface, which reduced the polymer/metal contact area. The increase in oxygen partial pressure led to a smoother film growth with a perfect imitation of the substrate topography at the interface. The chemical structure of the films was determined by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS). ToF-SIMS at the outer and the inner surface of the plasma polymers showed that the density of methylsilyl groups increases in the outer surface layer of the plasma polymer and depends on the oxygen partial pressure. The chemical composition of the films could be altered to pure SiO{sub 2} without changing the morphology by using oxygen-plasma post-treatment. This was proved by means of IRRAS and AFM. Chemistry and topology of the films were correlated with the apparent water contact angle. It was found that a linear relationship exists between the nanoscopic roughness of the plasma polymer and the static contact angle of water. Superposition of a nanoscopic roughness of the metal surface and the nanoscopic roughness of methylsilyl-rich films led to ultra-hydrophobic films with water contact angles up to 160 deg.

  17. Influence of Weak Base Addition to Hole-Collecting Buffer Layers in Polymer:Fullerene Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyeok Seo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of weak base addition to acidic polymer hole-collecting layers in normal-type polymer:fullerene solar cells. Varying amounts of the weak base aniline (AN were added to solutions of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS. The acidity of the aniline-added PEDOT:PSS solutions gradually decreased from pH = 1.74 (AN = 0 mol% to pH = 4.24 (AN = 1.8 mol %. The electrical conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS-AN films did not change much with the pH value, while the ratio of conductivity between out-of-plane and in-plane directions was dependent on the pH of solutions. The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE was obtained at pH = 2.52, even though all devices with the PEDOT:PSS-AN layers exhibited better PCE than those with the pristine PEDOT:PSS layers. Atomic force microscopy investigation revealed that the size of PEDOT:PSS domains became smaller as the pH increased. The stability test for 100 h illumination under one sun condition disclosed that the PCE decay was relatively slower for the devices with the PEDOT:PSS-AN layers than for those with pristine PEDOT:PSS layers.

  18. The influence of Ferric ion contamination on the solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xunying; Zhang, Linsong; Li, Guangfu; Zhang, Geng; Shao, Zhi-Gang; Yi, Baolian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The cathode possesses higher tolerance for the Fe 3+ contamination than the anode. • Fe 3+ are mostly reduced to Fe 2+ rather than occur underpotential deposition. • Increased electrolysis voltage was mainly attributed to ohmic overpotential. • Voltage lags behind current for minutes in the multi-current-step test. • Poisoned electrolyser is mostly recovered by 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 solution treatment for 13 h. - Abstract: Fe 3+ is a sort of common metal ion contaminant for the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyser. In this paper, the effect of Fe 3+ on the performance of SPE water electrolyser has been investigated by both in-situ and ex-situ characterizations. The electron probe microanalysis and ultraviolet test results showed that Fe 3+ could migrate from the anode to the cathode and mostly be reduced to Fe 2+ in the cathode rather than occurred underpotential deposition as described in the previous report. The in-situ dynamic contamination test showed that the anode voltage increased sharply as soon as the Fe 3+ was fed into the anode, while the cathode voltage kept constant until the contamination time was over 30 minutes, indicating the higher tolerance of the cathode than the anode for the Fe 3+ contamination. The calculation results based on the electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy test results revealed that the striking increase of the electrolysis voltage was mainly attributed to the ohmic overpotential, which was due to the replacement of H + by Fe 3+ in the Nafion resin. Interestingly, the voltage lagged behind the current for several minutes in the multi-current-step test for the contaminated electrolyser, which phenomenon may be used for judging whether the SPE water electrolyser performance degradation is due to the metal ions contamination. Furthermore, recovery strategy has been developed, and it was found that the contaminated electrolyser could be mostly recovered by 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 solution treatment for 13 h

  19. Highly sensitive and selective hyphenated technique (molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase microextraction-molecularly imprinted polymer sensor) for ultra trace analysis of aspartic acid enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bhim Bali; Srivastava, Amrita; Tiwari, Mahavir Prasad

    2013-03-29

    The present work is related to combination of molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction and complementary molecularly imprinted polymer-sensor. The molecularly imprinted polymer grafted on titanium dioxide modified silica fiber was used for microextraction, while the same polymer immobilized on multiwalled carbon nanotubes/titanium dioxide modified pencil graphite electrode served as a detection tool. In both cases, the surface initiated polymerization was found to be advantageous to obtain a nanometer thin imprinted film. The modified silica fiber exhibited high adsorption capacity and enantioselective diffusion of aspartic acid isomers into respective molecular cavities. This combination enabled double preconcentrations of d- and l-aspartic acid that helped sensing both isomers in real samples, without any cross-selectivity and matrix complications. Taking into account 6×10(4)-fold dilution of serum and 2×10(3)-fold dilution of cerebrospinal fluid required by the proposed method, the limit of detection for l-aspartic acid is 0.031ngmL(-1). Also, taking into account 50-fold dilution required by the proposed method, the limit of detection for d-aspartic acid is 0.031ngmL(-1) in cerebrospinal fluid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. TiO2 nanofiber solid-state dye sensitized solar cells with thin TiO2 hole blocking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jinwei; Chen, Xi; Xu, Weihe; Nam, Chang-Yong; Shi, Yong

    2013-01-01

    We incorporated a thin but structurally dense TiO 2 layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as an efficient hole blocking layer in the TiO 2 nanofiber based solid-state dye sensitized solar cell (ss-DSSC). The nanofiber ss-DSSCs having ALD TiO 2 layers displayed increased open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, and power conversion efficiency compared to control devices with blocking layers prepared by spin-coating liquid TiO 2 precursor. We attribute the improved photovoltaic device performance to the structural integrity of ALD-coated TiO 2 layer and consequently enhanced hole blocking effect that results in reduced dark leakage current and increased charge carrier lifetime. - Highlights: • TiO 2 blocking locking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. • ALD-coated TiO 2 layer enhanced hole blocking effect. • ALD blocking layer improved the voltage, current and efficiency. • ALD blocking layer reduced dark leakage current and increased electron lifetime

  1. TiO{sub 2} nanofiber solid-state dye sensitized solar cells with thin TiO{sub 2} hole blocking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jinwei; Chen, Xi; Xu, Weihe [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Nam, Chang-Yong, E-mail: cynam@bnl.gov [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Shi, Yong, E-mail: Yong.Shi@stevens.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We incorporated a thin but structurally dense TiO{sub 2} layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as an efficient hole blocking layer in the TiO{sub 2} nanofiber based solid-state dye sensitized solar cell (ss-DSSC). The nanofiber ss-DSSCs having ALD TiO{sub 2} layers displayed increased open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, and power conversion efficiency compared to control devices with blocking layers prepared by spin-coating liquid TiO{sub 2} precursor. We attribute the improved photovoltaic device performance to the structural integrity of ALD-coated TiO{sub 2} layer and consequently enhanced hole blocking effect that results in reduced dark leakage current and increased charge carrier lifetime. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} blocking locking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. • ALD-coated TiO{sub 2} layer enhanced hole blocking effect. • ALD blocking layer improved the voltage, current and efficiency. • ALD blocking layer reduced dark leakage current and increased electron lifetime.

  2. Surface-protected LiCoO2 with ultrathin solid oxide electrolyte film for high-voltage lithium ion batteries and lithium polymer batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Huang, Jie; Li, Yejing; Wang, Yi; Qiu, Jiliang; Zhang, Jienan; Yu, Huigen; Yu, Xiqian; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan

    2018-06-01

    Surface modification of LiCoO2 with the ultrathin film of solid state electrolyte of Li1.4Al0.4Ti1.6(PO4)3 (LATP) has been realized by a new and facile solution-based method. The coated LiCoO2 reveals enhanced structural and electrochemical stability at high voltage (4.5 V vs Li+/Li) in half-cell with liquid electrolyte. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that a dense LATP coating layer is covered on the surface of LiCoO2 uniformly with thickness of less than 20 nm. The LATP coating layer is proven to be able to prevent the direct contact between the cathode and the electrolyte effectively and thus to suppress the side reactions of liquid electrolyte with LiCoO2 surface at high charging voltage. As a result, dissolution of Co3+ has been largely suppressed over prolonged cycling as indicated by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Due to this surface passivating feature, the electrochemical performance of 0.5 wt% LATP modified LiCoO2 has also been evaluated in an all solid lithium battery with poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte. The cell exhibits 93% discharge capacity retention of the initial discharge capacity after 50 cycles at the charging cut-off voltage of 4.2 V, suggesting that the LATP coating layer is effective to suppress the oxidation of PEO at high voltage.

  3. Arsenate removal by layered double hydroxides embedded into spherical polymer beads: Batch and column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhat Ha, Ho Nguyen; Kim Phuong, Nguyen Thi; Boi An, Tran; Mai Tho, Nguyen Thi; Ngoc Thang, Tran; Quang Minh, Bui; Van Du, Cao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance of poly(layered double hydroxides) [poly(LDHs)] beads as an adsorbent for arsenate removal from aqueous solution was investigated. The poly(LDHs) beads were prepared by immobilizing LDHs into spherical alginate/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-glutaraldehyde beads (spherical polymer beads). Batch adsorption studies were conducted to assess the effect of contact time, solution pH, initial arsenate concentrations and co-existing anions on arsenate removal performance. The potential reuse of these poly(LDHs) beads was also investigated. Approximately 79.1 to 91.2% of arsenic was removed from an arsenate solution (50 mg As L(-1)) by poly(LDHs). The adsorption data were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir isotherm model, and the adsorption capacities of these poly(LDHs) beads at pH 8 were from 1.64 to 1.73 mg As g(-1), as calculated from the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption ability of the poly(LDHs) beads decreased by approximately 5-6% after 5 adsorption-desorption cycles. Phosphates markedly decreased arsenate removal. The effect of co-existing anions on the adsorption capacity declined in the following order: HPO4 (2-) > HCO3 (-) > SO4 (2-) > Cl(-). A fixed-bed column study was conducted with real-life arsenic-containing water. The breakthrough time was found to be from 7 to 10 h. Under optimized conditions, the poly(LDHs) removed more than 82% of total arsenic. The results obtained in this study will be useful for further extending the adsorbents to the field scale or for designing pilot plants in future studies. From the viewpoint of environmental friendliness, the poly(LDHs) beads are a potential cost-effective adsorbent for arsenate removal in water treatment.

  4. Simple solution-processed titanium oxide electron transport layer for efficient inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Liang [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shen, Wenfei [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Institute of Hybrid Materials, Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile—The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Chen, Weichao [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Bao, Xichang, E-mail: baoxc@qibebt.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Wang, Ning; Dou, Xiaowei; Han, Liangliang; Wen, Shuguang [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China)

    2014-12-31

    Titanium oxide (TiO{sub X}) is an effective electron transport layer (ETL) in polymer solar cells (PSCs). We report efficient inverted PSCs with a simple solution-processed amorphous TiO{sub X} (s-TiO{sub X}) film as an ETL. The s-TiO{sub X} film with high light transmittance was prepared by spin-coating titanium (IV) isopropoxide isopropanol solution on indium tin oxide coated glass in inert and then placed in air under room temperature for 60 min. The introduction of s-TiO{sub X} ETL greatly improved the short circuit current density of the devices. PSCs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and poly(4,8-bis-alkyloxy-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-alt-alkylcarbonyl -thieno[3,4-b]thiophene):[6,6]-phenyl- C71-butyric acid methyl ester using s-TiO{sub X} film as ETL shows high power conversion efficiency of 4.29% and 6.7% under the illumination of AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}, which shows enhancements compared to the conventional PSCs with poly(styrenesulfonate)-doped poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) as anode buffer layer. In addition, the device exhibits good stability in a humid ambient atmosphere without capsulation. The results indicate that the annealing-free, simple solution processed s-TiO{sub X} film is an efficient ETL for high-performance PSCs. - Highlights: • High quality s-TiO{sub X} films were prepared by a simple, solution method without thermal treatment. • The s-TiO{sub X} films with high transmittance are very smooth. • The organic photovoltaic performance with s-TiO{sub X} film improved greatly and exhibited good stability. • The annealing-free, simple prepared s-TiO{sub X} film will be much compatible with flexible substrates.

  5. Development of a Novel Ceramic Support Layer for Planar Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Boccaccini, Dino; Brodersen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The conventional solid oxide cell is based on a Ni–YSZ support layer, placed on the fuel side of the cell, also known as the anode supported SOFC. An alternative design, based on a support of porous 3YSZ (3 mol.% Y2O3–doped ZrO2), placed on the oxygen electrode side of the cell, is proposed...... of the support can be done simultaneously with forming the oxygen electrode, since some of the best performing oxygen electrodes are based on infiltrated LSC. The potential of the proposed structure was investigated by testing the mechanical and electrical properties of the support layer. Comparable strength...... properties to the conventional Ni/YSZ support were seen, and sufficient and fairly stable conductivity of LSC infiltrated 3YSZ was observed. The conductivity of 8–15 S cm–1 at 850 °C seen for over 600 h, corresponds to a serial resistance of less than 3.5 m Ω cm2 of a 300 μm thick support layer....

  6. Use of itaconic acid-based polymers for solid-phase extraction of deoxynivalenol and application to pasta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Michelangelo; De Girolamo, Annalisa; Visconti, Angelo; Magan, Naresh; Chianella, Iva; Piletska, Elena V; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2008-02-25

    Molecular modelling and computational design were used to identify itaconic acid (IA) as a functional monomer with high affinity towards deoxynivalenol (DON), a Fusarium-toxin frequently occurring in cereals. IA-based polymers were photochemically synthesised in dimethyl formamide (porogen) using ethylenglycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker and 1,1'-azo-bis(cyclohexane carbonitrile) as initiator, and the relevant binding interactions with DON in solvents with different polarity were investigated. The performances of the non-imprinted IA-based polymer (blank polymer, BP) and the corresponding molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) were compared using DON as a template. Both BP and MIP were able to bind about 90% DON either in toluene, water or water containing 5% polyethylene glycol. Non-imprinted polymers with different molar ratios of IA to cross-linker were evaluated as adsorbents for solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up and pre-concentration of DON from wheat and pasta samples prior to HPLC analysis. Samples were extracted with PBS/0.1M EDTA solution and cleaned up through a cartridge containing blank IA-based polymer. The column was washed with PBS (pH 9.2) and the toxin was eluted with methanol and quantified by reversed-phase HPLC with UV detector (lambda=220nm), using methanol:water:acetic acid (15:85:0.1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Effective removal of matrix interferences was observed only for pasta with DON recoveries higher than 70% (RSD<7%, n=3) at levels close to or higher than EU regulatory limit.

  7. Robust platforms for creating organic-inorganic nanocomposite microspheres: decorating polymer microspheres containing mussel-inspired adhesion layers with inorganic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, H; Saito, Y; Yabu, H

    2014-12-07

    We describe a method for creating robust and stable core-shell polymer microspheres decorated with inorganic (IO) nanoparticles (NPs) by a self-organization process and heterocoagulation using a mussel-inspired polymer adhesive layer between the IO NPs and the microspheres.

  8. Autophobicity and layering behavior of thin liquid-crystalline polymer films.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielen, van der M.W.J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Fleer, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The stability against breaking-up of thin spin-coated films of liquid-crystalline polymers depends on the film thickness and annealing temperature. This study concerns side-chain liquid-crystalline polymers, based on alternating copolymers of maleic anhydride and mesogenic alkenes. The mesogenic

  9. Application of film-casting technique to investigate drug-polymer miscibility in solid dispersion and hot-melt extrudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Tapan; Gupta, Simerdeep Singh; Meena, Anuprabha K; Vitez, Imre; Mahajan, Nidhi; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2015-07-01

    Determination of drug-polymer miscibility is critical for successful development of solid dispersions. This report details a practical method to predict miscibility and physical stability of drug with various polymers in solid dispersion and, especially, in melt extrudates by applying a film-casting technique. Mixtures of itraconazole (ITZ) with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP), Kollidon(®) VA 64, Eudragit(®) E PO, and Soluplus(®) were film-casted, exposed to 40°C/75% RH for 1 month and then analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffractometry, and polarized light microscopy (PLM). ITZ had the highest miscibility with HPMCP, being miscible at drug to polymer ratio of 6:4 (w/w). There was a downward trend of lower miscibility with Soluplus(®) (miscible at 3:7, w/w, and a few microcrystals present at 4:6, w/w), Kollidon(®) VA 64 (2:8, w/w) and Eudragit(®) E PO (casting and hot-melt extrusion (HME) using a twin screw extruder. For ITZ-Soluplus(®) mixtures, HME at 4:6 (w/w) resulted in a single phase, whereas drug crystallization was observed at higher drug load. HME of ITZ-Kollidon(®) VA 64 mixtures also correlated well with the miscibility predicted by film casting. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. Characterization of plasticized PMMA–LiBF4 based solid polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Polymer electrolyte films prepared from poly(methyl methacrylate) and LiBF4 with different con- centrations of ... 1. Introduction. Many types of ionically conducting polymers, generally ... 2. Experimental. Thin films of PMMA–LiBF4–DBP in different mole ratios ... remains very close to that of a liquid electrolyte. It is con-.

  11. Room temperature solid-state synthesis of a conductive polymer for applications in stable I₂-free dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeonggwan; Koh, Jong Kwan; Kim, Jeonghun; Chi, Won Seok; Kim, Jong Hak; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2012-11-01

    A solid-state polymerizable monomer, 2,5-dibromo-3,4-propylenedioxythiophene (DBProDOT), was synthesized at 25 °C to produce a conducting polymer, poly(3,4-propylenedioxythiophene) (PProDOT). Crystallographic studies revealed a short interplane distance between DBProDOT molecules, which was responsible for polymerization at low temperature with a lower activation energy and higher exothermic reaction than 2,5-dibromo-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (DBEDOT) or its derivatives. Upon solid-state polymerization (SSP) of DBProDOT at 25 °C, PProDOT was obtained in a self-doped state with tribromide ions and an electrical conductivity of 0.05 S cm⁻¹, which is considerably higher than that of chemically-polymerized PProDOT (2×10⁻⁶ S cm⁻¹). Solid-state ¹³C NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations revealed polarons in PProDOT and a strong perturbation of carbon nuclei in thiophenes as a result of paramagnetic broadening. DBProDOT molecules deeply penetrated and polymerized to fill nanocrystalline TiO₂ pores with PProDOT, which functioned as a hole-transporting material (HTM) for I₂-free solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). With the introduction of an organized mesoporous TiO₂ (OM-TiO₂) layer, the energy conversion efficiency reached 3.5 % at 100 mW cm⁻², which was quite stable up to at least 1500 h. The cell performance and stability was attributed to the high stability of PProDOT, with the high conductivity and improved interfacial contact of the electrode/HTM resulting in reduced interfacial resistance and enhanced electron lifetime. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Influence of solvent on the poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) polymer gel electrolyte and the performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jihuai; Lan, Zhang; Lin, Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang; Hao, Shancun; Fang, Leqing

    2007-01-01

    The influence of solvents on the property of poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) polymer gel electrolyte and photovoltaic performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated. Solvents or mixed solvents with large donor number enhance the liquid electrolyte absorbency, which further influences the ionic conductivity of polymer gel electrolyte. A polymer gel electrolyte with ionic conductivity of 4.45 mS cm -1 was obtained by using poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) as polymer matrix, and absorbing 30 vol.% N-methyl pyrrolidone and 70 vol.% γ-butyrolactone with 0.5 M NaI and 0.05 M I 2 . By using this polymer gel electrolyte coupling with 0.4 M pyridine additive, a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with conversion efficiency of 4.74% was obtained under irradiation of 100 mW cm -2 (AM 1.5)

  13. A Neutron-Diffraction Study of the Solid Layers at the Liquid Solid Boundary in 4He-Films Adsorbed on Graphite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Costa Carneiro, Kim; Passell, L.; Thomlinson, W.

    1981-01-01

    A neutron scattering study of the structure of 4He films adsorbed on graphite is reported. Diffraction from helium monolayers at a temperature of 1.2K shows the formation of an incommensurate, triangular-lattice solid of high density. As the coverage is increased above two layers, the diffraction...

  14. The use of poly(vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) in polymer electrolytes for quasi-solid dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Minyu; Feng, Shujing; Fang, Shibi; Xiao, Xurui; Li, Xueping; Zhou, Xiaowen; Lin, Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Poly(vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) (P(VP-co-AN)) was used to form polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effects of P(VP-co-AN) on the photovoltaic performances of DSSCs have been investigated with nonaqueous electrolytes containing alkali-iodide and iodine. It was found that the effect of P(VP-co-AN) on V oc closely related to its amount in the electrolyte. Lower amount of P(VP-co-AN) was benefit for the construction of a solar cell containing P(VP-co-AN) with higher energy conversion efficiency. Chemically crosslinking solidification with backbone polymer P(VP-co-AN) amount of 3% fabricated quasi-solid DSSCs with 10% increased conversion efficiencies with relative to that of the initial liquid DSSCs

  15. Novel Proton Conducting Solid Bio-polymer Electrolytes Based on Carboxymethyl Cellulose Doped with Oleic Acid and Plasticized with Glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, M. N.; Isa, M. I. N.

    2016-06-01

    The plasticized solid bio-polymer electrolytes (SBEs) system has been formed by introducing glycerol (Gly) as the plasticizer into the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) doped with oleic acid (OA) via solution casting techniques. The ionic conductivity of the plasticized SBEs has been studied using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. The highest conductivity achieved is 1.64 × 10-4 S cm-1 for system containing 40 wt. % of glycerol. FTIR deconvolution technique had shown that the conductivity of CMC-OA-Gly SBEs is primarily influenced by the number density of mobile ions. Transference number measurement has shown that the cation diffusion coefficient and ionic mobility is higher than anion which proved the plasticized polymer system is a proton conductor.

  16. A novel solid fluorescence method for the fast determination of quercetin in biological samples based on the quercetin-Al(III) complex imprinted polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufei; Feng, Ting; Li, Gongke

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a novel solid fluorescence method was proposed and applied to the fast determination of quercetin in urine and onion skin samples by using metal coordination imprinted polymer membrane, which was regarded as a recognition element. The quercetin-Al(III) imprinted polymer was immobilized in the microporous polypropylene fiber membrane via consecutive in situ polymerization. The CIP membrane had the porous, loose and layer upon layer structure. The CIP membrane was characterized by electron microscope photographs, infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analysis and solvent-resistant investigation. The extraction conditions including extraction solvent, extraction time, desorption solvent were optimized. Compared with MIP and NIP membrane, CIP membrane had been proved to be peculiar selective for quercetin even in presence of the structurally similar compounds such as kaempferol, rutin, naringenin and alpinetin. The CIP membrane was characteristic of high selectivity, stable and sensitive response to quercetin in polar environment. Under the optimum condition, there was a linear relationship between the state fluorescent response and the concentration of quercetin. The linear calibration range was over 0.02 mg L-1-0.80 mg L-1 with a detection limit of 5 μg L-1. The method was characteristic of flexible and good repeatability with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.1%. The proposed method was also successfully applied for the determination of quercetin in urine and onion skin samples without complicated pretreatment. The recoveries were 84.0-112.4% and RSDs varied from 1.5% to 6.8%. The results obtained by the proposed method agreed well with those obtained by HPLC method.

  17. Brownian dynamics of a protein-polymer chain complex in a solid-state nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Craig C.; Melnikov, Dmitriy V.; Gracheva, Maria E.

    2017-08-01

    We study the movement of a polymer attached to a large protein inside a nanopore in a thin silicon dioxide membrane submerged in an electrolyte solution. We use Brownian dynamics to describe the motion of a negatively charged polymer chain of varying lengths attached to a neutral protein modeled as a spherical bead with a radius larger than that of the nanopore, allowing the chain to thread the nanopore but preventing it from translocating. The motion of the protein-polymer complex within the pore is also compared to that of a freely translocating polymer. Our results show that the free polymer's standard deviations in the direction normal to the pore axis is greater than that of the protein-polymer complex. We find that restrictions imposed by the protein, bias, and neighboring chain segments aid in controlling the position of the chain in the pore. Understanding the behavior of the protein-polymer chain complex may lead to methods that improve molecule identification by increasing the resolution of ionic current measurements.

  18. Performance enhancement of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells by dual-layered membrane electrode assembly structures with carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dong-Won; Kim, Jun-Ho; Kim, Se-Hoon; Kim, Jun-Bom; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2013-05-01

    The effect of dual-layered membrane electrode assemblies (d-MEAs) on the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was investigated using the following characterization techniques: single cell performance test, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). It has been shown that the PEMFC with d-MEAs has better cell performance than that with typical mono-layered MEAs (m-MEAs). In particular, the d-MEA whose inner layer is composed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) showed the best fuel cell performance. This is due to the fact that the d-MEAs with MWCNTs have the highest electrochemical surface area and the lowest activation polarization, as observed from the CV and EIS test.

  19. A new Pb{sup II}(ethylenediaminetetraacetate) coordination polymer with a two-dimensional layer structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, D., E-mail: iamzd@hpu.edu.cn; Zhang, R. H.; Li, F. F. [Henan Polytechnic University, Department of Physics and Chemistry (China)

    2016-12-15

    A new Pb{sup II}−edta{sup 4–} coordination polymer, Pb{sub 2}(edta)(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.76} (edta{sup 4–} = ethylenediaminetetraacetate) was synthesized under hydrothermal condition. Single crystal X-ray analysis reveals that it represents a novel two-dimensional (2D) Pb{sup 2+}–edta{sup 4–} layer structure with a (4,8{sup 2})-topology. Each edta{sup 4–} ligand employs its four carboxylate O and two N atoms to chelate one Pb{sup II} atom (hexa-coordinated) and connects five Pb{sup II} atoms (ennea-coordinated) via its four carboxylate groups to form 2D layer framework. Adjacent layers are packed into the overall structure through vander Waals interactions.

  20. Effect of Surface Roughness on Polymer Drag Reduction with a High-Reynolds-Number Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian; Dowling, David; Solomon, Michael; Bian, Sherry; Ceccio, Steven

    2007-11-01

    A recent experiment at the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel (LCC) investigated the effect of wall roughness on wall-injection polymer drag reduction (PDR) within a high-Reynolds-number (10^7 to 2x10^8 based on downstream distance) turbulent boundary layer (TBL). Testing was performed in two parts: 1) PDR experiment on a 12.9 m long, 3.05 m wide hydro-dynamically smooth flat plate and 2) PDR experiment on the same model with the entire surface roughened. The roughness was produced by blowing glass beads into epoxy paint that was applied to the entire model. The roughened model had an average roughness height ranging between 307 and 1154 μm. Drag reduction was determined using six, stream-wise located integrated skin-friction balances. In addition to skin-friction measurements, sampling was performed at three stream-wise located ports. The sampling ports were used to determine the amount of degradation, if any, caused by the turbulent flow on the polymer. Both the skin-friction measurements and sampling analysis indicates that wall roughness in a turbulent boundary layer significantly increases degradation of the polymer solution.

  1. Shellac Films as a Natural Dielectric Layer for Enhanced Electron Transport in Polymer Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung Woon; Ha, Jong-Woon; Yoon, Minho; Hwang, Do-Hoon; Lee, Jiyoul

    2018-06-06

    Shellac, a natural polymer resin obtained from the secretions of lac bugs, was evaluated as a dielectric layer in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) on the basis of donor (D)-acceptor (A)-type conjugated semiconducting copolymers. The measured dielectric constant and breakdown field of the shellac layer were ∼3.4 and 3.0 MV/cm, respectively, comparable with those of a poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) film, a commonly used dielectric material. Bottom-gate/top-contact OFETs were fabricated with shellac or PVP as the dielectric layer and one of three different D-A-type semiconducting copolymers as the active layer: poly(cyclopentadithiophene- alt-benzothiadiazole) with p-type characteristics, poly(naphthalene-bis(dicarboximide)- alt-bithiophene) [P(NDI2OD-T2)] with n-type characteristics, and poly(dithienyl-diketopyrrolopyrrole- alt-thienothiophene) [P(DPP2T-TT)] with ambipolar characteristics. The electrical characteristics of the fabricated OFETs were then measured. For all active layers, OFETs with a shellac film as the dielectric layer exhibited a better mobility than those with PVP. For example, the mobility of the OFET with a shellac dielectric and n-type P(NDI2OD-T2) active layer was approximately 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of the corresponding OFET with a PVP insulating layer. When P(DPP2T-TT) served as the active layer, the OFET with shellac as the dielectric exhibited ambipolar characteristics, whereas the corresponding OFET with the PVP dielectric operated only in hole-accumulation mode. The total density of states was analyzed using technology computer-aided design simulations. The results revealed that compared with the OFETs with PVP as the dielectric, the OFETs with shellac as the dielectric had a lower trap-site density at the polymer semiconductor/dielectric interface and much fewer acceptor-like trap sites acting as electron traps. These results demonstrate that shellac is a suitable dielectric material for D-A-type semiconducting

  2. Processing and characterization of solid and microcellular biobased and biodegradable PHBV-based polymer blends and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Alireza

    will not only reduce cost but also improve processability due to the use of supercritical fluid. Various material properties of the solid (without the foaming agent) and microcellular components (with foaming agent) made of PHBV-based polymer blends or composites were investigated including static mechanical properties (tensile testing), dynamic mechanical properties (dynamic mechanical analysis), thermal properties (differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetric analysis), crystallinity(wide angle X-ray scattering analysis), and morphology (scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy). The composition-processing-structure-property relationship of these solid and microcellular components were established.

  3. Effect of Al2O3 nanoparticles in plasticized PMMA-LiClO4 based solid polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, P.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-05-01

    We have studied the broadband complex conductivity spectra covering a 0.01 Hz-3 GHz frequency range for plasticized PMMA-LiClO4 based solid polymer electrolyte embedded with Al2O3 nanoparticle. We have analyzed the conductivity spectra using the random free-energy barrier model (RBM) coupled with electrode polarization contribution in the low frequency region and at high temperatures. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity obtained from the analysis has been analyzed using Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher equation. The maximum ionic conductivity ˜ 1.93×10-4 S/cm has been obtained for 1 wt% Al2O3 nanoparticle.

  4. Solid-phase microextraction of phthalate esters in water sample using different activated carbon-polymer monoliths as adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirio, Stephen; Fu, Chung-Wei; Lin, Jhih-Yun; Hsu, Meng-Ju; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2016-07-13

    In this study, the application of different activated carbon-polymer (AC-polymer) monoliths as adsorbents for the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of phthalate esters (PAEs) in water sample were investigated. The activated carbon (AC) was embedded in organic polymers, poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(BMA-EDMA)) or poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (poly(STY-DVB)), via a 5-min microwave-assisted or a 15-min water bath heating polymerization. Preliminary investigation on the performance of the native poly(BMA-EDMA) and poly(STY-DVB) demonstrated remarkable adsorption efficiencies for PAEs. However, due to the strong hydrophobic, π-π, and hydrogen bonding interactions between the analytes and polymers, low extraction recoveries were achieved. In contrast, the presence of AC in native polymers not only enhanced the adsorption efficiencies but also assisted the PAE desorption, especially for AC-poly(STY-DVB) with extraction recovery ranged of 76.2-99.3%. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction recoveries for intra-, inter-day and column-to-column were in the range of 76.5-100.8% (<3.7% RSDs), 77.2-97.6% (<5.6% RSDs) and 75.5-99.7% (<6.2% RSDs), respectively. The developed AC-poly(STY-DVB) monolithic column showed good mechanical stability, which can be reused for more than 30 extraction times without any significant loss in the extraction recoveries of PAEs. The AC-poly(STY-DVB) monolithic column was successfully applied in SPME of PAEs in water sample with extraction recovery ranged of 78.8%-104.6% (<5.5% RSDs). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stability study of cermet-supported solid oxide fuel cells with bi-layered electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinge; Gazzarri, Javier; Robertson, Mark; Deces-Petit, Cyrille [National Research Council, Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kesler, Olivera [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-12-01

    Performance and stability of five cermet-supported button-type solid oxide fuel cells featuring a bi-layered electrolyte (SSZ/SDC), an SSC cathode, and a Ni-SSZ anode, were analyzed using polarization curves, impedance spectroscopy, and post-mortem SEM observation. The cell performance degradation at 650 C in H{sub 2}/air both with and without DC bias conditions was manifested primarily as an increase in polarization resistance, approximately at a rate of 2.3 m{omega} cm{sup 2} h{sup -1} at OCV, suggesting a decrease in electrochemical kinetics as the main phenomenon responsible for the performance decay. In addition, the initial series resistance was about ten times higher than the calculated resistance corresponding to the electrolyte, reflecting a possible inter-reaction between the electrolyte layers that occurred during the sintering stage. In situ and ex situ sintered cathodes showed no obvious difference in cell performance or decay rate. The stability of the cells with and without electrical load was also investigated and no significant influence of DC bias was recorded. Based on the experimental results presented, we preliminarily attribute the performance degradation to electrochemical and microstructural degradation of the cathode. (author)

  6. Stability study of cermet-supported solid oxide fuel cells with bi-layered electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinge; Gazzarri, Javier; Robertson, Mark; Decès-Petit, Cyrille; Kesler, Olivera

    Performance and stability of five cermet-supported button-type solid oxide fuel cells featuring a bi-layered electrolyte (SSZ/SDC), an SSC cathode, and a Ni-SSZ anode, were analyzed using polarization curves, impedance spectroscopy, and post-mortem SEM observation. The cell performance degradation at 650 °C in H 2/air both with and without DC bias conditions was manifested primarily as an increase in polarization resistance, approximately at a rate of 2.3 mΩ cm 2 h -1 at OCV, suggesting a decrease in electrochemical kinetics as the main phenomenon responsible for the performance decay. In addition, the initial series resistance was about ten times higher than the calculated resistance corresponding to the electrolyte, reflecting a possible inter-reaction between the electrolyte layers that occurred during the sintering stage. In situ and ex situ sintered cathodes showed no obvious difference in cell performance or decay rate. The stability of the cells with and without electrical load was also investigated and no significant influence of DC bias was recorded. Based on the experimental results presented, we preliminarily attribute the performance degradation to electrochemical and microstructural degradation of the cathode.

  7. Emission of muonic hydrogen isotopes from solid hydrogen layers into vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, G.M.; Bailey, J.M.; Beer, G.A.

    1989-10-01

    An attempt was made to create in vacuum free muonic hydrogen atoms, muonic protium and muonic deuterium. The method was based on slowing a beam of μ - in a layer of solid hydrogen in vacuum frozen to a cold gold foil substrate. Muonic hydrogen formed near the surface is emitted from it into the vacuum with an energy spectrum determined by the formation and subsequent scattering processes. For a typical total cross section of 10 -19 cm 2 the interaction probability is 0.43 μm -1 . For emission at an energy of order 1 eV, the muonic atom travels about 10 mm in vacuum prior to decay. No corresponding signal was observed with a deuterium layer of 6 mg/cm 2 . The natural abundance of deuterons in hydrogen leads to transfer of the muon in a mean time of about 500 ns, and because of the reduced mass difference, the m u - d obtains a kinetic energy of 45 eV, from which the atom will scatter and slow until the energy of the Ramsauer-Townsend minimum is reached and the hydrogen film becomes nearly transparent to μ - d. The Ramsauer-Townsend effect is also expected to show up for tritium in protium, which means a source of μ - t in vacuum should be possible

  8. Stabilizing nanostructured solid oxide fuel cell cathode with atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yunhui; Palacio, Diego; Song, Xueyan; Patel, Rajankumar L; Liang, Xinhua; Zhao, Xuan; Goodenough, John B; Huang, Kevin

    2013-09-11

    We demonstrate that the highly active but unstable nanostructured intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell cathode, La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ (LSCo), can retain its high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity with exceptional stability for 4000 h at 700 °C by overcoating its surfaces with a conformal layer of nanoscale ZrO2 films through atomic layer deposition (ALD). The benefits from the presence of the nanoscale ALD-ZrO2 overcoats are remarkable: a factor of 19 and 18 reduction in polarization area-specific resistance and degradation rate over the pristine sample, respectively. The unique multifunctionality of the ALD-derived nanoscaled ZrO2 overcoats, that is, possessing porosity for O2 access to LSCo, conducting both electrons and oxide-ions, confining thermal growth of LSCo nanoparticles, and suppressing surface Sr-segregation is deemed the key enabler for the observed stable and active nanostructured cathode.

  9. Characterization of internal wetting in polymer electrolyte membrane gas diffusion layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Perry; Fairweather, Joseph D.; Schwartz, Daniel T.

    Capillary pressure vs. saturation (P C(S L)) curves are fundamental to understanding liquid water transport and flooding in PEM gas diffusion layers (GDLs). P C(S L) curves convolute the influence of GDL pore geometry and internal contact angles at the three-phase liquid/solid/gas boundary. Even simple GDL materials are a spatially non-uniform mixture of carbon fiber and binder, making a Gaussian distribution of contact angles likely, based on the Cassie-Baxter equation. For a given Gaussian contact angle distribution with mean (θ Mean) and standard deviation (σ), a realistic P C(S L) curve can be computed using a bundle of capillaries model and GDL pore size distribution data. As expected, computed P C(S L) curves show that θ Mean sets the overall hydrophilic (θ Mean 90°) character of the GDL (i.e., liquid saturation level at a given capillary pressure), and σ affects the slope of the P C(S L) curve. The capillary bundle model also can be used with (θ Mean, σ) as unknown parameters that are best-fit to experimentally acquired P C(S L) and pore size distribution data to find (θ Mean, σ) values for actual GDL materials. To test this, pore size distribution data was acquired for Toray TGP-H-090 along with hysteretic liquid and gas intrusion capillary pressure curve data. High quality best-fits were found between the model and combined datasets, with GDL liquid intrusion showing fairly neutral internal surface wetting properties (θ Mean = 92° and σ = 10°) whereas gas intrusion displayed a hydrophilic character (θ Mean = 52° and σ = 8°). External liquid advancing and receding contact angles were also measured on this same material and they also showed major hysteresis. The new methods described here open the door for better understanding of the link between GDL material processing and the wetting properties that affect flooding.

  10. Neutron reflectivity as method to study in-situ adsorption of phospholipid layers to solid-liquid interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutberlet, Thomas; Klösgen, Beate Maria; Krastev, Rumen

    2004-01-01

    variation. It was observed that the method was capable of visualizing the adsorption of phospholipid layers to different solid-liquid interfaces and to resolve structural details at Angstroem resolution. The results depended strongly on a sufficiently good signal-to-noise ratio of the specific measurements......The use of neutron reflectivity as a method to study in-situ adsorption of phospholipid layers to solid-liquid interfaces was analyzed. The most important advantage of neutron reflectometry is the possibility to very the refractive index of the specific sample by isotope exchange, called contrast...

  11. NiCo_2O_4@TiN Core-shell Electrodes through Conformal Atomic Layer Deposition for All-solid-state Supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruiqi; Xia, Chuan; Wei, Nini; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • NiCo_2O_4 nanostructures are prepared via a simple hydrothermal method. • Outer shell of TiN is then grown through conformal atomic layer deposition. • Electrodes exhibit significantly enhanced rate capability with TiN coating. • Solid-state polymer electrolyte is employed to improve cycling stability. • Full devices show a stack power density of 58.205 mW cm"−"3 at 0.061 mWh cm"−"3. - Abstract: Ternary transition metal oxides such as NiCo_2O_4 show great potential as supercapacitor electrode materials. However, the unsatisfactory rate performance of NiCo_2O_4 may prove to be a major hurdle to its commercial usage. Herein, we report the development of NiCo_2O_4@TiN core–shell nanostructures for all-solid-state supercapacitors with significantly enhanced rate capability. We demonstrate that a thin layer of TiN conformally grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on NiCo_2O_4 nanofiber arrays plays a key role in improving their electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and rate performance. Fabricated using the hybrid NiCo_2O_4@TiN electrodes, the symmetric all-solid-state supercapacitor exhibited an impressive stack power density of 58.205 mW cm"−"3 at a stack energy density of 0.061 mWh cm"−"3. To the best of our knowledge, these values are the highest of any NiCo_2O_4-based all-solid-state supercapacitor reported. Additionally, the resulting NiCo_2O_4@TiN all-solid-state device displayed outstanding cycling stability by retaining 70% of its original capacitance after 20,000 cycles at a high current density of 10 mA cm"−"2. These results illustrate the promise of ALD-assisted hybrid NiCo_2O_4@TiN electrodes within sustainable and integrated energy storage applications.

  12. Transparent conductive ZnO layers on polymer substrates: Thin film deposition and application in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosmailov, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Leonat, L.N. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Patek, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Roth, D.; Bauer, P. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Scharber, M.C.; Sariciftci, N.S. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Pedarnig, J.D., E-mail: johannes.pedarnig@jku.at [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-09-30

    Aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polymer substrates by pulsed-laser deposition and the optical, electrical, and structural film properties are investigated. Laser fluence, substrate temperature, and oxygen pressure are varied to obtain transparent, conductive, and stoichiometric AZO layers on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) that are free of cracks. At low fluence (1 J/cm{sup 2}) and low pressure (10{sup −3} mbar), AZO/PET samples of high optical transmission in the visible range, low electrical sheet resistance, and high figure of merit (FOM) are produced. AZO films on fluorinated ethylene propylene have low FOM. The AZO films on PET substrates are used as electron transport layer in inverted organic solar cell devices employing P3HT:PCBM as photovoltaic polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction. - Highlights: • Aluminum doped and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polyethylene terephthalate. • Growth parameters laser fluence, temperature, and gas pressure are optimized. • AZO films on PET have high optical transmission and electrical conductance (FOM). • Organic solar cells on PET using AZO as electron transport layer are made. • Power conversion efficiency of these OSC devices is measured.

  13. Boosting Light Harvesting in Perovskite Solar Cells by Biomimetic Inverted Hemispherical Architectured Polymer Layer with High Haze Factor as an Antireflective Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Dudem, Bhaskar; Jung, Jae Woong; Yu, Jae Su

    2018-04-18

    Biomimetic microarchitectured polymer layers, such as inverted hemispherical architectured (IHSA)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and hemispherical architectured (HSA)-PDMS layers, were prepared by a simple and cost-effective soft-imprinting lithography method via a hexagonal close-packed polystyrene microsphere array/silicon mold. The IHSA-PDMS/glass possessed superior antireflection (AR) characteristics with the highest/lowest average transmittance/reflectance ( T avg / R avg ) values of approximately 89.2%/6.4% compared to the HSA-PDMS/glass, flat-PDMS/glass, and bare glass ( T avg / R avg ∼88.8%/7.5%, 87.5%/7.9%, and 87.3%/8.8%, respectively). In addition, the IHSA-PDMS/glass also exhibited a relatively strong light-scattering property with the higher average haze ratio ( H avg ) of ∼38% than those of the bare glass, flat-PDMS/glass, and HSA-PDMS/glass (i.e., H avg ≈ 1.1, 1.7, and 34.2%, respectively). At last, to demonstrate the practical feasibility under light control of the solar cells, the IHSA-PDMS was laminated onto the glass substrates of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) as an AR layer, and their device performances were explored. Consequently, the short-circuit current density of the PSCs integrated with the IHSA-PDMS AR layer was improved by ∼17% when compared with the device without AR layer, resulting in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 19%. Therefore, the IHSA-PDMS is expected to be applied as an AR layer for solar cells to enhance their light absorption as well as the PCE.

  14. Improved performance of polymer solar cells using PBDTT-F-TT:PC{sub 71}BM blend film as active layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang, Yue; Gao, Xiumin, E-mail: oemt@hdu.edu.cn; Lu, Xinmiao; Xin, Qing; Lin, Jun; Zhao, Jufeng

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • The PCE of PBDTT-F-TT-based PSCs was improved to 9.34% by morphology control and device engineering. • Effect of DIO additive on the BHJ morphology and charge transport was investigated. • Effect of device architecture on the performance was studied in depth by optical modeling. • A low-temperature processed interfacial layer was introduced for plastic substrates. - Abstract: A detailed study of high-efficiency polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on a low bandgap polymer PBDTT-F-TT and PC{sub 71}BM as the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer is carried out. By using 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) as solvent additive to control the morphology of active layer and comparing different device architecture to optimize the optical field distribution, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the resulted devices can be reached as high as 9.34%. Comprehensive characterization and optical modeling of the resulting devices is performed to understand the effect of DIO and device geometry on photovoltaic performance. It was found that the addition of DIO can significantly improve the nanoscale morphology and increased electron mobility in the BHJ layer. The inverted device architecture was chosen because the results from optical modeling shows that it offers better optical field distribution and exciton generation profile. Based on these results, a low-temperature processed ZnO was finally introduced as an electron transport layer to facility the fabrication on flexible substrates and showed comparable performance with the device based on conventional ZnO interlayer prepared by sol-gel process.

  15. A novel double-layer molecularly imprinted polymer film based surface plasmon resonance for determination of testosterone in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Yuan; Jing, Lijing; Ding, Yonghong; Wei, Tianxin, E-mail: txwei@bit.edu.cn

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • The in-situ photo-grafting polymerization method was used to prepare the polymer film. • The synthesized MIF was layer stucture film. • The MIF exhibited good imprinting effect and highly selectivity. - Abstract: This work aimed to prepare a novel double-layer structure molecularly imprinted polymer film (MIF) on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chips for detection of testosterone in aqueous media. The film was synthesized by in-situ UV photo polymerization. Firstly, the modification of gold surface of SPR chip was performed by 1-dodecanethiol. Then double-layer MIF was generated on the 1-dodecanethiol modified gold surface. The non-modified and imprinted surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Analysis of SPR spectroscopy showed that the imprinted sensing film displayed good selectivity for testosterone compared to other analogues and the non-imprinted polymer film (NIF). Within the concentrations range of 1 × 10{sup −12}–1 × 10{sup −8} mol/L, the coupling angle changes of SPR were linear with the negative logarithm of testosterone concentrations (R{sup 2} = 0.993). Based on a signal/noise ratio of three, the detection limit was estimated to be 10{sup −12} mol/L. Finally, the developed MIF was successfully applied to the seawater detection of testosterone. The results in the experiments suggested that a combination of SPR sensing with MIF was a promising alternative method for detection of testosterone in aqueous media.

  16. A novel double-layer molecularly imprinted polymer film based surface plasmon resonance for determination of testosterone in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yuan; Jing, Lijing; Ding, Yonghong; Wei, Tianxin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The in-situ photo-grafting polymerization method was used to prepare the polymer film. • The synthesized MIF was layer stucture film. • The MIF exhibited good imprinting effect and highly selectivity. - Abstract: This work aimed to prepare a novel double-layer structure molecularly imprinted polymer film (MIF) on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chips for detection of testosterone in aqueous media. The film was synthesized by in-situ UV photo polymerization. Firstly, the modification of gold surface of SPR chip was performed by 1-dodecanethiol. Then double-layer MIF was generated on the 1-dodecanethiol modified gold surface. The non-modified and imprinted surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Analysis of SPR spectroscopy showed that the imprinted sensing film displayed good selectivity for testosterone compared to other analogues and the non-imprinted polymer film (NIF). Within the concentrations range of 1 × 10 −12 –1 × 10 −8 mol/L, the coupling angle changes of SPR were linear with the negative logarithm of testosterone concentrations (R 2 = 0.993). Based on a signal/noise ratio of three, the detection limit was estimated to be 10 −12 mol/L. Finally, the developed MIF was successfully applied to the seawater detection of testosterone. The results in the experiments suggested that a combination of SPR sensing with MIF was a promising alternative method for detection of testosterone in aqueous media

  17. Polymer solar cells with efficiency >10% enabled via a facile solution-processed Al-doped ZnO electron transporting layer

    KAUST Repository

    Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan; Al-Senani, Mohammed; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    The present work details a facile and low-temperature (125C) solution-processed Al-doped ZnO (AZO) buffer layer functioning very effectively as electron accepting/hole blocking layer for a wide range of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction systems

  18. Roughness Influence On Macro- And Micro-Tribology Of Multi-Layered Hard Coatings On Carbon Fibre Polymer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lackner J.M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Goal of this work is the investigation of roughness influences on the abrasive wear behaviour of magnetron sputtered multi-layered, low-friction coatings on carbon-fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP. Higher coating roughness at similar CFRP quality was realized by higher deposition rates, leading to increased heat flux to the substrates during deposition. Thermal expansion of the epoxy matrix on the micro scale results in a wavy, wrinkled surface topography. Both in scratch and reciprocal sliding testing against alumina, the friction coefficients are lower for the smooth coatings, but their wear rate is higher due to low-cycle fatigue caused abrasion.

  19. Crosslinked Polymer Ionic Liquid/Ionic Liquid Blends Prepared by Photopolymerization as Solid-State Electrolytes in Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po-Hsin; Wang, Tzong-Liu; Lin, Wen-Churng; Lin, Hung-Yin; Lee, Mei-Hwa; Yang, Chien-Hsin

    2018-04-07

    A photopolymerization method is used to prepare a mixture of polymer ionic liquid (PIL) and ionic liquid (IL). This mixture is used as a solid-state electrolyte in carbon nanoparticle (CNP)-based symmetric supercapacitors. The solid electrolyte is a binary mixture of a PIL and its corresponding IL. The PIL matrix is a cross-linked polyelectrolyte with an imidazole salt cation coupled with two anions of Br - in PIL-M-(Br) and TFSI - in PIL-M-(TFSI), respectively. The corresponding ionic liquids have imidazolium salt cation coupled with two anions of Br - and TFSI - , respectively. This study investigates the electrochemical characteristics of PILs and their corresponding IL mixtures used as a solid electrolyte in supercapacitors. Results show that a specific capacitance, maximum power density and energy density of 87 and 58 F·g - ¹, 40 and 48 kW·kg - ¹, and 107 and 59.9 Wh·kg - ¹ were achieved in supercapacitors based on (PIL-M-(Br)) and (PIL-M-(TFSI)) solid electrolytes, respectively.

  20. Crosslinked Polymer Ionic Liquid/Ionic Liquid Blends Prepared by Photopolymerization as Solid-State Electrolytes in Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po-Hsin; Wang, Tzong-Liu; Lin, Wen-Churng; Lin, Hung-Yin; Lee, Mei-Hwa; Yang, Chien-Hsin

    2018-01-01

    A photopolymerization method is used to prepare a mixture of polymer ionic liquid (PIL) and ionic liquid (IL). This mixture is used as a solid-state electrolyte in carbon nanoparticle (CNP)-based symmetric supercapacitors. The solid electrolyte is a binary mixture of a PIL and its corresponding IL. The PIL matrix is a cross-linked polyelectrolyte with an imidazole salt cation coupled with two anions of Br− in PIL-M-(Br) and TFSI− in PIL-M-(TFSI), respectively. The corresponding ionic liquids have imidazolium salt cation coupled with two anions of Br− and TFSI−, respectively. This study investigates the electrochemical characteristics of PILs and their corresponding IL mixtures used as a solid electrolyte in supercapacitors. Results show that a specific capacitance, maximum power density and energy density of 87 and 58 F·g−1, 40 and 48 kW·kg−1, and 107 and 59.9 Wh·kg−1 were achieved in supercapacitors based on (PIL-M-(Br)) and (PIL-M-(TFSI)) solid electrolytes, respectively. PMID:29642456

  1. Crosslinked Polymer Ionic Liquid/Ionic Liquid Blends Prepared by Photopolymerization as Solid-State Electrolytes in Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hsin Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A photopolymerization method is used to prepare a mixture of polymer ionic liquid (PIL and ionic liquid (IL. This mixture is used as a solid-state electrolyte in carbon nanoparticle (CNP-based symmetric supercapacitors. The solid electrolyte is a binary mixture of a PIL and its corresponding IL. The PIL matrix is a cross-linked polyelectrolyte with an imidazole salt cation coupled with two anions of Br− in PIL-M-(Br and TFSI− in PIL-M-(TFSI, respectively. The corresponding ionic liquids have imidazolium salt cation coupled with two anions of Br− and TFSI−, respectively. This study investigates the electrochemical characteristics of PILs and their corresponding IL mixtures used as a solid electrolyte in supercapacitors. Results show that a specific capacitance, maximum power density and energy density of 87 and 58 F·g−1, 40 and 48 kW·kg−1, and 107 and 59.9 Wh·kg−1 were achieved in supercapacitors based on (PIL-M-(Br and (PIL-M-(TFSI solid electrolytes, respectively.

  2. Solid-phase synthesis of protein-polymers on reversible immobilization supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Hironobu; Carmali, Sheiliza; Baker, Stefanie L; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Russell, Alan J

    2018-02-27

    Facile automated biomacromolecule synthesis is at the heart of blending synthetic and biologic worlds. Full access to abiotic/biotic synthetic diversity first occurred when chemistry was developed to grow nucleic acids and peptides from reversibly immobilized precursors. Protein-polymer conjugates, however, have always been synthesized in solution in multi-step, multi-day processes that couple innovative chemistry with challenging purification. Here we report the generation of protein-polymer hybrids synthesized by protein-ATRP on reversible immobilization supports (PARIS). We utilized modified agarose beads to covalently and reversibly couple to proteins in amino-specific reactions. We then modified reversibly immobilized proteins with protein-reactive ATRP initiators and, after ATRP, we released and analyzed the protein polymers. The activity and stability of PARIS-synthesized and solution-synthesized conjugates demonstrated that PARIS was an effective, rapid, and simple method to generate protein-polymer conjugates. Automation of PARIS significantly reduced synthesis/purification timelines, thereby opening a path to changing how to generate protein-polymer conjugates.

  3. Use of two-phase aqueous systems based on water-soluble polymers in thin-layer and extraction chromatography for recovery and separtion of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molochnikova, N.P.; Shkinev, V.M.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility has been demonstrated of using two-phase aqueous systems based on water-soluble polymers, polyethylene glycol and dextran sulfate, in thin-layer and extraction chromatography for recovery and separation of actinides. A convenient method has been proposed for continuous recovery of 239 Np from 243 Am, originating from differences in sorption of tri- and pentavalent actinides from sulfate solutions containing potassium phosphotungstate by silica gel impregnated with polyethylene glycol. New plates for thin-layer chromatography using water-soluble polymers have been developed. These plates were used to study behavior of americium in various oxidation states in thin sorbent layers

  4. Ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of PEO-LiClO4 solid polymer electrolyte plasticized with propylene carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of PEO-LiClO4 solid polymer electrolyte plasticized with propylene carbonate. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies confirm minimum volume fraction of crystalline phase for the polymer electrolyte with 40 wt. % propylene carbonate. The ionic conductivity exhibits a maximum for the same composition. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity has been well interpreted using Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation. Ion-ion interactions in the polymer electrolytes have been studied using Raman spectra and the concentrations of free ions, ion-pairs and ion-aggregates have been determined. The ionic conductivity increases due to the increase of free ions with the increase of propylene carbonate content. But for higher content of propylene carbonate, the ionic conductivity decreases due to the increase of concentrations of ion-pairs and ion-aggregates. To get further insights into the ion dynamics, the experimental data for the complex dielectric permittivity have been studied using Havriliak–Negami function. The variation of relaxation time with temperature obtained from this formalism follows Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation similar to the ionic conductivity.

  5. Ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of PEO-LiClO{sub 4} solid polymer electrolyte plasticized with propylene carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.; Ghosh, A., E-mail: sspag@iacs.res.in [Department of Solid State Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-02-15

    We have studied ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of PEO-LiClO{sub 4} solid polymer electrolyte plasticized with propylene carbonate. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies confirm minimum volume fraction of crystalline phase for the polymer electrolyte with 40 wt. % propylene carbonate. The ionic conductivity exhibits a maximum for the same composition. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity has been well interpreted using Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation. Ion-ion interactions in the polymer electrolytes have been studied using Raman spectra and the concentrations of free ions, ion-pairs and ion-aggregates have been determined. The ionic conductivity increases due to the increase of free ions with the increase of propylene carbonate content. But for higher content of propylene carbonate, the ionic conductivity decreases due to the increase of concentrations of ion-pairs and ion-aggregates. To get further insights into the ion dynamics, the experimental data for the complex dielectric permittivity have been studied using Havriliak–Negami function. The variation of relaxation time with temperature obtained from this formalism follows Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation similar to the ionic conductivity.

  6. Selective solid-phase extraction of Ni(II) by an ion-imprinted polymer from water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraji, Mohammad; Yousefi, Hamideh

    2009-01-01

    A new ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) material was synthesized by copolymerization of 4-vinylpyridine as monomer, ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate as crosslinking agent and 2,2'-azobis-sobutyronitrile as initiator in the presence of Ni-dithizone complex. The IIP was used as sorbent in a solid-phase extraction column. The effects of sampling volume, elution conditions, sample pH and sample flow rate on the extraction of Ni ions form water samples were studied. The maximum adsorption capacity and the relative selectivity coefficients of imprinted polymer for Ni(II)/Co(II), Ni(II)/Cu(II) and Ni(II)/Cd(II) were calculated. Compared with non-imprinted polymer particles, the IIP had higher selectivity for Ni(II). The relative selectivity factor (α r ) values of Ni(II)/Co(II), Ni(II)/Cu(II) and Ni(II)/Cd(II) were 21.6, 54.3, and 22.7, respectively, which are greater than 1. The relative standard deviation of the five replicate determinations of Ni(II) was 3.4%. The detection limit for 150 mL of sample was 1.6 μg L -1 using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace nickel in water samples with satisfactory results.

  7. Combining Pickering Emulsion Polymerization with Molecular Imprinting to Prepare Polymer Microspheres for Selective Solid-Phase Extraction of Malachite Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixin Liang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Malachite green (MG is currently posing a carcinogenic threat to the safety of human lives; therefore, it is highly desirable to develop an effective method for fast trace detection of MG. Herein, for the first time, this paper presents a systematic study on polymer microspheres, being prepared by combined Pickering emulsion polymerization and molecular imprinting, to detect and purify MG. The microspheres, molecularly imprinted with MG, show enhanced adsorption selectivity to MG, despite a somewhat lowered adsorption capacity, as compared to the counterpart without molecular imprinting. Structural features and adsorption performance of these microspheres are elucidated by different characterizations and kinetic and thermodynamic analyses. The surface of the molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres (M-PMs exhibits regular pores of uniform pore size distribution, endowing M-PMs with impressive adsorption selectivity to MG. In contrast, the microspheres without molecular imprinting show a larger average particle diameter and an uneven porous surface (with roughness and a large pore size, causing a lower adsorption selectivity to MG despite a higher adsorption capacity. Various adsorption conditions are investigated, such as pH and initial concentration of the solution with MG, for optimizing the adsorption performance of M-PMs in selectively tackling MG. The adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics are deeply discussed and analyzed, so as to provide a full picture of the adsorption behaviors of the polymer microspheres with and without the molecular imprinting. Significantly, M-PMs show promising solid-phase extraction column applications for recovering MG in a continuous extraction manner.

  8. Solid-phase extraction element based on epoxy polymer monolith for determination of polar organic compounds in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tadashi; Odagiri, Kayo; Watanabe, Atsushi; Watanabe, Chuichi; Kubo, Takuya; Hosoya, Ken

    2011-10-01

    A solid-phase extraction element based on epoxy polymer monolith was fabricated for sorptive enrichment of polar compounds from liquid and gaseous samples. After ultrasonication of the element in an aqueous solution for a given period of time, the thermal desorption (TD) using a pyrolyzer with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), in which TD temperature was programmed from 50 to 250 °C for the analytes absorbed in the element, was used to evaluate the element for basic extraction performance using the aqueous standard mixtures consisting of compounds having varied polarities such as hexanol, isoamyl acetate, linalool, furfural and decanoic acid, in concentrations ranging from 10 μg/L to 1 mg/L. Excellent linear relationships were observed for all compounds in the standard mixture, except decanoic acid. In the extraction of beverages such as red wine, the extraction element showed stronger adsorption characteristics for polar compounds such as alcohols and acids than a non-polar polydimethylsiloxane-based element. This feature is derived from the main polymer structure along with hydroxyl and amino groups present in the epoxy-based monolith polymer matrix. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Effect of epoxidation level on thermal properties and ionic conductivity of epoxidized natural rubber solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harun, Fatin; Chan, Chin Han; Winie, Tan [Faculty of Applied Sciences, UniversitiTeknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Sim, Lai Har; Zainal, Nurul Fatahah Asyqin [Center of Foundation Studies, PuncakAlam Campus, UniversitiTeknologi MARA, 40430 Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    Effect of epoxide content on the thermal and conductivity properties of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes was investigated. Commercial available epoxidized natural rubber having 25 (ENR25) and 50 mole% (ENR50) epoxide, respectively were incorporated with lithium perchlorate (LiClO{sub 4}) salt and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanofiller via solution casting method. The solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) for their thermal properties and conductivity, respectively. It was evident that introduction of LiClO{sub 4} causes a greater increase in glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and ionic conductivity of ENR50 as compared to ENR25. Upon addition of TiO{sub 2} in ENR/LiClO{sub 4} system, a remarkable T{sub g} elevation was observed for both ENRs where ENR50 reveals a more pronounced changes. It is interesting to note that they exhibit different phenomenon in ionic conductivity with TiO{sub 2} loading where ENR25 shows enhancement of conductivity while ENR50 shows declination.

  10. Hot Melt Extruded Amorphous Solid Dispersion of Posaconazole with Improved Bioavailability: Investigating Drug-Polymer Miscibility with Advanced Characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Fule

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive antifungal infections are reasons for morbidity and mortality in immunogenic patients worldwide. Posaconazole is a most promising antifungal agent against all types of invasive infections with high % of cure rate. The marketed suspension formulation has low bioavailability and is needed to be taken with food. In this paper, PCZ hot melt extruded amorphous solid dispersion (SD with immediate release and improved bioavailability was prepared using Soluplus (Sol as primary carrier for solubilization. Surfactants such as PEG 400, Lutrol F27, Lutrol F68, and TPGS are also used in combination with Soluplus to improve the physicochemical performance of the formulation when it comes in contact with GI (gastrointestinal fluid. Drug-polymer miscibility of SD was investigated using advanced techniques. In the in vivo study, the AUC(0–72 and Cmax of PCZ/Soluplus were 11.5 and 11.74 time higher than those of pure PCZ. The formulation of the extrudate SD had an AUC(0–72 and Cmax higher than those with the commercial capsule (Noxafil. Molecular dynamic (MD simulation studies were carried out using in silico molecular modelling to understand the drug-polymer intermolecular behaviour. The results of this research ensure enhanced dissolution and bioavailability of the solid dispersion of PCZ prepared by HME compared with the PCZ suspension.

  11. Photovoltaic response and values of state dipole moments in single-layered pyrazoloquinoline/polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondek, E.; Kityk, I. V.; Danel, A.; Sanetra, J.

    2008-06-01

    We report the photovoltaic response of composite films formed by polymer transport matrices poly(3-octylthiophene) (P3OT) and poly(3-decylthiophene) (PDT) with incorporated 1 H-pyrazolo[3,4- b]quinoline (PAQ) chromophore (see the first figure). The photovoltage (PV) data were obtained for different substituted PAQ possessing different state dipole moments. The photovoltaic cells were formed between ITO and aluminum electrodes. We found that the PV signal of polymer/PAQ substantially depends on the state dipole moments of the pyrazoloquinoline chromophore. This fact indicates on a possibility of significant enhancement of PV efficiency by appropriate variations of the state dipole moments of chromophore. This results in photoinduced electron transfer from polymer serving as donors to PAQ being the electron acceptor. Despite an efficiency of the PV devices is below 1%, however, it may be substantially enhanced in future varying the chromophore state dipole moments appropriately.

  12. The Effects of Lithium Triflate (LiCF3SO3) on the PMMA-based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, K. W.; Chen, S. S.; Pang, W. L.; Tan, C. G.; Osman, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Lithium triflate salt (LiCF 3 SO 3 ), on the poly (methyl methacrylate)(PMMA)-based solid polymer electrolytes plasticized with propylene carbonate (PC) solvated in Tetrahydrofuran (THF) have been studied through a.c impedance spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Lithium triflate was incorporated into the predetermined PMMA/PC system that has the highest value of ionic conductivity. In current investigations, four combination systems: Pure PMMA, (PMMA+PC) systems, (PMMA+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) and (PMMA+PC+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) systems were prepared using the solution cast method. Solutions were stirred for numerous hours to obtain a homogenous solution before it is poured into the petri dishes under ambient temperature to form the solid electrolyte thin film. The films were then removed from petri discs and transferred into the dessicator for further drying prior to the different tests. From the characterization done through the a.c impedance spectroscopy, the highest room temperature ionic conductivity in the pure PMMA sample, (PMMA+PC) system and (PMMA+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system is 2.83x10 -12 Scm -1 , 4.39x10 -11 Scm -1 and 3.93x10 -6 Scm -1 respectively. The conductivity for (PMMA+PC+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system was obtained with the 30 wt% of lithium triflate, which is 2.48x10 -5 Scm -1 . Infrared spectroscopy shows that complexation occurred between the polymer and the plasticizer, and the polymer and plasticizer and salt. The interactions have been studied in the C=O band, C-O-C band and the O-CH 3 band.

  13. Stable Inverted Low-Bandgap Polymer Solar Cells with Aqueous Solution Processed Low-Temperature ZnO Buffer Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient inverted low-bandgap polymer solar cells with an aqueous solution processed low-temperature ZnO buffer layer have been investigated. The low-bandgap material PTB-7 is employed so that more solar light can be efficiently harvested, and the aqueous solution processed ZnO electron transport buffer layer is prepared at 150°C so that it can be compatible with the roll-to-roll process. Power conversion efficiency (PCE of the inverted device reaches 7.12%, which is near the control conventional device. More importantly, the inverted device shows a better stability, keeping more than 90% of its original PCE after being stored for 625 hours, while PCE of the conventional device is only 75% of what it was. In addition, it is found that the ZnO thin film annealed in N2 can obviously increase PCE of the inverted device further to 7.26%.

  14. High mobility In2O3:H transparent conductive oxides prepared by atomic layer deposition and solid phase crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macco, B.; Wu, Y.; Vanhemel, D.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of high-quality In2O3:H, as transparent conductive oxide (TCO), is demonstrated at low temperatures. Amorphous In2O3:H films were deposited by atomic layer deposition at 100 °C, after which they underwent solid phase crystallization by a short anneal at 200 °C. TEM analysis has shown

  15. Electric double-layer capacitors with tea waste derived activated carbon electrodes and plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, M.; Deraman, M.; Othman, M. A. R.; Omar, R.; Hashim, M. A.; Basri, N. H.; Nor, N. S. M.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Hanappi, M. F. Y. M.; Hamdan, E.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Tajuddin, N. S. M.; Jasni, M. R. M.

    2016-08-01

    We report a novel configuration of symmetrical electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) comprising a plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) based flexible polymer gel electrolyte, incorporated with sodium trifluoromethane sulfonate (NaTf) immobilised in a host polymer poly (vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP). The cost-effective activated carbon powder possessing a specific surface area (SSA) of ~ 1700 m2g-1 containing a large proportion of meso-porosity has been derived from tea waste to use as supercapacitor electrodes. The high ionic conductivity (~3.6×10-3 S cm-1 at room temperature) and good electrochemical stability render the gel polymer electrolyte film a suitable candidate for the fabrication of EDLCs. The performance of the EDLCs has been tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The performance of the EDLC cell is found to be promising in terms of high values of specific capacitance (~270 F g-1), specific energy (~ 36 Wh kg-1), and power density (~ 33 kW kg-1).

  16. Electric double-layer capacitors with tea waste derived activated carbon electrodes and plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleman, M; Deraman, M; Othman, M A R; Omar, R; Basri, N H; Nor, N S M; Dolah, B N M; Hanappi, M F Y M; Hamdan, E; Sazali, N E S; Tajuddin, N S M; Jasni, M R M; Hashim, M A

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel configuration of symmetrical electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) comprising a plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) based flexible polymer gel electrolyte, incorporated with sodium trifluoromethane sulfonate (NaTf) immobilised in a host polymer poly (vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP). The cost-effective activated carbon powder possessing a specific surface area (SSA) of ∼ 1700 m 2 g -1 containing a large proportion of meso-porosity has been derived from tea waste to use as supercapacitor electrodes. The high ionic conductivity (∼3.6×10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature) and good electrochemical stability render the gel polymer electrolyte film a suitable candidate for the fabrication of EDLCs. The performance of the EDLCs has been tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The performance of the EDLC cell is found to be promising in terms of high values of specific capacitance (∼270 F g -1 ), specific energy (∼ 36 Wh kg -1 ), and power density (∼ 33 kW kg -1 ). (paper)

  17. Curvature-insensitive methodology for thermal-wave depth-profilometry in multi-layered curvilinear solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liwang; Wang Chinhua; Yuan Xiao; Mandelis, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A generalized similarity normalization (SN) methodology for characterizing depth profiles of continuously varying thermophysical properties in curvilinear (cylindrical and spherical) solids is presented. Specifically, the principle and the physical mechanism of the elimination of the surface curvature effect from the overall photothermal signal is introduced based on theoretical models of cylindrical, spherical and flat solids with multi-layer structures. The effects of the relative values of radii of curvature of the curvilinear solid, the thickness of the inhomogeneous surface layer and the measurement azimuthal angle on the validity of the technique are discussed in detail. Experimental reconstructions of thermophysical depth profiles of hardened cylindrical steel rods of various diameters are performed based on both curvilinear theory and the equivalent flat surface theory. The reconstructed results are compared and validated.

  18. Controlling single and few-layer graphene crystals growth in a solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papon, Remi; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Tanemura, Masaki; Kalita, Golap

    2014-01-01

    Here, we reveal the growth process of single and few-layer graphene crystals in the solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Nucleation and growth of graphene crystals on a polycrystalline Cu foil are significantly affected by the injection of carbon atoms with pyrolysis rate of the carbon source. We observe micron length ribbons like growth front as well as saturated growth edges of graphene crystals depending on growth conditions. Controlling the pyrolysis rate of carbon source, monolayer and few-layer crystals and corresponding continuous films are obtained. In a controlled process, we observed growth of large monolayer graphene crystals, which interconnect and merge together to form a continuous film. On the other hand, adlayer growth is observed with an increased pyrolysis rate, resulting few-layer graphene crystal structure and merged continuous film. The understanding of monolayer and few-layer crystals growth in the developed CVD process can be significant to grow graphene with controlled layer numbers.

  19. Layer-by-layer assembly of MXene and carbon nanotubes on electrospun polymer films for flexible energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zehang; Panatdasirisuk, Weerapha; Mathis, Tyler S; Anasori, Babak; Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Liao, Zhiwei; Gogotsi, Yury; Yang, Shu

    2018-03-29

    Free-standing, highly flexible and foldable supercapacitor electrodes were fabricated through the spray-coating assisted layer-by-layer assembly of Ti3C2Tx (MXene) nanoflakes together with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber networks. The open structure of the PCL network and the use of MWCNTs as spacers not only limit the restacking of Ti3C2Tx flakes but also increase the accessible surface of the active materials, facilitating fast diffusion of electrolyte ions within the electrode. Composite electrodes have areal capacitance (30-50 mF cm-2) comparable to other templated electrodes reported in the literature, but showed significantly improved rate performance (14-16% capacitance retention at a scan rate of 100 V s-1). Furthermore, the composite electrodes are flexible and foldable, demonstrating good tolerance against repeated mechanical deformation, including twisting and folding. Therefore, these tens of micron thick fiber electrodes will be attractive for applications in energy storage, electroanalytical chemistry, brain electrodes, electrocatalysis and other fields, where flexible freestanding electrodes with an open and accessible surface are highly desired.

  20. Layers and Multilayers of Self-Assembled Polymers: Tunable Engineered Extracellular Matrix Coatings for Neural Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Michael J; Rollet, Frédéric-Guillaume; Kennedy, Timothy E; Barrett, Christopher J

    2018-03-12

    Growing primary cells and tissue in long-term cultures, such as primary neural cell culture, presents many challenges. A critical component of any environment that supports neural cell growth in vivo is an appropriate 2-D surface or 3-D scaffold, typically in the form of a thin polymer layer that coats an underlying plastic or glass substrate and aims to mimic critical aspects of the extracellular matrix. A fundamental challenge to mimicking a hydrophilic, soft natural cell environment is that materials with these properties are typically fragile and are difficult to adhere to and stabilize on an underlying plastic or glass cell culture substrate. In this review, we highlight the current state of the art and overview recent developments of new artificial extracellular matrix (ECM) surfaces for in vitro neural cell culture. Notably, these materials aim to strike a balance between being hydrophilic and soft while also being thick, stable, robust, and bound well to the underlying surface to provide an effective surface to support long-term cell growth. We focus on improved surface and scaffold coating systems that can mimic the natural physicochemical properties that enhance neuronal survival and growth, applied as soft hydrophilic polymer coatings for both in vitro cell culture and for implantable neural probes and 3-D matrixes that aim to enhance stability and longevity to promote neural biocompatibility in vivo. With respect to future developments, we outline four emerging principles that serve to guide the development of polymer assemblies that function well as artificial ECMs: (a) design inspired by biological systems and (b) the employment of principles of aqueous soft bonding and self-assembly to achieve (c) a high-water-content gel-like coating that is stable over time in a biological environment and possesses (d) a low modulus to more closely mimic soft, compliant real biological tissue. We then highlight two emerging classes of thick material coatings that

  1. An Extraordinary Sulfonated-Graphenal-Polymer-Based Electrolyte Separator for All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xubo; Men, Chuanling; Zhang, Xiaohua; Li, Qingwen

    2016-09-01

    Sulfonated graphenal polymers can be assembled up by poly(vinyl alcohol) adhesion. The porous assembly structure results in a remarkably improved ionic conductivity and thus enhances electrochemical performances such as specific capacitance, capacitance retention, and cycling stability. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A Process and Environment Aware Sierra/SolidMechanics Cohesive Zone Modeling Capability for Polymer/Solid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, E. D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chambers, Robert S. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hughes, Lindsey Gloe [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kropka, Jamie Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stevens, Mark J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The performance and reliability of many mechanical and electrical components depend on the integrity of po lymer - to - solid interfaces . Such interfaces are found in adhesively bonded joints, encapsulated or underfilled electronic modules, protective coatings, and laminates. The work described herein was aimed at improving Sandia's finite element - based capability to predict interfacial crack growth by 1) using a high fidelity nonlinear viscoelastic material model for the adhesive in fracture simulations, and 2) developing and implementing a novel cohesive zone fracture model that generates a mode - mixity dependent toughness as a natural consequence of its formulation (i.e., generates the observed increase in interfacial toughness wi th increasing crack - tip interfacial shear). Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations were used to study fundamental material/interfa cial physics so as to develop a fuller understanding of the connection between molecular structure and failure . Also reported are test results that quantify how joint strength and interfacial toughness vary with temperature.

  3. High Ionic Conductivity of Composite Solid Polymer Electrolyte via In Situ Synthesis of Monodispersed SiO2 Nanospheres in Poly(ethylene oxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dingchang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yayuan; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Kai; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-13

    High ionic conductivity solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) has long been desired for the next generation high energy and safe rechargeable lithium batteries. Among all of the SPEs, composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) with ceramic fillers has garnered great interest due to the enhancement of ionic conductivity. However, the high degree of polymer crystallinity, agglomeration of ceramic fillers, and weak polymer-ceramic interaction limit the further improvement of ionic conductivity. Different from the existing methods of blending preformed ceramic particles with polymers, here we introduce an in situ synthesis of ceramic filler particles in polymer electrolyte. Much stronger chemical/mechanical interactions between monodispersed 12 nm diameter SiO2 nanospheres and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) chains were produced by in situ hydrolysis, which significantly suppresses the crystallization of PEO and thus facilitates polymer segmental motion for ionic conduction. In addition, an improved degree of LiClO4 dissociation can also be achieved. All of these lead to good ionic conductivity (1.2 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 60 °C, 4.4 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 30 °C). At the same time, largely extended electrochemical stability window up to 5.5 V can be observed. We further demonstrated all-solid-state lithium batteries showing excellent rate capability as well as good cycling performance.

  4. A KINETIC MODEL FOR MONO-LAYER GLOBULAR PROTEIN ADSORPTION ON SOLID/LIQUID INTERFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal I. M. Al-Malah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic model was derived for globular protein adsorption. The model takes into account the three possible scenarios of a protein molecule in solution, being exposed to an interface: adsorption step from the solution to the interface; the possible desorption back into the solution; and the surface-induced unfolding or spreading of the protein unto the substrate surface. A globular protein molecule is visualized as a sphere with radius D. In addition to the general case of protein adsorption, which portrays either the surface coverage (Theta or surface concentration (� as a function of the adsorption time, special cases, like equilibrium condition, lowsurface coverage, irreversible, and Langmuirian were also presented and treated in light of the derived model. The general model was simplified for each of the subset cases. The irreversibility versus reversibility of protein adsorption was discussed. The substrate surface energetics or effects are accounted for via the proposition of the percent relative change in D/V ratio for the adsorbing protein, called (D/VPRC parameter. (D/VPRC is calculated with respect to the monolayer surface concentration of protein, where the latter is given by D/Vratio. This can be used as a landmark to protein adsorption isotherms or even kinetics. This is visualized as an indicator for solid substrate effects on the adsorbing proteins. (D/VPRC can be zero (fresh monolayer, negative (aged monolayer, or positive (multi-layer. The reference surface concentration is reported for some selected proteins.

  5. MgAl-Layered Double Hydroxide Solid Base Catalysts for Henry Reaction: A Green Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda H. Abdellattif

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of MgAl-layered double hydroxide (MgAl-HT, the calcined form at 500 °C (MgAlOx, and the rehydrated one at 25 °C (MgAl-HT-RH were synthesized. Physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Surface area of the as-synthesized, calcined, and rehydrated catalysts was determined by N2 physisorption at −196 °C. CO2 temperature-programmed desorption (CO2-TPD was applied to determine the basic sites of catalysts. The catalytic test reaction was carried out using benzaldehyde and their derivatives with nitromethane and their derivatives. The Henry products (1–15 were obtained in a very good yield using MgAl-HT-RH catalyst either by conventional method at 90 °C in liquid phase or under microwave irradiation method. The mesoporous structure and basic nature of the rehydrated solid catalyst were responsible for its superior catalytic efficiency. The robust nature was determined by using the same catalyst five times, where the product % yield was almost unchanged significantly.

  6. The adhesion of SiNx thin layers on silica-acrylate coated polymer substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdallah, Amir; Lu, K.; Ovchinnikov, C.D.; Bulle-Lieuwma, C.W.T.; Bouten, P.C.P.; With, de G.

    2009-01-01

    Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) was used to grow 200, 300 and 400 nm thick silicon nitride layers (SiN x ) on a high temperature aromatic polyester substrate spin coated with a silica-acrylate hybrid coating (hard coat). Layers deposited without oxygen plasma treatment remained

  7. Localized removal of layers of metal, polymer, or biomaterial by ultrasound cavitation bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivas, David Fernandez; Verhaagen, Bram; Seddon, James R. T.; Zijlstra, Aaldert G.; Jiang, Lei-Meng; van der Sluis, Luc W. M.; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef; Gardeniers, Han J. G. E.

    We present an ultrasonic device with the ability to locally remove deposited layers from a glass slide in a controlled and rapid manner. The cleaning takes place as the result of cavitating bubbles near the deposited layers and not due to acoustic streaming. The bubbles are ejected from air-filled

  8. Localized removal of layers of metal, polymer, or biomaterial by ultrasound cavitation bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Rivas, David; Verhaagen, B.; Seddon, James Richard Thorley; Zijlstra, A.G.; Jiang, L.M.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2012-01-01

    We present an ultrasonic device with the ability to locally remove deposited layers from a glass slide in a controlled and rapid manner. The cleaning takes place as the result of cavitating bubbles near the deposited layers and not due to acoustic streaming. The bubbles are ejected from air-filled

  9. In-situ Plasticized Cross-linked Polymer Composite Electrolyte Enhanced with Lithium-ion Conducting Nanofibers for Ambient All-Solid-State Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chaoyi; Zhu, Pei; Jia, Hao; Zhu, Jiadeng; Selvan, R. Kalai; Li, Ya; Dong, Xia; Du, Zhuang; Angunawela, Indunil; Wu, Nianqiang; Dirican, Mahmut

    2018-04-29

    Solid electrolytes have been gaining attention recently for the development of next-generation Li-ion batteries due to the substantial improvements in stability and safety. Among various types of solid electrolytes, composite solid electrolytes (CSEs) exhibit both high ionic conductivity and excellent interfacial contact with the electrodes. Incorporating active nanofibers into the polymer matrix demonstrates an effective method to fabricate CSEs. However, current CSEs based on traditional poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer suffer from the poor ionic conductivity of PEO and agglomeration effect of inorganic fillers at high concentrations, which limit further improvements in Li+ conductivity and electrochemical stability. Herein, we synthesize a novel PEO based cross-linked polymer (CLP) as the polymer matrix with naturally amorphous structure and high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 2.40 × 10-4 S cm-1. Li0.3La0.557TiO3 (LLTO) nanofibers incorporated composite solid electrolytes (L-CLPCSE) exhibit enhanced ionic conductivity without showing filler agglomeration. The high content of Li-conductive nanofibers improves the mechanical strength, ensures the conductive networks, and increases the total Li+ conductivity to 3.31 × 10-4 S cm-1. The all-solid-state Li|LiFePO4 batteries with L-CLPCSE are able to deliver attractive specific capacity of 147 mAh g-1 at room temperature, and no evident dendrite is found at the anode/electrolyte interface after 100 cycles.

  10. Ion beam modification of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofield, C.J.; Sugden, S.; Ing, J.; Bridwell, L.B.; Wang, Y.Q.

    1993-01-01

    The implantation of polymers has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily to examine doping of conducting polymers and to increase the surface conductivity (by many orders of magnitude) of highly insulating polymers. The interest in these studies was partly motivated by possible applications to microelectronic device fabrication. More recently it has been observed that ion implantation can under some conditions lead to the formation of a hard (e.g. as hard as steel, ca. 3 MPa) and conducting surface layer. This paper will review the ion beam modification of polymers resulting from ion implantation with reference to fundamental ion-solid interactions. This leads us to examine whether or not implantation of polymers is a contradiction in terms. (Author)

  11. Integrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor with polymer transduction layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksendzov, A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    An integrated optics chemical sensor based on a ring resonator with an ethyl cellulose polymer coating has been demonstrated. The measured sensitivity to isopropanol in air is 50 ppm-the level immediately useful for health-related air quality monitoring. The resonator was fabricated using SiO2 and SixNy materials. The signal readout is based on tracking the wavelength of a resonance peak. The resonator layout optimisation for sensing applications is discussed.

  12. Porphyrin-layered double hydroxide/polymer composites as novel ecological photoactive surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Káfuňková, Eva; Lang, Kamil; Kubát, Pavel; Klementová, Mariana; Mosinger, Jiří; Šlouf, Miroslav; Troutier-Thuilliez, A. L.; Leroux, F.; Verney, V.; Taviot-Guého, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 42 (2010), s. 9423-9432 ISSN 0959-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/10/1447 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : porphyrins * nanoparticles * hydroxide/polymer composites Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.101, year: 2010

  13. Basic modes of crack propagation through the interface in polymer layered structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zouhar, Michal; Hutař, Pavel; Náhlík, Luboš; Knésl, Zdeněk

    488-489, č. 1 (2012), s. 162-165 ISSN 1013-9826. [International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics - FDM 2011 /10./. Dubrovník, 19.09.2011-21.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GD106/09/H035; GA ČR GA106/09/0279 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : fracture mechanics * slow crack growth * multilayer polymer pipe Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  14. All-solid-state ion-selective silicone rubber membrane electrodes with a new conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun Rang; Chung, Yeon Joon; Hwang, Sun Woo

    2012-01-01

    New conducting polymers containing heterocyclic rings with carbazole, ethylene dioxythiophene (EDOT) and benzobisthiazole were synthesized and the characterized by using organic spectroscopic methods. Potentiometric ion-selective membrane electrodes (ISMEs) have been extensively used for ion analysis in clinical, environmental, and industrial fields owing to their wide response range (4 to 7 orders of magnitude), no effect of sample turbidity, fast response time, and ease of miniaturization. Considerable attention has been given to alternative use of room-temperature vulcanizing (RTV)-type silicone rubber (SR) owing to its strong adhesion and high thermal durability. Unfortunately, the high membrane resistance of SR-based ion-selective membranes (ISMs) (2 to 3 higher orders of magnitude compared to those of poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC)-based ones) has significantly restricted their application. Herein, we demonstrate a new method to reduce the membrane resistance via addition of a new conducting polymer into the SR-based ISMs.

  15. Nonvolatile Solid-State Charged-Polymer Gating of Topological Insulators into the Topological Insulating Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, R. M.; Wu, Liang; Salehi, M.; Oh, S.; Armitage, N. P.; Katz, H. E.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the ability to reduce the carrier concentration of thin films of the topological insulator (TI) Bi2 Se3 by utilizing a nonvolatile electrostatic gating via corona charging of electret polymers. Sufficient electric field can be imparted to a polymer-TI bilayer to result in significant electron density depletion, even without the continuous connection of a gate electrode or the chemical modification of the TI. We show that the Fermi level of Bi2 Se3 is shifted toward the Dirac point with this method. Using terahertz spectroscopy, we find that the surface chemical potential is lowered into the bulk band gap (approximately 50 meV above the Dirac point and 170 meV below the conduction-band minimum), and it is stabilized in the intrinsic regime while enhancing electron mobility. The mobility of surface state electrons is enhanced to a value as high as approximately 1600 cm2/V s at 5 K.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for solid-phase extraction and determination of Rhodamine B in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaomeng; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Junjie; Liu, Min; Lei, Fuhou; Tan, Xuecai; Li, Pengfei; Luo, Weiqiang

    2015-03-15

    Core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) nanoparticles (NPs), in which a Rhodamine B-imprinted layer was coated on Fe3O4 NPs. were synthesized. First, Fe3O4 NPs were prepared by a coprecipitation method. Then, amino-modified Fe3O4 NPs (Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2) was prepared. Finally, the MIPs were coated on the Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2 surface by the copolymerization with functional monomer, acrylamide, using a cross-linking agent, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate; an initiator, azobisisobutyronitrile and a template molecule, Rhodamine B. The Fe3O4@MIPs were characterized using a scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, vibrating sample magnetometer, and re-binding experiments. The Fe3O4@MIPs showed a fast adsorption equilibrium, a highly improved imprinting capacity, and significant selectivity; they could be used as a solid-phase extraction material and detect illegal addition Rhodamine B in food. A method was developed for the selective isolation and enrichment of Rhodamine B in food samples with recoveries in the range 78.47-101.6% and the relative standard deviation was <2%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Recombination barrier layers in solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Roelofs, Katherine E.; Brennan, Thomas P.; Dominguez, Juan C.; Bent, Stacey F.

    2012-01-01

    in situ by successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Aluminum oxide recombination barrier layers were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at the TiO2/hole-conductor interface. For low numbers of ALD cycles, the Al2O3 barrier layer

  18. Carrier transport in flexible organic bistable devices of ZnO nanoparticles embedded in an insulating poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Dong-Ick; Park, Dong-Hee; Choi, Won Kook; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Won-Tae; Kim, Tae Whan

    2009-01-01

    The bistable effects of ZnO nanoparticles embedded in an insulating poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer single layer by using flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that ZnO nanoparticles were formed inside the PMMA polymer layer. Current-voltage (I-V) measurement on the Al/ZnO nanoparticles embedded in an insulating PMMA polymer layer/ITO/PET structures at 300 K showed a nonvolatile electrical bistability behavior with a flat-band voltage shift due to the existence of the ZnO nanoparticles, indicative of trapping, storing, and emission of charges in the electronic states of the ZnO nanoparticles. The carrier transport mechanism of the bistable behavior for the fabricated organic bistable device (OBD) structures is described on the basis of the I-V results by analyzing the effect of space charge.

  19. Study and development of a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell in solid polymer electrolyte technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosdale, R

    1992-10-29

    The hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell appears today as the best candidate to the replacing of the internal combustion engine for automobile traction. This system uses the non explosive electrochemical recombination of hydrogen and oxygen. It is a clean generator whom only reactive product is water. This thesis shows a theoretical study of this system, the synthesis of different kinds of used electrodes and finally an analysis of water movements in polymer electrolyte by different original technologies. 70 refs., 73 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Atomic Layer Deposited Thin Films for Dielectrics, Semiconductor Passivation, and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Runshen

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) utilizes sequential precursor gas pulses to deposit one monolayer or sub-monolayer of material per cycle based on its self-limiting surface reaction, which offers advantages, such as precise thickness control, thickness uniformity, and conformality. ALD is a powerful means of fabricating nanoscale features in future nanoelectronics, such as contemporary sub-45 nm metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors, photovoltaic cells, near- and far-infrared detectors, and intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. High dielectric constant, kappa, materials have been recognized to be promising candidates to replace traditional SiO2 and SiON, because they enable good scalability of sub-45 nm MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) without inducing additional power consumption and heat dissipation. In addition to high dielectric constant, high-kappa materials must meet a number of other requirements, such as low leakage current, high mobility, good thermal and structure stability with Si to withstand high-temperature source-drain activation annealing. In this thesis, atomic layer deposited Er2O3 doped TiO2 is studied and proposed as a thermally stable amorphous high-kappa dielectric on Si substrate. The stabilization of TiO2 in its amorphous state is found to achieve a high permittivity of 36, a hysteresis voltage of less than 10 mV, and a low leakage current density of 10-8 A/cm-2 at -1 MV/cm. In III-V semiconductors, issues including unsatisfied dangling bonds and native oxides often result in inferior surface quality that yields non-negligible leakage currents and degrades the long-term performance of devices. The traditional means for passivating the surface of III-V semiconductors are based on the use of sulfide solutions; however, that only offers good protection against oxidation for a short-term (i.e., one day). In this work, in order to improve the chemical passivation efficacy of III-V semiconductors