WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid mineral matter

  1. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  2. Mineral matter reactions in cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. French; R. Sakurovs; M. Grigore [CSIRO Energy Technology (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    Some cokes appear to be particularly susceptible to weakening in the blast furnace. A mechanism which has been postulated to explain this is silica reduction by coke. Thus this project was initiated to ascertain the behaviour of quartz and silicates in coke with an emphasis on the role of the clay minerals. It is now possible to obtain quantitative mineralogical data and, the case of coal, to also obtain quantitative data on mineral grain size, shape and association through the use of automated electron beam image analysis techniques. This new ability can allow relationships between the amount of minerals in a coke and its reactivity to be established for the first time. Samples of five Australian coking coals were selected based upon quartz and clay mineral contents, mineral grain size and association. Samples were also provided by BlueScope Steel of coal, feed coke, and tuyere coke samples from the bosh, deadman and raceway regions of the blast furnace. The analytical work program conducted was as follows: Preparation of cokes by CSIRO; Petrography of starting coals and cokes; QEMSCAN of coals; LTA and XRD of starting coals and cokes; Coke reactivity tests (NSC and small scale); Petrography, LTA and XRD of reacted cokes; Petrographic and XRD examination of heat treated cokes. This study indicates that the NSC reactivity test does not adequately reflect the behaviour of coke in the lower part of the blast furnace. Further investigation of the behaviour of coke in the lower part of the blast furnace is required.

  3. Provisional 2008 assessment of solid mineral fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    This article first comments data on solid mineral fuel consumption in France in 2008, i.e., the overall consumption, and the consumption by different sectors (energy production in coal plants, iron and steel industry, other industries, housing and office buildings). Then, it comments solid mineral fuel imports and their origins. It comments and explains the price evolution since 1999 (notably on the Antwerp-Rotterdam-Amsterdam market) in relationship with maritime transport price, availabilities and problems, and with the evolution of coal demand (notably in China) and oil prices. Finally, it briefly comments the French residual production and stocks

  4. Maximizing percentage depletion in solid minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Grove, H.D.; McGrath, M.

    1982-01-01

    This article develops a strategy for maximizing percentage depletion deductions when extracting uranium or other solid minerals. The goal is to avoid losing percentage depletion deductions by staying below the 50% limitation on taxable income from the property. The article is divided into two major sections. The first section is comprised of depletion calculations that illustrate the problem and corresponding solutions. The last section deals with the feasibility of applying the strategy and complying with the Internal Revenue Code and appropriate regulations. Three separate strategies or appropriate situations are developed and illustrated. 13 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  5. Rapid tracking of metals and other minerals in solid contaminated environments matters (soil, waste) thanks to non-destructive and rapid on-site methods with x-fluorescence. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzonville, A.; Colin, A.; Durin, L.; Gruffat, V.; Chassagnac, T.

    2008-05-01

    Rapid tracking of metals and other minerals in solid contaminated environments matters greatly to the various firms working in waste disposal. In order to facilitate decision-making that rely on non-destructive and rapid onsite methods of analysis, a review of such methods has been carried out though Scientific publications and Technical reports. Only X-fluorescence is presented as suitable, albeit with some limitations. In order to check the collected bibliographical data and to test both the limits and the limitations imposed by the use of portable XRF instruments, several series of experiments were conducted using two types of portable instruments: a gun-like instrument and a portable-class instrument. With the help of such instruments, the experiments were mainly oriented towards applications that are neglected in field research with regards to waste materials such as: - bulky curbside refuse, - contaminated land, - sludge from the dredging of ports and rivers, - steelwork slurries and dust particles. As these instruments make it possible to obtain samples before analysis, more in-depth evaluation of this aspect is relevant. Thus the number of samples to be analyzed, the kind of conditioning (grinding, sifting), the moisture, are parameters that require evaluation for each individual case and each different type of waste matter. Such aspect can be especially iffy when heterogeneous waste matter like recycling refuse is handled. In fact, the precision of the instruments usually do not cover the regulation thresholds or the techniques that are require by users. It is therefore necessary for the users of these instruments to be aware of the utilization limits and to develop protocols that are suitable for each situation, in order to get readings that are representative and can be interpreted. (authors)

  6. The mineral matter characteristics of some Chinese coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X. [China University of Mining and Technology (China). Dept. of Coal Preparation and Utilization

    1994-12-01

    The mineral matter has been separated from 18 coal samples with a low temperature ashes and analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction method. Based on the results of chemical analysis of the coal ash, with reference to the standard composition of minerals, the content of various mineral phases in the coal ash has been determined. Furthermore, this paper summarizes the mineral matter characteristics of the coal samples and discusses the relationship between the composition of mineral matter in coal and its depositional environment.

  7. Effect of mineral matter on coal self-heating rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Basil Beamish; Ahmet Arisoy [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). School of Engineering

    2008-01-15

    Adiabatic self-heating tests have been conducted on subbituminous coal cores from the same seam profile, which cover a mineral matter content range of 11.2-71.1%. In all cases the heat release rate does not conform to an Arrhenius kinetic model, but can best be described by a third order polynomial. Assessment of the theoretical heat sink effect of the mineral matter in each of the tests reveals that the coal is less reactive than predicted using a simple energy conservation equation. There is an additional effect of the mineral matter in these cases that cannot be explained by heat sink alone. The disseminated mineral matter in the coal is therefore inhibiting the oxidation reaction due to physicochemical effects. 14 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Organic matter dynamics and N mineralization in grassland soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, J.

    1995-01-01


    The aims of this study are i) to improve our understanding of the interactions between soil texturelsoil structure, soil organic matter, soil biota and mineralization in grassland soils, ii) to develop a procedure that yields soil organic matter fractions that can be determined directly

  9. Mineral CO2 sequestration in alkaline solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2004-12-01

    Mineral carbonation is a promising sequestration route for the permanent and safe storage of carbon dioxide. In addition to calcium- or magnesium-containing primary minerals, suitable alkaline solid residues can be used as feedstock. The use of alkaline residues has several advantages, such as their availability close to CO2 sources and their higher reactivity for carbonation than primary minerals. In addition, the environmental quality of residues can potentially be improved by carbonation. In this study, key factors of the mineral CO2 sequestration process are identified, their influence on the carbonation process is examined, and environmental properties of the reaction products with regard to their possible beneficial utilization are investigated. The use of alkaline solid residues forms a potentially attractive alternative for the first mineral sequestration plants

  10. Organic matter dynamics and N mineralization in grassland soils

    OpenAIRE

    Hassink, J.

    1995-01-01


    The aims of this study are i) to improve our understanding of the interactions between soil texturelsoil structure, soil organic matter, soil biota and mineralization in grassland soils, ii) to develop a procedure that yields soil organic matter fractions that can be determined directly and can be used in soil organic matter models, iii) to develop a model that predicts the long-term dynamics of soil organic matter, iv) to develop a simple model that can be used by farmers and advi...

  11. Impact of organic-mineral matter interactions on thermal reaction pathways for coal model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, A.C. III; Britt, P.F.; Struss, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

    1995-07-01

    Coal is a complex, heterogeneous solid that includes interdispersed mineral matter. However, knowledge of organic-mineral matter interactions is embryonic, and the impact of these interactions on coal pyrolysis and liquefaction is incomplete. Clay minerals, for example, are known to be effective catalysts for organic reactions. Furthermore, clays such as montmorillonite have been proposed to be key catalysts in the thermal alteration of lignin into vitrinite during the coalification process. Recent studies by Hatcher and coworkers on the evolution of coalified woods using microscopy and NMR have led them to propose selective, acid-catalyzed, solid state reaction chemistry to account for retained structural integrity in the wood. However, the chemical feasibility of such reactions in relevant solids is difficult to demonstrate. The authors have begun a model compound study to gain a better molecular level understanding of the effects in the solid state of organic-mineral matter interactions relevant to both coal formation and processing. To satisfy the need for model compounds that remain nonvolatile solids at temperatures ranging to 450 C, model compounds are employed that are chemically bound to the surface of a fumed silica (Si-O-C{sub aryl}linkage). The organic structures currently under investigation are phenethyl phenyl ether (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OC{sub 6}H{sub 5}) derivatives, which serve as models for {beta}-alkyl aryl ether units that are present in lignin and lignitic coals. The solid-state chemistry of these materials at 200--450 C in the presence of interdispersed acid catalysts such as small particle size silica-aluminas and montmorillonite clay will be reported. Initial focus will be on defining the potential impact of these interactions on coal pyrolysis and liquefaction.

  12. Can Biochar Protect Labile Organic Matter Against Mineralization in Soil?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanna B.MELAS; Oriol ORTIZ; Josep M.ALACA(N)IZ

    2017-01-01

    Biochar could help to stabilize soil organic (SOM) matter,thus sequestering carbon (C) into the soil.The aim of this work was to determine an easy method i) to estimate the effects of the addition of biochar and nutrients on the organic matter (SOM)mineralization in an artificial soil,proposed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD),amended with glucose and ii) to measure the amount of labile organic matter (glucose) that can be sorbed and thus be partially protected in the same soil,amended or not amended with biochar.A factorial experiment was designed to check the effects of three single factors (biochar,nutrients,and glucose) and their interactions on whole SOM mineralization.Soil samples were inoculated with a microbial inoculum and preincubated to ensure that their biological activities were not limited by a small amount of microbial biomass,and then they were incubated in the dark at 21 ℃ for 619 d.Periodical measurements of C mineralized to carbon dioxide (CO2) were carried out throughout the 619-d incubation to allow the mineralization of both active and slow organic matter pools.The amount of sorbed glucose was calculated as the difference between the total and remaining amounts of glucose added in a soil extract.Two different models,the Freundlich and Langmuir models,were selected to assess the equilibrium isotherms of glucose sorption.The CO2-C release strongly depended on the presence of nutrients only when no biochar was added to the soil.The mineralization of organic matter in the soil amended with both biochar and glucose was equal to the sum of the mineralization of the two C sources separately.Furthermore,a significant amount of glucose can be sorbed on the biochar-amended soil,suggesting the involvement of physico-chemical mechanisms in labile organic matter protection.

  13. Composition of structural fragments and the mineralization rate of organic matter in zonal soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionova, A. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Kolyagin, Yu. G.; Kvitkina, A. K.; Kaganov, V. V.; Kudeyarov, V. N.

    2015-10-01

    Comparative analysis of the climatic characteristics and the recalcitrance against decomposition of organic matter in the zonal soil series of European Russia, from peat surface-gley tundra soil to brown semidesert soil, has assessed the relationships between the period of biological activity, the content of chemically stable functional groups, and the mineralization of humus. The stability of organic matter has been determined from the ratio of functional groups using the solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy of soil samples and the direct measurements of organic matter mineralization from CO2 emission. A statistically significant correlation has been found between the period of biological activity and the humification indices: the CHA/CFA ratio, the aromaticity, and the alkyl/ O-alkyl ratio in organic matter. The closest correlation has been observed between the period of biological activity and the alkyl/ O-alkyl ratio; therefore, this parameter can be an important indicator of the soil humus status. A poor correlation between the mineralization rate and the content of chemically stable functional groups in soil organic matter has been revealed for the studied soil series. At the same time, the lowest rate of carbon mineralization has been observed in southern chernozem characterized by the maximum content of aromatic groups (21% Corg) and surface-gley peat tundra soil, where an extremely high content of unsubstituted CH2 and CH3 alkyl groups (41% Corg) has been noted.

  14. Separating the effects of organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry on the sorption of diuron and phenanthrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangar, Ahmad Gholamalizadeh; Smernik, Ronald J; Kookana, Rai S; Chittleborough, David J

    2008-06-01

    Even though it is well established that soil C content is the primary determinant of the sorption affinity of soils for non-ionic compounds, it is also clear that organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (K(OC)) vary considerably between soils. Two factors that may contribute to K(OC) variability are variations in organic matter chemistry between soils and interactions between organic matter and soil minerals. Here, we quantify these effects for two non-ionic sorbates-diuron and phenanthrene. The effect of organic matter-mineral interactions were evaluated by comparing K(OC) for demineralized (HF-treated) soils, with K(OC) for the corresponding whole soils. For diuron and phenanthrene, average ratios of K(OC) of the HF-treated soils to K(OC) of the whole soils were 2.5 and 2.3, respectively, indicating a substantial depression of K(OC) due to the presence of minerals in the whole soils. The effect of organic matter chemistry was determined by correlating K(OC) against distributions of C types determined using solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy. For diuron, K(OC) was positively correlated with aryl C and negatively correlated with O-alkyl C, for both whole and HF-treated soils, whereas for phenanthrene, these correlations were only present for the HF-treated soils. We suggest that the lack of a clear effect of organic matter chemistry on whole soil K(OC) for phenanthrene is due to an over-riding influence of organic matter-mineral interactions in this case. This hypothesis is supported by a correlation between the increase in K(OC) on HF-treatment and the soil clay content for phenanthrene, but not for diuron.

  15. Behavior of catalyst and mineral matter in coal liquefaction; Sekitan ekika hannochu no kobusshitsu to shokubai no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, K.; Wang, J.; Tomita, A. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    Mineral matter in coals is important in various senses for coal liquefaction. It is possible that the catalytic activity is affected by the interaction between catalyst and mineral matter. Iron-based catalyst forms pyrrhotite in the process of liquefaction, but the interaction between it and mineral matter is not known in detail. In this study, the interaction between mineral matter and catalyst and the selective reaction between them were investigated. Tanito Harum coal was used for this study. This coal contains a slight amount of siderite and jarosite besides pyrite as iron compounds. Liquefaction samples were obtained from the 1 t/d NEDOL process PSU. The solid deposits in the reactor mainly contained pyrrhotite and quartz. A slight amount of kaolinite was observed, and pyrite was little remained. It was found that the catalyst (pyrrhotite) often coexisted with quartz, clay and calcite. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Biochar effect on the mineralization of soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Bruun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify whether the addition of biochar to the soil affects the degradation of litter and of soil organic matter (SOM. In order to investigate the effect of biochar on the mineralization of barley straw, soil was incubated with 14C-labelled barley straw with or without unlabelled biochar. To investigate the effect of straw on the mineralization of biochar, soil was incubated with 14C-labelled biochar with or without straw. In addition, to investigate the effect of biochar on old SOM, a soil labelled by applying labelled straw 40 years ago was incubated with different levels of biochar. All experiments had a control treatment, without any soil amendment. The effect of biochar on the straw mineralization was small and nonsignificant. Without biochar, 48±0.2% of the straw carbon was mineralized within the 451 days of the experiment. In comparison, 45±1.6% of C was mineralized after biochar addition of 1.5 g kg-1. In the SOM-labelled soil, the organic matter mineralized more slowly with the increasing doses of biochar. Biochar addition at 7.7 g kg-1 reduced SOM mineralization from 6.6 to 6.3%, during the experimental period. The addition of 15.5 g kg-1 of biochar reduced the mineralized SOM to 5.7%. There is no evidence of increased degradation of either litter or SOM due to biochar addition; consequently, there is no evidence of decreased stability of SOM.

  17. New Approaches in Soil Organic Matter Fluorescence; A Solid Phase Fluorescence Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, M. M.; Sanclements, M.; McKnight, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique to investigate the composition of organic matter in aquatic systems and is increasingly applied to soil organic matter (SOM). Current methods require that SOM be extracted into a liquid prior to analysis by fluorescence spectroscopy. Soil extractions introduce an additional layer of complexity as the composition of the organic matter dissolved into solution varies based upon the selected extractant. Water is one of the most commonly used extractant, but only extracts the water-soluble fraction of the SOM with the insoluble soil organic matter fluorescence remaining in the soil matrix. We propose the use of solid phase fluorescence on whole soils as a potential tool to look at the composition of organic matter without the extraction bias and gain a more complete understand of the potential for fluorescence as a tool in terrestrial studies. To date, the limited applications of solid phase fluorescence have ranged from food and agriculture to pharmaceutical with no clearly defined methods and limitations available. We are aware of no other studies that use solid phase fluorescence and thus no clear methods to look at SOM across a diverse set of soil types and ecosystems. With this new approach to fluorescence spectroscopy there are new challenges, such as blank correction, inner filter effect corrections, and sample preparation. This work outlines a novel method for analyzing soil organic matter using solid phase fluorescence across a wide range of soils collected from the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) eco-domains. This method has shown that organic matter content in soils must be diluted to 2% to reduce backscattering and oversaturation of the detector in forested soils. In mineral horizons (A) there is observed quenching of the humic-like organic matter, which is likely a result of organo-mineral complexation. Finally, we present preliminary comparisons between solid and liquid phase

  18. Provisional 2008 assessment of solid mineral fuels; Bilan provisoire 2008 des combustibles mineraux solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    This article first comments data on solid mineral fuel consumption in France in 2008, i.e., the overall consumption, and the consumption by different sectors (energy production in coal plants, iron and steel industry, other industries, housing and office buildings). Then, it comments solid mineral fuel imports and their origins. It comments and explains the price evolution since 1999 (notably on the Antwerp-Rotterdam-Amsterdam market) in relationship with maritime transport price, availabilities and problems, and with the evolution of coal demand (notably in China) and oil prices. Finally, it briefly comments the French residual production and stocks.

  19. Mineral surface–organic matter interactions: basics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdrè, G; Moro, D; Ulian, G

    2012-01-01

    The ability to control the binding of biological and organic molecules to a crystal surface is central in several fields; for example, in biotechnology, catalysis, molecular microarrays, biosensors preparation and environmental sciences. The nano-morphology and nanostructure at the surface may have physico-chemical properties that are very different from those of the underlying mineral substrate. Recent developments in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) have widened the spectrum of possible investigations that can be performed at the nanometric level on the surface of minerals. They range from the study of physical properties such as surface potential, electric field topological determination, Brønsted–Lowry site distributions, to chemical and spectroscopic analysis in air, in liquid or in gaseous environments. After an introduction to SPM modes of operation and new SPM-based technological developments, we will present recent examples of applications in the study of interactions between organic matter and mineral surface and report on the advances in knowledge that have been made by the use of scanning probe microscopy.

  20. Determination of mineral matter distribution in a coal seam using O sub 2 chemisorption technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.D.; Goulet, J.-C.; Grandsen, J.; Price, J.T.; Furimsky, E. (CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Laboratories)

    1990-08-01

    A series of samples taken from different depths of the seam of a bituminous coal in Western Canada was used to determine the mineral matter distribution. The measurements were carried out using the O{sub 2} chemisorption based on a thermogravimetric technique. The O{sub 2} chemisorption increased with decreasing mineral matter content. The employed technique was found to be suitable for identifying the portion of coal seam least contaminated with mineral matter. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Foreign matter identification from solid dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekka Pajander, Jari; Haugshøj, Kenneth Brian; Bjørneboe, Kathrine

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increased request for robust quality systems, the end product may contain unidentified defects or discoloured regions. The foreign matter has to be monitored, identified and its source defined in order to prevent further contamination. However, the identification task can be complicated......, since the origin and nature of foreign matter are various. The aim of this study is to provide an efficient foreign matter identification procedure for various substances possibly originating from pharmaceutical manufacturing environment. The surface or cross-section of the uncoated and coated tablets...... was analysed by utilization of different analytical techniques, such as light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (To...

  2. Attaining Sustainable Growth in Nigeria: Any Role for Solid Mineral Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Kojo Edeme

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Using time series such as GDP per capita, solid minerals output, foreign trade balance, domestic interest rate, inflation, and gross domestic savings, for the period 1960-2015. the Linear Growth Regression model adopted for this study indicates that solid minerals positively impact on sustainable growth and is statistically significant. The study also found that solid mineral is highly significant but negatively related with foreign exchange due largely to illegal migration of mineral commodities across the borders of the country. In view of this, there is need for conscious inter-agency collaboration to track the volume of mineral resources illegally escaping the shores of the country without being accounted for. Besides, there should be more attention on developing the solid mineral sector to help insulate the economy from the vagaries of the present economic woes given the rising demand in solid mineral resources globally.

  3. Promising Technologies of Mining and Processing of Solid Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabaev, Sergey; Ivanov, Seregey; Vakhianov, Evgeniy

    2017-11-01

    The continuing growth in mineral extraction entails an increase in industrial waste, which in turn has a negative impact on the environment. Rubber-tired vehicles, in which the tires wear colossally, is mainly used as a transport for loading, unloading, transportation and other types of work in the extraction of solid minerals. The used tires are not disposed in any way, but are stored in special areas where harmful toxic substances are emitted under the influence of ultraviolet rays. Therefore, a decision was made to find a method for utilization and rational use of industrial waste in the road construction sector. The operating temperature of composite rubber-bituminous binders based on rubber crumb from the used automobile tires is estimated in this paper, which is necessary for assigning technological parameters of production and laying of asphalt-concrete mixtures produced on their basis. It is established that composite rubber-bituminous binders based on rubber chips from the used automobile tires, produced according to the two-stage technology, have the same viscosity as the original petroleum bitumen, at a temperature increased by 20°C.

  4. Promising Technologies of Mining and Processing of Solid Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabaev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuing growth in mineral extraction entails an increase in industrial waste, which in turn has a negative impact on the environment. Rubber-tired vehicles, in which the tires wear colossally, is mainly used as a transport for loading, unloading, transportation and other types of work in the extraction of solid minerals. The used tires are not disposed in any way, but are stored in special areas where harmful toxic substances are emitted under the influence of ultraviolet rays. Therefore, a decision was made to find a method for utilization and rational use of industrial waste in the road construction sector. The operating temperature of composite rubber-bituminous binders based on rubber crumb from the used automobile tires is estimated in this paper, which is necessary for assigning technological parameters of production and laying of asphalt-concrete mixtures produced on their basis. It is established that composite rubber-bituminous binders based on rubber chips from the used automobile tires, produced according to the two-stage technology, have the same viscosity as the original petroleum bitumen, at a temperature increased by 20°C.

  5. 78 FR 66097 - In the Matter of Heritage Worldwide, Inc., Impala Mineral Exploration Corp., Klondike Star...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [ File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Heritage Worldwide, Inc., Impala Mineral Exploration Corp., Klondike Star Mineral Corporation, MIV Therapeutics Inc., Most Home... concerning the securities of Klondike Star Mineral Corporation because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  6. Mineralization of CCl4 and CCl2F2 on solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeb, S.; Schmitzer, J.; Turner, W.V.; Korte, F.; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising

    1980-01-01

    The mineralization of 14 CCl 4 and 14 CCl 2 F 2 in the dark is shown to be greatly dependent on the nature of the solid surfaces to which they are exposed, alumina being more effective than silica gel and a number of natural sands. Activation of the solids by drying or mechanically by tumbling leads to increased mineralization rates. (orig.)

  7. Electron Scattering in Solid Matter A Theoretical and Computational Treatise

    CERN Document Server

    Zabloudil, Jan; Szunyogh, Laszlo

    2005-01-01

    Addressing graduate students and researchers, this book gives a very detailed theoretical and computational description of multiple scattering in solid matter. Particular emphasis is placed on solids with reduced dimensions, on full potential approaches and on relativistic treatments. For the first time approaches such as the Screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method that have emerged during the last 5 – 10 years are reviewed, considering all formal steps such as single-site scattering, structure constants and screening transformations, and also the numerical point of view. Furthermore, a very general approach is presented for solving the Poisson equation, needed within density functional theory in order to achieve self-consistency. Going beyond ordered matter and translationally invariant systems, special chapters are devoted to the Coherent Potential Approximation and to the Embedded Cluster Method, used, for example, for describing nanostructured matter in real space. In a final chapter, physical properties...

  8. The effects of organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry on diuron sorption across a diverse range of soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smernik, Ronald J; Kookana, Rai S

    2015-01-01

    Sorption of non-ionic organic compounds to soil is usually expressed as the carbon-normalized partition coefficient (KOC), because it is assumed that the main factor that influences the amount sorbed is the organic carbon content of the soil. However, KOC can vary by a factor of at least ten across a range of soils. We investigated two potential causes of variation in diuron KOC - organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry - for a diverse set of 34 soils from Sri Lanka, representing a wide range of soil types. Treatment with hydrofluoric acid (HF-treatment) was used to concentrate soil organic matter. HF-treatment increased KOC for the majority of soils (average factor 2.4). We attribute this increase to the blocking of organic matter sorption sites in the whole soils by minerals. There was no significant correlation between KOC for the whole soils and KOC for the HF-treated soils, indicating that the importance of organic matter-mineral interactions varied greatly amongst these soils. There was as much variation in KOC across the HF-treated soils as there was across the whole soils, indicating that the nature of soil organic matter is also an important contributor to KOC variability. Organic matter chemistry, determined by solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was correlated with KOC for the HF-treated soils. In particular, KOC increased with the aromatic C content (R=0.64, p=1×10(-6)), and decreased with O-alkyl C (R=-0.32, p=0.03) and alkyl C (R=-0.41, p=0.004) content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between Mineral and Organic Matter in Shales: The Case of Shahejie Formation, Dongying Sag, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zeng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Types of organic matter and mineral associations and microstructures of shales can reflect the depositional mechanism and sedimentary environment. Therefore, analysis of organic matter and mineral associations is a prerequisite for research on fine-grained sedimentary rocks. Shales from the Eocene Shahejie Formation in the Dongying Sag of China were selected to classify their lithofacies and to investigate the characteristics of their organic matter and mineral associations. This analysis identified six lithofacies (e.g., laminated shales and massive mudstones; in all the lithofacies, clay minerals exhibit a positive correlation with detrital minerals, thus indicating that they were derived from the same source. The comprehensive analysis of mineral and organic matter associations reveals that detrital minerals were deposited with low-hydrogen index (HI OM. The deposition of detrital minerals was mainly a physical process. Clay minerals can undergo deposition in one of two ways due to their surface charge: they can either aggregate with high-HI OM via chemical deposition, thus forming organic-rich laminae, or they can be deposited together with low-HI OM via physical deposition, thus forming clay-rich laminae or a massive matrix. Carbonate minerals, which often coexist with high-HI OM, are biological sediments. The analysis of the sedimentary characteristics of these organic matter and mineral associations indicates that the sedimentary processes differ between various lithofacies: e.g., the discontinuous laminated shale represents the product of biophysical processes. Differences in depositional mechanisms are also present in each sub-member. Therefore, it is important to analyze the properties of minerals and organic matter, as well as their associations, to more deeply understand the classification of lithofacies and the depositional processes of shales and mudstones.

  10. Microbial community responses in forest mineral soil to compaction, organic matter removal, and vegetation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt D. Busse; Samual E. Beattie; Robert F. Powers; Filpe G. Sanchez; Allan E. Tiarks

    2006-01-01

    We tested three disturbance hypotheses in young conifer plantations: H1: soil compaction and removal of surface organic matter produces sustained changes in microbial community size, activity, and structure in mineral soil; H2: microbial community characteristics in mineral soil are linked to the recovery of plant diversity...

  11. 30 CFR 210.201 - How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Colorado 80217-5810; or (ii) For courier service or overnight mail (excluding Express Mail): Minerals... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report? 210.201 Section 210.201 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE...

  12. The release of mineral matter and associated phosphorus as a function of the particle size coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claassens, V. [Sasol Technology Research & Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Syngas & Coal Technologies

    2009-05-15

    The presence of phosphorus in carbon reductants is a major concern in the metallurgical industry. The behaviour of the phosphorus and mineral matter content (reported as ash) as a function of particle size was investigated. The primary aim of this study was to determine the reduction in phosphorus and mineral matter that occurred as the particle size decreased. A secondary aim was to determine how the phosphorus was distributed in the feed coal and to where it reported during floc-flotation. Results showed that the ash content decreased more rapidly than the phosphorus content as the mean particle size was reduced. It remains unclear why P-rejection is only half as effective as mineral matter rejection. Detailed liberation analysis of P-containing minerals is required to possibly explain this phenomenon.

  13. The heterogeneous nature of mineral matter, fly-ash and deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Pohl, J.H.; Devir, G.P.; Su, S. [R.A. Creelman and Associates, Epping, NSW (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper reports on a series of slagging studies investigating the heterogeneous nature of mineral matter, fly ash and deposits, and how this heterogeneity affects deposition. The data come from low temperature ashing (LTA) of pulverised coal, fly ash from boilers, and deposits from pilot-scale furnaces and boilers. The paper presents optical and scanning electron (SEM) micrographs, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXRA) of mineral matter, individual fly ash particles, and localised regions of deposits. During combustion, the included mineral matter is transformed into fly ash, melts and partially adheres to the char surface, and may form agglomerated masses. Excluded mineral matter has little chance of encountering another ash particle and agglomerating in the gas phase, but can react with other particles in the wall deposits. Certain fly ash particles adhere to the wall where they can combine with other fly ash particles. Analyses of molten regions of deposits have shown, so far, four mineral phase fields to be responsible for forming difficult deposits with melting points below deposit surface temperatures of 1200 to 1350{sup o}C. These mineral fields include iron cordierite, albite and its silica undersaturated equivalent nepheline, anorthite, and compounds with ratios of Ca to P of 2.3-2.5.

  14. Quantification of mineral matter in commercial cokes and their parent coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurovs, Richard; French, David; Grigore, Mihaela [CRC for Coal in Sustainable Development, CSIRO Energy Technology, PO Box 330 Newcastle 2300 (Australia)

    2007-10-01

    The nature of mineral matter in coke is an important factor in determining the behaviour of coke in the blast furnace. However, there have been few quantitative determinations of the types of mineral matter in coke and the feed coal. Here we use a technique of quantitative X-ray diffraction - SIROQUANT trademark - to determine the nature and quantity of mineral matter in eleven cokes and their parent materials, using samples of coals and their cokes utilised commercially in blast furnaces around the world. In some of these coals a considerable proportion of the phosphorus was present as goyazite, an aluminium phosphate. In the cokes, most of the iron was incorporated into amorphous aluminosilicate material; metallic iron accounted for about 15% of the iron present, and a similar amount was present as sulfides. Potassium and sodium were largely present as amorphous aluminosilicate material. Most of the quartz in the coal was unaffected by the coking, but a small fraction was transformed into other minerals. Quartz is not completely inert during coking. The amount of the catalytic forms of iron in the coke - iron, iron oxides and iron sulfides - was not related to the amount of pyrite and siderite in the starting coal, indicating that estimation of catalytic iron requires investigation of the mineral matter in coke directly and cannot be estimated from the minerals in the coal. (author)

  15. Origin of life and living matter in hot mineral water

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatov, Ignat; Mosin, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    In this review the composition of water and isotopic structure of water during a process of origin of life is submitted. The data obtained testify that life maintenance depends on physical-chemical properties of water and external factors – temperature and рН. Hot mineral alkaline water, which interacts with CaCO 3 is closest to these conditions. Next in line with regard to quality is sea and mountain water.

  16. Study of catalytic effects of mineral matter level on coal reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzocco, Nestor J.; Klunder, Edgar B.; Krastman, Donald

    1981-03-01

    Coal liquefaction experiments using a 400-lb/day bubble-column reactor tested the catalytic effects of added mineral matter level on coal conversion, desulfurization, and distillate yields in continuous operation under recycle conditions, with specific emphasis on the use of a disposable pyrite catalyst indigenous to the feed coal. Western Kentucky No. 11 run-of-mine (ROM) and washed coals were used as feedstocks to determine the effects of levels of mineral matter, specifically iron compounds. Liquefaction reactivity as characterized by total distillate yield was lower for washed coal, which contained less mineral matter. Liquefaction reactivity was regained when pyrite concentrate was added as a disposable catalyst to the washed coal feed in sufficient quantity to match the feed iron concentration of the run-of-mine coal liquefaction test run.

  17. Effects of mineral matters on evolution of sulfur-containing gases in pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Li, B.; Zhang, B. [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Conversion

    1998-07-01

    The evolution of sulfur-containing gases were investigated using two Chinese coals with their de-ash and de-pyrite forms in pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis. Mineral matter can not only return H{sub 2}S produced in pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis, but also catalyse hydrodesulfurization and reduce COS formation. Secondary reactions markedly influence COS formation. Mineral matter can reduce CH{sub 3}SH formation, and pyrite shows positive effects on CH{sub 3}SH formation. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Effects of clay mineral type and organic matter on the uptake of radiocesium by pasture plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.

    1980-10-01

    Studies were undertaken to examine the influence of interaction of clay minerals and organic matter on the uptake of radiocesium by two pasture plants, namely, ryegrass (Lolium italicum L) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L). The clay minerals used were bentonite (2.1 layer type) and kaolinite (1/1 layer type). Mixtures of clay and sand were prepared with 0.5, 10, 20 and 40 per cent clay and treated with organic matter (forest turf) at 0,5 and 10 per cent of the clay-sand mixtures. Results indicated that 134 Cs uptake by plants grown on the kaolinite-clay medium was greater than that on the bentonite-clay medium at a given organic matter level. Increasing the clay content of mixtures resulted in reduction in 134 Cs uptake by both plant species. The plant uptake of 134 Cs increased with additions of organic matter at a given clay content. (author)

  19. Photodetachment in the gaseous, liquid, and solid states of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; Datskos, P.G.; Faidas, H.

    1994-01-01

    We have made absolute cross section measurements of laser photodetachment of C 6 F - 6 ions embedded in gaseous tetramethylsilane (TMS) and compared the results at low gas densities with measurements in nonpolar liquids and solids. The measurements indicate that the photodetachment cross section of C 6 F - 6 in gaseous TMS is about three times larger than in liquid TMS. This is rationalized by considering the effect of the medium on both the photoabsorption and the autodetachment processes. The photodetachment cross section in both the gas and the liquid exhibits (at least) two maxima due to autodetaching negative ion states. It is argued that these are due to σ*→σ* transitions in C 6 F - 6 . The relative positions of these ''superexcited'' anionic states did not change appreciably in going from the gas to the liquid and the solid, indicating similar influences of the medium on them. As expected, the photodetachment threshold in the condensed phase is shifted to higher energies compared to the gaseous phase. This shift is consistent with recent photoelectron studies of photodetachment of C 6 F - 6 clusters. The present study clearly shows that the photodetachment from negative ions embedded in all states of matter proceeds directly or indirectly via negative ion autodetaching states, and that for nonpolar media, the effect of the medium can be accounted for by considering the macroscopic properties of the medium described by its dielectric constant ε and refractive index n

  20. Applications of scanning electron microscopy to the study of mineral matter in peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Andrejko, M.J.; Bardin, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) have been used for in situ analysis of minerals in peats by combining methods for producing oriented microtome sections of peat with methods for critical point drying. The combined technique allows SEM analysis of the inorganic components and their associated botanical constituents, along with petrographic identification of the botanical constituents. In peat deposits with abundant fluvial- or marine-derived minerals, one may use the above technique and/or medium- or low-temperature ashing followed by x-ray diffraction to readily identify the various mineral components. However, in some freshwater environments the scarcity of non-silica minerals makes the above techniques impractical. By separating the inorganic residues from the peat, one can isolate the non-silica mineral matter in the SEM for analysis by EDS. Furthermore, such separation allows SEM analysis of features and textures of both silica and non-silica mineral particles that might otherwise be unidentifiable. Results indicate the occurrence of detritial minerals in both Okefenokee and Snuggedy Swamp peats, the presence of authigenic or diagenetic minerals growing within peats, and dissolution features on freshwater sponge spicules that may account for the absence of spicules in Tertiary lignites.

  1. Interactive priming of biochar and labile organic matter mineralization in a smectite-rich soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Alexandra; Singh, Balwant; Singh, Bhupinder Pal

    2011-11-15

    Biochar is considered as an attractive tool for long-term carbon (C) storage in soil. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of labile organic matter (LOM) on biochar-C mineralization in soil or the vice versa. An incubation experiment (20 °C) was conducted for 120 days to quantify the interactive priming effects of biochar-C and LOM-C mineralization in a smectitic clayey soil. Sugar cane residue (source of LOM) at a rate of 0, 1, 2, and 4% (w/w) in combination with two wood biochars (450 and 550 °C) at a rate of 2% (w/w) were applied to the soil. The use of biochars (~ -36‰) and LOM (-12.7‰) or soil (-14.3‰) with isotopically distinct δ(13)C values allowed the quantification of C mineralized from biochar and LOM/soil. A small fraction (0.4-1.1%) of the applied biochar-C was mineralized, and the mineralization of biochar-C increased significantly with increasing application rates of LOM, especially during the early stages of incubation. Concurrently, biochar application reduced the mineralization of LOM-C, and the magnitude of this effect increased with increasing rate of LOM addition. Over time, the interactive priming of biochar-C and LOM-C mineralization was stabilized. Biochar application possesses a considerable merit for long-term soil C-sequestration, and it has a stabilizing effect on LOM in soil.

  2. A scanning electron microscope method for automated, quantitative analysis of mineral matter in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Ward, C.R. [R.A. Creelman and Associates, Epping, NSW (Australia)

    1996-07-01

    Quantitative mineralogical analysis has been carried out in a series of nine coal samples from Australia, South Africa and China using a newly-developed automated image analysis system coupled to a scanning electron microscopy. The image analysis system (QEM{asterisk}SEM) gathers X-ray spectra and backscattered electron data from a number of points on a conventional grain-mount polished section under the SEM, and interprets the data from each point in mineralogical terms. The cumulative data in each case was integrated to provide a volumetric modal analysis of the species present in the coal samples, expressed as percentages of the respective coals` mineral matter. Comparison was made of the QEM{asterisk}SEM results to data obtained from the same samples using other methods of quantitative mineralogical analysis, namely X-ray diffraction of the low-temperature oxygen-plasma ash and normative calculation from the (high-temperature) ash analysis and carbonate CO{sub 2} data. Good agreement was obtained from all three methods for quartz in the coals, and also for most of the iron-bearing minerals. The correlation between results from the different methods was less strong, however, for individual clay minerals, or for minerals such as calcite, dolomite and phosphate species that made up only relatively small proportions of the mineral matter. The image analysis approach, using the electron microscope for mineralogical studies, has significant potential as a supplement to optical microscopy in quantitative coal characterisation. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Endogeic earthworms shape bacterial functional communities and affect organic matter mineralization in a tropical soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laetitia; Chapuis-Lardy, Lydie; Razafimbelo, Tantely; Razafindrakoto, Malalatiana; Pablo, Anne-Laure; Legname, Elvire; Poulain, Julie; Brüls, Thomas; O'Donohue, Michael; Brauman, Alain; Chotte, Jean-Luc; Blanchart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Priming effect (PE) is defined as a stimulation of the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) following a supply of fresh organic matter. This process can have important consequences on the fate of SOM and on the management of residues in agricultural soils, especially in tropical regions where soil fertility is essentially based on the management of organic matter. Earthworms are ecosystem engineers known to affect the dynamics of SOM. Endogeic earthworms ingest large amounts of soil and assimilate a part of organic matter it contains. During gut transit, microorganisms are transported to new substrates and their activity is stimulated by (i) the production of readily assimilable organic matter (mucus) and (ii) the possible presence of fresh organic residues in the ingested soil. The objective of our study was to see (i) whether earthworms impact the PE intensity when a fresh residue is added to a tropical soil and (ii) whether this impact is linked to a stimulation/inhibition of bacterial taxa, and which taxa are affected. A tropical soil from Madagascar was incubated in the laboratory, with a 13C wheat straw residue, in the presence or absence of a peregrine endogeic tropical earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus. Emissions of 12CO2 and 13CO2 were followed during 16 days. The coupling between DNA-SIP (stable isotope probing) and pyrosequencing showed that stimulation of both the mineralization of wheat residues and the PE can be linked to the stimulation of several groups especially belonging to the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:21753801

  4. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  5. Catalytic effect of mineral matter of high ash Onakawana lignite on steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1986-04-01

    Reactivities of untreated and acid washed Onakawana lignite during steam gasification were compared in a thermobalance reactor. The acid treatment resulted in removal of Ca, Mg, Ba and Sr from mineral matter. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in the rates of H/sub 2/, CO and CO/sub 2/ formation. The decrease of gasification rate was attributed to the decrease in concentration of gasification sites during the acid treatment.

  6. Effects of mineral matter on products and sulfur distributions in hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Li, B.; Zhang, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Inst. of Coal Chemistry

    1999-05-01

    The effects of the mineral matter on the product yield and sulfur distribution in hydropyrolysis and pyrolysis of Chinese Hongmiao lignite were investigated using a fixed-bed reactor. The volatile sulfur-containing gases (H{sub 2}S, COS, CH{sub 3}SH) were also analyzed as a function of pyrolysis temperature. Coal samples were treated with HCl/HF or HCl/HF and CrCl{sub 2} solution to eliminate minerals and pyrite respectively. In hydropyrolysis, demineralized Hongmiao lignite showed lower yields of tar and water than the raw coal. Demineralization cannot only minimize the fixation effect of basic mineral matter on sulfur-containing gases, but also increase the sulfur distribution of the tar. Further, from the evolution profiles of sulfur-containing gases, it is possible to elucidate the contribution of minerals, pyrite and organic sulfur to the sulfur evolution. Pyrite may not be the only source of COS formation. 32 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Towards Molecular Characterization of Mineral-Organic Matter Interface Using In Situ Liquid Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z.; Yu, X. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Organo-Mineral-Microbe interactions in terrestrial ecosystems are of great interest. Quite a few models have been developed through extensive efforts in this field. However, predictions from current models are far from being accurate, and many debates still exist. One of the major reasons is that most experimental data generated from bulk analysis, and the information of molecular dynamics occurring at mineral-organic matter interface is rare. Such information has been difficult to obtain, due to lack of suitable in situ analysis tools. Recently, we have developed in situ liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory1, and it has shown promise to provide both elemental and molecular information at vacuum-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces.2 In this presentation, we demonstrate that in situ liquid SIMS can provide critical molecular information at solid substrate-live biofilm interface.3 Shewanella oneidensis is used as a model micro-organism and silicon nitride as a model mineral surface. Of particular interest, biologically relevant water clusters have been first observed in the living biofilms. Characteristic fragments of biofilm matrix components such as proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids can be molecularly examined. Furthermore, characteristic fatty acids (e.g., palmitic acid), quinolone signal, and riboflavin fragments were found to respond after the biofilm is treated with Cr(VI), leading to biofilm dispersal. Significant changes in water clusters and quorum sensing signals indicative of intercellular communication in the aqueous environment were observed, suggesting that they might result in fatty acid synthesis and inhibition of riboflavin production. The Cr(VI) reduction seems to follow the Mtr pathway leading to Cr(III) formation. Our approach potentially opens a new avenue for in-situ understanding of mineral-organo or mineral-microbe interfaces using in situ liquid SIMS and super resolution fluorescence

  8. On the use of the spectroscopic techniques to model the interactions between radionuclides and solid minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoni, E. [IPN, Paris XI University, 91406 Orsay (France)]. e-mail: simoni@ipno.in2p3.fr

    2004-07-01

    In order to determine the radionuclides sorption constants on solid natural minerals, both thermodynamic and structural investigations, using spectroscopic techniques, are presented. The natural clays, that could be used as engineering barrier in the nuclear waste geological repository, are rather complex minerals. Therefore, in order to understand how these natural materials retain the radionuclides, it is necessary first to perform these studies on simple substrates such as phosphates, oxides and silicates (as powder and single crystal as well) and then extrapolate the obtained results on the natural minerals. As examples, the main results on the sorption processes of the hexavalent uranium onto zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) and lanthanum phosphate (LaPO{sub 4}) are presented. The corresponding sorption curves are simulated using the results obtained with the following spectroscopic techniques: laser induced spectro fluorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XP S), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (Exafs). Finally, the thermodynamic sorption constants are calculated. (Author)

  9. Soil mineral assemblage influences on microbial communities and carbon cycling under fresh organic matter input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, B. K.; Schwartz, E.; Koch, B.; Dijkstra, P.; Hungate, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between soil mineral assemblages and microbial communities are important drivers of soil organic carbon (SOC) cycling and storage, although the mechanisms driving these interactions remain unclear. There is increasing evidence supporting the importance of associations with poorly crystalline, short-range order (SRO) minerals in protection of SOC from microbial utilization. However, how the microbial processing of SRO-associated SOC may be influenced by fresh organic matter inputs (priming) remains poorly understood. The influence on SRO minerals on soil microbial community dynamics is uncertain as well. Therefore, we conducted a priming incubation by adding either a simulated root exudate mixture or conifer needle litter to three soils from a mixed-conifer ecosystem. The parent material of the soils were andesite, basalt, and granite and decreased in SRO mineral content, respectively. We also conducted a parallel quantitative stable isotope probing incubation by adding 18O-labelled water to the soils to isotopically label microbial DNA in situ. This allowed us to characterize and identify the active bacterial and archaeal community and taxon-specific growth under fresh organic matter input. While the granite soil (lowest SRO content), had the largest total mineralization, the least priming occurred. The andesite and basalt soils (greater SRO content) had lower total respiration, but greater priming. Across all treatments, the granite soil, while having the lowest species richness of the entire community (249 taxa, both active and inactive), had a larger active community (90%) in response to new SOC input. The andesite and basalt soils, while having greater total species richness of the entire community at 333 and 325 taxa, respectively, had fewer active taxa in response to new C compared to the granite soil (30% and 49% taxa, respectively). These findings suggest that the soil mineral assemblage is an important driver on SOC cycling under fresh

  10. Biomineralization associated with microbial reduction of Fe3+ and oxidation of Fe2+ in solid minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Kukkadapu, R.K.; Kim, J.; Eberl, D.; Xu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Iron-reducing and oxidizing microorganisms gain energy through reduction or oxidation of iron, and by doing so play an important role in the geochemical cycling of iron. This study was undertaken to investigate mineral transformations associated with microbial reduction of Fe3+ and oxidation of Fe2+ in solid minerals. A fluid sample from the 2450 m depth of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project was collected, and Fe3+-reducing and Fe2+-oxidizing microorganisms were enriched. The enrichment cultures displayed reduction of Fe3+ in nontronite and ferric citrate, and oxidation of Fe2+ in vivianite, siderite, and monosulfide (FeS). Additional experiments verified that the iron reduction and oxidation was biological. Oxidation of FeS resulted in the formation of goethite, lepidocrocite, and ferrihydrite as products. Although our molecular microbiological analyses detected Thermoan-aerobacter ethanolicus as a predominant organism in the enrichment culture, Fe3+ reduction and Fe2+ oxidation may be accomplished by a consortia of organisms. Our results have important environmental and ecological implications for iron redox cycling in solid minerals in natural environments, where iron mineral transformations may be related to the mobility and solubility of inorganic and organic contaminants.

  11. Microbial control of soil organic matter mineralization responses to labile carbon in subarctic climate change treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders; Rousk, Johannes

    2016-12-01

    Half the global soil carbon (C) is held in high-latitude systems. Climate change will expose these to warming and a shift towards plant communities with more labile C input. Labile C can also increase the rate of loss of native soil organic matter (SOM); a phenomenon termed 'priming'. We investigated how warming (+1.1 °C over ambient using open top chambers) and litter addition (90 g m -2  yr -1 ) treatments in the subarctic influenced the susceptibility of SOM mineralization to priming, and its microbial underpinnings. Labile C appeared to inhibit the mineralization of C from SOM by up to 60% within hours. In contrast, the mineralization of N from SOM was stimulated by up to 300%. These responses occurred rapidly and were unrelated to microbial successional dynamics, suggesting catabolic responses. Considered separately, the labile C inhibited C mineralization is compatible with previously reported findings termed 'preferential substrate utilization' or 'negative apparent priming', while the stimulated N mineralization responses echo recent reports of 'real priming' of SOM mineralization. However, C and N mineralization responses derived from the same SOM source must be interpreted together: This suggested that the microbial SOM-use decreased in magnitude and shifted to components richer in N. This finding highlights that only considering SOM in terms of C may be simplistic, and will not capture all changes in SOM decomposition. The selective mining for N increased in climate change treatments with higher fungal dominance. In conclusion, labile C appeared to trigger catabolic responses of the resident microbial community that shifted the SOM mining to N-rich components; an effect that increased with higher fungal dominance. Extrapolating from these findings, the predicted shrub expansion in the subarctic could result in an altered microbial use of SOM, selectively mining it for N-rich components, and leading to a reduced total SOM-use. © 2016 John Wiley

  12. Particulate Organic Matter Affects Soil Nitrogen Mineralization under Two Crop Rotation Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongyan Bu

    Full Text Available Changes in the quantity and/or quality of soil labile organic matter between and after different types of cultivation system could play a dominant role in soil nitrogen (N mineralization. The quantity and quality of particulate organic matter (POM and potentially mineralizable-N (PMN contents were measured in soils from 16 paired rice-rapeseed (RR/cotton-rapeseed (CR rotations sites in Hubei province, central China. Then four paired soils encompassing low (10th percentile, intermediate (25th and 75th percentiles, and high (90th percentile levels of soil PMN were selected to further study the effects of POM on soil N mineralization by quantifying the net N mineralization in original soils and soils from which POM was removed. Both soil POM carbon (POM-C and N (POM-N contents were 45.8% and 55.8% higher under the RR rotation compared to the CR rotation, respectively. The PMN contents were highly correlated with the POM contents. The PMN and microbial biomass N (MBN contents concurrently and significantly decreased when POM was removed. The reduction rate of PMN was positively correlated with changes in MBN after the removal of POM. The reduction rates of PMN and MBN after POM removal are lower under RR rotations (38.0% and 16.3%, respectively than CR rotations (45.6% and 19.5%, respectively. Furthermore, infrared spectroscopy indicated that compounds with low-bioavailability accumulated (e.g., aromatic recalcitrant materials in the soil POM fraction under the RR rotation but not under the CR rotation. The results of the present study demonstrated that POM plays a vital role in soil N mineralization under different rotation systems. The discrepancy between POM content and composition resulting from different crop rotation systems caused differences in N mineralization in soils.

  13. Spectral Assessment of Soil Properties: Standoff Quantification of Soil Organic Matter Content in Surface Mineral Soils and Alaskan Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Soil Properties Standoff Quantification of Soil Organic Matter Content in Surface Mineral Soils and Alaskan Peat En gi ne er R es ea rc h an d D...ERDC 6.2 GRE ARTEMIS STO-R DRTSPORE ERDC TR-17-9 August 2017 Spectral Assessment of Soil Properties Standoff Quantification of Soil Organic...Matter Content in Surface Mineral Soils and Alaskan Peat Stacey L. Jarvis, Karen L. Foley, Robert M. Jones, Stephen D. Newman, and Robyn A. Barbato

  14. Solid neutron matter the energy density in the relativistic harmonic approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattani, M.; Fernandes, N.C.

    A relativistic expression for the energy density as a function of particle density for solid neutron matter is obtained using Dirac's equation with a truncated harmonic potential. Ultrabaric and superluminous effects are not found in our approach [pt

  15. Incidence of non-lung solid cancers in Czech uranium miners: A case-cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulich, M.; Rericha, V.; Rericha, R.; Shore, D.L.; Sandler, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon and its progeny, which are known to cause lung cancer and may be associated with leukemia. This study was undertaken to evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners in Pribram region, Czech Republic. Methods: A retrospective stratified case-cohort study in a cohort of 22,816 underground miners who were employed between 1949 and 1975. All incident non-lung solid cancers were ascertained among miners who worked underground for at least 12 months (n=1020). A subcohort of 1707 subjects was randomly drawn from the same population by random sampling stratified on age. The follow-up period lasted from 1977 to 1996. Results: Relative risks comparing 180 WLM (90th percentile) of cumulative lifetime radon exposure to 3 WLM (10th percentile) were 0.88 for all non-lung solid cancers combined (95% CI 0.73-1.04, n=1020), 0.87 for all digestive cancers (95% CI 0.69-1.09, n=561), 2.39 for gallbladder cancer (95% CI 0.52-10.98, n=13), 0.79 for larynx cancer (95% CI 0.38-1.64, n=62), 2.92 for malignant melanoma (95% CI 0.91-9.42, n=23), 0.84 for bladder cancer (95% CI 0.43-1.65, n=73), and 1.13 for kidney cancer (95% CI 0.62-2.04, n=66). No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure; only malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed elevated but non-significant association with radon. Conclusions: Radon was not significantly associated with incidence of any cancer of interest, although a positive association of radon with malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer cannot be entirely ruled out. - Research highlights: → Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon. → We evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners. → No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure. → Malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed non-significant elevated risk.

  16. Incidence of non-lung solid cancers in Czech uranium miners: a case-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulich, M; Reřicha, V; Reřicha, R; Shore, D L; Sandler, D P

    2011-04-01

    Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon and its progeny, which are known to cause lung cancer and may be associated with leukemia. This study was undertaken to evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners in Příbram region, Czech Republic. A retrospective stratified case-cohort study in a cohort of 22,816 underground miners who were employed between 1949 and 1975. All incident non-lung solid cancers were ascertained among miners who worked underground for at least 12 months (n=1020). A subcohort of 1707 subjects was randomly drawn from the same population by random sampling stratified on age. The follow-up period lasted from 1977 to 1996. Relative risks comparing 180 WLM (90th percentile) of cumulative lifetime radon exposure to 3 WLM (10th percentile) were 0.88 for all non-lung solid cancers combined (95% CI 0.73-1.04, n=1020), 0.87 for all digestive cancers (95% CI 0.69-1.09, n=561), 2.39 for gallbladder cancer (95% CI 0.52-10.98, n=13), 0.79 for larynx cancer (95% CI 0.38-1.64, n=62), 2.92 for malignant melanoma (95% CI 0.91-9.42, n=23), 0.84 for bladder cancer (95% CI 0.43-1.65, n=73), and 1.13 for kidney cancer (95% CI 0.62-2.04, n=66). No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure; only malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed elevated but non-significant association with radon. Radon was not significantly associated with incidence of any cancer of interest, although a positive association of radon with malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer cannot be entirely ruled out. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interaction of Natural Organic Matter with Layered Minerals: Recent Developments in Computational Methods at the Nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery A. Greathouse

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of mineral surfaces in the adsorption, transport, formation, and degradation of natural organic matter (NOM in the biosphere remains an active research area owing to the difficulties in identifying proper working models of both NOM and mineral phases present in the environment. The variety of aqueous chemistries encountered in the subsurface (e.g., oxic vs. anoxic, variable pH further complicate this field of study. Recently, the advent of nanoscale probes such as X-ray adsorption spectroscopy and surface vibrational spectroscopy applied to study such complicated interfacial systems have enabled new insight into NOM-mineral interfaces. Additionally, due to increasing capabilities in computational chemistry, it is now possible to simulate molecular processes of NOM at multiple scales, from quantum methods for electron transfer to classical methods for folding and adsorption of macroparticles. In this review, we present recent developments in interfacial properties of NOM adsorbed on mineral surfaces from a computational point of view that is informed by recent experiments.

  18. Moessbauer and XRD Characterization of the Mineral Matter of Coal from the Guachinte Mine in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, F.; Perez Alcazar, G. A.; Barraza, J. M.; Bohorquez, A.; Tabares, J. A.; Speziali, N. L.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization and differentiation, using Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), of coal samples with different ash and sulfur contents obtained in three places corresponding at cuts in different seams from the Guachinte mine, Valle, Colombia. The mineral phases identified by XRD were in general kaolinite, quartz, pyrite and gypsum, and in particular dolomite and calcite. MS confirms the presence of pyrite and kaolinite, besides evidences the additional presence of jarosite which was not detected by the XRD results due their low amounts. In the high mineral matter ash sample quartz and hematite was identified by XRD, the last one confirmed by MS results. A second phase in this sample was detected by Moessbauer spectroscopy, which could be superparamagnetic hematite. Rietveld refinement for XRD pattern from a sample is reported.

  19. The role of clay minerals in the preservation of organic matter in sediments of Qinghai Lake, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bingsong; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Lv, Guo; Eberl, Dennis D.; Li, Shanying; Kim, Jinwook

    2009-01-01

    The role of saline lake sediments in preserving organic matter has long been recognized. In order to further understand the preservation mechanisms, the role of clay minerals was studied. Three sediment cores, 25, 57, and 500 cm long, were collected from Qinghai Lake, NW China, and dissected into multiple subsamples. Multiple techniques were employed, including density fractionation, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), total organic carbon (TOC) and carbon compound analyses, and surface area determination. The sediments were oxic near the water-sediment interface, but became anoxic at depth. The clay mineral content was as much as 36.8%, consisting mostly of illite, chlorite, and halloysite. The TEM observations revealed that organic matter occurred primarily as organic matter-clay mineral aggregates. The TOC and clay mineral abundances are greatest in the mid-density fraction, with a positive correlation between the TOC and mineral surface area. The TOC of the bulk sediments ranges from 1 to 3% with the non-hydrocarbon fraction being predominant, followed by bitumen, saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbons, and chloroform-soluble bitumen. The bimodal distribution of carbon compounds of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction suggests that organic matter in the sediments was derived from two sources: terrestrial plants and microorganisms/algae. Depthrelated systematic changes in the distribution patterns of the carbon compounds suggest that the oxidizing conditions and microbial abundance near the water-sediment interface promote degradation of labile organic matter, probably in adsorbed form. The reducing conditions and small microbial biomass deeper in the sediments favor preservation of organic matter, because of the less labile nature of organic matter, probably occurring within clay mineral-organic matter aggregates that are inaccessible to microorganisms. These results have important implications for our

  20. Organic free radicals and micropores in solid graphitic carbonaceous matter at the Oklo natural fission reactors, Gabon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigali, M.J.; Nagy, B.

    1997-01-01

    The presence, concentration, and distribution of organic free radicals as well as their association with specific surface areas and microporosities help characterize the evolution and behavior of the Oklo carbonaceous matter. Such information is necessary in order to evaluate uranium mineralization, liquid bitumen solidification, and radio nuclide containment at Oklo. In the Oklo ore deposits and natural fission reactors carbonaceous matter is often referred to as solid graphitic bitumen. The carbonaceous parts of the natural reactors may contain as much as 65.9% organic C by weight in heterogeneous distribution within the clay-rich matrix. The solid carbonaceous matter immobilized small uraninite crystals and some fission products enclosed in this uraninite and thereby facilitated radio nuclide containment in the reactors. Hence, the Oklo natural fission reactors are currently the subjects of detailed studies because they may be useful analogues to support performance assessment of radio nuclide containment at anthropogenic radioactive waste repository sites. Seven carbonaceous matter rich samples from the 1968 ± 50 Ma old natural fission reactors and the associated Oklo uranium ore deposit were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and by measurements of specific surface areas (BET method). Humic acid, fulvic acid, and fully crystalline graphite standards were also examined by ESR spectroscopy for comparison with the Oklo solid graphitic bitumens. With one exception, the ancient Oklo bitumens have higher organic free radical concentrations than the modem humic and fulvic acid samples. The presence of carbon free radicals in the graphite standard could not be determined due to the conductivity of this material. 72 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  1. Thermophilic anaerobes in arctic marine sediments induced to mineralize complex organic matter at high temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubert, Casey; Arnosti, Carol; Brüchert, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Marine sediments harbour diverse populations of dormant thermophilic bacterial spores that become active in sediment incubation experiments at much higher than in situ temperature. This response was investigated in the presence of natural complex organic matter in sediments of two Arctic fjords......, as well as with the addition of freeze-dried Spirulina or individual high-molecular-weight polysaccharides. During 50°C incubation experiments, Arctic thermophiles catalysed extensive mineralization of the organic matter via extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation and sulfate reduction. This high...... reactivity determined the extent of the thermophilic response. Fjord sediments with higher in situ SRR also supported higher SRR at 50°C. Amendment with Spirulina significantly increased volatile fatty acids production and SRR relative to unamended sediment in 50°C incubations. Spirulina amendment also...

  2. Testing the system detection unit for measuring solid minerals bulk density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytyuk, I. N.; Kopteva, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The paper provides a brief description of the system for measuring flux per volume of solid minerals via example of mineral coal. The paper discloses the operational principle of the detection unit. The paper provides full description of testing methodology, as well as practical implementation of the detection unit testing. This paper describes the removal of two data arrays via the channel of scattered anddirect radiation for the detection units of two generations. This paper describes Matlab software to determine the statistical characteristics of the studied objects. The mean value of pulses per cycles, and pulse counting inaccuracy relatively the mean value were determined for the calculation of the stability account of the detection units.

  3. The elastic solid solution model for minerals at high pressures and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhill, R.

    2018-02-01

    Non-ideality in mineral solid solutions affects their elastic and thermodynamic properties, their thermobaric stability, and the equilibrium phase relations in multiphase assemblages. At a given composition and state of order, non-ideality in minerals is typically modelled via excesses in Gibbs free energy which are either constant or linear with respect to pressure and temperature. This approach has been extremely successful when modelling near-ideal solutions. However, when the lattice parameters of the solution endmembers differ significantly, extrapolations of thermodynamic properties to high pressures using these models may result in significant errors. In this paper, I investigate the effect of parameterising solution models in terms of the Helmholtz free energy, treating volume (or lattice parameters) rather than pressure as an independent variable. This approach has been previously applied to models of order-disorder, but the implications for the thermodynamics and elasticity of solid solutions have not been fully explored. Solid solution models based on the Helmholtz free energy are intuitive at a microscopic level, as they automatically include the energetic contribution from elastic deformation of the endmember lattices. A chemical contribution must also be included in such models, which arises from atomic exchange within the solution. Derivations are provided for the thermodynamic properties of n-endmember solutions. Examples of the use of the elastic model are presented for the alkali halides, pyroxene, garnet, and bridgmanite solid solutions. Elastic theory provides insights into the microscopic origins of non-ideality in a range of solutions, and can make accurate predictions of excess enthalpies, entropies, and volumes as a function of volume and temperature. In solutions where experimental data are sparse or contradictory, the Helmholtz free energy approach can be used to assess the magnitude of excess properties and their variation as a function

  4. Sorptive and desorptive fractionation of dissolved organic matter by mineral soil matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Adi; Chefetz, Benny

    2012-01-01

    Interactions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) with soil minerals, such as metal oxides and clays, involve various sorption mechanisms and may lead to sorptive fractionation of certain organic moieties. While sorption of DOM to soil minerals typically involves a degree of irreversibility, it is unclear which structural components of DOM correspond to the irreversibly bound fraction and which factors may be considered determinants. To assist in elucidating that, the current study aimed at investigating fractionation of DOM during sorption and desorption processes in soil. Batch DOM sorption and desorption experiments were conducted with organic matter poor, alkaline soils. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to analyze bulk DOM, sorbed DOM, and desorbed DOM fractions. Sorptive fractionation resulted mainly from the preferential uptake of aromatic, carboxylic, and phenolic moieties of DOM. Soil metal-oxide content positively affected DOM sorption and binding of some specific carboxylate and phenolate functional groups. Desorptive fractionation of DOM was expressed by the irreversible-binding nature of some carboxylic moieties, whereas other bound carboxylic moieties were readily desorbed. Inner-sphere, as opposed to outer-sphere, ligand-exchange complexation mechanisms may be responsible for these irreversible, as opposed to reversible, interactions, respectively. The interaction of aliphatic DOM constituents with soil, presumably through weak van der Waals forces, was minor and increased with increasing proportion of clay minerals in the soil. Revealing the nature of DOM-fractionation processes is of great importance to understanding carbon stabilization mechanisms in soils, as well as the overall fate of contaminants that might be associated with DOM. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Stabilization of organic matter in soils: role of amorphous mineral phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewde Tamrat, Wuhib; Rose, Jérôme; Levard, Clément; Chaurand, Perrine; Basile-Doelsch, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) globally contributes the largest portion of continental carbon stock. One major issue concerning this large C pool includes its instability by mineralization and erosion due to land use. The main hypothesis of this work is that physicochemical stabilization of SOM is mainly driven by interactions of organic compounds, not with mineral surfaces as classically considered, but with amorphous polymers continuously formed by the alteration of soil minerals(1-3). Our objective is to understand how nano-organomineral complexes (nCOMx) are structured at the nanoscale, assess mechanisms of their formation, and quantify the effects of their occurrence on SOM turnovers. Due to inherent high complexity of natural samples, our methodology is based on the formation of nCOMx from both synthetic systems and natural mineral-weathered components. For the mineral component, biotite (from Bancroft, Canada) was selected. For the organic component, 3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, an amino acid with hydroxyl (pKa=9.95), carboxyl (pKa=2,58), amino (pKa=9,24) and an aromatic functions was chosen. The methodology aimed at developing conditions that generate biotite dissolution and nCOMx precipitation. The second step of the experiment consisted of the precipitation of nCOMx by slowly increasing pH over 3 to 12 hours of hydrolysis. Three final pH conditions were tested (4.2, 5 and 7) with Metal/Carbon ratios of 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 'No Carbon'. The first results of dissolution rates and congruency, AFM imaging, ICPMS, HR-TEM and XRD as well as XAS characterizations (transmission and florescence mode at the Fe K-edge) of nCOMx will be presented. Experiments and analysis techniques were designed to study these synthetic phases with regard to Si, Al, Fe and OM proportions to increase the OM proportion (as in natural soil phases) and also increase the stability of the OM phase (as in increased residence time of OM in the soil). We will focus particularly on the Fe state

  6. Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge was evaluated in a sewage sludge disposal center in Beijing, China. The results showed most of solid matters could be retained in the dried sludge after drying. Just about 3.1% of solid matters were evaporated with steam mainly by the form of volatile fatty acids. Zn was the dominant heavy metal in the sludge, followed by Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, and Cd. The heavy metals in the condensate were all below the detection limit except Hg. Hg in the condensate accounted for less than 0.1% of the total Hg. It can be concluded that most of the heavy metals are also retained in the dried sludge during the drying process, but their bioavailability could be changed significantly. The results are useful for sewage sludge utilization and its condensate treatment.

  7. Ferrous Iron Oxidation under Varying pO2 Levels: The Effect of Fe(III)/Al(III) Oxide Minerals and Organic Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunmei; Thompson, Aaron

    2018-01-16

    Abiotic Fe(II) oxidation by O 2 commonly occurs in the presence of mineral sorbents and organic matter (OM) in soils and sediments; however, this tertiary system has rarely been studied. Therefore, we examined the impacts of mineral surfaces (goethite and γ-Al 2 O 3 ) and organic matter [Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA)] on Fe(II) oxidation rates and the resulting Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides under 21 and 1% pO 2 at pH 6. We tracked Fe dynamics by adding 57 Fe(II) to 56 Fe-labeled goethite and γ-Al 2 O 3 and characterized the resulting solids using 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. We found Fe(II) oxidation was slower at low pO 2 and resulted in higher-crystallinity Fe(III) phases. Relative to oxidation of Fe(II) (aq) alone, both goethite and γ-Al 2 O 3 surfaces increased Fe(II) oxidation rates regardless of pO 2 levels, with goethite being the stronger catalyst. Goethite surfaces promoted the formation of crystalline goethite, while γ-Al 2 O 3 favored nano/small particle or disordered goethite and some lepidocrocite; oxidation of Fe(II) aq alone favored lepidocrocite. SRFA reduced oxidation rates in all treatments except the mineral-free systems at 21% pO 2 , and SRFA decreased Fe(III) phase crystallinity, facilitating low-crystalline ferrihydrite in the absence of mineral sorbents, low-crystalline lepidocrocite in the presence of γ-Al 2 O 3 , but either crystalline goethite or ferrihydrite when goethite was present. This work highlights that the oxidation rate, the types of mineral surfaces, and OM control Fe(III) precipitate composition.

  8. The nature of particulate organic matter settled on solid substrata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, M.O.; Wagh, A.B.

    on these substrata. Oceollo!ogica Acta. 1990, 13,4,471-474. -~----~-------- I.• ABSTRACT --,- RESUME Composition de la matiere organique particulaire adsorbee sur un substrat solide La matiere organique particulaire adsorb&: sur des panneaux d'aluminium et de verre... immerges dans un estuaire a ete analysce: bacteries, chlorophylle a, poids sec, matiere organique, carbone organique, azote, proteines, glueides et lipides. Aucune difference n'a etc dccelee dans lacomposition de la matiere organique et dans les...

  9. LHI (low head safety injection) emergency cooling pump test for the EPR trademark in operation with solid matter loaded water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzmann, I.; Schulte, C.

    2010-01-01

    Emergency cooling pumps are essential and indispensable components of the NPP safety philosophy. In case of a loss-of coolant accident solid matter (debris: fibrous insulation material, concrete dust, pigment particles) might be released into the coolant, LHSI (low head safety injection) pumps have to ensure their performance capacity for a certain amount of debris without damage or loss of power. The authors describe the development of a test facility. The LHSI was tested in continuous operation over a time period of 14 days with a debris content of 1500 ppm (90% mineral wool fibers, 3% concrete dust, 3% pigment particles, 4% microporous insulation material). The pump did not show any damage or loss of hydraulic power. Further tests including thermoshock conditions (temperature changes of 160 C) are planned.

  10. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz? Well, yes, but small ... canned salmon and sardines with bones leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli calcium-fortified foods — from orange ...

  11. Effect of Particulate Matter Mineral Composition on Environmentally Persistent Free Radical (EPFR) Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld-Cook, Elisabeth E; Bovenkamp-Langlois, Lisa; Lomnicki, Slawo M

    2017-09-19

    Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFRs) are newly discovered, long-lived surface bound radicals that form on particulate matter and combustion borne particulates, such as fly ash. Human exposure to such particulates lead to translocation into the lungs and heart resulting in cardio-vascular and respiratory disease through the production of reactive oxygen species. Analysis of some waste incinerator fly ashes revealed a significant difference between their EPFR contents. Although EPFR formation occurs on the metal domains, these differences were correlated with the altering concentration of calcium and sulfur. To analyze these phenomena, surrogate fly ashes were synthesized to mimic the presence of their major mineral components, including metal oxides, calcium, and sulfur. The results of this study led to the conclusion that the presence of sulfates limits formation of EPFRs due to inhibition or poisoning of the transition metal active sites necessary for their formation. These findings provide a pathway toward understanding differences in EPFR presence on particulate matter and uncover the possibility of remediating EPFRs from incineration and hazardous waste sites.

  12. Electric plants to gas, influence of both Mineral Matter and Air Oxidation in coal pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, F.; Jaramillo, A.; Quintero, G.

    1995-01-01

    In this work some coal samples from different Colombia's deposits are analyzed. In first stage, material matter is removed from coal by acid treatment with HF/HCl, and aerial oxidation of coal is made with air in oven to 150 Centigrade degree temperature. In second stage, pyrolysis is carried out in two different techniques: 1. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and 2. Programmed Temperature Pyrolysis (PTP) in a pyrolyzer equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. In both techniques, the coal samples are heated in different rates to 650 Centigrade degree. During PTP trials the evolution of CH4, H2S, hydrocarbons (m/z=42), CO2, benzene and toluene are monitored. Studied coal samples showed: 1). A gas conversion range between 48.8% to 21.8%; 2). A decrease in the gas conversion between 2% to 4%, when oxidation it is applied; 3). The temperature at the one which is presented the maximum evolution of CH4 is similar for all coal samples; 4). The maximum evolution of H2S depends on mineral matter composition, occurs between 480 to 550 Centigrade degrees and is presented due to pyrite decomposition. 5). The evolution of CO2 occurs between 100 to 650 Centigrade degree, its production is generated in different stage of the mentioned temperature range, and in some coal samples is presented due to inorganic origin

  13. Retention of actinide and fission products by poly-mineral solid phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peynet, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    This research thesis first reports available knowledge on reactivity of mineral surfaces (notably the thermodynamic modelling of their retention properties) and discusses the different approaches proposed in the literature regarding the prediction of retention of an element on an adsorbent mixing. It also proposes a synthesis of publications on retention properties of montmorillonite, goethite and calcite with respect to elements with high or very low concentrations. Then, the author reports a characterization of solids in terms of ion exchanger theory. Results are used for traces of caesium, americium and selenium. He finally reports measurement results of traces of elements by montmorillonite / goethite and montmorillonite / calcite binary mixings, or by montmorillonite / goethite / calcite ternary mixings

  14. Effect of aluminium on dissolved organic matter mineralization in an allophanic and kaolinitic temperate rain forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Carolina; Matus, Francisco; Fontaine, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Aluminium (Al) and it influence on the mineralization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and thus on carbon (C) sequestration in forest soils is poorly understood. We hypothesized that an addition of Al to the soil solution beyond a molar Al:C ratio of 0.1, induces precipitation of the organic matter which leads to an excess Al in the soil solution causing an inhibitory effect for growing microorganisms. We investigated the effect of Al concentrations for the potential of C biodegradation at different Al:C ratios from DOM and Ah mineral soil horizons from two temperate rain forest soils from southern Chile. Dissolved organic matter and surface mineral horizons were incubated with initial molar Al:C ratio from 0.08 to 1.38 found under at field conditions. Mineralization was quantified by measurement of C-CO2 evolved during 15 days. Increasing the initial Al:C ratio > 0.12, led to a considerable reduction in mineralization (up to 70%). For Al:C ratio biodegradation of DOM and thus an increased in the C sequestration in mineral soils with molar Al:C ratio > 0.12. The observed DOM losses in the stream water of pristine southern forests can be explained by increasing the bioavailability of organic C for Al:C ratio < 0.12. Aluminium concentration had a marked effect at the spectral ART-FTIR bands assigned to cellulose-like and aromatic compounds in Ah mineral soil, diminishing the mineralization. The present results were also confirmed by the Al fluorescence using a confocal microscopy.

  15. Analysis of the organic matter which are present in solid organic wastes from urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canellas, Luciano Pasqualoto; Santos, Gabriel de Araujo; Amarai Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil do; Mazur, Nelson; Moraes, Anselmo Alpande

    1997-01-01

    This study analyses the organic matter which are present in the solid wastes from the Rio de Janeiro city - Brazil. The humic acids were extracted and purified. After the purification, the humic acids were dried by lyophilization. Visible UV, infrared and NMR spectra were obtained for the humic acids extracted

  16. Logistic Principles Application for Managing the Extraction and Transportation of Solid Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyurin Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the cost of resources in solid mineral extraction is an urgent task. For its solution the article proposes logistic approach use to management of mining company all resources, including extraction processes, transport, mineral handling and storage. The account of the uneven operation of mining, transport units and complexes for processing and loading coal into railroad cars allows you to identify the shortcomings in the work of the entire enterprise and reduce resources use at the planned production level. In the article the mining planning model taking into account the dynamics of the production, transport stations and export coal to consumers rail transport on example of Krasnoyarsk region Nazarovo JSC «Razrez Sereul'skiy». Rolling planning methods use and data aggregation allows you to split the planning horizon (month on equal periods and to use of dynamic programming method for building mining optimal production programme for the month. Coal mining production program definition technique will help align the work of all enterprise units, to optimize resources of all areas, to establish a flexible relationship between manufacturer and consumer, to take into account the irregularity of rail transport.

  17. Logistic Principles Application for Managing the Extraction and Transportation of Solid Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurin, Alexey

    2017-11-01

    Reducing the cost of resources in solid mineral extraction is an urgent task. For its solution the article proposes logistic approach use to management of mining company all resources, including extraction processes, transport, mineral handling and storage. The account of the uneven operation of mining, transport units and complexes for processing and loading coal into railroad cars allows you to identify the shortcomings in the work of the entire enterprise and reduce resources use at the planned production level. In the article the mining planning model taking into account the dynamics of the production, transport stations and export coal to consumers rail transport on example of Krasnoyarsk region Nazarovo JSC «Razrez Sereul'skiy». Rolling planning methods use and data aggregation allows you to split the planning horizon (month) on equal periods and to use of dynamic programming method for building mining optimal production programme for the month. Coal mining production program definition technique will help align the work of all enterprise units, to optimize resources of all areas, to establish a flexible relationship between manufacturer and consumer, to take into account the irregularity of rail transport.

  18. Predicting soil N mineralization using organic matter fractions and soil properties: A re-analysis of literature data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    Extractable organic matter (EOM) fractions have been used to assess the capacity of soils to supply nitrogen (N), but their role in N mineralization and their potential to improve agricultural fertilizer management are still under debate. This paper shows evidence that the relationship between EOM

  19. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  20. Ferric minerals and organic matter change arsenic speciation in copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Liu, Yunjia; Menzies, Neal W; Wehr, J Bernhard; de Jonge, Martin D; Howard, Daryl L; Kopittke, Peter M; Huang, Longbin

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly associated with Cu ore minerals, with the resultant risk that As can be released offsite from mine tailings. We used synchrotron-based fluorescence X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) imaging to provide in situ, laterally-resolved speciation of As within tailings which differed in magnetite content (5-12%) and organic matter content (0-5%). Although the total As content was lower in tailings with low magnetite (LM), the soluble (pore water) As was actually 7-times higher in LM tailings than in high magnetite (HM) tailings. Additionally, amendment with 5% sugarcane mulch residues (SMR) (for revegetation) further increased soluble As due to the dissolution and oxidation of arsenopyrite or orpiment. Indeed, in HM tailings, arsenopyrite and orpiment initially accounted for 88% of the total As, which decreased to 48% upon the addition of SMR - this being associated with an increase in As V -ferrihydrite from 12% to 52%. In LM tailings, the pattern of As distribution and speciation was similar, with As as As V -ferrihydrite increasing from 57% to 75% upon the addition of SMR. These findings indicate that changes in ore processing technology, such as the recovery of magnetite could have significant environmental consequences regarding the As mobilisation and transformation in mine tailings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy study of mineral-organic matter associations in pasture soil clay fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunmei; Dynes, James J; Wang, Jian; Karunakaran, Chithra; Sparks, Donald L

    2014-06-17

    There is a growing acceptance that associations with soil minerals may be the most important overarching stabilization mechanism for soil organic matter. However, direct investigation of organo-mineral associations has been hampered by a lack of methods that can simultaneously characterize organic matter (OM) and soil minerals. In this study, STXM-NEXAFS spectroscopy at the C 1s, Ca 2p, Fe 2p, Al 1s, and Si 1s edges was used to investigate C associations with Ca, Fe, Al, and Si species in soil clay fractions from an upland pasture hillslope. Bulk techniques including C and N NEXAFS, Fe K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy, and XRD were applied to provide additional information. Results demonstrated that C was associated with Ca, Fe, Al, and Si with no separate phase in soil clay particles. In soil clay particles, the pervasive C forms were aromatic C, carboxyl C, and polysaccharides with the relative abundance of carboxyl C and polysaccharides varying spatially at the submicrometer scale. Only limited regions in the soil clay particles had aliphatic C. Good C-Ca spatial correlations were found for soil clay particles with no CaCO3, suggesting a strong role of Ca in organo-mineral assemblage formation. Fe EXAFS showed that about 50% of the total Fe in soils was contained in Fe oxides, whereas Fe-bearing aluminosilicates (vermiculite and Illite) accounted for another 50%. Fe oxides in the soil were mainly crystalline goethite and hematite, with lesser amounts of poorly crystalline ferrihydrite. XRD revealed that soil clay aluminosilicates were hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite, Illite, and kaolinite. C showed similar correlation with Fe to Al and Si, implying a similar association of Fe oxides and aluminosilicates with organic matter in organo-mineral associations. These direct microscopic determinations can help improve understanding of organo-mineral interactions in soils.

  2. High-intensity X-rays interaction with matter processes in plasmas, clusters, molecules and solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P

    2012-01-01

    Filling the need for a book bridging the effect of matter on X-ray radiation and the interaction of x-rays with plasmas, this monograph provides comprehensive coverage of the topic. As such, it presents and explains such powerful new X-ray sources as X-ray free-electron lasers, as well as short pulse interactions with solids, clusters, molecules, and plasmas, and X-ray matter interactions as a diagnostic tool. Equally useful for researchers and practitioners working in the field.

  3. Emission factors of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential solid fuel combustions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guofeng [Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-07-01

    Emission inventory is basic for the understanding of environmental behaviors and potential effects of compounds, however, current inventories are often associated with relatively high uncertainties. One important reason is the lack of emission factors, especially for the residential solid fuel combustion in developing countries. In the present study, emission factors of a group of pollutants including particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon (sometimes known as black carbon) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for a variety of residential solid fuels including coal, crop straw, wood, and biomass pellets in rural China. The study provided a large number of emission factors that can be further used in emission estimation. Composition profiles and isomer ratios were investigated and compared so as to be used in source apportionment. In addition, the present study identified and quantified the influence of factors like fuel moisture, volatile matter on emission performance.

  4. Introduction to the physics of matter basic atomic, molecular, and solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Manini, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an up-to-date, compact presentation of basic topics in the physics of matter, from atoms to molecules to solids, including elements of statistical mechanics. The adiabatic separation of the motion of electrons and nuclei in matter and its spectroscopic implications are outlined for molecules and recalled regularly in the study of the dynamics of gases and solids. Numerous experiments are described and more than 160 figures give a clear visual impression of the main concepts. Sufficient detail of mathematical derivations is provided to enable students to follow easily. The focus is on present-day understanding and especially on phenomena fitting various independent-particle models. The historical development of this understanding, and phenomena such as magnetism and superconductivity, where interparticle interactions and nonadiabatic effects play a crucial role, are mostly omitted. A final outlook section stimulates the curiosity of the reader to pursue the study of such advanced topics in gra...

  5. Characterization and Neutron Shielding Behavior of Dehydrated Magnesium Borate Minerals Synthesized via Solid-State Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Seyhun Kipcak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium borates are one of the major groups of boron minerals that have good neutron shielding performance. In this study, dehydrated magnesium borates were synthesized by solid-state method using magnesium oxide (MgO and boron oxide (B2O3, in order to test their ability of neutron shielding. After synthesizing the dehydrated magnesium borates, characterizations were done by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Also boron oxide (B2O3 contents and reaction yields (% were calculated. XRD results showed that seven different types of dehydrated magnesium borates were synthesized. 1000°C reaction temperature, 240 minutes of reaction time, and 3 : 2, 1 : 1 mole ratios of products were selected and tested for neutron transmission. Also reaction yields were calculated between 84 and 88% for the 3 : 2 mole ratio products. The neutron transmission experiments revealed that the 3 : 2 mole ratio of MgO to B2O3 neutron transmission results (0.618–0.655 was better than the ratio of 1 : 1 (0.772–0.843.

  6. Modification of the RothC model to simulate soil C mineralization of exogenous organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondini, Claudio; Cayuela, Maria Luz; Sinicco, Tania; Fornasier, Flavio; Galvez, Antonia; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel Angel

    2017-07-01

    The development of soil organic C (SOC) models capable of producing accurate predictions for the long-term decomposition of exogenous organic matter (EOM) in soils is important for the effective management of organic amendments. However, reliable C modeling in amended soils requires specific optimization of current C models to take into account the high variability in EOM origin and properties. The aim of this work was to improve the prediction of C mineralization rates in amended soils by modifying the RothC model to encompass a better description of EOM quality. The standard RothC model, involving C input to the soil only as decomposable (DPM) or resistant (RPM) organic material, was modified by introducing additional pools of decomposable (DEOM), resistant (REOM) and humified (HEOM) EOM. The partitioning factors and decomposition rates of the additional EOM pools were estimated by model fitting to the respiratory curves of amended soils. For this task, 30 EOMs from 8 contrasting groups (compost, anaerobic digestates, sewage sludge, agro-industrial waste, crop residues, bioenergy by-products, animal residues and meat and bone meals) were added to 10 soils and incubated under different conditions. The modified RothC model was fitted to C mineralization curves in amended soils with great accuracy (mean correlation coefficient 0.995). In contrast to the standard model, the EOM-optimized RothC was able to better accommodate the large variability in EOM source and composition, as indicated by the decrease in the root mean square error of the simulations for different EOMs (from 29.9 to 3.7 % and 20.0 to 2.5 % for soils amended with bioethanol residue and household waste compost, respectively). The average decomposition rates for DEOM and REOM pools were 89 and 0.4 yr-1, higher than the standard model coefficients for DPM (10 yr-1) and RPM (0.3 yr-1). The results indicate that the explicit treatment of EOM heterogeneity enhances the model ability to describe amendment

  7. Effect of organic matter properties, clay mineral type and thermal maturity on gas adsorption in organic-rich shale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ruppel, Stephen C.; Milliken, Kitty; Lewan, Mike; Sun, Xun; Baez, Luis; Beeney, Ken; Sonnenberg, Steve

    2013-01-01

    A series of CH4 adsorption experiments on natural organic-rich shales, isolated kerogen, clay-rich rocks, and artificially matured Woodford Shale samples were conducted under dry conditions. Our results indicate that physisorption is a dominant process for CH4 sorption, both on organic-rich shales and clay minerals. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of the investigated samples is linearly correlated with the CH4 sorption capacity in both organic-rich shales and clay-rich rocks. The presence of organic matter is a primary control on gas adsorption in shale-gas systems, and the gas-sorption capacity is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) content, organic-matter type, and thermal maturity. A large number of nanopores, in the 2–50 nm size range, were created during organic-matter thermal decomposition, and they significantly contributed to the surface area. Consequently, methane-sorption capacity increases with increasing thermal maturity due to the presence of nanopores produced during organic-matter decomposition. Furthermore, CH4 sorption on clay minerals is mainly controlled by the type of clay mineral present. In terms of relative CH4 sorption capacity: montmorillonite ≫ illite – smectite mixed layer > kaolinite > chlorite > illite. The effect of rock properties (organic matter content, type, maturity, and clay minerals) on CH4 adsorption can be quantified with the heat of adsorption and the standard entropy, which are determined from adsorption isotherms at different temperatures. For clay-mineral rich rocks, the heat of adsorption (q) ranges from 9.4 to 16.6 kJ/mol. These values are considerably smaller than those for CH4 adsorption on kerogen (21.9–28 kJ/mol) and organic-rich shales (15.1–18.4 kJ/mol). The standard entropy (Δs°) ranges from -64.8 to -79.5 J/mol/K for clay minerals, -68.1 to -111.3 J/mol/K for kerogen, and -76.0 to -84.6 J/mol/K for organic-rich shales. The affinity of CH4 molecules for sorption on organic matter

  8. Adsorption and Desorption of Cesium in Clay Minerals: Effects of Natural Organic Matter and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hongkyu; Ilgen, Anastasia; Mills, Melissa; Lee, Moo; Seol, Jeung Gun; Cho, Nam Chan; Kang, Hyungyu

    2017-04-01

    Cesium (Cs) released into the environment (e.g., Fukushima accident) poses significant environmental concerns and remediation challenges. A majority of Cs in the environment have remained within the surface soils due to the strong adsorption affinity of Cs towards clay minerals. Different clay minerals have different bonding sites, resulting in various adsorption mechanisms at nanometer scale. For example, the illite commonly has a basal spacing of 1.0 nm, but becomes wider to 1.4 nm once other cations exchange with K in the interlayer site. Cs adsorbs into these expanded wedged zone strongly, which can control its mobility in the environment. In addition, natural organic matter (NOM) in the surface soils can interact with clay minerals, which can modify the mechanisms of Cs adsorption on the clay minerals by blocking specific adsorption sites and/or providing Cs adsorption sites on NOM surface. In this work, three representative clay minerals (illite, vermiculite, montmorillonite) and humic acid (HA) are used to systematically investigate the adsorption and desorption behavior of Cs. We performed batch adsorption experiments over a range of Cs concentrations on three clay minerals with and without HA, followed by sequential desorption batch testing. We tested desorption efficiency as a function of initial adsorbed Cs concentration, HA content, sodium concentration, and pH. The sequential extraction results are compared to the structural changes in clay minerals, measured using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and aberration-corrected (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) - energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Hence, this work aims to identify the mechanisms of Cs fixation at the nanometer (or atomic-) scale as a function of the clay mineral properties (e.g. expandability, permanent surface charge) and varying organic matter content at different pH values and to enhance our atomic-scale mechanistic understanding of

  9. Enhancing market potentials, contract and trading of Nigerian solid minerals in world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwa, Y. B.

    1997-01-01

    The mineral endowments of Nigeria is discussed. Most of these minerals are mined for their export potential and also to meet domestic industrial needs. Minerals mined for export include tin, columbite, tantalite, lead/zinc, coal, and iron. Minerals meet specified requirements to qualify for export or application in the industrial sector. For export, a number of issues relating to pricing, shipping, insurance, international laws and contractual agreements must be clearly articulated

  10. Kinetic quantification of vertical solid matter transfers in soils by a multi-isotopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagercikova, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    Clay translocation is one of the major soil forming processes, however it is poorly quantified and modeled. We propose to quantify it together with bioturbation by combining different isotopic systems ( 137 Cs, 210 Pb (xs), meteoric 10 Be, 206/207 Pb, δ 13 C, 14 C) with numerical modeling based on a nonlinear diffusion-convection equation with depth dependent parameters. This novel method has been applied on Luvisol anthropo-sequences developed on loess, differing by their land use (cropping versus grassland or forest) and their agricultural practices (reduced tillage, no tillage and manure input). Our results show that as much as 91 ± 9 % and 80 ± 9 % of 137 Cs and 10 Be, respectively, are associated to the clay size fraction (0-2 μm) and can thus effectively trace vertical solid matter transfers in soils with pH > 5 and low organic carbon. Lead partitioning between different solid phases is more complex. Considering two spatial distributions of isotopes (macro-pores or soil matrix), we built up a multi-isotopic modelling approach that simulates the experimental data with the common set of transfer parameters and allowed us to quantify the relative contributions of vertical solid matter transfers to present-day 0-2 μm vertical distributions. Clay translocation is responsible for 9 to 66 % of the clay accumulations in the Bt-horizon. The diffusion coefficient also quantifies the rate of soil mixing by bioturbation. Modeling of the kinetics of solid matter transfer at multiple spatio-temporal scales should become a method of predilection in modern pedogenic and critical zone studies. (author) [fr

  11. From solid to liquid: assessing the release of organic matter into soil solution in response to land-use conversion in Brazilian Oxisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jason; Gross, Cole; Dwivedi, Pranjal; Bernardi, Rodolpho; Guerrini, Irae; Harrison, Rob; Butman, David

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances in freshwater research indicate that roughly double the quantity of carbon is exported from soils to streams and rivers than was previously estimated, and that the age of carbon exported from major rivers globally increases with greater human disturbance in the watershed. This implies that human land-use can release old, previously mineral-associated C into solution with subsequent export to groundwater and ultimately freshwater systems where terrestrial organic matter is either mineralized to CO2, stored in aquatic sediments, or exported to the ocean. Consequently, it is important to understand the mechanisms that cause the release of SOM that is mineral-bound into solution in response to human disturbance and land-use change. Research methods have been established to examine both the fast turnover, dissolved pool of soil organic matter (SOM), as well as the slow turnover, mineral-associated pool. However, to better characterize the response of the total SOM pool to disturbance, it is necessary to understand the interactions between these functional pools by examining them both simultaneously. This study seeks to examine the interaction between dissolved organic matter (DOM) and bulk SOM throughout the soil profile in response to conversion of Brazilian Cerrado (savannah forest) to Eucalyptus plantation forest on the same soil type. The water-extractable organic matter was obtained from soil samples down to 150 cm, characterized using fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy, and carbon-dated. Simultaneously, bulk mineral soil samples were analyzed for microbial biomass, carbon content and age, and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. SOM spectra were obtained by washing subsamples with sodium hypochlorite and subtracting the subsequent mineral matrix spectra from bulk soil spectra. Preliminary results show that microbial biomass decreases much more quickly with depth than DOM, suggesting that C released into solution from deeper

  12. Mineralization of organic matter in gray forest soil and typical chernozem with degraded structure due to physical impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, V. M.; Zhuravlev, N. S.; Tulina, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    The dynamics of the organic matter mineralization in the gray forest soil and typical chernozem with structure disturbed by physical impacts (grinding and extraction of water-soluble substances) were studied in two long-term experiments at the constant temperature and moisture. The grinding of soil to particles of 0.1, day-1) and difficultly mineralizable (0.01 > k 3 > 0.001, day-1) fractions in the active pool of soil organic matter. The results of the studies show that the destruction of the structural-aggregate status is one of the reasons for the active soil organic matter depletion and, as a consequence, for the degradation of the properties inherent to the undisturbed soils.

  13. Multiscale organisation of organic matter associated with gold and uranium minerals in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smieja-Krol, Beata; Duber, Stanislaw [Faculty of Earth Science, University of Silesia, 60 Bedzinska St., 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Rouzaud, Jean-Noel [Laboratoire de Geologie, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24, rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 5 (France)

    2009-03-01

    Organic matter from the northern part of the Early Proterozoic Witwatersrand basin (Carbon Leader reef) was investigated using optical (OM) and transmission electron (TEM) microscopes, completed by XRD analysis. The multiscale organization (texture, microtexture, structure) of the organic matter was observed in order to gain information about the processes which affected organic material after its deposition in sediments. In the micrometre scale (optical microscope), the shape and size of the Reflectance Indicating Surface (RIS) of the organic matter were determined. The organic matter reveals a prevailing biaxial symmetry. The size of RIS is generally dependent on uranium and increases with increasing uranium concentration. Furthermore, it appears that more than one RIS is present within the scale of a single sample, each with a different symmetry and size. The presence of domains differing in organisation of the aromatic framework was confirmed by TEM observation in the DF mode. The aromatic skeleton of organic matter is composed of short, often crumpled, mostly isolated (non-stacked) polyaromatic layers whose fringe length corresponds to 3-16 aromatic rings. The data indicate reorganization of the polyaromatic organic matter structure under stress in high pressure and relatively low temperature conditions. The organic matter was in a solid state within the rocks before the pressure event. (author)

  14. Individual Learning Route as a Way of Highly Qualified Specialists Training for Extraction of Solid Commercial Minerals Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oschepkova, Elena; Vasinskaya, Irina; Sockoluck, Irina

    2017-11-01

    In view of changing educational paradigm (adopting of two-tier system of higher education concept - undergraduate and graduate programs) a need of using of modern learning and information and communications technologies arises putting into practice learner-centered approaches in training of highly qualified specialists for extraction and processing of solid commercial minerals enterprises. In the unstable market demand situation and changeable institutional environment, from one side, and necessity of work balancing, supplying conditions and product quality when mining-and-geological parameters change, from the other side, mining enterprises have to introduce and develop the integrated management process of product and informative and logistic flows under united management system. One of the main limitations, which keeps down the developing process on Russian mining enterprises, is staff incompetence at all levels of logistic management. Under present-day conditions extraction and processing of solid commercial minerals enterprises need highly qualified specialists who can do self-directed researches, develop new and improve present arranging, planning and managing technologies of technical operation and commercial exploitation of transport and transportation and processing facilities based on logistics. Learner-centered approach and individualization of the learning process necessitate the designing of individual learning route (ILR), which can help the students to realize their professional facilities according to requirements for specialists for extraction and processing of solid commercial minerals enterprises.

  15. Response of hydrolytic enzyme activities and nitrogen mineralization to fertilizer and organic matter application in subtropical paddy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Mohammed Abdul; Yeasmin, Sabina; Akter, Masuda; Sleutel, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Driving controllers of nitrogen (N) mineralization in paddy soils, especially under anaerobic soil conditions, remain elusive. The influence of exogenous organic matter (OM) and fertilizer application on the activities of five relevant enzymes (β-glucosaminidase, β-glucosidase, L-glutaminase, urease and arylamidase) was measured in two long-term field experiments. One 18-years field experiment was established on a weathered terrace soil with a rice-wheat crop rotation at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) having five OM treatments combined with two mineral N fertilizer levels. Another 30-years experiment was established on a young floodplain soil with rice-rice crop rotation at the Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) having eight mineral fertilizer treatments combined with organic manure. At BSMRAU, N fertilizer and OM amendments significantly increased all enzyme activities, suggesting them to be primarily determined by substrate availability. At BAU, non-responsiveness of β-glucosidase activity suggested little effect of the studied fertilizer and OM amendments on general soil microbial activity. Notwithstanding probably equal microbial demand for N, β-glucosaminidase and L-glutaminase activities differed significantly among the treatments (P>0.05) and followed strikingly opposite trends and correlations with soil organic N mineralization. So enzymatic pathways to acquire N differed by treatment at BAU, indicating differences in soil N quality and bio-availability. L-glutaminase activity was significantly positively correlated to the aerobic and anaerobic N mineralization rates at both field experiments. Combined with negative correlations between β-glucosaminidase activity and N mineralization rates, it appears that terminal amino acid NH2 hydrolysis was a rate-limiting step for soil N mineralization at BAU. Future investigations with joint quantification of polyphenol accumulation and binding of N, alongside an

  16. Leaf litter and roots as sources of mineral soil organic matter in temperate deciduous forest with and without earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, T.; Yavitt, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    We labeled sugar maple trees with 13C to quantify the separate contributions of decaying leaf litter and root turnover/rhizosphere C flux to mineral soil organic matter (SOM). Labeled leaf litter was applied to forest plots with and without earthworms and recovery of the label in SOM was quantified over three years. In parallel, label recovery was quantified in soils from the labeling chambers where all label was supplied by belowground C flux. In the absence of earthworms about half of the label added as leaf litter remained in the surface organic horizons after three years, with about 3% recovered in mineral SOM. The label was most enriched on silt + clay surfaces, representing precipitation of DOC derived from litter. Earthworms mixed nearly all the leaf litter into mineral soil within one year, and after two years the label was most enriched in particulate organic matter held within soil aggregates produced by worms. After three years 15-20% of the added label was recovered in mineral SOM. In the labeling chambers over 75% of belowground C allocation (BCA) was used in root and rhizosphere respiration in the first year after labeling. We recovered only 3.8% of estimated BCA in SOM after 3 years; however, expressed as a proportion of fine root production plus rhizosphere C flux, this value is 15.4%, comparable to that for leaf litter in the presence of earthworms. In conclusion, both roots and leaf litter contribute significantly to the formation of stabilized mineral SOM in temperate deciduous forests, and this process is profoundly altered by the invasion of lumbricid earthworms.

  17. Spatial arrangement of organic compounds on a model mineral surface: implications for soil organic matter stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Loukas; Ambaye, Haile; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Kilbey, S Michael; Lokitz, Bradley S; Lauter, Valeria; Mayes, Melanie A

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of the mineral-organic carbon interface may influence the extent of stabilization of organic carbon compounds in soils, which is important for global climate futures. The nanoscale structure of a model interface was examined here by depositing films of organic carbon compounds of contrasting chemical character, hydrophilic glucose and amphiphilic stearic acid, onto a soil mineral analogue (Al2O3). Neutron reflectometry, a technique which provides depth-sensitive insight into the organization of the thin films, indicates that glucose molecules reside in a layer between Al2O3 and stearic acid, a result that was verified by water contact angle measurements. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the thermodynamic driving force behind glucose partitioning on the mineral interface: The entropic penalty of confining the less mobile glucose on the mineral surface is lower than for stearic acid. The fundamental information obtained here helps rationalize how complex arrangements of organic carbon on soil mineral surfaces may arise.

  18. Effects of clay minerals, hydroxides, and timing of dissolved organic matter addition on the competitive sorption of copper, nickel, and zinc : a column experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Refaey, Y.; Jansen, B.; Parsons, J.R.; de Voogt, P.; Bagnis, S.; Markus, A.; El-Shater, A.-H.; El-Haddad, A.-A.; Kalbitz, K.

    2017-01-01

    Infiltration of heavy metal (HM) polluted wastewater can seriously compromise soil and groundwater quality. Interactions between mineral soil components (e.g. clay minerals) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) play a crucial role in determining HM mobility in soils. In this study, the influence of

  19. Strong light-matter coupling from atoms to solid-state systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The physics of strong light-matter coupling has been addressed in different scientific communities over the last three decades. Since the early eighties, atoms coupled to optical and microwave cavities have led to pioneering demonstrations of cavity quantum electrodynamics, Gedanken experiments, and building blocks for quantum information processing, for which the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 2012. In the framework of semiconducting devices, strong coupling has allowed investigations into the physics of Bose gases in solid-state environments, and the latter holds promise for exploiting light-matter interaction at the single-photon level in scalable architectures. More recently, impressive developments in the so-called superconducting circuit QED have opened another fundamental playground to revisit cavity quantum electrodynamics for practical and fundamental purposes. This book aims at developing the necessary interface between these communities, by providing future researchers with a robust conceptu...

  20. Long-term changes in primary production and mineralization of organic matter in the Neva Estuary (Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkov, Sergey; Golubkov, Mikhail; Tiunov, Alexei; Nikulina, Vera

    2017-07-01

    The Neva Estuary situated in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland is one of the largest estuaries of the Baltic Sea. At present, heavy nutrient and organic matter loading, mainly from the Neva River and point sources in the upper estuary are the most serious environmental problem for the Neva Estuary and adjacent parts of the eastern Gulf of Finland. Long-term studies of mid-summer primary production and mineralization of organic matter were conducted in upper and middle parts of the Neva Estuary. A considerable increase of production and biomass of phytoplankton was observed in the middle part of the estuary during the last decades mainly due to an increase in biomass of cyanobacteria. However, they are mostly concentrated in the upper water layers and only a small part of them reached the near bottom water layers and may be used as a food by zoobenthos. The mineralization of organic matter in the water column was twice higher than primary production that indicates the importance of allochthonous organic matter in the carbon budget of the both parts of the estuary. The carbon isotope signature of seston and most of the zoobenthic species in the upper part of the estuary was close to the signature of allochthonous carbon leaking from watershed (- 27‰). Higher values of δ13C of seston in the upper mix layer of the Middle estuary indicate intensive primary production in mid-summer. The carbon isotopic signature of zoobenthos in this part of the estuary was also in general lower than in the Neva Bay reflected higher importance of autochthonous organic matter in food webs of the estuary.

  1. Magnetoresistance based determination of basic parameters of minority charge carriers in solid matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.O. Uhryn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoresistance as a tool of basic parameters determination of minority charge carriers and the ratio of minority charge carriers conductivity to majority ones in solid matter has been considered within the framework of the phenomenological two-band model. The criterion of the application of this model has been found. As examples of these equations usage the conductor, semiconductor and superconductor have been introduced. From the obtained temperature dependences of the aforementioned values in superconductor, a supposition of a deciding role of minority charge carriers in the emergence of superconductivity state has been made.

  2. Mineral-associated organic matter: are we now on the right path to accurately measuring and modelling it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrufo, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral-associated organic matter (MAOM) is the largest and most persistent pool of carbon in soil. Understanding and correctly modeling its dynamic is key to suggest management practices that can augment soil carbon storage for climate change mitigation, as well as increase soil organic matter (SOM) stocks to support soil health on the long-term. In the Microbial Efficiency Mineral Stabilization (MEMS) framework we proposed that, contrary to what originally thought, this form of persistent SOM is derived from the labile components of plant inputs, through their efficient microbial processing. I will present results from several experiments using dual isotope labeling of plant inputs that largely confirm this opinion, and point to the key role of dissolved organic matter in MAOM formation, and to the dynamic nature of the outer layer of MAOM. I will also show how we are incorporating this understanding in a new SOM model, which uses physically defined measurable pools rather than turnover-defined pools to forecast C cycling in soil.

  3. Particulate matter from re-suspended mineral dust and emergency cause-specific respiratory hospitalizations in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Vivian C.; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-fai

    2017-09-01

    While contribution from non-exhaust particulate matter (PM) emissions towards traffic-related emissions is increasing, few epidemiologic evidence of their health impact is available. We examined the association of short-term exposure to PM10 apportioned to re-suspended mineral dust with emergency hospitalizations for three major respiratory causes in Hong Kong between 2001 and 2008. Time-series regression model was constructed to examine association of PM10 from re-suspended mineral dust with emergency hospitalizations for upper respiratory infection (URI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma at exposure lag 0-5 days, adjusting for time trends, seasonality, temperature and relative humidity. An interquartile range (6.8 μg/m3) increment in re-suspended mineral dust on previous day was associated with 0.66% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.98) increase in total respiratory hospitalizations, and 1.01% (95% CI: 0.14, 1.88) increase in URI hospitalizations. A significant 0.66%-0.80% increases in risk of COPD hospitalizations were found after exposure to re-suspended mineral dust at lag 3 or later. Exposure to mineral dust at lag 4 was linked to 1.71% increase (95% CI: 0.14, 2.22) in asthma hospitalizations. Associations from single-pollutant models remained significant in multi-pollutant models, which additionally adjusted for PM10 contributing from vehicle exhaust, regional combustion, residual oil, fresh sea salt, aged sea salt, secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate, or gaseous pollutants (i.e., nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, or ozone), respectively. Our findings provide insight into the biological mechanism by which non-exhaust pollution may be associated with risk of adverse respiratory outcomes, and also stress the needs for strategies to reduce emission and re-suspension of mineral dust. More research is warranted to assess the health effects of different non-exhaust PM emissions under various roadway conditions and vehicle fleets.

  4. Analytical methods relating to mineral matter in coal and ash from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A. [Ultra-Systems Technology Pty. Ltd., Indooroopilly, Qld. (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    The paper begins by describing the minerals that occur in coal, as well as trace elements. The testing methods that are then described include those that are in the main the standard tools for the examination and assessment of minerals in coal and ash. The techniques discussed include optical and beam techniques, X-ray methods and a variety of other useful methods. 12 refs.

  5. Partitioning of organic matter and heavy metals in a sandy soil: Effects of extracting solution, solid to liquid ratio and pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fest, P.M.J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Comans, R.N.J.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2008-01-01

    In sandy soils the behavior of heavy metals is largely controlled by soil organic matter (solid and dissolved organic matter; SOC and DOC). Therefore, knowledge of the partitioning of organic matter between the solid phase and soil solution is essential for adequate predictions of the total

  6. Soil Organic Matter Stabilization via Mineral Interactions in Forest Soils with Varying Saturation Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possinger, A. R.; Inagaki, T.; Bailey, S. W.; Kogel-Knabner, I.; Lehmann, J.

    2017-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) interaction with minerals and metals through surface adsorption and co-precipitation processes is important for soil organic C (SOC) stabilization. Co-precipitation (i.e., the incorporation of C as an "impurity" in metal precipitates as they form) may increase the potential quantity of mineral-associated C per unit mineral surface compared to surface adsorption: a potentially important and as yet unaccounted for mechanism of C stabilization in soil. However, chemical, physical, and biological characterization of co-precipitated SOM as such in natural soils is limited, and the relative persistence of co-precipitated C is unknown, particularly under dynamic environmental conditions. To better understand the relationships between SOM stabilization via organometallic co-precipitation and environmental variables, this study compares mineral-SOM characteristics across a forest soil (Spodosol) hydrological gradient with expected differences in co-precipitation of SOM with iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) due to variable saturation frequency. Soils were collected from a steep, well-drained forest soil transect with low, medium, and high frequency of water table intrusion into surface soils (Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Woodstock, NH). Lower saturation frequency soils generally had higher C content, C/Fe, C/Al, and other indicators of co-precipitation interactions resulting from SOM complexation, transport, and precipitation, an important process of Spodosol formation. Preliminary Fe X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic (XAS) characterization of SOM and metal chemistry in low frequency profiles suggest co-precipitation of SOM in the fine fraction (soils showed greater SOC mineralization per unit soil C for low saturation frequency (i.e., higher co-precipitation) soils; however, increased mineralization may be attributed to non-mineral associated fractions of SOM. Further work to identify the component of SOM contributing to rapid mineralization using 13C

  7. Characterization of clay minerals and organic matter in shales: Application to high-level nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueven, N.; Landis, C.R.; Jacobs, G.K.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the Sedimentary Rock Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is to conduct investigations to assess the potential for shale to serve as a host medium for the isolation of high-level nuclear wastes. The emphasis on shale is a result of screening major sedimentary rock types (shale, sandstone, carbonate , anhydrite, and chalk) for a variety of attributes that affect the performance of repositories. The retardation of radionuclides was recognized as one of the potentially favorable features of shale. Because shale contains both clay minerals and organic matter, phases that may provide significant sorption of radioelement, the characterization of these phases is essential. In addition, the organic matter in shale has been identified as a critical area for study because of its potential to play either a favorable (reductant) or deleterious (organic ligands) role in the performance of a repository sited in shale. 36 refs., 36 figs., 10 tabs

  8. Investigation of Organic Matters and their Roles in Deposition and Phosphate Mineralization in the Kuh-e-Sefid Deposit, Ramhormoz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Pourkaseb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It has been recently stated that phosphorite deposits are in fact marine biogenic materials, due to bacterial activity producing bio-apatite. In addition, Phosphorites contain 15–20 wt.% P2O5 (Tzifas et al., 2014. In this deposit, phosphate mineralization has occurred as phosphorite lenses with Eocene age within the Pabdeh Formation, with thickness up to 1.5 meters and width of 15 meters and its hosted rock is black shale. According to the presence of indices of fossils such as Globorotalia, Hantkenina, its age can be attributed to the middle Eocene. The Pabdeh formation is a very rich organic matter in addition to the presence of phosphate (Damiri, 2011. The formation due to planktonic foraminifera rich in organic matter is like the hydrocarbon source rock (Daneshian et al., 2012. In marine basins where upwelling and productivity are limited, phosphates may develop outside of microbial cells and also within bacterial cellular structures, formed by slow bacterial assimilation of phosphorus from assaying organic matter in areas of restricted sedimentation (O’Brine et al., 1981. It is therefore suggested that the upwelling currents did that in the recycling of phosphorus from dead organisms such as fishes and other marine vertebrates. The aim of this study is investigation of organic matter’s species and their roles in deposition and phosphate mineralization in the Kuh-e-Sefid phosphate deposit using XRD, FTIR and Rock-Eval pyrolysis. Materials and methods In field observations, 12 samples were selected and they were taken from units of phosphate and shale host rock in the Kuh-e-Sefid phosphate ore deposit. Ten cross sections were studied by conventional microscopic methods. Rock-Eval analysis was used in order to determine the organic carbon in the geology Department of the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. The Phosphorite samples were determined by XRD at the Kansaran Binaloud Company in the Science and Technology campus in

  9. Determination of trace U in beverages and mineral water using SSNTD (solid state nuclear track detector)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Junying; Zheng Liping; Cheng Yulin; Hao Xiuhong

    1991-01-01

    Trace U in beverages and mineral water has been estimated using the fission track analysis technique. The U contents in beverages vary from 0.26 ± 0.03 to 1.65 ± 0.07 ppb, with an average of 0.93 ± 0.05 ppb. The mean U content in mineral water is 9.20 ± 0.16 ppb, which is 10 times higher than that in other beverages

  10. Cover plants and mineral nitrogen: effects on organic matter fractions in an oxisol under no-tillage in the cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Lima dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cover plants are essential for the sustainability of no-tillage systems in tropical regions. However, information on the effects of these plants and N fertilization on soil organic matter fractions is still scarce. This study evaluated the effect of cover crops with different chemical composition and of N topdressing on the labile and humified organic matter fractions of an Oxisol of the Cerrado (savanna-like vegetation. The study in a randomized complete block design was arranged in split-plots with three replications. Four cover species were tested in the plots and the presence or absence of N topdressing in the subplot. The following cover species were planted in succession to corn for eight years: Urochloa ruziziensis; Canavalia brasiliensis M. ex Benth; Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp; and Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. In general, the cultivation of U. ruziziensis increased soil C levels, particularly of C in the humic acid and particulate organic C fractions, which are quality indicators of soil organic matter. The C in humic substances and mineral organic C accounted for the highest proportions of total organic C, demonstrating the strong interaction between organic matter, Fe and Al oxides and kaolinite, which are predominant in these weathered soils of the Cerrado.

  11. Elevated moisture stimulates carbon loss from mineral soils by releasing protected organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenjuan; Hall, Steven J

    2017-11-24

    Moisture response functions for soil microbial carbon (C) mineralization remain a critical uncertainty for predicting ecosystem-climate feedbacks. Theory and models posit that C mineralization declines under elevated moisture and associated anaerobic conditions, leading to soil C accumulation. Yet, iron (Fe) reduction potentially releases protected C, providing an under-appreciated mechanism for C destabilization under elevated moisture. Here we incubate Mollisols from ecosystems under C 3 /C 4 plant rotations at moisture levels at and above field capacity over 5 months. Increased moisture and anaerobiosis initially suppress soil C mineralization, consistent with theory. However, after 25 days, elevated moisture stimulates cumulative gaseous C-loss as CO 2 and CH 4 to >150% of the control. Stable C isotopes show that mineralization of older C 3 -derived C released following Fe reduction dominates C losses. Counter to theory, elevated moisture may significantly accelerate C losses from mineral soils over weeks to months-a critical mechanistic deficiency of current Earth system models.

  12. Study of suprathermal electron transport in solid or compressed matter for the fast-ignitor scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, F.

    2010-01-01

    The inertial confinement fusion (ICF) concept is widely studied nowadays. It consists in quickly compressing and heating a small spherical capsule filled with fuel, using extremely energetic lasers. Since approximately 15 years, the fast-ignition (FI) technique has been proposed to facilitate the fuel heating by adding a particle beam - electrons generated by an ultra-intense laser - at the exact moment when the capsule compression is at its maximum. This thesis constitutes an experimental study of these electron beams generated by picosecond-scale lasers. We present new results on the characteristics of these electrons after they are accelerated by the laser (energy, divergence, etc.) as well as their interaction with the matter they pass through. The experimental results are explained and reveal different aspects of these laser-accelerated fast electrons. Their analysis allowed for significant progress in understanding several mechanisms: how they are injected into solid matter, how to measure their divergence, and how they can be automatically collimated inside compressed matter. (author) [fr

  13. Calculation of hydraulic conductivities and capillary rise in peat soils from bulk density and solid matter volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    Recently it was demonstrated how unsaturated hydraulic conductivities of soils can be calculated from granular composition and organic matter content (BLOEMEN, 1980a). This type of calculations has to be restricted to mineral soils because the capillary properties of organic soils will not be

  14. In Situ Mapping of the Organic Matter in Carbonaceous Chondrites and Mineral Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemett, Simon J.; Messenger, S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Ross, D. K.

    2012-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite organic matter represents a fossil record of reactions that occurred in a range of physically, spatially and temporally distinct environments, from the interstellar medium to asteroid parent bodies. While bulk chemical analysis has provided a detailed view of the nature and diversity of this organic matter, almost nothing is known about its spatial distribution and mineralogical relationships. Such information is nevertheless critical to deciphering its formation processes and evolutionary history.

  15. Instrumental neutron activation analysis as a tool for assessing the solubility of soil mineral matter in strong acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.; Naeumann, R.

    2004-01-01

    Fifty samples of natural surface soils with high but variable organic matter content were analyzed for 13 elements (Na, Al, K, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Sr, Ba, La) by INAA. The same samples were analyzed for the 'total-recoverable' fraction of these elements by ICP-OES after decomposition with 7M HNO 3 , and the results are compared. The data are discussed separately for two groups of samples with organic matter contents of respectively >80% and Mn (77)>La (60)>Fe = Zn (53)>V (33)>Cr (29)>Sc (25)>Al = Ba (17)>Sr (13)>K (5)>Na (2). The results are in good agreement with corresponding literature data for mineral soils in the case of Al, K, Sc, V, Cr, Fe, and La. In the case of Na, Mn, Co, Zn, Sr, and Ba the present surface soils showed significantly higher 'total-recoverable' fractions than the previously studied subsoils. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. INAA remains a convenient reference technique for determination of total concentrations with the rapidly increasing use of strong mineral acids in environmental studies of elements. (author)

  16. Banana leaf and glucose mineralization and soil organic matter in microhabitats of banana plantations under long-term pesticide use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Elena; Reichert, José Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and microbial activity are key components of soil quality and sustainability. In the humid tropics of Costa Rica 3 pesticide regimes were studied-fungicide (low input); fungicide and herbicide (medium input); and fungicide, herbicide, and nematicide (high input)-under continuous banana cultivation for 5 yr (young) or 20 yr (old) in 3 microhabitats-nematicide ring around plants, litter pile of harvested banana, and bare area between litter pile and nematicide ring. Soil samples were incubated sequentially in the laboratory: unamended, amended with glucose, and amended with ground banana leaves. Soil organic matter varied with microhabitat, being greatest in the litter pile, where microbes had the greatest basal respiration with ground banana leaf, whereas microbes in the nematicide ring had the greatest respiration with glucose. These results suggest that soil microbes adapt to specific microhabitats. Young banana plantations had similar SOM compared with old plantations, but the former had greater basal microbial respiration in unamended and in glucose-amended soil and greater first-order mineralization rates in glucose-amended soil, thus indicating soil biological quality decline over time. High pesticide input did not decrease microbial activity or mineralization rate in surface soil. In conclusion, microbial activity in tropical volcanic soil is highly adaptable to organic and inorganic inputs. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Health Effects Due to Radionuclides Content of Solid Minerals within Port of Richards Bay, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix B. Masok

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the radiological health hazards to various body organs of workers working within Transnet Precinct in Richards Bay in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa due to radionuclide content of mineral ores often stored within the facility. Thirty samples were collected from five mineral ores (rock phosphate, rutile, zircon, coal and hematite and analyzed for 238U, 234U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 235U, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K using delayed neutron activation analysis and low energy gamma spectroscopy. Rutile was found to be the most radioactive mineral ore within the facility with 210Pb concentration of 759.00 ± 106.00 Bq·kg−1. Effective annual dose rate in (mSv·y−1 delivered to different organs of the body: testes, bone marrow, whole body, lungs and ovaries from mineral ores were such that dose from mineral ores decreased in the order coal > rutile > rock phosphate > hematite > zircon. The organs with the highest received dose rate were the testes and this received dose was from coal. However, all of the calculated absorbed dose rates to organs of the body were below the maximum permissible safety limits.

  18. Influence of natural organic matter and mineral surfaces upon the radionuclide speciation in an environmental context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janot, N.

    2011-01-01

    This study deals with interactions occurring in a ternary europium(III)/humic acid(HA)/α-Al 2 O 3 system, depending on solution conditions (pH, ionic strength, organic concentration). These interactions were studied at a macroscopic scale - quantifying Eu(III) and/or HA adsorption onto the mineral surface - and using time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. The presence of HA modifies Eu(III) behavior toward the mineral surface. Analysis showed a Eu(III)-HA complexation in the ternary system, in all the conditions studied. However, Eu(III) complexation with the mineral surface is occurring at high pH and ionic strength only. Spectrophotometric titrations were validated as a method to study HA reactivity at environmental relevant concentrations. They have been used to determine modifications of HA reactivity after adsorption onto the alumina surface depending on initial HA concentration. These results have then be used to model Eu(III) speciation in the ternary system, using the CD-MUSIC and NICA-Donnan models for mineral and organic complexation, respectively. (author) [fr

  19. Dual, differential isotope labeling shows the preferential movement of labile plant constituents into mineral-bonded soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddix, Michelle L; Paul, Eldor A; Cotrufo, M Francesca

    2016-06-01

    The formation and stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) are major concerns in the context of global change for carbon sequestration and soil health. It is presently believed that lignin is not selectively preserved in soil and that chemically labile compounds bonding to minerals comprise a large fraction of the SOM. Labile plant inputs have been suggested to be the main precursor of the mineral-bonded SOM. Litter decomposition and SOM formation are expected to have temperature sensitivity varying with the lability of plant inputs. We tested this framework using dual (13) C and (15) N differentially labeled plant material to distinguish the metabolic and structural components within a single plant material. Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) seedlings were grown in an enriched (13) C and (15) N environment and then prior to harvest, removed from the enriched environment and allowed to incorporate natural abundance (13) C-CO2 and (15) N fertilizer into the metabolic plant components. This enabled us to achieve a greater than one atom % difference in (13) C between the metabolic and structural components within the plant litter. This differentially labeled litter was incubated in soil at 15 and 35 °C, for 386 days with CO2 measured throughout the incubation. After 14, 28, 147, and 386 days of incubation, the soil was subsequently fractionated. There was no difference in temperature sensitivity of the metabolic and structural components with regard to how much was respired or in the amount of litter biomass stabilized. Only the metabolic litter component was found in the sand, silt, or clay fraction while the structural component was exclusively found in the light fraction. These results support the stabilization framework that labile plant components are the main precursor of mineral-associated organic matter. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Microbial control of soil organic matter mineralization responses to labile carbon in subarctic climate change treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders; Rousk, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Half the global soil carbon (C) is held in high-latitude systems. Climate change will expose these to warming and a shift towards plant communities with more labile C input. Labile C can also increase the rate of loss of native soil organic matter (SOM); a phenomenon termed ‘priming’. We investig......Half the global soil carbon (C) is held in high-latitude systems. Climate change will expose these to warming and a shift towards plant communities with more labile C input. Labile C can also increase the rate of loss of native soil organic matter (SOM); a phenomenon termed ‘priming’. We...

  1. 17-β estradiol and testosterone mineralization and incorporation into organic matter in broiler litter-amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Michelle B; Hartel, Peter G; Cabrera, Miguel L; Vencill, William K

    2012-01-01

    The presence of the hormones estradiol and testosterone in the environment is of concern because they adversely affect vertebrate sexual characteristics. Land spreading broiler litter introduces these hormones into the environment. We conducted two studies. The first study determined the mineralization of C-labeled estradiol and testosterone at three water potentials and three temperatures in four broiler litter-amended soils. With a few exceptions, the mineralization of each hormone either stayed the same or increased with increasing water content (both hormones) and increasing (estradiol) or decreasing (testosterone) temperature. Mineralization was dependent on soil type. The second study determined the incorporation of C-labeled estradiol and testosterone into (i) three soil organic matter (SOM) fractions (fulvic acid, humic acid, and humin) at two water potentials, two temperatures, and one sampling time, and (ii) at one water potential, one temperature, and seven sampling times. As time increased, higher temperature and water potential decreased percentages of C estradiol and testosterone in water- and acetone-soluble fractions and increased percentages in SOM fractions. However, the distribution of the two hormones in SOM fractions differed. For estradiol, higher temperature and water potential increased the percentage in all three SOM fractions. For testosterone, higher temperature and water potential increased the percentage of hormone in fulvic acid and humin. Although the mineralization studies suggest the potential for these hormones to still have environmental effects, the incorporation of the two hormones into SOM suggest that land spreading these hormones may actually be less of an environmental concern. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Magnesium hydroxide extracted from a magnesium-rich mineral for CO2 sequestration in a gas-solid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Chung; Huang, Cheng-Wei; Hsiao, Ching-Ta; Teng, Hsisheng

    2008-04-15

    Magnesium hydroxide extracted from magnesium-bearing minerals is considered a promising agent for binding CO2 as a carbonate mineral in a gas-solid reaction. An efficient extraction route consisting of hydrothermal treatment on serpentine in HCl followed by NaOH titration for Mg(OH)2 precipitation was demonstrated. The extracted Mg(OH)2 powder had a mean crystal domain size as small as 12 nm and an apparent surface area of 54 m2/g. Under one atmosphere of 10 vol% CO2/N2, carbonation of the serpentine-derived Mg(OH)2 to 26% of the stoichiometric limit was achieved at 325 degrees C in 2 h; while carbonation of a commercially available Mg(OH)2, with a mean crystal domain size of 33 nm and an apparent surface area of 3.5 m2/g, reached only 9% of the stoichiometric limit. The amount of CO2 fixation was found to be inversely proportional to the crystal domain size of the Mg(OH)2 specimens. The experimental data strongly suggested that only a monolayer of carbonates was formed on the crystal domain boundary in the gas-solid reaction, with little penetration of the carbonates into the crystal domain.

  3. Predicting pear (cv. Clara Frijs) dry matter and soluble solids content with near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, Sylvia; Bertelsen, Marianne; Petersen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Regression models for predicting preharvest dry matter (DM) and soluble solids content (SSC), based on two spectral ranges (680-1000 nm and 1100-2350 nm), were compared. Models based on longer NIR spectra were more successful for both parameters (DM/SSC: R2 = 0.78-0.84; RMECV = 0.78/0.44; LVs = 6....../7). SSC prediction was better than expected considering the presence of starch in fruit. Generally poor SSC prediction in the presence of starch could be related to the inability of models to distinguish between forms of carbohydrate. Variable selection and regression coefficients highlighted...... fruit. Further research is needed to qualify and build on the results presented here....

  4. Fresh organic matter of municipal solid waste enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salati, S.; Quadri, G.; Tambone, F. [Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Adani, F., E-mail: fabrizio.adani@unimi.i [Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, the ability of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) to enhance heavy metal uptake of maize shoots compared with ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) was tested on soil contaminated with heavy metals. Soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in maize shoots (increments of 302%, 66%, 184%, 169%, and 23% for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb with respect to the control and increments of 933%, 482%, 928%, 428%, and 5551% for soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS, respectively). In soil treated with OFMSW, metal uptake was favored because of the high presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (41.6x than soil control) that exhibited ligand properties because of the high presence of carboxylic acids. Because of the toxic effect of EDDS on maize plants, soil treated with OFMSW achieved the highest extraction of total heavy metals. - Organic fraction of MSW affects the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil.

  5. Fresh organic matter of municipal solid waste enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salati, S; Quadri, G; Tambone, F; Adani, F

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the ability of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) to enhance heavy metal uptake of maize shoots compared with ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) was tested on soil contaminated with heavy metals. Soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in maize shoots (increments of 302%, 66%, 184%, 169%, and 23% for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb with respect to the control and increments of 933%, 482%, 928%, 428%, and 5551% for soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS, respectively). In soil treated with OFMSW, metal uptake was favored because of the high presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (41.6x than soil control) that exhibited ligand properties because of the high presence of carboxylic acids. Because of the toxic effect of EDDS on maize plants, soil treated with OFMSW achieved the highest extraction of total heavy metals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fresh organic matter of municipal solid waste enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati, S.; Quadri, G.; Tambone, F.; Adani, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the ability of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) to enhance heavy metal uptake of maize shoots compared with ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) was tested on soil contaminated with heavy metals. Soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in maize shoots (increments of 302%, 66%, 184%, 169%, and 23% for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb with respect to the control and increments of 933%, 482%, 928%, 428%, and 5551% for soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS, respectively). In soil treated with OFMSW, metal uptake was favored because of the high presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (41.6x than soil control) that exhibited ligand properties because of the high presence of carboxylic acids. Because of the toxic effect of EDDS on maize plants, soil treated with OFMSW achieved the highest extraction of total heavy metals. - Organic fraction of MSW affects the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil.

  7. Competitive sorption between glyphosphate and inorganic phosphate on clay minerals and low organic matter soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, H.M.; Hill, H.H.Jr.; Washington State Univ., Pullmann, WA; Harsh, J.B.; Washington State Univ., Pullmann, WA

    2001-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate may influence the adsorption of glyphosate to soil surface sites. It has been postulated that glyphosphate sorption is dominated by the phosphoric acid moiety, therefore, inorganic phosphate could compete with glyphosate for surface sorption sites. Sorption of glyphosate is examined in low organic carbon systems where clay minerals dominate the available adsorption sites using 32 P-labeled phosphate and 14 C-labeled glyphosate to track sorption. Glyphosate sorption was found to be strongly dependent on phosphate additions. Isotherms were generally of the L type, which is consistent with a limited number of surface sites. Most sorption on whole soils could be accounted for by sorption observed on model clays of the same mineral type as found in the soils. (author)

  8. Mineral capacity of peat soils organic matter and entry of Cs137 into perennial grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsybulko, N.N.; Shapsheeva, T.P.; Arastovich, T.V.; Zajtsev, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The results of the study of peat soils organic substance structure with various peat ash content are given. Contents of active organic substance and carbon of microbial biomass in peat and boggy soil with 20% peat ash content is 3.0-3.5 and 1.6-1.8 times higher correspondingly, than thus in peaty-gley soil with 70% peat ash content. At peat and boggy soil with low peat ash content Cs137 transition into hay is minimal. 14 times higher than at peaty-gley soil with 70% peat ash content. Application of fertilizers at peat and boggy soil reduces Cs137 transition factor 4.7-6.4 times if compared to peaty-gley soil (2.1-4.7 times). Close positive interconnection between Cs137 transition factors from soil into the plants and organic carbon soil contents, absolute contents of potentially mineralized carbon and mineralization degree

  9. Origins of mineral matter in peat marsh and peat bog deposits, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Buendia, A.M. [Unidad Tecnica del Marmol, AIDICO, Cami de Castella, 4, 03660 Novelda, Alicante (Spain); Whateley, M.K.G. [Rio Tinto Technical Services, Castlemead, Lower Castlemead, BS99 7YR Bristol (United Kingdom); Bastida, J.; Urquiola, M.M. [Dpto. Geologia, Univ. Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50. 46100 Burjasot, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-07-02

    The mineralogy of three back-barrier peat marshes (Torreblanca, Benicasim and Moncofar marshes) from Eastern Spain and one peat bog (Orihuela del Tremedal bog) from central east Spain have been investigated, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) techniques. A combination of XRD methods was used to quantify the mineralogy of dried bulk peat samples. The water source in the peat marshes is both continental and marine. Water is highly mineralised. Water flow is both low and slow (accumulative system). The water source in the peat bog is continental, draining from the hill. The higher concentration of ions in the water of the back-barrier peat marshes leads to a higher concentration of authigenic minerals in the peat marshes compared to the peat bog. Three main mineral origins have been recognized, namely: detrital, syngenetic-epigenetic and biogenic. The more important contribution comes from the detrital system. Biogenic and bio-influenced minerals are the main non-detrital minerals in the peatlands. This paper discusses the biogenic origin of halite (and other minor halides and sulphates, such as, sylvite, carnalite, epsomite, glauberite, mirabilite and anhydrite?) from halophytic plants, as well as amorphous silica (opal-A) from sponge spicules and phytoliths of several plants. Pyrite in the peat bog has both syngenetic and epigenetic origins from plant decomposition and sulphur release. In the peat marsh the pyrite has a syngenetic origin from sulphate reduction (S{sub sulphate} {yields} S{sub pyritic}), and an epigenetic origin in the older peat, from plant decomposition (S{sub organic} {yields} S{sub pyritic}). (author)

  10. Density fractions of soil macroorganic matter and microbial biomass as predictors of C and N mineralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, J.

    1995-01-01

    Macroorganic matter of arable soils which had received different inputs of organic residues for 25 y and grassland soils that had been under grass for at least 8 y was fractionated into light, intermediate and heavy fractions using a stable silica suspension as heavy liquid. For all residue

  11. Minerals as Time-Integrating Luminescence Detectors for setting bounds on dark matter particle characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeris, G.S.; Kitis, G.; Liolios, A.K.; Tsirliganis, N.C.; Zioutas, K.

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial material, since its formation, is supposed to receive additional radiation dose from its exposure to fluxes of dark matter particles. The present work investigates the possibility for bound estimation of interaction parameters of dark matter particles with ordinary matter, by measuring the accumulated doses of certain geological materials. It is proposed that Thermoluminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) could enable the differentiation between the individual dose components, attributing a possible excessive dose, beyond the anticipated from cosmic rays and environmental radioactivity, to interactions with dark matter particles. Dosimetric properties of natural calcium fluoride, such as low detectable dose limit and low energy threshold (well below 1keV), indicate it as a promising Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) for the proposed method. The limitations imposed by the 'background' of cosmic rays and environmental radioactivity are discussed, and initial limits for the interaction strengths with ordinary matter, and/or the mass of WIMPs and axions are derived. The use of sedimentary quartz, sited in a free-from background-radiation environment, would yield a value of 4x10 -8 GeV -1 as an upper limit for the axion-to-photon interaction constant g aγγ and a value of 3x10 -8 GeV as a lower limit for the neutralino mass. The best limits, g aγγ =1.1x10 -10 GeV -1 for solar axions and m=3000GeV for neutralinos, could be derived for natural calcium fluoride as a dosimeter

  12. Influence of Organic Matter - Mineral Interfacial Reactions on Metal(loid) Speciation and Bioaccessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorover, J.; Kong, S.; Root, R. A.; Thomas, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bioaccessibility of contaminant metals in geomedia is often measured on the basis of kinetic release to solution during in vitro reaction with biofluid simulants. We postulate that development of a predictive-mechanistic understanding of bioaccessibility requires knowledge of metal(loid) molecular speciation upon sample introduction, as well as its change over the course of the in vitro reaction. Our results - including data from batch, column, mesocosm and field studies pertaining to arsenic, lead, and zinc contaminated materials - indicate the strong influence of organic matter and associated biological activity on metal(loid) speciation in mine tailings and related model systems. Furthermore, presence/absence of organic matter during bioassays affects the kinetics of metal(loid) release into biofluid simulants through multiple mechanisms.

  13. Combustion characteristics of intensively cleaned coal fractions. Effect of mineral matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubiera, F.; Arenillas, A.; Fuente, E.; Pis, J.J. [Inst. Nacional de Carbon, Oviedo (Spain); Ivatt, S. [ETSU, Harwell, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this work has been to assess the effect that intensive coal cleaning exerts on the combustion behaviour of different density-separated coal fractions. Samples with ash contents varying from 39% for the raw coal, to 2% for the cleanest fraction were obtained after density separation. Temperature-programmed combustion and isothermal gasification in air were used to measure the reactivities of the parent coal and the cleaned fractions. Coal and char reactivities increased with increasing ash content of the samples. Thermal analysis-mass spectrometry of the low-temperature ashes was also carried out in order to study the reactions of coal minerals under combustion conditions. (orig.)

  14. Organic matter in North Bohemian Tertiavy and Cretaceous sediments with uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanek, V.

    1979-01-01

    Significant variability was found in the qualitative and the quantitative compositions of dispersed organic matter in Tertiary rocks with uranium ore content between hundredths and units of percentage of the rocks. In Cretaceous rocks with similar proportion of uranium in w.% the variability is much smaller. In rocks with higher organic carbon and uranium levels the organic matter is in a more advanced stage of carbonification metamorphosis than in rocks with lower levels of the components. A statistical correlation test showed free positive correlation between the levels of uranium and organic carbon and the levels of uranium and strongly carbonified organic components and negative correlation between uranium level and humic substances on one hand and the uranium level and bitumens on the other. In Cretaceous sediments, the individual organic compounds were analytically determined in addition to the total level of organic carbon, the strongly carbonified organic components, humic substances and bitumens. Higher fatty acids in ppm concentrations were also found. Their distribution corresponds to the usual distribution in sediments. Rocks with lower contents of organic matter and uranium usually contain phenol aldehydes bound to glycosides while those with higher contents of uranium and organic carbon contain higher amounts of free phenol aldehydes. The composition of amino acids indicates genetic links to the microbial activity. (author)

  15. Petrographic and mineral characterization of Balkan coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yossifova, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is part of a complex petrographic, mineralogical and chemical investigation on Balkan bituminous coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation. The petrographic and phase-mineralogical composition in ten composite samples and four water extracts have been studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. 4 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Heat impact caused molecular level changes in solid and dissolved soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Leinweber, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The ubiquitous abundance of pyrolysed, highly aromatic organic matter, called "Black Carbon" (BC), in all environmental compartments became increasingly important in different fields of research beyond intensive investigated atmospheric aerosol due to climatic relevance. Its predominant high resistance to abiotic and biotic degradation resulted in turnover times from less than a century to several millennia. This recalcitrance led to the enrichment of BC in soils, accounting for 1-6% (European forest soils) to 60% (Chernozems) of total soil organic matter (SOM). Hence, soil BC acts an important sink in the global carbon cycle. In contrast, consequences for the nitrogen cycle up to date are rather inconsistently discussed. Soil related dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a major controlling factor in soil formation, an important pathway of organic matter transport and one of the largest active carbon reservoirs on earth, if considering oceans and other bodies of water. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of artificially simulated wildfire by thermal treatment on the molecular composition of water extractable soil organic matter (DOM). Soils from two outdoor lysimeters with different management history were investigated. Soil samples, non-heated and heated up to 350°C were analyzed for elemental composition (carbon, nitrogen and sulfur) and for bulk molecular composition by Pyrolysis-Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Py-FIMS) and synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) at the C- and N K-edges. DOM-samples obtained by hot water extraction, desalting and concentration by solid phase extraction were subsequently analyzed by flow injection analysis in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T supra-conducting magnet (LTQ-FT Ultra, ThermoFisher Scientific). This technique is the key technique for the analysis of complex samples due to its outstanding mass

  17. Quantification of centimeter-scale spatial variation in PAH, glucose and benzoic acid mineralization and soil organic matter in road-side soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hybholt, Trine K.; Aamand, Jens [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Johnsen, Anders R., E-mail: arj@geus.dk [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2011-05-15

    The aim of the study was to determine centimeter-scale spatial variation in mineralization potential in diffusely polluted soil. To this end we employed a 96-well microplate method to measure the mineralization of {sup 14}C-labeled organic compounds in deep-well microplates and thereby compile mineralization curves for 348 soil samples of 0.2-cm{sup 3}. Centimeter-scale spatial variation in organic matter and the mineralization of glucose, benzoic acid, and PAHs (phenanthrene and pyrene) was determined for urban road-side soil sampled as arrays (7 x 11 cm) of 96 subsamples. The spatial variation in mineralization was visualized by means of 2-D contour maps and quantified by means of semivariograms. The geostatistical analysis showed that the easily degradable compounds (glucose and benzoic acid) exhibited little spatial variation in mineralization potential, whereas the mineralization was highly heterogeneous for the PAH compounds that require specialized degraders. The spatial heterogeneity should be taken into account when estimating natural attenuation rates. - Highlights: > Geostatistics were applied at the centimeter scale. > Glucose and benzoic acid mineralization showed little spatial variation. > PAH mineralization was highly variable at the sub-centimeter scale. > High spatial heterogeneity may be caused by low functional redundancy. - This study supports the hypothesis that specialized xenobiotic degraders may show high spatial heterogeneity in soil due to low functional redundancy.

  18. Ensuring the Environmental and Industrial Safety in Solid Mineral Deposit Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, Kliment; Rylnikova, Marina; Esina, Ekaterina

    2017-11-01

    The growing environmental pressure of mineral deposit surface mining and severization of industrial safety requirements dictate the necessity of refining the regulatory framework governing safe and efficient development of underground resources. The applicable regulatory documentation governing the procedure of ore open-pit wall and bench stability design for the stage of pit reaching its final boundary was issued several decades ago. Over recent decades, mining and geomechanical conditions have changed significantly in surface mining operations, numerous new software packages and computer developments have appeared, opportunities of experimental methods of source data collection and processing, grounding of the permissible parameters of open pit walls have changed dramatically, and, thus, methods of risk assessment have been perfected [10-13]. IPKON RAS, with the support of the Federal Service for Environmental Supervision, assumed the role of the initiator of the project for the development of Federal norms and regulations of industrial safety "Rules for ensuring the stability of walls and benches of open pits, open-cast mines and spoil banks", which contribute to the improvement of economic efficiency and safety of mineral deposit surface mining and enhancement of the competitiveness of Russian mines at the international level that is very important in the current situation.

  19. Accelerated decay rates drive soil organic matter persistence and storage in temperate forests via greater mineral stabilization of microbial residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R.; Craig, M.; Turner, B. L.; Liang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Climate predicts soil organic matter (SOM) stocks at the global scale, yet controls on SOM stocks at finer spatial scales are still debated. A current hypothesis predicts that carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in soils should be greater when decomposition is slow owing to microbial competition for nutrients or the recalcitrance of organic substrates (hereafter the `slow decay' hypothesis). An alternative hypothesis predicts that soil C and N storage should be greater in soils with rapid decomposition, owing to the accelerated production of microbial residues and their stabilization on soil minerals (hereafter the `stabilization hypothesis'). To test these alternative hypotheses, we quantified soil C and N to 1-m depth in temperate forests across the Eastern and Midwestern US that varied in their biotic, climatic, and edaphic properties. At each site, we sampled (1) soils dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) tree species, which typically have fast decay rates and accelerated N cycling, (2) soils dominated by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) tree species, which generally have slow decay rates and slow N cycling, and (3) soils supporting both AM and ECM trees. To the extent that trees and theor associated microbes reflect and reinforce soil conditions, support for the slow decay hypothesis would be greater SOM storage in ECM soils, whereas support for the stabilization hypothesis would be greater SOM storage in AM soils. We found support for both hypotheses, as slow decomposition in ECM soils increased C and N storage in topsoil, whereas fast decomposition in AM soils increased C and N storage in subsoil. However, at all sites we found 57% greater total C and N storage in the entire profile in AM- soils (P stabilization hypothesis. Amino sugar biomarkers (an indicator of microbial necromass) and particle size fractionation revealed that the greater SOM storage in AM soils was driven by an accumulation of microbial residues on clay minerals and metal oxides. Taken together

  20. Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens.

  1. Ecological and Economic Prerequisites for the Extraction of Solid Minerals from the Bottom of the Arctic Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myaskov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world ocean has huge reserves of minerals that are contained directly in the water, as well as on the surface of its bottom and in its subsoils. The deposits of solid minerals on the surface of the bottom of the World Ocean are considered the most promising for industrial extraction. The deposits of ferromanganese nodules, cobalt-manganese crusts and polymetallic sulphides are considered as an object of extracting more often than others. There are the largest deposits of ferromanganese nodules in the central and southern parts of the Pacific Ocean, in the central part of the Indian Ocean, and in the seas of the Arctic Ocean near Russia. The deposits of ferromanganese nodules are a serious alternative to deposits of manganese ore on land. However, there are many factors influencing the efficiency of the development of ferromanganese deposits, the most significant are: the content of the useful component in the ore, the depth of the bottom and the distance from the seaports. It is also necessary to take into account the possible environmental consequences of underwater mining.

  2. How do peat type, sand addition and soil moisture influence the soil organic matter mineralization in anthropogenically disturbed organic soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säurich, Annelie; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Don, Axel; Burkart, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Drained peatlands are hotspots of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from agriculture. As a consequence of both drainage induced mineralization and anthropogenic sand mixing, large areas of former peatlands under agricultural use contain soil organic carbon (SOC) at the boundary between mineral and organic soils. Studies on SOC dynamics of such "low carbon organic soils" are rare as the focus of previous studies was mainly either on mineral soils or "true" peat soil. However, the variability of CO2 emissions increases with disturbance and therefore, we have yet to understand the reasons behind the relatively high CO2 emissions of these soils. Peat properties, soil organic matter (SOM) quality and water content are obviously influencing the rate of CO2 emissions, but a systematic evaluation of the hydrological and biogeochemical drivers for mineralization of disturbed peatlands is missing. With this incubation experiment, we aim at assessing the drivers of the high variability of CO2 emissions from strongly anthropogenically disturbed organic soil by systematically comparing strongly degraded peat with and without addition of sand under different moisture conditions and for different peat types. The selection of samples was based on results of a previous incubation study, using disturbed samples from the German Agricultural Soil Inventory. We sampled undisturbed soil columns from topsoil and subsoil (three replicates of each) of ten peatland sites all used as grassland. Peat types comprise six fens (sedge, Phragmites and wood peat) and four bogs (Sphagnum peat). All sites have an intact peat horizon that is permanently below groundwater level and a strongly disturbed topsoil horizon. Three of the fen and two of the bog sites have a topsoil horizon altered by sand-mixing. In addition the soil profile was mapped and samples for the determination of soil hydraulic properties were collected. All 64 soil columns (including four additional reference samples) will be installed

  3. Final technical report; Mercury Release from Organic matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, George

    2014-10-02

    This document is the final technical report for a project designed to address fundamental processes controlling the release of mercury from flood plain soils associated with East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee near the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge facility. The report summarizes the activities, findings, presentations, and publications resulting from an award to the U.S. Geological that were part of a larger overall effort including Kathy Nagy (University of Illinois, Chicago, Ill) and Joseph Ryan (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO). The specific charge for the U.S.G.S. portion of the study was to provide analytical support for the larger group effort (Nagy and Ryan), especially with regard to analyses of Hg and dissolved organic matter, and to provide information about the release of mercury from the floodplain soils.

  4. Effects of organic matter removal and soil compaction on fifth-year mineral soil carbon and nitrogen contents for sites across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez; Allan E. Tiarks; J. Marty Kranabetter; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Robert F. Powers; Paul T. Sanborn; William K. Chapman

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the main treatment effects of organic matter removal and compaction and a split-plot effect of competition control on mineral soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools. Treatment effects on soil C and N pools are discussed for 19 sites across five locations (British Columbia, Northern Rocky Mountains, Pacific Southwest, and Atlantic and Gulf coasts)...

  5. Changes in soil organic matter and net nitrogen mineralization in heathland soils, after removal, addition or replacement of litter from Erica tetralix or Molinia caerulea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van M.M.I.; Berendse, F.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of different litter input rates and of different types of litter on soil organic matter accumulation and net N mineralization were investigated in plant communities dominated by Erica tetralix L. or Molinia caerulea (L.) Moench. Plots in which the litter on the soil had repeatedly been

  6. Assessment of environmental impact models in natural occurring radionuclides solid wastes disposal from the mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May Braga Dulley

    2006-07-01

    This work evaluates the behavior of wastes with naturally occurring radionuclides as generated by the mineral industry and their final disposal in landfills. An integrated methodology is used to predict the performance of an industrial landfill for disposal of wastes containing NORM/TENORM, and to define acceptable amounts that can be disposed at the landfill using long-term environmental assessment. The governing equations for radionuclide transport are solved analytically using the generalized integral transform technique. Results obtained for each compartment of the biogeosphere are validated with experimental results or compared to other classes of solutions. An impact analysis is performed in order to define the potential consequences of a landfill to the environment, considering not only the engineering characteristics of the waste deposit but also the exposure pathways and plausible scenarios in which the contaminants could migrate and reach the environment and the human population. The present work permits the development of a safety approach that can be used to derive quantitative waste acceptance criteria for the disposal of NORM/TENORM waste in landfills. (author)

  7. Preparations based on minerals extracts of Calicotome villosa roots and bovine butyrate matter: Evaluation in vitro of their antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhouchi, B; Aouadi, S; Abdi, A

    2017-06-01

    The use of preparations based on minerals extracts of Calicotome villosa and butter is born from the misuse of drugs without specific microbiological analyzes. Seventeen different preparations were performed. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were determined on five bacteria and two fungi strains respectively. C. villosa ashes are obtained by incineration of roots plant at 498°C for 4hours. They are analyzed to determine the shape of the particles and the mineral constituents by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques respectively. The effectiveness of preparations or tablets is measured in solid medium. It allows to measure the diameter of the inhibition zone for the antibacterial activity as well as the diameter of mycelia growth and the critical values (MIC, MFC, IC 50 and IC 90 ) for the antifungal activity. Finally, the results are compared to the activity of a commercial positive control aiming to give value of the observed activity. SEM observations reveal the presence of nanoparticles agglomerated with size of about 50nm. The EDX analyzes indicate the presence of Fe, Na, Al, Mg, Si, K, Ca, O 2 and C. Among all the results, the preparation (B s +A) or (B sd +A) can completely inhibit the growth of two fungal pathogens. The activity of the preparation is faced with the activity of the synthetic fungicide nystatin. The efficacy of the preparation (B s +A) or (B sd +A) is higher than that of nystatin against Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp. The preparation could serve as natural antifungal for the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. An investigation of problematic solids in oil sands processing : separation and characterization of organic matter strongly bound to oil sands solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, T.; Woods, J.R.; Kung, J.; Fu, D.; Kingston, D.; Kotlyar, L.S. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Inst. for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology; Sparks, B.D. [V. Bede Technical Associates, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Some of the solid fractions in Athabasca oilsands are associated with strongly bound organic matter that is insoluble in toluene, a solvent commonly used to extract bitumen. The presence of toluene insoluble organic matter (TIOM) increases oil wettability of solids which may adversely affect the release of bitumen from the oilsands. Some of the solid material from the coking operation may be carried over to downstream operations where it can cause fouling. This study used supercritical fluid extraction with methanol to remove TIOM from oilsands after extraction of bitumen by toluene. The methanol extract (ME) is soluble in toluene and was analyzed. Results were compared with corresponding bitumen fractions prepared using a modified HPLC SARA separation technique. Number average molecular weights for the ME were similar to those for resins separated from bitumen. The study also showed that the number of alkyl substituents on aromatic ring systems and the lengths of paraffinic straight chains for resins and ME samples were similar, with only minor differences in terms of H/C atomic ratios and aromaticities. The ME was more polar than the resin and asphaltene fractions, which may explain the selective adsorption of this fraction. tabs., figs.

  9. On the radiometric measurement of the density distribution occuring at the horizontal hydraulic transport of solid matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedde, E.; Weber, M.

    1977-01-01

    In order to estimate the phenomena of the flow in horizontal hydraulic transport of solid matter, measuring the density structure along the vertical pipe diameter is of vital interest for basic investigations. The measurement technology in mixed flows of solid matter and water is very difficult and therefore only few publications on characteristic flow profiles in horizontal pipes are known. In a research programme advanced by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft investigations were made on the possibility to measure the density profile by means of plain measuring equipment based upon radiometrics. In this paper a combination of a nuclear radiometric polar and parallel scanning method is shown to be suitable for this kind of measurements. (orig.) [de

  10. Chemical Force Spectroscopy Evidence Supporting the Layer-by-Layer Model of Organic Matter Binding to Iron (oxy)Hydroxide Mineral Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chassé , Alexander W.; Ohno, Tsutomu; Higgins, Steven R.; Amirbahman, Aria; Yildirim, Nadir; Parr, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The adsorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to metal (oxy)hydroxide mineral surfaces is a critical step for C sequestration in soils. Although equilibrium studies have described some of the factors controlling this process, the molecular-scale description of the adsorption process has been more limited. Chemical force spectroscopy revealed differing adhesion strengths of DOM extracted from three soils and a reference peat soil material to an iron (oxy)hydroxide mineral surface. The DOM was characterized using ultrahigh-resolution negative ion mode electrospray ionization Fourier Transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The results indicate that carboxyl-rich aromatic and N-containing aliphatic molecules of DOM are correlated with high adhesion forces. Increasing molecular mass was shown to decrease the adhesion force between the mineral surface and the DOM. Kendrick mass defect analysis suggests that mechanisms involving two carboxyl groups result in the most stable bond to the mineral surface. We conceptualize these results using a layer-by-layer "onion" model of organic matter stabilization on soil mineral surfaces.

  11. Chemical Force Spectroscopy Evidence Supporting the Layer-by-Layer Model of Organic Matter Binding to Iron (oxy)Hydroxide Mineral Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chassé, Alexander W.

    2015-08-18

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The adsorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to metal (oxy)hydroxide mineral surfaces is a critical step for C sequestration in soils. Although equilibrium studies have described some of the factors controlling this process, the molecular-scale description of the adsorption process has been more limited. Chemical force spectroscopy revealed differing adhesion strengths of DOM extracted from three soils and a reference peat soil material to an iron (oxy)hydroxide mineral surface. The DOM was characterized using ultrahigh-resolution negative ion mode electrospray ionization Fourier Transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The results indicate that carboxyl-rich aromatic and N-containing aliphatic molecules of DOM are correlated with high adhesion forces. Increasing molecular mass was shown to decrease the adhesion force between the mineral surface and the DOM. Kendrick mass defect analysis suggests that mechanisms involving two carboxyl groups result in the most stable bond to the mineral surface. We conceptualize these results using a layer-by-layer "onion" model of organic matter stabilization on soil mineral surfaces.

  12. Influence of composition of the raw materials on phase formation in solid compounds based on slag and clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galkin, A.V.; Tolebaev, T.; Omarova, V.I.; Burkitbaev, M.; Blynskiy, A.P.; Bachilova, N.V.; Matsynina, V.I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Activation of solidification processes in a compound formed on the basis of slag and clay minerals using sodium hydroxide - the output product from processing the BN-350 sodium coolant it is expedient to form the final product with a phase composition representing (in terms of long term storage) hydro-alumino-silicates incorporating Na-22 and Cs-137 radionuclides, which isomorphly replace other atoms in the crystal lattice sites. Combination of mineral phases, such as alkaline and alkaline-earth hydro-alumino-silicates with zeolite-like structure, providing sorptive properties, and the tobermorite like low-base hydro silicates of calcium defining the physico-mechanical properties of compound is the necessary condition for the compound stability. Investigations of phase formation in the mixtures of Kazakhstan clay, slag materials and alkali have been conducted targeted to control the physico-chemical properties of solid compound. The mixtures of alkali, thermal power plant ashes and clays of various mineralogical genesis (kaolinite, bentonite, Ca-Na-smectite montmorillonite) have been studied. The ashes and phosphorous slag while interacting with alkali are determined to form the non-alkaline hydro-silicates of stavrolite and indianite (anortite) type with free alkali being found in an unbound state. Both alkaline and alkaline-alkaline-earth hydro-silicates of Na 2 Ca 2 Si 2 O 7 H 2 O type are only formed in a compounds containing metallurgical slag. Formation of alkaline hydro-alumino-silicates of NaAlSiO 4 H 2 0 type as well as tomsonite (Na 4 Ca 8 [Al 20S i 20 O 80 ] 24H 2 O) - the zeolite like mineral have been detected in a two-component alkali-clay mixtures. Besides the quantity of tomsonite was determined to be not only dependent on Al 2 O 3 content in clay component but is also defined by stoichiometric composition of the mixture, because zeolite synthesis takes place under conditions of gels co-deposition and high pH value. Maximum quantity of

  13. Influence of organic matter and clay minerals in migration of derivative compounds of hydrocarbons; Influencia da materia organica e argilominerais na migracao de compostos derivados de hidrocarbonetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Denize Gloria Barcellos; Mendonca Filho, Joao Graciano de; Polivanov, Helena [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail: denize@geologia.ufrj.br; graciano@geologia.ufrj.br; helena@acd.ufrj.br

    2003-07-01

    Soil samples from the Guanabara Bay in Duque de Caxias city (RJ) were submitted to mineralogical and organic geochemistry analyses. This proceeding was used mainly to determine a possible interaction of hydrocarbons contaminants with the organic matter and the clay minerals presents in this mangrove. The sampling was carried out using Direct Push techniques. Thus, the mainly clay minerals characterizes were: gibbsite, illite, caulinite and smectite. The compositional analysis of organic constituents showed a predominance of amorphous material (degraded cuticles), followed of wood material and sporomorphs constituents, suggesting that the biological degradation occurred in situ. (author)

  14. Solid state insurrection how the science of substance made American physics matter

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Joseph D

    2018-01-01

    Solid state physics—the study of the physical properties of solid matter—was far and away the most populous subfield of Cold War American physics. But despite prolific contributions to consumer and medical technology, such as the transistor and magnetic resonance imaging, it garnered much less professional prestige and public attention than nuclear and particle physics. Solid State Insurrection argues that solid state physics was nonetheless essential to securing the vast social, political, and financial capital Cold War physics enjoyed. Solid state’s technological bent, and its challenge to the “pure science” ideal many physicists cherished, helped physics as a whole respond more readily to Cold War social, political, and economic pressures. Solid state research kept physics economically and technologically relevant, sustaining its lofty cultural standing and policy influence long after the sheen of the Manhattan Project had faded. By placing solid state at the center of the story of twentieth cent...

  15. Bone Mineral 31P and Matrix-Bound Water Densities Measured by Solid-State 1H and 31P MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Alan C.; Li, Cheng; Rajapakse, Chamith S.; Bashoor- Zadeh, Mahdieh; Bhagat, Yusuf A.; Wright, Alexander C.; Zemel, Babette S.; Zavaliangos, Antonios; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2014-01-01

    Bone is a composite material consisting of mineral and hydrated collagen fractions. MRI of bone is challenging due to extremely short transverse relaxation times, but solid-state imaging sequences exist that can acquire the short-lived signal from bone tissue. Previous work to quantify bone density via MRI used powerful experimental scanners. This work seeks to establish the feasibility of MRI-based measurement on clinical scanners of bone mineral and collagen-bound water densities, the latter as a surrogate of matrix density, and to examine the associations of these parameters with porosity and donors’ age. Mineral and matrix-bound water images of reference phantoms and cortical bone from 16 human donors, ages 27-97 years, were acquired by zero-echo-time 31P and 1H MRI on whole body 7T and 3T scanners, respectively. Images were corrected for relaxation and RF inhomogeneity to obtain density maps. Cortical porosity was measured by micro-CT, and apparent mineral density by pQCT. MRI-derived densities were compared to x-ray-based measurements by least-squares regression. Mean bone mineral 31P density was 6.74±1.22 mol/L (corresponding to 1129±204 mg/cc mineral), and mean bound water 1H density was 31.3±4.2 mol/L (corresponding to 28.3±3.7 %v/v). Both 31P and bound water (BW) densities were correlated negatively with porosity (31P: R2 = 0.32, p bone mineralization ratio (expressed here as the ratio of 31P density to bound water density), which is proportional to true bone mineralization, was found to be uncorrelated with porosity, age, or pQCT density. This work establishes the feasibility of image-based quantification of bone mineral and bound water densities using clinical hardware. PMID:24846186

  16. Differential chemical fractionation of dissolved organic matter during sorption by Fe mineral phases in a tropical soil from the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, A. F.; Coward, E.; Ohno, T.; Thompson, A.

    2017-12-01

    Fe-bearing mineral phases contribute substantially to adsorption and stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM), due largely to their high specific surface area (SSA) and reactivity. While the importance of adsorption onto mineral surfaces has been well-elucidated, selectivity of various mineral and organic phases remains poorly understood. The goals of this work were to: 1) quantify the contributions of Fe-minerals of varying crystallinity to dissolved organic matter (DOM) sorption, and 2) characterize the molecular fractionation of DOM induced by reactions at the mineral interface, using a highly-weathered Oxisol from the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO). Three selective dissolution experiments targeting Fe-mineral phases were followed by specific surface area (SSA) analysis of the residues and characterization of extracted DOM by high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Fe-depleted extraction residue samples, untreated control soil samples, and Fe-enriched ferrihydrite-coated soil samples were then subjected to a batch sorption experiment with litter-derived DOM. Results of selective dissolution experiments indicated that a substantial proportion of soil SSA was derived from extracted Fe-bearing phases, and FT-ICR-MS analysis of extracted DOM revealed distinct chemical signatures. Sorbed C concentrations were well correlated with Fe contents induced by treatments, and thus SSA. Molecular characterization of the DOM post-sorption indicated that poorly crystalline Fe phases preferentially adsorbed highly unsaturated aromatic compounds, and higher-crystallinity Fe phases were associated with more aliphatic compounds. These findings suggests that molecular fractionation via organomineral complexation may act as a physicochemical filter of DOM released to the critical zone.

  17. Hydrodynamic Tunneling of 440 GeV SPS protons in Solid Material: Production of Warm Dense Matter at CERN HiRadMat Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Naeem Ahmad; Blanco Sancho, Juan; Schmidt, Ruediger; Shutov, Alaxander; Burkart, Florian; Wollmann, Daniel; Piriz, Antonio Roberto

    2013-10-01

    Numerical simulations have shown that the range of 7 TeV LHC protons in solid matter will be significantly increased due to hydrodynamic tunneling. For example, in solid copper and solid carbon, these protons and the shower can penetrate up to 35 m and 25 m, respectively. However, their corresponding static range in the two materials is 1 m and 3 m, respectively. This will have important implications on machine protection design. In order to validate these simulation results, experiments have been performed at the CERN HiRadMat facility using the 440 GeV SPS proton beam irradiating solid copper cylindrical target. The phenomenon of hydrodynamic tunneling has been experimentally confirmed and good agreement has been found between the simulations and the experimental results. A very interesting outcome of this work is that the HiRadMat facility can be used to generate High Energy Density matter including Warm Dense Matter and strongly coupled plasmas in the laboratory.

  18. The mineral phase evolution behaviour in the production of glass-ceramics from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by melting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jingde; Chai, Meiyun; Li, Rundong; Yao, Pengfei; Khan, Agha Saood

    2016-01-01

    High energy consumption was the major obstacle to the widespread application of melting technology in the treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. Aiming to lower the ash-melting temperature (AMT) for energy-saving, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the relations between AMT and the mineral evolution. The results indicated that the change of AMT was determined by the types and the contents of mineral crystals. The transition from refractory minerals to fluxing minerals was the key. The transition of the main crystalline phase from pseudowollastonite (Ca3(Si3O9)) to wollastonite (CaSiO3) played a significant role in AMT reduction. A quantum chemistry calculation was carried out to investigate the effect of crystal reaction activity on AMT. In the chemical reaction, the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital played a more important role than any other orbits. Cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+)) were apt to enter into the crystal lattice of wollastonite and gehlenite mainly through Si (3), O (1), Si (6), O (10) and Al (2), O (10), and broke the covalent bonds of Si (3)-O (7), Al (1)-O (9) and Al (1)-O (15), respectively. This deconstruction behaviour provided convenient conditions for restructuring and promoted the formation of fluxing minerals. In melts, the excess SiO2 monomers which existed in the form of cristobalite and quartz caused AMT increase.

  19. Molecular Studies of Complex Soil Organic Matter Interactions with Metal Ions and Mineral Surfaces using Classical Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Chemistry Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, A.; Govind, N.; Laskin, A.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral surfaces have been implicated as potential protectors of soil organic matter (SOM) against decomposition and ultimate mineralization to small molecules which can provide nutrients for plants and soil microbes and can also contribute to the Earth's elemental cycles. SOM is a complex mixture of organic molecules of biological origin at varying degrees of decomposition and can, itself, self-assemble in such a way as to expose some biomolecule types to biotic and abiotic attack while protecting other biomolecule types. The organization of SOM and SOM with mineral surfaces and solvated metal ions is driven by an interplay of van der Waals and electrostatic interactions leading to partitioning of hydrophilic (e.g. sugars) and hydrophobic (e.g., lipids) SOM components that can be bridged with amphiphilic molecules (e.g., proteins). Classical molecular dynamics simulations can shed light on assemblies of organic molecules alone or complexation with mineral surfaces. The role of chemical reactions is also an important consideration in potential chemical changes of the organic species such as oxidation/reduction, degradation, chemisorption to mineral surfaces, and complexation with solvated metal ions to form organometallic systems. For the study of chemical reactivity, quantum chemistry methods can be employed and combined with structural insight provided by classical MD simulations. Moreover, quantum chemistry can also simulate spectroscopic signatures based on chemical structure and is a valuable tool in interpreting spectra from, notably, x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). In this presentation, we will discuss our classical MD and quantum chemistry findings on a model SOM system interacting with mineral surfaces and solvated metal ions.

  20. Mobility of solid vortex matter in 'shaking' ac magnetic fields of variable amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.J.; Valenzuela, S.O.; Pasquini, G.; Bekeris, V.

    2004-01-01

    The vortex solid in high temperature superconductors exhibits several regimes and dynamical behaviors. A temporarily symmetric magnetic ac field (e.g. sinusoidal, square, triangular) can increase the vortex lattice mobility and a temporarily asymmetric one (e.g. sawtooth) can decrease it. In this work, we study the effect on the mobility of the vortex solid as a function of the amplitude of an ac symmetric 'shaking' field when it is applied to previously prepared high and low mobility configurations. This study was carried out in high quality twinned YBCO single crystals and vortex mobility was studied through ac susceptibility measurements

  1. Influence of inorganic compounds on the combustion of coal. III. The effect of water of constitution of added compounds, moisture, and mineral matter in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newall, H F

    1939-01-01

    The effects on the combustion rate from excess moisture and the addition of selected inorganic substances to powdered coals were determined. The catalytic effect of 19 known inorganic ash constituents on combustion rates was also examined. Alumina and silica were found to inhibit combustion while ferric oxide accelerated it. Titanium, Ge, and B oxides, along with gypsum and calcium phosphate, decreased the rate of combusion, while Ca, Mg, Mn, and V oxides increased combustion rates. Although several of the ash constituents in coal directly affected combustion rates, the effect of adding them to the coal prior to combustion did not correlate with the effect of the mineral matter already in the coal.

  2. Towards explaining excess CO2 production in wetlands - the roles of solid and dissolved organic matter as electron acceptors and of substrate quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Gao, Chuanyu; Agethen, Svenja; Sander, Michael

    2017-04-01

    To understand carbon storage in water logged, anaerobic peatlands, factors controlling mineralization have been studied for decades. Temperature, substrate quality, water table position and the availability of electron acceptors for oxidation of organic carbon have been identified as major factors. However, many studies reported an excess carbon dioxide (CO2) production over methane (CH4) that cannot be explained by available electron acceptors, and peat soils did not reach strictly methanogenic conditions (i.e., a stoichiometric formation ratio of 1:1 of CO2 to CH4). It has been hypothesized that peat organic matter (OM) provides a previously unrecognized electron acceptor for microbial respiration, elevating CO2 to CH4 ratios. Microbial reduction of dissolved OM has been shown in the mid 90's, but only recently mediated electrochemical techniques opened the possibility to access stocks and changes in electron accepting capacities (EAC) of OM in dissolved and solid form. While it was shown that the EAC of OM follows redox cycles of microbial reduction and O2 reoxidation, changes in the EAC of OM were so far not related quantitatively to CO2 production. We therefore tested if CO2 production in anoxic peat incubations is balanced by the consumption of electron acceptors if EAC of OM is included. We set up anoxic incubations with peat and monitored production of CO2 and CH4, and changes in EAC of OM in the dissolved and solid phase over time. Interestingly, in all incubations, the EAC of dissolved OM was poorly related to CO2 and CH4 production. Instead, dissolved OM was rapidly reduced at the onset of the incubations and thereafter remained in reduced form. In contrast, the decrease in the EAC of particulate (i.e. non-dissolved) OM was closely linked to the observed production of non-methanogenic CO2. Thereby, the total EAC of the solid OM pool by far exceeded the EAC of the dissolved OM pool. Over the course of eight week incubations, measured decreases in the EAC

  3. Microbial Mineral Transformations at the Fe(II)/Fe(III) Redox Boundary for Solid Phase Capture of Strontium and Other Metal/Radionuclide Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, F.G.; Roden, E.E.

    2000-01-01

    The migration of 90 Sr in groundwater is a significant environmental concern at former nuclear weapons production sites in the US and abroad. Although retardation of 90 Sr transport relative to mean groundwater velocity is known to occur in contaminated aquifers, Sr 2+ does not sorb as strongly to iron oxides and other mineral phases as do other metal-radionuclides contaminants. Thus, some potential exists for extensive 90 Sr migration from sources of contamination. Chemical or biological processes capable of retarding or immobilizing Sr 2+ in groundwater environments are of interest from the standpoint of understanding controls on subsurface Sr 2+ migration. In addition, it may be possible to exploit such processes for remediation of subsurface Sr contamination. In this study the authors examined the potential for the solid phase sorption and incorporation of Sr 2+ into carbonate minerals formed during microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction as a first step toward evaluating whether this process could be used to promote retardation of 90 Sr migrations in anaerobic subsurface environments. The demonstration of Sr 2+ capture in carbonate mineral phases formed during bacterial HFO reduction and urea hydrolysis suggests that microbial carbonate mineral formation could contribute to Sr 2+ retardation in groundwater environments. This process may also provide a mechanism for subsurface remediation of Sr 2+ and other divalent metal contaminants that form insoluble carbonate precipitates

  4. Thermophysical Properties of Matter - the TPRC Data Series. Volume 13. Thermal Expansion - Nonmetallic Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    topography of the state of knowledge on the thermal expansion of nonmetallic solids. We believe there is also much food for reflec- West Lafayette...34 Lithium Silicates ......... 713 209 Magnesium Metasilicate MgSiO. .. ......... 715 210 Magnesium Orthosilicate Mg2 SiO . . . . . . . . . . . . 718 211...Antiferromagnetism of Praseodymium," Phys. Rev. Letters, 12(20), 553-5, 1964. 66. Goode, J.M., "Phase Transition Temperature of Polonium ,"J. Chem. Phys., 26(5), 1269

  5. Development and underground testing of the α dosimeter: a solid state electronic personal radiation dosimeter for uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, R.N.; Roze, V.; Shepherd, R.

    1981-01-01

    The αDOSIMETER is a complete, integrated system designed to monitor the immediate worksite of underground miners where the disintegration for radon daughters is a risk to the health of mining personnel. The dosimeter weighing little more than one pound is worn by each miner throughout the entire shift and is powered by the miner's cap lamp battery. After this integration period, the unit is connected to a reading network whereupon the day's data is dumped, calculated and stored. Beginning in July 1980, prototype units were subjected to vigorous underground testing in uranium mines in Canada and the United States and in tin mines in Cornwall, UK. The testing results are summarized and proposals advanced for a typical mine monitoring system utilizing the αDOSIMETER

  6. Pyrogenic organic matter accumulation after density and particle size fractionation of burnt Cambisol using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, María; Knicker, Heike

    2017-04-01

    Fires lead to formation of the pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) which is quickly incorporated into the soil. The charring process involves chemical alterations of the litter material, where biologically available structures are transferred into aromatic polymers, such as black carbon (BC) and black nitrogen (BN). In order to reveal the medium term fate of BC and BN in soils, the top 5 cm of A horizons from unburnt, single and double burnt Cambisols of the Sierra de Aznalcóllar (Southern Spain) were collected 7 year after an intense fire and separated according to their density and their size (Golchin et al., 1994; Sohi et al., 2001). The density fractionation yielded in the free (fPOM), occluded particulate organic matter (oPOM) and the mineral-association organic fraction (MAF) and was performed using a sodium polytungstate solution with a density of 1.8 g cm-3. The MAF was further separated into the sand (2 mm to 63 μm) and coarse silt (63 to 20 μm) and fine fraction (solid-state 13C and 15N NMR spectroscopy. The 13C and 15N NMR spectra of all fPOM and oPOM fractions are dominated by signals assignable to O-alkyl C followed by resonance lines of alkyl C. The spectra indicate that fPOM is mainly composed of undecomposed plant debris whereas oPOM is rich in unsubstituted-aliphatic material. The lack of intensity in the chemical shift region from 160 to140 ppm in the spectra of the small size fractions reveals the absence of lignin residues. This, their low C/N ratios and the clear 13C-signal attributed to carboxylic C allows the conclusion that this fraction mainly composed of microbial residues. Former studies evidenced that aromaticity of the burnt bulk soil decreased with elapsing time after the fire. The present investigation revealed that most of the remaining aromatic C accumulated in the POM fractions, which is in contrast to other studies showing a preferential recovery of BC in the fine particle size fractions. Possibly, the poor interaction between Py

  7. The Analysis of Septic Tank Performance in Regard to Suspended Solids and Organic Matter Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Kirjanova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 117 The aim of this work was to evaluate the removal of suspended solids (SS and 7-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD7 in a three chamber septic tank depending on theoretical wastewater retention time and the degree of septic tank cleanliness. It was found out that the performance of the septic tank depended on the degree of its cleanliness: when the septic tank was clean and retention time was three days, SS and BOS7 removal efficiency was 77±10% and 67±14% respectively, whereas two months later, after septic tank desludging, SS removal efficiency decreased to 53±22% and BOD7 to 32±31%. The performance of the septic tank also depended on theoretical wastewater retention time: when some amount of solids was accumulated at the bottom of the septic tank and wastewater retention time was one day, SS and BOS7 removal efficiency was 45±40% and 33±16% respectively; when retention time was three days, SS removal efficiency increased to 53±22% but BOD7 removal efficiency remained similar to one day retention time, i.e. 32±31%.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Aggregation controls the stability of lignin and lipids in clay-sized particulate and mineral associated organic matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angst, Gerrit; Mueller, K.E.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Freeman, K.H.; Mueller, C.W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 3 (2017), s. 307-324 ISSN 0168-2563 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : incubation * physical fractionation * GC/MS * C-13 NMR * CuO * soil organic matter Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science OBOR OECD: Soil science Impact factor: 3.428, year: 2016

  9. Seasonal Contribution of Mineral Dust and Otlher Major Components to Particulate Matter at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust storms are significant contributors to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) in many areas of the world. Central Asia, an area that is relatively understudied in this regard, is anticipated to be affected by dust storms due to its proximity to several major deserts that ...

  10. Thermodynamics phase transition and Hawking radiation of the Schwarzschild black hole with quintessence-like matter and a deficit solid angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, Kamiko Kouemeni Jean; Saleh, Mahamat; Thomas, Bouetou Bouetou; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the thermodynamics and Hawking radiation of Schwarzschild black hole with quintessence-like matter and deficit solid angle. From the metric of the black hole, we derive the expressions of temperature and specific heat using the laws of black hole thermodynamics. Using the null geodesics method and Parikh-Wilczeck tunneling method, we derive the expressions of Boltzmann factor and the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for the black hole. The behaviors of the temperature, specific heat, Boltzmann factor and the change of Bekenstein entropy versus the deficit solid angle (ɛ 2) and the density of static spherically symmetric quintessence-like matter (ρ 0) were explicitly plotted. The results show that, when the deficit solid angle (ɛ 2) and the density of static spherically symmetric quintessence-like matter at r=1 (ρ 0) vanish (ρ 0=ɛ =0), these four thermodynamics quantities are reduced to those obtained for the simple case of Schwarzschild black hole. For low entropies, the presence of quintessence-like matter induces a first order phase transition of the black hole and for the higher values of the entropies, we observe the second order phase transition. When increasing ρ 0, the transition points are shifted to lower entropies. The same thing is observed when increasing ɛ 2. In the absence of quintessence-like matter (ρ 0=0), these transition phenomena disappear. Moreover the rate of radiation decreases when increasing ρ 0 or (ɛ ^2).

  11. The Organic Matter Molecular Characteristics of Pyrogenic Solids and Their Aqueous Leachable Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, A. S.; Hatcher, P.; Mitra, S.; Bostick, K. W.; Zimmerman, A. R.

    2016-02-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (Py-OM), or black carbon (BC), derives from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass and is recognized for its impacts on soil chemistry, pollutant transport, climate, and regional and global carbon cycling. In fact, Py-OM is commonly applied to agricultural plots, in the form of "biochars," with the intention of enhancing agricultural production and the expectation of a carbon sequestration side benefit due to Py-OM's refractory and immobile nature. However, several studies of riverine, estuarine, and oceanic waters have detected tracers of dissolved Py-OM in appreciable quantities suggesting that it is more mobile in the environment than previously expected. The quantities and impacts of Py-OM released to aqueous systems are likely dependent on Py-OM molecular characteristics which in turn likely depend on initial combustion conditions and environmental processing. Yet, very little is known about the detailed molecular composition of these materials, let alone their relationships with combustion and environmental processing. Here, pyrophosphate extractable and water leachable components of a range of Py-OM materials (natural charcoals aged in the environment for variable lengths of time, oak and grass combusted over a range of temperatures) are examined by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The molecular characteristics of the dissolved and pyrophosphate extractable Py-OM is then compared in the context of production conditions. Results of this study will greatly improve our understanding of Py-OM cycling between watersheds and the oceans.

  12. Characterization of isolated fractions of dissolved organic matter derived from municipal solid waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minda; He, Xiaosong; Liu, Jiaomei; Wang, Yuefeng; Xi, Beidou; Li, Dan; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Chao

    2018-04-14

    Understanding the heterogeneous evolution characteristics of dissolved organic matter fractions derived from compost is crucial to exploring the composting biodegradation process and the possible applications of compost products. Herein, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy integrated with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography were utilized to obtain the molecular weight (MW) and polarity evolution characteristics of humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and the hydrophilic (HyI) fractions during composting. The high-MW humic substances and building blocks in the HA fraction degraded faster during composting than polymers, proteins, and organic colloids. Similarly, the low MW acid FA factions transformed faster than the low weight neutral fractions, followed by building blocks, and finally polymers, proteins, and organic colloids. The evolutions of HyI fractions during composting occurred first for building blocks, followed by low MW acids, and finally low weight neutrals. With the progress of composting, the hydrophobic properties of the HA and FA fractions were enhanced. The degradation/humification process of the hydrophilic and transphilic components was faster than that of the hydrophobic component. Compared with the FA and HyI fractions, the HA fraction exhibited a higher MW and increased hydrophobicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Does the conductivity of interconnect coatings matter for solid oxide fuel cell applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Claudia; Fefekos, Alexander G.; Svensson, Jan-Erik; Froitzheim, Jan

    2018-04-01

    The present work aims to quantify the influence of typical interconnect coatings used for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) on area specific resistance (ASR). To quantify the effect of the coating, the dependency of coating thickness on the ASR is examined on Crofer 22 APU at 600 °C. Three different Co coating thicknesses are investigated, 600 nm, 1500 nm, and 3000 nm. Except for the reference samples, the material is pre-oxidized prior to coating to mitigate the outward diffusion of iron and consequent formation of poorly conducting (Co,Fe)3O4 spinel. Exposures are carried out at 600 °C in stagnant laboratory air for 500 h and subsequent ASR measurements are performed. Additionally the microstructure is investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On all pre-oxidized samples, a homogenous dense Co3O4 top layer is observed beneath which a thin layer of Cr2O3 is present. As the ASR values range between 7 and 12 mΩcm2 for all pre-oxidized samples, even though different Co3O4 thicknesses are observed, the results strongly suggest that for most applicable cases the impact of the coating on ASR is negligible and the main contributor is Cr2O3.

  14. Evaluation of solid particle number and black carbon for very low particulate matter emissions standards in light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M-C Oliver; Shields, J Erin

    2017-06-01

    To reliably measure at the low particulate matter (PM) levels needed to meet California's Low Emission Vehicle (LEV III) 3- and 1-mg/mile particulate matter (PM) standards, various approaches other than gravimetric measurement have been suggested for testing purposes. In this work, a feasibility study of solid particle number (SPN, d50 = 23 nm) and black carbon (BC) as alternatives to gravimetric PM mass was conducted, based on the relationship of these two metrics to gravimetric PM mass, as well as the variability of each of these metrics. More than 150 Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) or Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) tests were conducted on 46 light-duty vehicles, including port-fuel-injected and direct-injected gasoline vehicles, as well as several light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with diesel particle filters (LDD/DPF). For FTP tests, emission variability of gravimetric PM mass was found to be slightly less than that of either SPN or BC, whereas the opposite was observed for US06 tests. Emission variability of PM mass for LDD/DPF was higher than that of both SPN and BC, primarily because of higher PM mass measurement uncertainties (background and precision) near or below 0.1 mg/mile. While strong correlations were observed from both SPN and BC to PM mass, the slopes are dependent on engine technologies and driving cycles, and the proportionality between the metrics can vary over the course of the test. Replacement of the LEV III PM mass emission standard with one other measurement metric may imperil the effectiveness of emission reduction, as a correlation-based relationship may evolve over future technologies for meeting stringent greenhouse standards. Solid particle number and black carbon were suggested in place of PM mass for the California LEV III 1-mg/mile FTP standard. Their equivalence, proportionality, and emission variability in comparison to PM mass, based on a large light-duty vehicle fleet examined, are dependent on engine

  15. Effect of Domestic Processing Methods on Dry Matter, Total Sugar, Phenolics and Mineral Composition in Different Developmental Stages of Parkia roxburghii G. (Don. Pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jekendra Singh SALAM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Parkia roxburghii is considered delicious in the Northeastern part of India, especially in the state of Manipur. Though it is widely used, information about the biochemical composition and its changes, after processing, is hardly available. In the present experiment, effect of processing methods on dry matter, soluble sugar, phenolics and mineral composition in different developmental stages of P. roxburghii pods were studied. Total soluble sugar (TSS, total phenols (TP, and orthodihydric phenols (ODHP were determined as per the methods of Morris (1948, Bray and Thorpe (1954 and Mahadevan and Sridhar (1986. Sodium (Na, potassium (K, sulphur (S and phosphorus (P were estimated as per the procedures of Tandon (1993. Calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, copper (Cu and cobalt (Co were analyzed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Processing methods reduced dry matter, soluble sugar and phenolics in all the stages of the pod. TP and ODHP lost up to the extent of 72.78% in tender stage due to ordinary cooking, while higher loss of ODHP recorded in immature stage of the pod due to pressure cooking. Ca, Mg, K and Zn in different stages were found to be affected significantly by different methods of cooking, while no such changes were observed in case of S, P, Fe, Mn and Cu. The level of iron amongst the micro minerals is appreciably high recording up to 51.0 mg/100 g in the immature stage of the pod. As iron, zinc and manganese are antioxidant micronutrients, their higher presence in P. roxburghii might be of some nutritional importance.

  16. Solid-State Fermentation Reduces Phytic Acid Level, Improves the Profile of Myo-Inositol Phosphates and Enhances the Availability of Selected Minerals in Flaxseed Oil Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Summary Flaxseed oil cake was subjected to fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus (DSM 1964 and ATCC 64063), and the phytate (InsP6) content, myo-inositol phosphate profile and in vitro bioavailability of essential minerals were studied. Flaxseed oil cake had a phytate mass fraction of 13.9 mg/g. A 96-hour fermentation of flaxseed oil cake by R. oligosporus DSM 1964 and R. oligosporus ATCC 64063 decreased the InsP6 content by 48 and 33%, respectively. The strains had different phytate-degrading activities: fermentation of flaxseed oil cake with R. oligosporus DSM 1964 was more advantageous, yielding InsP3-5 as a predominating myo-inositol compound, while fermentation with R. oligosporus ATCC 64603 produced predominantly InsP5-6. Solid-state fermentation of flaxseed oil cake enhanced in vitro bioavailability of calcium by 14, magnesium by 3.3 and phosphorus by 2–4%. PMID:29089855

  17. Biochar from swine manure solids: influence on carbon sequestration and Olsen phosphorus and mineral nitrogen dynamics in soil with and without digestate incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Marchetti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in biochar (BC has grown dramatically in recent years, due mainly to the fact that its incorporation into soil reportedly enhances carbon sequestration and fertility. Currently, BC types most under investigation are those obtained from organic matter (OM of plant origin. As great amounts of manure solids are expected to become available in the near future, thanks to the development of technologies for the separation of the solid fraction of animal effluents, processing of manure solids for BC production seems an interesting possibility for the recycling of OM of high nutrient value. The aim of this study was to investigate carbon (C sequestration and nutrient dynamics in soil amended with BC from dried swine manure solids. The experiment was carried out in laboratory microcosms on a silty clay soil. The effect on nutrient dynamics of interaction between BC and fresh digestate obtained from a biogas plant was also investigated to test the hypothesis that BC can retain nutrients. A comparison was made of the following treatments: soil amended with swine manure solids (LC, soil amended with charred swine manure solids (LT, soil amended with wood chip (CC, soil amended with charred wood chip (CT, soil with no amendment as control (Cs, each one of them with and without incorporation of digestate (D for a total of 10 treatments. Biochar was obtained by treating OM (wood chip or swine manure with moisture content of less than 10% at 420°C in anoxic conditions. The CO2-C release and organic C, available phosphorus (P (Olsen P, POls and inorganic (ammonium+nitrate nitrogen (N (Nmin contents at the start and three months after the start of the experiment were measured in the amended and control soils. After three months of incubation at 30°C, the CO2-C emissions from soil with BC (CT and LT, ±D were the same as those in the control soil (Cs and were lower than those in the soils with untreated amendments (CC and LC, ±D. The organic C content

  18. Approximation of personal exposure to fine particulate matters (PM2.5) during cooking using solid biomass fuels in the kitchens of rural West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, Sukanta; Padhy, Pratap Kumar

    2018-03-27

    More than 85% of the rural Indian households use traditional solid biofuels (SBFs) for daily cooking. Burning of the easily available unprocessed solid fuels in inefficient earthen cooking stoves produce large quantities of particulate matters. Smaller particulates, especially with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM 2.5 ), largely generated during cooking, are considered to be health damaging in nature. In the present study, kitchen level exposure of women cooks to fine particulate matters during lunch preparation was assessed considering kitchen openness as surrogate to the ventilation condition. Two-way ANCOVA analysis considering meal quantity as a covariate revealed no significant interaction between the openness and the seasons explaining the variability of the personal exposure to the fine particulate matters in rural kitchen during cooking. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed the openness as the only significant predictor for personal exposure to the fine particulate matters. In the present study, the annual average fine particulate matter exposure concentration was found to be 974 μg m -3 .

  19. Trend overtime of total haemoglobin, iron metabolism and trace minerals in veal calves fed high amounts of two different solid feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lisa Stefani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty Polish Friesian veal calves were administrated high amounts of two different solid feeds (maize grain and a mix diet containing 10% of straw and 8% of soy in addition to the traditional milk replacer diet. Compared to the mix diet, maize grain had a lower content of iron, copper and zinc and a minor fibre level. Effects of the two diets on calves’ blood haemoglobin, iron, iron metabolism parameters, copper and zinc concentrations were studied. Haemoglobin concentration resulted higher at the end of the fattening for calves fed the mix diet, as expected. Values remained, however, within ranges that allowed acceptable carcass paleness. Haematic iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC and total iron binding capacity (TIBC levels were not significantly different between the two solid feeds. Lower copper and zinc blood concentrations resulted for calves fed the mix diet were likely due to the feed fibre interfering with the bioavailability of the two minerals, according to what happens for iron.

  20. High energy density matter issues related to future circular collider. Simulations of full beam impact with a solid copper cylindrical target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, N.A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Wollmann, D. [CERN-AB, Geneva (Switzerland); Shutov, A. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Piriz, A.R. [E.T.S.I. Industrials, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2017-11-15

    This paper presents numerical simulations of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper cylindrical target that is subjected to the full impact of one future circular collider (FCC) ultra-relativistic proton beam. The target is facially irradiated so that the beam axis coincides with the cylinder axis. The simulations have been carried out employing an energy deposition code, FLUKA, and a 2D hydrodynamic code, BIG2, iteratively. The simulations show that, although the static range of a single FCC proton and its shower in solid copper is ∝1.5 m, the full beam may penetrate up to 350 m into the target as a result of hydrodynamic tunnelling. Moreover, simulations also show that a major part of the target is converted into high energy density (HED) matter, including warm dense matter (WDM) and strongly coupled plasma. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Minerals Masquerading As Enzymes: Abiotic Oxidation Of Soil Organic Matter In An Iron-Rich Humid Tropical Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S. J.; Silver, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    Oxidative reactions play an important role in decomposing soil organic matter fractions that resist hydrolytic degradation, and fundamentally affect the cycling of recalcitrant soil carbon across ecosystems. Microbial extracellular oxidative enzymes (e.g. lignin peroxidases and laccases) have been assumed to provide a dominant role in catalyzing soil organic matter oxidation, while other potential oxidative mechanisms remain poorly explored. Here, we show that abiotic reactions mediated by the oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) could explain high potential oxidation rates in humid tropical forest soils, which often contain high concentrations of Fe(II) and experience rapid redox fluctuations between anaerobic and aerobic conditions. These abiotic reactions could provide an additional mechanism to explain high rates of decomposition in these ecosystems, despite frequent oxygen deficits. We sampled humid tropical forest soils in Puerto Rico, USA from various topographic positions, ranging from well-drained ridges to riparian valleys that experience broad fluctuations in redox potential. We measured oxidative activity by adding the model humic compound L-DOPA to soil slurries, followed by colorimetric measurements of the supernatant solution over time. Dilute hydrogen peroxide was added to a subset of slurries to measure peroxidative activity. We found that oxidative and peroxidative activity correlated positively with soil Fe(II) concentrations, counter to prevailing theory that low redox potential should suppress oxidative enzymes. Boiling or autoclaving sub-samples of soil slurries to denature any enzymes present typically increased peroxidative activity and did not eliminate oxidative activity, further suggesting the importance of an abiotic mechanism. We found substantial differences in the oxidation products of the L-DOPA substrate generated by our soil slurries in comparison with oxidation products generated by a purified enzyme (mushroom tyrosinase

  2. Disk Rock Cutting Tool for the Implementation of Resource-Saving Technologies of Mining of Solid Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manietyev, Leonid; Khoreshok, Aleksey; Tsekhin, Alexander; Borisov, Andrey

    2017-11-01

    The directions of a resource and energy saving when creating a boom-type effectors of roadheaders of selective action with disc rock cutting tools on a multi-faceted prisms for the destruction of formation of minerals and rocks pricemax are presented. Justified reversing the modes of the crowns and booms to improve the efficiency of mining works. Parameters of destruction of coal and rock faces by the disk tool of a biconical design with the unified fastening knots to many-sided prisms on effectors of extraction mining machines are determined. Parameters of tension of the interfaced elements of knots of fastening of the disk tool at static interaction with the destroyed face of rocks are set. The technical solutions containing the constructive and kinematic communications realizing counter and reverse mode of rotation of two radial crowns with the disk tool on trihedral prisms and cases of booms with the disk tool on tetrahedral prisms in internal space between two axial crowns with the cutter are proposed. Reserves of expansion of the front of loading outside a table of a feeder of the roadheader of selective action, including side zones in which loading corridors by blades of trihedral prisms in internal space between two radial crowns are created are revealed.

  3. Solid-state 13C NMR experiments reveal effects of aggregate size on the chemical composition of particulate organic matter in grazed steppe soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, M.; Kölbl, A.; Kögel-Knabner, I.

    2009-04-01

    Grazing is one of the most important factors that may reduce soil organic matter (SOM) stocks and subsequently deteriorate aggregate stability in grassland topsoils. Land use management and grazing reduction are assumed to increase the input of OM, improve the soil aggregation and change species composition of vegetation (changes depth of OM input). Many studies have evaluated the impact of grazing cessation on SOM quantity. But until today little is known about the impact of grazing cessation on the chemical quality of SOM in density fractions, aggregate size classes and different horizons. The central aim of this study was to analyse the quality of SOM fractions in differently sized aggregates and horizons as affected by increased inputs of organic matter due to grazing exclusion. We applied a combined aggregate size, density and particle size fractionation procedure to sandy steppe topsoils with different organic matter inputs due to different grazing intensities (continuously grazed = Cg, winter grazing = Wg, ungrazed since 1999 = Ug99, ungrazed since 1979 = Ug79). Three different particulate organic matter (POM; free POM, in aggregate occluded POM and small in aggregate occluded POM) and seven mineral-associated organic matter fractions were separated for each of three aggregate size classes (coarse = 2000-6300 m, medium = 630-2000 m and fine =

  4. Impact of clay mineral, wood sawdust or root organic matter on the bacterial and fungal community structures in two aged PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, Aurélie; Beguiristain, Thierry; Bongoua-Devisme, Jeanne; Denonfoux, Jérémie; Faure, Pierre; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Parisot, Nicolas; Peyret, Pierre; Leyval, Corinne

    2015-09-01

    The high organic pollutant concentration of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated wasteland soils is highly recalcitrant to biodegradation due to its very low bioavailability. In such soils, the microbial community is well adapted to the pollution, but the microbial activity is limited by nutrient availability. Management strategies could be applied to modify the soil microbial functioning as well as the PAH contamination through various amendment types. The impact of amendment with clay minerals (montmorillonite), wood sawdust and organic matter plant roots on microbial community structure was investigated on two aged PAH-contaminated soils both in laboratory and 1-year on-site pot experiments. Total PAH content (sum of 16 PAHs of the US-EPA list) and polar polycyclic aromatic compounds (pPAC) were monitored as well as the available PAH fraction using the Tenax method. The bacterial and fungal community structures were monitored using fingerprinting thermal gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) method. The abundance of bacteria (16S rRNA genes), fungi (18S rRNA genes) and PAH degraders (PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase and catechol dioxygenase genes) was followed through qPCR assays. Although the treatments did not modify the total and available PAH content, the microbial community density, structure and the PAH degradation potential changed when fresh organic matter was provided as sawdust and under rhizosphere influence, while the clay mineral only increased the percentage of catechol-1,2-dioxygenase genes. The abundance of bacteria and fungi and the percentage of fungi relative to bacteria were enhanced in soil samples supplemented with wood sawdust and in the plant rhizospheric soils. Two distinct fungal populations developed in the two soils supplemented with sawdust, i.e. fungi related to Chaetomium and Neurospora genera and Brachyconidiellopsis and Pseudallescheria genera, in H and NM soils respectively. Wood sawdust amendment favoured the

  5. Protozoa enhance foraging efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for mineral nitrogen from organic matter in soil to the benefit of host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Robert; Rodriguez, Alia; Robin, Christophe; Scheu, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Dead organic matter (OM) is a major source of nitrogen (N) for plants. The majority of plants support N uptake by symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Mineralization of N is regulated by microfauna, in particular, protozoa grazing on bacteria. We hypothesized that AM fungi and protozoa interactively facilitate plant N nutrition from OM. In soil systems consisting of an OM patch and a root compartment, plant N uptake and consequences for plant carbon (C) allocation were investigated using stable isotopes. Protozoa mobilized N by consuming bacteria, and the mobilized N was translocated via AM fungi to the host plant. The presence of protozoa in both the OM and root compartment stimulated photosynthesis and the translocation of C from the host plant via AM fungi into the OM patch. This stimulated microbial activity in the OM patch, plant N uptake from OM and doubled plant growth. The results indicate that protozoa increase plant growth by both mobilization of N from OM and by protozoa-root interactions, resulting in increased C allocation to roots and into the rhizosphere, thereby increasing plant nutrient exploitation. Hence, mycorrhizal plants need to interact with protozoa to fully exploit N resources from OM. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Experimental study and computerized simulation of the elements fixation in trace on mineral oxides. Contribution to the study of natural solids adsorption properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmier, N.

    1994-12-01

    The aim of this work is to identify some natural or synthetical materials allowing the nuclear wastes confinement in underground geological sites by adsorption of radioelements. The materials composition variety which can be used is very large it is then necessary to make use of models able to predict solid complexes behaviour towards the adsorption from known properties of parent constituents. This type of model still does not exist and its focusing requires the demonstration of mineral complexes parent constituents intrinsic properties additivity. The oxides as aluminium or silicon oxides being parent constituents, the author has demonstrated their properties additivity in an aluminium-silicon oxides physical mixture and in an aluminium silicate : the kaolinite. These surface properties have been determined for different quantities of aluminium and silicon oxides in a 0,1 M sodium nitrate. This study has been realized following the steps below : choice of a theoretical concept describing the adsorption adapted to the studied solid-solution system : the surface complexation model at constant capacitance; the focusing of a surface chemical and physical parameters determination method; the verification of these properties additivity on the aluminium-silicon oxides mixture and on the kaolinite. The studied cation for the adsorption on these materials is the ytterbium trivalent ion because the behaviour of the trivalent ions towards the adsorption is not very well known and because the lanthanides are considered as compounds similar to some fission products present in radioactive wastes. The method used for this work is applicable to all the other ions. (O.L.). 73 refs., 91 figs., 14 tabs

  7. Differences in fluorescence characteristics and bioavailability of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) in sediments and suspended solids in Lihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Shuhang; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Junyi

    2018-05-01

    The spectral characteristics, spatial distribution, and bioavailability of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) in suspended solids and surface sediments of Lihu Lake, China, were investigated through excitation-emission matrix spectra and parallel factor analysis. The average content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the sediments reached 643.28 ± 58.34 mg C/kg and that in suspended solids was 714.87 ± 69.24 mg C/kg. The fluorescence intensity of WSOM totaled 90.87 ± 5.65 and 115.42 ± 8.02 RU/g for the sediments and suspended solids, respectively. The DOC and fluorescence intensity of the WSOM showed an increasing trend moving from the west to the east of the lake. The WSOM in sediments and suspended solids contained two humic-like (C1 and C2) and one tryptophan-like (C3) components. These components had different fluorescent peaks and relative proportions. In the sediments, the relative proportions of C1, C2, and C3 were 33.71% ± 0.71, 26.83% ± 0.68, and 39.50% ± 0.71%, respectively. Meanwhile, C1 (35.77 ± 0.84%), C2 (34.07 ± 0.61%), and C3 (30.16 ± 0.75%) had similar relative percentages in suspended solids. The sediments had a lower humification index (3.02 ± 0.08) than the suspended solids (4.04 ± 0.15). Exchangeable nitrogen for the sediments and suspended solids was dominated by exchangeable ammonium nitrogen and soluble organic nitrogen, respectively. WSOM plays an important role in migration and transformation of nitrogen in sediments and suspended solids. The sediment-derived WSOM exhibited higher lability and biological activity than did the suspended solid-derived WSOM. The relative ratio of the intensity of protein-like fluorescent component to that of the humic-like one can be used as a reference index to evaluate the lability and biological activity of WSOM in sediments and suspended solids.

  8. Role of minerals in animal health disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available All mineral matter, essential or non-essential, can have a significant influence on production results and the health of animals, if large quantities of them are present in a feed ration. A maximally tolerant content depends on the animal specie and category. Many factors, such as physiological status (growth, lactation, etc., nutritive status, content and ratio of nutritive matter in the ration, duration of exposure, and the biological level of utilization of elements, also affect the maximally tolerant content of mineral matter in feed. The content of certain mineral matter in plant feed significantly depends on the soil factor, as well as the content and level of utilization of mineral matter from the soil. Mn, Se and Mo can be present in plant feed in such quantities as to induce toxicosis. Industrial contaminants, Cd, Pb or F, can contaminate plants, in particular their leaves, in quantities which lead to the appearance of clinical signs of conventional toxicosis. Moreover, natural water can contain large quantities of S, F, Na, Mg, or Fe, and certain mineral matter can get into water through industrial waste. In addition to the above, it is possible to cause unwanted effects through the frequent, but primarily unprofessional use of mineral additives, since it is extremely important, besides meeting the mineral requirements of each individual element, to secure a ratio among the mineral matter themselves as well as with other nutritive matter. Mineral matter present in food are in mutual interference, and these relations can be synergistic or antagonistic. The sufficiency of a large number of mineral matter has a negative effect on the utilization of other matter (conditional and/or border deficiency, while certain elements cause the clinical appearance of toxic effects. The accidental intake of large quantities of certain mineral matter is revealed as clinical signs of acute toxicosis, which is very different from chronic effects caused by

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Pppp... - Determination of Weight Volatile Matter Content and Weight Solids Content of Reactive Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Content and Weight Solids Content of Reactive Adhesives A Appendix A to Subpart PPPP of Part 63 Protection... Reactive Adhesives 1.0Applicability and Principle 1.1Applicability: This method applies to the... reactive adhesives. Reactive adhesives are composed, in large part, of monomers that react during the...

  10. Mineral industry statistics 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Production, consumption and marketing statistics are given for solid fuels (coal, peat), liquid fuels and gases (oil, natural gas), iron ore, bauxite and other minerals quarried in France, in 1975. Also accident statistics are included. Production statistics are presented of the Overseas Departments and territories (French Guiana, New Caledonia, New Hebrides). An account of modifications in the mining field in 1975 is given. Concessions, exploitation permits, and permits solely for prospecting for mineral products are discussed. (In French)

  11. Numerical model for a watering plan to wash out organic matter from the municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash layer in closed system disposal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru; Tanikawa, Noboru

    2009-02-01

    Bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is a main type of waste that is landfilled in Japan. The long-term elution of organic matter from the MSWI bottom ash layers is a concern because maintenance and operational costs of leachate treatment facilities are high. In closed system disposal facilities (CSDFs), which have a roof to prevent rainfall from infiltrating into the waste layers, water must be supplied artificially and its quantity can be controlled. However, the quantity of water needed and how to apply it (the intensity, period and frequency) have not been clearly defined. In order to discuss an effective watering plan, this study proposes a new washout model to clarify a fundamental mechanism of total organic carbon (TOC) elution behavior from MSWI bottom ash layers. The washout model considers three phases: solid, immobile water and mobile water. The parameters, including two mass transfer coefficients of the solid-immobile water phases and immobile-mobile water phases, were determined by one-dimensional column experiments for about 2 years. The intensity, period and frequency of watering and other factors were discussed based on a numerical analysis using the above parameters. As a result, our washout model explained adequately the elution behavior of TOC from the MSWI bottom ash layer before carbonation occurred (pH approximately 8.3). The determined parameters and numerical analysis suggested that there is a possibility that the minimum amount of water needed for washing out TOC per unit weight of MSWI bottom ash layer could be determined, which depends on the two mass transfer coefficients and the depth of the MSWI bottom ash layer. Knowledge about the fundamental mechanism of the elution behavior of TOC from the MSWI bottom ash layer before carbonation occurs, clarified by this study, will help an effective watering plan in CSDFs.

  12. Quantum matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, Hans Peter; Calcarco, Tommaso; Dressel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Artificial atoms and molecules, tailored from solids, fractional flux quanta, molecular magnets, controlled interaction in quantum gases, the theory of quantum correlations in mott matter, cold gases, and mesoscopic systems, Bose-Einstein condensates on the chip, on the route to the quantum computer, a quantum computer in diamond. (HSI)

  13. Size matters: influence of the size of nanoparticles on their interactions with ligands immobilized on the solid surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletska, Elena V; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2010-03-16

    The correlation between the size of biotinylated nanoparticles and their affinity in relation to interactions with the solid surface was investigated. The silica particles with a diameter of 50-200 nm containing amino groups on the surface were labeled with different quantities of biotin. The affinity properties of biotinylated nanoparticles were studied using a Biacore 3000 instrument equipped with a streptavidin-coated sensor chip (SA chip). It was shown that the increase in the particle size from 50 to 200 nm reduced the affinity (K(D)) of biotin-streptavidin interactions from 1.2 x 10(-12) to 1.2 x 10(-10) M. It was found that the particles with higher concentrations of immobilized biotin on particle surfaces demonstrated stronger binding with streptavidin.

  14. Boundaries matter: Greenhouse gas emission reductions from alternative waste treatment strategies for California’s municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergara, Sintana E.; Damgaard, Anders; Horvathc, Arpad

    2011-01-01

    How waste is managed – whether as a nuisance to be disposed of, or as a resource to be reused – directly affects local and global environmental quality. This analysis explores the GHG benefits of five treatment options for residual municipal solid waste (MSW) in California: Business As Usual...... landfills. Using two different waste LCA models, EASEWASTE (a Danish model) and WARM (a U.S. model), we find that improved biogenic waste management through anaerobic digestion and waste reduction can lead to life-cycle GHG savings when compared to Business As Usual. The magnitude of the benefits depends...... strongly on a number of model assumptions: the type of electricity displaced by waste-derived energy, how biogenic carbon is counted as a contributor to atmospheric carbon stocks, and the landfill gas collection rate. Assuming that natural gas is displaced by waste-derived energy, that 64% of landfill gas...

  15. Proceedings of XXIV international mineral processing congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dianzuo; Sun Chuan Yao; Wang Fu Liang; Zhang Li Cheng; Han Long (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    Topics covered in volume 1 include applied mineralogy, comminution, classification, physical separation, flotation chemistry, sulphide flotation, non-sulphide flotation and reagent in mineral industry. Volume 2 covers processing of complex ores, processing of industrial minerals and coal, solid liquid separation, dispersion and aggregation, process simulation, expert systems and control of mineral processing, biohydrometallurgy, and mineral chemical processing. Volume 3 contains powder technology, mineral materials, treatment and recycling for solid wastes, waste water treatment, secondary resource recovery, soil remediation, concentrator engineering and process design, and application of mineral processing in related industry. It includes a CD-ROM of the proceedings.

  16. Carbonizing bituminous minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-05-01

    A process for carbonizing bituminous minerals, like oil-shale, in a furnace with addition of air in the presence of heat-receiving material is characterized by the fact that to the feed such solid or liquid material (with the exception of oil) is added, which, through vaporization or heat-binding decomposition or conversion, hinders the establishment of excessive temperatures.

  17. Soil organic matter and nitrogen cycling in response to harvesting, mechanical site preparation, and fertilization in a wetland with a mineral substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. McLaughlin; Margaret R. Gale; Martin F. Jurgensen; Carl C. Trettin

    2000-01-01

    Forested wetlands are becoming an important timber resource in the Upper Great Lakes Region of the US. However, there is limited information on soil nutrient cycling responses to harvesting and post-harvest manipulations (site preparation and fertilization). The objective of this study was to examine cellulose decomposition, nitrogen mineralization, and soil solution...

  18. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.33 Assignment of minerals agreements. An...

  19. Determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter collected on glass fiber filters using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Rennan G.O., E-mail: rgoa01@terra.com.br [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica Ambiental, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Sao Cristovao, 49.100-000, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Vignola, Fabiola; Castilho, Ivan N.B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G.; Welz, Bernhard [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Smichowski, Patricia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferreira, Sergio L.C. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-290, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Becker-Ross, Helmut [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS-e.V., Department Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    A study has been undertaken to assess the capability of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter (APM) collected on glass fiber filters using direct solid sampling. The main Hg absorption line at 253.652 nm was used for all determinations. The certified reference material NIST SRM 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) was used to check the accuracy of the method, and good agreement was obtained between published and determined values. The characteristic mass was 22 pg Hg. The limit of detection (3{sigma}), based on ten atomizations of an unexposed filter, was 40 ng g{sup -1}, corresponding to 0.12 ng m{sup -3} in the air for a typical air volume of 1440 m{sup 3} collected within 24 h. The limit of quantification was 150 ng g{sup -1}, equivalent to 0.41 ng m{sup -3} in the air. The repeatability of measurements was better than 17% RSD (n = 5). Mercury concentrations found in filter samples loaded with APM collected in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were between < 40 ng g{sup -1} and 381 {+-} 24 ng g{sup -1}. These values correspond to a mercury concentration in the air between < 0.12 ng m{sup -3} and 1.47 {+-} 0.09 ng m{sup -3}. The proposed procedure was found to be simple, fast and reliable, and suitable as a screening procedure for the determination of mercury in APM samples.

  20. Novel Insight for Organic Matter Sourcing: Interest of Time Resolved Fluorescence to Qualify and Quantify PAH Content of Solid Matrix at High Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiers, M.; Perrette, Y.; Jacq, K.; Pousset, E.; Plassart, G.

    2017-12-01

    OM fluorescence is today a well-developed tool used to characterize and quantify organic matter (OM), but also to evaluate and discriminate OM fate and changes related to climate and environmental modifications. While fluorescence measurements on water and soils extracts provide information about organic fluxes today, solid phase fluorescence using natural archives allows to obtain high resolution records of OM evolution during time. These evolutions can be discussed in regards of climate and environmental perturbations detected in archives using different proxies, and thus provide keys for understanding factors driving carbon fluxes mechanisms. Among fluorescent organic species, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) have been used as probe molecules for organic contamination tracking. Moreover, monitoring studies have shown that PAH could also be used as markers to discriminates atmospheric and erosion factors leading to PAH and organic matter fluxes to the aquifer. PAH records in soils and natural archives appear as a promising proxy to follow both past atmospheric contamination and soil erosion. But, PAH fluorescence is difficult to discriminate from bulk OM fluorescence using steady-state fluorescence (SSF) technics as their fluorescence domains recover. Time resolved emission spectroscopy (TRES) increases the information provided by SSF technic, adding a time dimension to measurements and allowing to discriminate PAH fluorescence. We report here a first application of this technic on natural archives. The challenge is to obtain TRES signature along the sample, including for low PAH concentrations. This study aims to evaluate the reliability of high resolution TRES measurement as PAH carbon fluxes sources. Method is based on LIF instrument for solid phase fluorescence measurement. An instrument coupling an excitation system constituting by 2 pulsed lasers (266 and 355 nm) and a detection system was developed. This measurement provides high resolution record of

  1. Miners' welfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, C

    1984-06-13

    The Miners' Welfare Committee (MWC) was formed in Britain in 1921 and initiated building programmes to provide welfare amenities for miners and families, using architecture to improve the quality of a miner's working and leisure time. The article reviews the MWC's work, and assesses the design and architecture at the Selby Coalfield. (7 refs.)

  2. Volatile organo-selenium speciation in biological matter by solid phase microextraction-moderate temperature multicapillary gas chromatography with microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, C.; Sanz Landaluze, J.; Ximenez-Embun, P.; Madrid-Albarran, Y.; Camara, C

    2004-01-16

    Microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES) in combination with multicapillary (MC) gas chromatography could be proven to be useful for element specific detection of volatile species. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used for preconcentration and sample-matrix separation. The fiber desorption unit as well as the heating control for the MC column were in-house developed and multicapillary column was operated at moderate temperatures (30-100 deg. C). The method was optimized for organo-selenium species (dimethylselenide (DMSe), diethylselenide (DEtSe) and dimethyldiselenide (DMDSe)), using a chemometric approach. Stationary phases for the separation column were optimized using a conventional GC and contrasted with the results obtained with the MC. Application was focussed on selenium accumulating biological matter, such as lupine, yeast, Indian mustard and garlic. These samples were grown in hydroponic solution containing inorganic selenium (Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}). SPME sampling was carried out in fixed volume flow boxes in headspace above the living plants and in vials using treated samples. Results demonstrate inorganic selenium transformation into volatile organic species during metabolism. Separation is fast, a chromatogram can be obtained in less than 3 min and detection limits were at sub-ppb level for all investigated species. The system is independent from the use of a conventional gas chromatographic oven and can be used as a versatile alternative to highly cost intensive methods such as GC-ICP-MS.

  3. Effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) sources and nature of solid extraction sorbent on recoverable DOM composition: Implication into potential lability of different compound groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilian; Kim, Sunghwan; Park, Jae-Eun; Kim, Hyun Sik; Hur, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Noting the source-dependent properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM), this study explored the recoverable compounds by solid phase extraction (SPE) of two common sorbents (C18 and PPL) eluted with methanol solvent for contrasting DOM sources via fluorescence excitation-emission matrix coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Fresh algae and leaf litter extracts DOM, one riverine DOM, and one upstream lacustrine DOM were selected for the comparison. C18 sorbent was generally found to extract more diverse molecular formula, relatively higher molecular weight, and more heteroatomic DOM compounds within the studied mass range than PPL sorbent except for the leaf litter extract. Even with the same sorbent, the main molecular features of the two end member DOM were distributed on different sides of the axes of a multivariate ordination, indicating the source-dependent characteristics of the recoverable compounds by the sorbents. In addition, further examination of the molecular formula uniquely present in the two end members and the upstream lake DOM suggested that proteinaceous, tannin-like, and heteroatomic DOM constituents might be potential compound groups which are labile and easily degraded during their mobilization into downstream watershed. This study provides new insights into the sorbent selectivity of DOM from diverse sources and potential lability of various compound groups.

  4. Comparison of dialysis and solid-phase extraction for isolation and concentration of dissolved organic matter prior to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tfaily, Malak M.; Cooper, William T. [Florida State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Hodgkins, Suzanne; Chanton, Jeffrey P. [Florida State University, Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Podgorski, David C. [Florida State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Florida State University, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We compare two methods, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and dialysis, commonly used for extraction and concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) prior to molecular characterization by electrospray ionization (ESI) and ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Spectra of DOM samples from Minnesota and Sweden peatlands that were extracted with styrene divinyl benzene polymer SPE sorbents included ions with formulas that had higher oxygen to carbon (O/C) ratios than spectra of DOM from the same samples after de-salting by dialysis. The SPE method was not very effective in extracting several major classes of DOM compounds that had high ESI efficiencies, including carboxylic acids and organo-sulfur compounds, and that out-competed other less-functionalized compounds (e.g., carbohydrates) for charge in the ESI source. The large abundance of carboxylic acids in the dialysisextracted DOM, likely the result of in situ microbial production, makes it difficult to see other (mainly hydrophilic) compounds with high O/C ratios. Our results indicate that, while dialysis is generally preferable for the isolation of DOM, for samples with high microbial inputs, the use of both isolation methods is recommended for a more accurate molecular representation. (orig.)

  5. Management of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This chapter introduces the range of solid waste materials produced in the mining and mineral processing industries, with particular reference to Australia. The waste materials are characterised and their important geotechnical engineering properties are discussed. Disposal management techniques for metalliferous, coal, heavy mineral sand, fly ash and bauxite solid wastes are described. Geo-technical techniques for the management of potential contaminants are presented. Minimisation and utilisation of solid wastes, and the economics of solid waste management, are discussed from the perspectives of policy, planning, costing and rehabilitation. 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Physical methods for studying minerals and solid materials: X-ray, electron and neutron diffraction; scanning and transmission electron microscopy; X-ray, electron and ion spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhart, J.-P.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: theoretical aspects of radiation-matter interactions; production and measurement of radiations (X rays, electrons, neutrons); applications of radiation interactions to the study of crystalline materials. The following techniques are presented: X-ray and neutron diffraction, electron microscopy, electron diffraction, X-ray fluorescence analysis, electron probe microanalysis, surface analysis by electron emission spectrometry (ESCA and Auger electrons), scanning electron microscopy, secondary ion emission analysis [fr

  7. Mechanism of formation of humus coatings on mineral surfaces 3. Composition of adsorbed organic acids from compost leachate on alumina by solid-state 13C NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wershaw, R. L.; Llaguno, E.C.; Leenheer, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The adsorption of compost leachate DOC on alumina is used as a model for elucidation of the mechanism of formation of natural organic coatings on hydrous metal oxide surfaces in soils and sediments. Compost leachate DOC is composed mainly of organic acid molecules. The solid-state 13C NMR spectra of these organic acids indicate that they are very similar in composition to aquatic humic substances. Changes in the solid-state 13C NMR spectra of compost leachate DOC fractions adsorbed on alumina indicate that the DOC molecules are most likely adsorbed on metal oxide surfaces through a combination of polar and hydrophobic interaction mechanisms. This combination of polar and hydrophobic mechanism leads to the formation of bilayer coatings of the leachate molecules on the oxide surfaces.

  8. Sorptive fractionation of organic matter and formation of organo-hydroxy-aluminum complexes during litter biodegradation in the presence of gibbsite

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Heckman; A.S. Grandy; X. Gao; M. Keiluweit; K. Wickings; K. Carpenter; J. Chorover; C. Rasmussen

    2013-01-01

    Solid and aqueous phase Al species are recognized to affect organic matter (OM) stabilization in forest soils. However, little is known about the dynamics of formation, composition and dissolution of organo-Al hydroxide complexes in microbially-active soil systems, where plant litter is subject to microbial decomposition in close proximity to mineral weathering...

  9. Bio solids Application on Banana Production: Soil Chemical Properties and Plant Nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, L.A.J; Berton, R.S.B; Coscione, A.R; Saes, L.A

    2011-01-01

    Bio solids are relatively rich in N, P, and S and could be used to substitute mineral fertilization for banana crop. A field experiment was carried out in a Yellow Oxisol to investigate the effects of bio solids application on soil chemical properties and on banana leaf's nutrient concentration during the first cropping cycle. Soil analysis (ph, organic matter, resin P, exchangeable Ca and K, available B, DTPA-extracted micro nutrients, and heavy metals) and index-leaf analysis (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) were evaluated. Bio solids can completely substitute mineral N and P fertilizer to banana growth. Soil exchangeable K and leaf-K concentration must be monitored in order to avoid K deficiency in banana plants. No risk of heavy metal (Cr, Ni, Pb, and Cd) concentration increase in the index leaf was observed when bio solids were applied at the recommended N rate.

  10. Soil mineral composition matters: response of microbial communities to phenanthrene and plant litter addition in long-term matured artificial soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Doreen; Vogel, Cordula; Zühlke, Sebastian; Schloter, Michael; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Heister, Katja; Spiteller, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil is determined by a suite of biotic and abiotic factors, and disentangling their role in the complex soil interaction network remains challenging. Here, we investigate the influence of soil composition on the microbial community structure and its response to the spiked model PAH compound phenanthrene and plant litter. We used long-term matured artificial soils differing in type of clay mineral (illite, montmorillonite) and presence of charcoal or ferrihydrite. The soils received an identical soil microbial fraction and were incubated for more than two years with two sterile manure additions. The matured artificial soils and a natural soil were subjected to the following spiking treatments: (I) phenanthrene, (II) litter, (III) litter + phenanthrene, (IV) unspiked control. Total community DNA was extracted from soil sampled on the day of spiking, 7, 21, and 63 days after spiking. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer amplicons were quantified by qPCR and subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE analysis revealed that the bacterial community composition, which was strongly shaped by clay minerals after more than two years of incubation, changed in response to spiked phenanthrene and added litter. DGGE and qPCR showed that soil composition significantly influenced the microbial response to spiking. While fungal communities responded only in presence of litter to phenanthrene spiking, the response of the bacterial communities to phenanthrene was less pronounced when litter was present. Interestingly, microbial communities in all artificial soils were more strongly affected by spiking than in the natural soil, which might indicate the importance of higher microbial diversity to compensate perturbations. This study showed the influence of soil composition on the microbiota and their response to phenanthrene and litter, which may increase our understanding of

  11. Evaluation of cellular effects of fine particulate matter from combustion of solid fuels used for indoor heating on the Navajo Nation using a stratified oxidative stress response model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Champion, Wyatt M.; Imam, Jemal; Sidhu, Damansher; Salazar, Joseph R.; Majestic, Brian J.; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2018-06-01

    Communities in the Navajo Nation face public health burdens caused in part by the combustion of wood and coal for indoor heating using stoves that are old or in disrepair. Wood and coal combustion emits particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter combustion-derived PM2.5 on Navajo Nation residents. This study tested the hypothesis that PM2.5 generated from solid fuel combustion in stoves commonly used by Navajo residents would induce stratified oxidative stress responses ranging from activation of antioxidant defense to inflammation and cell death in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7). PM2.5 emitted from burning Ponderosa Pine (PP) and Utah Juniper (UJ) wood and Black Mesa (BM) and Fruitland (FR) coal in a stove representative of those widely used by Navajo residents were collected, and their aqueous suspensions used for cellular exposure. PM from combustion of wood had significantly more elemental carbon (EC) (15%) and soluble Ni (0.0029%) than the samples from coal combustion (EC: 3%; Ni: 0.0019%) and was also a stronger activator of antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (11-fold increase vs. control) than that from coal (5-fold increase). Only PM from PP-wood (12-fold) and BM-coal (3-fold) increased the release of inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha. Among all samples, PP-wood consistently had the strongest oxidative stress and inflammatory effects. PM components, i.e. low-volatility organic carbon, EC, Cu, Ni and K were positively correlated with the cellular responses. Results showed that, at the concentrations tested, emissions from all fuels did not have significant cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that PM2.5 emitted from combustion of wood and coal commonly used by Navajo residents may negatively impact the health of this community.

  12. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  13. Effects of clay minerals and organic matter in formulated sediments on the bioavailability of sediment-associated uranium to the freshwater midge, Chironomus dilutus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Sarah E., E-mail: sarah.crawford@usask.ca [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Liber, Karsten, E-mail: karsten.liber@usask.ca [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); School of Environment and Sustainability, 117 Science Place, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5C8 (Canada); Institute of Loess Plateau, 92 Wucheng Road, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China)

    2015-11-01

    It is well established that bioavailability influences metal toxicity in aquatic ecosystems. However, the factors and mechanisms that influence uranium (U) bioavailability and toxicity in sediment have not been thoroughly evaluated, despite evidence that suggests different sediment components can influence the sorption and interaction of some metals. Given that dissolved U is generally accepted as being the primary bioavailable fraction of U, it is hypothesized that adsorption and interaction of U with different sediment components will influence the bioavailability of U in sediment. We investigated the effects of key sediment physicochemical properties on the bioavailability of U to a model freshwater benthic invertebrate, Chironomus dilutus. Several 10-day spiked sediment bioaccumulation experiments were performed, exposing C. dilutus larvae to a variety of formulated sediments spiked with different concentrations of U (5, 50 and/or 200 mg U/kg d.w.). Mean accumulation of U in C. dilutus larvae decreased significantly from 1195 to 10 mg U/kg d.w. as kaolin clay content increased from 0% to 60% in sediment spiked with 50 mg U/kg d.w. Similarly, higher organic matter content also resulted in a significant reduction of U bioaccumulation in C. dilutus larvae, indicating a reduction in U bioavailability. Concentrations of U in both the overlying water and sediment pore water displayed a strong positive relationship to U bioaccumulation in C. dilutus larvae (r{sup 2} = 0.77, p < 0.001 and r{sup 2} = 0.57, p < 0.001, respectively) for all experiments, while total U concentrations in the sediment had a poor relationship to U bioaccumulation (r{sup 2} = 0.10, p = 0.028). Results from this research confirm that sediment clay and organic matter content play a significant role in altering U bioavailability, which is important in informing risk assessments of U contaminated sites and in the development of site-specific sediment quality guidelines for U. - Highlights: • We

  14. Marginal Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hecke, Martin

    2013-03-01

    All around us, things are falling apart. The foam on our cappuccinos appears solid, but gentle stirring irreversibly changes its shape. Skin, a biological fiber network, is firm when you pinch it, but soft under light touch. Sand mimics a solid when we walk on the beach but a liquid when we pour it out of our shoes. Crucially, a marginal point separates the rigid or jammed state from the mechanical vacuum (freely flowing) state - at their marginal points, soft materials are neither solid nor liquid. Here I will show how the marginal point gives birth to a third sector of soft matter physics: intrinsically nonlinear mechanics. I will illustrate this with shock waves in weakly compressed granular media, the nonlinear rheology of foams, and the nonlinear mechanics of weakly connected elastic networks.

  15. Recovering bituminous matter from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, H D

    1922-08-29

    A process is described for obtaining valuable hydro-carbons from bituminous solids such as shale and the like, which comprises digesting a mixture of such a bituminous solid with a hydro-carbon liquid, the digestion being conducted at temperature high enough to effectively liquefy heavy bituminous matter contained in the solid but insufficiently high to effect substantial distillation of heavy bituminous matter, separating a resultant liquid mixture of hydrocarbons from the residue of such bituminous solid and refining the liquid mixture.

  16. Distribution of Clay Minerals in Light Coal Fractions and the Thermal Reaction Products of These Clay Minerals during Combustion in a Drop Tube Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sida Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the contribution of clay minerals in light coal fractions to ash deposition in furnaces, we investigated their distribution and thermal reaction products. The light fractions of two Chinese coals were prepared using a 1.5 g·cm−3 ZnCl2 solution as a density separation medium and were burned in a drop-tube furnace (DTF. The mineral matter in each of the light coal fractions was compared to that of the relevant raw coal. The DTF ash from light coal fractions was analysed using hydrochloric acid separation. The acid-soluble aluminium fractions of DTF ash samples were used to determine changes in the amorphous aluminosilicate products with increasing combustion temperature. The results show that the clay mineral contents in the mineral matter of both light coal fractions were higher than those in the respective raw coals. For the coal with a high ash melting point, clay minerals in the light coal fraction thermally transformed more dehydroxylation products compared with those in the raw coal, possibly contributing to solid-state reactions of ash particles. For the coal with a low ash melting point, clay minerals in the light coal fraction produced more easily-slagging material compared with those in the raw coal, playing an important role in the occurrence of slagging. Additionally, ferrous oxide often produces low-melting substances in coal ash. Due to the similarities of zinc oxide and ferrous oxide in silicate reactions, we also investigated the interactions of clay minerals in light coal fractions with zinc oxide introduced by a zinc chloride solution. The extraneous zinc oxide could react, to a small extent, with clay minerals in the coal during DTF combustion.

  17. Association between low lean mass and low bone mineral density in 653 women with hip fracture: does the definition of low lean mass matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Monaco, Marco; Castiglioni, Carlotta; Di Monaco, Roberto; Tappero, Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Loss of both muscle and bone mass results in fragility fractures with increased risk of disability, poor quality of life, and death. Our aim was to assess the association between low appendicular lean mass (aLM) defined according to different criteria and low bone mineral density (BMD) in hip-fracture women. Six hundred fifty-three women admitted to our rehabilitation hospital underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry 19.1 ± 4.1 (mean ± SD) days after hip-fracture occurrence. Low aLM was identified according to either Baumgartner's definition (aLM/height 2 less than two standard deviations below the mean of the young reference group) or FNIH criteria: aLM definition, the association between low aLM/height 2 and low BMD was significant: χ 2 (1, n = 653) = 8.52 (p = 0.004), but it was erased by adjustments for age and fat mass. Using the FNIH definition the association between low aLM and low BMD was significant: χ 2 (1, n = 653) = 42.5 (p definition based on aLM/BMI ratio the association between low aLM/BMI ratio and low BMD was nonsignificant: χ 2 (1, n = 653) = 0.003 (p = 0.957). The association between low aLM and low BMD in women with hip fracture dramatically depends on the adopted definition of low aLM. FNIH threshold for aLM (<15.02 kg) emerges as a useful tool to capture women with damage of the muscle-bone unit.

  18. MINERAL WATERS ACROSS THE CHANNEL: MATTER THEORY AND NATURAL HISTORY FROM SAMUEL DUCLOS'S MINERALLOGENESIS TO MARTIN LISTER'S CHYMICAL MAGNETISM, CA. 1666-86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Anna Marie; Boantza, Victor D

    2015-12-20

    Our essay analyses a little-known book, Observations sur les eaux minerales des plusieurs provinces de France (1675), which is a study of French mineral waters, commissioned by and conducted at the French Royal Academy of Science (est. 1666). Its author, Samuel Cottereau Duclos (1598-1685), was a senior founding figure of the Academy, its chief chymist and one of its most influential members. We examine Observations with a focus on the changing attitudes towards chymical knowledge and practice in the French Academy and the Royal Society of London in the period 1666-84. Chymistry was a fundamental analytical tool for seventeenth-century natural historians, and, as the work of Lawrence Principe and William Newman has shown, it is central to understanding the 'long' Scientific Revolution. Much study has also been done on the developing norms of openness in the dissemination and presentation of scientific, and particularly chymical knowledge in the late seventeenth century, norms that were at odds with traditions of secrecy among individual chymists. Between these two standards a tension arose, evidenced by early modern 'vociferous criticisms' of chymical obscurity, with different strategies developed by individual philosophers for negotiating the emergent boundaries between secrecy and openness. Less well studied, however, are the strategies by which not just individuals but also scientific institutions negotiated these boundaries, particularly in the formative years of their public and political reputation in the late seventeenth century. Michael Hunter's recent and welcome study of the 'decline of magic' at the Royal Society has to some extent remedied these omissions. Hunter argues that the Society--as a corporate body--disregarded and avoided studies of magical and alchemical subjects in the late seventeenth century. Our examination problematizes these distinctions and presents a more complex picture.

  19. Method for the production of solid hydroxides contained in mineral oils, mineral oil-like materials or mineral oil-containing materials and uses of products thus obtained. Verfahren zur Herstellung von Mineraloele, mineraloelaehnliche Stoffe oder mineraloelhaltige Stoffe enthaltenden festen Hydroxiden sowie die Verwendung danach erhaltener Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelsing, F

    1975-07-29

    A method has been developed which permits mineral oils, mineral oil-like substances or mineral oil-containing substances (eg waste oil) to be separated in powder form, even when these substance are present in a continuous phase with water (for example, oil slurries). A compound (eg. line) which forms a hydroxide with water is added, the formed hydroxide then acts as carrier substance. Prerequisite for obtaining the end-product in powdered form is that the homogeneous mixing of the oil-containing substance and hydroxide-forming substance takes place at a faster rate than the necessary auxilliary reaction, namely hydroxide formation, and further that water in present in at least stoichiometric quantities. The powdered end-product finds numerous applications eg. road construction, soil conditioning and compacting, recultivation measures in cement manufacture, and others.

  20. Influence of iron redox cycling on organo-mineral associations in Arctic tundra soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Elizabeth; AlBashaireh, Amineh; Singer, David; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Gu, Baohua; Graham, David

    2017-06-01

    Arctic tundra stores large quantities of soil organic matter under varying redox conditions. As the climate warms, these carbon reservoirs are susceptible to increased rates of decomposition and release to the atmosphere as the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Geochemical interactions between soil organic matter and minerals influence decomposition in many environments but remain poorly understood in Arctic tundra systems and are not considered in decomposition models. The accumulation of iron (Fe) oxyhydroxides and organo-iron precipitates at redox interfaces may be particularly important for carbon cycling given that ferric iron [Fe(III)] species can enhance decomposition by serving as terminal electron acceptors in anoxic soils or inhibit microbial decomposition by binding organic molecules. Here, we examine chemical properties of solid-phase Fe and organic matter in organic and mineral horizons within the seasonally thawed active layer of Arctic tundra on the North Slope of Alaska. Spectroscopic techniques, including micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) mapping, micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (μXANES) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), were coupled with chemical sequential extractions and physical density fractionations to evaluate the spatial distribution and speciation of Fe-bearing phases and associated organic matter in soils. Organic horizons were enriched in poorly crystalline and crystalline iron oxides, and approximately 60% of total Fe stored in organic horizons was calculated to derive from upward translocation from anoxic mineral horizons. Ferrihydrite and goethite were present as coatings on mineral grains and plant debris, and in aggregates with clays and particulate organic matter. Minor amounts of ferrous iron [Fe(II)] were present in iron sulfides (i.e., pyrite and greigite) in mineral horizon soils and iron phosphates (vivianite) in organic horizons. Concentrations of organic

  1. States of Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak Dhar. States of Matter. Deepak Dhar. Keywords. Solid, liquid, gas, glasses, powders. D Dhar is a theoretical physicist at the Tata. Institute of Funamental. Research, Mumbai. His research interests are mainly in the area of non- equilibrium statistical physics. All of us have read about solid, liquid and gaseous.

  2. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  3. Effect of coal rank and mineral matter on gasification reactivity of coal char treated at high temperature; Netsushorishita sekitan char no gas ka tokusei ni taisuru tanshu oyobi kobutsushitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, K.; Takei, H.; Harano, A.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In the wide range from brown coal to anthracite, an investigation was made of effects of heat treatment on physical/chemical properties and of coal rank dependence. For the experiment, 12 kinds of coal samples were used, and for heat treatment, the fluidized bed heated by the electric furnace and the infrared-ray gold image furnace were used. To examine characteristics of the heat-treated coal char, conducted were oxygen gasification, TPD measurement, XRD measurement, alkali metal measurement, and pore distribution measurement. The following were obtained from the experiment. The gasification reaction rate of the char heat-treated in the temperature range between 900{degree}C to 1700{degree}C decreases with a rise of the temperature of heat treatment, and the degree of decrease in the rate depends on coal rank. The order of gasification rate between coal ranks depends on the temperature of heat treatment, and the lower the heat treatment temperature is, the more largely the gasification rate is influenced by catalysis of mineral matters included in the coal. As causes of the decrease in gasification rate associated with the rise in temperature of heat treatment, indicated were release of alkali metal having catalysis and decrease of active sites by carbonaceous crystallinity. 6 figs.

  4. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Molecular Dynamics Study of Stability of Solid Solutions and Amorphous Phase in the Cu-Al System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Lai, Wen-Sheng

    2009-06-01

    The relative stability of fcc and bcc solid solutions and amorphous phase with different compositions in the Cu-Al system is studied by molecular dynamics simulations with n-body potentials. For Cu1-xAlx alloys, the calculations show that the fcc solid solution has the lowest energies in the composition region with x 0.72, while the bee solid solution has the lowest energies in the central composition range, in agreement with the ball-milling experiments that a single bcc solid solution with 0.30 < x < 0.70 is obtained. The evolution of structures in solid solutions and amorphous phase is studied by the coordination number (CN) and bond-length analysis so as to unveil the underlying physics. It is found that the energy sequence among three phases is determined by the competition in energy change originating from the bond length and CNs (or the number of bonds).

  5. Produção de azoto mineral durante a compostagem de fracção sólida de chorume da pecuária leiteira intensiva Production of mineral nitrogen during composting of dairy cattle slurry solid fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Brito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A fracção sólida do chorume (FSC de duas explorações de pecuária leiteira intensiva foi compostada: (i em 2004, sobre o solo, incluindo, ou não, palha, e com diferentes níveis de revolvimento; e (ii em 2005, sobre uma tela de cobertura do solo, com e sem revolvimento, com diferentes coberturas e diferentes volumes. O teor de matéria seca (MS da FSC da primeira exploração (30% apresentou um valor superior, embora o rendimento da máquina separadora da FSC tenha sido inferior (1 m³ hora-1 relativamente ao observado na segunda exploração (4 e 3 m³ hora-1 correspondendo a 22% e 24% de MS, respectivamente, em 2004 e 2005. A FSC1 com 30% de MS atingiu elevadas temperaturas logo após a sua separação mas o mesmo não aconteceu com a FSC2 com menor teor de MS, particularmente quando foi compostada sem palha. O pH da FSC variou entre 8 e 9 durante a compostagem e a razão C/N foi semelhante entre tratamentos para o mesmo período de compostagem. O teor de N-NH4+ foi muito elevado durante a fase termófila da compostagem, após a qual diminuiu, acentuadamente, enquanto que o teor de N-NO3-foi mínimo naquela fase e aumentou após três meses de compostagem. O maior teor de MS inicial da FSC1 em comparação com a FSC2 e a mistura com palha associaram-se a concentrações mais baixas de azoto amoniacal (NNH4+. Considerando estas observações e, ainda, que as elevadas temperaturas durante a compostagem e o pH alcalino da FSC potenciam, eventualmente, a volatilização de amoníaco, a redução deste tipo de perdas de N poderá ser conseguida: (i diminuindo o rendimento da máquina separadora da FSC; (ii misturando a FSC com um material com elevada razão C/N; e (iii diminuindo o número de revolvimentos.Screw pressed dairy cattle slurry solid fraction (CSSF was collected during 2004 and 2005 from two dairy farms with 30% and 22% -24% dry matter (DM content and the effects of covered either with black polyethylene or with polypropylene

  6. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  7. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... with or immediately following the eruptions, through mediumtemperature ammonium minerals, metal chlorides, or fluoride associations to the late low-temperature paragenesis dominated by sulphur, gypsum, alunogen, and other hydrous sulphates. The situation can be different in the systems that are not recessing but show...

  8. A review of zinc oxide mineral beneficiation using flotation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejtemaei, Majid; Gharabaghi, Mahdi; Irannajad, Mehdi

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, extraction of zinc from low-grade mining tailings of oxidized zinc has been a matter of discussion. This is a material which can be processed by flotation and acid-leaching methods. Owing to the similarities in the physicochemical and surface chemistry of the constituent minerals, separation of zinc oxide minerals from their gangues by flotation is an extremely complex process. It appears that selective leaching is a promising method for the beneficiation of this type of ore. However, with the high consumption of leaching acid, the treatment of low-grade oxidized zinc ores by hydrometallurgical methods is expensive and complex. Hence, it is best to pre-concentrate low-grade oxidized zinc by flotation and then to employ hydrometallurgical methods. This paper presents a critical review on the zinc oxide mineral flotation technique. In this paper, the various flotation methods of zinc oxide minerals which have been proposed in the literature have been detailed with the aim of identifying the important factors involved in the flotation process. The various aspects of recovery of zinc from these minerals are also dealt with here. The literature indicates that the collector type, sulfidizing agent, pH regulator, depressants and dispersants types, temperature, solid pulp concentration, and desliming are important parameters in the process. The range and optimum values of these parameters, as also the adsorption mechanism, together with the resultant flotation of the zinc oxide minerals reported in the literature are summarized and highlighted in the paper. This review presents a comprehensive scientific guide to the effectiveness of flotation strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preliminary report about minerals raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, J.

    1965-01-01

    The group of experts entrusted to construct the bases to study the mineral matters has established priorities for the development of mineral resources during the next ten years: 1) aerial photography, 2) geological map, 3) mechanisms for the exploitation, 4) budget

  10. Entanglement of solid vortex matter: a boomerang-shaped reduction forced by disorder in interlayer phase coherence in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T; Shibauchi, T; Matsuda, Y; Thompson, J R; Krusin-Elbaum, L

    2008-07-11

    We present evidence for entangled solid vortex matter in a glassy state in a layered superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+y containing randomly splayed linear defects. The interlayer phase coherence--probed by the Josephson plasma resonance--is enhanced at high temperatures, reflecting the recoupling of vortex liquid by the defects. At low temperatures in the vortex solid state, the interlayer coherence follows a boomerang-shaped reentrant temperature path with an unusual low-field decrease in coherence, indicative of meandering vortices. We uncover a distinct temperature scaling between in-plane and out-of-plane critical currents with opposing dependencies on field and time, consistent with the theoretically proposed "splayed-glass" state.

  11. Mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

  12. Characterization of organic matter associated with uranium deposits in the Francevillian formation of Gabon (Lower Proterozoic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortial, F.; Gauthier-Lafaye, F.; Weber, F.; Oberlin, A.

    1990-01-01

    Elemental analysis, organic petrography, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to study organic matter in Lower Proterozoic rocks of the Francevillian Series in Africa. Results show a convincing relationship between solid bitumens derived from thermal alteration of crude oil, and deposition of uraninite ores. Evidence is presented that suggests the presence of migration paths for crude oil in associated sandstones. Moreover, the solid bitumens appear to have been further altered by radiation damage as a consequence of oxidation and uranium mineralization. (author)

  13. Simulação pelo modelo century da dinâmica da matéria orgânica de um Argissolo sob adubação mineral e orgânica Simulation of organic matter dynamics in an Argisol under mineral and organic fertilization with the century model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. C. Leite

    2004-04-01

    ânica, especialmente em solos tropicais. Os estoques de COT, NT e dos compartimentos de C (lento e passivo, simulados pelo modelo Century, foram similares aos estoques medidos. Os estoques de COT (em Mg ha-1 de C, medidos e simulados pelo modelo Century, foram bem correlacionados (R² = 0,93; p Simulation models are essential instruments to understand soil organic matter dynamics and the turnover of its pools in tropical soils. The objectives of this study were: (a simulate the effects of maize production systems under organic and mineral fertilization on soil organic matter dynamics of an Ultisol using the Century model; (b to compare total carbon (TOC and total nitrogen stocks (TN and the carbon pools (C measured in the laboratory and estimated by the Century model for the surface soil layer (0-20 cm. The study area had been part of the Atlantic Forest (FA until 1930. After that it had been used for maize/bean production up to 1984, when the field experiment was set up. The treatments included a combination of three levels of mineral fertilizer at doses of 0, 250 and 500 kg ha-1 of the 4-14-8 formula and two levels of organic fertilizer (animal manure with soybean and bean straw at doses of 0 and 40 m³ ha-1. Laboratory determinations included TOC and TN, microbial biomass C representing the active C pool and carbon of the light fraction representing the slow C pool. The passive C pool was determined by difference. The Century model was parameterized with data from the present experiment and from literature, whereas the simulations of the dynamics of TOC, TN and the active, slow, and passive pool included land use changes between 1930 and 2050. The Century model estimated a decrease in TOC, TN and the different carbon pools between the slash and burn of the Atlantic Forest until the establishment of the field experiment. Only in the treatments with organic fertilization it was observed a recovery of these pools. Biomass carbon and the carbon of the light fraction were more sensitive

  14. 25 CFR 225.36 - Minerals agreement cancellation; Bureau of Indian Affairs notice of noncompliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minerals agreement cancellation; Bureau of Indian Affairs... INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.36 Minerals agreement cancellation; Bureau of Indian Affairs notice of noncompliance. (a) If the...

  15. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    flux. Circulation of seawater through the oceanic crust and upper mantle gives rise to a complex series of physical and chemical reactions that lead to the 1) formation of seafloor mineral deposits; 2) alteration of oceanic crust; 3) control... temperature in the high-temperature reaction zone near the heat source. Important parameters in determining the high- temperature fluid composition are • pressure, • temperature, • water/rock ratio, • rock composition, • recharge fluid...

  16. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O' Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  17. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic characterization of soil organic matter fractions in a forest ecosystem subjected to prescribed burning and thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescribed burning and thinning are gaining popularity as low-cost forest protection measures. Such field management practices could alter the chemical properties of soil organic matter (SOM), especially humic substances. In this work, we collected surface soil samples from the Bankhead National For...

  18. Experimental investigation of fast electron transport in solid density matter: Recent results from a new technique of X-ray energy-encoded 2D imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Labate, L.; Förster, E.; Giulietti, A.; Giulietti, D.; Höfer, S.; Kämpfer, T.; Köster, P.; Kozlová, Michaela; Levato, T.; Lötzsch, R.; Lübecke, A.; Mocek, Tomáš; Polan, Jiří; Rus, Bedřich; Uschmann, I.; Zamponi, F.; Gizzi, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2009), s. 643-649 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 12843 - TUIXS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : anisotropic Bremsstrahlung * fast electron diagnostics * fast electron transport * high-density matter * relativistic electrons Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.420, year: 2008

  19. Experimental study and computerized simulation of the elements fixation in trace on mineral oxides. Contribution to the study of natural solids adsorption properties; Etude experimentale et modelisation de la fixation d`elements en trace sur des oxydes mineraux. Contribution a l`etude des proprietes adsorbantes des solides naturels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmier, N

    1994-12-01

    The aim of this work is to identify some natural or synthetical materials allowing the nuclear wastes confinement in underground geological sites by adsorption of radioelements. The materials composition variety which can be used is very large it is then necessary to make use of models able to predict solid complexes behaviour towards the adsorption from known properties of parent constituents. This type of model still does not exist and its focusing requires the demonstration of mineral complexes parent constituents intrinsic properties additivity. The oxides as aluminium or silicon oxides being parent constituents, the author has demonstrated their properties additivity in an aluminium-silicon oxides physical mixture and in an aluminium silicate : the kaolinite. These surface properties have been determined for different quantities of aluminium and silicon oxides in a 0,1 M sodium nitrate. This study has been realized following the steps below : choice of a theoretical concept describing the adsorption adapted to the studied solid-solution system : the surface complexation model at constant capacitance; the focusing of a surface chemical and physical parameters determination method; the verification of these properties additivity on the aluminium-silicon oxides mixture and on the kaolinite. The studied cation for the adsorption on these materials is the ytterbium trivalent ion because the behaviour of the trivalent ions towards the adsorption is not very well known and because the lanthanides are considered as compounds similar to some fission products present in radioactive wastes. The method used for this work is applicable to all the other ions. (O.L.). 73 refs., 91 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Mineral distribution in two southwest colombian coals using cyclone separation and oxidation at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Andres F; Barraza, Juan M; Rojas, Andres F.

    2010-01-01

    It was studied the mineral distribution of two Colombian coals using a cyclone separation and oxidation at low temperature, OLT. The cyclone separation was carried out at two densities (1.3 and 1.4), three particle size (1000+ 600?m, 600+ 425?m and 425+ 250?m) and two processing stages. To determine the mineral matter, feed and under flow fractions from hydrocyclone were concentrated in mineral matter by OLT in a fluidized bed (T<300 celsius degrade). 18 minerals were identified by X Ray Diffraction, XRD. XRD results showed 13 minerals from Golondrinas and 15 minerals from Guachinte coal. It was found that kaolinite and quartz were the most abundant minerals in coal fractions from Golondrinas and Guachinte. Furthermore, it was found that mainly minerals kaolinite, quartz, dolomite, jarosite, gypsum and pyrite, exhibited affinity towards mineral matter, while siderite and valerite showed affinity towards organic matter.

  1. Ewingite: Earth’s most complex mineral

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olds, T.A.; Plášil, Jakub; Kampf, A.R.; Simonetti, A.; Sadergaski, L.R.; Chen, Y.-S.; Burns, P.C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 11 (2017), s. 1007-1010 ISSN 0091-7613 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1603 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ewingite * crystal structure * X-ray diffraction * Plavno mine Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.635, year: 2016

  2. Canadian minerals yearbook : 2004 review and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The main focus of the CMY publication is the non-fuel mineral industry, together with uranium, although all mineral fuels are normally included when the total value of Canada's mineral production is reported. The Yearbook includes chapters devoted to each major mineral commodity produced in Canada: aluminum, coal, copper, diamonds, gold, iron ore, magnesium, nickel, potash, salt, silica, and uranium. The subject matter spans all stages of mineral industry activity from geoscience and exploration, through mining and processing, to markets and use. Although domestic issues receive the greatest attention in each chapter, international developments may also be reviewed because of the global nature of the mineral industry and the significant impact that such developments could have on the Canadian industry

  3. Physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Prasanta K

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be

  4. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  5. Influence of the nature of soil organic matter on the sorption behaviour of pentadecane as determined by PLS analysis of mid-infrared DRIFT and solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark Ehlers, G.A. [Institute of Environmental Biotechnology, Department IFA-Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad Lorenz Str. 20, Tulln A-3430 (Austria); Forrester, Sean T. [CSIRO Land and Water, Waite Rd, Urrbrae SA 5064 (Australia); Scherr, Kerstin E. [Institute of Environmental Biotechnology, Department IFA-Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad Lorenz Str. 20, Tulln A-3430 (Austria); Loibner, Andreas P., E-mail: andreas.loibner@boku.ac.a [Institute of Environmental Biotechnology, Department IFA-Tulln, The University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad Lorenz Str. 20, Tulln A-3430 (Austria); Janik, Les J. [CSIRO Land and Water, Waite Rd, Urrbrae SA 5064 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    The nature of soil organic matter (SOM) functional groups associated with sorption processes was determined by correlating partitioning coefficients with solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and diffuse reflectance mid-infrared (DRIFT) spectral features using partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis. Partitioning sorption coefficients for n-pentadecane (n-C{sub 15}) were determined for three alternative models: the Langmuir model, the dual distributed reactive domain model (DRDM) and the Freundlich model, where the latter was found to be the most appropriate. NMR-derived constitutional descriptors did not correlate with Freundlich model parameters. By contrast, PLS analysis revealed the most likely nature of the functional groups in SOM associated with n-C{sub 15} sorption coefficients (K{sub F}) to be aromatic, possibly porous soil char, rather than aliphatic organic components for the presently investigated soils. High PLS cross-validation correlation suggested that the model was robust for the purpose of characterising the functional group chemistry important for n-C{sub 15} sorption. - NMR/IR spectroscopy and chemometrics reveal the aromatic fraction of soil organic matter being responsible for alkane sorption.

  6. The effect of angular velocity and cycle on the dissipative properties of the knee during passive cyclic stretching: a matter of viscosity or solid friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordez, A; McNair, P J; Casari, P; Cornu, C

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms behind changes in mechanical parameters following stretching are not understood clearly. This study assessed the effects of joint angular velocity on the immediate changes in passive musculo-articular properties induced by cyclic stretching allowing an appreciation of viscosity and friction, and their contribution to changes in torque that occur. Ten healthy subjects performed five passive knee extension/flexion cycles on a Biodex dynamometer at five preset angular velocities (5-120 deg/s). The passive torque and knee angle were measured, and the potential elastic energy stored during the loading and the dissipation coefficient were calculated. As the stretching velocity increased, so did stored elastic energy and the dissipation coefficient. The slope of the linear relationship between the dissipation coefficient and the angular velocity was unchanged across repetitions indicating that viscosity was unlikely to be affected. A difference in the y-intercept across repetitions 1 and 5 was indicative of a change in processes associated with solid friction. Electromyographical responses to stretching were low across all joint angular velocities. Torque changes during cyclic motion may primarily involve solid friction which is more indicative of rearrangement/slipping of collagen fibers rather than the redistribution of fluid and its constituents within the muscle. The findings also suggest that it is better to stretch slowly initially to reduce the amount of energy absorption required by tissues, but thereafter higher stretching speeds can be undertaken.

  7. Distillation of oil-bearing minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-05-21

    In the process of distilling oil-bearing minerals such as oil shale which disintegrates during distillation, wherein the subdivided minerals are subjected to a distillation temperature in the form of a highly turbulent dense mass fluidized by an upwardly flowing gasiform medium in a distillation zone and the heat required by the distillation is supplied by burning solid distillation residue with a combustion-supporting gas in the form of a fluidized mass of solids in a separate combustion zone at a temperature substantially higher than the distillation temperature and returning solid combustion residue substantially at the higher temperature to the distillation zone. The steps of starting up the process which consists of maintaining in the distillation and combustion zones dense turbulent fluidized beds of non-disintegrating solids, circulating the non-disintegrating solids between said beds, heating the circulating solids by an auxiliary heat supply until the bed in the distillation zone has reached at least the distillation temperature, thereafter charging fresh oil-bearing minerals to the bed in the distillation zone, continuing the circulation, withdrawing solids which have passed through the combustion zone at a rate adequate to maintain a solids balance, supplying the combustion-supporting gas to the combustion zone to cause the combustion of the residue, and discontinuing the auxilary heating when sufficient heat for the distillation is being generated in the combustion zone.

  8. The laboratory of irradiated solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    After a brief recall of results obtained these last twenty years researches in progress are described. Are studied: Solid state physics, particle-matter interactions, crystal defects, nuclear materials. A list of main projects is given [fr

  9. Energy use of biomass composed by agroforestry and organic matter from the urban solid waste and applicable techniques for better performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Frutos, Jose Luis; Iza Lopez, Jon Mario; Orella Saenz, Josu

    2009-01-01

    The energy crises, increase of the price of petroleum, fear to the shortage of supplies, shift towards more sustainable energy policies, make return the view towards renewable production systems of energy. A common error is to use the term 'biomass' like synonymous of energy, without considering that the relation between useful energy and biomass is as variable as variable they are the elements that can conform the biomass. The useful energy can be extracted of the biomass by two conduits: either by direct combustion, or by products obtained from the transformations of physical-chemistry-biological processes. The present work to try to analyze the power advantage of the biomass as mixture of residues of the wood, agricultural residues and the MO contained in the urban solid residues, as well as the main usable systems for its advantage. (author)

  10. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 2. 3. Solid state physics and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  11. Optimized strategy of 1H and 13C solid-state NMR methods to investigate water dynamics in soil organic matter as well as the influence of crystallinity of poly(methylene) segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertmer, Marko; Jaeger, Alexander; Schwarz, Jette; Schaumann, Gabriele

    2010-05-01

    Water plays a crucial role in soil organic matter (SOM) having various different functions such as transport of material, elution of ,e. g., pollutants in soil, and also the sequestration of humic substances. Furthermore, the generation and quantification of hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions in soil has several effects on SOM which can also include the storage amount and time of certain material, especially chemical pollutants. The importance of water in soil is also documented by the multitude of scientific approaches to characterize soils including diffusion NMR to study the water channel structure in soil. Our focus is on the study of water dynamics and soil structure to elucidate mechanisms of physicochemical aging. The approach uses the application of various solid-state NMR techniques - including 1H and 13C NMR - to get a multitude of information on SOM. In non-rotating samples, 1H lines are usually very broad and unstructured. Nevertheless, this rather simple technique allows for a differentiation of 1H containing chemicals based on their dynamics in soil. This includes rather solid soil components and solid as well as mobile water molecules. Based on an optimized 1H solid-state NMR strategy to study soil material together with a straightforward lineshape analysis, a series of soils and peats are characterized. Although even 1H NMR with sample spinning (MAS) often gives only limited information on different structures, we present results on the application of 2D 1H-1H phase-modulated Lee-Goldburg sequences (PMLG), that show already at medium spinning speeds the separation of functional groups. Their quantification can be correlated with sample composition, type of sample conditioning, and other parameters such as cation type or concentration and heat treatment. We are especially interested to correlate NMR data with DSC measurements based on a certain heat treatment of the soils. Our proposed model describes the presence of water in soil as a matrix

  12. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  13. Modern luminescence spectroscopy of minerals and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gaft, Michael; Panczer, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials presents an overview of the general concepts in luminescence spectroscopy as well as experimental methods and their interpretation. Special emphasis is laid on the fluorescence lifetime and the determination of time-resolved spectra. This method enables the exposure of new luminescence in minerals previously hidden by more intensive centers. Specialists in the fields of solid state physics, chemistry and spectroscopy will find a wealth of new information in this unique book.

  14. 25 CFR 225.28 - Approval of amendments to minerals agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of amendments to minerals agreements. 225.28 Section 225.28 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.28 Approval of amendments to...

  15. 25 CFR 225.40 - Government employees cannot acquire minerals agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government employees cannot acquire minerals agreements. 225.40 Section 225.40 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.40 Government...

  16. Laboratory of minerals purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  17. Role of organic matter in the Proterozoic Oklo natural fission reactors, Gabon, Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, B.; Rigali, M.J.; Gauthier-Lafaye, F.; Holliger, P.; Mossman, D.J.; Leventhal, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Of the sixteen known Oklo and the Bangombe natural fission reactors (hydrothermally altered elastic sedimentary rocks that contain abundant uraninite and authigenic clay minerals), reactors 1 to 6 at Oklo contain only traces of organic matter, but the others are rich in organic substances. Reactors 7 to 9 are the subjects of this study. These organic-rich reactors may serve as time-tested analogues for anthropogenic nuclear-waste containment strategies. Organic matter helped to concentrate quantities of uranium sufficient to initiate the nuclear chain reactions. Liquid bitumen was generated from organic matter by hydrothermal reactions during nuclear criticality. The bitumen soon became a solid, consisting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and an intimate mixture of cryptocrystalline graphite, which enclosed and immobilized uraninite and the fission-generated isotopes entrapped in uraninite. This mechanism prevented major loss of uranium and fission products from the natural nuclear reactors for 1.2 b.y. 24 refs., 4 figs

  18. Humidity and Gravimetric Equivalency Adjustments for Nephelometer-Based Particulate Matter Measurements of Emissions from Solid Biomass Fuel Use in Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneja, Sutyajeet; Chen, Chen; Tielsch, James M.; Katz, Joanne; Zeger, Scott L.; Checkley, William; Curriero, Frank C.; Breysse, Patrick N.

    2014-01-01

    Great uncertainty exists around indoor biomass burning exposure-disease relationships due to lack of detailed exposure data in large health outcome studies. Passive nephelometers can be used to estimate high particulate matter (PM) concentrations during cooking in low resource environments. Since passive nephelometers do not have a collection filter they are not subject to sampler overload. Nephelometric concentration readings can be biased due to particle growth in high humid environments and differences in compositional and size dependent aerosol characteristics. This paper explores relative humidity (RH) and gravimetric equivalency adjustment approaches to be used for the pDR-1000 used to assess indoor PM concentrations for a cookstove intervention trial in Nepal. Three approaches to humidity adjustment performed equivalently (similar root mean squared error). For gravimetric conversion, the new linear regression equation with log-transformed variables performed better than the traditional linear equation. In addition, gravimetric conversion equations utilizing a spline or quadratic term were examined. We propose a humidity adjustment equation encompassing the entire RH range instead of adjusting for RH above an arbitrary 60% threshold. Furthermore, we propose new integrated RH and gravimetric conversion methods because they have one response variable (gravimetric PM2.5 concentration), do not contain an RH threshold, and is straightforward. PMID:24950062

  19. Humidity and gravimetric equivalency adjustments for nephelometer-based particulate matter measurements of emissions from solid biomass fuel use in cookstoves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneja, Sutyajeet; Chen, Chen; Tielsch, James M; Katz, Joanne; Zeger, Scott L; Checkley, William; Curriero, Frank C; Breysse, Patrick N

    2014-06-19

    Great uncertainty exists around indoor biomass burning exposure-disease relationships due to lack of detailed exposure data in large health outcome studies. Passive nephelometers can be used to estimate high particulate matter (PM) concentrations during cooking in low resource environments. Since passive nephelometers do not have a collection filter they are not subject to sampler overload. Nephelometric concentration readings can be biased due to particle growth in high humid environments and differences in compositional and size dependent aerosol characteristics. This paper explores relative humidity (RH) and gravimetric equivalency adjustment approaches to be used for the pDR-1000 used to assess indoor PM concentrations for a cookstove intervention trial in Nepal. Three approaches to humidity adjustment performed equivalently (similar root mean squared error). For gravimetric conversion, the new linear regression equation with log-transformed variables performed better than the traditional linear equation. In addition, gravimetric conversion equations utilizing a spline or quadratic term were examined. We propose a humidity adjustment equation encompassing the entire RH range instead of adjusting for RH above an arbitrary 60% threshold. Furthermore, we propose new integrated RH and gravimetric conversion methods because they have one response variable (gravimetric PM2.5 concentration), do not contain an RH threshold, and is straightforward.

  20. Response of organic matter quality in permafrost soils to warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, C.; Pegoraro, E.; Schuur, E.

    2016-12-01

    Global warming is predicted to thaw large quantities of the perennially frozen organic matter stored in northern permafrost soils. Upon thaw, this organic matter will be exposed to lateral export to water bodies and to microbial decomposition, which may exacerbate climate change by releasing significant amounts of greenhouse gases. To gain an insight into these processes, we investigated how the quality of permafrost soil organic matter responded to five years of warming. In particular, we sampled control and experimentally warmed soils in 2009 and 2013 from an experiment established in 2008 in a moist acidic tundra ecosystem in Healy, Alaska. We examined surface organic (0 to 15 cm), deep organic (15 to 35 cm), and mineral soil layers (35 to 55 cm) separately by means of stable isotope analysis (δ13C and δ15N) and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. Compared to the control, the experimental warming did not affect the isotopic and molecular composition of soil organic matter across the depth profile. However, we did find significant changes with time. In particular, in the surface organic layer, δ13C decreased and alkyl/O-alkyl ratio increased from 2009 to 2013, which indicated variations in soil organic sources (e.g., changes in vegetation) and accelerated decomposition. In the deep organic layer, we found a slight increase in δ15N with time. In the mineral layer, δ13C values decreased slightly, whereas alkyl C/O-alkyl ratio increased, suggesting a preferential loss of relatively more degraded organic matter fractions probably by lateral transport by water flowing through the soil. Acknowledgements: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 654132. Web site: http://vulcan.comule.com

  1. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  2. Advances in high pressure research in condensed matter: proceedings of the international conference on condensed matter under high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, S.K.; Gupta, Satish C.; Godwal, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    The use of pressure as a thermodynamic variable for studying condensed matter has become very important in recent years. Its main effect is to reduce the volume of a substance. Thus, in some sense, it mimics the phenomena taking place during the cohesion of solids like pressure ionization, modifications in electronic properties and phase changes etc. Some of the phase changes under pressure lead to synthesis of new materials. The recent discovery of high T c superconductivity in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 may be indirectly attributed to the pressure effect. In applied fields like simulation of reactor accident, design of inertial confinement fusion schemes and for understanding the rock mechanical effects of shock propagation in earth due to underground nuclear explosions, the pressure versus volume relations of condensed matter are a vital input. This volume containing the proceedings of the International Conference on Condensed Matter Under High Pressure covers various aspects of high pressure pertaining to equations of state, phase transitions, electronic, optical and transport properties of solids, atomic and molecular studies, shock induced reactions, energetic materials, materials synthesis, mineral physics, geophysical and planetary sciences, biological applications and food processing and advances in experimental techniques and numerical simulations. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  3. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  4. Sulfide Mineral Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.

    2006-01-01

    The past twenty years or so have seen dramatic development of the experimental and theoretical tools available to study the surfaces of solids at the molecular (?atomic resolution?) scale. On the experimental side, two areas of development well illustrate these advances. The first concerns the high intensity photon sources associated with synchrotron radiation; these have both greatly improved the surface sensitivity and spatial resolution of already established surface spectroscopic and diffraction methods, and enabled the development of new methods for studying surfaces. The second centers on the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques initially developed in the 1980's with the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. The direct 'observation' of individual atoms at surfaces made possible with these methods has truly revolutionized surface science. On the theoretical side, the availability of high performance computers coupled with advances in computational modeling has provided powerful new tools to complement the advances in experiment. Particularly important have been the quantum mechanics based computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT), which can now be easily used to calculate the equilibrium crystal structures of solids and surfaces from first principles, and to provide insights into their electronic structure. In this chapter, we review current knowledge of sulfide mineral surfaces, beginning with an overview of the principles relevant to the study of the surfaces of all crystalline solids. This includes the thermodynamics of surfaces, the atomic structure of surfaces (surface crystallography and structural stability, adjustments of atoms at the surface through relaxation or reconstruction, surface defects) and the electronic structure of surfaces. We then discuss examples where specific crystal surfaces have been studied, with the main sulfide minerals organized by structure type

  5. Sulfide Mineral Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.

    2006-08-01

    The past twenty years or so have seen dramatic development of the experimental and theoretical tools available to study the surfaces of solids at the molecular (?atomic resolution?) scale. On the experimental side, two areas of development well illustrate these advances. The first concerns the high intensity photon sources associated with synchrotron radiation; these have both greatly improved the surface sensitivity and spatial resolution of already established surface spectroscopic and diffraction methods, and enabled the development of new methods for studying surfaces. The second centers on the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques initially developed in the 1980's with the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. The direct 'observation' of individual atoms at surfaces made possible with these methods has truly revolutionized surface science. On the theoretical side, the availability of high performance computers coupled with advances in computational modeling has provided powerful new tools to complement the advances in experiment. Particularly important have been the quantum mechanics based computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT), which can now be easily used to calculate the equilibrium crystal structures of solids and surfaces from first principles, and to provide insights into their electronic structure. In this chapter, we review current knowledge of sulfide mineral surfaces, beginning with an overview of the principles relevant to the study of the surfaces of all crystalline solids. This includes the thermodynamics of surfaces, the atomic structure of surfaces (surface crystallography and structural stability, adjustments of atoms at the surface through relaxation or reconstruction, surface defects) and the electronic structure of surfaces. We then discuss examples where specific crystal surfaces have been studied, with the main sulfide minerals organized by

  6. Minerals from Macedonia: XV. Sivec mineral assemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Jovanovski, Gligor; Makreski, Petre; Bermanec, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents investigations carried out on the collected minerals from the Sivec deposit. It is situated in the vicinity of the town of Prilep, representing a rare occurrence of sugary white dolomite marbles. The application of suitable methods of exploitation of decorative-dimension stones makes possible to obtain large amounts of commercial blocks well known in the world. Despite the existence of dolomite marbles, a series of exotic minerals are typical in Sivec mineralization. Among them, the most significant are: calcite, fluorite, rutile, phlogopite, corundum, diaspore, almandine, kosmatite (clintonite or margarite), clinochlore, muscovite, quartz, pyrite, tourmaline and zoisite. An attempt to identify ten collected minerals using the FT IR spectroscopy is performed. The identification of the minerals was based on the comparison of the infrared spectra of our specimens with the corresponding literature data for the mineral species originating all over the world. The coloured pictures of all studied silicate minerals are presented as well. (Author)

  7. Studies on the irradiated solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesueur, D.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Irradiated Solids laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory activities concern the investigations on disordered solids (chemical or structural disorder). The disorder itself, its effects on the material physical properties and the particle-matter interactions, are investigated. The research works are performed in the following fields: solid state physics, irradiation and stoechiometric defects, and nuclear materials. The scientific reviews, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  8. Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einasto J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  9. Characterization of clay deposits from Egypt and assessment of their potential application for waste water treatment: How dissolved organic matter determines the interaction of heavy metals and clay minerals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Refaey Mohammed, Y.B.

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using clay minerals abundant in local soils in Egypt as low cost materials to reduce Cu, Ni and Zn pollution of soil and groundwater originating from polluted wastewater; specifically focusing on the influence of the interaction of clay

  10. Multi-residue determination of the sorption of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals to wastewater suspended particulate matter using pressurised liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David R; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2011-11-04

    Presented is the first comprehensive study of drugs of abuse on suspended particulate matter (SPM) in wastewater. Analysis of SPM is crucial to prevent the under-reporting of the levels of analyte that may be present in wastewater. Analytical methods to date analyse the aqueous part of wastewater samples only, removing SPM through the use of filtration or centrifugation. The development of an analytical method to determine 60 compounds on SPM using a combination of pressurised liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (PLE-SPE-LC-MS/MS) is reported. The range of compounds monitored included stimulants, opioid and morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, dissociative anaesthetics, drug precursors, and their metabolites. The method was successfully validated (parameters studied: linearity and range, recovery, accuracy, reproducibility, repeatability, matrix effects, and limits of detection and quantification). The developed methodology was applied to SPM samples collected at three wastewater treatment plants in the UK. The average proportion of analyte on SPM as opposed to in the aqueous phase was 10% with regard to methadone, EDDP, EMDP, BZP, fentanyl, nortramadol, norpropoxyphene, sildenafil and all antidepressants (dosulepin, amitriptyline, nortriptyline, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine). Consequently, the lack of SPM analysis in wastewater sampling protocol could lead to the under-reporting of the measured concentration of some compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ground-fire effects on the composition of dissolved and total organic matter in forest floor and soil solutions from Scots pine forests in Germany: new insights from solid state 13C NMR analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näthe, Kerstin; Michalzik, Beate; Levia, Delphis; Steffens, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Fires represent an ecosystem disturbance and are recognized to seriously pertubate the nutrient budgets of forested ecosystems. While the effects of fires on chemical, biological, and physical soil properties have been intensively studied, especially in Mediterranean areas and North America, few investigations examined the effects of fire-induced alterations in the water-bound fluxes and the chemical composition of dissolved and particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC, POC, DN, PN). The exclusion of the particulate organic matter fraction (0.45 μm Independent from fire manipulation, the composition of TOM was generally less aromatic (aromaticity index [%] according to Hatcher et al., 1981) with values between 18 (FF) - 25% (B horizon) than the DOM fraction with 23 (FF) - 27% (B horizon). For DOM in FF solution, fire manipulation caused an increase in aromaticity from 23 to 27% compared to the control, due to an increase of the aryl-C and a decrease of the O-alkyl-C and alkyl-C signal. Fire effects were leveled out in the mineral soil. For TOM, fire effects became notable only in the A horizon, exhibiting a decrease in aromaticity from 22 to 18% compared to the control, due to increased O-alkyl-C and diminished aryl-C proportions. Compared to the control, fire only caused minor DOC release rates (events did not significantly enhance the proportion of POC and PN in the total C and N amounts exhibiting values between 10 and 20%. To fully understand the quality and amount of translocated organic C and N compounds within soils under both ambient as well as fire environments, dissolved and particulate size fractions need to be considered.

  12. Hemicellulose hydrolysis catalysed by solid acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carà, P.D.; Pagliaro, M.; Elmekawy, A.; Brown, D.R.; Verschuren, P.; Shiju, N.R.; Rothenberg, G.

    2013-01-01

    Depolymerising hemicellulose into platform sugar molecules is a key step in developing the concept of an integrated biorefinery. This reaction is traditionally catalysed by either enzymes or homogeneous mineral acids. We compared various solid catalysts for hemicellulose hydrolysis, running

  13. Heavy minerals : from 'Edelstein' to Einstein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meijer, R.J.

    Identification in 1982 on the Dutch Frisian Island of Ameland of beach sand with;ln enhanced level of natural radioactivity, due to concentrations of heavy minerals, inspired a multi-disciplinary research project. A joint research effort in geochemistry, sedimentology, hydrodynamics, solid-state

  14. Factors influencing the organic matter extraction from the coal by using the process of liquefaction in static system; Fatores que influenciam a extracao da materia organica do carvao mineral atraves do processo de liequefacao em sistema estatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Livia Mari; Lancas, Fernando Mauro

    1996-07-01

    This work describes the liquefaction process for extraction of the organic matter from coal, presently researched in Brazil, particularly with supercritical fluids. The extraction can be a future economically viable and environmentally correct alternative for supplying the emerging necessities of fuels, pharmaceuticals and chemicals sources.

  15. Walter Kohn and the Rise of Condensed Matter Physics T V ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramakrishnan T V

    Condensed Matter Physics: ( Physics of condensed matter, which is mostly solid, ... The nature and description of electronic states in solids. ( also with coulomb ... materials, molecular complexes, etc.. (Chemistry, biology, materials science….).

  16. 77 FR 55420 - Minerals Management: Adjustment of Cost Recovery Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... mining, oil and gas extraction, and the mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals) as an individual...\\ New value \\4\\ New fee \\5\\ Oil & Gas (parts 3100, 3110, 3120, 3130, 3150) Noncompetitive lease... Leasing of Solid Minerals Other Than Coal and Oil Shale (parts 3500, 3580) Applications other than those...

  17. 76 FR 59058 - Minerals Management: Adjustment of Cost Recovery Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... mining, oil and gas extraction, and the mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals) as an individual... increase New value New fee \\5\\ fee \\1\\ value \\2\\ \\3\\ \\4\\ Oil & Gas (parts 3100, 3110, 3120, 3130, 3150... interest transfer 60 61.94 0.84 62.78 65 Leasing of Solid Minerals Other Than Coal and Oil Shale (parts...

  18. 78 FR 49945 - Minerals Management: Adjustment of Cost Recovery Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ..., oil and gas extraction, and the mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals) as an individual...\\ Increase \\3\\ New value \\4\\ New fee \\5\\ Oil & Gas (parts 3100, 3110, 3120, 3130, 3150) Noncompetitive lease... Solid Minerals Other Than Coal and Oil Shale (parts 3500, 3580) Applications other than those 35 34.99 0...

  19. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  20. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  1. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  2. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What You See Ain't What. You Got, Resonance, Vol.4,. No.9,1999. Dark Matter. 2. Dark Matter in the Universe. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this.

  3. Distillation of oil-bearing minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-12-03

    A process of distilling oil-bearing minerals of the type of oil shale which disintegrate during distillation consists of subjecting the subdivided minerals to a distillation temperature in the form of a highly turbulent dense mass fluidized by an upwardly flowing gasiform medium in a distillation zone and supplying the heat required for the distillation by burning solid distillation residue with a combustion-supporting gas in the form of a fluidized mass of solids in a separate combustion zone at a combustion temperature and returning solid combustion residue substantially at the combustion temperature to the distillation zone. Combustion temperature is positively maintained at a figure not exceeding 1,200/sup 0/F and at a figure which is not substantially more than 50/sup 0/F higher than the distillation temperature.

  4. Contribution by two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to P uptake by cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) from 32P-labelled organic matter during mineralization in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joner, E.J.; Jakobsen, I.

    1994-01-01

    compartment by either 37 mu m or 700 mu m nylon mesh giving only hyphae or both roots and hyphae, respectively, access to the labelled soil. The recovery of P-32 from the hyphal compartment was 5.5 and 8.6 % for plants colonized with Glomus sp. and G. caledonium, respectively, but only 0.6 % for the non...... of mycorrhizas, probably due to high root densities in the labelled soil. The experiment confirms that AM fungi differ in P uptake characteristics, and that mycorrhizal hyphae can intercept some P immobilization by other microorganisms and P-sorbing clay minerals....

  5. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  6. Agricultural Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  7. Thermal Properties of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachan, Joe

    2018-02-01

    The ancient Greeks believed that all matter was composed of four elements: earth, water, air, and fire. By a remarkable coincidence (or perhaps not), today we know that there are four states of matter: solids (e.g. earth), liquids (e.g. water), gasses (e.g. air) and plasma (e.g. ionized gas produced by fire). The plasma state is beyond the scope of this book and we will only look at the first three states. Although on the microscopic level all matter is made from atoms or molecules, everyday experience tells us that the three states have very different properties. The aim of this book is to examine some of these properties and the underlying physics.

  8. Mineral commodity summaries 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2015 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2014 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses.

  9. Imaging and Analytical Approaches for Characterization of Soil Mineral Weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohnalkova, Alice; Arey, Bruce; Varga, Tamas; Miller, Micah; Kovarik, Libor

    2017-07-01

    Soil minerals weathering is the primary natural source of nutrients necessary to sustain productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil microbial communities increase soil mineral weathering and mineral-derived nutrient availability through physical and chemical processes. Rhizosphere, the zone immediately surrounding plant roots, is a biogeochemical hotspot with microbial activity, soil organic matter production, mineral weathering, and secondary phase formation all happening in a small temporally ephemeral zone of steep geochemical gradients. The detailed exploration of the micro-scale rhizosphere is essential to our better understanding of large-scale processes in soils, such as nutrient cycling, transport and fate of soil components, microbial-mineral interactions, soil erosion, soil organic matter turnover and its molecular-level characterization, and predictive modeling.

  10. Mineral transformations during the dissolution of uranium ore minerals by dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasauer, S.; Weidler, P.; Fakra, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shuh, D.

    2011-12-01

    Carnotite minerals [X2(UO2)2(VO4)2]; X = K, Ca, Ba, Mn, Na, Cu or Pb] form the major ore of uranium in the Colorado Plateau. These deposits are highly oxidized and contain U(VI) and V(IV). The biotransformation of U(VI) bound in carnotite by bacteria during dissimilatory metal reduction presents a complex puzzle in mineral chemistry. Both U(VI) and V(V) can be respired by metal reducing bacteria, and the mineral structure can change depending on the associated counterion. We incubated anaerobic cultures of S. putrefaciens CN32 with natural carnotite minerals from southeastern Utah in a nutrient-limited defined medium. Strain CN32 is a gram negative bacterium and a terrestrial isolate from New Mexico. The mineral and metal transformations were compared to a system that contained similar concentrations of soluble U(VI) and V(V). Electron (SEM, TEM) microscopies and x-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) were used in conjunction with XRD to track mineral changes, and bacterial survival was monitored throughout the incubations. Slow rates of metal reduction over 10 months for the treatment with carnotite minerals revealed distinct biotic and abiotic processes, providing insight on mineral transformation and bacteria-metal interactions. The bacteria existed as small flocs or individual cells attached to the mineral phase, but did not adsorb soluble U or V, and accumulated very little of the biominerals. Reduction of mineral V(V) necessarily led to a dismantling of the carnotite structure. Bioreduction of V(V) by CN32 contributed small but profound changes to the mineral system, resulting in new minerals. Abiotic cation exchange within the carnotite group minerals induced the rearrangement of the mineral structures, leading to further mineral transformation. In contrast, bacteria survival was poor for treatments with soluble U(VI) and V(V), although both metals were reduced completely and formed solid UO2 and VO2; we also detected V(III). For these treatments, the bacteria

  11. Light, Matter, and Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is about physically-based modelling of the appearance of materials. When a material is graphically rendered, its appearance is computed by considering the interaction of light and matter at a macroscopic level. In particular, the shape and the macroscopic optical properties of the mat......) a model which finds the appearance of ice given temperature, salinity, density, and mineral and algal contents of the ice; and (3) a model which finds the appearance of milk given fat and protein contents of the milk....

  12. Nitrogen stabilization in organo-mineral fractions from soils with different land uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetta, Beatrice; Zaccone, Claudio; Rovira, Pere; Vischetti, Costantino; Plaza, César

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the processes that control quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) interacting with mineral surfaces is of paramount importance. Although several physical fractionation methods have been proposed to date to obtain fractions that mirror SOM degree of stability and protection, a detailed quantification of stabilisation modes through which SOM bounds to the mineral matrix is still lacking. In this research we determined C and N distribution in several soils including coniferous and broadleaved forest soils, grassland soils, technosols and an agricultural soil amended with biochar at rates of 0 and 20 t/ha in a factorial combination with two types of organic amendment (municipal solid waste compost and sewage sludge). We performed a physical size fractionation by ultrasonic dispersion and wet sieving, splitting particles into four different size fractions: coarse sand (2000-200 µm diameter), fine sand (200-50 µm), coarse silt (50-20 µm) and fine silt plus clay (stabilization modes. This method, in fact, allows resolving the nature of different bonds between mineral and organic components by the use of sequential extractions with chemical reagents (potassium sulphate, sodium tetraborate, sodium pyrophosphate, sodium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide after weak acid attack, sodium hydroxide after sodium dithionite pretreatment, and sodium hydroxide after hydrofluoric acid pretreatments). Elemental analysis (CHN) was then carried out on SOM pools isolated from different fractions. Preliminary data show that, for all land uses in general, and for grassland soils in particular, most of the total N is found in organo-mineral complexes (fraction soil N content. Although a small N loss was observed during the fractionation procedure, especially in N-rich samples, and data analysis is still ongoing, these preliminary results could already represent a valuable insight into organic N stabilization by mineral matrix.

  13. Fissure minerals, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, S.Aa.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a review of methods used for direct and indirect dating of tectonic events. Isotope geochemistry including stable isotopes as well as fission track- dating, fluid inclusion and thermoluminescens techniques have been considered. It has been concluded that an investigation of tectonic (and thermal) events should start with a detailed study of the mineral phases grown in seald fissures as well as minerals from fissure walls. This study should include phase identification, textures as well as mineral chemistry. The information from this study is fundamental for the decision of further investigations. Mineral chemistry including isotopes and fluid inclusion studies will give an essential knowledge about crystallization conditions for fissure minerals concerned. Direct dating using fission tracks as well as radioactive isotopes could be useful for some minerals. Application of thermoluminescens dating on fissure minerals is doubtful. (Auth.)

  14. D matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, Gary; Wang Liantao

    2004-01-01

    We study the properties and phenomenology of particlelike states originating from D branes whose spatial dimensions are all compactified. They are nonperturbative states in string theory and we refer to them as D matter. In contrast to other nonperturbative objects such as 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, D-matter states could have perturbative couplings among themselves and with ordinary matter. The lightest D particle (LDP) could be stable because it is the lightest state carrying certain (integer or discrete) quantum numbers. Depending on the string scale, they could be cold dark matter candidates with properties similar to that of WIMPs or wimpzillas. The spectrum of excited states of D matter exhibits an interesting pattern which could be distinguished from that of Kaluza-Klein modes, winding states, and string resonances. We speculate about possible signatures of D matter from ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and colliders

  15. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S. S.; Bennett, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Astrophysics conference in Maryland, organized by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland. The topics covered included low mass stars as dark matter, dark matter in galaxies and clusters, cosmic microwave background anisotropy, cold and hot dark matter, and the large scale distribution and motions of galaxies. There were eighty five papers presented. Out of these, 10 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  16. Mineralization dynamics of metakaolin-based alkali-activated cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaudan, Juan Pablo; Campbell, Kate M.; Kane, Tyler; Shoemaker, Richard K.; Srubar, Wil V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the early-age dynamics of mineral formation in metakaolin-based alkali-activated cements. The effects of silica availability and alkali content on mineral formation were investigated via X-ray diffraction and solid-state 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 2, 7, 14, and 28 days. Silica availability was controlled by using either liquid- (immediate) or solid-based (gradual) sodium silicate supplements. Mineral (zeolitic) and amorphous microstructural characteristics were correlated with observed changes in bulk physical properties, namely shrinkage, density, and porosity. Results demonstrate that, while alkali content controls the mineralization in immediately available silica systems, alkali content controls the silica availability in gradually available silica systems. Immediate silica availability generally leads to a more favorable mineral formation as demonstrated by correlated improvements in bulk physical properties.

  17. Mineralization dynamics of metakaolin-based alkali-activated cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevaudan, Juan Pablo; Campbell, Kate M.; Kane, Tyler J.; Shoemaker, Richard K.; Srubar, Wil V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the early-age dynamics of mineral formation in metakaolin-based alkali-activated cements. The effects of silica availability and alkali content on mineral formation were investigated via X-ray diffraction and solid-state 29 Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 2, 7, 14, and 28 days. Silica availability was controlled by using either liquid- (immediate) or solid-based (gradual) sodium silicate supplements. Mineral (zeolitic) and amorphous microstructural characteristics were correlated with observed changes in bulk physical properties, namely shrinkage, density, and porosity. Results demonstrate that, while alkali content controls the mineralization in immediately available silica systems, alkali content controls the silica availability in gradually available silica systems. Immediate silica availability generally leads to a more favorable mineral formation as demonstrated by correlated improvements in bulk physical properties.

  18. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter

  19. Sorption of radionuclide technetium on minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Min; Fan Xianhua; Wei Liansheng; Zhang Yingjie; Jiao Haiyang

    2004-01-01

    The study on adsorption behavior of technetium on antimonial minerals is performed in batch experiments and the influence of adsorption time, mineral granularity, solid-liquid ratio, initial concentration, pH value and reducing ion. On technetium adsorption are considered according to adsorption ratios of hepta valent and quadrivalent technetium on stibnite and antimony ocher, the results show that reduction of technetium from heptavelence to quadrivalence could improve adsorption ratios, which provide reference data for selecting buffer-backfill materials in high level rad waste deep geological diplosal. (author)

  20. Characterization of coal types by their content of volatile matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, A. (Ruhrkohle A.G., Essen (Germany, F.R.). Qualitaetsstelle)

    1979-08-01

    First of all, the difference between mineral content and ash content, the effect of minerals on the content of volatile matter and the connection between the ash and volatile matter contents is examined. Then three processes are described, to determine the content of organic fuels in the volatile matter of hard coal. The results are compared and the applicability of the processes is assessed. The conversion formulae recommended for the ASTM and NCB classifications are examined regarding their applicability to German types of coal. Finally an equation is proposed, in order to calculate the estimated value for the content of water and mineral free fuel in volatile matter. Apart from the content of volatile matter in water free coal, one only needs the figures ash content and the mineral factor for this. The equation can also be used for mixtures the usability of the equation is tested for Ruhr coal.

  1. Determination of the origin of suspended matter and sediments in the Elbe estuary using natural tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoer, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The clay mineral composition, the concentrations of carbonates, the proportions of carbon and oxygen isotopes in carbonates and organic matter, as well as the concentrations of different nonanthropogenic metals were used to determine the origin of different grain size fractions of sediments and suspended matter in the Elbe estuary. Analysis of the smectite/kaolinite proportion revealed that solid material · 2 μm from the North Sea is transported up the river, about 40 km beyond the most upstream position of the salt wedge. In the 2-20 μm fraction, the 16 O/ 18 O ratio in carbonates and the kaolinite/chlorite proportion demonstrate a transport of North Sea material between 40 and 20 km upstream of the marine water limit. The transport behavior of the 20-63 μm grain size fraction could be determined by the hafnium concentration, representative for the heavy mineral zircon. In this case, the transport distance beyond the salt wedge was up to 20 km. No information was available on the origin of the fine organic matter, whereas the coarser fractions were derived primarily from debris of salt marsh vegetation. The results demonstrate that in the Elbe estuary mixing between marine and fluvial solid material occurs upstream of the salt wedge and is significantly responsible for the observed decrease in the concentration of various pollutants in sediments and suspended matter along the estuary. The cause of the upstream particle transport is probably a scour lag mechanism based on asymmetries of the flood- and ebb-tide current distribution, especially their differing maximum velocities

  2. Grouping Minerals by Their Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget

    2018-01-01

    Minerals are commonly taught in ways that emphasize mineral identification for its own sake or maybe to help identify rocks. But how do minerals fit in with other science content taught? The author uses mineral formulas to help Earth science students wonder about the connection between elements, compounds, mixtures, minerals, and mineral formulas.…

  3. Leather Industry Solid Waste as Nitrogen Source for Growth of Common Bean Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, D.Q.; Oliveira, L.C.A.; Bastos, A.R.R.; Carvalho, G.S.; Marques, J.G.S.M.; Carvalho, J.G.; De Souza, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    The leather industry generates large amounts of a Cr-containing solid waste (wet blue leather). This material is classified by the Brazilian Environmental Council as a category-one waste, requiring a special disposal. The patented process Br n. PI 001538 is a technique to remove chromium from wet blue leather, with the recovery of a solid collagenic material (collagen), containing high nitrogen levels. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of soil application of collagen on the production of dry matter, content and accumulation of N in common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), after the previous growth of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) cv. Napier, as well as to quantify the mineralization rate of N in the soil. The application of collagen, at rates equivalent to 16 and 32 tha-1, provided greater N contents in the common bean plants, indicating residual effect of these rates of application; the same was observed for the rates of 4 and 8tha-1, though in smaller proportions. Higher mineralization rates of N collagen occurred next to 16 days after soil incubation. During the 216 days of incubation, the treatments with collagen showed higher amounts of mineralized nitrogen.

  4. Emission factors of fine particulate matter, organic and elemental carbon, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide for four solid fuels commonly used in residential heating by the U.S. Navajo Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Wyatt M; Connors, Lea; Montoya, Lupita D

    2017-09-01

    Most homes in the Navajo Nation use wood as their primary heating fuel, often in combination with locally mined coal. Previous studies observed health effects linked to this solid-fuel use in several Navajo communities. Emission factors (EFs) for common fuels used by the Navajo have not been reported using a relevant stove type. In this study, two softwoods (ponderosa pine and Utah juniper) and two high-volatile bituminous coals (Black Mesa and Fruitland) were tested with an in-use residential conventional wood stove (homestove) using a modified American Society for Testing and Materials/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (ASTM/EPA) protocol. Filter sampling quantified PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) and organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon in the emissions. Real-time monitoring quantified carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and total suspended particles (TSP). EFs for these air pollutants were developed and normalized to both fuel mass and energy consumed. In general, coal had significantly higher mass EFs than wood for all pollutants studied. In particular, coal emitted, on average, 10 times more PM 2.5 than wood on a mass basis, and 2.4 times more on an energy basis. The EFs developed here were based on fuel types, stove design, and operating protocols relevant to the Navajo Nation, but they could be useful to other Native Nations with similar practices, such as the nearby Hopi Nation. Indoor wood and coal combustion is an important contributor to public health burdens in the Navajo Nation. Currently, there exist no emission factors representative of Navajo homestoves, fuels, and practices. This study developed emission factors for PM 2.5 , OC, EC, CO, and CO 2 using a representative Navajo homestove. These emission factors may be utilized in regional-, national-, and global-scale health and environmental models. Additionally, the protocols developed and results presented here may inform on-going stove design of

  5. Multi-technical approach to characterize the dissolved organic matter from clay-stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchart, Pascale; Michels, Raymond; Faure, Pierre; Parant, Stephane; Bruggeman, Christophe; De Craen, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Currently, different clay formations (Boom Clay, Callovo-Oxfordian argilites, Opalinus Clay, Toarcian shales...) are studied as reference host rocks for methodological studies on the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste. While a significant effort is being done on the characterization of the mineral composition and the reactivity of the clays as barriers, the occurrence of organic matter, even in low proportion cannot be neglected. The organic matter appears as gas (C 1 -C 4 as identified in the Bure underground facilities), as solid (kerogen), as hydrocarbon liquids (free hydrocarbons within the kerogen or adsorbed on minerals) as well as in the aqueous phase (Dissolved Organic Matter - DOM). DOM raises specific interest, as it may have complexation properties towards metals and rare earth elements and is potentially mobile. Therefore, it is important to characterize the DOM as part of a study of feasibility of geological disposal. In this study, four host rocks were studied: - The Callovo-Oxfordian shales of Bure Underground Research Laboratory (Meuse, France); - The Opalinus Clay of Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory (Switzerland); - The Toarcian shales of Tournemire (Aveyron, France); - The Boom Clay formation studied in The HADES Underground Research Laboratory (Mol, Belgium). Organic matter characteristics vary upon formation in terms of (i) origin (mainly marine type II; mixtures of marine type II and higher plants type III organic matter often poorly preserved), (ii) TOC contents, (iii) thermal maturity (for instance, Opalinus Clay and Toarcian shales are more mature and have poor oxygen content compare to Callovo-Oxfordian shales and Boom Clay). These differences in organic matter quality may have an influence on the quantity and the quality of DOM. The DOM of the rocks was isolated by Soxhlet extraction using pure water. A quantitative and qualitative multi

  6. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  7. Radioactive mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1948-01-01

    This publication was designed as a guide for uranium and thorium prospectors in Australia. Physical properties, such as color, streak, luster, hardness, fracture, and specific gravity of the uranium and thorium-bearing minerals are summarized and the various methods suitable for detecting radioactivity in minerals are described. Two colored plates show samples of pitchblende (uraninite), autunite, carnotite, monazite, and others of the most important minerals sources of uranium and thorium.

  8. SOIL NITROGEN TRANSFORMATIONS AND ROLE OF LIGHT FRACTION ORGANIC MATTER IN FOREST SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depletion of soil organic matter through cultivation may alter substrate availability for microbes, altering the dynamic balance between nitrogen (N) immobilization and mineralization. Soil light fraction (LF) organic matter is an active pool that decreases upon cultivation, and...

  9. Silicon quantum dots: surface matters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnalová, K.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Kůsová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 17 (2014), 1-28 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP204/12/P235 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon quantum dots * quantum dot * surface chemistry * quantum confinement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.346, year: 2014

  10. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  11. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc [pt

  12. Minerals industry survey, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This is the seventh edition of the statistical survey commissioned by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents the most comprehensive review of the financial position of the Australian minerals industry and provides timely financial data on the minerals industry. The tables of this survey have been prepared for AMIC by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies. For the purpose of the survey, the minerals industry has been defined as including exploration for, and extraction and primary processing of, minerals in Australia. The oil and gas industry is not included.

  13. Reagan issues mineral policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  14. International mineral economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocht, W.R.; Eggert, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    International Mineral Economics provides an integrated overview of the important concepts. The treatment is interdisciplinary, drawing on the fields of economics, geology, business, and mining engineering. Part I examines the technical concepts important for understanding the geology of ore deposits, the methods of exploration and deposit evaluation, and the activities of mining and mineral processing. Part II focuses on the economic and related concepts important for understanding mineral development, the evaluation of exploration and mining projects, and mineral markets and market models. Finally, Part III reviews and traces the historical development of the policies of international organizations, the industrialized countries, and the developing countries. (orig.)

  15. Mineral statistics yearbook 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of mineral production in Saskatchewan was compiled and presented as a reference manual. Statistical information on fuel minerals such as crude oil, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and coal, and of industrial and metallic minerals, such as potash, sodium sulphate, salt and uranium, was provided in all conceivable variety of tables. Production statistics, disposition and value of sales of industrial and metallic minerals were also made available. Statistical data on drilling of oil and gas reservoirs and crown land disposition were also included. figs., tabs

  16. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  17. Solid state physics for metallurgists

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in

  18. Assessment of environmental impact models in natural occurring radionuclides solid wastes disposal from the mineral industry; Avaliacao de modelos de impacto ambiental para deposicao de residuos solidos com radionuclideos naturais em instalacoes minero-industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May Braga Dulley

    2006-07-15

    This work evaluates the behavior of wastes with naturally occurring radionuclides as generated by the mineral industry and their final disposal in landfills. An integrated methodology is used to predict the performance of an industrial landfill for disposal of wastes containing NORM/TENORM, and to define acceptable amounts that can be disposed at the landfill using long-term environmental assessment. The governing equations for radionuclide transport are solved analytically using the generalized integral transform technique. Results obtained for each compartment of the biogeosphere are validated with experimental results or compared to other classes of solutions. An impact analysis is performed in order to define the potential consequences of a landfill to the environment, considering not only the engineering characteristics of the waste deposit but also the exposure pathways and plausible scenarios in which the contaminants could migrate and reach the environment and the human population. The present work permits the development of a safety approach that can be used to derive quantitative waste acceptance criteria for the disposal of NORM/TENORM waste in landfills. (author)

  19. The behaviour of cesium 137, chromium 51, cobalt 60, Manganese 54, sodium 22 and zinc 65 in simulated estuarine environments. Effects of suspended mineral particles and dissolved organic matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahler, P.

    1985-09-01

    This laboratory investigation studied the retention of 6 radionuclides (cesium 137, chrome 51, cobalt 60, manganese 54, sodium 22 and zinc 65) on three types of clay particles (kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite) and on sediments, suspended in media with salinities ranging between 0 and 34 per mill, with or without organic matters. Measurement of the radioactivity retained by the particles after 5 days' contact with the radionuclide made it possible to calculate the percentages retained and the distribution coefficients, and to follow their evolution versus salinity. Parallel experiments studied the behaviours of the 6 radionuclides as a function of experimental factors (wall effect, contact time..). An exhaustive bibliographic review gives the state-of-the-art of the knowledge. The following conclusions were derived: - the retention of all the radionuclides but chromium 51 decreased as soon as a low salinity appeared. Chromium (available as Cr 3+ ) precipitated quickly and strongly during fixation whatever the surfaces or the conditions: - as for the role of the clay type, illite showed a strong affinity for cesium 137; manganese 54 had a particular behaviour with montmorillonite that enhanced its precipitation into MnO 2 ; with cobalt, sodium and zinc, the percentages retained were always [fr

  20. Structural financing and management of investment projects in the Nigerian mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akingbola, E. B. O.

    1997-01-01

    The mineral industry is attractive because of the diversity and abundance of the deposits. The economic and financial implications of exploiting these are considered. The issues discussed include capital requirement, international outlook, investment opportunities in the mineral industry, oil and gas, solid minerals, attracting investment into the mineral industry,structural financing, macro economic stability. The paper concludes that the ability of the industry to continue attracting foreign capital is crucial to its survival, growth and development

  1. Nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, H.

    1991-01-01

    Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals, the crystal size of which is a few (typically 1 to 10) nanometres so that 50% or more of the solid consists of incoherent interfaces between crystals of different orientations. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures because the atomic arrangement formed in the core of an interface is known to be an arrangement of minimum energy in the potential field of the two adjacent crystal lattices with different crystallographic orientations on either side of the boundary core. These boundary conditions result in atomic structures in the interfacial cores which cannot be formed elsewhere (e.g. in glasses or perfect crystals). Nanocrystalline solids are of interest for the following four reasons: (1) Nanocrystalline solids exhibit an atomic structure which differs from that of the two known solid states: the crystalline (with long-range order) and the glassy (with short-range order). (2) The properties of nanocrystalline solids differ (in some cases by several orders of magnitude) from those of glasses and/or crystals with the same chemical composition, which suggests that they may be utilized technologically in the future. (3) Nanocrystalline solids seem to permit the alloying of conventionally immiscible components. (4) If small (1 to 10 nm diameter) solid droplets with a glassy structure are consolidated (instead of small crystals), a new type of glass, called nanoglass, is obtained. Such glasses seem to differ structurally from conventional glasses. (orig.)

  2. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  3. Clay minerals in sandstone uranium deposits: radwaste applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Clay minerals play an important role in the genesis of uranium deposits in sandstones. They incorporate the rate earths (REE), U, Sb, Th, Cs, Rb, Sr, Y, Ba, and even small amounts of chalcophiles. These minerals possess analog elements for many of the radwaste fission products as well as actinides and some actinide daughters. In sandstone uranium deposits, clay minerals are also associated with sulfide minerals, usually pyrite, and organic carbonaceous matter. The primary clay minerals are usually smectites, illites, chlorites and mixed layer varieties. The integrity of these clay minerals is demonstrated by their retention of formational-mineralization ages determined by Rb-Sr geochronologic investigation of the Grants Mineral Belt of the United States. The importance of the clay minerals as analog for parts of the multi-barrier concept in radwaste disposal is their ability to impede water penetration into - and movement of key elements out of uranium rich zones. The clay minerals further sorb and in other ways incorporate into their structures many fission products and actinide analogs from man-made nuclear wastes. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  4. Stepwise effects of the BCR sequential chemical extraction procedure on dissolution and metal release from common ferromagnesian clay minerals: A combined solution chemistry and X-ray powder diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, P.C. [Geology Department, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States)], E-mail: pryan@middlebury.edu; Hillier, S. [Macaulay Institute, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH UK (United Kingdom); Wall, A.J. [Department of Geosciences, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, 16802 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Sequential extraction procedures (SEPs) are commonly used to determine speciation of trace metals in soils and sediments. However, the non-selectivity of reagents for targeted phases has remained a lingering concern. Furthermore, potentially reactive phases such as phyllosilicate clay minerals often contain trace metals in structural sites, and their reactivity has not been quantified. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of trace metal-bearing clay minerals exposed to the revised BCR 3-step plus aqua regia SEP. Mineral quantification based on stoichiometric analysis and quantitative powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) documents progressive dissolution of chlorite (CCa-2 ripidolite) and two varieties of smectite (SapCa-2 saponite and SWa-1 nontronite) during steps 1-3 of the BCR procedure. In total, 8 ({+-} 1) % of ripidolite, 19 ({+-} 1) % of saponite, and 19 ({+-} 3) % of nontronite (% mineral mass) dissolved during extractions assumed by many researchers to release trace metals from exchange sites, carbonates, hydroxides, sulfides and organic matter. For all three reference clays, release of Ni into solution is correlated with clay dissolution. Hydrolysis of relatively weak Mg-O bonds (362 kJ/mol) during all stages, reduction of Fe(III) during hydroxylamine hydrochloride extraction and oxidation of Fe(II) during hydrogen peroxide extraction are the main reasons for clay mineral dissolution. These findings underscore the need for precise mineral quantification when using SEPs to understand the origin/partitioning of trace metals with solid phases.

  5. Mineral oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, L.J.; Suess, M.J.; Grefen, K.; Reinisch, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter a general picture is presented of the air pollution aspects in the mineral oil industry. The complete field is covered, starting from drilling operations and the well head up to the delivery of the products to the consumer. A large field of activities as is given by the mineral oil

  6. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  7. Mineral commodity summaries 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2018-01-31

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2017 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  8. Indochina area mineral prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-05

    Prospects for commercial mining of various minerals are considered for Kampuchea (Cambodia), Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar (Burma) and Thailand. Mineral production is much below its geologic potential for economic and political reasons. Resource potential is limited to tin, tungsten, lead and zinc, barytes and gemstones, and coal. 1 fig.

  9. Dark matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. That is, not only is the night sky dark, but also most of the matter and the energy in the universe is dark. For every atom visible in planets, stars and galaxies today there exists at least five or six times as much 'Dark Matter' in the universe. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious but pervasive dark matter, which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. Dark energy remains even more elusive, as we lack candidate fields that emerge from well established physics. I will describe various attempts to measure dark matter by direct and indirect means, and discuss the prospects for progress in unravelling dark energy.

  10. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  11. Sorption study of 226Ra(II) et 238U(VI) on to peat organic matter, in mining environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordelet, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    The environmental footprint of former uranium mining sites is a major concern for society. In order to guarantee the protection of ecosystems and thus a minimal radiological impact on the biosphere, it is important to understand and to be able to model the phenomena controlling the migration of uranium and its decay products, specially radium ( 226 Ra) (AREVA's Envir-at-Mines project). In the environment, among solid phases which can retain 238 U(VI) and 226 Ra(II), peat is known to have relevant affinity for U(VI). Because peat is usually composed at 90% dry weight of organic matter, the aim of this study was to qualify and quantify peat organic matter affinity for 238 U(VI) and 226 Ra(II). Peat samples extracted from Les Sagnes (close to a former uranium mining site in Limousin area, France) was characterised and batch adsorption/desorption experiments were conducted. The results indicate that 226 Ra(II) adsorption onto that peat is higher than 97% for pH ≥ 4-6 (depending on the organic/mineral ratio in dry peat) corresponding to K d values about 4500 ± 500 mL/g and 238 U(VI) adsorption is higher than 80% at pH ≥ 3 with K d maximal values reaching 11000 mL/g around pH 4.5. Only a little desorption was measured after one month. An ion exchange modelling for radium adsorption onto one type of organic matter sorption site was enough to fit the experimental adsorption K d for the peat over the whole range of pH. However, uranium sorption on peat can be modelled on that organic sorption site only from pH 1 to 5. From pH 5 to 10, to explain the experimental uranium adsorption K d values (close to 1500 mL/g), uranium sorption onto mineral phases (such as smectite and iron oxide in this study) has to be considered. An operational data set is given for both 238 U(VI) and 226 Ra(II) sorption onto Les Sagnes peat. Unlike usual peat, peat from Les Sagnes contains more than 10% dry weight of mineral matter. That is why it is necessary to model sorption of those two

  12. Taxation of unmined minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremberg, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Kentucky Revenue Cabinet which began implementing its controversial unmined minerals tax program. The Revenue Cabinet should complete its first annual assessment under this program in December, 1989. The Revenue Cabinet's initial efforts to collect basic data concerning the Commonwealth's coal bearing lands has yielded data coverage for 5 million of Kentucky's 10 million acres of coal lands. Approximately 1000 detailed information returns have been filed. The returns will be used to help create an undeveloped mineral reserves inventory, determine mineral ownership, and value mineral reserves. This new program is run by the Revenue Cabinet's Mineral Valuation Section, under the Division of Technical Support, Department of Property Taxation. It has been in business since September of 1988

  13. Mineral industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de

  14. Characterization of carbonaceous solids by oxygen chemisorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Palmer, A.; Duguay, D.G.; McConnell, D.G.; Henson, D.E.

    1988-06-01

    Oxygen chemisorption of high and low carbon carbonaceous solids was measured in an electro-microbalance at 200 degrees C in air. A linear correlation between the amount of chemisorbed oxygen and H/C ratio as well as aromaticity was established for the high carbon solids. For the low carbon solids a linear correlation was established between the amount of chemisorbed oxygen and the content of organic matter. Experimental observations are discussed in terms of structural aspects of the solids. Oxygen chemisorption is a suitable technique for a rapid characterization of carbonaceous solids including coal. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Recommended Vapor Pressure of Solid Naphthalen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, K.; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2005), s. 1956-1970 ISSN 0021-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : solid naphthalene * vapor pressure * enthalpy of vaporization * enthalpy of fusion Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.610, year: 2005

  16. The influence of organic substances type on the properties of mineral-organic fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huculak-Mä Czka, Marta; Hoffmann, Krystyna; Hoffmann, Józef

    2010-05-01

    In presented research the lignite coal, peat, poultry droppings and their composts were suggested as a components of mineral-organic fertilizers. Fertility of soil is conditioned by an ability to supply plants with water and nutrients essential to their growth and development. The soil is described as tri-phase system consisting of solid, liquid and gas phase. In solid phase the soil minerals and organic matter can be distinguished. The content of micro-organisms contained in the soil i.e. microfauna and microflora is indispensable for high soil fertility. Nutrients should occur in the forms available for plants in order to obtain high yields of the high quality crops. Organic fertilizing has versatile activity. Increasing contents of humus, providing mineral nutrients included in organic substance and the improvement in physical properties of the soil belong to its main purposes. Due to applying organic fertilizers heavy soils is getting loosen and in consequence become more airy what probably influences stimulation of soil micro-organisms activity. An aqueous as well as sorption capacity of light soils is also increasing, buffer range and the stabilization of the proper level of pH value of the soil, plants are provided with basic macro and micronutrients. Conventional organic fertilizers applied in an arable farms are manure, dung, green manures and composts of different kind. Within compost group the following types can be distinguished: compost from farming, urban wastes, shredded straw, poultry droppings, industrial wastes, bark of coniferous tree etc. Properly developed fertilizer formulas should contain in their composition both mineral as well as organic elements. Such fertilizer should fit its composition to the soil and plant requirements. It should contain organic substance being characterized by a high aqueous and cations sorption capacity, substance undergoing the fast mineralization with the large calcium content. Inorganic substances e.g. bentonites

  17. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  18. Emission of Electromagnetic Waves through Medium of Matter Waves, Correlation between Wavelengths and Temperatures in Radiation Series of Hydrogen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekárek, Viktor

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2002), s. 139-149 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2057903 Keywords : Matter waves * interference and surges of matter waves Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  19. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  20. Impacts of Nickel Nanoparticles on Mineral Carbonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Bodor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents experimental results regarding the use of pure nickel nanoparticles (NiNP as a mineral carbonation additive. The aim was to confirm if the catalytic effect of NiNP, which has been reported to increase the dissolution of CO2 and the dissociation of carbonic acid in water, is capable of accelerating mineral carbonation processes. The impacts of NiNP on the CO2 mineralization by four alkaline materials (pure CaO and MgO, and AOD and CC steelmaking slags, on the product mineralogy, on the particle size distribution, and on the morphology of resulting materials were investigated. NiNP-containing solution was found to reach more acidic pH values upon CO2 bubbling, confirming a higher quantity of bicarbonate ions. This effect resulted in acceleration of mineral carbonation in the first fifteen minutes of reaction time when NiNP was present. After this initial stage, however, no benefit of NiNP addition was seen, resulting in very similar carbonation extents after one hour of reaction time. It was also found that increasing solids content decreased the benefit of NiNP, even in the early stages. These results suggest that NiNP has little contribution to mineral carbonation processes when the dissolution of alkaline earth metals is rate limiting.

  1. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  2. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Minerals Minerals are those elements on the earth and ...

  3. Minerals industry survey 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This is the eleventh Minerals Industry Survey produced by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents an invaluable time series on the minerals industry's financial performance, as well as an up to date description of the industry for the latest financial year. The survey has been conceived as a supplement to and expansion of the various Australian Bureau of Statistics and Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics publications which describe the exploration, mining and smelting and refining industries in Australia. The tables in this survey have been prepared by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies.

  4. Characterization of clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz N, C.; Olguin, M.T.; Solache R, M.; Alarcon H, T.; Aguilar E, A.

    2002-01-01

    The natural clays are the more abundant minerals on the crust. They are used for making diverse industrial products. Due to the adsorption and ion exchange properties of these, a great interest for developing research directed toward the use of natural clays for the waste water treatment has been aroused. As part of such researches it is very important to carry out previously the characterization of the interest materials. In this work the results of the mineral and elemental chemical composition are presented as well as the morphological characteristics of clay minerals from different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  5. Femtosecond laser-matter interaction theory, experiments and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gamaly, Eugene G

    2011-01-01

    Basics of Ultra-Short Laser-Solid InteractionsSubtle Atomic Motion Preceding a Phase Transition: Birth, Life and Death of PhononsUltra-Fast Disordering by fs-Lasers: Superheating Prior to Entropy CatastropheAblation of SolidsUltra-Short Laser-Matter Interaction Confined Inside a Bulk of Transparent SolidApplications of Ultra-Short Laser-Matter InteractionsConclusion Remarks.

  6. Controls on the distribution of arsenic in lake sediments impacted by 65 years of gold ore processing in subarctic Canada: the role of organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jennifer; Palmer, Michael; Swindles, Graeme T.; Sanei, Hamed; Jamieson, Heather E.; Parsons, Michael; Macumber, Andrew L.; Patterson, Tim; Falck, Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    Gold mines in the Yellowknife region of the Northwest Territories, Canada, operated from 1938 to 2003 and released approximately 20,000 tonnes of arsenic trioxide to the environment through stack emissions. This release resulted in highly elevated arsenic concentrations in lake surface waters and sediments relative to Canadian drinking water standards and guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. High northern latitudes are experiencing substantial impacts, including changes in bio-physico-chemical processes, due to climate change. Determining the affect of warming climate on contamination is complicated by the fact that little is known of climate change controls on As mobility and bioavailability. Further, while the role of dissolved organic matter in As cycling is relatively well characterized in soils and wetland sediments, few studies have investigated the role of solid organic matter in lacustrine systems. We use a meta-analytical approach to better understand controls on sedimentary arsenic distribution in lakes within a 50 km2 area of historic mineral processing activities. Arsenic concentrations in near surface sediments of the 100 lakes studied range from 5 mg/kg to over 10,000 mg/kg (median 81 mg/kg). Distance from the historical Giant Mine roaster stack and the amount of labile organic matter (S1 carbon as determined by Rock Eval pyrolysis) in lake sediments are the variables most strongly correlated with sedimentary As concentrations (Spearman's rank correlation As:distance from historic roaster rs=-0.57, pcoating of pre-existing solid-phase As-mineral complexes, direct As-organic matter interactions, and promotion of microbial-mediated reduction and precipitation of As-bearing minerals.

  7. The fate of nitrogen mineralized from leaf litter — Initial evidence from 15N-labeled litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn B. Piatek

    2011-01-01

    Decomposition of leaf litter includes microbial immobilization of nitrogen (N), followed by N mineralization. The fate of N mineralized from leaf litter is unknown. I hypothesized that N mineralized from leaf litter will be re-immobilized into other forms of organic matter, including downed wood. This mechanism may retain N in some forests. To test this hypothesis, oak...

  8. Impact of exotic earthworms on organic carbon sorption on mineral surfaces and soil carbon inventories in a northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy Lyttle; Kyungsoo Yoo; Cindy Hale; Anthony Aufdenkampe; Stephen D. Sebestyen; Kathryn Resner; Alex. Blum

    2015-01-01

    Exotic earthworms are invading forests in North America where native earthworms have been absent since the last glaciation. These earthworms bioturbate soils and may enhance physical interactions between minerals and organic matter (OM), thus affecting mineral sorption of carbon (C) which may affect C cycling. We quantitatively show how OM-mineral sorption and soil C...

  9. Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhijian; Wang, Xuming; Liu, Haining; Zhang, Huifang; Miller, Jan D

    2016-09-01

    Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation including hydration phenomena, associations and interactions between collectors, air bubbles, and water-soluble mineral particles are presented. Flotation carried out in saturated salt solutions, and a wide range of collector concentrations for effective flotation of different salts are two basic aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation. Hydration of salt ions, mineral particle surfaces, collector molecules or ions, and collector aggregates play an important role in water-soluble mineral flotation. The adsorption of collectors onto bubble surfaces is suggested to be the precondition for the association of mineral particles with bubbles. The association of collectors with water-soluble minerals is a complicated process, which may include the adsorption of collector molecules or ions onto such surfaces, and/or the attachment of collector precipitates or crystals onto the mineral surfaces. The interactions between the collectors and the minerals include electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and specific interactions, with electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions being the common mechanisms. For the association of ionic collectors with minerals with an opposite charge, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could have a synergistic effect, with the hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the previously associated collectors and the hydrophobic groups of oncoming collectors being an important attractive force. Association between solid particles and air bubbles is the key to froth flotation, which is affected by hydrophobicity of the mineral particle surfaces, surface charges of mineral particles and bubbles, mineral particle size and shape, temperature, bubble size, etc. The use of a collector together with a frother and the use of mixed surfactants as collectors are suggested to improve flotation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Impact of Organo-Mineral Complexation on Mineral Weathering in the Soil Zone under Unsaturated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, H. A.; Tan, F.; Yoo, K.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2017-12-01

    While organo-mineral complexes can protect organic matter (OM) from biodegradation, their impact on soil mineral weathering is not clear. Previous bench-scale experiments that focused on specific OM and minerals showed that the adsorption of OM to mineral surfaces accelerates the dissolution of some minerals. However, the impact of natural organo-mineral complexes on mineral dissolution under unsaturated conditions is not well known. In this study, soil samples prepared from an undisturbed forest site were used to determine mineral weathering rates under differing conditions of OM sorption to minerals. Two types of soil samples were generated: 1) soil with OM (C horizon soil from 84-100cm depth), and 2) soil without OM (the same soil as in 1) but with OM removed by heating to 350°for 24 h). Soil samples were column-packed and subjected to intermittent infiltration and drainage to mimic natural rainfall events. Each soil sample type was run in duplicate. The unsaturated condition was created by applying gas pressure to the column, and the unsaturated chemical weathering rates during each cycle were calculated from the effluent concentrations. During a single cycle, when applying the same gas pressure, soils with OM retained more moisture than OM-removed media, indicating increased water retention capacity under the impact of OM. This is consistent with the water retention data measured by evaporation experiments (HYPROP) and the dew point method (WP4C Potential Meter). Correspondingly, silicon (Si) denudation rates indicated that dissolution of silicate minerals was 2-4 times higher in OM soils, suggesting that organo-mineral complexes accelerate mineral dissolution under unsaturated conditions. When combining data from all cycles, the results showed that Si denudation rates were positively related to soil water content: denundation rate increased with increasing water content. Therefore, natural mineral chemical weathering under unsaturated conditions, while

  11. Matter reflects Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Bianconi, A.; Cristiano, A.; Leali, M.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N.

    2008-01-01

    It is common belief that the interaction between antimatter and ordinary solid matter is dominated by annihilation. However, non-destructive processes may play a relevant role too. One century ago E. Rutherford wrote about the "diffuse reflection" of alpha and beta particles by thin layers of different metals: "The observations ... of Geiger and Marsden on the scattering of alpha rays indicate that some of the alpha particles must suffer a deflexion of more than a right angle at a single encounter.... It will be shown that the main deductions from the theory are independent of whether the central charge is supposed to be positive or negative". Although the theory of electromagnetic scattering is in first approximation independent of the relative sign of the colliding particles, in the case where projectile antiprotons are shot against a wall of solid matter the Rutherford diffuse reflection mechanism competes with the annihilation process. So it is not obvious at all that a relevant part of an antiproton beam...

  12. Quark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K. H.

    1994-10-15

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June.

  13. Law of radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Legal device done in order to standardize and promote the exploration and explotation of radioactive minerals by peruvian and foreign investors. This device include the whole process, since the prospection until the development, after previous auction given by IPEN

  14. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2009 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2008 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Because specific information concerning committed inventory was no longer available from the Defense Logistics Agency, National Defense Stockpile Center, that information, which was included in earlier Mineral Commodity Summaries publications, has been deleted from Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported

  15. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  16. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    to be processed and purified to extract the metal either by sulphate or chloride route. The economical aspects of placer mining would involve the cost to benefit ratio, which would encompass the money Selective sorting has resulted in two distinct sediments... or mineral at the national and international levels. Interestingly, though gold is the most sought metal and the prices per gram keep rising, there are others that are much more costly such as diamond and rare earth metals. Uses of Heavy Minerals...

  17. [Pneumoconiosis in bauxite miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinini, R; Pesola, M; Digennaro, M A; Carino, M; Nuzzaco, A; Coviello, F

    1985-01-01

    The authors examined a group of 40 miners who were being working at an Apulian bauxite mine, presently inactive. Radiographic findings of pulmonary micronodulation without significant reduction of lung functions were showed in 15 miners. Mineralogical analysis of mine dust samples excluded any presence of more than 1% free silica. As a result of this study hypotheses have been formulated about pathogenesis of this moderated and non-invasive pneumoconiosis, showed in long exposed subjects to low silica content dusts.

  18. Soil Organic Matter and Soil Productivity: Searching for the Missing Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez

    1998-01-01

    Soil-organic matter (SOM) is a complex array of components including soil fauna and flora at different stages of decomposition (Berg et al., 1982). Its concentration in soils can vary from 0.5% in mineral soils to almost 100% in peat soils (Brady, 1974). Organic matter (OM) in the surface mineral soil is considered a major determinant of forest ecosystem productivity...

  19. Stabilization of dissolved organic matter by aluminium: A toxic effect or stabilization through precipitation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheel, T.; Jansen, B.; van Wijk, A.J.; Verstraten, J.M.; Kalbitz, K.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon mineralization in acidic forest soils can be retarded by large concentrations of aluminium (Al). However, it is still unclear whether Al reduces C mineralization by direct toxicity to microorganisms or by decreased bioavailability of organic matter (OM) because dissolved organic matter (DOM)

  20. Response of Microbial Soil Carbon Mineralization Rates to Oxygen Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiluweit, M.; Denney, A.; Nico, P. S.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The rate of soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is known to be controlled by climatic factors as well as molecular structure, mineral-organic associations, and physical protection. What remains elusive is to what extent oxygen (O2) limitations impact overall rates of microbial SOM mineralization (oxidation) in soils. Even within upland soils that are aerobic in bulk, factors limiting O2 diffusion such as texture and soil moisture can result in an abundance of anaerobic microsites in the interior of soil aggregates. Variation in ensuing anaerobic respiration pathways can further impact SOM mineralization rates. Using a combination of (first) aggregate model systems and (second) manipulations of intact field samples, we show how limitations on diffusion and carbon bioavailability interact to impose anaerobic conditions and associated respiration constraints on SOM mineralization rates. In model aggregates, we examined how particle size (soil texture) and amount of dissolved organic carbon (bioavailable carbon) affect O2 availability and distribution. Monitoring electron acceptor profiles (O2, NO3-, Mn and Fe) and SOM transformations (dissolved, particulate, mineral-associated pools) across the resulting redox gradients, we then determined the distribution of operative microbial metabolisms and their cumulative impact on SOM mineralization rates. Our results show that anaerobic conditions decrease SOM mineralization rates overall, but those are partially offset by the concurrent increases in SOM bioavailability due to transformations of protective mineral phases. In intact soil aggregates collected from soils varying in texture and SOM content, we mapped the spatial distribution of anaerobic microsites. Optode imaging, microsensor profiling and 3D tomography revealed that soil texture regulates overall O2 availability in aggregate interiors, while particulate SOM in biopores appears to control the fine-scale distribution of anaerobic microsites. Collectively, our

  1. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  2. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  3. Impact of mineral transformation on elemental mobility in aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, T.D.; Payne, T.E.; Davis, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    While laboratory and field studies of uranium uptake on naturally occurring mineral substrates have indicated that interaction with amorphous oxide phases controls the steady state concentration of uranium in the dissolved phase, questions remain concerning the impact of crystallization of these amorphous phases on ability of the minerals to retain adsorbed uranium. Using isotope exchange techniques, the authors confirm that a portion of the adsorbed uranium is retained within the mineral structure on increasing crystallization. In addition, the relationship between increased crystallinity, decreased site density and lowered elemental uptake is discussed, with uranium partitioning to the solids of varying crystallinity successfully modelled using the surface complexation approach

  4. Reactor design considerations in mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ityokumbul, M.T.; Chander, S.; O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the promising approaches to lowering the anthropogenic carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere is mineral sequestration. In this approach, the carbon dioxide reacts with alkaline earth containing silicate minerals forming magnesium and/or calcium carbonates. Mineral carbonation is a multiphase reaction process involving gas, liquid and solid phases. The effective design and scale-up of the slurry reactor for mineral carbonation will require careful delineation of the rate determining step and how it changes with the scale of the reactor. The shrinking core model was used to describe the mineral carbonation reaction. Analysis of laboratory data indicates that the transformations of olivine and serpentine are controlled by chemical reaction and diffusion through an ash layer respectively. Rate parameters for olivine and serpentine carbonation are estimated from the laboratory data

  5. Sorptive fractionation of organic matter and formation of organo-hydroxy-aluminum complexes during litter biodegradation in the presence of gibbsite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, K.; Grandy, A. S.; Gao, X.; Keiluweit, M.; Wickings, K.; Carpenter, K.; Chorover, J.; Rasmussen, C.

    2013-11-01

    Solid and aqueous phase Al species are recognized to affect organic matter (OM) stabilization in forest soils. However, little is known about the dynamics of formation, composition and dissolution of organo-Al hydroxide complexes in microbially-active soil systems, where plant litter is subject to microbial decomposition in close proximity to mineral weathering reactions. We incubated gibbsite-quartz mineral mixtures in the presence of forest floor material inoculated with a native microbial consortium for periods of 5, 60 and 154 days. At each time step, samples were density separated into light (2.0 g cm-3) fractions. The light fraction was mainly comprised of particulate organic matter, while the intermediate and heavy density fractions contained moderate and large amounts of Al-minerals, respectively. Multi-method interrogation of the fractions indicated the intermediate and heavy fractions differed both in mineral structure and organic compound composition. X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM/EDS of the mineral component of the intermediate fractions indicated some alteration of the original gibbsite structure into less crystalline Al hydroxide and possibly proto-imogolite species, whereas alteration of the gibbsite structure was not evident in the heavy fraction. DRIFT, Py-GC/MS and STXM/NEXAFS results all showed that intermediate fractions were composed mostly of lignin-derived compounds, phenolics, and polysaccharides. Heavy fraction organics were dominated by polysaccharides, and were enriched in proteins, N-bearing compounds, and lipids. The source of organics appeared to differ between the intermediate and heavy fractions. Heavy fractions were enriched in 13C with lower C/N ratios relative to intermediate fractions, suggesting a microbial origin. The observed differential fractionation of organics among hydroxy-Al mineral types suggests that microbial activity superimposed with abiotic mineral-surface-mediated fractionation leads to strong density

  6. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) to identify chemical analysis of minerals in Buton island, SE Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddin; Darwis, A.; Massinai, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Asbuton as natural rock asphalt consists of a granular material; usually limestone or sandstone. In its natural state, it contains bitumen intimately dispersed throughout its mass, while the remainder of the material is a solid mineral matter. This research was conducted in Sorowalio, Buton Regency, Southeast Sulawesi province, Indonesia. This study aims to determine the content and the percentage of minerals contained in the rocks by using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). The method of research is a preliminary survey, sampling and laboratory analysis. XRF reports chemical composition, including Si (quartz) and Ca (calcite). The results indicate the content and the percentage of element dominate the rock sample is Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, and SiO2. Research results using XRF show that there are four metal oxide dominant elements. Hematite (Fe2O3) is dominant in all locations of sampling. Magnesium oxide (MgO) has the highest levels found in sample number six and the lowest is in sample number five. Silicates (SiO) has the highest levels at sample number six and the lowest in sample number seven. Calcium oxide (CaO) is dominant in all sampling locations. The sample of asbuton contains 37.90% asphalt, 43.28% carbonate, and18.82% other minerals.

  7. Interaction of radiation with matter

    CERN Document Server

    Nikjoo, Hooshang; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    Written for students approaching the subject for the first time, this text provides a solid grounding in the physics of the interactions of photons and particles with matter, which is the basis of radiological physics and radiation dosimetry. The authors first present the relevant atomic physics and then describe the interactions, emphasizing practical applications in health/medical physics and radiation biology. They cover such important topics as microdosimetry, interaction of photons with matter, electron energy loss, and dielectric response. Each chapter includes exercises and a summary.

  8. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of ... are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the .... protons, electrons, neutrons ... ratio of protons to neutrons was close to unity then as they were in ...

  9. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...

  10. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Molecule Matters - Dinitrogen. A G Samuelson J Jabadurai. Volume 16 Issue 12 ... Author Affiliations. A G Samuelson1 J Jabadurai1. Department of Inroganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  11. Interstellar matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezger, P.G.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the formation of our galaxy is presented followed by a summary of recent work in star formation and related topics. Selected discussions are given on interstellar matter including absorption characteristics of dust, the fully ionised component of the ISM and the energy density of lyc-photons in the solar neighbourhood and the diffuse galactic IR radiation

  12. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...

  13. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Inclusion of products of physicochemical oxidation of organic wastes in matter recycling of biological-technical life support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, Yurii; Trifonov, Sergei; Ushakova, Sofya

    Inclusion of products of human and plant wastes' `wet' incineration in 22 medium using alter-nating current into matter recycling of biological-technical life support system (BTLSS) has been considered. Fluid and gaseous components have been shown to be the products of such processing. In particular, the final product contained all necessary for plant cultivation nitrogen forms: NO2, NO3, NH4+. As the base solution included urine than NH4+ form dominated. At human solid wastes' mineralization NO2 NH4+ were registered in approximately equal amount. Comparative analysis of mineral composition of oxidized human wastes' and standard Knop solutions has been carried out. On the grounds of that analysis the dilution methods of solutions prepared with addition of oxidized human wastes for their further use for plant irrigation have been suggested. Reasonable levels of wheat productivity cultivated at use of given solutions have been obtained. CO2, N2 and O2 have been determined to be the main gas components of the gas admixture emitted within the given process. These gases easily integrate in matter recycling process of closed ecosystem. The data of plants' cultivation feasibility in the atmosphere obtained after closing of gas loop including physicochemical facility and vegetation chamber with plants-representatives of LSS phototrophic unit has been received. Conclusion of advance research on creation of matter recycling process in the integrated physical-chemical-biological model system has been drawn.

  15. The partitioning of mercury in the solids components of forest soils and flooded forest soils in a hydroelectric reservoir, Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmytriw, R.P.

    1993-11-01

    Upon inundation, the soils in a hydroelection reservoir are subjected to several years of physical, biological and chemical changes as the transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic ecosystem is achieved. Changes in Eh, pH and microbial activity are believed to alter the metal binding capacity of solid substrates (organic matter, reactive Fe and Mn oxides, and clay minerals) within the soil profile, leading to remobilization of mercury associated with these phases. Four cores were collected along a transect from an unflooded forest soil to a pre-impoundment lake bottom sediment in the La-Grande-2 reservoir and watershed. The samples were sequentially extracted to determine the distribution of mercury between three operationally defined solid compartments: organic carbon, reactive Fe and Mn oxides/hydroxides, and the solid clay residue. Results indicate that up to 80% of the mercury in the O-horizon in forest soils and flooded forest soils, and up to 85% of the mercury in the lake sediments is bound to NaOH extractable organic carbon fractions. In the B-horizon podzol where organic content is low, 40-60% of the total mercury was found to be associated with reactive Fe minerals. In contrast, the flooded soil contains very little reactive Fe at any depth and the associated mercury concentrations are low. It is proposed that, upon inundation, oxide minerals are reduced and Hg released to the pore waters where it is immediately bound to an available substrate. Analyses of the residues suggests that there is an enrichment of mercury in the residual fraction immediately above the B-horizon of a flooded soil while the sulfide mineralization appears to play a role in sequestering mercury in lake sediments. 14 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    1988-01-01

    The book begins with the papers devoted to the experimental search of signatures of the dark matter which governs the evolution of the Universe as a whole. A series of contributions describe the presently considered experimental techniques (cryogenic detectors, supraconducting detectors...). A real dialogue concerning these techniques has been instaured between particle physicists and astrophysicists. After the progress report of the particle physicists, the book provides the reader with an updated situation concerning the research in cosmology. The second part of the book is devoted to the analysis of the backgrounds at different energies such as the possible role of the cooling flows in the constitution of massive galactic halos. Any search of dark matter implies necessarily the analysis of the spatial distributions of the large scale structures of the Universe. This report is followed by a series of statistical analyses of these distributions. These analyses concern mainly universes filled up with cold dark matter. The last paper of this third part concerns the search of clustering in the spatial distribution of QSOs. The presence of dark matter should affect the solar neighborhood and related to the existence of galactic haloes. The contributions are devoted to the search of such local dark matter. Primordial nucleosynthesis provides a very powerful tool to set up quite constraining limitations on the overall baryonic density. Even if on takes into account the inhomogeneities in density possibly induced by the Quark-Hadron transition, this baryonic density should be much lower than the overall density deduced from the dynamical models of Universe or the inflationary theories

  17. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  18. Acúmulo e repartição da matéria seca da planta de pepino tipo conserva sob três doses de nutrientes minerais Dry matter accumulation and distribution of pickling cucumber plants under three mineral nutrient levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Nicasio Rodríguez Espínola

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o efeito de três doses de nutrientes minerais sobre o acúmulo e distribuição da matéria seca da planta de pepino tipo conserva, híbrido Crispina. As plantas foram cultivadas em sacolas plásticas com 4,6kg de substrato composto por uma mistura de 40% de casca de arroz e 60% de solo, no interior de uma estufa de polietileno, na primavera de 1998 e no verão de 1999. Foi empregado um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com três repetições e 15 plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por três níveis múltiplos de uma dose padrão de nutrientes aplicada para cada planta, contendo N-P-K-Ca e Mg nas quantidades de 0,8-0,12-0,8-0,46-0,086g.pl-1, com 0,33m de solução de micronutrientes e 0,07m de quelato de ferro. Os níveis corresponderam às quantidades de 50%, 100% e 150% da dose padrão, denominados de tratamentos T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente, aplicados semanalmente através da fertirrigação em todas as plantas de uma mesma parcela. Determinou-se a matéria seca dos diferentes órgãos da parte aérea da planta a intervalos semanais. Houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos no acúmulo da matéria seca, nos dois experimentos. A maior fração foi alocada para os frutos, atingindo o valor mais elevado de 0,64 na primavera. Concluiu-se que a distribuição da matéria seca desse material vegetal não é constante, sofrendo interações com as variáveis do ambiente.It was determined the effect of three mineral nutrient levels on dry matter accumulation and distribution of pickling cucumber plants, hybrid Crispina, grown inside a polyethylene greenhouse, in spring 1998 and in summer 1999. Planting was made in bags filled with 4.6kg of a substrate mixture composed by 40% rice husks and 60% soil. A randomized block experimental design was used, with three replications and15 plants per plot. A reference nutrient dose was supplied weekly to each one of the plants, with the following composition

  19. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Seung Mu

    1989-02-01

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  20. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  1. Bacterial production, protozoan grazing, and mineralization in stratified Lake Vechten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.

    1989-01-01

    The role of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN, size 2-20 μm) in grazing on bacteria and mineralization of organic matter in stratified Lake Vechten was studied.

    Quantitative effects of manipulation and fixation on HNAN were checked. Considerable losses were caused by

  2. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The bone density (BMD) is a medical term normally referring to the amount of mineral matter per square centimetre of bones. Twenty-five patients (18 female and 7 male patients with a mean age of 71.3 years) undergoing both lumbar spine DXA scans and computed tomography imaging were evaluated to determine if HU ...

  3. Transformação da matéria orgânica e do nitrogênio durante a compostagem da fração sólida do chorume bovino Transformation of organic matter and nitrogen during composting of the solid fraction of cattle slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Brito

    2008-10-01

    soon after separation of FSC1, which was collected at lower rate, and increased to a daily maximum temperature of 68 °C in the static pile with straw. However, the temperature in the FSC2 piles did not reach temperatures above 51 °C. Straw addition to slurry solid fraction contributed to raise temperatures in all piles, but did not increase organic matter (OM mineralization rates. Maximum mineralizable OM was higher in the turned than in static piles but the final N compost content was higher in static piles, suggesting that revolving can increase N losses. The C/N ratio declined from over 27 to a value of 11-13 towards the end of composting and followed a similar pattern for all compost treatments. Stabilized compost was obtained from raw SF feedstock as indicated by the low compost temperature, low C/N ratio and the low NH4+ content, besides higher NO3- concentrations. The high concentration of OM (720-820 g kg-1 and total N (30-44 g kg-1 in final composts in addition to a low electrical conductivity (below 100 mS m-1 suggests that SF composts may be useful as soil amendments with agronomic and environmental advantages. However, further research is needed to assure compost hygienization since the FSC2 did not reach thermophilic temperatures during composting.

  4. Quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June

  5. Color of Minerals. Earth Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, George, Jr.

    The causes for many of the colors exhibited by minerals are presented to students. Several theories of modern physics are introduced. The nature of light, the manner in which light interacts with matter, atomic theory, and crystal structure are all discussed in relation to the origin of color in minerals. Included are color pictures of many…

  6. 76 FR 33780 - Assessments for Mismatched Payments or Inadequate Payment Information for Geothermal, Solid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ...] Assessments for Mismatched Payments or Inadequate Payment Information for Geothermal, Solid Minerals, and...: Regulations for geothermal, solid minerals, and Indian oil and gas leases authorize the Office of Natural..., Office of Natural Resources Revenue, P.O. Box 25165, MS 61211B, Denver, Colorado 80225-0165...

  7. Characterisation of bulk solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. McGlinchey [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Centre for Industrial Bulk Solids Handling

    2005-07-01

    Handling of powders and bulk solids is a critical industrial technology across a broad spectrum of industries, including minerals processing. With contributions from leading authors in their respective fields, this book provides the reader with a sound understanding of the techniques, importance and application of particulate materials characterisation. It covers the fundamental characteristics of individual particles and bulk particulate materials, and includes discussion of a wide range of measurement techniques, and the use of material characteristics in design and industrial practice. Contents: Characterising particle properties; Powder mechanics and rheology; Characterisation for hopper and stockpile design; Fluidization behaviour; Characterisation for pneumatic conveyor design; Explosiblility; 'Designer' particle characteristics; Current industrial practice; and Future trends. 130 ills.

  8. Probing the rhizosphere to define mineral organic relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M. S.; Dohnalkova, A.; Stonestrom, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation and stabilization over time is an important process as soils are a large carbon reservoir in which feedbacks under changing climates are unclear. The association of SOM with poorly crystalline or short-range-ordered secondary minerals has been shown to be important for carbon stabilization. Commonly used soil extraction techniques display correlations of SOM with secondary phases but do not show causation. The fate of root exudates in soils and processes controlling exudate associations with mineral phases are as yet structurally undefined. Sub-micron exploration of in-situ relations provides valuable information on SOM-mineral interactions. Soils of the Santa Cruz (California) marine terrace chronosequence are used to illustrate changes in deep (> 1 m) rhizosphere through time. Cracks and soil ped faces are sites of high root density and organic matter (biofilm or mucilage) deposition. We employ a variety of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) techniques for high resolution imaging and elemental analyses of deep rhizosphere and associated carbon mineral interactions. In these coastal prairie soils microscopy reveals secondary clay minerals associated with and possibly forming from organic-rich mucilage that occurs along the aforementioned rooting networks on fracture surfaces. We hypothesize that the production of secondary clays in the rhizosphere is an important mode of C incorporation into secondary minerals.

  9. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  10. A Novel Type of Oil—generating Organic Matter —Crystal—enclosed Organic Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周中毅; 裴存民; 等

    1992-01-01

    The comparative study of organic matter in carbonate rocks and argillaceous rocks from the same horizon indicates that the organic thermal maturities of carbonate rocks are much lower than those of argillaceous rocks .Ana extensive analysis of extracted and inclused organic matter from the same sample shows that inclused organic matter is different from extracted organic matter,and the thermal maturity of the former is usually lower than that of the latter in terms of biomarker structural parameters.It seems that carbonate mineras could preserve organic matter and retard organic maturation.The inclused organic matter,abundant in most carbonate rocks,will be released from minerals and transformed into oil and gas during the high-thermal maturity stage.

  11. Characterization and radionuclides sorption of suspended particulate matters in freshwater according to their settling kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brach-Papa, C.; Boyer, P.; Amielh, M.; Anselmet, F.

    2004-01-01

    In freshwater, the transfers of radionuclides depend both on exchanges between liquid and solid phases and on mass transfers between suspended matter and bottom sediment. Whereas the former ones depend on chemical processes (such as sorption/desorption, complexation, the latter ones are regulated by hydrological and sedimentary considerations (dispersion, erosion, deposit closely related to the interactions between flow, suspended matter and bed sediment. Some of our previous studies highlight the need to consider the matter heterogeneity and its specific sediment dynamics to correctly report the inhomogeneity of fluxes in time and in space. These considerations lead us to develop experimental methods to distinguish the different matter classes, present in natural water, mainly according to their erosion threshold and settling kinetics. In this context, this paper presents the experimental protocol TALISMEN to characterize a natural bulk suspension according the identification of its main settling kinetics groups. In a first step, this identification is achieved by the use of a settling tank, that allows the monitoring of the suspended solid concentration at various depths, combined to a vertical mono-dimensional settling model applying a multi-class approach. In a second step, the particle groups are isolated and their physico-chemical properties are determined ( i.e mineral composition, specific surface area, particulate organic carbon, in order to fully characterized them. In a last one, the sorption property of each group toward radionuclides is determined by the measurements of its distribution coefficients (Kd). The results confirm the interest to consider these heterogeneities for the modelling of the radionuclides transfer in freshwater. From one group to other, these heterogeneities appear at two levels: 1) their sediment dynamics and 2) their radionuclides sorption properties. These conclusions can be equally applying to others xenobiotics as heavy metals

  12. Mineralization of soil organic matter in biochar amended agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintala, R.; Clay, D. E.; Schumacher, T. E.; Kumar, S.; Malo, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Pyrogenic biochar materials have been identified as a promising soil amendment to enhance climate resilience, increase soil carbon recalcitrance and achieve sustainable crop production. A three year field study was initiated in 2013 to study the impact of biochar on soil carbon and nitrogen storage on an eroded Maddock soil series - Sandy, Mixed, Frigid Entic Hapludolls) and deposition Brookings clay loam (Fine-Silty, Mixed, Superactive, Frigid Pachic Hapludolls) landscape positions. Three biochars produced from corn stover (Zea mays L.), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) wood residue, and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were incorporated at 9.75 Mg ha-1 rate (≈7.5 cm soil depth and 1.3 g/cm3 soil bulk density) with a rototiller. The changes in chemical fractionation of soil carbon (soluble C, acid hydrolyzable C, total C, and δ13 C) and nitrogen (soluble N, acid hydrolyzable N, total N, and δ14 N) were monitored for two soil depths (0-7.5 and 7.5 - 15 cm). Soluble and acid hydrolyzable fractions of soil C and N were influenced by soil series and were not significantly affected by incorporation of biochars. Based on soil and plant samples to be collected in the fall of 2015, C and N budgets are being developed using isotopic and non-isotopic techniques. Laboratory studies showed that the mean residence time for biochars used in this study ranged from 400 to 666 years. Laboratory and field studies will be compared in the presentation.

  13. Solid State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James D

    2007-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid State Physics, even though Condensed Matter Physics is more commonly used. Condensed Matter Physics includes liquids and non-crystalline solids such as glass, which we shall not discuss in detail. Modern Solid State Physics came of age in ...

  14. Bioinspired magnetite synthesis via solid precursor phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, J.J.M.; Mirabello, G.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms often exploit solid but poorly ordered mineral phases as precursors in the biomineralization of their inorganic body parts. Generally speaking, such precursor-based approaches allow the organisms-without the need of high supersaturation levels-to accumulate significant quantities of

  15. Minerals in deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    Almost any kind of mineral deposit can occur in desert areas, and the lack of vegetation and soil cover makes finding them easier. Some kinds of deposits, though, are more likely to occur in deserts than elsewhere. Some of these result from processes genetically related to the present desert climate that improved lower grade deposits of ore. One such process, termed secondary enrichment, is most effective in areas with deep water tables, and many low-grade copper, silver, and uranium deposits have been converted into mineable ore by the downward migration and redeposition of soluble metals. In a desert terrane, placer processes are effective whenever running water flowing over steep slopes erodes outcropping ore bodies and transports and concentrates the heavier ore minerals at lower levels, thus converting low-grade or hard-to-mine bedrock deposits into economically workable concentrations. Other kinds of deposits are better preserved in deserts because the lower rainfall at the surface, and the lower volume of flow and the greater depths to groundwater, result in less destruction of soluble ores; deposits of salines and phosphates are the most notable ores affected by these factors. Still other ore deposits are created as a consequence of the arid climate, mostly because the high evaporation rates operating on standing bodies of water produce brines that can lead directly to concentrations of salts and indirectly to secondary minerals, such as zeolites, that are produced by reaction of silicate minerals with saline waters

  16. Uruguay minerals fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, H.

    1967-01-01

    In this report the bases for the development of the necessary works of prospection are exposed on mineral fuels of Uruguay. We have taken the set from: coal, lutitas bituminous, uranium, petroleum and disturbs. In all the cases we have talked about to the present state of the knowledge and to the works that we considered necessary to develop in each case

  17. Influence of ultrasonic energy on dispersion of aggregates and released amounts of organic matter and polyvalent cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M.; Kleber, M.; Berhe, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Aggregates play important roles in soil carbon storage and stabilization. Identification of scale-dependent mechanisms of soil aggregate formation and stability is necessary to predict and eventually manage the flow of carbon through terrestrial ecosystems. Application of ultrasonic energy is a common tool to disperse soil aggregates. In this study, we used ultra sonic energy (100 to 2000 J cm-3) to determine the amount of polyvalent cations and organic matter involved in aggregation processes in three arable and three forest soils that varied in soil mineral composition. To determine the amount of organic matter and cations released after application of different amount of ultrasonic energy, we removed the coarse fraction (>250 µm). The remaining residue (solid residue freeze dried before we analyzed the amounts of water-extracted organic carbon (OC), Fe, Al, Ca, Mn, and Mg in the filtrates. The extracted OM and solid residues were further characterized by Fourier Transformed Infra Red spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Our results show a linear increase in amount of dissolved OC with increasing amounts of ultra sonic energy up to 1500 J cm-3 indicating maximum dispersion of soil aggregates at this energy level independent from soil type or land use. In contrast to Mn, and Mg, the amounts of dissolved Ca, Fe, and Al increase with increasing ultra sonic energy up to 1500 J cm-3. At 1500 J cm-3, the absolute amounts of OC, Ca, Fe, and Al released were specific for each soil type, likely indicating differences in type of OM-mineral interactions involved in micro-scaled aggregation processes. The amounts of dissolved Fe, and Al released after an application of 1500 J cm-3 are not related to oxalate- and dithionite- extractable, or total Al content indicating less disintegration of pedogenic oxides or clay minerals due to high levels of ultrasonic energy.

  18. Media Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Pötzsch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution maps materialist advances in media studies. Based on the assumption that matter and materiality constitute significant aspects of communication processes and practices, I introduce four fields of inquiry - technology, political economy, ecology, and the body - and argue that these perspectives enable a more comprehensive understanding of the implications of contemporary technologically afforded forms of interaction. The article shows how each perspective can balance apologetic and apocalyptic approaches to the impact of in particular digital technologies, before it demonstrates the applicability of an integrated framework with reference to the techno-politics of NSA surveillance and the counter-practices of WikiLeaks.

  19. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  20. Modelling the interaction of high energy ions with inert matter, living matter, and moving matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuve, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In this report for accreditation to supervise research (HDR), the author proposes a synthetic (and however relatively detailed) overview of his research works in the fields of physics and radiology. The first part addresses works in the field of interaction between ions and inert matter (Monte Carlo simulation of emission induced by ion-solid interaction, simulation by molecular dynamics of pulverization). The second part addresses the interaction between ions and living matter: research strategy, principle of the Local Effect Model (LEM) and influence of its main parameters, LEM experimental assessment, LEM theoretical analysis, role of the cell oxidizing and anti-oxidizing system. The next part addresses the interaction of ions with moving matter: research strategy, lung mechanics modelling and clinical assessments, chest wall mechanics, transformation of movements simulated in 4D scanner imagery

  1. Determination of dry matter and organic matter content in input material for solid-matter fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, W.

    2008-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents and discusses the results of tests made on various samples of biogenous wastes taken from four fermentation plants in Switzerland. The aims of the tests made on the fermentation input materials that were sampled on a weekly basis are discussed. Various relevant data on the samples noted include the characterisation of the material and even weather data. The spread of the data acquired is discussed. The results obtained are examined in detail, including seasonal variations. The basic findings of the project are presented and differences between countryside and city areas as well as garden and catering wastes are discussed. A comprehensive appendix presents details on the data collected.

  2. Effect of water content nitrogen gross mineralization and immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videla C, Ximena; Parada, Ana Maria; Nario M, Adriana; Pino N, Ines; Hood, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the accompanying mineralization and immobilization of inorganic N, are key processes in the soil plant cycle. It is hypothesized that moisture regime may also play an important role on these processes. Two laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the effect of moisture regime on gross mineralization and immobilization of N, in and Ultisol soil, which was incubated at 25 o C, under two moisture regimes, field capacity (CC) (40% w/w) and 85% of field capacity (34% w/w): Using mirror image 15 N isotope dilution techniques, it was possible to determine gross nitrification and mineralization rates. The rates of gross mineralization and nitrification rate in this soil was extremely rapid and efficient, specially with 85% CC. The N transformations varied with moisture regime (author)

  3. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  4. Hydraulic Mineral Waste Transport and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullum, Lionel; Boger, David V.; Sofra, Fiona

    2018-01-01

    Conventional mineral waste disposal involves pumping dilute concentration suspensions of tailings to large catchment areas, where the solids settle to form a consolidated base while the excess water is evaporated. Unfortunately, this often takes years, if ever, to occur, and the interim period poses a severe threat to the surrounding countryside and water table. A worldwide movement to increase the concentration of these tailings to pastes for disposal above and below ground, obviating some of these issues, has led to the development of new technologies. Increasing the solids concentrations invariably produces non-Newtonian effects that can mask the underlying nature of the suspension mechanics, resulting in the use of poor pipeline and disposal methods. Combining rheological characterization and analysis with non-Newtonian suspension fluid mechanics provides insight into these flows, both laminar and turbulent. These findings provide the necessary basis for successful engineering designs.

  5. The Rusty Sink: Iron Promotes the Preservation of Organic Matter in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, K. M.; Mucci, A.; Moritz, A.; Ouellet, A.; Gelinas, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of iron (Fe) and organic carbon (OC) are strongly interlinked. In oceanic waters, organic ligands have been shown to control the concentration of dissolved Fe [1], whereas in soils, solid Fe phases provide a sheltering and preservative effect for organic matter [2]. Until now however, the role of iron in the preservation of OC in sediments has not been clearly established. Here we show that 21.5 ± 8.6% of the OC in sediments is directly bound to reactive iron phases, which promote the preservation of OC in sediments. Iron-bound OC represents a global mass of 19 to 45 × 10^15 g of OC in surface marine sediments. This pool of OC is different from the rest of sedimentary OC, with 13C and nitrogen-enriched organic matter preferentially bound to Fe which suggests that biochemical fractionation occurs with OC-Fe binding. Preferential binding also affects the recovery of high molecular weight lipid biomarkers and acidic lignin oxidation products, changing the environmental message of proxies derived from these biomarkers. [1] Johnson, K. S., Gordon, R. M. & Coale, K. H. What controls dissolved iron in the world ocean? Marine Chemistry 57, 137-161 (1997). [2] Kaiser, K. & Guggenberger, G. The role of DOM sorption to mineral surfaces in the preservation of organic matter in soils. Organic Geochemistry 31, 711-725 (2000).

  6. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  7. Indústria mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iran F. Machado

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A INDÚSTRIA mineral brasileira é analisada, de modo sucinto, face aos desafios impostos pela globalização contemporânea. As mudanças profundas ocorridas no contexto internacional na última década, abrangendo as esferas política, econômica, social e institucional, exigem uma reflexão aprofundada sobre o papel a ser desempenhado pelo Brasil no comércio internacional de bens minerais. De um lado, as oportunidades de aproveitamento de jazidas de classe internacional, principalmente na Amazônia, são bastante promissoras. Por outro, não se deve ignorar que: a explotação dessas reservas terá de obedecer a critérios de sustentabilidade, seguindo paradigmas já adotados em países desenvolvidos; o Brasil terá de garantir a sua competitividade diante dos seus principais concorrentes (Austrália, CEI, China e Índia. A questão dos minerais estratégicos é também abordada, com ênfase nas preocupações demonstradas pelo Departamento de Estado dos EUA. Finalmente, são alinhados três cenários possíveis para o desempenho futuro da mineração brasileira, instando-se o governo a dedicar maior atenção ao destino do nosso subsolo.THE MINERAL industry of Brazil is briefly analysed vis-à-vis the challenges imposed by the cruenta globalization process. The profound changes that occurred in the international framework during the last decade, encompassing the political, economic, social, and institutional structures, demand a thorough appraisal about the role to be played by Brazil in the international market of mineral commodities. On one hand, the opportunities open for world class deposits, mainly in the Amazon, are very promising. On the other hand, it is mandatory to take into account that: the exploitation of these reserves shall comply with sound sustainability criteria, following guidelines already adopted by some developed countries; Brazil will have to demonstrate its competitiveness among the major competitors (Australia

  8. Mineral and inorganic chemical composition of the Pernik coal, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yossifova, Mariana G. [Geological Institute, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl.24, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-11-22

    The mineral and inorganic chemical composition of five types of samples from the Pernik subbituminous coals and their products generated from the Pernik preparation plant were studied. They include feed coal, low-grade coal, high-grade coal, coal slime, and host rock. The mineral matter of the coals contains 44 species that belong mainly to silicates, carbonates, sulphates, sulphides, and oxides/hydroxides, and to a lesser extent, chlorides, biogenic minerals, and organic minerals. The detrital minerals are quartz, kaolinite, micas, feldspars, magnetite, cristobalite, spessartine, and amphibole. The authigenic minerals include various sulphides, silicates, oxihydroxides, sulphates, and carbonates. Several stages and substages of formation were identified during the syngenetic and epigenetic mineral precipitations of these coals. The authigenic minerals show the greatest diversity of mineral species as the epigenetic mineralization (mostly sulphides, carbonates, and sulphates) dominates qualitatively and quantitatively. The epigenetic mineralization was a result of complex processes occurring mostly during the late development of the Pernik basin. These processes indicate intensive tectonic, hydrothermal and volcanic activities accompanied by a change from fresh to marine sedimentation environment. Thermally altered organic matter due to some of the above processes was also identified in the basin. Most of the trace elements in the Pernik coals (Mo, Be, S, Zr, Y, Cl, Ba, Sc, Ga, Ag, V, P, Br, Ni, Co, Pb, Ca, and Ti) show an affinity to OM and phases intimately associated with OM. Some of the trace elements (Sr, Ti, Mn, Ba, Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Cr, Ni, As, Ag, Yb, Sn, Ga, Ge, etc.) are impurities in authigenic and accessory minerals, while other trace elements (La, Ba, Cu, Ce, Sb, Bi, Zn, Pb, Cd, Nd, etc.) occur as discrete phases. Elements such as Sc, Be, Y, Ba, V, Zr, S, Mo, Ti, and Ga exceed Clarke concentrations in all of the coal types studied. It was also found that

  9. Protection of mineral deposits - a way towards difficult compromises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanek-Bąk, Barbara; Nieć, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Mineral deposits are non-renewable natural resources. Their protection and reasonable exploitation are crucial requests resulting from sustainable development principles. Those are also fundamental issues in frame of the intergeneration justice and fairness concept. Protection of mineral resources should be based on interrelated activities: maintaining the possibility of economic use of the identified mineral resources, reduced consumption of mineral resources and ensuring satisfactory results of new prospecting and development of innovative technologies for the mineral resources base. The main problem with guarantee to the use of mineral resources is the accessibility to sites with documented deposits and prospective areas of their occurrence. Often, this contradicts with the interests of residents, planners and needs of the biotic environment protection, thus is often a source of conflicts. Legislative regulations are necessary to mitigate such arguable matters. SWOT analysis carried out with respect to introducing such legal regulations serves to identify the sources of conflicts and difficulties associated with their solution. Consensus reaching is a difficult task, so all decision makers are required to show their mutual understanding and willingness to achieve the goals taking into consideration all benefits for the population (including future generations). Foundations for finding the middle ground are: making the communities aware of their demands on minerals and of indispensable conditions for satisfying these demands; providing complete and accessible information; factual, non-emotional negotiations between decision makers and the public.

  10. Molecular dynamics for dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Chiba, Satoshi; Watanabe, Gentaro

    2012-01-01

    We review a molecular dynamics method for nucleon many-body systems called quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), and our studies using this method. These studies address the structure and the dynamics of nuclear matter relevant to neutron star crusts, supernova cores, and heavy-ion collisions. A key advantage of QMD is that we can study dynamical processes of nucleon many-body systems without any assumptions about the nuclear structure. First, we focus on the inhomogeneous structures of low-density nuclear matter consisting not only of spherical nuclei but also of nuclear “pasta”, i.e., rod-like and slab-like nuclei. We show that pasta phases can appear in the ground and equilibrium states of nuclear matter without assuming nuclear shape. Next, we show our simulation of compression of nuclear matter which corresponds to the collapsing stage of supernovae. With the increase in density, a crystalline solid of spherical nuclei changes to a triangular lattice of rods by connecting neighboring nuclei. Finally, we discuss fragment formation in expanding nuclear matter. Our results suggest that a generally accepted scenario based on the liquid–gas phase transition is not plausible at lower temperatures. (author)

  11. Molecular dynamics for dense matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Watanabe, Gentaro; Chiba, Satoshi

    2012-08-01

    We review a molecular dynamics method for nucleon many-body systems called quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), and our studies using this method. These studies address the structure and the dynamics of nuclear matter relevant to neutron star crusts, supernova cores, and heavy-ion collisions. A key advantage of QMD is that we can study dynamical processes of nucleon many-body systems without any assumptions about the nuclear structure. First, we focus on the inhomogeneous structures of low-density nuclear matter consisting not only of spherical nuclei but also of nuclear "pasta", i.e., rod-like and slab-like nuclei. We show that pasta phases can appear in the ground and equilibrium states of nuclear matter without assuming nuclear shape. Next, we show our simulation of compression of nuclear matter which corresponds to the collapsing stage of supernovae. With the increase in density, a crystalline solid of spherical nuclei changes to a triangular lattice of rods by connecting neighboring nuclei. Finally, we discuss fragment formation in expanding nuclear matter. Our results suggest that a generally accepted scenario based on the liquid-gas phase transition is not plausible at lower temperatures.

  12. Outlook 96: Minerals and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Papers discussing the future of Australia's minerals and energy are presented under the following headings: Australia in the global minerals and energy markets; minerals exploration; steelmaking raw materials; aluminium and alumina; gold; nickel; base metals; titanium minerals; energy for a sustainable future; electricity; electricity in Asia; crude oil; coal trade; natural gas in Australia and uranium. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs., figs., refs

  13. International availability of energy minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, N A [Norman White Associates, London (UK)

    1979-06-01

    Whereas the ultimate world supply of energy minerals - defined as fossil fuels and fissile minerals - is controlled by geological factors, the actual supply at any particular time is controlled by economic feasibility, technological innovations and/or political decisions. This paper identifies and discusses the principal uncertainties surrounding the international availability of energy minerals from now until the end of the century. A brief comparison is also made between energy and non-energy minerals.

  14. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  15. The bismuth miners study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche, B.; Kreuzer, M.; Kreisheimer, M.; Schnelzer, M.; Tschense, A.; Gottschalk, K.

    2005-01-01

    The Federal Radiation Protection Office carried out a retrospective cohort study on some 60,000 former employees of the SAG/SDAG Wismut. The purpose of the study was to validate the radon-related risk of acquiring lung cancer previously calculated from 11 jointly evaluated studies among miners on the basis of an independent, homogeneous data record of comparable size. A further goal was to study the risk of acquiring extrapulmonal tumours. This paper only briefly describes the sampling, design and methods used in the study, as these were already presented during the Radon Status Talks. The first follow-up on the cohort was completed in 2003. Around this time a job exposure matrix (JEM) suitable for scientific inquiries was made available by the professional miners' association and the roof organisation of professional trade associations (HVBG). This paper is the first to report on the outcome of the risk analysis in direct comparison with the results found by BEIR

  16. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  17. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  18. Characterization lithium mineralized pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.F.S.; Luz Ferreira, O. da; Cancado, R.Z.L.

    1986-01-01

    Lithium economic importance has increased in the last years. In Brazil its reserves, generally pegmatites bodies, are found in Itinga-Aracuai-MG. This study of characterization belongs to a global plan of lithium mineralized bodies research of 'Arqueana de Minerios e Metais Ltda', which purpose is to give subsidies for implementation of pegmatite unit, in order to make better use of them. (F.E.) [pt

  19. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ...-10] RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule...'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are necessary to the functionality or... body of its annual report whether its conflict minerals originated in the Democratic Republic of the...

  20. Flotation of sulphide minerals 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forssberg, K S.E. [ed.; Luleaa University of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden). Division of Mineral Processing

    1991-01-01

    A total of 27 papers presented at the workshop on flotation of sulphide minerals, reprinted from the International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 33, nos. 1-4, are included in this book. They cover various aspects of flotation of such minerals as chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, malachite and pyrite.

  1. Digital mineral logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    A digital mineral logging system acquires data from a mineral logging tool passing through a borehole and transmits the data uphole to an electronic digital signal processor. A predetermined combination of sensors, including a deviometer, is located in a logging tool for the acquisition of the desired data as the logging tool is raised from the borehole. Sensor data in analog format is converted in the logging tool to a digital format and periodically batch transmitted to the surface at a predetermined sampling rate. An identification code is provided for each mineral logging tool, and the code is transmitted to the surface along with the sensor data. The self-identifying tool code is transmitted to the digital signal processor to identify the code against a stored list of the range of numbers assigned to that type of tool. The data is transmitted up the d-c power lines of the tool by a frequency shift key transmission technique. At the surface, a frequency shift key demodulation unit transmits the decoupled data to an asynchronous receiver interfaced to the electronic digital signal processor. During a recording phase, the signals from the logging tool are read by the electronic digital signal processor and stored for later processing. During a calculating phase, the stored data is processed by the digital signal processor and the results are outputted to a printer or plotter, or both

  2. The Thermodynamics of Selenium Minerals in Near-Surface Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Krivovichev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selenium compounds are relatively rare as minerals; there are presently only 118 known mineral species. This work is intended to codify and systematize the data of mineral systems and the thermodynamics of selenium minerals, which are unstable (selenides or formed in near-surface environments (selenites, where the behavior of selenium is controlled by variations of the redox potential and the acidity of solutions at low temperatures and pressures. These parameters determine the migration of selenium and its precipitation as various solid phases. All selenium minerals are divided into four groups—native selenium, oxide, selenides, and oxysalts—anhydrous selenites (I and hydrous selenites and selenates (II. Within each of the groups, minerals are codified according to the minimum number of independent elements necessary to define the composition of the mineral system. Eh–pH diagrams were calculated and plotted using the Geochemist’s Workbench (GMB 9.0 software package. The Eh–pH diagrams of the Me–Se–H2O systems (where Me = Co, Ni, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg, Ag, Bi, As, Sb, Al and Ca were plotted for the average contents of these elements in acidic waters in the oxidation zones of sulfide deposits. The possibility of the formation of Zn, Cd, Ag and Hg selenites under natural oxidation conditions in near surface environments is discussed.

  3. Influence of iron redox cycling on organo-mineral associations in arctic tundra soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, E.; AlBashaireh, A.; Duroe, K.; Singer, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Geochemical interactions between soil organic matter and minerals influence decomposition in many environments but remain poorly understood in arctic tundra systems. In tundra soils that are periodically to persistently saturated, the accumulation of iron oxyhydroxides and organo-iron precipitates at redox interfaces may inhibit decomposition by binding organic molecules and protecting them from microbial degradation. Here, we couple synchrotron-source spectroscopic techniques with chemical sequential extractions and physical density fractionations to evaluate the spatial distribution and speciation of Fe-bearing phases and associated organic matter in organic and mineral horizons of the seasonally thawed active layer in tundra soils from northern Alaska. Mineral-associated organic matter comprised 63 ± 9% of soil organic carbon stored in the active layer of ice wedge polygons. Ferrous iron produced in anoxic mineral horizons diffused upwards and precipitated as poorly-crystalline oxyhydroxides and organic-bound Fe(III) in the organic horizons. Ferrihydrite and goethite were present as coatings on mineral grains and plant debris and in aggregates with clays and particulate organic matter. Organic matter released through acid-dissolution of iron oxides may represent a small pool of readily-degradable organic molecules temporarily stabilized by sorption to iron oxyhydroxide surfaces, while larger quantities of particulate organic carbon and humic-like substances may be physically protected from decomposition by Fe-oxide coatings and aggregation. We conclude that formation of poorly-crystalline and crystalline iron oxides at redox interfaces contributes to mineral protection of organic matter through sorption, aggregation, and co-precipitation reactions. Further study of organo-mineral associations is necessary to determine the net impact of mineral-stabilization on carbon storage in rapidly warming arctic ecosystems.

  4. Theoretical approaches to control spin dynamics in solid-state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present fundamental theories in the history of NMR, namely, the average Hamiltonian and Floquet theories. We also ..... The results are better illustrated in a double ...... Matter 17 4501. 94. Ernst M 2006 Germany: Solid-State NMR Summer.

  5. Pseudopotentials for calculating the bulk and surface properties of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is presented describing research in condensed matter physics using pseudopotentials to calculate electronic, structural, and vibrational properties of solids. Semiconductors are emphasized, and both bulk and surface calculations are discussed. (author) [pt

  6. Uranium mineralization in the Lower Mahadek Sandstones of Laitduh Area, East Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahendra Kumar, K.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Ranganath, N.

    2008-01-01

    Significant uranium mineralization hosted in feldspathic sandstone of Upper Cretaceous Lower Mahadek Formation has been located at Laitduh, East Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya. Two mineralized horizons have been identified within Lower Mahadek Formation with vertical separation of 30 m. Samples from upper horizon have assayed upto 0.17% U 3 O 8 , whereas samples from lower mineralized horizon have assayed upto 0.50% U 3 O 8 . The radioactive minerals identified are coffinite and pitchblende occurring in association with carbonaceous matter. (author)

  7. Fe-Impregnated Mineral Colloids for Peroxide Activation: Effects of Mineral Substrate and Fe Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Machala, Libor; Yan, Weile

    2016-02-02

    Heterogeneous iron species at the mineral/water interface are important catalysts for the generation of reactive oxygen species at circumneutral pH. One significant pathway leading to the formation of such species arises from deposition of dissolved iron onto mineral colloids due to changes in redox conditions. This study investigates the catalytic properties of Fe impregnated on silica, alumina, and titania nanoparticles (as prototypical mineral colloids). Fe impregnation was carried out by immersing the mineral nanoparticles in dilute Fe(II) or Fe(III) solutions at pH 6 and 3, respectively, in an aerobic environment. The uptake of iron per unit surface area follows the order of nTiO2 > nAl2O3 > nSiO2 for both types of Fe precursors. Impregnation of mineral particles in Fe(II) solutions results in predominantly Fe(III) species due to efficient surface-mediated oxidation. The catalytic activity of the impregnated solids to produce hydroxyl radical (·OH) from H2O2 decomposition was evaluated using benzoic acid as a probe compound under dark conditions. Invariably, the rates of benzoic acid oxidation with different Fe-laden particles increase with the surface density of Fe until a critical density above which the catalytic activity approaches a plateau, suggesting active Fe species are formed predominantly at low surface loadings. The critical surface density of Fe varies with the mineral substrate as well as the aqueous Fe precursor. Fe impregnated on TiO2 exhibits markedly higher activity than its Al2O3 and SiO2 counterparts. The speciation of interfacial Fe is analyzed with diffuse reflectance UV-vis analysis and interpretation of the data in the context of benzoic oxidation rates suggests that the surface activity of the solids for ·OH generation correlates strongly with the isolated (i.e., mononuclear) Fe species. Therefore, iron dispersed on mineral colloids is a significant form of reactive iron surfaces in the aquatic environment.

  8. Depth distribution of 137Cs adsorption property of clay minerals influenced by mineral weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Atsushi; Funakawa, Shinya; Kosaki, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Radiocesium adsorption potential of mica clay mineral can increase as it is weathered, because K depletion in mica interlayer sites generates new Cs selective sites. However, in soils weathered under field conditions, the increase in 137 Cs adsorption potential associated with mineral weathering has not been observed extensively. We investigated four soil profiles from Japan and Thailand with different soil pH ranges (3.3-4.0, 4.2-4.3, 5.0-5.7, and 5.5-7.3). The solid/liquid distribution coefficients of Cs ( Cs Kd) in clay ( 137 Cs adsorption potential of mica clay minerals. In three soil profiles, Cs Kd value in clay was the largest at a surface horizon and was decreased with depth, whereas in the most acidic of Podzolic soil profile, it was the largest at B horizon. The large Cs Kd value in surface clays relative to deeper horizons were well associated with that of 2.0-1.0 μm clay fraction. We assumed that the 137 Cs adsorption potential increased at surface horizons mainly because coarser clay micas were weathered and generated Cs selective sites. The exceptional result obtained in Podzolic soil profile suggests that too intensive weathering destruct mica structure and may decrease in Cs adsorption potential of mica clay minerals. (author)

  9. Intense e-beam interaction with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, R.H.; Crawford, O.H.

    1984-01-01

    This document describes work done in this period on certain nonlinear processes of potential importance at high energy densities in condensed matter, and on the theory of the electron slowing-down-cascade spectrum engendered in solids by e-beams

  10. Uniform shock waves in disordered granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, L.R.; Turner, A.M.; Vitelli, V.

    2012-01-01

    The confining pressure P is perhaps the most important parameter controlling the properties of granular matter. Strongly compressed granular media are, in many respects, simple solids in which elastic perturbations travel as ordinary phonons. However, the speed of sound in granular aggregates

  11. Formation and Stability of Microbially Derived Soil Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M. P.; Creamer, C.; Foster, A. L.; Lawrence, C. R.; Mcfarland, J. W.; Schulz, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Soil carbon is vital to soil health, food security, and climate change mitigation, but the underlying mechanisms controlling the stabilization and destabilization of soil carbon are still poorly understood. There has been a conceptual paradigm shift in how soil organic matter is formed which now emphasizes the importance of microbial activity to build stable (i.e. long-lived) and mineral-associated soil organic matter. In this conceptual model, the consumption of plant carbon by microorganisms, followed by subsequent turnover of microbial bodies closely associated with mineral particles, produces a layering of amino acid and lipid residues on the surfaces of soil minerals that remains protected from destabilization by mineral-association and aggregation processes. We tested this new model by examining how isotopically labeled plant and microbial C differ in their fundamental stabilization and destabilization processes on soil minerals through a soil profile. We used a combination of laboratory and field-based approaches to bridge multiple spatial scales, and used soil depth as well as synthetic minerals to create gradients of soil mineralogy. We used Raman microscopy as a tool to probe organic matter association with mineral surfaces, as it allows for the simultaneous quantification and identification of living microbes, carbon, minerals, and isotopes through time. As expected, we found that the type of minerals present had a strong influence on the amount of C retained, but the stabilization of new C critically depends on growth, death, and turnover of microbial cells. Additionally, the destabilization of microbial residue C on mineral surfaces was little affected by flushes of DOC relative to wet-dry cycles alone. We believe this new insight into microbial mechanisms of C stabilization in soils will eventually lead to new avenues for measuring and modeling SOM dynamics in soils, and aid in the management of soil C to mediate global challenges.

  12. Excitons in the rare gas solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Excitons play a prominent role in the chemistry and physics of condensed matter. Excitons in the rare gas solids, the prototypical van der Waals insulators, will be the focus of the remainder of this report. The goal here is to investigate the controversies surrounding the description of excitons in insulators and, therefore the simplest class of these solids, namely the rare gas solids, is chosen as the exemplary system. Specific problems associated with molecular crystals are, therefore, avoided and only the salient features of excitons are thus considered. 47 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  14. Nuclear minerals in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, M.

    2005-01-01

    Strategic importance of Nuclear Minerals was recognized during early formative years of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and prospecting for uranium was started in Dera Ghazi Khan in collaboration with the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) as early as 1961. Later, the responsibility for countrywide surveys and exploration was fully entrusted with PAEC and in this respect a Directorate of Nuclear Minerals(DNM) was established in 1966 at Lahore. Later, DNM was shifted to the Atomic Energy Centre (AEC), Lahore building and renamed as Atomic Energy Minerals Centre. It has state-of-the-art Chemistry, Mineralogy, Remote Sensing and Electronics Laboratories and an Ore Processing Pilot Plant. The Centre has Prospecting, Exploration, Geophysics, Geochemistry, Geo-tectonics, Mining and Drilling Sections. Regional Offices have been established to facilitate work at Karachi, Quetta and Peshawar. Siwaliks were recognized as a favorable geological formation of prime importance. Sandstone-shale sequence of Siwaliks Formation is exposed in all provinces of Pakistan and in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), broadly categorized into Rajanpur-Dera Ghazi Khan, Bannu Basin-Kohat Plateau and Potwar-AJK zones. Baghalchur, Nangar Nai and Taunsa uranium deposits have been discovered in the Rajanpur- D.G. Khan Zone. Qabul Khel and Shanawah Uranium deposits have been discovered in the Shanawah-Kohat Plateau Zone. Prospection and exploration is in progress. The first uranium mine was opened at Baghalchur, and uranium mill was established at D.G Khan in 1977-78 all by indigenous effort. The uranium mine was the most advanced and mechanized mine of that time in the country. Later, a second uranium mine was opened at Qabul Khel in 1992, which was based on a new and advanced in situ leach technology, developed to suit local geological and ore zone parameters. Mining of Nanganai and Taunsa Deposits was started respectively in 1996 and 2002, and is also based on in situ leach technology which is

  15. Minerals and rumen function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanisms are discussed of some clinical disorders, characteristic only of ruminants and related to the effects of abnormal mineral intake on rumen function. With particular attention to tropical conditions, consideration is given to: (a) the possible effects of phosphorus deficiency on rumen microbial activity; (b) the depression of rumen microbial synthesis in sulphur deficiency; (c) the inhibition of magnesium absorption from the forestomachs; and (d) the involvement of the rumen microorganisms in leading to copper and vitamin B 12 deficiencies as a result of low intakes of cobalt. (author)

  16. Reducing coal miner absenteeism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.H.; Clingan, M.R. (Bureau of Mines, PA (USA). Pittsburgh Research Center)

    1989-09-01

    High absenteeism at coal mines can seriously affect safety and hamper productivity. Several effective strategies for achieving high attendance which mine operators may not have considered are presented and a method is proposed for implementing programs for minimizing absenteeism among coal miners. The best strategies for improving attendance will vary according to the needs and circumstances of the particular mine, however, the process for establishing such a program is relatively invariant. A four-stage process is recommended; evaluate data from prior attendance records, communicate attendance goals and policy, develop and implement an attendance promotion program, and recycle. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  17. United States mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald A.; Pratt, Walden P.

    1973-01-01

    The work on this volume began in January 1972, but in a broader sense its production began many years ago. The chapters were written by geologists most of whom have had many years of experience studying the geology of mineral deposits, and more particularly the commodities about which they have written here. A total of nearly 2,300 man-years of professional experience in the geology of mineral resources is represented by the authors of the volume, and about 30 man-years went directly into its preparation. Each chapter contains not only a synthesis of the state of knowledge of the geology of the commodity, but also an appraisal of the known resources, and an examination of the geologic possibilities for finding additional deposits. In January 1972, responsibility for the preparation of the volume was assigned to us as co-editors, and we were given a tentative list of commodities and authors. We provided each author with a suggested outline of general topics to be covered, and some guidelines as to scope and philosophy of approach, but beyond that we avoided any attempt to fit each chapter into a stereotype. Moreover, the types of commodities range from the major metals and industrial minerals such as copper, silver, and fluorspar, which have been the subject of geologic research for years, to other commodities that are of such varied geologic nature (such as pigments or gemstones) or of such minor present importance (such as scandium or thallium) that they cannot be treated from the same viewpoint as the major minerals. The chapters range, therefore, from comprehensive summary reports to general essays that reflect the individuality of the authors as well as the variation among commodities. Throughout the book the emphasis is on geology, but each chapter contains some summary information on uses, technology, and economics. These summaries are not meant to be exhaustive, however, and additional details are in the 1970 edition of "Mineral Facts and Problems" (Bulletin

  18. Refining mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1946-07-05

    A process is described refining raw oils such as mineral oils, shale oils, tar, their fractions and derivatives, by extraction with a selected solvent or a mixture of solvents containing water, forming a solvent more favorable for the hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen than for hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen, this process is characterized by the addition of an aiding solvent for the water which can be mixed or dissolved in the water and the solvent or in the dissolving mixture and increasing in this way the solubility of the water in the solvent or the dissolving mixture.

  19. RELATIVE TRACE MINERAL BIOAVAILABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Rchard D. Miles; Peter R. Henry

    2006-01-01

    Para determinar a eficiência de utilização de elementos minerais dietéticos, deve-se conhecer a biodisponibilidade relativa de cada elemento de um determinado ingrediente ou de uma ração completa. Análises químicas da dieta ou de um determinado ingrediente não indicam a efetividade biológica de um nutriente. Existem muitos fatores que influenciam a biodisponibilidade dos minerais, especialmente dos minerais-traço, tais como: nível de consumo do mineral, forma química, digestibilidade da dieta...

  20. Magnetic, in situ, mineral characterization of Chelyabinsk meteorite thin section

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nábělek, Ladislav; Mazanec, M.; Kdyr, S.; Kletetschka, Günther

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2015), s. 1112-1121 ISSN 1086-9379 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : grain-size * physical-properties * anomalies * asteroids * chondrite * origin * hematite * rocks * Mars Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.819, year: 2015

  1. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  2. Baryonic matter and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.

  3. Current status of direct dark matter detection experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianglai; Chen, Xun; Ji, Xiangdong

    2017-03-01

    Much like ordinary matter, dark matter might consist of elementary particles, and weakly interacting massive particles are one of the prime suspects. During the past decade, the sensitivity of experiments trying to directly detect them has improved by three to four orders of magnitude, but solid evidence for their existence is yet to come. We overview the recent progress in direct dark matter detection experiments and discuss future directions.

  4. Front Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HLRC Editor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher Learning Research Communications (HLRC, ISSN: 2157-6254 [Online] is published collaboratively by Walden University (USA, Universidad Andrés Bello (Chile, Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain and Istanbul Bilgi University (Turkey. Written communication to HLRC should be addressed to the office of the Executive Director at Laureate Education, Inc. 701 Brickell Ave Ste. 1700, Miami, FL 33131, USA. HLRC is designed for open access and online distribution through www.hlrcjournal.com. The views and statements expressed in this journal do not necessarily reflect the views of Laureate Education, Inc. or any of its affiliates (collectively “Laureate”. Laureate does not warrant the accuracy, reliability, currency or completeness of those views or statements and does not accept any legal liability arising from any reliance on the views, statements and subject matter of the journal. Acknowledgements The Guest Editors gratefully acknowledge the substantial contribution of the readers for the blind peer review of essays submitted for this special issue as exemplars of individuals from around the world who have come together in a collective endeavor for the common good: Robert Bringle (Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, US, Linda Buckley (University of the Pacific, US, Guillermo Calleja (Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain, Eva Egron-Polak (International Association of Universities, France, Heather Friesen (Abu Dhabi University, UAE, Saran Gill (National University of Malaysia, Malaysia, Chester Haskell (higher education consultant, US, Kanokkarn Kaewnuch (National Institute for Development Administration, Thailand, Gil Latz (Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, US, Molly Lee (higher education consultant, Malaysia, Deane Neubauer (East-West Center at University of Hawaii, US, Susan Sutton (Bryn Mawr College, US, Francis Wambalaba (United States International University, Kenya, and Richard Winn (higher education

  5. pH neutralization of the by-product sludge waste water generated from waste concrete recycling process using the carbon mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sangwoo; Shin, Hee-young; Bang, Jun Hwan; Ahn, Ji-Whan

    2017-04-01

    About 44 Mt/year of waste concrete is generated in South Korea. More than 95% of this waste concrete is recycled. In the process of regenerating and recycling pulmonary concrete, sludge mixed with fine powder generated during repeated pulverization process and water used for washing the surface and water used for impurity separation occurs. In this way, the solid matter contained in the sludge as a by-product is about 40% of the waste concrete that was input. Due to the cement component embedded in the concrete, the sludge supernatant is very strong alkaline (pH about 12). And it is necessary to neutralization for comply with environmental standards. In this study, carbon mineralization method was applied as a method to neutralize the pH of highly alkaline waste water to under pH 8.5, which is the water quality standard of discharged water. CO2 gas (purity 99%, flow rate 10ml/min.) was injected and reacted with the waste water (Ca concentration about 750mg/L) from which solid matter was removed. As a result of the experiment, the pH converged to about 6.5 within 50 minutes of reaction. The precipitate showed high whiteness. XRD and SEM analysis showed that it was high purity CaCO3. For the application to industry, it is needed further study using lower concentration CO2 gas (about 14%) which generated from power plant.

  6. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, L.R.; Conrad, J.H.; Ellis, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  7. Transformation of organic matters in animal wastes during composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; He, Chao; You, Shijie; Liu, Weijie; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruijun; Qi, Huanhuan; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Transformation of swine, cow and chicken manures during composting was compared. • Evolution of organics was analyzed by element analysis, FTIR, "1"3C NMR and Py/GC/MS. • Microbial utilization capacity on various substrates in the manures was evaluated. • Spatial difference of degradation rate inside the manure particle was investigated. - Abstract: The transformation of organic matters in swine, cow and chicken manures was compared and evaluated using elemental analysis, FTIR, "1"3C NMR, pyrolysis/GC/MS, Biolog and multiple fluorochrome over 60 days composting. The results revealed that cow manure exhibited the greatest C/N and aromaticity, whereas chicken manure exhibited the highest nitrogen and sulfur contents. O-alkyl-C was predominant carbon structure in the three manures. Alkyl-C and carboxyl-C were decomposed dramatically in initial 10 days, and mineralization of O-alkyl-C dominated the curing stage. During pyrolysis of chicken, cow, and swine manures, the majority products were fatty acids, phenols and cholestene derivatives, respectively, however, phenols and cholestene derivatives were strongly reduced in the mature manures. Furthermore, microorganisms in the raw cow, chicken and swine manure demonstrated the highest degradation capabilities for carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids, respectively. Spatial differences in the contents of solid organics in the manure particles were negligible through detection by multiple staining methods during composting.

  8. Transformation of organic matters in animal wastes during composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ke, E-mail: hitwk@sina.com [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWER), Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China); He, Chao [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); You, Shijie, E-mail: sjyou@hit.edu.cn [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWER), Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China); Liu, Weijie [School of Life Science, The Key Laboratory of Biotechnology for Medicinal Plant of Jiangsu Province, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruijun [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWER), Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China); Qi, Huanhuan; Ren, Nanqi [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637141 (Singapore)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Transformation of swine, cow and chicken manures during composting was compared. • Evolution of organics was analyzed by element analysis, FTIR, {sup 13}C NMR and Py/GC/MS. • Microbial utilization capacity on various substrates in the manures was evaluated. • Spatial difference of degradation rate inside the manure particle was investigated. - Abstract: The transformation of organic matters in swine, cow and chicken manures was compared and evaluated using elemental analysis, FTIR, {sup 13}C NMR, pyrolysis/GC/MS, Biolog and multiple fluorochrome over 60 days composting. The results revealed that cow manure exhibited the greatest C/N and aromaticity, whereas chicken manure exhibited the highest nitrogen and sulfur contents. O-alkyl-C was predominant carbon structure in the three manures. Alkyl-C and carboxyl-C were decomposed dramatically in initial 10 days, and mineralization of O-alkyl-C dominated the curing stage. During pyrolysis of chicken, cow, and swine manures, the majority products were fatty acids, phenols and cholestene derivatives, respectively, however, phenols and cholestene derivatives were strongly reduced in the mature manures. Furthermore, microorganisms in the raw cow, chicken and swine manure demonstrated the highest degradation capabilities for carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids, respectively. Spatial differences in the contents of solid organics in the manure particles were negligible through detection by multiple staining methods during composting.

  9. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - MO 2014 Industrial Mineral Mines (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set contains names, locations and additional data for active Industrial Mineral Mines permitted with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division...

  10. Fundamentals of condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2016-01-01

    Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconductivity - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 200 illustrations, 40 worked examples and 150 homework problems for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at w...

  11. An investigation of the mineral in ductile and brittle cortical mouse bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Florez, Naiara; Garcia-Tunon, Esther; Mukadam, Quresh; Saiz, Eduardo; Oldknow, Karla J; Farquharson, Colin; Millán, José Luis; Boyde, Alan; Shefelbine, Sandra J

    2015-05-01

    Bone is a strong and tough material composed of apatite mineral, organic matter, and water. Changes in composition and organization of these building blocks affect bone's mechanical integrity. Skeletal disorders often affect bone's mineral phase, either by variations in the collagen or directly altering mineralization. The aim of the current study was to explore the differences in the mineral of brittle and ductile cortical bone at the mineral (nm) and tissue (µm) levels using two mouse phenotypes. Osteogenesis imperfecta model, oim(-/-) , mice have a defect in the collagen, which leads to brittle bone; PHOSPHO1 mutants, Phospho1(-/-) , have ductile bone resulting from altered mineralization. Oim(-/-) and Phospho1(-/-) were compared with their respective wild-type controls. Femora were defatted and ground to powder to measure average mineral crystal size using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and to monitor the bulk mineral to matrix ratio via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). XRD scans were run after TGA for phase identification to assess the fractions of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate. Tibiae were embedded to measure elastic properties with nanoindentation and the extent of mineralization with backscattered electron microscopy (BSE SEM). Results revealed that although both pathology models had extremely different whole-bone mechanics, they both had smaller apatite crystals, lower bulk mineral to matrix ratio, and showed more thermal conversion to β-tricalcium phosphate than their wild types, indicating deviations from stoichiometric hydroxyapatite in the original mineral. In contrast, the degree of mineralization of bone matrix was different for each strain: brittle oim(-/-) were hypermineralized, whereas ductile Phospho1(-/-) were hypomineralized. Despite differences in the mineralization, nanoscale alterations in the mineral were associated with reduced tissue elastic moduli in both pathologies. Results indicated that alterations from normal crystal size

  12. Low temperature kinetics of In-Cd solid solution decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pal-Val, P.P.; Pal-Val, L.N.; Ostapovets, A.A.; Vaněk, Přemysl

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 137, - (2008), s. 35-42 ISSN 1012-0394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : low temperatures * In-based alloys * solid solutions * isothermal structure instability * Young's modulus * electrical resistivity * phase diagrams Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://www.scientific.net/3-908451-53-1/35/

  13. A special issue on preparation and characterization of solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luňáček, J.; Nitsch, Karel; Kožíšek, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2013), s. 507-508 ISSN 2164-6627 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : characterization of solids Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://www.aspbs.com/asem.html#v5n6

  14. Characterization and morphology of solids suspended in rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la

    2000-01-01

    This work presents the results obtained from the analysis of rain water in Mexico. The study treats over the characterization and morphology of the solids suspended in form of particles in the atmosphere. The solids suspended were obtained of the pluvial precipitations after these have been centrifuged. Subsequently of the separation, the particulate matter was analysed by Sem and X-ray dispersive energy

  15. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Reddy, S; Padma Suvarna, K; Udayabhaska Reddy, G; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R L

    2014-01-03

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. All about Solids, Liquids & Gases. Physical Science for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    In All About Solids, Liquids and Gases, young students will be introduced to the three common forms of matter. They'll learn that all things are made up of tiny particles called atoms and that the movement of these particles determines the form that matter takes. In solids, the particles are packed tightly together and move very little. The…

  17. Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Respiration on Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, Robert C.

    2013-04-26

    anomalous dispersion (MAD) phasing; 4. An acid-stable red cytochrome with a novel absorbance peak at 579 nm was purified from cell-free extracts of L. ferriphilum. Functional studies demonstrated that this cytochrome was an important component of the aerobic iron respiratory chain in this organism; 5. The specific adhesion of At. ferrooxidans to pyrite is mediated by an extracellular protein that was identified as aporusticyanin. The adhesion of At. ferrooxidans to minerals was characterized by high affinity binding that exhibited a high specificity for pyrite over other sulfide minerals. The principal biopolymer involved in this high-affinity adhesion to pyrite was isolated by mineral affinity chromatography and identified as aporusticyanin. The adhesion of purified aporusticyanin to minerals was observed to adhere to different mineral with a pattern of reactivity identical to that observed with the intact bacterium. Further, preincubation of pyrite with excess exogenous aporusticyanin served to inhibit the adherence of intact cells to the surface of the mineral, indicating that the protein and the cells adhered to the pyrite in a mutually exclusive manner. Taken together, these observations support a model where aporusticyanin located on the surface of the bacterial cell acts as a mineral-specific receptor for the initial adherence of At. ferrooxidans to solid pyrite; 6. The specific adhesion of L. ferriphilum to pyrite was mediated by a different acid-stable extracellular protein than aporusticyanin; and 7. A prototype integrating cavity absorption meter (ICAM) was assembled to determine whether this novel spectrophotometer could be used to study cellular respiration in situ.

  18. The Decision to Produce Altcoins: Miners' Arbitrage in Cryptocurrency Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Hayes

    2015-01-01

    Bitcoin has become the de facto 'gold' standard among cryptocurrencies as it is the most widely accepted in commerce, has the largest mining network, and greatest volume of transactions. Because of this, miners of other SHA-256 cryptocurrencies will tend to convert those altcoins into bitcoin in order to transact in a meaningful way with the real economy. The result is that bitcoin mining regulates that of all other SHA-256 blockchains. Specifically, what matters is the expected number of bit...

  19. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodar J. R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  20. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, J. R.; Ramos, N.; Carreira, J. A.; Pacheco, R.; Fernández-Hernández, A.

    2017-11-01

    One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample) with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  1. Preliminary report about minerals raw materials[Uranium prospection in Uruguay]; Informe preliminar sobre materias primas minerales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossi, J

    1965-07-01

    The group of experts entrusted to construct the bases to study the mineral matters has established priorities for the development of mineral resources during the next ten years: 1) aerial photography, 2) geological map, 3) mechanisms for the exploitation, 4) budget.

  2. Method for obtaining a varnish with a base of mineral oil obtained by distillation of bituminous schists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchionni, A

    1945-07-24

    A method for obtaining a varnish is described characterized by the fact that the following ingredients are being used; mineral oil from the distillation of bituminous schists in the proportions already cited in the description, diluted with benzene or turpentine, with admixture of coloring matter. Varnish with a base of mineral oil from the distillation of bituminous schists is obtained.

  3. Destructive textures around radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montel, J.M.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In most of the rocks, natural uranium and thorium are concentrated in some minerals which provide favourable crystallographic sites. These minerals are thus submitted to an intense auto-irradiation which may transform them. Using conventional investigation methods (petrographic or scanning electronic microscopy, electronic micro-probe) and less conventional ones (transmission electronic microscopy), the authors studied the interfaces between radioactive minerals and their host minerals. They comment the possible mechanical and structural aspects of this interaction by irradiation, and the influence of geological events

  4. Trace Mineral Losses in Sweat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chinevere, Troy D; McClung, James P; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2007-01-01

    Copper, iron and zinc are nutritionally essential trace minerals that confer vital biological roles including the maintenance of cell structure and integrity, regulation of metabolism, immune function...

  5. Mineral concentrations in diets, water, and milk and their value in estimating on-farm excretion of manure minerals in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A R; St-Pierre, N R; Silva del Rio, N; Weiss, W P

    2013-05-01

    Thirty-nine commercial dairies in Merced County, California were enrolled in the present study to (1) compare lactating cow mineral intakes (via drinking water and total mixed ration) to the National Research Council (NRC) requirements, (2) evaluate the association between dietary concentrations of minerals with and without drinking water and adjusted for mineral concentrations in milk, and (3) compare 4 different methods to estimate excretion of minerals using either assays or estimations of milk mineral outputs and total daily mineral intake per cow with or without minerals coming from drinking water. Dairies were selected to represent a range of herd milk yields and a range of water mineral contents. Samples of total mixed ration, drinking water, and bulk tank milk were taken on 2 different days, 3 to 7d apart in each farm. Across-farm medians and percentile distributions were used to analyze results. The herd median milk yield interquartile ranged (10th to 90th percentile) from less than 25 to more than 39 kg/d and the concentration of total solids in water interquartile ranged from less than 200 to more than 1,490 mg/L. Including drinking water minerals in the diets increased dietary concentrations by minerals except for Na and Cl, which increased by 9.3 and 6.5%, respectively. Concentrations of P and K in milk were essentially the same as the NRC value to estimate lactation requirements. However, NRC milk values of Ca, Cl, and Zn were 10 to 20% greater than dairy farm values; and Na, Cu, Fe, and Mn were no less than 36% below NRC values. Estimated excretion of minerals via manure varied substantially across farms. Farms in the 10th percentile did have 2 to 3 times less estimated mineral excretions than those in the 90th percentile (depending on the mineral). Although including water minerals increased excretion of most minerals, the actual median effect of Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, and Mn was less than 5%, and about 8% for Na and Cl. Replacing assayed concentrations

  6. Silicoaluminous minerals analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, Celia; Fina, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    A group of silicoaluminous minerals of known composition have been analyzed by means of an energy dispersive electron microprobe. The analysis has been performed using a standarless semiquantitative method. The concentration was calculated using the program included in the software of the on-line computer, based on the ZAF correction. It is well known that it is difficult to analyze Si, Al and Na by this method because the absortion correction in the range of 0.9 to 2.0 KeV is not very accurate and the background substraction is also questionable. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the errors involved in these measurements and the best operation conditions. (Author) [es

  7. Protein- mediated enamel mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be utilized in the fields of material science and engineering for development and design of biomimetic materials. This chapter will provide a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and properties as well as the process and stages of amelogenesis. Particular emphasis is given to current knowledge of extracellular matrix protein and proteinases, and the structural chemistry of the matrix components and their putative functions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the potential of enamel for regrowth. PMID:22652761

  8. Micropore characteristics of organic matter pools in cemented and non-cemented podzolic horizons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catoni, M.; D'amico, M.E.; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, M.C.; Rothenberg, G.; Bonifacio, E.

    2014-01-01

    In Podzols, organic matter (OM) is stabilized mainly by interaction with minerals, as a direct consequence of pedogenic processes. Metal-organic associations strongly affect OM surface features, particularly microporosity. Cemented ortstein horizons (CM) may form during podzolization, accompanied by

  9. Mineral fibres and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The use of inorganic fibrous materials is a comparatively new phenomenon and was uncommon before the Industrial Revolution. Humans evolved in a comparatively fibre-free environment and consequently never fully developed the defence mechanisms needed to deal with the consequences of inhaling fibres. However, the urban environment now has an airborne fibre concentration of around 1 f.l -1 , which is a tenfold increase on the natural background. Any sample of ambient air collected indoors or outdoors will probably contain some mineral fibres, but there is little evidence that these pose any risk to human health. They come from asbestos used in brakes, glass and mineral wools used as insulation and fire proofing of buildings, gypsum from plaster and a variety of types from many sources. Few of these have the potential to do any harm. Asbestos is the only fibre of note but urban levels are insignificant compared to occupational exposures. When the health of cohorts occupationally exposed to the several types of asbestos is studied the problem can be put into perspective. Studies of workers in the chrysotile industry exposed to much higher dust levels than in a factory today show no excess lung cancer or mesothelioma. By comparison those living near crocidolite mines, let alone working in them, may develop asbestos-related disease. As always, dose is the critical factor. Chrysotile is cleared from the lungs very efficiently, only the amphiboles are well retained. The only real health problem comes from the earlier use of asbestos products that may now be old, friable and damaged and made from amphibole or mixed fibre. If though, these are still in good condition, they do not pose a health problem. Asbestos-related diseases are very rare in those not occupationally exposed. Where they exist exposure has nearly always been to crocidolite. (author)

  10. The Influence of Land-Use Change on Soil and Dissolved Organic Matter Age, Lability, and Chemical Characteristics in Brazilian Oxisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J. N.; Harrison, R. B.; Gross, C. D.; Dwivedi, P.; Myers, T.; Butman, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in freshwater research indicate that the age of carbon exported from major rivers globally increases with greater human disturbance in the watershed. This implies that human land-use can release old, previously mineral-associated C into solution with subsequent export to groundwater and ultimately freshwater systems where terrestrial organic matter is either mineralized to CO2, stored in aquatic sediments, or exported to the ocean. It is important to understand the mechanisms that cause the release of mineral-bound soil organic matter (SOM) into solution in response to human disturbance and land-use change. To better characterize the response of the total soil organic matter (SOM) pool to disturbance, this study examines the interactions between dissolved and bulk soil pools in response to conversion of Brazilian Cerrado (savannah forest) to Eucalyptus plantations. Water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) was obtained from soil samples down to 150 cm at 4 sites in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. These WEOM samples were characterized using fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy, incubated to assess biolability, and carbon-dated. Simultaneously, bulk mineral soil samples were analyzed for microbial biomass, carbon content and age, and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. FTIR spectra of SOM were obtained by washing subsamples with sodium hypochlorite and subtracting the subsequent mineral matrix spectra from bulk soil spectra. Preliminary results show that microbial biomass decreases much more quickly with depth than WEOM, suggesting that C released into solution from deeper horizons may be less likely to be intercepted, and thus preferentially leached to groundwater. Native Cerrado forests had substantially more roots compared to Eucalyptus, and also released substantially larger quantities of WEOM from their O horizons. Furthermore, the age of WEOM released under Eucalyptus forest was more similar in age to bulk SOM, while Cerrado forest

  11. Of minerals and men. [Discovery of new mineral species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, S.W. (Council for Mineral Technology, Randburg (South Africa))

    1983-01-01

    The rate of discovery of new mineral species appears to be on the increase in Southern Africa and classification and nomenclature, once haphazard, are now subject to international scientific screening and rules. Earlier names entrenched in the literature provide a fascinating background to the minerals scene.

  12. Conducting compositions of matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  13. Mineral formation and organo-mineral controls on the bioavailability of carbon at the terrestrial-aquatic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod, K. A.; Smith, A. P.; Renslow, R.

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence highlights the importance of organo-mineral interactions in regulating the source or sink capacity of soil. High surface area soils, such as allophane-rich or clay-rich soils, retain organic matter (OM) via sorption to mineral surfaces which can also contribute physical isolation in interlayer spaces. Despite the direct correlation between mineral surfaces and OM accumulation, the pedogenic processes controlling the abundance of reactive surface areas and their distribution in the mineral matrix remains unclear. As global soil temperatures rise, the dissolution of primary minerals and formation of new secondary minerals may be thermodynamically favored as part of soil weathering process. Newly formed minerals can supply surfaces for organo-metallic bonding and may, therefore, stabilize OM by surface bonding and physical exclusion. This is especially relevant in environments that intersect terrestrial and aquatic systems, such as the capillary fringe zone in riparian ecosystems. To test the mechanisms of mineral surface area protection of OM, we facilitated secondary precipitation of alumino-silicates in the presence of OM held at two different temperatures in natural Nisqually River sediments (Mt Rainier, WA). This was a three month reaction intended to simulate early pedogenesis. To tease out the influence of mineral surface area increase during pedogenesis, we incubated the sediments at two different soil moisture contents to induce biodegradation. We measured OM desorption, biodegradation, and the molecular composition of mineral-associated OM both prior to and following the temperature manipulation. To simulate the saturation of capillary fringe sediment and associated transport and reaction of OM, column experiments were conducted using the reacted sediments. More co-precipitation was observed in the 20°C solution compared to the 4°C reacted solution suggesting that warming trends alter mineral development and may remove more OM from solution

  14. Process for continuous distillation of bituminous minerals, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, J J

    1923-01-26

    An apparatus is described for operating the process, in which the petroleum-bearing asphaltic or bituminous minerals are charged to the upper part of a vertical furnace with a lining of refractory material and varying sections; air is necessary for combustion and inert gas is necessary to regulate this combustion and to remove the hydrocarbons being blown into the lower part of the furnace; the hydrocarbons in vapor state or gases being removed are received in the condensers where they are deposited in the liquid state; the liquid from the condensers is next centrifuged to give oils essentially like natural petroleum, leaving as residue solid hydrocarbons and entrained mineral; the minerals treated are removed by gravity at the bottom of the furnace.

  15. Chemical composition and mineral elements of edible insects (at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Chemical Composition and Mineral Elements of two edible insects' larvae and termite soldiers were assayed. Their ash content were between 1.01% and 7.50%. The legless larva (LS) had 28.52% fat, while the solider ant had 7.14% and the Legged larva (LG) had 1.50%. The white ant (SA) had 15.61% protein while ...

  16. Mineralization dynamics in soil fertilized with seaweed-fish waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illera-Vives, Marta; López-Fabal, Adolfo; López-Mosquera, M Elvira; Ribeiro, Henrique M

    2015-12-01

    Seaweed and fish waste can be composted together to obtain fertilizer with high organic matter and nutrient contents. The nutrients, however, are mostly in organic form and must be mineralized to make them available to plants. The objective of this work was to establish a usage guideline for the compost by studying its mineralization dynamics. Also, the release of inorganic N and C from soil fertilized with the compost was monitored and modelled. C and N were released throughout the assay, to an extent significantly dependent on fertilizer rate. Mineralization of both elements fitted a first-order exponential model, and each fertilizer rate required using a specific fitting model. An increased rate favoured mineralization (especially of carbon). After 90 days, 2.3% of C and 7.7% of N were mineralized (and 23.3% of total nitrogen made plant available) with the higher rate. C mineralization was slow because organic matter in the compost was very stable. On the other hand, the relatively high initial content in mineral N of the compost increased gradually by the effect of mineralization. The amount of N available would suffice to meet the requirements of moderately demanding crops at the lower fertilizer rate, and even those of more demanding crops at the higher rate. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  18. Condensed elementary particle matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajantie, K.

    1996-01-01

    Quark matter is a special case of condensed elementary particle matter, matter governed by the laws of particle physics. The talk discusses how far one can get in the study of particle matter by reducing the problem to computations based on the action. As an example the computation of the phase diagram of electroweak matter is presented. It is quite possible that ultimately an antireductionist attitude will prevail: experiments will reveal unpredicted phenomena not obviously reducible to the study of the action. (orig.)

  19. 75 FR 22153 - Grant Program To Assess, Evaluate and Promote Development of Tribal Energy and Mineral Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    .... Submission of Application in Digital Format E. Application Evaluation and Administrative Information F. When... in collecting digital land grids, geographic information system (GIS) data and imagery data for many... energy and solid mineral projects; and Marketing studies. 9. What the Energy and Mineral Development...

  20. Who's on first? Part I: Influence of plant growth on C association with fresh soil minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurath, R.; Whitman, T.; Nico, P. S.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Firestone, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral surfaces provide sites for carbon stabilization in soils, protecting soil organic matter (SOM) from microbial degradation. SOM distributed across mineral surfaces is expected to be patchy and certain minerals undergo re-mineralization under dynamic soil conditions, such that soil minerals surfaces can range from fresh to thickly-coated with SOM. Our research investigates the intersection of microbiology and geochemistry, and aims to build a mechanistic understanding of plant-derived carbon (C) association with mineral surfaces and the factors that determine SOM fate in soil. Plants are the primary source of C in soil, with roots exuding low-molecular weight compounds during growth and contributing more complex litter compounds at senescence. We grew the annual grass, Avena barbata, (wild oat) in a 99 atom% 13CO2 atmosphere in soil microcosms incubated with three mineral types representing a spectrum of reactivity and surface area: quartz, kaolinite, and ferrihydrite. These minerals, isolated in mesh bags to exclude roots but not microorganisms, were extracted and analyzed for total C and 13C at multiple plant growth stages. At plant senescence, the quartz had the least mineral-bound C (0.40 mg-g-1) and ferrihydrite the most (0.78 mg-g-1). Ferrihydrite and kaolinite also accumulated more plant-derived C (3.0 and 3.1% 13C, respectively). The experiment was repeated with partially digested 13C-labled root litter to simulate litter decomposition during plant senescence. Thus, we are able evaluate contributions derived from living and dead root materials on soil minerals using FTIR and 13C-NMR. We find that mineral-associated C bears a distinct microbial signature, with soil microbes not only transforming SOM prior to mineral association, but also populating mineral surfaces over time. Our research shows that both soil mineralogy and the chemical character of plant-derived compounds are important controls of mineral protection of SOM.

  1. Thermodynamics of Minerals Stable Near the Earth's Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    OAK B262 Research and Education Activities We are working on developing calorimetric techniques for sulfide minerals. We have completed calorimetric studies of (Na, K, H3O) jarosites, of Na and K jarosite -alunite solid solutions, and of Cr6+ - containing jarosites. We are now working on phases containing As and Pb. These studies are important to issues of heavy metal pollution in the environment. A number of postdocs, graduate students, and undergrads have participated in the research. We have active collaboration with Dirk Baron, faculty at California State University, Bakersfield. In a collaboration with Peter Burns, Notre Dame University, we are working on thermochemistry of U6+ minerals. Navrotsky has participated in a number of national workshops that are helping to define the interfaces between nanotechnology and earth/environmental science. Major Findings Our first finding on uranyl minerals shows that studtite, a phase containing structural peroxide ion, is thermodynamically unstable in the absence of a source of aqueous peroxide ion but is thermodynamically stable in contact with a solution containing peroxide concentrations expected for the radiolysis of water in contact with spent nuclear fuel. This work is in press in Science. We have a consistent thermodynamic data set for the (Na, K, H3O) (Al, Fe) jarosite, alunite minerals and for Cr6+ substituting for S6+ in jarosite. The latter phases represent one of the few solid sinks for trapping toxic Cr6+ in groundwater. Contributions within Discipline Better understanding of thermodynamic driving for and constraints on geochemical and environmental processes

  2. Efeito de fertilizantes minerais e orgânicos na produção de Azevém (Lolium multiflorum L.: produção de matéria seca e azoto aparentemente recuperado Effect of mineral and organic fertilizers in the ryegrass yield (Lolium multiflorum L.: Dry matter yield and apparent N recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arrobas

    2009-01-01

    fertilizing materials were: chestnut fruit bark (CC, with 0.6% N, farmyard manure (EB, with 2.3% N, Beira Adubo (BA, a commercial organic amendment with 3% N; ammonium nitrate (NA, with 20.5% N; Entec (En, a fertiliser with a nitrification inhibitor, with 26% N; Fertigafsa (Fg a 4-16-12 compound fertiliser, and control (T without N fertilisation. All the fertilisers were applied at a rate equivalent to 200 mg N per kg of soil (< 2mm. A silt-loam soil with pH(H2O 5.2 and 27 g kg-1 of organic matter was used in the soil/fertiliser mixtures. A nutrient solution without N was added to all the pots. The crop was sown on the 1st October, 2004. After crop emergence, the plants were thinned to 50 plants per pot. Six harvests of ryegrass were taken between November 9, 2004 and August 4, 2005. Nitrogen uptake and apparent N recovery (NAR were also estimated after the determination of tissue N content. Total dry matter yields (6 cuts were significantly different between treatments. Extreme values ranged between 1.7 g/pot (T and 4.1 g/pot (NA. The higher N uptake was recorded in the NA treatment (167 mg N/pot, as well as the higher NAR (64%. Entec produced the lowest NAR (45% among the mineral fertilisers. The organic amendments BA and EB showed similar NAR, 24 and 22%, respectively. The N released from BA, EB and En during the growing season was very low. The results stress the difficulties in properly managing this kind of fertilisers in annual crops with short growing cycles, where a N shortage could occur during important phases of crop development.

  3. Plant macro- and micronutrient minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    All plants must obtain a number of inorganic mineral elements from their environment to ensure successful growth and development of both vegetative and reproductive tissues. A total of fourteen mineral nutrients are considered to be essential. Several other elements have been shown to have beneficia...

  4. Radioisotopes in plant mineral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-01-01

    Extensive investigations on mineral composition of different plant species growing on various soils, helped in realizing that neither the presence nor the concentration of a mineral element in a plant can be regarded as a criterion for essentially. Plants have a limited capability for selective uptake of those mineral elements which are essential for their growth. They also take up mineral element which are not necessary for growth and may even be toxic. The mineral composition of plants growing in soils cannot, therefore, be used to establish essentially of a mineral element. Once this fact was appreciated, both water and sand culture experiments were carried out in which particular mineral elements were omitted. Von Sach and Knop are credited with reintroduction of the solution culture method using which they demonstrated the absolute requirement of ten macronutrients. As evident, these techniques made possible a more precise characterization of essentially of mineral elements and led to a better understanding of their role in plant metabolism. By the beginning of 20"t"h century importance of micronutrients like B, Mn, Cu, Mo and CI was also established

  5. Miners' strike 1984-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L; Salter, S [comps.

    1985-01-01

    References relating to the 1984-85 UK miners strike are listed under the following subject headings: events and analysis - a chronological record; short term effects - coal stocks and supplies, electricity supplies, financial, industrial and economic; the miners and their leadership; social aspects - civil liberties, media coverage, mining communities, picketing, policing, the future; pit closures. 240 references.

  6. Ways to defuse miners' anger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The violence and riots which often occur with mining personnel are considered. The emotions and feelings which miners often experience because of their work environment are dealth with. From recognizing the pressures, the article then works to present methods to help defuse the miners' hostility and anger

  7. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... auditor and to certify the audit. In addition, Section 13(p) requires the report to include a description.... Auditor Independence iii. Audit Objective 4. Recycled and Scrap Minerals a. Proposed Rules b. Comments on... Minerals Report must also identify the independent private sector auditor \\23\\ and certify the independent...

  8. Prediction of Mineral Scale Formation in Geothermal and Oilfield Operations using the Extended UNIQUAC Model. Part I: Sulphate Scaling Minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Ada V.; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2005-01-01

    Pressure parameters are added to the Extended UNIQUAC model presented by Thomsen and Rasmussen (1999). The improved model has been used for correlation and prediction of solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) of scaling minerals (CaSO4, CaSO4·2H2O, BaSO4 and SrSO4) at temperatures up to 300°C and pressur...

  9. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  10. Comparison between Windrow and Pit Composting of Poultry Wastes, Leaves and Garbage of Municipal Solid Waste in Damghan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghmaeian K, Malakootian M, Noorisepehr M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic principles of Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM are: Reduction, Reuse, Recycling and Recovery (4Rs. Composting as an element of ISWM strategy that can be applied to separately collected or mixed wastes, is a controlled aerobic process carried out by successive microbial populations combining both mesophilic and thermophilic activities and leading to the production of carbon dioxide, water, minerals and stabilized organic matter. In this research, comparing between windrow and pit co-composting methods was studied in the city of Damghan, Iran. Waste proportioning was done based on C/N ratio (about 25:1 and moisture content (about 55%. Mixed wastes were located in windrow and pit with natural aeration tunnel. Sufficient oxygen supply was provided in the piles of compostable materials in two systems through frequent turning of the piles in 7 d intervals during the first month. Temperature reached to maximum level in 10-15 d and then depleted (days: 20-25. It reached to the safety level (about 60˚C based on U.S.EPA and WHO recommendations. Finally, compost was produced with pH=7.7, dark brown color and 30- 35% moisture content. N, P, K, organic matter and organic carbon were measured by standard methods. Results were compared with WHO and U.S.EPA recommendations showing suitable conditions Also it was indicated that pit method was better for maintaining temperature, nitrogen, organic C and organic matter.

  11. Formation and Reactivity of Biogenic Iron Minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, F. Grant

    2002-01-01

    Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) play an important role in regulating the aqueous geochemistry of iron and other metals in anaerobic, non-sulfidogenic groundwater environments; however, little work has directly assessed the cell surface electrochemistry of DIRB, or the nature of the interfacial environment around individual cells. The electrochemical properties of particulate solids are often inferred from titrations in which net surface charge is determined, assuming electroneutrality, as the difference between known added amounts of acid and base and measured proton concentration. The resultant titration curve can then be fit to a speciation model for the system to determine pKa values and site densities of reactive surface sites. Moreover, with the development of non-contact electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), it is now possible to directly inspect and quantify charge development on surfaces. A combination of acid-base titrations and EFM are being used to assess the electrochemical surface properties of the groundwater DIRB, Shewanella putrefaciens. The pKa spectra and EFM data show together that a high degree of electrochemical heterogeneity exists within the cell wall and at the cell surface of S. putrefaciens. Recognition of variations in the nature and spatial distribution of reactive sites that contribute to charge development on these bacteria implies further that the cell surface of these Fe(III)-reducing bacteria functions as a highly differentiated interfacial system capable of supporting multiple intermolecular interactions with both solutes and solids. These include surface complexation reactions involving dissolved metals, as well as adherence to mineral substrates such as hydrous ferric oxide through longer-range electrostatic interactions, and surface precipitation of secondary reduced-iron minerals

  12. Studies about mineral oils maintenance in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceclan, R.E.; Floarea, O.; Ceclan, M.; Bercia, R.

    1997-01-01

    The maintenance of mineral oils, used as lubricating agent or insulating fluids is a very important problem for the reducing of operating costs in the Nuclear Power Plants. Their maintenance means the maintaining of their solid particles and water content between the allowed limits given by the international standards. A modern dehydration technology is the film desorption of water from mineral oils. The paper presents a mathematical model of the falling film dehydration process of mineral oils in a cylindrical film desorber. The model's equations were solved numerically using a FORTRAN programme made by the authors. The model allows the determination of water concentration radial and longitudinal profiles in the oil film. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results obtained by the authors on their own laboratory experimental plant and the good agreement found validated the mathematical model. The model was solved using a fully implicit numerical scheme, in which the longitudinal convection terms were approximated by the upstream difference and the transverse diffusion terms by the central difference to transform the governing equations into finite-difference equations. The finite-difference system obtained is an algebraic system with a tridiagonal matrix that can be efficiently solved by the Thomas algorithm. To account for the drastic variations of velocity and concentration in the regions near the inner boundary and interface, a nonuniform spatial grid in the r-direction was chosen. A grid with 401 gridpoints was used in the computations.The model allows the determination of water concentration radial and longitudinal profiles in the oil film. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results obtained by the authors on their own laboratory experimental plant and the good agreement found validated the mathematical model. (authors)

  13. Contribution of nitrogen derived from mineral supplementation for soybean seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Massuquini Conceição

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seeds can absorb N from mineral supplementation, thus stimulating seedling development in soybeans (Glycine max (L. Merrill. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution to soybean seedlings of N derived from mineral supplementation in seeds with different nutritional contents. Seeds of the cultivar BMX Potência RR received mineral supplementation enriched with 2.5% excess 15N. The treatments were performed in seeds in two lots, one with high and one with low nutritional content. At 2, 6 and 10 days after sowing on paper towels, the seedlings were collected and separated into cotyledons, roots and shoots. Dry matter production, root length and root volume were assessed. Total N and 15N values were analyzed in the seedling organ tissues. The seeds from the lot with lower nutritional content absorbed more N from the mineral supplement, which was accumulated in the cotyledons and redistributed to the root systems and cotyledons. At 10 days after sowing, most of the N in the organs of soybean seedlings was derived from the seed reserves, regardless of nutritional content. Thus, application of N through mineral supplementation is of low importance for the development and nutrition of seedlings.

  14. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS) associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marfil, R.; Iglesia, A. la; Estupinan, J.

    2013-10-01

    This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium-phosphate-sulphate (APS) mineralization that occurs in a classic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein) of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mud stones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the classic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hydroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite- goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba). The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of Ubearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80 degree centigrade), related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.(Author)

  15. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS) associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marfil, R.; Iglesia, A. la; Estupinan, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium-phosphate-sulphate (APS) mineralization that occurs in a classic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein) of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mud stones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the classic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hydroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite- goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba). The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of Ubearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80 degree centigrade), related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.(Author)

  16. Linking measurements of biodegradability, thermal stability and chemical composition to evaluate the effects of management on soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorich, Ed; Gillespie, Adam; Beare, Mike; Curtin, Denis; Sanei, Hamed; Yanni, Sandra

    2015-04-01

    The stability of soil organic matter (SOM) as it relates to resistance to microbial degradation has important implications for nutrient cycling, emission of greenhouse gases, and C sequestration. Hence, there is interest in developing new ways to accurately quantify and characterise the labile and stable forms of soil organic C. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate and describe relationships among the biodegradability, thermal stability and chemistry of SOM in soil under widely contrasting management regimes. Samples from the same soil under permanent pasture, an arable cropping rotation, and chemical fallow were fractionated (sand: 2000-50 μm; silt: 50-5 μm, and clay: managements and that sand-associated organic matter was significantly more susceptible than that in the silt or clay fractions. Analysis by XANES showed accumulation of carboxylates and strong depletion of amides (protein) and aromatics in the fallow whole soil. Moreover, protein depletion was most significant in the sand fraction of the fallow soil. Sand fractions in fallow and cropped soils were, however, enriched in plant-derived phenols, aromatics and carboxylates compared to the sand fraction of pasture soils. In contrast, ketones, which have been identified as products of microbially-processed organic matter, were slightly enriched in the silt fraction of the pasture soil. These data suggest reduced inputs and cropping restrict the decomposition of plant residues and, without supplemental N additions, protein-N in native SOM is significantly mineralized in fallow systems to meet microbial C mineralization demands. Analytical pyrolysis showed distinct differences in the thermal stability of SOM among the size fractions and management treatments; it also showed that the loss of SOM generally involved dehydrogenation. The temperature at which half of the C was pyrolyzed showed strong correlation with mineralizable C and thus provides solid evidence for a link between the biological and

  17. Sensitivity analysis of six soil organic matter models applied to the decomposition of animal manures and crop residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cavalli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two features distinguishing soil organic matter simulation models are the type of kinetics used to calculate pool decomposition rates, and the algorithm used to handle the effects of nitrogen (N shortage on carbon (C decomposition. Compared to widely used first-order kinetics, Monod kinetics more realistically represent organic matter decomposition, because they relate decomposition to both substrate and decomposer size. Most models impose a fixed C to N ratio for microbial biomass. When N required by microbial biomass to decompose a given amount of substrate-C is larger than soil available N, carbon decomposition rates are limited proportionally to N deficit (N inhibition hypothesis. Alternatively, C-overflow was proposed as a way of getting rid of excess C, by allocating it to a storage pool of polysaccharides. We built six models to compare the combinations of three decomposition kinetics (first-order, Monod, and reverse Monod, and two ways to simulate the effect of N shortage on C decomposition (N inhibition and C-overflow. We conducted sensitivity analysis to identify model parameters that mostly affected CO2 emissions and soil mineral N during a simulated 189-day laboratory incubation assuming constant water content and temperature. We evaluated model outputs sensitivity at different stages of organic matter decomposition in a soil amended with three inputs of increasing C to N ratio: liquid manure, solid manure, and low-N crop residue. Only few model parameters and their interactions were responsible for consistent variations of CO2 and soil mineral N. These parameters were mostly related to microbial biomass and to the partitioning of applied C among input pools, as well as their decomposition constants. In addition, in models with Monod kinetics, CO2 was also sensitive to a variation of the half-saturation constants. C-overflow enhanced pool decomposition compared to N inhibition hypothesis when N shortage occurred. Accumulated C in the

  18. ???????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???

    OpenAIRE

    ????????????, ?. ?.; ????????, ?. ?.; ?????, ?. ?.

    2012-01-01

    ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks)/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???. ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks). ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ...

  19. Potential of ensiling for efficient management of spent residue from solid state fermentation system

    OpenAIRE

    Roussos, Sevastianos; Raimbault, Maurice; Geoffroy, F.; Saucedo-Castaneda, G.; Lonsane, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Studies on ensiling of spent solids from solid state fermentation process for production of cellulases by #Trichoderma harzianum$ showed that good quality ensiled solids can be obtained by using about 43% initial substrate dry matter with 0.3% ensiling additive. (Résumé d'auteur)

  20. Synchrotron based mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular properties of mineral-organic associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Suet Yi; Kleber, Markus; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Nico, Peter; Keiluweit, Marco; Ahmed, Musahid

    2013-04-01

    Soil organic matter (OM) is important because its decay drives life processes in the biosphere. Analysis of organic compounds in geological systems is difficult because of their intimate association with mineral surfaces. To date there is no procedure capable of quantitatively separating organic from mineral phases without creating artifacts or mass loss. Therefore, analytical techniques that can (a) generate information about both organic and mineral phases simultaneously and (b) allow the examination of predetermined high-interest regions of the sample as opposed to conventional bulk analytical techniques are valuable. Laser Desorption Synchrotron Postionization (synchrotron-LDPI) mass spectrometry is introduced as a novel analytical tool to characterize the molecular properties of organic compounds in mineral-organic samples from terrestrial systems, and it is demonstrated that when combined with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), can provide complementary information on mineral composition. Mass spectrometry along a decomposition gradient in density fractions, verifies the consistency of our results with bulk analytical techniques. We further demonstrate that by changing laser and photoionization energies, variations in molecular stability of organic compounds associated with mineral surfaces can be determined. The combination of synchrotron-LDPI and SIMS shows that the energetic conditions involved in desorption and ionization of organic matter may be a greater determinant of mass spectral signatures than the inherent molecular structure of the organic compounds investigated. The latter has implications for molecular models of natural organic matter that are based on mass spectrometric information.