WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid fabry-perot etalon

  1. A Novel, Poly-Etalon, Fabry-Perot for Planetary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Robert B.; Doe, Richard; Noto, John

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop a mechanically robust, high throughput and solid state spectrometer several liquid crystal Fabry-Perot etalons were constructed. The etalons were tested for spectral response, radiation resistance and optical transmission. The first year of this project was spent developing and understanding the properties of the liquid crystal etalons; in the second year an intensified all-sky imaging system was developed around a pair of LC etalons. The imaging system, developed jointly with SRI International represents a unique brassboard to demonstrate the use of LC etalons as tunable filters. The first set of etalons constructed in year one of this project were tested for spectral response and throughput while etalon surrogates were exposed to proton radiation simulating the exposure of an object in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The 2" diameter etalons had a measure finesse of approximately 10 and were tunable over five orders. Liquid crystals exposed to proton irradiation showed no signs of damage. In year two two larger diameter (3") etalons were constructed with gaps of 3 and 5 microns. This pair of etalons is for use in a high resolution, all-sky spectral imager. The WATUMI imager system follows the heritage of all sky, narrow band, intensified imagers however it includes two LC Fabry-Perot etalons to provide tunability and the ability to switch wavelengths rapidly, an import consideration in auroral airglow imaging. This work also resulted in two publications and one poster presentation. The instrument will be uniquely capable, with superior throughput and speed, to measure optical airglow of multiple emission lines in harsh conditions.

  2. Use of PZT's for adaptive control of Fabry-Perot etalon plate figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, WIlbert; Niciejewski, R.

    2005-01-01

    A Fabry Perot etalon, consisting of two spaced and reflective glass flats, provides the mechanism by which high resolution spectroscopy may be performed over narrow spectral regions. Space based applications include direct measurements of Doppler shifts of airglow absorption and emission features and the Doppler broadening of spectral lines. The technique requires a high degree of parallelism between the two flats to be maintained through harsh launch conditions. Monitoring and adjusting the plate figure by illuminating the Fabry Perot interferometer with a suitable monochromatic source may be performed on orbit to actively control of the parallelism of the flats. This report describes the use of such a technique in a laboratory environment applied to a piezo-electric stack attached to the center of a Fabry Perot etalon.

  3. Development of Silicon-substrate Based Fabry-Perot Etalons for far-IR Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Gordon

    We propose to design, construct and test silicon-substrate-based (SSB) mirrors necessary for high performance Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) to be used in the 25-40 um mid-IR band. These mirrors will be fabricated from silicon wafers that are anti-reflection coated (ARC) by micromachining an artificial dielectric meta-material on one side, and depositing optimized gold-metalized patterns on the other. Two mirrors with the metalized surfaces facing one-another form the Fabry-Perot cavity, also known as the FPI etalon. The exterior surfaces of the silicon mirrors are anti-reflection coated for both good transmission in the science band, and to prevent unwanted parasitic FPI cavities from forming between the four surfaces (one anti-reflection coated, one metalized for each mirror) of the FPI etalon. The mirrors will be tested within a Miniature Cryogenic Scanning Fabry-Perot (MCSF) that we have designed through support of a previous NASA grant (NNX09AB95G). This design is based on our long experience in constructing and using scanning FPI in the mid-IR to submm range, and fits within test-beds we have on hand that are suitable for both warm and cold tests. The key technologies are the ARC and tuned mirrors that are enabled by silicon nano-machining techniques. The creation of these SSB mirrors promises greatly improved performance over previous versions of mid-IR to submm-band FPIs that are based on mirrors made from free-standing metal mesh stretched over support rings. Performance is improved both structurally and in terms of sensitivity, and is measured as the product of the cavity finesse times transmission. Our electromagnetic modeling suggests that SSB mirrors will improve this product by a factor of 2 over the best free standing mesh etalons available. This translates into a factor of sqrt(2) improvement in sensitivity per etalon, or a full factor of 2 when used in a tandem (dual etalon) FPI spectrometer. The SSB improvements are due to both the stiff (~ 0

  4. Differential Radiometers Using Fabry-Perot Interferometric Technique for Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Elena M.; Heaps,William S.; Wilson, Emily L.

    2007-01-01

    A new type of remote sensing radiometer based upon the Fabry-Perot interferometric technique has been developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and tested from both ground and aircraft platform. The sensor uses direct or reflected sunlight and has channels for measuring column concentration of carbon dioxide at 1570 nm, oxygen lines sensitive to pressure and temperature at 762 and 768 nm, and water vapor (940 nm). A solid Fabry-Perot etalon is used as a tunable narrow bandpass filter to restrict the measurement to the gas of interest's absorption bands. By adjusting the temperature of the etalon, which changes the index of refraction of its material, the transmission fringes can be brought into nearly exact correspondence with absorption lines of the particular species. With this alignment between absorption lines and fringes, changes in the amount of a species in the atmosphere strongly affect the amount of light transmitted by the etalon and can be related to gas concentration. The technique is applicable to different chemical species. We have performed simulations and instrument design studies for CH4, "Cot isotope, and CO detection. Index Terms- Absorbing media, Atmospheric measurements, Fabry-Perot interferometers, Optical interferometry, Remote sensing.

  5. HARLIE 3-D Aerosol Backscatter and Wind Profile Measurements During Recent Field Experiments: Background Noise Reduction with a Fabry-Perot Etalon Filter in the HARLIE System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangwoo; Miller, David O.; Schwemmer, Geary; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Andrus, Ionio; Egbert, Cameron; Anderson, Mark; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Background noise reduction of War signals is one of the most important factors in achieving better signal to noise ratio and precise atmospheric data from Mar measurements. Fahey Perot etalons have been used in several lidar systems as narrow band pass filters in the reduction of scattered sunlight. An slalom with spectral bandwidth, (Delta)v=0.23/cm, free spectral range, FSR=6.7/cm, and diameter, d=24mm was installed in a fiber coupled box which included a 500 pm bandwidth interference Filter. The slalom box couples the telescope and detector with 200 pm core fibers and 21 mm focal length collimators. The angular magnification is M=48. The etalon box was inserted into the Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE) system and tested during the HARGLO-2 intercomparison campaign conducted in November 2001 at Wallops Island, Virginia. This paper presents the preliminary test results of the slalom and a complete analysis will be presented at the conference.

  6. Extrinsic fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor for refractive index measurement of optical glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jihuan; Zhao Jiarong; Huang Xuguang; Huang Zhenjian

    2010-01-01

    A simple fiber-optic sensor based on Fabry-Perot interference for refractive index measurement of optical glass is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A broadband light source is coupled into an extrinsic fiber Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the surfaces of a sensing fiber end and the measured sample. The interference signals from the cavity are reflected back into the same fiber. The refractive index of the sample can be obtained by measuring the contrast of the interference fringes. The experimental data meet with the theoretical values very well. The proposed technique is a new method for glass refractive index measurement with a simple, solid, and compact structure.

  7. Extrinsic Fabry-Perot ultrasonic detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, J. J.; Berthold, John W., III

    1996-10-01

    We characterized the performance of a commercial fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer for use as an ultrasonic sensor, and compared the performance with a standard lead zirconate titanate (PZT) detector. The interferometer was unstabilized. The results showed that the fiber sensor was about 12 times less sensitive than the PZT detector. Ultrasonic frequency response near 100 kHz was demonstrated. We describe the design of the fiber sensor, the details of the tests performed, and potential applications.

  8. An Archetype Semi-Ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin; VanZyl, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    We introduce and demonstrate the generation of a novel resonator, termed Semi-Ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP), that exhibits unique features, such as, its use of one plane mirror, allowing the SRFP to be easily fabricated as a symmetrical device. In addition to its unique features, it exhibits advantages of ring and Fabry-Perot resonators: 1) compared to a ring resonator that only allows a transmitted intensity, the Semi-Ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) supports standing waves, allowing both a reflected and transmitted intensity; 2) the reflected light spectrum of the SRFP resonator is much narrower than similar Fabry-Perot, implying higher finesse.

  9. Application of the CCD Fabry-Perot Annular Summing Technique to Thermospheric O(1)D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Monica Marie

    1995-01-01

    This work will detail the verification of the advantages of the Fabry-Perot charge coupled device (CCD) annular summing technique, the development of the technique for analysis of daysky spectra, and the implications of the resulting spectra for neutral temperature and wind measurements in the daysky thermosphere. The daysky spectral feature of interest is the bright (1 kilo-Rayleigh) thermospheric (OI) emission at 6300 A which had been observed in the nightsky in order to determine winds and temperatures in the vicinity of the altitude of 250 km. In the daysky, the emission line sits on top of a bright Rayleigh scattered continuum background which significantly complicates the observation. With a triple etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer, the continuum background can be reduced while maintaining high throughput and high resolution. The inclusion of a CCD camera results in significant savings in integration time over the two more standard scanning photomultiplier systems that have made the same wind and temperature measurements in the past. A comparable CCD system can experience an order of magnitude savings in integration time over a PMT system. Laboratory and field tests which address the advantages and limitations of both the Fabry-Perot CCD annular summing technique and the daysky CCD imaging are included in Chap. 2 and Chap. 3. With a sufficiently large throughput associated with the spectrometer and a CCD detector, rapid observations (~4 minute integrations) can be made. Extraction of the line width and line center from the daysky near-continuum background is complicated compared to the nightsky case, but possible. Methods of fitting the line are included in Chap. 4. The daysky O ^1D temperatures are consistent with a lower average emission height than predicted by models. The data and models are discussed in Chap. 5. Although some discrepancies exist between resulting temperatures and models, the observations indicate the potential for other direct measurements

  10. Feedback stabilized tandem Fabry-Perot interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Hiroyuki; Ito, Mikio; Shirasu, Hiroshi.

    1986-01-01

    A new system for measuring the isotopic ratio of uranium, in which two plane-type Fabry-Perot interferometers (tandem FP) are connected in series. The parallelism between the two FPs is achieved automatically by a feedback control mechanism based on laser interference fringe monitoring. The structure of the tandem FP, feedback control system, automatic parallelism adjustment mechanism and wavelength synchronization mechanism are described in detail. For experiments, a hollow cathode discharge tube of a pulse discharge type is employed. Measurements are made to determine the effects of pulse width on the 238 U peak height of 502.7 nm line, recorder traces of 235 U and 238 U lines, half width for 238 U component of the 502.7 nm line, SN ratio, reproducibility of the 235 U/ 238 U peak height ratio and 235 U/ 238 U intensity ratio. Considerations are made on the spectral line width, contrast, transmission factor, and stability of automatic parallelism control and wavelength synchronization. Results obtained indicates that a single-type interferometer would serve adequately for measuring the 235 U/ 238 U ratio if the automatic parallelism control developed here is used. The ultimate object of the tandem system is to make measurement of 236 U. Satisfactory results have not obtained as yet, but most likely the present system would make it possible if a light source of a higher intensity and advanced photometric techniques are developed. (Nogami, K.)

  11. On-chip optical filter comprising Fabri-Perot resonator structure and spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seunghoon; Horie, Yu; Faraon, Andrei; Arbabi, Amir

    2018-04-10

    An on-chip optical filter having Fabri-Perot resonators and a spectrometer may include a first sub-wavelength grating (SWG) reflecting layer and a second SWG reflecting layer facing each other. A plurality of Fabri-Perot resonators are formed by the first SWG reflecting layer and the second SWG reflecting layer facing each other. Each of the Fabri-Perot resonators may transmit light corresponding to a resonance wavelength of the Fabri-Perot resonator. The resonance wavelengths of the Fabri-Perot resonators may be determined according to duty cycles of grating patterns.

  12. TAURUS - a wide field imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, P.D.; Taylor, K.

    1983-01-01

    TAURUS, an imaging Fabry-Perot system developed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory and Imperial College London, is described. The imaging process is explained and the technique is compared with grating spectrographs. It is argued that TAURUS is superior for obtaining field information from extended emission line sources. (Auth.)

  13. Levitated optomechanics with a fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontin, A.; Mourounas, L. S.; Geraci, A. A.; Barker, P. F.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, quantum phenomena have been experimentally demonstrated on variety of optomechanical systems ranging from micro-oscillators to photonic crystals. Since single photon couplings are quite small, most experimental approaches rely on the realization of high finesse Fabry-Perot cavities in order to enhance the effective coupling. Here we show that by exploiting a, long path, low finesse fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer ground state cooling can be achieved. We model a 100 m long cavity with a finesse of 10 and analyze the impact of additional noise sources arising from the fiber. As a mechanical oscillator we consider a levitated microdisk but the same approach could be applied to other optomechanical systems.

  14. Optical filter based on Fabry-Perot structure using a suspension of goethite nanoparticles as electro-optic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Samir; Dupont, Laurent; Dozov, Ivan; Davidson, Patrick; Chanéac, Corinne

    2018-02-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of optical tunable filters based on a Fabry-Perot etalon that uses a suspension of goethite (α-FeOOH) nanorods as electro-optic material for application in optical telecommunications in the near IR range. These synthetic nanoparticles have a high optical anisotropy that give rise to a very strong Kerr effect in their colloidal suspensions. Currently, these particles are dispersed in aqueous solvent, with pH2 to ensure the colloidal electrostatic stability. However, the high conductivity of these suspensions requires using high-frequency electric fields (f > 1 MHz), which brings about a high power consumption of the driver. To decrease the field frequency, we have changed the solvent to ethylene glycol which has a lower electrical conductivity than the aqueous solvent. We have built a Fabry-Perot cell, filled with this colloidal suspension in the isotropic phase, and showed that a phase shift of 14 nm can be obtained in a field of 3V/μm. Therefore, the device can operate as a tunable filter. A key advantage of this filter is that it is, by principle, completely insensitive to the polarization of the input light. However, several technological issues still need to be solved, such as ionic contamination of the suspension from the blocking layers, and dielectrophoretic and thermal effects.

  15. A Fabry-Perot interferometer system for high-speed velocity measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Bruinsma, A.J.A.; Prinse, W.C.; Smorenburg, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Fabry-Perot Velocity Interferometer System (F-PVIS) is designed and built for measuring the Doppler shift of light by recording positional changes in the interferometric pattern behind the Fabry-Perot interferometer. The velocity of a surface can be deduced from the Doppler shift which is caused

  16. Fabry-Perot confocal resonator optical associative memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Thomas J.; Rogers, Steven K.; Vogel, George A.

    1993-03-01

    A unique optical associative memory architecture is presented that combines the optical processing environment of a Fabry-Perot confocal resonator with the dynamic storage and recall properties of volume holograms. The confocal resonator reduces the size and complexity of previous associative memory architectures by folding a large number of discrete optical components into an integrated, compact optical processing environment. Experimental results demonstrate the system is capable of recalling a complete object from memory when presented with partial information about the object. A Fourier optics model of the system's operation shows it implements a spatially continuous version of a discrete, binary Hopfield neural network associative memory.

  17. Fabry-Perot Diaphragm Fiber Optic Sensor (DFOS for Acoustic Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan SUN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A diaphragm fiber optic sensor (DFOS solely based on Fabry-Perot multiple beam interference has been designed and fabricated with micro-electric mechanical system (MEMS technology. The silicon diaphragm with an embossed center was designed with an interference gap width kept accurately. The DFOS was verified to be a truly and purely Fabry-Perot device via a critical test. Parallel testing with a Piezoelectric (PZT sensor showed that the DFOS had high sensitivity. The Fabry-Perot DFOS also demonstrated excellent performance in on-line monitoring of Partial Discharge (PD in power transformers.

  18. Fabry-Perot observations of Comet Halley H2O(+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherb, F.; Roesler, F.L.D.; Harlander, J.; Magee-sauer, K.

    1990-01-01

    Fabry-Perot scanning spectrometer observations of Comet Halley's H 2 O(+) emissions have yielded 6158.64 and 6158.85 A spin doublet data at distances in the range of 0 to 2 million km from the comet heat in the antisunward direction. Cometary plasma outflow velocities were ascertained on the basis of the emissions' Doppler shifts, yielding results that were mostly but not exclusively consistent with the plasma's constant antisunward acceleration; the acceleration varied from night to night of observations over a 30-300 cm/sec range. The unusual plasma kinematics of December 14-15, 1985, and January 10, 1986, may be associated with the tail-disconnection activity observed by others. 30 refs

  19. Transversely coupled Fabry-Perot resonators with Bragg grating reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Md Ghulam; Wang, Yun; El-Fiky, Eslam; Patel, David; Shahriar, Kh Arif; Alam, Md Samiul; Jacques, Maxime; Xing, Zhenping; Xu, Luhua; Abadía, Nicolás; Plant, David V

    2018-01-01

    We design and demonstrate Fabry-Perot resonators with transverse coupling using Bragg gratings as reflectors on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. The effects of tailoring the cavity length and the coupling coefficient of the directional coupler on the spectral characteristics of the device are studied. The fabricated resonators achieved an extinction ratio (ER) of 37.28 dB and a Q-factor of 3356 with an effective cavity length of 110 μm, and an ER of 8.69 dB and a Q-factor of 23642 with a 943 μm effective cavity length. The resonator structure presented here has the highest reported ER on SOI and provides additional degrees of freedom compared to an all-pass ring resonator to tune the spectral characteristics.

  20. Fabry-Perot enhanced Faraday rotation in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubrig, Nicolas; Crassee, Iris; Levallois, Julien; Nedoliuk, Ievgeniia O; Fromm, Felix; Kaiser, Michl; Seyller, Thomas; Kuzmenko, Alexey B

    2013-10-21

    We demonstrate that giant Faraday rotation in graphene in the terahertz range due to the cyclotron resonance is further increased by constructive Fabry-Perot interference in the supporting substrate. Simultaneously, an enhanced total transmission is achieved, making this effect doubly advantageous for graphene-based magneto-optical applications. As an example, we present far-infrared spectra of epitaxial multilayer graphene grown on the C-face of 6H-SiC, where the interference fringes are spectrally resolved and a Faraday rotation up to 0.15 radians (9°) is attained. Further, we discuss and compare other ways to increase the Faraday rotation using the principle of an optical cavity.

  1. Micromachined fiber optic Fabry-Perot underwater acoustic probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuyin; Shao, Zhengzheng; Hu, Zhengliang; Luo, Hong; Xie, Jiehui; Hu, Yongming

    2014-08-01

    One of the most important branches in the development trend of the traditional fiber optic physical sensor is the miniaturization of sensor structure. Miniature fiber optic sensor can realize point measurement, and then to develop sensor networks to achieve quasi-distributed or distributed sensing as well as line measurement to area monitoring, which will greatly extend the application area of fiber optic sensors. The development of MEMS technology brings a light path to address the problems brought by the procedure of sensor miniaturization. Sensors manufactured by MEMS technology possess the advantages of small volume, light weight, easy fabricated and low cost. In this paper, a fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric underwater acoustic probe utilizing micromachined diaphragm collaborated with fiber optic technology and MEMS technology has been designed and implemented to actualize underwater acoustic sensing. Diaphragm with central embossment, where the embossment is used to anti-hydrostatic pressure which would largely deflect the diaphragm that induce interferometric fringe fading, has been made by double-sided etching of silicon on insulator. By bonding the acoustic-sensitive diaphragm as well as a cleaved fiber end in ferrule with an outer sleeve, an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer has been constructed. The sensor has been interrogated by quadrature-point control method and tested in field-stable acoustic standing wave tube. Results have been shown that the recovered signal detected by the sensor coincided well with the corresponding transmitted signal and the sensitivity response was flat in frequency range from 10 Hz to 2kHz with the value about -154.6 dB re. 1/μPa. It has been manifest that the designed sensor could be used as an underwater acoustic probe.

  2. Calibration of Fabry-Perot interferometers for electron cyclotron emission measurements on the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javon, C.; Talvard, M.

    1990-01-01

    The electron temperature is routinely measured on TORE SUPRA using Fabry-Perot cavities. These have been calibrated using a technique involving coherent addition and Fourier analysis of a chopped black-body source. Comparison with conventional techniques is reported

  3. Fabry-Perot observations of [FeX] in the Cygnus Loop and IC443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, J.; Rothenflug, R.; Soutoul, A.; Caplan, J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present the first results of an observational program of SNRs in the coronal lines of [FeX] and [FeXIV] using Fabry--Perot spectrophotometer. These support previously published brightnesses

  4. Initial daytime and nighttime SOFDI observations of thermospheric winds from Fabry-Perot Doppler shift measurements of the 630-nm OI line-shape profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Gerrard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present both night and day thermospheric wind observations made with the Second-generation, Optimized, Fabry-Perot Doppler Imager (SOFDI, a novel triple-etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI designed to make 24-h measurements of thermospheric winds from OI 630-nm emission. These results were obtained from the northeastern United States and from under the magnetic equator at Huancayo, Peru and demonstrate the current instrument capability for measurements of Doppler shifts for either night or day. We found the uncertainties in the measurements agree with expected values based upon forward modeling calculations; nighttime wind components having an uncertainty of ~20-m s−1 at 30-min resolution and daytime wind components having an uncertainty of ~70-m s−1 at 20-min resolution. The nighttime uncertainties are typically larger than those seen with traditional single-etalon FPIs, which occur at the cost of being able to achieve daytime measurements. The thermospheric wind measurements from Huancayo replicate recently reported CHAMP zonal winds and are in disagreement with current empirical wind climatologies. In addition, we discuss the incorporation of how multiple point heads in the SOFDI instrument will allow for unique studies of gravity wave activity in future measurements.

  5. Fabry-Perot measurements of barium temperature in fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadrath, S; Garner, R

    2010-01-01

    A scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is used to determine the temperature of barium atoms that are liberated from the electrodes of fluorescent lamps during their steady-state operation. Barium, a constituent of the work function lowering emitter material that is placed on the tungsten coil that forms the electrode, is liberated primarily by evaporation from the hot (∼1300 K) thermionic electrode. However, there may be situations or modes of operation in which barium is, in addition, sputtered, a condition which may lead to increased end-darkening, shortened life and increased mercury consumption in the lamp. Using the FPI diagnostic, the occurrence of sputtering is inferred when barium temperatures are much greater than the electrode temperature. The FPI diagnostic senses resonance radiation (λ = 553 nm) emitted by barium atoms excited in the low pressure discharge environment, and infers temperature from the Doppler broadened linewidth. The diagnostic has proven to be successful in a number of situations. Measurements have been made on rare gas discharges and on Hg-argon discharges for different discharge currents, gas pressures and auxiliary coil currents. Measurements are phase resolved for ac-driven discharges.

  6. Neutral wind measurements by Fabry-Perot interferometry in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, K.D.; Dudeney, J.R.; Rodger, A.S.; Smith, R.W.; Rees, D.

    1986-01-01

    A large-aperture (150 mm), spatially scanned Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) has been deployed at Halley (75.5 o S, 26.8 o W; L=4.2), Antarctica. Thermospheric neutral wind measurements were made by finding the Doppler shift of the OI( 3 P 2 - 1 D 2 ) 630.0 nm emission. This has allowed the first comparison to be made between southern hemisphere ground-based thermospheric wind measurements and the predictions of a three-dimensional, time-dependent thermospheric global circulation model. Geomagnetic and geographic latitude are well separated at Halley, so we may expect a distinct contrast to the dynamic behaviour observed in the more frequently studied northern polar thermosphere. Although the initial results from the experiment are in general agreement with the model, some consistent and significant differences between the observed wind field and that predicted are evident in the morning sector. These may be related to uncertainties in mapping magnetospheric boundaries to ionospheric heights in the southern hemisphere. The intensity of the 630 nm emission has been examined with respect to the maximum plasma frequency of the Es layer using data from the Advanced Ionospheric Sounder at Halley

  7. Study on the structure of bridge surface of the micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Qinghua; Luo Huan; Bao Shiwei; Zhou Yifan; Chen Sihai

    2011-01-01

    Micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filters are widely applied in the area of Pushbroom Hyperspectral imaging, DWDM optical communication system and self-adaptive optics. With small volume, lower consumption and cost, the Micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter can realize superior response speed, large spectral range, high definition and high reliability. By deposition metal membrane on silicon chip by MEMS technology, the micro Fabry-Perot cavity has been achieved, which is actuated by electrostatic force and can realize the function of an optical filter. In this paper, the micro-bridge structure of the micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter has been studied. Finite element analysis software COMSOL Multiphysics has been adopted to design the structure of the micro-bridge of the micro filter. In order to simulate the working mechanism of the micro Fabry-Perot cavity and study the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the micro tunable filter,the static and dynamic characteriastics are analyzed, such as stress, displacement, transient response, etc. The corresponding parameters of the structure are considered as well by optimizition the filter's sustain structure.

  8. Fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer with controllable temperature sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinpu; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    We proposed a fiber taper based on the Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer structure with controllable temperature sensitivity. The FP interferometer is formed by inserting a segment of tapered fiber tip into the capillary and subsequently splicing the other end of the capillary to a single-mode fiber (SMF), the tapered fiber endface, and the spliced face form the FP cavity. Through controlling the inserted tapered fiber length, a series of FP interferometers were made. Because the inserted taper tip has the degree of freedom along the fiber axial, when the FP interferometer is subjected to temperature variation, the thermal expansion of the fiber taper tip will resist the FP cavity length change caused by the evolution of capillary length, and we can control the temperature sensitivity by adjusting the inserted taper length. In this structure, the equivalent thermal expansion coefficient of the FP interferometer can be defined; it was used to evaluate the temperature sensitivity of the FP interferometer, which provides an effective method to eliminate the temperature effect and to enhance other measurement accuracy. We fabricated the FP interferometers and calibrated their temperature characters by measuring the wavelength shift of the resonance dips in the reflection spectrum. In a temperature range of 50°C to 150°C, the corresponding temperature sensitivities can be controlled between 0 and 1.97 pm/°C when the inserted taper is between 75 and 160 μm. Because of its controllable temperature sensitivity, ease of fabrication, and low cost, this FP interferometer can meet different temperature sensitivity requirements in various application areas, especially in the fields which need temperature insensitivity.

  9. A Fabry-Perot interferometer for hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caticha, A.; Caticha-Ellis, S.

    1990-01-01

    Reflection and transmission coefficients are calculated of a sequence of N thin parallel crystals diffracting close to normal incidence and separated by thin non-diffracting gaps. From the study of the particular case N=2 a new Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is proposed for hard X-rays (wavelengths of the order of Angstroms). It is found that the FPI plates do not need to be carved from a single perfect crystal block but may be grown or cleaved by other methods. This interesting possibility is suggested by two facts. First, it is known that for incidence close to normal various features of dynamical diffraction are much less sensitive to crystal defects and crystal orientation. Second, the existence of a mismatch between the lattices of the two FPI plates may affect but does not qualitatively alter the performance of the FPI. It is shown that the optimal thickness of the plates is of the order of a few microns or less. The plates may be built from a wide variety of materials. The transmission of X-rays is studied as a function of the energy and direction of the incident photons for various values of the plate thickness, of the gap, of the lattice mismatch, and also for different materials in the gap. The transmission profile exhibits a peak which is spectrally very sharp (about 10 -3 eV for low order reflections and even less for higher ones) and which can be easily tuned by changing either the lattice mismatch or the temperature. FPI plates built of materials with low absorption such as graphite seem to be particularly convenient. Several possible applications are suggested. (author)

  10. All-fiber, long-active-length Fabry-Perot strain sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevec, Simon; Donlagic, Denis

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a high-sensitivity, all-silica, all-fiber Fabry-Perot strain-sensor. The proposed sensor provides a long active length, arbitrary length of Fabry-Perot cavity, and low intrinsic temperature sensitivity. The sensor was micro-machined from purposely-developed sensor-forming fiber that is etched and directly spliced to the lead-in fiber. This manufacturing process has good potential for cost-effective, high-volume production. Its measurement range of over 3000 µε, and strain-resolution better than 1 µε were demonstrated by the application of a commercial, multimode fiber-based signal processor.

  11. Effective length of short Fabry-Perot cavity formed by uniform fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmenkov, Yuri O; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Torres-Peiró, Salvador; Cruz, Jose L; Andrés, Miguel V

    2006-07-10

    In this paper, we describe the properties of Fabry-Perot fiber cavity formed by two fiber Bragg gratings in terms of the grating effective length. We show that the grating effective length is determined by the group delay of the grating, which depends on its diffraction efficiency and physical length. We present a simple analytical formula for calculation of the effective length of the uniform fiber Bragg grating and the frequency separation between consecutive resonances of a Fabry-Perot cavity. Experimental results on the cavity transmission spectra for different values of the gratings' reflectivity support the presented theory.

  12. A Green Fabry-Perot Cavity for Jefferson Lab Hall A Compton Polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhman, Abdurahim; Souder, Paul; Nanda, Sirish

    2009-01-01

    A green laser (CW, 532 nm) based Fabry-Perot cavity for high precision Compton Polarimetry is under development in Hall A of the Jefferson Laboratory. In this paper, we present the principle and the preliminary studies for our test cavity.

  13. Characterization of a Fabry--Perot interferometer and a dc arc plasma jet for spectrochemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    A system involving the use of a Fabry--Perot interferometer in combination with a dc arc plasma jet has been constructed and characterized for spectrochemical analysis. Parameters such as flow rate ratio, observation region, electrode composition and orifice size have been considered. Improvements such as noise reduction and dry aerosol introduction of samples were suggested.

  14. Crescent shaped Fabry-Perot fiber cavity for ultra-sensitive strain measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Wang, D. N.; Chen, W. P.

    2016-12-01

    Optical Fabry-Perot interferometer sensors based on inner air-cavity is featured with compact size, good robustness and high strain sensitivity, especially when an ultra-thin air-cavity is adopted. The typical shape of Fabry-Perot inner air-cavity with reflection mode of operation is elliptic, with minor axis along with and major axis perpendicular to the fiber length. The first reflection surface is diverging whereas the second one is converging. To increase the visibility of the output interference pattern, the length of major axis should be large for a given cavity length. However, the largest value of the major axis is limited by the optical fiber diameter. If the major axis length reaches the fiber diameter, the robustness of the Fabry-Perot cavity device would be decreased. Here we demonstrate an ultra-thin crescent shaped Fabry-Perot cavity for strain sensing with ultra-high sensitivity and low temperature cross-sensitivity. The crescent-shape cavity consists of two converging reflection surfaces, which provide the advantages of enhanced strain sensitivity when compared with elliptic or D-shaped FP cavity. The device is fabricated by fusion splicing an etched multimode fiber with a single mode fiber, and hence is simple in structure and economic in cost.

  15. Transfer functions of double- and multiple-cavity Fabry-Perot filters driven by Lorentzian sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, J; Capmany, J

    1996-12-20

    We derive expressions for the transfer functions of double- and multiple-cavity Fabry-Perot filters driven by laser sources with Lorentzian spectrum. These are of interest because of their applications in sensing and channel filtering in optical frequency-division multiplexing networks.

  16. Folded Fabry-Perot quasi-optical ring resonator diplexer Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, H. M.; Chiou, A. E. T.

    1983-01-01

    Performance of folded Fabry-Perot quasi-optical ring resonator diplexers with different geometries of reflecting surfaces is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Design of optimum surface geometry for minimum diffraction, together with the figure of merit indicating improvement in performance, are given.

  17. Large-area Fabry-Perot modulator based on electro-optic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benter, Nils; Bertram, Ralph Peter; Soergel, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    We present a large-area electro-optic Fabry-Perot modulator utilizing a photoaddressable bis-azo polymer placed between two dielectric mirrors with an open aperture of 2 cm. A modulation efficientcy of 1% at an effective modulation voltage of 20 V for a wavelength of 1.55 mymeter is demonstrated...

  18. Characterization of a Fabry--Perot interferometer and a dc arc plasma jet for spectrochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    A system involving the use of a Fabry--Perot interferometer in combination with a dc arc plasma jet has been constructed and characterized for spectrochemical analysis. Parameters such as flow rate ratio, observation region, electrode composition and orifice size have been considered. Improvements such as noise reduction and dry aerosol introduction of samples were suggested

  19. Stable CW Single Frequency Operation of Fabry-Perot Laser Diodes by Self-Injection Phase Locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Krainak, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, single-frequency semiconductor laser operation using fiber Bragg gratings has been achieved by tWo methods: 1) use of the FBG as the output coupler for an anti-reflection-coated semiconductor gain element'; 2) pulsed operation of a gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser diode with FBG-optical and RF-electrical feedback'. Here, we demonstrate CW single frequency operation from a non-AR coated Fabry-Perot laser diode using only FBG optical feedback.

  20. On-Chip High-Finesse Fabry-Perot Microcavities for Optical Sensing and Quantum Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Bitarafan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available For applications in sensing and cavity-based quantum computing and metrology, open-access Fabry-Perot cavities—with an air or vacuum gap between a pair of high reflectance mirrors—offer important advantages compared to other types of microcavities. For example, they are inherently tunable using MEMS-based actuation strategies, and they enable atomic emitters or target analytes to be located at high field regions of the optical mode. Integration of curved-mirror Fabry-Perot cavities on chips containing electronic, optoelectronic, and optomechanical elements is a topic of emerging importance. Micro-fabrication techniques can be used to create mirrors with small radius-of-curvature, which is a prerequisite for cavities to support stable, small-volume modes. We review recent progress towards chip-based implementation of such cavities, and highlight their potential to address applications in sensing and cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  1. A tunable Fabry-Perot filter (λ/18) based on all-dielectric metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Tianhong; Xu, Xiangdong; Gu, Yu; Jiang, Yadong; Li, Xinrong; Lian, Yuxiang; Wang, Fu

    2018-05-01

    A tunable Fabry-Perot filter composed of two separated all-dielectric metamaterials is proposed and numerically investigated. Different from metallic metamaterials reflectors, the all-dielectric metamaterials are constructed by high-permittivity TiO2 cylinder arrays and exhibit high reflection in a broadband of 2.49-3.08 THz. The high reflection is attributed to the first and second Mie resonances, by which the all-dielectric metamaterials can serve as reflectors in the Fabry-Perot filter. Both the results from phase analysis method and CST simulations reveal that the resonant frequency of the as-proposed filter appears at 2.78 THz, responding to a cavity with λ/18 wavelength thickness. Particularly, the resonant frequency can be adjusted by changing the cavity thickness. This work provides a feasible approach to design low-loss terahertz filters with a thin air cavity.

  2. Conductance oscillation in graphene-nanoribbon-based electronic Fabry-Perot resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Han Mei; Shen Linjiang

    2010-01-01

    By using the tight-binding approximation and the Green's function method, the quantum conductance of the Fabry-Perot-like electronic resonators composed of zigzag and metallic armchair edge graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) was studied numerically. Obtained results show that due to Fabry-Perot-like electronic interference, the conductance of the GNR resonators oscillates periodically with the Fermi energy. The effects of disorders and coupling between the electrodes and the GNR on conductance oscillations were explored. It is found that the conductance oscillations appear at the strong coupling and become resonant peaks as the coupling is very weak. It is also found that the strong disorders in the GNR can smear the conductance oscillation periods. In other words, the weak coupling and the strong disorders all can blur the conductance oscillations, making them unclearly distinguished.

  3. Experimental study of neutron-optical potential with absorption using Fabry-Perot magnetic resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, M.; Tasaki, S.; Ebisawa, T.; Kawai, T.; Achiwa, N.; Yamazaki, D.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently spin precession angles of neutrons tunneling and non-tunneling through [Permalloy45(PA)-germanium(Ge)]-PA Fabry-Perot magnetic resonator have been observed [1]. The spin precession angle is well reproduced by the theoretical phase difference of up and down spin neutron wave function based on one-dimensional Schroedinger equation using optical potential model [2]. Spin precession angle and transmission probability of neutron through PA-(Ge/Gd)-PA Fabry-Perot magnetic resonator are presented, where the gap(Ge/Gd) layer consists of germanium and gadolinium atoms, and the optical potential model for magnetic multilayer system with absorption is discussed. (author) [1] M. Hino, et al., Physica B 241-243, 1083 (1998).; [2] S. Yamada, et al., Annu. Rep. Res. Reactor Inst. Kyoto Univ. 11, 8 (1978)

  4. Understanding the concept of resolving power in the Fabry-Perot interferometer using a digital simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juvells, I; Carnicer, A; Ferre-Borrull, J; MartIn-Badosa, E; Montes-Usategui, M

    2006-01-01

    The resolution concept in connection with the Fabry-Perot interferometer is difficult to understand for undergraduate students enrolled in physical optics courses. The resolution criterion proposed in textbooks for distinguishing equal intensity maxima and the deduction of the resolving power equation is formal and non-intuitive. In this paper, we study the practical meaning of the resolution criterion and resolution power using a computer simulation of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The light source in the program has two monochromatic components, the wavelength difference being tunable by the user. The student can also adjust other physical parameters so as to obtain different simulation results. By analysing the images and graphics of the simulation, the resolving power concept becomes intuitive and understandable

  5. Temperature-independent refractometer based on fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiacheng; Qiao, Xueguang; Wang, Ruohui; Rong, Qiangzhou; Bao, Weijia; Shao, Zhihua; Yang, Tingting

    2016-04-01

    A miniature fiber-optic refractometer based on Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensing head consists of a short section of photonics crystal fiber (PCF) spliced to a single mode fiber (SMF), in which the end-face of the PCF is etched to remove holey structure with hydrofluoric (HF) acid. A Fabry-Perot interference spectrum is achieved based on the reflections from the fusion splicing interface and the end-face of the core of PCF. The interference fringe is sensitive to the external refractive index (RI) with an intensity-referenced sensitivity of 358.27 dB/RIU ranging from 1.33 to 1.38. The sensor has also been implemented for the concentration measurement of λ-phage DNA solution. In addition, the dip intensity is insensitive to the ambient temperature variation, making it a good candidate for temperature-independent bio-sensing area.

  6. High-Temperature Sensor Based on Fabry-Perot Interferometer in Microfiber Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenshi Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized tip Fabry-Perot interferometer (tip-FPI is proposed for high-temperature sensing. It is simply fabricated for the first time by splicing a short length of microfiber (MF to the cleaved end of a standard single mode fiber (SMF with precise control of the relative cross section position. Such a MF acts as a Fabry-Perot (FP cavity and serves as a tip sensor. A change in temperature modifies the length and refractive index of the FP cavity, and then a corresponding change in the reflected interference spectrum can be observed. High temperatures of up to 1000 °C are measured in the experiments, and a high sensitivity of 13.6 pm/°C is achieved. This compact sensor, with tip diameter and length both of tens of microns, is suitable for localized detection, especially in harsh environments.

  7. On-Chip High-Finesse Fabry-Perot Microcavities for Optical Sensing and Quantum Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitarafan, Mohammad H; DeCorby, Ray G

    2017-07-31

    For applications in sensing and cavity-based quantum computing and metrology, open-access Fabry-Perot cavities-with an air or vacuum gap between a pair of high reflectance mirrors-offer important advantages compared to other types of microcavities. For example, they are inherently tunable using MEMS-based actuation strategies, and they enable atomic emitters or target analytes to be located at high field regions of the optical mode. Integration of curved-mirror Fabry-Perot cavities on chips containing electronic, optoelectronic, and optomechanical elements is a topic of emerging importance. Micro-fabrication techniques can be used to create mirrors with small radius-of-curvature, which is a prerequisite for cavities to support stable, small-volume modes. We review recent progress towards chip-based implementation of such cavities, and highlight their potential to address applications in sensing and cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  8. Quantum transport in bilayer graphene. Fabry-Perot interferences and proximity-induced superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Renjun

    2015-01-01

    Bilayer graphene (BLG) p-n junctions made of hBN-BLG-hBN (hexagonal boron nitride) heterostructures enable ballistic transport over long distances. We investigate Fabry-Perot interferences, and detect that the bilayer-like anti-Klein tunneling transits into single-layer-like Klein tunneling when tuning the Fermi level towards the band edges. Furthermore, the proximity-induced superconductivity has been studied in these devices with Al leads.

  9. Fabry-Perot Interferometer Performance as Temperature Sensor for Use in Electrical Power System Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Mandal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Transfer function model of the loss less Fabry-Perot cavity (FPI, developed in Z-domain is presented in this paper. Frequency response analysis of the model was carried out in MATLAB environment to explain the behavior of the interferometer and its potential as temperature sensor was studied. Analysis reveals a highly sensitive temperature sensor that can be used in electrical engineering power system applications.

  10. Pemodelan Tapis Fabry-perot pada Serat Optik dengan Menggunakan Fiber Bragg Grating

    OpenAIRE

    Pramuliawati, Septi; ', Saktioto; ', Defrianto

    2015-01-01

    Fabry-perot filter was successfully developed by a uniform Fiber Bragg Grating in fiber optic. A characterization of Bragg Grating was analyzed by using computational model with second-order of Transfer Matrix Method based on Coupled Mode Theory. The reflectivity, length of grating, and bandwidth were parametrics to determine the performance of single Bragg Grating. The transmission spectrum showed the longer grating is designed, the larger the reflectivity was produced, so that the transmiss...

  11. Influence of laser frequency noise on scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer based laser Doppler velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    n this work, we study the performance of a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer based laser Doppler velocimeter (sFPILDV) and compare two candidate 1.5 um single-frequency laser sources for the system – a fiber laser (FL) and a semiconductor laser (SL). We describe a straightforward calibration...... procedure for the sFPI-LDV and investigate the effect of different degrees of laser frequency noise between the FL and the SL on the velocimeter’s performance...

  12. Stable CW Single-Frequency Operation of Fabry-Perot Laser Diodes by Self-Injection Phase Locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Krainak, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, single-frequency semiconductor laser operation using fiber Bragg gratings has been achieved by two methods: 1) use of the FBG as the output coupler for an anti-reflection-coated semiconductor gain element'; 2) pulsed operation of a gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser diode with FBG-optical and RF-electrical feedback. Here, we demonstrate CW single frequency operation from a non-AR coated Fabry-Perot laser diode using only FBG optical feedback. We coupled a nominal 935 run-wavelength Fabry-Perot laser diode to an ultra narrow band (18 pm) FBG. When tuned by varying its temperature, the laser wavelength is pulled toward the centerline of the Bragg grating, and the spectrum of the laser output is seen to fall into three discrete stability regimes as measured by the side-mode suppression ratio.

  13. Application of Fabry-Perot velocimeter to high-speed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaw, H.H.; McMillan, C.F.; Osher, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Fabry-Perot (F-P) velocimeter is a useful instrument for measuring the velocity of objects at speeds ranging from fractions of a kilometer per second to a few tens of kilometers per second and up. Because of its immunity to electromagnetic interference and its velocity resolution, it has become the prime diagnostic tool in our electric-gun facility. Examples of its application to high speed experiments are discussed, including: electric-gun flyer studies, spallation of materials under high-speed impact, momentum-transfer studies, pressure pulse created by high-velocity impact, and detonation-wave studies in high-explosive experiments

  14. Fiber Fabry-Perot sensors for detection of partial discharges in power transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Kim, Dae Woong; Deng, Jiangdong; Xiao, Hai; Wang, Anbo

    2003-06-01

    A diaphragm-based interferometric fiberoptic sensor that uses a low-coherence light source was designed and tested for on-line detection of the acoustic waves generated by partial discharges inside high-voltage power transformers. The sensor uses a fused-silica diaphragm and a single-mode optical fiber encapsulated in a fused-silica glass tube to form an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer, which is interrogated by low-coherence light. Test results indicate that these fiber optic acoustic sensors are capable of faithfully detecting acoustic signals propagating inside transformer oil with high sensitivity and wide bandwidth.

  15. Construction of an optical semiconductor amplifier starting from a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.; Soto, H.; Marquez, H.; Valles V, N.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology to convert a semiconductor laser Fabry-Perot (SL-FP) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is presented. In order to suppress the cavity resonant an optical thin film coating was deposited on the facets of the SL-FP. The experiment was carried out putting on service a new monitoring technique that consist in the observation of the laser power spectrum during the antireflection coatings deposition. This allows to determine the moment were the facets reflectivity is minimum. The SOA obtained was characterized for different polarization currents. (Author)

  16. The low frequency facility Fabry-Perot cavity used as a speed-meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Virgilio, A.; Braccini, S.; Ballardin, G.; Bradaschia, C.; Cella, G.; Cuoco, E.; Dattilo, V.; Fazzi, M.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Frasconi, F.; Giazotto, A.; Gennai, A.; Holloway, L.H.; La Penna, P.; Lomtadze, T.; Losurdo, G.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Poggiani, R.; Porzio, A.; Puppo, P.; Raffaelli, F.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.; Ricciardi, I.; Solimeno, S.; Stanga, R.; Vetrano, F.; Zhou, Z

    2003-09-15

    Fabry-Perot cavities have many different applications as scientific instruments. In the gravitational waves research field they are extensively used to frequency stabilize lasers and to measure very small distance variations. In the present Letter a method to evaluate from the transmitted power only the relative speed and position of the mirrors of a cavity, having finesse F>40, is described. A displacement spectral sensitivity of the order of about 3x10{sup -10} m/Hz{sup -1/2} at 10 Hz is obtained with the cavity of the low frequency facility.

  17. All-optical logic gates and wavelength conversion via the injection locking of a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E.; Pochet, M.; Schmidt, J.; Locke, T.; Naderi, N.; Usechak, N. G.

    2013-03-01

    This work investigates the implementation of all-optical logic gates based on optical injection locking (OIL). All-optical inverting, NOR, and NAND gates are experimentally demonstrated using two distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, a multi-mode Fabry-Perot laser diode, and an optical band-pass filter. The DFB lasers are externally modulated to represent logic inputs into the cavity of the multi-mode Fabry-Perot slave laser. The input DFB (master) lasers' wavelengths are aligned with the longitudinal modes of the Fabry-Perot slave laser and their optical power is used to modulate the injection conditions in the Fabry-Perot slave laser. The optical band-pass filter is used to select a Fabry- Perot mode that is either suppressed or transmitted given the logic state of the injecting master laser signals. When the input signal(s) is (are) in the on state, injection locking, and thus the suppression of the non-injected Fabry-Perot modes, is induced, yielding a dynamic system that can be used to implement photonic logic functions. Additionally, all-optical photonic processing is achieved using the cavity-mode shift produced in the injected slave laser under external optical injection. The inverting logic case can also be used as a wavelength converter — a key component in advanced wavelength-division multiplexing networks. As a result of this experimental investigation, a more comprehensive understanding of the locking parameters involved in injecting multiple lasers into a multi-mode cavity and the logic transition time is achieved. The performance of optical logic computations and wavelength conversion has the potential for ultrafast operation, limited primarily by the photon decay rate in the slave laser.

  18. Storage of laser pulses in a Fabry-Perot optical cavity for high flux x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezawa, K.; Honda, Y.; Sasao, N.; Araki, S.; Higashi, Y.; Taniguchi, T.; Urakawa, J.; Nomura, M.; Sakai, H.

    2004-01-01

    We have a plan to produce a high flux x-ray for medical use by using a Fabry-Perot optical cavity in which the lower pulses from a mode-locked laser are stored and enhanced. In this plan, the X-ray is produced from the Compton scattering of electrons in a storage ring with the laser light in the optical cavity. In order to increase X-ray flux, high power laser light is necessary. We show the enhancement of the laser power from the model locked laser with a Fabry-Perot optical cavity. (author)

  19. Hypersonic force measurements using internal balance based on optical micromachined Fabry-Perot interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huacheng; Min, Fu; Zhong, Shaolong; Song, Xin; Yang, Yanguang

    2018-03-01

    Force measurements using wind tunnel balance are necessary for determining a variety of aerodynamic performance parameters, while the harsh environment in hypersonic flows requires that the measurement instrument should be reliable and robust, in against strong electromagnetic interference, high vacuum, or metal (oxide) dusts. In this paper, we demonstrated a three-component internal balance for hypersonic aerodynamic force measurements, using novel optical micromachined Fabry-Perot interferometric (FPI) strain gauges as sensing elements. The FPI gauges were fabricated using Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) surface and bulk fabrication techniques. High-reflectivity coatings are used to form a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity, which benefits a high resolution. Antireflective and passivation coatings are used to reduce unwanted interferences. The FPI strain gauge based balance has been calibrated and evaluated in a Mach 5 hypersonic flow. The results are compared with the traditional technique using the foil resistive strain gauge balance, indicating that the proposed balance based on the MOEMS FPI strain gauge is reliable and robust and is potentially suitable for the hypersonic wind tunnel harsh environment.

  20. Lineshape Engineering in an All-Pass Ring Resonator with Backreflection Coupled to a Symmetrical Fabry-Perot Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Melnikov, Vasily

    2012-11-10

    We derive transfer functions for an all-pass ring resonator with internal backreflection coupled to a symmetrical Fabry-Perot resonator and demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency-like and Fano-like lineshapes tunable by backreflection in the ring resonator.

  1. The comparison of environmental effects on michelson and fabry-perot interferometers utilized for the displacement measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yung-Cheng; Shyu, Lih-Horng; Chang, Chung-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The optical structure of general commercial interferometers, e.g., the Michelson interferometers, is based on a non-common optical path. Such interferometers suffer from environmental effects because of the different phase changes induced in different optical paths and consequently the measurement precision will be significantly influenced by tiny variations of the environmental conditions. Fabry-Perot interferometers, which feature common optical paths, are insensitive to environmental disturbances. That would be advantageous for precision displacement measurements under ordinary environmental conditions. To verify and analyze this influence, displacement measurements with the two types of interferometers, i.e., a self-fabricated Fabry-Perot interferometer and a commercial Michelson interferometer, have been performed and compared under various environmental disturbance scenarios. Under several test conditions, the self-fabricated Fabry-Perot interferometer was obviously less sensitive to environmental disturbances than a commercial Michelson interferometer. Experimental results have shown that induced errors from environmental disturbances in a Fabry-Perot interferometer are one fifth of those in a Michelson interferometer. This has proved that an interferometer with the common optical path structure will be much more independent of environmental disturbances than those with a non-common optical path structure. It would be beneficial for the solution of interferometers utilized for precision displacement measurements in ordinary measurement environments.

  2. Lineshape Engineering in an All-Pass Ring Resonator with Backreflection Coupled to a Symmetrical Fabry-Perot Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Melnikov, Vasily; Roqan, Iman S.

    2012-01-01

    We derive transfer functions for an all-pass ring resonator with internal backreflection coupled to a symmetrical Fabry-Perot resonator and demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency-like and Fano-like lineshapes tunable by backreflection in the ring resonator.

  3. Readout of micromechanical cantilever sensor arrays by Fabry-Perot interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrmeister, Jana; Fuss, Achim; Saurenbach, Frank; Berger, Ruediger; Helm, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The increasing use of micromechanical cantilevers in sensing applications causes a need for reliable readout techniques of micromechanical cantilever sensor (MCS) bending. Current optical beam deflection techniques suffer from drawbacks such as artifacts due to changes in the refraction index upon exchange of media. Here, an adaptation of the Fabry-Perot interferometer is presented that allows simultaneous determination of MCS bending and changes in the refraction index of media. Calibration of the instrument with liquids of known refraction index provides an avenue to direct measurement of bending with nanometer precision. Versatile construction of flow cells in combination with alignment features for substrate chips allows simultaneous measurement of two MCS situated either on the same, or on two different support chips. The performance of the instrument is demonstrate in several sensing applications, including adsorption experiments of alkanethioles on MCS gold surfaces, and measurement of humidity changes in air

  4. Enhanced Bulk-Edge Coulomb Coupling in Fractional Fabry-Perot Interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Keyserlingk, C W; Simon, S H; Rosenow, Bernd

    2015-09-18

    Recent experiments use Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometry to claim that the ν=5/2 quantum Hall state exhibits non-Abelian topological order. We note that the experiments appear inconsistent with a model neglecting bulk-edge Coulomb coupling and Majorana tunneling, so we reexamine the theory of FP devices. Even a moderate Coulomb coupling may strongly affect some fractional plateaus, but very weakly affect others, allowing us to model the data over a wide range of plateaus. While experiments are consistent with the ν=5/2 state harboring Moore-Read topological order, they may have measured Coulomb effects rather than an "even-odd effect" due to non-Abelian braiding.

  5. Advanced Interrogation of Fiber-Optic Bragg Grating and Fabry-Perot Sensors with KLT Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT) is applied to accurate detection of optical fiber sensors in the spectral domain. By processing an optical spectrum, although coarsely sampled, through the KLT, and subsequently processing the obtained eigenvalues, it is possible to decode a plurality of optical sensor results. The KLT returns higher accuracy than other demodulation techniques, despite coarse sampling, and exhibits higher resilience to noise. Three case studies of KLT-based processing are presented, representing most of the current challenges in optical fiber sensing: (1) demodulation of individual sensors, such as Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) and Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs); (2) demodulation of dual (FBG/FPI) sensors; (3) application of reverse KLT to isolate different sensors operating on the same spectrum. A simulative outline is provided to demonstrate the KLT operation and estimate performance; a brief experimental section is also provided to validate accurate FBG and FPI decoding. PMID:26528975

  6. Optical cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometer hydrogen sensor based on vernier effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yina; Zhao, Chunliu; Xu, Ben; Wang, Dongning; Yang, Minghong

    2018-05-01

    An optical cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometer hydrogen sensor based on vernier effect has been proposed and achieved. The proposed sensor, which total length is ∼594 μm, is composed of a segment of large mode area fiber (LMAF) and a segment of hollow-core fiber (HCF). The proposed sensor is coated with the Pt-loaded WO3/SiO2 powder which will result in the increase of local temperature of the sensor head when exposed to hydrogen atmosphere. Thus the hydrogen sensor can be achieved by monitoring the change of resonant envelope wavelength. The hydrogen sensitivity is -1.04 nm/% within the range of 0 % -2.4 % which is greatly improved because of the vernier effect. The response time is ∼80 s. Due to its compact configuration, the proposed sensor provides a feasible and miniature structure to achieve detection of hydrogen.

  7. Fabry-Perot Interferometry in the Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Douglas; Chang, Willy; Kou, Angela; Marcus, Charles; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken

    2011-03-01

    We present measurements of electronic Fabry-Perot interferometers in the integer and fractional quantum Hall regimes. Two classes of resistance oscillations may be seen as a function of magnetic field and gate voltage, as we have previously reported. In small interferometers in the integer regime, oscillations of the type associated with Coulomb interaction are ubiquitous, while those consistent with single-particle Aharonov-Bohm interference are seen to co-exist in some configurations. The amplitude scaling of both types with temperature and device size is consistent with a theoretical model. Oscillations are further observed in the fractional quantum Hall regime. Here the dependence of the period on the filling factors in the constrictions and bulk of the interferometer can shed light on the effective charge of the interfering quasiparticles, but care is needed to distinguish these oscillations from those associated with integer quantum Hall states. We acknowledge funding from Microsoft Project Q and IBM.

  8. A highly directive graphene antenna embedded inside a Fabry-Perot cavity in terahertz regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanaei, Majid; Karami, Hamidreza; Dehkhoda, Parisa; Esfahani, Hamid; Dabir, Fatemeh

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a highly directive nano-thickness graphene-based antenna is introduced in the terahertz frequency band. The antenna is a graphene patch dipole which is placed between two Bragg mirrors called Fabry-Perot cavity. Tunability of the graphene's conductivity makes it possible to excite the desired resonances of the cavity. Here, first, a single resonant antenna is introduced at 5 THz with an enhanced gain from 2.11 dBi to 12.8 dBi with a beamwidth of 22.7°. Then, a triple resonant antenna at 4.7, 5 and 5.3 THz is presented with respective gains of 7.97, 11.9 and 8.52 dBi. Finally, the effect of dimensions and number of the dielectric layers of the cavity are studied in order to further increase in directivity.

  9. A new detection method used to calibrate Fabry-Perot interferometers in the infrared range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talvard, M.; Javon, C.; Garcin, M.; Thouvenin, D.

    1993-06-01

    Fabry-Perot interferometers are routinely used in the Tore Supra Tokamak in order to measure the time evolution of the electron temperature of the confined plasmas. Calibration of such interferometers requires the detection of very low DC levels (0.1 nV) with signal-to-noise ratios less than 10 -5 , which is generally not compatible with standard detection methods. A new correlation method to achieve this absolute calibration is proposed. It is based on a proper noise auto-correlation technique combined with an optimized signal filtering involving Fourier analysis. The advantages of the method are detailed and experimentally compared to standard averaging techniques, such as coherent addition and synchronous detection. The method can be used in a more general context every time very small amplitude signals are to be measured

  10. Fabry-Perot interferometry using an image-intensified rotating-mirror streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, W.L.; Stacy, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    A Fabry-Perot velocity interferometer system is described that uses a modified rotating mirror streak camera to recrod the dynamic fringe positions. A Los Alamos Model 72B rotating-mirror streak camera, equipped with a beryllium mirror, was modified to include a high aperture (f/2.5) relay lens and a 40-mm image-intensifier tube such that the image normally formed at the film plane of the streak camera is projected onto the intensifier tube. Fringe records for thin (0.13 mm) flyers driven by a small bridgewire detonator obtained with a Model C1155-01 Hamamatsu and Model 790 Imacon electronic streak cameras are compared with those obtained with the image-intensified rotating-mirror streak camera (I 2 RMC). Resolution comparisons indicate that the I 2 RMC gives better time resolution than either the Hamamatsu or the Imacon for total writing times of a few microseconds or longer

  11. Performance of a 1200 m long suspended Fabry-Perot cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Freise, A; Gossler, S; Grote, H; Heinzel, G; Lück, H B; Robertson, D I; Strain, K A; Ward, H; Willke, B; Hough, J; Danzmann, K

    2002-01-01

    Using one arm of the Michelson interferometer and the power recycling mirror of the interferometric gravitational wave detector GEO 600, we created a Fabry-Perot cavity with a length of 1200 m. The main purpose of this experiment was to gather first experience with the main optics, its suspensions and the corresponding control systems. The residual displacement of a main mirror is about 150 nm rms. By stabilizing the length of the 1200 m long cavity to the pre-stabilized laser beam, we achieved an error point frequency noise of 100 mu Hz Hz sup - sup 1 sup / sup 2 at 100 Hz Fourier frequency. In addition we demonstrated the reliable performance of all included subsystems by several 10-hour-periods of continuous stable operation. Thus the full frequency stabilization scheme for GEO 600 was successfully tested.

  12. Multimode fiber tip Fabry-Perot cavity for highly sensitive pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W P; Wang, D N; Xu, Ben; Zhao, C L; Chen, H F

    2017-03-23

    We demonstrate an optical Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber tip sensor based on an etched end of multimode fiber filled with ultraviolet adhesive. The fiber device is miniature (with diameter of less than 60 μm), robust and low cost, in a convenient reflection mode of operation, and has a very high gas pressure sensitivity of -40.94 nm/MPa, a large temperature sensitivity of 213 pm/°C within the range from 55 to 85 °C, and a relatively low temperature cross-sensitivity of 5.2 kPa/°C. This device has a high potential in monitoring environment of high pressure.

  13. The PVLAS experiment: measuring vacuum magnetic birefringence and dichroism with a birefringent Fabry-Perot cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Valle, Federico; Milotti, Edoardo [INFN, Trieste (Italy); Universita di Trieste, Dipt. di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Ejlli, Aldo; Messineo, Giuseppe; Zavattini, Guido [INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Universita di Ferrara, Dipt. di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy); Gastaldi, Ugo [INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Pengo, Ruggero; Ruoso, Giuseppe [INFN, Lab. Nazionale di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Vacuum magnetic birefringence was predicted long time ago and is still lacking a direct experimental confirmation. Several experimental efforts are striving to reach this goal, and the sequence of results promises a success in the next few years. This measurement generally is accompanied by the search for hypothetical light particles that couple to two photons. The PVLAS experiment employs a sensitive polarimeter based on a high finesse Fabry-Perot cavity. In this paper we report on the latest experimental results of this experiment. The data are analysed taking into account the intrinsic birefringence of the dielectric mirrors of the cavity. Besides a new limit on the vacuum magnetic birefringence, the measurements also allow the model-independent exclusion of new regions in the parameter space of axion-like and milli-charged particles. In particular, these last limits hold also for all types of neutrinos, resulting in a laboratory limit on their charge. (orig.)

  14. Faraday-Active Fabry-Perot Resonator: Transmission, Reflection, and Emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptuga, Anatoliy; Morozhenko, Vasyl; Pipa, Viktor; Venger, Evgen; Kostiuk, Theodor

    2011-01-01

    The propagation of light within a semiconductor Faraday-active Fabry-Perot resonator (FAFR) is investigated theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that an external magnetic field radically changes the angular and spectral characteristics of transmission, reflection and emissivity of the resonator not only for polarized, but also for unpolarized light. Suppression of interference patterns and phase inversion of the interference extrema were observed in both monochromatic and polychromatic light. The investigations were carried out for the plane-parallel plates of n-InAs in the spectral range of free charge carrier absorption. The results can be used to create new controllable optical and spectroscopic devices for investigation of Faraday-active material properties and for control of parameters of plane-parallel layers and structures.

  15. Simultaneous wavelength and orbital angular momentum demultiplexing using tunable MEMS-based Fabry-Perot filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir; Porfirev, Alexey P.; Gurbatov, Stanislav O.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate simultaneous wavelength and orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing/demultiplexing of 10 Gbit/s data streams using a new on-chip micro-component-tunable MEMS-based Fabry-Perot filter integrated with a spiral phase plate. In the experiment, two......, maximum power penalties at the HD-FEC BER threshold relative to the 0.8 nm wavelength spacing read 0.83, 0.84 and 1.15 dB when multiplexing a Gaussian beam and OAM beams of 1st, 2nd and 3rd orders respectively. The novelty and impact of the proposed filter design is in providing practical, integrable...

  16. Effects of the time delays in a non linear pendular Fabry-Perot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourrenc, P.; Deruelle, N.

    1985-01-01

    We study a one arm pendular Fabry-Perot interferometer with specifications corresponding to the two arms interferometers designed to detect gravitational radiation. We consider the non linearities originating from the radiation force and the effects of time delays due to the finite length of the arm. We derive the exact and the associated ''predictivised'' equations for the motion of the suspended mirror. We show that effects of time delays increase considerably the stability of the device when the optical relaxation time is of the order of the period of the pendulum, a case of relevance when light is recycled. However the thermal noise does not seem to be much modified when calculated within a simple approximation scheme

  17. A fully computerized multi-pass Fabry-Perot interferometer for Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohidar, H.; Berland, T.; Boger, F.; Joessang, T.; Feder, J.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a Multipass Fabry-Perot interforometer assembly for use in Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering experiments is reported. The optical alignment and the scattered signal data acquisition have been completely computerized. Digital scanning and alignment strategies of the Fabry-Perot resonator have been incorporated, which makes this instrument quite unique in this respect. The high contrast (∼10 10 ) and finesse (∼50) offered by this instrument makes it possible to detect Brillouin peaks from samples that have a small Brillouin scattering cross-section. As part of this system a compatible and precision sample chamber has been constructed, which has been designed to operate in the pressure and temperature ranges of 1-1000B and 20-150 o C, respectively. The cell has been constructed to be small and compact, but it still has a large heat capacity (∼250J/K) which ensures easy and stable temperature control of the liquid sample volume which has a size of 40 mm 3 . The achievable temperature stability is +-1mK and +-2mK for operating temperatures below and above 100 o C, respectively. The pressure stability is in the range of +-0.05B of the set pressure for pressures below 100B and it is +-0.05% for higher pressures up to 1000B. Both pressure and temperature are remotely monitored and controlled by a ND/100 computer. Special care has been taken in designing the optics of the pressure cell to ensure that both the primary and secondary reflections from the entrance window, as well as the main beam, go out of the scattering region in order to achieve higher signal-to-noise ratio in actual experiments

  18. Luminosity optimization schemes in Compton experiments based on Fabry-Perot optical resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Variola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The luminosity of Compton x-ray and γ sources depends on the average current in electron bunches, the energy of the laser pulses, and the geometry of the particle bunch to laser pulse collisions. To obtain high power photon pulses, these can be stacked in a passive optical resonator (Fabry-Perot cavity especially when a high average flux is required. But, in this case, owing to the presence of the optical cavity mirrors, the electron bunches have to collide at an angle with the laser pulses with a consequent luminosity decrease. In this article a crab-crossing scheme is proposed for Compton sources, based on a laser amplified in a Fabry-Perot resonator, to eliminate the luminosity losses given by the crossing angle, taking into account that in laser-electron collisions only the electron bunches can be tilted at the collision point. We report the analytical study on the crab-crossing scheme for Compton gamma sources. The analytical expression for the total yield of photons generated in Compton sources with the crab-crossing scheme of collision is derived. The optimal collision angle of the bunch was found to be equal to half of the collision angle. At this crabbing angle, the maximal yield of scattered off laser photons is attained thanks to the maximization, in the collision process, of the time spent by the laser pulse in the electron bunch. Estimations for some Compton source projects are presented. Furthermore, some schemes of the optical cavities configuration are analyzed and the luminosity calculated. As illustrated, the four-mirror two- or three-dimensional scheme is the most appropriate for Compton sources.

  19. Precise length etalon controlled by stabilized frequency comb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Radek; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2008), Section 3: 114-117 ISSN 1335-8871 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200650504; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007; GA MŠk 2C06012; GA AV ČR KAN311610701; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/127; GA MPO FT-TA3/133; GA ČR GA102/07/1179 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : Fabry-Perot * interferometer * femtosecond * etalon Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  20. Microwave radiometric aircraft observations of the Fabry-Perot interference fringes of an ice-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, R. F.; Swift, C. T.; Fedors, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Airborne stepped-frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR) observations of the Fabry-Perot interference fringes of ice-water systems are discussed. The microwave emissivity at normal incidence of a smooth layered dielectric medium over a semi-infinite dielectric medium is examined for the case of ice over water as a function of ice thickness and attenuation coefficient, and the presence of quarter-wavelength oscillations in emissivity as the ice thickness and frequency are varied is pointed out. Experimental observations of pronounced quarter-wavelength oscillations in radiometric brightness temperature due to the Fabry-Perot interference fringes over smooth sea ice and lake ice varying in roughness as the radiometer frequencies were scanned are then presented.

  1. Optical power equalization for upstream traffic with injection-locked Fabry-Perot lasers in TDM-PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Tsan; Sheu, Lih-Gen; Chi, Sien

    2010-10-01

    An optical power equalization of upstream traffic in time-division-multiplexed passive optical network (TDM-PON) based on injection-locked Fabry-Perot lasers has been experimentally investigated. The upstream transmitters with stable spectrum are achieved by using an external injection light source in the optical line terminal (OLT). The different upstream powers can be equalized by injection locking a Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) biased below threshold current in OLT. The dynamic upstream power range from - 8.5 to - 19.5 db m is reduced to a 1.6 dB maximal power variation, when the uplink signal is directly modulated at 1.25 Gb/s.

  2. Passive harmonic mode locking by mode selection in Fabry-Perot diode lasers with patterned effective index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitauld, David; Osborne, Simon; O'Brien, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate passive harmonic mode locking of a quantum-well laser diode designed to support a discrete comb of Fabry-Perot modes. Spectral filtering of the mode spectrum was achieved using a nonperiodic patterning of the cavity effective index. By selecting six modes spaced at twice the fundamental mode spacing, near-transform-limited pulsed output with 2 ps pulse duration was obtained at a repetition rate of 100 GHz.

  3. A Fabry-Perot Interferometry Based MRI-Compatible Miniature Uniaxial Force Sensor for Percutaneous Needle Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Weijian; Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Furlong, Cosme; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Robot-assisted surgical procedures, taking advantage of the high soft tissue contrast and real-time imaging of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are developing rapidly. However, it is crucial to maintain tactile force feedback in MRI-guided needle-based procedures. This paper presents a Fabry-Perot interference (FPI) based system of an MRI-compatible fiber optic sensor which has been integrated into a piezoelectrically actuated robot for prostate cancer biopsy and brachytherapy in 3T MRI scan...

  4. Response of a New Low-Coherence Fabry-Perot Sensor to Hematocrit Levels in Human Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jędrzejewska-Szczerska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low-coherence Fabry-Perot sensor with a spectrally measured signal processing response to the refractive index of liquids is presented. Optical fiber sensors are potentially capable of continuous measuring hematocrit levels in blood. Low-coherence Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors offer a robust solution, where information about the measurand is encoded in the full spectrum of light reflected from the sensing interferometer. The first step in the research on such sensor is the assessment of its performance under favorable conditions, i.e., using blood samples from healthy volunteers tested in vitro. Such an experiment was conducted using a sensor comprising a superluminescent diode source, an optical spectrum analyzer working as the detection setup and a sensing Fabry-Perot interferometer providing high interference contrast. The response of this sensor was recorded for several samples and compared with the reference laboratory method. The coefficient of determination (R2 for a linear relationship between the results given by both methods was 0.978 and the difference between these results was less than 1%. The presented results suggest that further research into the performance of the sensor is merited.

  5. Developments of capacitance stabilised etalon technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, R. A.; Foster, M.; Thwaite, C.; Thompson, C. K.; Rees, D.; Bakalski, I. V.; Pereira do Carmo, J.

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes a high-resolution optical filter (HRF) suitable for narrow bandwidth filtering in LIDAR applications. The filter is composed of a broadband interference filter and a narrowband Fabry-Perot etalon based on the capacitance stabilised concept. The key requirements for the HRF were a bandwidth of less than 40 pm, a tuneable range of over 6 nm and a transmission greater than 50%. These requirements combined with the need for very high out-of-band rejection (greater than 50 dB in the range 300 nm to 1200 nm) drive the design of the filter towards a combination of high transmission broadband filter and high performance tuneable, narrowband filter.

  6. Ultrafast Fabry-Perot fiber-optic pressure sensors for multimedia blast event measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Yang; Fitek, John; Maffeo, Michael; Niezrecki, Christopher; Chen, Julie; Wang, Xingwei

    2013-02-20

    A shock wave (SW) is characterized as a large pressure fluctuation that typically lasts only a few milliseconds. On the battlefield, SWs pose a serious threat to soldiers who are exposed to explosions, which may lead to blast-induced traumatic brain injuries. SWs can also be used beneficially and have been applied to a variety of medical treatments due to their unique interaction with tissues and cells. Consequently, it is important to have sensors that can quantify SW dynamics in order to better understand the physical interaction between body tissue and the incident acoustic wave. In this paper, the ultrafast fiber-optic sensor based on the Fabry-Perot interferometric principle was designed and four such sensors were fabricated to quantify a blast event within different media, simultaneously. The compact design of the fiber-optic sensor allows for a high degree of spatial resolution when capturing the wavefront of the traveling SW. Several blast event experiments were conducted within different media (e.g., air, rubber membrane, and water) to evaluate the sensor's performance. This research revealed valuable knowledge for further study of SW behavior and SW-related applications.

  7. Development of a Fabry-Perot cavity for the Compton polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorda, Jean-Paul

    1997-01-01

    A quick, precise and non-destructive longitudinal polarisation measurement should be a great advantage for the HAPPEX experiment at CEBAF (Jefferson Lab, USA). To achieve this, it could be possible to use a Fabry-Perot cavity to get a high photon flux at the electron-photon interaction point of a Compton polarimeter. This thesis is a first study for the design of such a system. We have shown that a 'monolithic' cavity, i.e. with mirrors mounted on fixed stage, is a good solution. My contribution for these studies is the development of a code to compute the optimum geometry of a cavity. Another of my contribution concerns the test of a cavity based on commercial mirrors with a gain > 160, using the Pound-Drever method to lock the laser frequency. My studies concern optical matching between the laser beam and the cavity, the choice of the frequency of modulation for the feed-back system and the characterization of the intracavity power. This work is a first step of the studies which will lead to the integration of a cavity based system on the CEBAF beam line. (author) [fr

  8. Microbubble-based fiber-optic Fabry-Perot pressure sensor for high-temperature application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Jia, Pinggang; Fang, Guocheng; Liang, Hao; Liang, Ting; Liu, Wenyi; Xiong, Jijun

    2018-03-10

    Using arc discharge technology, we fabricated a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot (FP) pressure sensor with a very low temperature coefficient based on a microbubble that can be applied in a high-temperature environment. The thin-walled microbubble can be fabricated by heating the gas-pressurized hollow silica tube (HST) using a commercial fusion splicer. Then, the well-cut single-mode fiber (SMF) was inserted into the microbubble, and they were fused together. Thus, the FP cavity can be formed between the end of the SMF and the inner surface of the microbubble. The diameter of the microbubble can be up to 360 μm with the thickness of the wall being approximately 0.5 μm. Experimental results show that such a sensor has a linear sensitivity of approximately -6.382  nm/MPa, -5.912  nm/MPa at 20°C, and 600°C within the pressure range of 1 MPa. Due to the thermal expansion coefficient of the SMF being slightly larger than that of silica, we can fuse the SMF and the HST with different lengths; thus, the sensor has a very low temperature coefficient of approximately 0.17 pm/°C.

  9. Tapered optical fiber tip probes based on focused ion beam-milled Fabry-Perot microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Ricardo M.; Warren-Smith, Stephen C.; Becker, Martin; Dellith, Jan; Rothhardt, Manfred; Zibaii, M. I.; Latifi, H.; Marques, Manuel B.; Bartelt, Hartmut; Frazão, Orlando

    2016-09-01

    Focused ion beam technology is combined with dynamic chemical etching to create microcavities in tapered optical fiber tips, resulting in fiber probes for temperature and refractive index sensing. Dynamic chemical etching uses hydrofluoric acid and a syringe pump to etch standard optical fibers into cone structures called tapered fiber tips where the length, shape, and cone angle can be precisely controlled. On these tips, focused ion beam is used to mill several different types of Fabry-Perot microcavities. Two main cavity types are initially compared and then combined to form a third, complex cavity structure. In the first case, a gap is milled on the tapered fiber tip which allows the external medium to penetrate the light guiding region and thus presents sensitivity to external refractive index changes. In the second, two slots that function as mirrors are milled on the tip creating a silica cavity that is only sensitive to temperature changes. Finally, both cavities are combined on a single tapered fiber tip, resulting in a multi-cavity structure capable of discriminating between temperature and refractive index variations. This dual characterization is performed with the aid of a fast Fourier transform method to separate the contributions of each cavity and thus of temperature and refractive index. Ultimately, a tapered optical fiber tip probe with sub-standard dimensions containing a multi-cavity structure is projected, fabricated, characterized and applied as a sensing element for simultaneous temperature and refractive index discrimination.

  10. MEMS fiber-optic Fabry-Perot pressure sensor for high temperature application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, G. C.; Jia, P. G.; Cao, Q.; Xiong, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    We design and demonstrate a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot pressure sensor (FOFPPS) for high-temperature sensing by employing micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology. The FOFPPS is fabricated by anodically bonding the silicon wafer and the Pyrex glass together and fixing the facet of the optical fiber in parallel with the silicon surface by glass frit and organic adhesive. The silicon wafer can be reduced through dry etching technology to construct the sensitive diaphragm. The length of the cavity changes with the deformation of the diaphragm due to the loaded pressure, which leads to a wavelength shift of the interference spectrum. The pressure can be gauged by measuring the wavelength shift. The pressure experimental results show that the sensor has linear pressure sensitivities ranging from 0 kPa to 600 kPa at temperature range between 20°C to 300°C. The pressure sensitivity at 300°C is approximately 27.63 pm/kPa. The pressure sensitivities gradually decrease with increasing the temperature. The sensor also has a linear thermal drift when temperature changes from 20°C - 300°C.

  11. High-energy localized eigenstates in a Fabry-Perot graphene resonator in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalipaev, V. V.

    2012-06-01

    A semiclassical analysis of the high-energy eigenstates of Dirac fermions inside a graphene monolayer nanoribbon resonator of Fabry-Perot type in a magnetic field with zigzag boundary conditions is discussed. A semiclassical asymptotic method of construction of Maslov spectral series of energy spectrum and eigenfunctions, localized in an asymptotically small neighborhood of a periodic orbit, is developed for the graphene Dirac system. The isolated periodic orbit is confined between two flat boundaries. The analysis involves constructing a localized asymptotic solution to the Dirac system (electron-hole Gaussian beam). Then, the stability of a continuous family of periodic orbits (POs) confined between reflecting boundaries of the resonator is studied. The asymptotics of the eigenfunctions are constructed as a superposition of two Gaussian beams propagating in opposite directions between two reflecting points of the periodic orbit. The asymptotics of the energy spectrum are obtained by means of the generalized Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition only for stable POs. It provides two parts of semiclassical Maslov spectral series with positive and negative energies, for electrons and holes, correspondingly, with two different Hamiltonian dynamics and families of classical trajectories. The presence of electrostatic potential is vital as it makes a family of periodic orbit stable. For one subclass of lens-shaped periodic orbits, for a piecewise linear potential, localized eigenstates were computed numerically by the finite element method using COMSOL, and proved to be in very good agreement with the ones computed semiclassically.

  12. The Gain Estimation of a Fabry-Perot Cavity (FPC Antenna with a Finite Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taek-Sun Kwon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented an equation for estimating the gain of a Fabry-Perot cavity (FPC antenna with a finite dimension. When an FPC antenna has an infinite dimension and its height is half of a wavelength, the maximum gain of that FPC antenna can be obtained theoretically. If the FPC antenna does not have a dimension sufficient for multiple reflections between a partially reflective surface (PRS and the ground, its gain must be less than that of an FPC antenna that has an infinite dimension. In addition, the gain of an FPC antenna increases as the dimension of a PRS increases and becomes saturated from a specific dimension. The specific dimension where the gain starts to saturate also gets larger as the reflection magnitude of the PRS becomes closer to one. Thus, it would be convenient to have a gain equation when considering the dimension of an FPC antenna in order to estimate the exact gain of the FPC antenna with a specific dimension. A gain versus the dimension of the FPC antenna for various reflection magnitudes of PRS has been simulated, and the modified gain equation is produced through the curve fitting of the full-wave simulation results. The resulting empirical gain equation of an FPC antenna whose PRS dimension is larger than 1.5λ0 has been obtained.

  13. Nonlinear estimation of ring-down time for a Fabry-Perot optical cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallapur, Abhijit G; Boyson, Toby K; Petersen, Ian R; Harb, Charles C

    2011-03-28

    This paper discusses the application of a discrete-time extended Kalman filter (EKF) to the problem of estimating the decay time constant for a Fabry-Perot optical cavity for cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). The data for the estimation process is obtained from a CRDS experimental setup in terms of the light intensity at the output of the cavity. The cavity is held in lock with the input laser frequency by controlling the distance between the mirrors within the cavity by means of a proportional-integral (PI) controller. The cavity is purged with nitrogen and placed under vacuum before chopping the incident light at 25 KHz and recording the light intensity at its output. In spite of beginning the EKF estimation process with uncertainties in the initial value for the decay time constant, its estimates converge well within a small neighborhood of the expected value for the decay time constant of the cavity within a few ring-down cycles. Also, the EKF estimation results for the decay time constant are compared to those obtained using the Levenberg-Marquardt estimation scheme.

  14. Construction of an optical semiconductor amplifier starting from a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser; Construccion de un amplificador optico de semiconductor a partir de un laser de semiconductor Fabry-Perot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.; Soto, H.; Marquez, H.; Valles V, N. [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada. Km. 107, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A methodology to convert a semiconductor laser Fabry-Perot (SL-FP) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is presented. In order to suppress the cavity resonant an optical thin film coating was deposited on the facets of the SL-FP. The experiment was carried out putting on service a new monitoring technique that consist in the observation of the laser power spectrum during the antireflection coatings deposition. This allows to determine the moment were the facets reflectivity is minimum. The SOA obtained was characterized for different polarization currents. (Author)

  15. Performance Evaluation of Fabry-Perot Temperature Sensors in Nuclear Power Plant Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanying; Miller, Don W.; Talnagi, Joseph W.

    2003-01-01

    The Fiso Fabry-Perot fiber-optic temperature sensor was selected for performance evaluation and for potential application in nuclear power plants because of its unique interferometric sensing mechanism and data-processing technique, and its commercial availability. It employs a Fizeau interferometer and a charge-coupled device array to locate the position of the maximum interference fringe intensity, which is directly related to the environmental temperature. Consequently, the basic sensing mechanism is independent of the absolute transmitted light intensity, which is the most likely parameter to be affected by external harsh environments such as nuclear irradiation, high pressure/temperature, and cyclical vibration.This paper reports research on the performance of two Fiso Fabry-Perot temperature sensors in environmental conditions expected in nuclear power plants during both normal and abnormal (i.e., accident) conditions. The environmental conditions simulated in this paper include gamma-only ( 60 Co) irradiation, pressure/temperature environmental transient, and mixed neutron/gamma field, respectively.The first sensor exhibited no failure or degradation in performance during and following gamma-only irradiation in which a total dose of 15 kGy was delivered at a dose rate of 2.5 kGy/h. Following gamma irradiation, this sensor was then tested for 10.75 days in a thermohydraulic environment prescribed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE323-1983. Intermittent behavior was observed throughout the latter portions of this test, and degradation in performance occurred after the test. Visual evaluation after opening the sensor head indicated that the internal welding methodology was the primary contributor to the observed behavior during this test. Further consultation with the vendor shows that the robustness and reliability of Fiso sensors can be substantially improved by modifying the internal welding methods.The second Fiso temperature

  16. Investigation of mode partition noise in Fabry-Perot laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingyi; Deng, Lanxin; Mu, Jianwei; Li, Xun; Huang, Wei-Ping

    2014-09-01

    Passive optical network (PON) is considered as the most appealing access network architecture in terms of cost-effectiveness, bandwidth management flexibility, scalability and durability. And to further reduce the cost per subscriber, a Fabry-Perot (FP) laser diode is preferred as the transmitter at the optical network units (ONUs) because of its lower cost compared to distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode. However, the mode partition noise (MPN) associated with the multi-longitudinal-mode FP laser diode becomes the limiting factor in the network. This paper studies the MPN characteristics of the FP laser diode using the time-domain simulation of noise-driven multi-mode laser rate equation. The probability density functions are calculated for each longitudinal mode. The paper focuses on the investigation of the k-factor, which is a simple yet important measure of the noise power, but is usually taken as a fitted or assumed value in the penalty calculations. In this paper, the sources of the k-factor are studied with simulation, including the intrinsic source of the laser Langevin noise, and the extrinsic source of the bit pattern. The photon waveforms are shown under four simulation conditions for regular or random bit pattern, and with or without Langevin noise. The k-factors contributed by those sources are studied with a variety of bias current and modulation current. Simulation results are illustrated in figures, and show that the contribution of Langevin noise to the k-factor is larger than that of the random bit pattern, and is more dominant at lower bias current or higher modulation current.

  17. High time resolution measurements of the thermosphere from Fabry-Perot Interferometer measurements of atomic oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. K. Ford

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the performance of CCD detectors have enabled a high time resolution study of the high latitude upper thermosphere with Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs to be performed. 10-s integration times were used during a campaign in April 2004 on an FPI located in northern Sweden in the auroral oval. The FPI is used to study the thermosphere by measuring the oxygen red line emission at 630.0 nm, which emits at an altitude of approximately 240 km. Previous time resolutions have been 4 min at best, due to the cycle of look directions normally observed. By using 10 s rather than 40 s integration times, and by limiting the number of full cycles in a night, high resolution measurements down to 15 s were achievable. This has allowed the maximum variability of the thermospheric winds and temperatures, and 630.0 nm emission intensities, at approximately 240 km, to be determined as a few minutes. This is a significantly greater variability than the often assumed value of 1 h or more. A Lomb-Scargle analysis of this data has shown evidence of gravity wave activity with waves with short periods. Gravity waves are an important feature of mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT dynamics, observed using many techniques and providing an important mechanism for energy transfer between atmospheric regions. At high latitudes gravity waves may be generated in-situ by localised auroral activity. Short period waves were detected in all four clear nights when this experiment was performed, in 630.0 nm intensities and thermospheric winds and temperatures. Waves with many periodicities were observed, from periods of several hours, down to 14 min. These waves were seen in all parameters over several nights, implying that this variability is a typical property of the thermosphere.

  18. Micro-Mechanical Voltage Tunable Fabry-Perot Filters Formed in (111) Silicon. Degree awarded by Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, James D.

    1997-01-01

    The MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) technology is quickly evolving as a viable means to combine micro-mechanical and micro-optical elements on the same chip. One MEMS technology that has recently gained attention by the research community is the micro-mechanical Fabry-Perot optical filter. A MEMS based Fabry-Perot consists of a vertically integrated structure composed of two mirrors separated by an air gap. Wavelength tuning is achieved by applying a bias between the two mirrors resulting in an attractive electrostatic force which pulls the mirrors closer. In this work, we present a new micro-mechanical Fabry-Perot structure which is simple to fabricate and is integratable with low cost silicon photodetectors and transistors. The structure consists of a movable gold coated oxide cantilever for the top mirror and a stationary Au/Ni plated silicon bottom mirror. The fabrication process is single mask level, self aligned, and requires only one grown or deposited layer. Undercutting of the oxide cantilever is carried out by a combination of RIE and anisotropic KOH etching of the (111) silicon substrate. Metallization of the mirrors is provided by thermal evaporation and electroplating. The optical and electrical characteristics of the fabricated devices were studied and show promissing results. A wavelength shift of 120nm with 53V applied bias was demonstrated by one device geometry using 6.27 micrometer air gap. The finesse of the structure was 2.4. Modulation bandwidths ranging from 91KHz to greater than 920KHz were also observed. Theoretical calculations show that if mirror reflectivity, smoothness, and parallelism are improved, a finesse of 30 is attainable. The predictions also suggest that a reduction of the air gap to 1 micrometer results in an increased wavelength tuning range of 175 nm with a CMOS compatible 4.75V.

  19. Nanoporous Zeolite Thin Film-Based Fiber Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometric Sensor for Detection of Dissolved Organics in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Xiao

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A fiber optic intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (IFPI chemical sensor wasdeveloped by fine-polishing a thin layer of polycrystalline nanoporous MFI zeolitesynthesized on the cleaved endface of a single mode fiber. The sensor operated bymonitoring the optical thickness changes of the zeolite thin film caused by the adsorption oforganic molecules into the zeolite channels. The optical thickness of the zeolite thin filmwas measured by white light interferometry. Using methanol, 2-propanol, and toluene as themodel chemicals, it was demonstrated that the zeolite IPFI sensor could detect dissolvedorganics in water with high sensitivity.

  20. Picometre displacement measurements using a differential Fabry-Perot optical interferometer and an x-ray interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Mehmet; Hamid, Ramiz; Kuetgens, Ulrich; Yacoot, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    X-ray interferometry is emerging as an important tool for dimensional nanometrology both for sub-nanometre measurement and displacement. It has been used to verify the performance of the next generation of displacement measuring optical interferometers within the European Metrology Research Programme project NANOTRACE. Within this project a more detailed set of comparison measurements between the x-ray interferometer and a dual channel Fabry-Perot optical interferometer (DFPI) have been made to demonstrate the capabilities of both instruments for picometre displacement metrology. The results show good agreement between the two instruments, although some minor differences of less than 5 pm have been observed.

  1. General Method for Calculating the Response and Noise Spectra of Active Fabry-Perot Semiconductor Waveguides With External Optical Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We present a theoretical method for calculating small-signal modulation responses and noise spectra of active Fabry-Perot semiconductor waveguides with external light injection. Small-signal responses due to either a modulation of the pump current or due to an optical amplitude or phase modulatio...... amplifiers and an injection-locked laser. We also demonstrate the applicability of the method to analyze slow and fast light effects in semiconductor waveguides. Finite reflectivities of the facets are found to influence the phase changes of the injected microwave-modulated light....

  2. Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber tip sensor based on a glass microsphere glued at the etched end of multimode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiping P.; Wang, Dongning N.; Xu, Ben; Wang, Zhaokun K.; Zhao, Chun-Liu

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate an optical Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber tip sensor based on a glass microsphere glued at the etched end of a multimode fiber. The fiber device is miniature and robust, with a convenient reflection mode of operation, a high temperature sensitivity of 202.6 pm/°C within the range from 5°C to 90°C, a good refractive index sensitivity of ˜119 nm/RIU within the range from 1.331 to 1.38, and a gas pressure sensitivity of 0.19 dB/MPa.

  3. Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with asymmetric fiber Bragg grating Fabry-Perot cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Xu, Zhi-wei; Wang, Meng; Chen, Hai-yan

    2014-11-01

    A novel dual-wavelength fiber laser with asymmetric fiber Bragg grating (FBG) Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A couple of uniform FBGs are used as the cavity mirrors, and the third FBG is used as intracavity wavelength selector by changing its operation temperature. Experimental results show that by adjusting the operation temperature of the intracavity wavelength selector, a tunable dual-wavelength laser emission can be achieved. The results demonstrate the new concept of dual-wavelength lasing with asymmetric FBG FP resonator and its technical feasibility.

  4. Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of neutral winds and F2 layer variations at the magnetic equator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vila

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents some night-time observations of neutral wind variations at F2 layer levels near the dip equator, measured by the Fabry-Perot interferometer set up in 1994 at Korhogo (Ivory Coast, geographic latitude 9.25°N, longitude 355°E, dip latitude –2.5°. Our instrument uses the 630 nm (O1D line to determine radial Doppler velocities of the oxygen atoms between 200 and 400 km altitude. First results for November 1994 to March 1995 reveal persistent eastward flows, and frequent intervals of southward winds of larger than 50 ms–1 velocity. Compared with the simultaneous ionospheric patterns deduced from the three West African equatorial ionosondes at Korhogo, Ouagadougou (Burkina-Faso, dip latitude +1.5° and Dakar (Sénégal, dip latitude +5°, they illustrate various impacts of the thermospheric winds on F2 layer density: (1 on the mesoscale evolution (a few 103 km and a few 100 minutes scales and (2 on local fluctuations (hundreds of km and tens of minutes characteristic times. We report on these fluctuations and discuss the opportunity to improve the time-resolution of the Fabry-Perot interferometer at Korhogo.Key words. Ionosphere (Equatorial ionosphere; Ionosphere-atmosphere interaction · Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics (General circulation

  5. Designing, Probing, and Stabilizing Exotic Fabry-Perot Cavities for Studying Strongly Correlated Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryou, Albert

    Synthetic materials made of engineered quasiparticles are a powerful platform for studying manybody physics and strongly correlated systems due to their bottom-up approach to Hamiltonian modeling. Photonic quasiparticles called polaritons are particularly appealing since they inherit fast dynamics from light and strong interaction from matter. This thesis describes the experimental demonstration of cavity Rydberg polaritons, which are composite particles arising from the hybridization of an optical cavity with Rydberg EIT, as well as the tools for probing and stabilizing the cavity. We first describe the design, construction, and testing of a four-mirror Fabry-Perot cavity, whose small waist size on the order of 10 microns is comparable to the Rydberg blockade radius. By achieving strong coupling between the cavity photon and an atomic ensemble undergoing electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), we observe the emergence of the dark-state polariton and characterize its single-body properties as well as the single-quantum nonlinearity. We then describe the implementation of a holographic spatial light modulator for exciting different transverse modes of the cavity, an essential tool for studying polariton-polariton scattering. For compensating optical aberrations, we employ a digital micromirror device (DMD), combining beam shaping with adaptive optics to produce diffraction-limited light. We quantitatively measure the purity of the DMD-produced Hermite-Gauss modes and confirm up to 99.2% efficiency. One application of the technique is to create Laguerre-Gauss modes, which have been used to probe synthetic Landau levels for photons in a twisted, nonplanar cavity. Finally, we describe the implementation of an FPGA-based FIR filter for stabilizing the cavity. We digitally cancel the acoustical resonances of the feedback-controlled mechanical system, thereby demonstrating an order-of-magnitude enhancement in the feedback bandwidth from 200 Hz to more than 2 k

  6. Statistical analysis of thermospheric gravity waves from Fabry-Perot Interferometer measurements of atomic oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. K. Ford

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Fabry-Perot Interferometers at KEOPS (Sweden, Sodankylä (Finland, and Svalbard (Norway, have been analysed for gravity wave activity on all the clear nights from 2000 to 2006. A total of 249 nights were available from KEOPS, 133 from Sodankylä and 185 from the Svalbard FPI. A Lomb-Scargle analysis was performed on each of these nights to identify the periods of any wave activity during the night. Comparisons between many nights of data allow the general characteristics of the waves that are present in the high latitude upper thermosphere to be determined. Comparisons were made between the different parameters: the atomic oxygen intensities, the thermospheric winds and temperatures, and for each parameter the distribution of frequencies of the waves was determined. No dependence on the number of waves on geomagnetic activity levels, or position in the solar cycle, was found. All the FPIs have had different detectors at various times, producing different time resolutions of the data, so comparisons between the different years, and between data from different sites, showed how the time resolution determines which waves are observed. In addition to the cutoff due to the Nyquist frequency, poor resolution observations significantly reduce the number of short-period waves (<1 h period that may be detected with confidence. The length of the dataset, which is usually determined by the length of the night, was the main factor influencing the number of long period waves (>5 h detected. Comparisons between the number of gravity waves detected at KEOPS and Sodankylä over all the seasons showed a similar proportion of waves to the number of nights used for both sites, as expected since the two sites are at similar latitudes and therefore locations with respect to the auroral oval, confirming this as a likely source region. Svalbard showed fewer waves with short periods than KEOPS data for a season when both had the same time resolution data

  7. The Feasibility of Tropospheric and Total Ozone Determination Using a Fabry-perot Interferometer as a Satellite-based Nadir-viewing Atmospheric Sensor. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larar, Allen Maurice

    1993-01-01

    Monitoring of the global distribution of tropospheric ozone (O3) is desirable for enhanced scientific understanding as well as to potentially lessen the ill-health impacts associated with exposure to elevated concentrations in the lower atmosphere. Such a capability can be achieved using a satellite-based device making high spectral resolution measurements with high signal-to-noise ratios; this would enable observation in the pressure-broadened wings of strong O3 lines while minimizing the impact of undesirable signal contributions associated with, for example, the terrestrial surface, interfering species, and clouds. The Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) provides high spectral resolution and high throughput capabilities that are essential for this measurement task. Through proper selection of channel spectral regions, the FPI optimized for tropospheric O3 measurements can simultaneously observe a stratospheric component and thus the total O3 column abundance. Decreasing stratospheric O3 concentrations may lead to an increase in biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface, which is detrimental to health. In this research, a conceptual instrument design to achieve the desired measurement has been formulated. This involves a double-etalon fixed-gap series configuration FPI along with an ultra-narrow bandpass filter to achieve single-order operation with an overall spectral resolution of approximately .068 cm(exp -1). A spectral region of about 1 cm(exp -1) wide centered at 1054.73 cm(exp -1) within the strong 9.6 micron ozone infrared band is sampled with 24 spectral channels. Other design characteristics include operation from a nadir-viewing satellite configuration utilizing a 9 inch (diameter) telescope and achieving horizontal spatial resolution with a 50 km nadir footprint. A retrieval technique has been implemented and is demonstrated for a tropical atmosphere possessing enhanced tropospheric ozone amounts. An error analysis

  8. Optimal Design of an Hourglass in-Fiber Air Fabry-Perot Microcavity—Towards Spectral Characteristics and Strain Sensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An hourglass in-fiber air microcavity Fabry-Perot interferometer is proposed in this paper, and its second reflecting surface of in-fiber microcavity is designed to be a concave reflector with the best curvature radius in order to improve the spectral characteristics. Experimental results proved that the extinction ratio of Fabry-Perot interferometer with cavity length of 60 μm and concave reflector radius of 60 μm is higher than for a rectangular Fabry-Perot interferometer with cavity length of 60 μm (14 dB: 11 dB. Theory and numerical simulation results show that the strain sensitivity of sensor can be improved by reducing the microcavity wall thickness and microcavity diameter, and when the in-fiber microcavity length is 40 μm, the microcavity wall thickness is 10 μm, the microcavity diameter is 20 μm, and the curvature radius of reflective surface II is 50 μm, the interference fringe contrast of is greater than 0.97, an Axial-pull sensitivity of 20.46 nm/N and resolution of 1 mN can be achieved in the range of 0–1 N axial tension. The results show that the performance of hourglass in-fiber microcavity interferometer is far superior to that of the traditional Fabry-Perot interferometer.

  9. Theoretical and experimental study of low-finesse extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ming

    In this dissertation, detailed and systematic theoretical and experimental study of low-finesse extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) fiber optic sensors together with their signal processing methods for white-light systems are presented. The work aims to provide a better understanding of the operational principle of EFPI fiber optic sensors, and is useful and important in the design, optimization, fabrication and application of single mode fiber(SMF) EFPI (SMF-EFPI) and multimode fiber (MMF) EFPI (MMF-EFPI) sensor systems. The cases for SMF-EFPI and MMF-EFPI sensors are separately considered. In the analysis of SMF-EFPI sensors, the light transmitted in the fiber is approximated by a Gaussian beam and the obtained spectral transfer function of the sensors includes an extra phase shift due to the light coupling in the fiber end-face. This extra phase shift has not been addressed by previous researchers and is of great importance for high accuracy and high resolution signal processing of white-light SMF-EFPI systems. Fringe visibility degradation due to gap-length increase and sensor imperfections is studied. The results indicate that the fringe visibility of a SMF-EFPI sensor is relatively insensitive to the gap-length change and sensor imperfections. Based on the spectral fringe pattern predicated by the theory of SMF-EFPI sensors, a novel curve fitting signal processing method (Type 1 curve-fitting method) is presented for white-light SMF-EFPI sensor systems. Other spectral domain signal processing methods including the wavelength-tracking, the Type 2-3 curve fitting, Fourier transform, and two-point interrogation methods are reviewed and systematically analyzed. Experiments were carried out to compare the performances of these signal processing methods. The results have shown that the Type 1 curve fitting method achieves high accuracy, high resolution, large dynamic range, and the capability of absolute measurement at the same time, while others either

  10. A THz plasmonics perfect absorber and Fabry-Perot cavity mechanism (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangfeng; Bhattarai, Khagendra; Silva, Sinhara; Jeon, Jiyeon; Kim, Junoh; Lee, Sang Jun; Ku, Zahyun

    2016-10-01

    The plasmonic metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA) is a recently developed branch of metamaterial which exhibits nearly unity absorption within certain frequency range.[1-6] The optically thin MPA possesses characteristic features of angular-independence, high Q-factor and strong field localization that have inspired a wide range of applications including electromagnetic wave absorption,[3, 7, 8] spatial[6] and spectral[5] modulation of light,[9] selective thermal emission,[9] thermal detecting[10] and refractive index sensing for gas[11] and liquid[12, 13] targets. In this work, we demonstrate a MPA working at terahertz (THz) regime and characterize it using an ultrafast THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Our study reveal an ultra-thin Fabry-Perot cavity mechanism compared to the impedance matching mechanism widely adopted in previous study [1-6]. Our results also shows higher-order resonances when the cavities length increases. These higher order modes exhibits much larger Q-factor that can benefit potential sensing and imaging applications. [1] C. M. Watts, X. L. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, "Metamaterial Electromagnetic Wave Absorbers," Advanced Materials, vol. 24, pp. 98-120, Jun 19 2012. [2] M. Hedayati, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, "Review of Plasmonic Nanocomposite Metamaterial Absorber," Materials, vol. 7, pp. 1221-1248, 2014. [3] N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, "Perfect metamaterial absorber," Physical Review Letters, vol. 100, p. 207402, May 23 2008. [4] H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, et al., "Optically Modulated Multiband Terahertz Perfect Absorber," Advanced Optical Materials, vol. 2, pp. 1221-1226, 2014. [5] D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, S. Krishna, and W. J. Padilla, "Four-Color Metamaterial Absorber THz Spatial Light Modulator," Advanced Optical Materials, vol. 1, pp. 905-909, 2013. [6] S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, "Liquid Crystal Metamaterial Absorber Spatial

  11. A preliminary study of thermosphere and mesosphere wind observed by Fabry-Perot over Kelan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Huang, Cong; Zhao, Guangxin; Mao, Tian; Wang, Yungang; Zeng, Zhongcao; Wang, Jingsong; Xia, Chunliang

    2014-06-01

    A Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) system was deployed in Kelan (38.7°N, 111.6°E), center China in November 2011, which observes the airglows at wavelengths of 892.0 nm, 557.7 nm, and 630.0 nm from OH and OI emissions in the upper atmosphere, to derive the wind and temperature at heights around 87 km, 97 km, and 250 km, respectively. From late 2011 through 2013 a series of more than 4500 measurements at each height are validated according to manufacture data quality criteria. By using these data, the morphology of wind in the mesosphere and thermosphere is investigated in this study. Preliminary results are as follows: (1) As for the diurnal variation, meridional and zonal winds at heights of 87 km and 97 km, which are derived through 892.0 nm and 557.7 nm airglows, usually range from -50 m/s to 30 m/s and -50 m/s to 50 m/s, respectively, with typical random errors of about 6-10 m/s at 87 km and 2-3 m/s at 97 km. Meridional winds usually are northward at dusk, southward at middle night, and back to northward at dawn; and zonal winds usually are eastward at dusk, westward at middle night, and back to eastward at dawn. The monthly mean winds are in good agreement with those of HWM93 results. Meridional and zonal winds at a height of 250 km, which are derived through 630.0 nm nightglow, range from -110 m/s to 80 m/s with typical random errors of about 8-10 m/s. Meridional winds usually are northward at dusk, southward at middle night, and back to northward at dawn; and zonal winds usually are eastward at dusk, zero at middle night, and westward at dawn; and they are also well consistent with HWM93 results. (2) As for the seasonal variation, meridional winds at the heights of 87 km and 97 km have a visible annual variation at 12-17 LT and with a little semiannual variation at all other hours, but the zonal winds at the heights of 87 km and 97 km have a semiannual variation all night. The seasonal dependence of the winds, both meridional and zonal winds, at the height

  12. MEMS Fabry-Perot sensor interrogated by optical system-on-a-chip for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Cheng; Bae, Hyungdae; Gupta, Ashwani; Bryden, Kenneth; Yu, Miao

    2013-09-23

    We present a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based Fabry-Perot (FP) sensor along with an optical system-on-a-chip (SOC) interrogator for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing. The sensor employs a simple structure with an air-backed silicon membrane cross-axially bonded to a 45° polished optical fiber. This structure renders two cascaded FP cavities, enabling simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing in close proximity along the optical axis. The optical SOC consists of a broadband source, a MEMS FP tunable filter, a photodetector, and the supporting circuitry, serving as a miniature spectrometer for retrieving the two FP cavity lengths. Within the measured pressure and temperature ranges, experimental results demonstrate that the sensor exhibits a good linear response to external pressure and temperature changes.

  13. UW Imaging of Seismic-Physical-Models in Air Using Fiber-Optic Fabry-Perot Interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Qiangzhou; Hao, Yongxin; Zhou, Ruixiang; Yin, Xunli; Shao, Zhihua; Liang, Lei; Qiao, Xueguang

    2017-02-17

    A fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) has been proposed and demonstrated for the ultrasound wave (UW) imaging of seismic-physical models. The sensor probe comprises a single mode fiber (SMF) that is inserted into a ceramic tube terminated by an ultra-thin gold film. The probe performs with an excellent UW sensitivity thanks to the nanolayer gold film, and thus is capable of detecting a weak UW in air medium. Furthermore, the compact sensor is a symmetrical structure so that it presents a good directionality in the UW detection. The spectral band-side filter technique is used for UW interrogation. After scanning the models using the sensing probe in air, the two-dimensional (2D) images of four physical models are reconstructed.

  14. Mirror Birefringence in a Fabry-Perot Cavity and the Detection of Vacuum Birefringence in a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, T. C. P.; Shao, M.; Redding, D.; Gursel, Y.; Boden, A.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the effect of mirror birefringence in two optical schemes designed to detect the quantum-electrodynamics (QED) predictions of vacuum birefringence under the influence of a strong magnetic field, B. Both schemes make use of a high finesse Fabry-Perot cavity (F-P) to increase the average path length of the light in the magnetic field. The first scheme, which we called the frequency scheme, is based on measurement of the beat frequency of two orthogonal polarized laser beams in the cavity. We show that mirror birefringence contributes to the detection uncertainties in first order, resulting in a high susceptibility to small thermal disturbances. We estimate that an unreasonably high thermal stability of 10-9 K is required to resolve the effect to 0.1%. In the second scheme, which we called the polarization rotation scheme, laser polarized at 45 relative to the B field is injected into the cavity.

  15. Parallelised photoacoustic signal acquisition using a Fabry-Perot sensor and a camera-based interrogation scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeb Gilani, T.; Villringer, C.; Zhang, E.; Gundlach, H.; Buchmann, J.; Schrader, S.; Laufer, J.

    2018-02-01

    Tomographic photoacoustic (PA) images acquired using a Fabry-Perot (FP) based scanner offer high resolution and image fidelity but can result in long acquisition times due to the need for raster scanning. To reduce the acquisition times, a parallelised camera-based PA signal detection scheme is developed. The scheme is based on using a sCMOScamera and FPI sensors with high homogeneity of optical thickness. PA signals were acquired using the camera-based setup and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) was measured. A comparison of the SNR of PA signal detected using 1) a photodiode in a conventional raster scanning detection scheme and 2) a sCMOS camera in parallelised detection scheme is made. The results show that the parallelised interrogation scheme has the potential to provide high speed PA imaging.

  16. Extrinsic optical-fiber ultrasound sensor using a thin polymer film as a low-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, P. C.; Mills, T. N.

    1996-02-01

    Theoretical and experimental aspects of an extrinsic optical-fiber ultrasound sensor are described. The sensor is based on a thin transparent polymer film acting as a low-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity that is mounted at the end of a multimode optical fiber. Performance was found to be comparable with that of a piezoelectric polyvinylidene difluoride-membrane (PVDF) hydrophone with a sensitivity of 61 mV/MPa, an acoustic noise floor of 2.3 KPa over a 25-MHz bandwidth, and a frequency response to 25 MHz. The wideband-sensitive response and design flexibility of the concept suggests that it may find application as an alternative to piezoelectric devices for the detection and measurement of ultrasound.

  17. Non-destructive residual pressure self-measurement method for the sensing chip of optical Fabry-Perot pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Xuezhi; Xiao, Mengnan; Xiao, Hai; Liu, Tiegen

    2017-12-11

    We introduce a simple residual pressure self-measurement method for the Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity of optical MEMS pressure sensor. No extra installation is required and the structure of the sensor is unchanged. In the method, the relationship between residual pressure and external pressure under the same diaphragm deflection condition at different temperatures is analyzed by using the deflection formula of the circular plate with clamped edges and the ideal gas law. Based on this, the residual pressure under the flat condition can be obtained by pressure scanning process and calculation process. We carried out the experiment to compare the residual pressures of two batches MEMS sensors fabricated by two kinds of bonding process. The measurement result indicates that our approach is reliable enough for the measurement.

  18. Impact of mode partition noise in free-running gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser for 2-dimensional OCDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Chan, Kam

    2004-07-26

    Free-running gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser diode is an appropriate incoherent broadband optical source for incoherent 2-dimensional optical code division multiple access. However, the mode partition noise (MPN) in the laser seriously degrades performance. We derived a bit error rate (BER) expression in the presence of MPN using the power spectra of the laser. The theory agreed with the experimental results. There was a power penalty and BER floor due to the MPN in the laser. Therefore, this scheme should be operated with a sufficiently large number of modes. At least 9 modes should be used for error-free transmission at 1 Gbit/s for the laser we investigated in this work.

  19. Amplification of the Signal Intensity of Fluorescence-Based Fiber-Optic Biosensors Using a Fabry-Perot Resonator Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chang Hsieh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent biosensors have been widely used in biomedical applications. To amplify the intensity of fluorescence signals, this study developed a novel structure for an evanescent wave fiber-optic biosensor by using a Fabry-Perot resonator structure. An excitation light was coupled into the optical fiber through a laser-drilled hole on the proximal end of the resonator. After entering the resonator, the excitation light was reflected back and forth inside the resonator, thereby amplifying the intensity of the light in the fiber. Subsequently, the light was used to excite the fluorescent molecules in the reactive region of the sensor. The experimental results showed that the biosensor signal was amplified eight-fold when the resonator reflector was formed using a 92% reflective coating. Furthermore, in a simulation, the biosensor signal could be amplified 20-fold by using a 99% reflector.

  20. A new method for multi-channel Fabry-Perot spectroscopy of light pulses in the nanosecond regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behn, R.

    1975-01-01

    The demand for powerful multichannel spectrometers raised, e.g., in laser scattering plasma diagnostics, gave rise to the question if it would not be possible to avoid the light losses occuring in the use of multichannel Fabry-Perot spectrometers. These losses can be avoided with the technique presented here. The reflected light is collected and fed back to the interferometer at a different angle. It can thus be recovered for registration in another spectral channel. This method is particularly suitable for the investigation of short light pulses. A spectrum can thus be scanned step by step with full utilization of the transit time of the light pulse. In addition to light recovery, there is another advantage in that only one detector is used for multichannel analysis, thus eliminating calibration problems. In the annex to the report, emission spectres of different dye laser versions are presented and explained. (orig./GG) [de

  1. GHGSat-D: Greenhouse gas plume imaging and quantification from space using a Fabry-Perot imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, J.; Durak, B. O. A.; Gains, D.; Jervis, D.; Varon, D. J.; Germain, S.; Sloan, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    GHGSat, Inc. has launched the first satellite designed to detect and quantify greenhouse gas emissions from individual industrial sites. Our demonstration satellite GHGSat-D or "CLAIRE" was launched in June 2016. It weighs less than 15 kg and its primary instrument is a miniaturized Fabry-Perot imaging spectrometer with spectral resolution on the order of 0.1 nm. The spectral bandpass is 1635-1670 nm, giving the instrument access to absorption bands of both CO2 and CH4. Our system is based on targeted observations rather than global coverage, and our spatial imaging resolution is a key differentiator. Specifically, with a ground sampling distance of effect of the Fabry-Perot resonator and the scrolling scene gives a different spectral sampling of each surface location in every image. While our data processing toolchain does not produce a conventional hyperspectral dataset, it does yield a spectral decomposition of the spatially resolved signal that is compared to a model that includes atmospheric radiative transfer and the instrument's pixel-dependent spectral responsivity. Our presentation will describe the instrument design, concept of operations and retrievals approach. We will also present images and results from GHGSat-D at different processing levels, including high-resolution column density retrievals. An observation of the degassing flux of methane from the outlet of a recently impounded hydroelectric reservoir will be shown as an example. Finally we discuss some performance limitations of GHGSat-D and our plans to overcome them as we update the instrument design for the next satellites.

  2. Simultaneous measure of a spectral line profile and the apparatus function of a Fabry-Perot spectrometer when continuous background is present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, J.M.; Quintanilla, M.; Mar, S.

    1978-01-01

    A deconvolution method of registered profile on a Fabry-Perot spectrometer is developed, when the actual profile of the source is a Voigt pattern together with a continuous background. The reliability and accuracy of the method is tested with theoreticaly simulated profiles. The method is applied both to measure the real line profiles and to find the Fabry-Perot parameters, as a test of its validity on studies of experimental profiles. Both measure types -source profile and apparatus function- are made simultaneously by means of analysis of the variations of registered profile, at 6438.5A Cd line and 6328A He-Ne laser line, varying the optical path between interferometer mirrors. (author) [es

  3. Development of a six channel Fabry-Perot interferometer for continuous measurement of electron temperature of Tokamak plasma. Application to current diffusion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talvard, M.

    1984-10-01

    It is shown how the properties of the electron cyclotron emission of a tokamak plasma can be used to measure the electron temperature. The design of a six channel Fabry-Perot interferometer is then described. This interferometer allows the measurement of the time evolution of the electron temperature profile of the plasma in the TFR tokamak. Using this technique interesting results have been obtained concerning the current penetration during the start up phase of a tokamak discharge [fr

  4. Passive amplification of a fiber laser in a Fabry-Perot cavity: application to gamma-ray production by Compton backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaye, F.

    2012-01-01

    One of the critical points of the International Linear Collider (ILC) is the polarized positrons source. Without going through further explanation on the physical process of polarized positrons production, we point out that they are produced when circularly polarized gamma rays interact with mater. Thus, the critical point is the circularly polarized gamma-ray source. A technical solution for this source is the Compton backscattering and in the end, this thesis takes place in the framework for the design of a high average power laser systems enslaved to Fabry-Perot cavities for polarized gamma-ray production by Compton backscattering. In the first part, we present this thesis context, the Compton backscattering principle and the choice for an optical architecture based on a fiber laser and a Fabry-Perot cavity. We finish by enumerating several possible applications for Compton backscattering which shows that the work presented here might benefits from technology transfer through others research fields. In the second part, we present the different fiber laser architecture studied as well as the results obtained. In the third part, we remind the operating principle of a Fabry-Perot cavity and present the one used for our experiment as well as its specificities. In the fourth part, we address the Compton backscattering experiment which enables us to present the joint utilization of a fiber laser and a Fabry-Perot cavity in a particles accelerator to generate gamma rays for the first time to our knowledge. This experiment took place in the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The experimental apparatus as well as the results obtained are thus presented. In the end, we summarize the results presented in this manuscript and propose different evolution possibilities for the system in a general conclusion. (author)

  5. Watt-level widely tunable single-mode emission by injection-locking of a multimode Fabry-Perot quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Paul; Piccardo, Marco; Anand, Sajant; Mejia, Enrique A.; Wang, Yongrui; Mansuripur, Tobias S.; Xie, Feng; Lascola, Kevin; Belyanin, Alexey; Capasso, Federico

    2018-02-01

    Free-running Fabry-Perot lasers normally operate in a single-mode regime until the pumping current is increased beyond the single-mode instability threshold, above which they evolve into a multimode state. As a result of this instability, the single-mode operation of these lasers is typically constrained to few percents of their output power range, this being an undesired limitation in spectroscopy applications. In order to expand the span of single-mode operation, we use an optical injection seed generated by an external-cavity single-mode laser source to force the Fabry-Perot quantum cascade laser into a single-mode state in the high current range, where it would otherwise operate in a multimode regime. Utilizing this approach, we achieve single-mode emission at room temperature with a tuning range of 36 cm-1 and stable continuous-wave output power exceeding 1 W at 4.5 μm. Far-field measurements show that a single transverse mode is emitted up to the highest optical power, indicating that the beam properties of the seeded Fabry-Perot laser remain unchanged as compared to free-running operation.

  6. An efficient hexagonal switched beam antenna structure based on Fabry-Perot cavity leaky-wave antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymen El Cafsi, Mohamed; Nedil, Mourad; Osman, Lotfi; Gharsallah, Ali

    2015-11-01

    A novel design of switched beam antenna (SBA) system based on Fabry-Perot cavity leaky-wave antenna (FPC LWA) is designed and fabricated for base station operating in the unlicensed ISM central frequency band at 5.8 GHz of the wireless local area network (WLAN) standard. The proposed SBA is designed with hexagonal shape of FPC LWA Arrays in order to get 360° of coverage. The single element of FPC LWA array is composed of a patch antenna and covered by a Partially Reflective Surface (PRS), which is composed of a Metal Strip Grating and printed on a high permittivity Superstrate. First, the Transmission Line Model of FPC LWA is introduced to analyse and calculate the far-field components in E- and H planes by using the Transverse Equivalent Network. This approach is then compared with other full wave's commercial software such as Ansoft HFSS and CST Microwave Studio. Second, a parametric study is performed to evaluate the effect of the angle formed by the two successive FPC LWA on the radiation efficiency of the activate sector. To examine the performance of the proposed SBA, experimental prototype was fabricated and measured. As a result, multiple orthogonal beams (six beams) of 10 dBi of gain with low Side Lobes Level and 360° of coverage are produced. This SBA structure is suitable for WLAN communication systems.

  7. An MRI-Guided Telesurgery System Using a Fabry-Perot Interferometry Force Sensor and a Pneumatic Haptic Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hao; Shang, Weijian; Li, Gang; Patel, Niravkumar; Fischer, Gregory S

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a surgical master-slave teleoperation system for percutaneous interventional procedures under continuous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. The slave robot consists of a piezoelectrically actuated 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) robot for needle placement with an integrated fiber optic force sensor (1-DOF axial force measurement) using the Fabry-Perot interferometry (FPI) sensing principle; it is configured to operate inside the bore of the MRI scanner during imaging. By leveraging the advantages of pneumatic and piezoelectric actuation in force and position control respectively, we have designed a pneumatically actuated master robot (haptic device) with strain gauge based force sensing that is configured to operate the slave from within the scanner room during imaging. The slave robot follows the insertion motion of the haptic device while the haptic device displays the needle insertion force as measured by the FPI sensor. Image interference evaluation demonstrates that the telesurgery system presents a signal to noise ratio reduction of less than 17% and less than 1% geometric distortion during simultaneous robot motion and imaging. Teleoperated needle insertion and rotation experiments were performed to reach 10 targets in a soft tissue-mimicking phantom with 0.70 ± 0.35 mm Cartesian space error.

  8. Displacement-noise-free gravitational-wave detection with a single Fabry-Perot cavity: A toy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarabrin, Sergey P.; Vyatchanin, Sergey P.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a detuned Fabry-Perot cavity, pumped through both the mirrors, as a toy model of the gravitational-wave (GW) detector partially free from displacement noise of the test masses. It is demonstrated that the noise of cavity mirrors can be eliminated, but the one of lasers and detectors cannot. The isolation of the GW signal from displacement noise of the mirrors is achieved in a proper linear combination of the cavity output signals. The construction of such a linear combination is possible due to the difference between the reflected and transmitted output signals of detuned cavity. We demonstrate that in low-frequency region the obtained displacement-noise-free response signal is much stronger than the f gw 3 -limited sensitivity of displacement-noise-free interferometers recently proposed by S. Kawamura and Y. Chen. However, the loss of the resonant gain in the noise cancelation procedure results is the sensitivity limitation of our toy model by displacement noise of lasers and detectors

  9. Cost-effective optical fiber pressure sensor based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric micro-cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, M. Fátima; Rodriguez, Camilo A.; Martins, Joana; Tavares, Cátia; Marques, Carlos; Alberto, Nélia; André, Paulo; Antunes, Paulo

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a cost-effective procedure to manufacture optical fiber pressure sensors is presented. This has a high relevance for integration in robotic exoskeletons or for gait plantar pressure monitoring within the physical rehabilitation scenarios, among other applications. The sensing elements are based on Fabry-Perot interferometric (FPI) micro-cavities, created from the recycling of optical fibers previously destroyed by the catastrophic fuse effect. To produce the pressure sensors, the fiber containing the FPI micro-cavities was embedded in an epoxy resin cylinder used as pressure transducer and responsible to transfer the pressure applied on its surface to the optical fiber containing the FPI micro-cavity. Before the embedding process, some FPI sensors were also characterized to strain variations. After that, the effect of the encapsulation of the FPI structure into the resin was assessed, from which a slight decrease on the FPI interferogram fringes visibility was verified, indicating a small increase in the micro-cavity length. Up on the sensors characterization, a linear dependence of the wavelength shift with the induced pressure was obtained, which leads to a maximum sensitivity of 59.39 ± 1.7 pm/kPa. Moreover, direct dependence of the pressure sensitivity with the micro-cavity volume and length was found.

  10. Self-generation of optical frequency comb in single section quantum dot Fabry-Perot lasers: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, Paolo; Columbo, Lorenzo Luigi; Gioannini, Mariangela

    2017-10-16

    Optical Frequency Comb (OFC) generated by semiconductor lasers are currently widely used in the extremely timely field of high capacity optical interconnects and high precision spectroscopy. In the last decade, several experimental evidences of spontaneous OFC generation have been reported in single section Quantum Dot (QD) lasers. Here we provide a physical understanding of these self-organization phenomena by simulating the multi-mode dynamics of a single section Fabry-Perot (FP) QD laser using a Time-Domain Traveling-Wave (TDTW) model that properly accounts for coherent radiation-matter interaction in the semiconductor active medium and includes the carrier grating generated by the optical standing wave pattern in the laser cavity. We show that the latter is the fundamental physical effect at the origin of the multi-mode spectrum appearing just above threshold. A self-mode-locking regime associated with the emission of OFC is achieved for higher bias currents and ascribed to nonlinear phase sensitive effects as Four Wave Mixing (FWM). Our results explain in detail the behaviour observed experimentally by different research groups and in different QD and Quantum Dash (QDash) devices.

  11. High-accuracy vibration sensor based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer with active phase-tracking technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Li, Chuncheng; Hao, Hui; Wang, Yiping; Ni, Xiaoqi; Guo, Dongmei; Wang, Ming

    2018-02-01

    A novel position-sensitive Fabry-Perot interferometer was constructed with direct phase modulation by a built-in electro-optic modulator. Pure sinusoidal phase modulation of the light was produced, and the first harmonic of the interference signal was extracted to dynamically maintain the interferometer phase to the most sensitive point of the interferogram. Therefore, the minute vibration of the object was coded on the variation of the interference signal and could be directly retrieved by the output voltage of a photodetector. The operating principle and the signal processing method for active feedback control of the interference phase have been demonstrated in detail. The developed vibration sensor was calibrated through a high-precision piezo-electric transducer and tested by a nano-positioning stage under a vibration magnitude of 60 nm and a frequency of 300 Hz. The active phase-tracking method of the system provides high immunity against environmental disturbances. Experimental results show that the proposed interferometer can effectively reconstruct tiny vibration waveforms with subnanometer resolution, paving the way for high-accuracy vibration sensing, especially for micro-electro-mechanical systems/nano-electro-mechanical systems and ultrasonic devices.

  12. A high-transmission liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot infrared filter for electrically tunable spectral imaging detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhonglun; Xin, Zhaowei; Long, Huabao; Wei, Dong; Dai, Wanwan; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Haiwei; Xie, Changsheng

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have presented the usefulness of typical liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot (LC-FP) infrared filters for spectral imaging detection. Yet, their infrared transmission performances still remain to improve or even rise. In this paper, we propose a new type of electrically tunable LC-FP infrared filter to solve the problem above. The key component of the device is a FP resonant cavity composed of two parallel plane mirrors, in which the zinc selenide (ZnSe) materials with a very high transmittance in the mid-long-wavelength infrared regions are used as the electrode substrates and a layer of nano-aluminum (Al) film, which is directly contacted with liquid-crystal materials, is chosen to make high reflective mirrors as well as the electrodes. Particularly, it should be noted that the directional layer made up of ployimide (PI) used previously is removed. The experiment results indicate that the filter can reduce the absorption of infrared wave remarkably, and thus highlight a road to effectively improve the infrared transmittance ability.

  13. Use of a Fabry-Perot resonator at millimeter wave frequencies in the determination of thin-film resistivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, S. J.

    1979-08-01

    A novel contact-free method of measuring resistivity of thin semiconducting films on highly conductive substrates is described. The material structure studied is commonly encountered in thin-film solar cell development. The microwave technique that involves using a semiconfocal Fabry-Perot cavity at a wavelength of 3 mm is discussed in detail. The sample consists o a thin film of CdS on a brass substrate and is mounted on the flat reflector of the cavity. Using field perturbation methods, an expression is derived that relates the film resistivity to the cavity quality factor Q. The cavity quality factor is an easily measured parameter and, by comparing measurements of Q with and without the sample mounted, an accurate measure of the resistivity is obtained. Accuracy of measurements and necessary sample constraints are discussed in detail. Three samples of CdS were measured on brass substrates spanning an order of magnitude in resistivity difference. The results of the method described agree with those of another method that involves current voltage measurement after application of a metallic contact. Unlike the latter method, however, the new technique provides a nondestructive way of measuring the resistivity of semiconductor films on conducting substrates and is amenable to automation.

  14. Auroral zone thermospheric dynamics using Fabry-Perot interferometric measurements of the O1 15867 K emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sica, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Forty-four nights of thermospheric neutral wind and temperature measurements were obtained from College, Alaska (65 0 invariant latitude) during solar maximum using a ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer. When averaged by increasing geomagnetic activity, the wind exhibits two main features. First, the general flow pattern poleward and westward in the evening, changing to southward and eastward in the morning, persists with increasing activity. The flow velocity increases and the change in direction occurs earlier in magnetic local time as the geomagnetic activity increases. Second, as the activity increases, the meridional wind pattern shifts equatorward with the auroral oval. Consequently, the low geomagnetic activity average wind pattern in the north is similar to the moderate activity average pattern in the south. The average thermospheric temperature is governed by the geomagnetic activity and by the previous day's 10.7 cm solar flux. The increase in temperature with solar flux is about the same as with auroral activity (approx. = 225 0 K). The dynamical behavior on individual nights highlights the importance of local auroral substorms, which can cause large deviations from both global models and the observed averages. Coupling between the E and F regions is inferred by comparing the bulk motion of the optical aurora and the observed wind. Westward-drifting auroral forms accompany the westward evening zonal wind

  15. Intra-Tissue Pressure Measurement in Ex Vivo Liver Undergoing Laser Ablation with Fiber-Optic Fabry-Perot Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Tosi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the first-ever intra-tissue pressure measurement performed during 1064 nm laser ablation (LA of an ex vivo porcine liver. Pressure detection has been performed with a biocompatible, all-glass, temperature-insensitive Extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometry (EFPI miniature probe; the proposed methodology mimics in-vivo treatment. Four experiments have been performed, positioning the probe at different positions from the laser applicator tip (from 0.5 mm to 5 mm. Pressure levels increase during ablation time, and decrease with distance from applicator tip: the recorded peak parenchymal pressure levels range from 1.9 kPa to 71.6 kPa. Different pressure evolutions have been recorded, as pressure rises earlier in proximity of the tip. The present study is the first investigation of parenchymal pressure detection in liver undergoing LA: the successful detection of intra-tissue pressure may be a key asset for improving LA, as pressure levels have been correlated to scattered recurrences of tumors by different studies.

  16. Measurement of Microvibration by Using Dual-Cavity Fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hyun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive researches have recently been performed to study structural integrity using structural vibration data measured by in-structure sensors. A fiber optic sensor is one of candidates for the in-structure sensors because it is low in cost, light in weight, small in size, resistant to EM interference, long in service life, and so forth. Especially, an interferometric fiber optic sensor is very useful to measure vibrations with high resolution and accuracy. In this paper, a dual-cavity fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer was proposed with a phase-compensating algorithm for measuring micro-vibration. The interferometer has structurally two arbitrary cavities; therefore the initial phase difference between two sinusoidal signals induced from the interferometer was also arbitrary. In order to do signal processing including an arc-tangent method, a random value of the initial phase difference is automatically adjusted to the exact 90 degrees in the phase-compensating algorithm part. For the verification of the performance of the interferometer, a simple vibration-test was performed to measure micro-vibration caused by piezoelectric transducer (PZT. As an experimental result, the interferometer attached on the PZT successfully measured the 50 Hz-vibration of which the absolute displacement oscillated between −424 nm and +424 nm.

  17. Fabry-Perot magnonic ballistic coherent transport across ultrathin ferromagnetic lamellar bcc Ni nanostructures between Fe leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, A.; Saim, L.; Tigrine, R.; Ghader, D.

    2018-06-01

    We propose thermodynamically stable systems of ultrathin lamellar bcc Ni nanostructures between bcc Fe leads, sbnd Fe[Ni(n)]Fesbnd , based on the available literature for bcc Ni overlayers on Fe(001) surfaces, and establish the necessary criteria for their structural and ferromagnetic order, for thicknesses n ≤ 6 bcc Ni monatomic layers. The system is globally ferromagnetic. A theoretical model is presented to investigate and understand the ballistic coherent scattering of Fe spin-waves, incident from the leads, at the ferromagnetic bcc Ni nanostructure. The Nisbnd Ni and Nisbnd Fe exchange are computed using the Ising effective field theory (EFT), and the magnetic ground state of the system is constructed in the Heisenberg representation. We compute the spin-wave eigenmodes localized on the bcc Ni nanostructure, using the phase field matching theory (PFMT), illustrating the effects of symmetry breaking on the confinement of localized spin excitations. The reflection and transmission scattering properties of spin-waves incident from the Fe leads, across the embedded Ni nanostructures are investigated within the framework of the same PFMT methodology. A highly refined Fabry-Perot magnonic ballistic coherent transmission spectra is observed for these sbnd Fe[Ni(n)]Fesbnd systems.

  18. Fiber Fabry-Perot Force Sensor with Small Volume and High Performance for Assessing Fretting Damage of Steam Generator Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peijian; Wang, Ning; Li, Junying; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Jie

    2017-12-13

    Measuring the radial collision force between the steam generator tube (SGT) and the tube support plate (TSP) is essential to assess the fretting damage of the SGT. In order to measure the radial collision force, a novel miniaturized force sensor based on fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) was designed, and the principle and characteristics of the sensor were analyzed in detail. Then, the F-P force sensor was successfully fabricated and calibrated, and the overall dimensions of the encapsulated fiber F-P sensor were 17 mm × 5 mm × 3 mm (L × W × H). The sensor works well in humid, high pressure (10 MPa), high temperature (350 °C), and vibration (40 kHz) environments. Finally, the F-P force sensors were installed in a 1:1 steam generator test loop, and the radial collision force signals between the SGT and the TSP were obtained. The experiments indicated that the F-P sensor with small volume and high performance could help in assessing the fretting damage of the steam generator tubes.

  19. A Fabry-Perot Interferometry Based MRI-Compatible Miniature Uniaxial Force Sensor for Percutaneous Needle Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Weijian; Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Furlong, Cosme; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Robot-assisted surgical procedures, taking advantage of the high soft tissue contrast and real-time imaging of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are developing rapidly. However, it is crucial to maintain tactile force feedback in MRI-guided needle-based procedures. This paper presents a Fabry-Perot interference (FPI) based system of an MRI-compatible fiber optic sensor which has been integrated into a piezoelectrically actuated robot for prostate cancer biopsy and brachytherapy in 3T MRI scanner. The opto-electronic sensing system design was minimized to fit inside an MRI-compatible robot controller enclosure. A flexure mechanism was designed that integrates the FPI sensor fiber for measuring needle insertion force, and finite element analysis was performed for optimizing the correct force-deformation relationship. The compact, low-cost FPI sensing system was integrated into the robot and calibration was conducted. The root mean square (RMS) error of the calibration among the range of 0–10 Newton was 0.318 Newton comparing to the theoretical model which has been proven sufficient for robot control and teleoperation. PMID:25126153

  20. Wavelength-tunable thulium-doped fiber laser by employing a self-made Fabry-Perot filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. P.; Ju, Y. L.; Wu, C. T.; Liu, W.; Yang, C.

    2017-06-01

    In this demonstration, we proposed a novel wavelength-tunable thulium-doped fiber laser (TDFL) with a self-made Fabry-Perot (F-P) filter. When the F-P filter was not inserted, the maximum output power of 11.1 W was achieved when the pump power was 70.2 W. The corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency was 15.8% and the slope efficiency was 22.1%. When the F-P filter was inserted, the output wavelength could be tuned from 1952.9 to 1934.9 nm with the change of cavity length of F-P filter which was fixed on a piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) controlled by the voltage applied to it. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) was no more than 0.19 nm. Furthermore, the wavelength fluctuations of the tunable fiber laser were kept within  ±0.2 nm.

  1. Cascaded-cavity Fabry-Perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain with cross-sensitivity compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiajun; Jiao, Yuzhu; Ji, Shaobo; Dong, Xiaolong; Yao, Yong

    2018-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a fiber sensor for simultaneous temperature and strain measurements. The proposed sensor is implemented by a cascaded-cavity Fabry-Perot (FP) fiber interferometer. The two cascaded FP cavities comprise a micro-air-cavity in a hollow-core tube fiber and a micro-silica-cavity in a standard single-mode fiber. To separate the interference spectrum of each FP cavity, the total spectrum is filtered in the frequency domain through band-pass filters, whose central frequencies were predesigned based on the relationship between the spatial frequency and free spectral range of each FP cavity. The different cross-sectional areas and thermal-optic coefficients of the two FP cavities confer different sensitivities to temperature and strain. Both parameters were measured simultaneously by tracking the wavelength shifts in the filtered interference spectra of the FP cavities. Moreover, the temperature-strain cross-sensitivity was compensated by solving a sensitivity-coefficient matrix equation for the two cavities, using the calibrated temperatures and strains. Other advantages of the proposed sensor are simple fabrication and an all-fiber structure. Owing to these properties, the proposed sensor is potentially applicable to real sensing applications.

  2. Surface stress sensor based on MEMS Fabry-Perot interferometer with high wavelength selectivity for label-free biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshiaki; Hizawa, Takeshi; Misawa, Nobuo; Taki, Miki; Sawada, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kazuhiro

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a surface stress sensor based on a microelectromechanical Fabry-Perot interferometer with high wavelength selectivity by using Au half-mirrors, for highly sensitive label-free biosensing. When the target molecule is adsorbed by the antigen-antibody reaction onto a movable membrane with a thin Au film, which acts as an upper mirror of the optical interferometer, the amount of deflection of the movable membrane deflected by the change in surface stress can be detected with high sensitivity. To improve the signal at the small membrane deflection region of this biosensor resulting in detection of low concentration molecules, by integrating 50 nm-thick Au half-mirrors, the wavelength selectivity of the optical interferometer has been successfully improved 6.6 times. Furthermore, the peak shift in the reflection spectrum due to the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) antigen with a concentration of 10 ng ml-l by the antigen-antibody reaction was spectroscopically measured on the fabricated optical interferometer, and the deflection amount of the movable membrane after 10 min treatment was 2.4 times larger than that of nonspecific adsorption with the avidin molecules. This result indicated that the proposed sensor can be used for selective detection of low-concentration target antigen molecules.

  3. Stratospheric temperature measurement with scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer for wind retrieval from mobile Rayleigh Doppler lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haiyun; Dou, Xiankang; Shangguan, Mingjia; Zhao, Ruocan; Sun, Dongsong; Wang, Chong; Qiu, Jiawei; Shu, Zhifeng; Xue, Xianghui; Han, Yuli; Han, Yan

    2014-09-08

    Temperature detection remains challenging in the low stratosphere, where the Rayleigh integration lidar is perturbed by aerosol contamination and ozone absorption while the rotational Raman lidar is suffered from its low scattering cross section. To correct the impacts of temperature on the Rayleigh Doppler lidar, a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) based on cavity scanning Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) is developed. By considering the effect of the laser spectral width, Doppler broadening of the molecular backscatter, divergence of the light beam and mirror defects of the FPI, a well-behaved transmission function is proved to show the principle of HSRL in detail. Analysis of the statistical error of the HSRL is carried out in the data processing. A temperature lidar using both HSRL and Rayleigh integration techniques is incorporated into the Rayleigh Doppler wind lidar. Simultaneous wind and temperature detection is carried out based on the combined system at Delhi (37.371°N, 97.374°E; 2850 m above the sea level) in Qinghai province, China. Lower Stratosphere temperature has been measured using HSRL between 18 and 50 km with temporal resolution of 2000 seconds. The statistical error of the derived temperatures is between 0.2 and 9.2 K. The temperature profile retrieved from the HSRL and wind profile from the Rayleigh Doppler lidar show good agreement with the radiosonde data. Specifically, the max temperature deviation between the HSRL and radiosonde is 4.7 K from 18 km to 36 km, and it is 2.7 K between the HSRL and Rayleigh integration lidar from 27 km to 34 km.

  4. Room-Temperature Pressure-Induced Optically-Actuated Fabry-Perot Nanomechanical Resonator with Multilayer Graphene Diaphragm in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a miniature and in situ ~13-layer graphene nanomechanical resonator by utilizing a simple optical fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P interferometric excitation and detection scheme. The graphene film was transferred onto the endface of a ferrule with a 125-μm inner diameter. In contrast to the pre-tension induced in membrane that increased quality (Q factor to ~18.5 from ~3.23 at room temperature and normal pressure, the limited effects of air damping on resonance behaviors at 10−2 and 105 Pa were demonstrated by characterizing graphene F-P resonators with open and micro-air-gap cavities. Then in terms of optomechanical behaviors of the resonator with an air micro-cavity configuration using a polished ferrule substrate, measured resonance frequencies were increased to the range of 509–542 kHz from several kHz with a maximum Q factor of 16.6 despite the lower Knudsen number ranging from 0.0002 to 0.0006 in damping air over a relative pressure range of 0–199 kPa. However, there was the little dependence of Q on resonance frequency. Note that compared with the inferior F-P cavity length response to applied pressures due to interfacial air leakage, the developed F-P resonator exhibited a consistent fitted pressure sensitivity of 1.18 × 105 kHz3/kPa with a good linearity error of 5.16% in the tested range. These measurements shed light on the pre-stress-dominated pressure-sensitive mechanisms behind air damping in in situ F-P resonant sensors using graphene or other 2D nanomaterials.

  5. Photonic filtering of microwave signals in the frequency range of 0.01-20 GHz using a Fabry-Perot filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo-Rodriguez, G; Zaldivar-Huerta, I E [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE). Sta. Maria Tonantzintla, Pue. Mexico (Mexico); GarcIa-Juarez, A [Depto. de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora (UNISON) Hermosillo, Son. Mexico (Mexico); Rodriguez-Asomoza, J [Depto. de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad de las Americas-Puebla (UDLA). San Andres Cholula, Pue. Mexico (Mexico); Larger, L; Courjal, N [Laboratoire d' Optique P. M. Duffieux, UMR 6603 CNRS, Institut des Microtechiques de Franche-Comte, FRW 0067, UFR Sciences et Techniques, Universite de Franche-Comte (UFC), Besancon cedex (France)

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the efficiency of tuning of a photonic filter in the frequency range of 0.01 to 20 GHz. The presented work combines the use of a multimode optical source associated with a dispersive optical fiber to obtain the filtering effect. Tunability effect is achieved by the use of a Fabry-Perot filter that allows altering the spectral characteristics of the optical source. Experimental results are validated by means of numerical simulations. The scheme here proposed has a potential application in the field of optical telecommunications.

  6. Time-domain multiplexed high resolution fiber optics strain sensor system based on temporal response of fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiageng; Liu, Qingwen; He, Zuyuan

    2017-09-04

    We developed a multiplexed strain sensor system with high resolution using fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers (FFPI) as sensing elements. The temporal responses of the FFPIs excited by rectangular laser pulses are used to obtain the strain applied on each FFPI. The FFPIs are connected by cascaded couplers and delay fiber rolls for the time-domain multiplexing. A compact optoelectronic system performing closed-loop cyclic interrogation is employed to improve the sensing resolution and the frequency response. In the demonstration experiment, 3-channel strain sensing with resolutions better than 0.1 nε and frequency response higher than 100 Hz is realized.

  7. Polar cap mesosphere wind observations: comparisons of simultaneous measurements with a Fabry-Perot interferometer and a field-widened Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, G M; Killeen, T L; Wu, Q; Reeves, J M; Hays, P B; Gault, W A; Brown, S; Shepherd, G G

    2000-08-20

    Polar cap mesospheric winds observed with a Fabry-Perot interferometer with a circle-to-line interferometer optical (FPI/CLIO) system have been compared with measurements from a field-widened Michelson interferometer optimized for E-region winds (ERWIN). Both instruments observed the Meinel OH emission emanating from the mesopause region (approximately 86 km) at Resolute Bay, Canada (74.9 degrees N, 94.9 degrees W). This is the first time, to our knowledge, that winds measured simultaneously from a ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer and a ground-based Michelson interferometer have been compared at the same location. The FPI/CLIO and ERWIN instruments both have a capability for high temporal resolution (less than 10 min for a full scan in the four cardinal directions and the zenith). Statistical comparisons of hourly mean winds for both instruments by scatterplots show excellent agreement, indicating that the two optical techniques provide equivalent observations of mesopause winds. Small deviations in the measured wind can be ascribed to the different zenith angles used by the two instruments. The combined measurements illustrate the dominance of the 12-h wave in the mesopause winds at Resolute Bay, with additional evidence for strong gravity wave activity with much shorter periods (tens of minutes). Future operations of the two instruments will focus on observation of complementary emissions, providing a unique passive optical capability for the determination of neutral winds in the geomagnetic polar cap at various altitudes near the mesopause.

  8. Equatorial thermospheric winds: New results using data from a network of three Fabry-Perot interferometers located in central Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriwether, J. W.; Dominquez, L. N.; Milla, M. A.; Chau, J. L.; Makela, J. J.; Fisher, D.

    2013-12-01

    A new observing strategy aimed at improving our understanding of the properties of the equatorial thermosphere wind field, such as the vorticity and divergence, has been developed to generate maps of the thermospheric wind field. Estimates of the neutral wind are obtained from measurements of the Doppler shift of the thermospheric 630.0-nm emission obtained from a sequence of eight evenly spaced azimuthal directions for each of the three Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) observatories located in central Peru (Jicamarca, Nazca, and Arequipa). Measurements towards the zenith and a frequency-stabilized laser reference are also included in each sequence, which takes ~25 minutes to complete. Six of the off-zenith observing directions from the Nazca FPI observatory are used to make common volume (CV) measurements, where two of the FPIs observe the same thermospheric volume with a centroid height of ~250 km at orthogonal angles. These CV positions are located ~225 km north and south of the Nazca FPI observatory. The data obtained during a coordinated observation of the two FPIs observing the same CV location are used to compute estimates of the zonal (u) and meridional (v) wind components. The set of Doppler shifts measured by the three FPIs during a single sequence is used to produce a map of the neutral wind field for that period of time. The construction of this map is based upon the use of a first-order polynomial expansion of the neutral wind field relative to the site coordinates of each FPI location. This expansion includes the first-order gradients of u and v with respect to the zonal (x) and meridional (y) directions. Computation of the best fit in a linear least squares sense of the model expansion parameters to the Doppler shift data for all three sites determines the values of these gradient parameters. Results obtained for mid-winter 2013 show the anti-cyclonic circulation expected near the terminator generated by the day-to-night pressure gradient. Sequences

  9. Ag-protein plasmonic architectures for surface plasmon-coupled emission enhancements and Fabry-Perot mode-coupled directional fluorescence emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiya, Pradeep Kumar; Patnaik, Sai Gourang; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Reddy, Narendra; Manohar, Chelli Sai; Vedarajan, Raman; Mastumi, Noriyoshi; Belliraj, Siva Kumar; Ramamurthy, Sai Sathish

    2017-10-01

    We report the use of silver decorated plant proteins as spacer material for augmented surface plasmon-coupled emission (120-fold enhancement) and plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering. We extracted several proteins from different plant sources [Triticum aestivum (TA), Aegle marmelos (AM), Ricinus communis (RC), Jatropha curcas (JC) and Simarouba glauca (SG)] followed by evaluation of their optical properties and simulations to rationalize observed surface plasmon resonance. Since the properties exhibited by protein thin films is currently gaining research interest, we have also carried out simulation studies with Ag-protein biocomposites as spacer materials in metal-dielectric-metal planar microcavity architecture for guided emission of Fabry-Perot mode-coupled fluorescence.

  10. Effect of small variations in the refractive index of the ambient medium on the spectrum of a bent fibre-optic Fabry - Perot interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulchin, Yurii N; Vitrik, O B; Gurbatov, S O

    2011-01-01

    The phase of light propagating through a bent optical fibre is shown to depend on the refractive index of the medium surrounding the fibre cladding when there is resonance coupling between the guided core mode and cladding modes. This shifts the spectral maxima in the bent fibre-optic Fabry - Perot interferometer. The highest phase and spectral sensitivities achieved with this interferometer configuration are 0.71 and 0.077, respectively, and enable changes in the refractive index of the ambient medium down to 5×10 -6 to be detected. This makes the proposed approach potentially attractive for producing highly stable, precision refractive index sensors capable of solving a wide range of liquid refractometry problems.

  11. Effect of small variations in the refractive index of the ambient medium on the spectrum of a bent fibre-optic Fabry - Perot interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulchin, Yurii N; Vitrik, O B; Gurbatov, S O [Institute for Automation and Control Processes, Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-30

    The phase of light propagating through a bent optical fibre is shown to depend on the refractive index of the medium surrounding the fibre cladding when there is resonance coupling between the guided core mode and cladding modes. This shifts the spectral maxima in the bent fibre-optic Fabry - Perot interferometer. The highest phase and spectral sensitivities achieved with this interferometer configuration are 0.71 and 0.077, respectively, and enable changes in the refractive index of the ambient medium down to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to be detected. This makes the proposed approach potentially attractive for producing highly stable, precision refractive index sensors capable of solving a wide range of liquid refractometry problems.

  12. Ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometry of the terrestrial nightglow with a bare charge-coupled device; Remote field site deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niciejewski, R.; Killeen, T.L.; Turnbull, M.

    1994-01-01

    The application of Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) to the study of upper atmosphere thermodynamics has largely been restricted by the very low light levels in the terrestrial airglow as well as the limited range in wavelength of photomultiplier tube (PMT) technology. During the past decade, the development of the scientific grade charge-coupled device (CCD) has progressed to the stage in which the detector has become the logical replacement for the PMT. Small fast microcomputers have made it possible to ''upgrade'' the remote field sites which bare CCDs and not only retain the previous capabilities of the existing FPIs but expand the data coverage in both temporal and wavelength domains. The problems encountered and the solutions applied to the deployment of a bare CCD, with data acquisition and image reduction techniques, are discussed. Sample geophysical data determined from the FPI fringe profiles are shown for stations at Peach Mountain, Michigan, and Watson Lake, Yukon Territory

  13. Simple locking of infrared and ultraviolet diode lasers to a visible laser using a LabVIEW proportional-integral-derivative controller on a Fabry-Perot signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwolek, J M; Wells, J E; Goodman, D S; Smith, W W

    2016-05-01

    Simultaneous laser locking of infrared (IR) and ultraviolet lasers to a visible stabilized reference laser is demonstrated via a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. LabVIEW is used to analyze the input, and an internal proportional-integral-derivative algorithm converts the FP signal to an analog locking feedback signal. The locking program stabilized both lasers to a long term stability of better than 9 MHz, with a custom-built IR laser undergoing significant improvement in frequency stabilization. The results of this study demonstrate the viability of a simple, computer-controlled, non-temperature-stabilized FP locking scheme for our applications, laser cooling of Ca(+) ions, and its use in other applications with similar modest frequency stabilization requirements.

  14. Combined incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of frictional heating effects over Millstone Hill during March 7-10, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, M.E.; Sipler, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors introduce a methodology to calculate the effects of frictional heating associated with geomagnetic activity using simultaneous incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements. Vector measurements of ion drift from radar backscatter and neutral wind from optical shifts in the atomic oxygen red line over Millstone Hill, Massachusetts (43 degree N) for the nights of March 7-10, 1989 are presented and are characterized by the magnetic storm activity which prevailed. They combine these measurements to calculate differences in the ion and neutral velocity fields which approach 350 m/s during the most geomagnetically active period that they monitored near 01 UT on March 9. This velocity difference results in a 110 degree K heating of the ion gas at that time

  15. Analysis and design of tunable wideband microwave photonics phase shifter based on Fabry-Perot cavity and Bragg mirrors in silicon-on-insulator waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Pengfei; Zhou, Jingran; Chen, Weiyou; Li, Fumin; Li, Haibin; Liu, Caixia; Ruan, Shengping; Dong, Wei

    2010-04-20

    We designed a microwave (MW) photonics phase shifter, consisting of a Fabry-Perot filter, a phase modulation region (PMR), and distributed Bragg reflectors, in a silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide. The thermo-optics effect was employed to tune the PMR. It was theoretically demonstrated that the linear MW phase shift of 0-2pi could be achieved by a refractive index variation of 0-9.68x10(-3) in an ultrawideband (about 38?GHz-1.9?THz), and the corresponding tuning resolution was about 6.92 degrees / degrees C. The device had a very compact size. It could be easily integrated in silicon optoelectronic chips and expected to be widely used in the high-frequency MW photonics field.

  16. Precision measurements of gas refractivity by means of a Fabry-Perot interferometer illustrated by the monitoring of radiator refractivity in the DELPHI RICH detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Filippas-Tassos, A; Fokitis, E; Maltezos, S; Patrinos, K

    2002-01-01

    With an updated, flexible, highly efficient and easily installed system we obtained accurate refractivity (n-1) values. This system is a refractometer based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer and was used to monitor the refractivity of DELPHI RICH Cherenkov radiators near the VUV region. By using a Pt-Ne spectral lamp and improved alignment and temperature control, the refractivities of C//5F//1//2 and C//4F//1 //0 have been monitored since 1996. With this light source, selected to have large coherence lengths, we can extract the refractivity at several wavelengths from one data set only. The estimated errors of the refractivity measurements are less than 1.2%, and depend on wavelength and the type of gas used. The various parameters affecting the accuracy of the refractometer are also discussed. Finally, results from special sample refractivity measurements of the liquid radiator (C//6F//1//4) in its gas phase, are presented.

  17. Performance of a Distributed Simultaneous Strain and Temperature Sensor Based on a Fabry-Perot Laser Diode and a Dual-Stage FBG Optical Demultiplexer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinwon Kang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A simultaneous strain and temperature measurement method using a Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD and a dual-stage fiber Bragg grating (FBG optical demultiplexer was applied to a distributed sensor system based on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR. By using a Kalman filter, we improved the performance of the FP-LD based OTDR, and decreased the noise using the dual-stage FBG optical demultiplexer. Applying the two developed components to the BOTDR system and using a temperature compensating algorithm, we successfully demonstrated the simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature distributions under various experimental conditions. The observed errors in the temperature and strain measured using the developed sensing system were 0.6 °C and 50 με, and the spatial resolution was 1 m, respectively.

  18. Performance of a distributed simultaneous strain and temperature sensor based on a Fabry-Perot laser diode and a dual-stage FBG optical demultiplexer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhwan; Kwon, Hyungwoo; Yang, Injae; Lee, Seungho; Kim, Jeehyun; Kang, Shinwon

    2013-11-12

    A simultaneous strain and temperature measurement method using a Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) and a dual-stage fiber Bragg grating (FBG) optical demultiplexer was applied to a distributed sensor system based on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR). By using a Kalman filter, we improved the performance of the FP-LD based OTDR, and decreased the noise using the dual-stage FBG optical demultiplexer. Applying the two developed components to the BOTDR system and using a temperature compensating algorithm, we successfully demonstrated the simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature distributions under various experimental conditions. The observed errors in the temperature and strain measured using the developed sensing system were 0.6 °C and 50 με, and the spatial resolution was 1 m, respectively.

  19. Electron density and temperature study of plasmas using a millimeter-wave Fabry-Perot interferometer; Etude de la densite electronique et de la temperature de plasmas a l'aide d'un interferometre Fabry-Perot en ondes millimetriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bize, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The contents of this article, which have been used as a basis for a State doctorate thesis, deal with research into focussing systems of the Fabry-Perot, millimetre wave type. With the help of this equipment, measurements have been made of the electronic density using interferometry in the range from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 14} electrons/cm{sup 3}, and of the electron temperature by Thomson diffusion, of plasmas formed by laser ionisation and by high frequency. (author) [French] Le contenu de cet article, qui a fait l'objet d'une these d'Etat, se rapporte a l'etude des systemes focalisant de type Fabry-Perot en ondes millimetriques. A l'aide de ces dispositifs, on mesure la densite electronique par interferometrie dans la gamme de densites de 10{sup 9} a 10{sup 14} e/cm{sup 3} et la temperature electronique par diffusion Thomson de plasmas crees par ionisation laser et par haute frequence. (auteur)

  20. Electron density and temperature study of plasmas using a millimeter-wave Fabry-Perot interferometer; Etude de la densite electronique et de la temperature de plasmas a l'aide d'un interferometre Fabry-Perot en ondes millimetriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bize, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The contents of this article, which have been used as a basis for a State doctorate thesis, deal with research into focussing systems of the Fabry-Perot, millimetre wave type. With the help of this equipment, measurements have been made of the electronic density using interferometry in the range from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 14} electrons/cm{sup 3}, and of the electron temperature by Thomson diffusion, of plasmas formed by laser ionisation and by high frequency. (author) [French] Le contenu de cet article, qui a fait l'objet d'une these d'Etat, se rapporte a l'etude des systemes focalisant de type Fabry-Perot en ondes millimetriques. A l'aide de ces dispositifs, on mesure la densite electronique par interferometrie dans la gamme de densites de 10{sup 9} a 10{sup 14} e/cm{sup 3} et la temperature electronique par diffusion Thomson de plasmas crees par ionisation laser et par haute frequence. (auteur)

  1. Research and investigation of a communication chain on optical fiber with a Fabry-Perot power diode for the automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacis, Irina Bristena; Vasile, Alexandru; Ionescu, Ciprian; Marghescu, Cristina

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze different power devices - emitters of optical flow, from the point of view of optical coupling, emitted optical powers, optical fiber losses and receiver. The research and characterization of the transmission through a power optical system is done using a computer system specialized for the automotive industry. This system/platform can deliver current pulses that are controlled by a computer through a software (it is possible to set different parameters such as pulse repetition frequency, duty cycle, and current intensity). For the experiments a power Fabry Perot 1035 laser diode operating in pulse with μφ 1055 nm, Ith = 40 mA, and Iop =750 mA was used with a single-mode SFM 128 optical fiber and an EM type optical coupler connected through alignment. Two types of measurements were conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of the experimental structure. In the first case the amplitude of the voltage pulses was measured at the output of an optical detector with receiving diode in a built-in amplifier with a 50 kΩ load resistance. In the second stage measurements were conducted to determine the optical power injected in the optical fiber and received at the reception cell of a power meter. Another parameter of optical coupling that can be measured using the experimental structure is irradiation. This parameter is very important to determine the optimum cutting angle of the fiber for continuity welding.

  2. Mid-latitude thermospheric wind changes during the St. Patrick's Day storm of 2015 observed by two Fabry-Perot interferometers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cong; Xu, Ji-Yao; Zhang, Xiao-Xin; Liu, Dan-Dan; Yuan, Wei; Jiang, Guo-Ying

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we utilize thermospheric wind observations by the Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPI) from the Kelan (KL) station (38.7°N, 111.6°E, Magnetic Latitude: 28.9°N) and the Xinglong (XL) station (40.2°N, 117.4°E, Magnetic Latitude: 30.5°N) in central China during the St. Patrick's Day storm (from Mar. 17 to Mar. 19) of 2015 to analyze thermospheric wind disturbances and compare observations with the Horizontal Wind Model 2007 (HWM07). The results reveal that the wind measurements at KL show very similar trends to those at XL. Large enhancements are seen in both the westward and equatorward winds after the severe geomagnetic storm occurred. The westward wind speed increased to a peak value of 75 m/s and the equatorward wind enhanced to a peak value of over 100 m/s. There also exist obvious poleward disturbances in the meridional winds during Mar. 17 to Mar. 19. According to the comparison with HWM07, there exist evident wind speed and temporal differences between FPI-winds and the model outputs in this severe geomagnetic storm. The discrepancies between the observations and HWM07 imply that the empirical model should be used carefully in wind disturbance forecast during large geomagnetic storms and more investigations between measurements and numerical models are necessary in future studies.

  3. Strain and high-temperature discrimination using a Type II fiber Bragg grating and a miniature fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yajun; Yang, Dexing; Yuan, Yuan; Xu, Jian; Li, Dong; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-08-10

    A novel method for simultaneous measurement of strain and high temperature using a Type II fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and a miniature fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (MFFPI) is proposed. The MFFPI is produced by fusion splicing a short section of quartz capillary tube with two single-mode fibers, and then it is exposed by a focused femtosecond laser and a phase mask to inscribe a Type II FBG nearby. The reflection spectrum of this sensor is the superposition of the reflection spectrum of the FBG and the interference fringe of the MFFPI. This sensor shows perfect high-temperature and strain responses. Because of the different responses to the uniform variations of strain and temperature, by measuring the reflection peak of FBG and one of the interference dips of the MFFPI, strain and temperature can be simultaneously determined. The resolutions of this particular sensor in measuring strain and temperature are estimated to be ±8.4  μϵ and ±3.3°C, respectively, in the range from 0 to 1122 μϵ and from 23°C to 600°C.

  4. Bistable Reflective Etalon (BRET)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shellenbarger, Zane

    2003-01-01

    This project designed, fabricated, and characterized normal-incidence etalon structures at 1550 nm wavelength operation for application, as bistable elements, to photonic analog-to-digital conversion...

  5. Interferometric filters for spectral discrimination in high-spectral-resolution lidar: performance comparisons between Fabry-Perot interferometer and field-widened Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhongtao; Liu, Dong; Yang, Yongying; Yang, Liming; Huang, Hanlu

    2013-11-10

    Thanks to wavelength flexibility, interferometric filters such as Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) and field-widened Michelson interferometers (FWMIs) have shown great convenience for spectrally separating the molecule and aerosol scattering components in the high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) return signal. In this paper, performance comparisons between the FPI and FWMI as a spectroscopic discrimination filter in HSRL are performed. We first present a theoretical method for spectral transmission analysis and quantitative evaluation on the spectral discrimination. Then the process in determining the parameters of the FPI and FWMI for the performance comparisons is described. The influences from the incident field of view (FOV), the cumulative wavefront error induced by practical imperfections, and the frequency locking error on the spectral discrimination performance of the two filters are discussed in detail. Quantitative analyses demonstrate that FPI can produce higher transmittance while the remarkable spectral discrimination is one of the most appealing advantages of FWMI. As a result of the field-widened design, the FWMI still performs well even under the illumination with large FOV while the FPI is only qualified for a small incident angle. The cumulative wavefront error attaches a great effect on the spectral discrimination performance of the interferometric filters. We suggest if a cumulative wavefront error is less than 0.05 waves RMS, it is beneficial to employ the FWMI; otherwise, FPI may be more proper. Although the FWMI shows much more sensitivity to the frequency locking error, it can outperform the FPI given a locking error less than 0.1 GHz is achieved. In summary, the FWMI is very competent in HSRL applications if these practical engineering and control problems can be solved, theoretically. Some other estimations neglected in this paper can also be carried out through the analytical method illustrated herein.

  6. Monostatic coaxial 1.5 μm laser Doppler velocimeter using a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    on heterodyne detection, our sFPI-LDV has the advantages of having large remote sensing range not limited by laser coherence, high velocity dynamic range not limited by detector bandwidth and inherent sign discrimination of Doppler shift. The more optically efficient coaxial arrangement where transmitter...... achieves ~40 dB reduction in strength of unwanted reflections (i.e. leakage) while maintaining high optical efficiency. Experiments with a solid target demonstrate the performance of the sFPI-LDV system with high sensitivity down to pW level at present update rates up to 10 Hz....

  7. Study of a high finesse four mirrors Fabry Perot cavity for X-rays and Gamma rays production by laser-electron Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedala, Y.

    2008-10-01

    The main goal of this thesis is the study and design of a high finesse Fabry Perot cavity to amplify a laser beam in order to achieve power gains ranging from 10 4 to 10 5 . This cavity is dedicated to the production of intense and monochromatic X-ray for medical applications (medical RADIOTHOMX ring) and gamma rays for a Compton based polarized positron source by Compton scattering of a high power laser beam and electron beam. To increase the brightness of the Compton interaction at the collision points, it is essential to have not only a high power laser beam but also very small laser beam radii at the interaction points. To achieve such performances, 2 scenarios are possible: a concentric 2 mirrors cavity which is mechanically unstable or a 4 mirrors cavity more complex but more stable. We tested numerically mechanical stability and stability of Eigen modes polarization of various planar and non-planar geometries of 4 mirrors cavities. Experimentally, we have developed a four mirrors tetrahedral 'bow-tie' cavity; radii of the order of 20 microns were made. The Eigen modes of such a cavity, in both planar and non planar geometries, were measured and compared with the numerical results. A good agreement was observed. In a second time, the impact of Compton interaction on the transverse dynamics, in the case of the polarized positrons source, and the longitudinal dynamic, in the case of the medical ring of the electron beam was studied. Compton scattering causes energy loss and induces an additional dispersion of energy in electron beam. For the polarized positrons source, 10 collision points are planned. The transport line has been determined and the modelling of the Compton interaction effect with a simple matrix calculation was made. For the medical ring, Compton scattering causes bunch lengthening and the increase of energy dispersion which are to influence the produced X-ray flux. A study of the longitudinal dynamics of the electron beam in the ring was

  8. Multi-event study of high-latitude thermospheric wind variations at substorm onset with a Fabry-Perot interferometer at Tromsoe, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Shiokawa, K.; Oyama, S. I.; Otsuka, Y.

    2017-12-01

    We studied the high-latitude thermospheric wind variations near the onset time of isolated substorms. Substorm-related energy input from the magnetosphere to the polar ionosphere modifies the high-latitude ionosphere and thermosphere. For the first time, this study showed the characteristics of high-latitude thermospheric wind variations at the substorm onset. We also investigated the possibility of these wind variations as a potential trigger of substorm onset by modifying the ionospheric current system (Kan, 1993). A Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) at Tromsoe, Norway provided wind measurements estimated from Doppler shift of both red-line (630.0 nm for the F region) and green-line (557.7 nm for the E region) emissions of aurora and airglow. We used seven-year data sets obtained from 2009 to 2015 with a time resolution of 13 min. We first identified the onset times of local isolated substorms using ground-based magnetometer data obtained at the Tromsoe and Bear Island stations, which belongs to the IMAGE magnetometer chain. We obtained 4 red-line events and 5 green-line events taken place at different local times. For all these events, the peak locations of westward ionospheric currents identified by the ground-based magnetometer chain were located at the poleward side of Tromsoe. Then, we calculated two weighted averages of wind velocities for 30 min around the onset time and 30 min after the onset time of substorms. We evaluated differences between these two weighted averages to estimate the strength of wind changes. The observed wind changes at these substorm onsets were less than 49 m/s (26 m/s) for red-line (green-line) events, which are much smaller than the typical plasma convection speed. This indicates that the plasma motion caused by substorm-induced thermospheric winds through ion-neutral collisions is a minor effect as the driver of high-latitude plasma convection, as well as the triggering of substorm onset. We discuss possible causes of these

  9. Combination of highly nonlinear fiber, an optical bandpass filter, and a Fabry-Perot filter to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of a supercontinuum continuous-wave optical source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yinbo; Huo, Li; Lou, Caiyun

    2005-05-20

    We present a theoretical study of a supercontinuum (SC) continuous-wave (cw) optical source generation in highly nonlinear fiber and its noise properties through numerical simulations based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Fluctuations of pump pulses generate substructures between the longitudinal modes that result in the generation of white noise and then in degradation of coherence and in a decrease of the modulation depths and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A scheme for improvement of the SNR of a multiwavelength cw optical source based on a SC by use of the combination of a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), an optical bandpass filter, and a Fabry-Perot (FP) filter is presented. Numerical simulations show that the improvement in modulation depth is relative to the HNLF's length, the 3-dB bandwidth of the optical bandpass filter, and the reflection ratio of the FP filter and that the average improvement in modulation depth is 13.7 dB under specified conditions.

  10. Five-beam Fabry-Perot velocimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.L.; Goosman, D.G.; Collins, L.F.

    1996-03-04

    Velocimetry is useful in diagnosing many properties of high-explosive (HE) systems. The shock pressure of the detonation wave in HE is often measured by noting the velocity of an interface between the HE and a known material. Properties of the equation of state (EOS) of an explosive can be measured in a cylinder event using a combination of velocimetry and other diagnostics. Point-initiated explosions driving large plates give additional information regarding HE EOS. Hemispherical booster shots give quantitative data pertaining to booster performance. Velocimetry is used routinely to measure the performance of detonators. Velocimetry will be a particularly effective tool in cylinder shots, flat plate, and booster shots to determine the effects of aging on the EOS of explosive components in stockpile devices.

  11. Temperature etalon of WWER-440 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanc, S.; Slanina, M.

    2001-01-01

    The presentation deals with the description, parameters and advantages of use of the temperature etalon. The system ensures temperature measurement of reactor outlet and inlet temperatures with high accuracy. Accuracy of temperature measurement is 0.18 deg C, accuracy of temperature difference measurement is 0.14 deg C, both with probability 0.95. Using the temperature etalon it is possible to increase accuracy of the standard temperature reactor measurements and to check their accuracy in the course of power reactor statuses in every measurement cycle. Temperature reactor etalon was installed in 12 WWER-440 units in Slovakia, Bohemia and Bulgaria. (Authors)

  12. Conjugate Etalon Spectral Imager (CESI) & Scanning Etalon Methane Mapper (SEMM), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Conjugate Etalon Spectral Imaging (CESI) concept enables the development of miniature instruments with high spectral resolution, suitable for LEO missions aboard...

  13. Multiple Etalon Systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, G. Allen; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Sigwarth, Michael; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Multiple etalons systems are discussed that meet the 4-meter NSO/Advance Technology Solar Telescope (http://www.nso.edu/ATST/index.html) instrument and science requirements for a narrow bandpass imaging system. A multiple etalon system can provide an imaging interferometer working in four distinct modes: as a spectro-polarimeter, a filter-vector magnetograph, and a wide-band and broad-band high-resolution imager. Specific dual and triple etalon configurations will be described that provides spectrographic passband of 2.0-3.5nm and reduces parasitic light levels to 1/10000 as required by precise polarization measurement, e.g., Zeeman measurements of magnetic sensitive lines. A TESOS-like triple etalon system provides for spectral purity of 100 thousandths. The triple designs have the advantage of reducing the finesse requirement on each etalon, allowing much more stable blocking filters, and can have very high spectral purity. A dual-etalon double-pass Cavallini-like configuration can provide a competing configuration. This design can provide high contrast with only a double etalon. The selection of the final focal plan instrument will depend on a trade-off of the ideal instrument versus reality, the number of etalons, the aperture of etalons, the number of blocking filters the electronic control system and computer interfaces, the temperature control and controllers for the etalons and the electronics. The use of existing experience should provide significant cost savings. The heritage of use of etalons and multiple etalon systems in solar physics come from a number of observatories, which includes MSFC Solar Observatory (NASA), Sac Peak Observatory (NSO), and Kiepenheuer Institute for Solar Physics (Germany), Mees Solar Observatory (University of Hawaii), and Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory (Italy). The design of the ATST multiple etalon system will reply on the existing experience from these observatories.

  14. Multiple-etalon systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, G. Allen; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Sigwarth, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Multiple etalon systems are discussed that meet the science requirements for a narrow-passband imaging system for the 4-meter National Solar Observatory (NSO)/Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). A multiple etalon system can provide an imaging interferometer that works in four distinct modes: as a spectro-polarimeter, a filter-vector magnetograph, an intermediate-band imager, and broadband high-resolution imager. Specific dual and triple etalon configurations are described that provide a spectrographic passband of 2.0-3.5 micron and reduce parasitic light levels to 10(exp -4) as required for precise polarization measurement, e.g., Zeeman measurements of magnetic sensitive lines. A TESOS-like (Telecentric Etalon SOlar Spectrometer) triple etalon system provides a spectral purity of 10(exp -5). The triple designs have the advantage of reducing the finesse requirement on each etalon; allow the use of more stable blocking filters, and have very high spectral purity. A dual-etalon double-pass (Cavallini-like) system can provide a competing configuration. Such a dual-etalon design can provide high contrast. The selection of the final focal plane instrument will depend on a trade-off between an ideal instrument and practical reality. The trade study will include the number of etalons, their aperture sizes, complexities of the optical train, number of blocking filters, configuration of the electronic control system, computer interfaces, temperature controllers, etalon controllers, and their associated feedback electronics. The heritage of single and multiple etalon systems comes from their use in several observatories, including the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak Observatory (NSO), and Kiepenheuer-Institut fur Sonnenphysik (KIS, Germany), Mees Solar Observatory (University of Hawaii), and Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory (Italy). The design of the ATST multiple etalon system will benefit from the experience gained at these

  15. Fabry-Perot MEMS Accelerometers for Advanced Seismic Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisum, Brad [Lumedyne Technologies Incorporated, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-05-31

    This report summarizes the technical achievements that occurred over the duration of the project. On November 14th, 2014, Lumedyne Technologies Incorporated was acquired. As a result of the acquisition, the work toward seismic imaging applications was suspended indefinitely. This report captures the progress achieved up to that time.

  16. Diamond-based Fabry-Perot microcavities for quantum networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanovic, S.

    2017-01-01

    A quantumnetwork would allow the distribution of a quantum state over many spatially separated quantum nodes which individually possess the ability to generate, process and store quantum information. Connecting these nodes through quantum communication channels would enable sending quantum

  17. Simultaneous measurement of thermo-optic and thermal expansion coefficients with a single arm double interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenegueti, Jose Francisco Miras; Andrade, Acacio A; Pilla, Viviane; Zilio, Sergio Carlos

    2017-01-09

    A low-cost single arm double interferometer was developed for the concurrent measurement of linear thermal expansion (α) and thermo-optic (dn/dT) coefficients of transparent samples with plane and parallel surfaces. Owing to its common-path optical arrangement, the device is compact and stable, and allows the simultaneous measurement of interferences arising from a low-finesse Fabry-Perot etalon and from a Mach-Zehnder-type interferometer. The method was demonstrated with measurements of solid (silica, BK7, SF6) and liquid (water, ethanol and acetone) samples.

  18. Tunable UV Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Marilyn E. (Principal Investigator); Rosenberg, William A.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes an investigation intended to determine the practical short wavelength limit for Fabry-Perot etalons operating in the far ultraviolet. This portion of the investigation includes a design study of multilayer dielectric reflector coatings that would be required by such an etalon. Results of the study indicate that etalons may be made to operate at wavelengths as short as 121 nm.

  19. Dual-etalon, cavity-ring-down, frequency comb spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, Kevin E.; Chandler, David W.

    2010-10-01

    The 'dual etalon frequency comb spectrometer' is a novel low cost spectometer with limited moving parts. A broad band light source (pulsed laser, LED, lamp ...) is split into two beam paths. One travels through an etalon and a sample gas, while the second arm is just an etalon cavity, and the two beams are recombined onto a single detector. If the free spectral ranges (FSR) of the two cavities are not identical, the intensity pattern at the detector with consist of a series of heterodyne frequencies. Each mode out of the sample arm etalon with have a unique frequency in RF (radio-frequency) range, where modern electronics can easily record the signals. By monitoring these RF beat frequencies we can then determine when an optical frequencies is absorbed. The resolution is set by the FSR of the cavity, typically 10 MHz, with a bandwidth up to 100s of cm{sup -1}. In this report, the new spectrometer is described in detail and demonstration experiments on Iodine absorption are carried out. Further we discuss powerful potential next generation steps to developing this into a point sensor for monitoring combustion by-products, environmental pollutants, and warfare agents.

  20. Dual-etalon cavity ring-down frequency-comb spectroscopy with broad band light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, David W; Strecker, Kevin E

    2014-04-01

    In an embodiment, a dual-etalon cavity-ring-down frequency-comb spectrometer system is described. A broad band light source is split into two beams. One beam travels through a first etalon and a sample under test, while the other beam travels through a second etalon, and the two beams are recombined onto a single detector. If the free spectral ranges ("FSR") of the two etalons are not identical, the interference pattern at the detector will consist of a series of beat frequencies. By monitoring these beat frequencies, optical frequencies where light is absorbed may be determined.

  1. Tilt-tuned etalon locking for tunable laser stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bradley M; McCall, Benjamin J

    2015-06-15

    Locking to a fringe of a tilt-tuned etalon provides a simple, inexpensive method for stabilizing tunable lasers. Here, we describe the use of such a system to stabilize an external-cavity quantum cascade laser; the locked laser has an Allan deviation of approximately 1 MHz over a one-second integration period, and has a single-scan tuning range of approximately 0.4  cm(-1). The system is robust, with minimal alignment requirements and automated lock acquisition, and can be easily adapted to different wavelength regions or more stringent stability requirements with minor alterations.

  2. Using the etalon effect for in situ balancing of the Advanced Virgo arm cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hild, S; Freise, A; Chelkowski, S; Mantovani, M; Degallaix, J; Schilling, R

    2009-01-01

    Several large-scale interferometric gravitational-wave detectors use resonant arm cavities to enhance the light power in the interferometer arms. These cavities are based on different optical designs: One design uses wedged input mirrors to create additional optical pick-off ports for deriving control signals. The second design employs input mirrors without wedge and thus offers the possibility of using the etalon effect inside the input mirrors for tuning the finesse of the arm cavities. In this paper, we introduce a concept of maximum flexibility that combines both of these options, by featuring wedges at the input mirrors and using the etalon effect instead in the end mirrors. We present a design for the arm cavities of Advanced Virgo. The paper focusses on evaluating the influence of etalon imperfections onto the overall Advanced Virgo performance. We use numerical simulations to derive requirements for the manufacturing accuracy of an end mirror etalon for Advanced Virgo. Furthermore, we give analytical approximations for the achievable tuning range of an imperfect etalon depending on the curvature and orientation mismatch of the two etalon surfaces. We evaluate the displacement noise originating from temperature driven optical phase noise of the etalon. In addition the influence of the etalon effect onto other Advanced Virgo subsystems such as the alignment sensing and control is analysed.

  3. UARS Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AT V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AT data product consists of daily, 65.536 second interval time-ordered vertical profiles of temperature...

  4. UARS Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AL V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AL data product consists of daily, 4 degree increment latitude-ordered vertical profiles of temperature...

  5. Precision interferometric measurement of right angles with the aid of an etalon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreb, B.; Walsh, C.; Leistner, A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: An interferometric set up has been developed to measure right angles between faces of components such as prisms or cubes, to sub arc second resolution. The component to be measured is placed inside an air spaced etalon and the right angle is measured by a Fizeau interferometer with respect to a transmission reference flat. The etalon consists of two precision glass flats which are aligned to be parallel by optically contacting these to a cylindrical Zerodur sleeve having flat and parallel ends. A circular cut out in the cylindrical sleeve is made to allow the test component and the light from the interferometer to enter the etalon. The phase difference in the two halves of the interferogram corresponding to the two sides of the test component is a measure of the angle deviation from 90 deg

  6. Etalon (standard) for surface potential distribution produced by electric activity of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szathmáry, V; Ruttkay-Nedecký, I

    1981-01-01

    The authors submit etalon (standard) equipotential maps as an aid in the evaluation of maps of surface potential distributions in living subjects. They were obtained by measuring potentials on the surface of an electrolytic tank shaped like the thorax. The individual etalon maps were determined in such a way that the parameters of the physical dipole forming the source of the electric field in the tank corresponded to the mean vectorcardiographic parameters measured in a healthy population sample. The technique also allows a quantitative estimate of the degree of non-dipolarity of the heart as the source of the electric field.

  7. Application of a fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor for receiving SH-EMAT signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Ik Keun [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Shear horizontal (SH) waves propagate as a type of plate wave in a thin sheet. The dispersion characteristics of SH waves can be used for signal analysis. Therefore, SH-waves are useful for monitoring the structural health of a thin-sheet-structure. An electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT), which is a non-contact ultrasonic transducer, can generate SH-waves easily by varying the shape and array of magnets and coils. Therefore, an EMAT can be applied to an automated ultrasonic testing system for structural health monitoring. When used as a sensor, however, the EMAT has a weakness in that electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise can occur easily in the automated system because of motors and electric devices. Alternatively, a fiber optic sensor works well in the same environment with EMI noise because it uses a light signal instead of an electric signal. In this paper, a fiber Fabry-Prot interferometer (FFPI) was proposed as a sensor to receive the SH-waves generated by an EMAT. A simple test was performed to verify the performance of the FFPI sensor. It is thus shown that the FFPI can receive SH-wave signals clearly.

  8. Fabry-Perot-like interference security image structures: From passive to active

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloukas, B.; Trottier-Lapointe, W.; Martinu, L.

    2014-01-01

    Counterfeiting of products and important documents is at an all-time high and is costing the world economy hundreds of billions of dollars yearly as well as posing significant safety and health hazards through the production of uncertified goods, e.g., pharmaceutical products. To limit these effects, interference-based optical security devices offering an angular color shift are still widely in use. Unfortunately, commercial iridescent materials are now readily available and represent a potential source of counterfeiting. In this short review, we first describe the basic principles behind passive interference security image structures (ISIS) and the qualities which have resulted in their integration into most important documents. Various features which have been added to ISIS in order to make them harder to duplicate yet simpler to authenticate are also presented (metamerism, magnetic materials, diffraction, etc.). We then address the implementation of active materials, mainly electrochromic WO 3 as a means of generating two-level authentication devices. Finally, we discuss some general considerations to keep in mind when developing features for security applications. - Highlights: • We review Fabry–Perot-like metal-dielectric filters used in optical security. • We discuss/demonstrate recent additions: metamerism, magnetism and diffraction. • We demonstrate a feature based on the use of thin metallic mirrors. • We cover recent developments in the use of active materials. • We demonstrate an electrochromic feature with two levels of authentication

  9. Active cancellation of residual amplitude modulation in a frequency-modulation based Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinan; Wang, Yicheng; Pratt, Jon R

    2016-03-01

    Residual amplitude modulation (RAM) is one of the most common noise sources known to degrade the sensitivity of frequency modulation spectroscopy. RAM can arise as a result of the temperature dependent birefringence of the modulator crystal, which causes the orientation of the crystal's optical axis to shift with respect to the polarization of the incident light with temperature. In the fiber-based optical interferometer used on the National Institute of Standards and Technology calculable capacitor, RAM degrades the measured laser frequency stability and correlates with the environmental temperature fluctuations. We have demonstrated a simple approach that cancels out excessive RAM due to polarization mismatch between the light and the optical axis of the crystal. The approach allows us to measure the frequency noise of a heterodyne beat between two lasers individually locked to different resonant modes of a cavity with an accuracy better than 0.5 ppm, which meets the requirement to further determine the longitudinal mode number of the cavity length. Also, this approach has substantially mitigated the temperature dependency of the measurements of the cavity length and consequently the capacitance.

  10. Fabry-Perot-like interference security image structures: From passive to active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baloukas, B., E-mail: bill.baloukas@polymtl.ca; Trottier-Lapointe, W.; Martinu, L., E-mail: ludvik.martinu@polymtl.ca

    2014-05-30

    Counterfeiting of products and important documents is at an all-time high and is costing the world economy hundreds of billions of dollars yearly as well as posing significant safety and health hazards through the production of uncertified goods, e.g., pharmaceutical products. To limit these effects, interference-based optical security devices offering an angular color shift are still widely in use. Unfortunately, commercial iridescent materials are now readily available and represent a potential source of counterfeiting. In this short review, we first describe the basic principles behind passive interference security image structures (ISIS) and the qualities which have resulted in their integration into most important documents. Various features which have been added to ISIS in order to make them harder to duplicate yet simpler to authenticate are also presented (metamerism, magnetic materials, diffraction, etc.). We then address the implementation of active materials, mainly electrochromic WO{sub 3} as a means of generating two-level authentication devices. Finally, we discuss some general considerations to keep in mind when developing features for security applications. - Highlights: • We review Fabry–Perot-like metal-dielectric filters used in optical security. • We discuss/demonstrate recent additions: metamerism, magnetism and diffraction. • We demonstrate a feature based on the use of thin metallic mirrors. • We cover recent developments in the use of active materials. • We demonstrate an electrochromic feature with two levels of authentication.

  11. Rugged Low Temperature Actuators for Tunable Fabry Perot Optical Filters, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Why are rugged, low temperature actuator materials important? By themselves, they are useless; however, when fabricated into thin films and integrated into optical...

  12. Musical instrument recordings made with a fiber Fabry-Perot cavity: photonic guitar pickup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Nicholas; Paz-Soldan, Daniel; Kung, Peter; Loock, Hans-Peter

    2010-04-10

    A 1 cm long, low-finesse fiber-optic cavity was used as a transducer for the vibrations of the soundboard of an acoustic guitar and of a violin. The reflected light is detected and then amplified and recorded using conventional audio instrumentation. The fiber-optic pickup is found to have a high response range in both amplitude (up to 100 microm displacement) and audio frequency (DC to 20 kHz) and good linearity up to a displacement of 225 microm. The audio noise is found to arise from the fiber-optic cables and, to a lesser extent, from the laser and laser driver.

  13. Transmission-enabled fiber Fabry-Perot cavity based on a deeply etched slotted micromirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Muhammad A; Sabry, Yasser M; Sadek, Mohamed; Nassar, Ismail M; Khalil, Diaa A

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we report the analysis, fabrication, and characterization of an optical cavity built using a Bragg-coated fiber (BCF) mirror and a metal-coated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) slotted micromirror, where the latter allows transmission output from the cavity. Theoretical modeling, using Fourier optics analysis for the cavity response based on tracing the propagation of light back and forth between the mirrors, is presented. Detailed simulation analysis is carried out for the spectral response of the cavity under different design conditions. MEMS chips of the slotted micromirror are fabricated using deep reactive ion etching of a silicon-on-insulator substrate with different device-etching depths of 150 μm and 80 μm with aluminum and gold metal coating, respectively. The cavity is characterized as an optical filter using a BCF with reflectivity that is larger than 95% in a 300 nm range across the E-band and the L-band. Versatile filter characteristics were obtained for different values of the MEMS micromirror slit width and cavity length. A free spectral range (FSR) of about 33 nm and a quality factor of about 196 were obtained for a 5.5 μm width aluminum slit, while an FSR of about 148 nm and a quality factor of about 148 were obtained for a 1.5 μm width gold slit. The presented structure opens the door for wide spectral response transmission-type MEMS filters.

  14. Transfer function of analog fiber-optic systems driven by Fabry-Perot lasers: comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyula, Veszely

    2006-10-01

    A bad notation makes difficult the understanding of the paper of Capmany et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B22, 2099 (2005)]. The reason is that the real time function and the complex time function run into one another.

  15. Ultra-Precise Measurement of Distance by Fabry-Perot Resonator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Číp, Ondřej; Petrů, František; Lazar, Josef; Buchta, Zdeněk

    T118, - (2005), s. 45-47 ISSN 0031-8949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP102/02/P122 Keywords : length measurements * laser interferometer * optical resonator Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.661, year: 2004

  16. Highly directive Fabry-Perot leaky-wave nanoantennas based on optical partially reflective surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorente-Crespo, M.; Mateo-Segura, C., E-mail: C.Mateo-Segura@hw.ac.uk [Institute of Sensors, Signals and Systems, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-04

    Nanoantennas enhance the conversion between highly localized electromagnetic fields and far-field radiation. Here, we investigate the response of a nano-patch partially reflective surface backed with a silver mirror to an optical source embedded at the centre of the structure. Using full wave simulations, we demonstrate a two orders of magnitude increased directivity compared to the isotropic radiator, 50% power confinement to a 13.8° width beam and a ±16 nm bandwidth. Our antenna does not rely on plasmonic phenomena thus reducing non-radiative losses and conserving source coherence.

  17. Applicability of neural networks to etalon fringe filtering in laser spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicely, J. M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Riris, H.

    2018-05-01

    We present a neural network algorithm for spectroscopic retrievals of concentrations of trace gases. Using synthetic data we demonstrate that a neural network is well suited for filtering etalon fringes and provides superior performance to conventional least squares minimization techniques. This novel method can improve the accuracy of atmospheric retrievals and minimize biases.

  18. Applicability of Neural Networks to Etalon Fringe Filtering in Laser Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicely, J. M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Riris, H.

    2018-01-01

    We present a neural network algorithm for spectroscopic retrievals of concentrations of trace gases. Using synthetic data we demonstrate that a neural network is well suited for filtering etalon fringes and provides superior performance to conventional least squares minimization techniques. This novel method can improve the accuracy of atmospheric retrievals and minimize biases.

  19. UARS Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AL V009 (UARCL3AL) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AL data product consists of daily, 4 degree increment latitude-ordered vertical profiles of temperature...

  20. UARS Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AT V009 (UARCL3AT) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AT data product consists of daily, 65.536 second interval time-ordered vertical profiles of temperature...

  1. Affinement spectral dans les lasers à colorants pulsés.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamant, P

    1978-03-15

    Spectral narrowing in pulsed dye lasers is studied theoretically. Fabry-Perot etalons, gratings, and prisms are considered as tuning elements. Each one is characterized by a new parameter: the spectral width associated with a round trip in the laser cavity. Numerical examples show that depending on cavity parameters it is either the round-trip spectral width or the width due to beam divergence which limits the bandwidth of the laser emission. Instantaneous spectral narrowing is found to be proportional to the square root of the time elapsed after the laser onset when a Fabry-Perot etalon or grating is used. When a prism is set in the laser cavity the instantaneous narrowing is proportional to time.

  2. Single mode operation of a TEA CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Kazuhiro; Tunawaki, Yoshiaki; Yamanaka, Masanobu.

    1993-01-01

    Single mode operation of a TEA CO 2 laser was performed by using an optical system of Fox-Smith type. Laser beam was taken out from the cavity by using a beam splitter, and was reflected by a mirror back to the cavity. By inserting a Fabry-Perot etalon between the splitter and the mirror, beat of laser pulses can be removed completly. (author)

  3. FABRY-PEROT VERSUS SLIT SPECTROPOLARIMETRY OF PORES AND ACTIVE NETWORK: ANALYSIS OF IBIS AND HINODE DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, Philip G.; De Wijn, Alfred; Tritschler, Alexandra; Uitenbroek, Han; Reardon, Kevin; Cauzzi, Gianna

    2010-01-01

    We discuss spectropolarimetric measurements of photospheric (Fe I 630.25 nm) and chromospheric (Ca II 854.21 nm) spectral lines in and around small magnetic flux concentrations, including a pore. Our long-term goal is to diagnose properties of the magnetic field near the base of the corona. We compare ground-based two-dimensional spectropolarimetric measurem ents with (almost) simultaneous space-based slit spectropolarimetry. We address the question of noise and crosstalk in the measurements and attempt to determine the suitability of Ca II measurements with imaging spectropolarimeters for the determination of chromospheric magnetic fields. The ground-based observations were obtained 2008 May 20, with the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) in spectropolarimetric mode operated at the Dunn Solar Telescope at Sunspot, NM. The space observations were obtained with the Spectro-Polarimeter of the Solar Optical Telescope aboard the Japanese Hinode satellite. The agreement between the near-simultaneous co-spatial IBIS and Hinode Stokes-V profiles at 630.25 nm is excellent, with V/I amplitudes compatible to within 1%. The IBIS QU measurements are affected by residual crosstalk from V, arising from calibration inaccuracies, not from any inherent limitation of imaging spectroscopy. We use a Principal Component Analysis to quantify the detected crosstalk. QU profiles with V crosstalk subtracted are in good agreement with the Hinode measurements, but are noisier owing to fewer collected photons. Chromospheric magnetic fields are notoriously difficult to constrain by polarization of Ca II lines alone. However, we demonstrate that high cadence, high angular resolution monochromatic images of fibrils in Ca II and Hα, seen clearly in IBIS observations, can be used to improve the magnetic field constraints, under conditions of high electrical conductivity. Such work is possible only with time series data sets from two-dimensional spectroscopic instruments such as IBIS, under conditions of good seeing.

  4. Compact vibration isolation and suspension for Australian International Gravitational Observatory: Performance in a 72 m Fabry Perot cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, P.; Dumas, J. C.; Woolley, A. A.; Zhao, C.; Blair, D. G.

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes the first demonstration of vibration isolation and suspension systems, which have been developed with view to application in the proposed Australian International Gravitational Observatory. In order to achieve optimal performance at low frequencies new components and techniques have been combined to create a compact advanced vibration isolator structure. The design includes two stages of horizontal preisolation and one stage of vertical preisolation with resonant frequencies ˜100 mHz. The nested structure facilitates a compact design and enables horizontal preisolation stages to be configured to create a superspring configuration, where active feedback can enable performance close to the limit set by seismic tilt coupling. The preisolation stages are combined with multistage three-dimensional (3D) pendulums. Two isolators suspending mirror test masses have been developed to form a 72 m optical cavity with finesse ˜700 in order to test their performance. The suitability of the isolators for use in suspended optical cavities is demonstrated through their ease of locking, long term stability, and low residual motion. An accompanying paper presents the local control system and shows how simple upgrades can substantially improve residual motion performance.

  5. Micro Extrinsic Fiber-Optic Fabry-Perot Interferometric Sensor Based on Erbium- and Boron-Doped Fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun-Jiang, Rao; Bing, Xu; Zeng-Ling, Ran; Yuan, Gong

    2010-01-01

    Micro extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometers (MEFPIs), with cavity lengths of up to ∼ 9 μm and maximum fringe contrast of ∼ 19 dB, are fabricated by chemically etching Er- and B-doped optical fibers and then splicing the etched fiber to a single-mode fiber, for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The strain and temperature responses of the MEFPI sensors are investigated experimentally. Good linearity and high sensitivity are achieved. Such a type of MEFPI sensor is cost-effective and suitable for mass production, indicating its great potential for a wide range of applications. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  6. Ion irradiation effects on lithium niobate etalons for tunable spectral filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garranzo, D.; Ibarmia, S.; Alvarez-Herrero, A.; Olivares, J.; Crespillo, M.; Díaz, M.

    2017-11-01

    Solar Orbiter is a mission dedicated to solar and heliospheric physics. It was selected as the first mediumclass mission of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Programme. Solar Orbiter will be used to examine how the Sun creates and controls the heliosphere, the vast bubble of charged particles blown by the solar wind into the interstellar medium. One of the scientific payload elements of Solar Orbiter is the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (PHI). The PHI instrument consists of two telescopes, a High Resolution Telescope (HRT) that will image a fraction of the solar disk at a resolution reaching {150 km at perihelion, and a Full Disk Telescope (FDT) to image the full solar disk during all phases of the orbit. PHI is a diffraction limited, wavelength tunable, quasi-monochromatic, polarisation sensitive imager. These capabilities are needed to infer the magnetic field and line-of-sight (LOS) velocity of the region targeted by the spacecraft. For the spectral analysis, PHI will use an order-sorting filter to isolate a bandpass of the order of 100 mÅ . The FilterGraph (FG) contains an etalon in single pass configuration as tunable spectral filter located inside a temperature stabilized oven. This filter will be made by means of a z-cut LiNbO3 crystal (about 300 microns thick) and multilayer coatings including a conductive one in order to apply a high voltage (up to 5 kV) and induce the required electric field to tune the filter. Solar Orbiter observing mission around the Sun will expose the PHI instrument to extreme radiation conditions, mainly dominated by solar high-energy particles released during severe solar events (protons with energies typically ranging from few keV up to several GeV) and the continuous isotropic background flux of galactic cosmic rays (heavy ions, from Z=1 to Z=92). The main concerns are whether the cumulated radiation damage can degrade the functionality of the filter or, in the worst case, the impact of a single highly ionizing particle

  7. Further investigation of surface velocity measurements for material characterization in laser shockwave experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Scott, Clark L.; Benefiel, Bradley C.; Lévesque, Daniel; Monchalin, Jean-Pierre; Lord, Martin

    2018-04-01

    As part of the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor program, a laser shock test system is being developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to characterize interface strength in innovative plate fuel for research reactors around the world. The INL has been working with National Research Council Canada (NRC) on this project for the last five years. One of the concerns is the difficulty of calibrating and standardizing the laser shock technique. A recent analytical study and testing support the use of the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) in materials as a robust and simple benchmark to compare stresses generated by different laser shock systems. Using a non-contact laser velocimeter based on a solid Fabry-Perot etalon, the systems at NRC and INL show that the back-surface velocity reached at the HEL is consistent, and independent of the laser power used. In this work, the laser velocimeter of the NRC system is tested against a fast rotating wheel to verify accuracy and determine best operating conditions. A round robin test between the two laser shock systems on plates of different aluminum alloys is presented that shows the consistent characterization of the aluminum alloys based on the HEL velocities as well as determines the bias between the systems. The effects of setup parameters on other characteristics of the back-surface velocity trace and corresponding stress wave are also discussed.

  8. Tunable, multiwavelength-swept fiber laser based on nematic liquid crystal device for fiber-optic electric-field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Kim, Sung-Jo; Ko, Myeong Ock; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jeon, Min Yong

    2018-03-01

    We propose a tunable multiwavelength-swept laser based on a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) Fabry-Perot (FP) etalon, which is embedded in the resonator of a wavelength-swept laser. We achieve the continuous wavelength tuning of the multiwavelength-swept laser by applying the electric field to the NLC FP etalon. The free spectral range of the fabricated NLC FP etalon is approximately 7.9 nm. When the electric field applied to the NLC FP etalon exceeds the threshold value (Fréedericksz threshold voltage), the output of the multiwavelength-swept laser can be tuned continuously. The tuning range of the multiwavelength-swept laser can be achieved at a value greater than 75 nm, which has a considerably wider tunable range than a conventional multiwavelength laser based on an NLC FP etalon. The slope efficiencies in the spectral and temporal domains for the tunable multiwavelength-swept laser are 22.2 nm/(mVrms / μm) and 0.17 ms/(mVrms / μm), respectively in the linear region. Therefore, the developed multiwavelength-swept laser based on the NLC FP etalon can be applied to an electric-field sensor. Because the wavelength measurement and time measurement have a linear relationship, the electric-field sensor can detect a rapid change in the electric-field intensity by measuring the peak change of the pulse in the temporal domain using the NLC FP etalon-based multiwavelength-swept laser.

  9. Narrow linewidth operation of the RILIS titanium: Sapphire laser at ISOLDE/CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, S; Wendt, K D A; Fedosseev, V N; Kron, T; Marsh, B A

    2013-01-01

    A narrow linewidth operating mode for the Ti:sapphire laser of the CERN ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) has been developed. This satisfies the laser requirements for the programme of in-source resonance ionization spectroscopy measurements and improves the selectivity for isomer separation using RILIS. A linewidth reduction from typically 10 GHz down to 1 GHz was achieved by the intra-cavity insertion of a second (thick) Fabry-Perot etalon. Reliable operation during a laser scan was achieved through motorized control of the tilt angle of each etalon. A scanning, stabilization and mode cleaning procedure was developed and implemented in LabVIEW. The narrow linewidth operation was confirmed in a high resolution spectroscopy study of francium isotopes by the Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy experiment. The resulting laser scans demonstrate the suitability of the laser, in terms of linewidth, spectral purity and stability for high resolution in-source spectroscopy and isomer select...

  10. Design of all solid state tunable single-mode Ti: sapphire laser for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Nam, S.M.; Lee, Y.J.; Lee, J.M.; Horn, Roland E.; Wendt, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    We designed a Ti:Sapphire laser pumped by a diode laser pumped solid state laser (DPSSL). The DPSSL was intra-cavity frequency doubled and it had 20 W output power. The Ti:Sapphire laser was designed for single longitudinal mode lasing. For single mode lasing, the laser used several solid etalons. We simulated temporal evolution of the laser pulse and single pass amplification rate of the photons in each modes from rate equations. From the result, we found that single mode lasing is viable in this cavity

  11. Digital implementation of a laser frequency stabilisation technique in the telecommunications band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivan, Pritesh; van Brakel, Adriaan; Manuel, Rodolfo Martínez; Grobler, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Laser frequency stabilisation in the telecommunications band was realised using the Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) error signal. The transmission spectrum of the Fabry-Perot cavity was used as opposed to the traditionally used reflected spectrum. A comparison was done using an analogue as well as a digitally implemented system. This study forms part of an initial step towards developing a portable optical time and frequency standard. The frequency discriminator used in the experimental setup was a fibre-based Fabry-Perot etalon. The phase sensitive system made use of the optical heterodyne technique to detect changes in the phase of the system. A lock-in amplifier was used to filter and mix the input signals to generate the error signal. This error signal may then be used to generate a control signal via a PID controller. An error signal was realised at a wavelength of 1556 nm which correlates to an optical frequency of 1.926 THz. An implementation of the analogue PDH technique yielded an error signal with a bandwidth of 6.134 GHz, while a digital implementation yielded a bandwidth of 5.774 GHz.

  12. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of the Lunar Sodium Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Oliversen, R. J.; Roesler, F. L.; Lupie, O. L.

    2014-01-01

    We have applied high-resolution Fabry-Perot spectroscopy to the study of the lunar sodium exosphere for the study of exospheric effective temperature and velocity variations. Observing from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce Telescope, we used a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,000 to measure line widths and Doppler shifts of the sodium D2 (5889.95 Å) emission line. Our field of view was 360 km, and measurements were made in equatorial and polar regions from 500 km to 3500 km off the limb. Data were obtained from full moon to 3 days following full moon (waning phase) in March 2009. Measured Doppler line widths within 1100 km of the sunlit east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 and 40 deg lunar phase imply effective temperatures ranging between 3260 +/- 190 and 1000 +/- 135 K. Preliminary line center analysis indicates velocity displacements between different locations off the lunar limb ranging between 100 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/-20 to +/-50 m/s depending on brightness. Based on the success of these exploratory observations, an extensive program has been initiated that is expected to constrain lunar atmospheric and surface-process modeling and help quantify source and escape mechanisms.

  13. Preliminary optical design of the coronagraph for the ASPIICS formation flying mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivès, S.; Lamy, P.; Saisse, M.; Boit, J.-L.; Koutchmy, S.

    2017-11-01

    Formation flyers open new perspectives and allow to conceive giant, externally-occulted coronagraphs using a two-component space system with the external occulter on one spacecraft and the optical instrument on the other spacecraft at approximately 100-150 m from the first one. ASPIICS (Association de Satellites Pour l'Imagerie et l'Interfromtrie de la Couronne Solaire) is a mission proposed to ESA in the framework of the PROBA-3 program of formation flying which is presently in phase A to exploit this technique for coronal observations. ASPIICS is composed of a single coronagraph which performs high spatial resolution imaging of the corona as well as 2-dimensional spectroscopy of several emission lines from the coronal base out to 3 R. The selected lines allow to address different coronal regions: the forbidden line of Fe XIV at 530.285 nm (coronal matter), Fe IX/X at 637.4 nm (coronal holes), HeI at 587.6 nm (cold matter). An additional broad spectral channel will image the white light corona so as to derive electron densities. The classical design of an externally occulted coronagraph is adapted to the detection of the very inner corona as close as 1.01 R and the addition of a Fabry-Perot interferometer using a so-called "etalon". This paper is dedicated to the description of the optical design and its critical components: the entrance optics and the FabryPerot interferometer.

  14. Studies on widely tunable ultra-short laser pulses using energy transfer distributed feedback dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamed, M.B.; Ramalingam, A.; Palanisamy, P.K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents both theoretical and experimental study of the characteristics of Nd: YAG laser pumped energy transfer distributed feedback dye laser (ETDFDL). Using theoretical model proposed, the behavior of ETDFDL such as the characteristics of donor DFDL, the acceptor DFDL, the dependence of their pulse width and output power on donor-acceptor concentrations and pump power are studied for dye mixture Rhodamine 6G and Cresyl Violet in detail. Experimentally using prism-dye cell configuration, the ETDFDL output is obtained and the output energy of DFDL is measured at the emission peaks of donor and acceptor dyes for different pump powers and donor-acceptor concentrations. In addition, the DFDL linewidth measurement has been carried out at the lasing wavelengths of the donor and acceptor dyes using Fabry-Perot etalon and the tunability of DFDL is measured to be in the wavelength range of 545-680 nm

  15. Time-resolved suprathermal x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.H.Y.; Rosen, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    Temporally resolved x-ray spectra in the range of 1 to 20 keV have been obtained from gold disk targets irradiated by 1.06 μm laser pulses from the Argus facility. The x-ray streak camera used for the measurement has been calibrated for streak speed and dynamic range by using an air-gap Fabry-Perot etalon, and the instrument response has been calibrated using a multi-range monoenergetic x-ray source. The experimental results indicate that we are able to observe the ''hot'' x-ray temperature evolve in time and that the experimentally observed values can be qualitatively predicted by LASNEX code computations when the inhibited transport model is used

  16. A pulsed single-frequency Nd:GGG/BaWO4 Raman laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaojun; Men, Shaojie; Cong, Zhenhua; Qin, Zengguang; Zhang, Xingyu; Zhang, Huaijin

    2018-04-01

    A single-frequency pulsed laser at 1178.3 nm was demonstrated in a crystalline Raman laser. A crystal combination of Nd:GGG and BaWO4 was selected to realize Raman conversion from a 1062.5 nm fundamental wave to a 1178.3 nm Stokes wave. An entangled cavity was specially designed to form an intracavity Raman configuration. Single-longitudinal-mode operation was realized by introducing two Fabry-Perot etalons into the Raman laser cavity. This laser operated at a pulse repetition rate of 50 Hz with 2 ms long envelopes containing micro pulses at a 30 kHz repetition rate. The highest output power was 41 mW with the micro pulse duration of 15 ns. The linewidth was measured to be less than 130 MHz.

  17. Diode-pumped two-frequency lasers based on c-cut vanadate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirotkin, A A; Garnov, Sergei V; Zagumennyi, A I; Zavartsev, Yu D; Kutovoi, S A; Vlasov, V I; Shcherbakov, Ivan A

    2009-01-01

    The luminescent and lasing properties of the neo-dymium ion at the 4 F 3/2 - 4 I 11/2 transition in c-cut vanadate crystals (Nd:YVO 4 , Nd:GdVO 4 , and Nd:Gd 1-x Y x VO 4 ) are studied. Tuning of the laser radiation wavelength (Δλ = 5.4 nm) is demonstrated. Two-frequency laser schemes with the use of a Lyot filter, a Fabry-Perot etalon, and a Brewster prism as spectral selection elements are proposed and experimentally realised. Stable two-frequency lasing of a laser based on the c-cut Nd:GdVO 4 crystal was obtained in the cw, Q-switched (nanosecond pulses), and active acousto-optic mode-locked (picosecond pulses) regimes. (lasers)

  18. 1.5 W high efficiency and tunable single-longitudinal-mode Ho:YLF ring laser based on Faraday effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Ju, Youlun; Dai, Tongyu; Yao, Baoquan; Wang, Yuezhu

    2017-10-30

    We demonstrated an efficient and tunable single-longitudinal-mode Ho:YLF ring laser based on Faraday effect for application to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Single-longitudinal-mode power at 2051.65 nm achieved 528 mW with the slope efficiency of 39.5% and the M 2 factor of 1.07, and the tunable range of about 178 GHz was obtained by inserting a Fabry-Perot (F-P) etalon with the thickness of 0.5 mm. In addition, the maximum single-longitudinal-mode power reached 1.5 W with the injected power of 528 mW at 2051.65 nm by master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) technique. High efficiency and tunable single-longitudinal-mode based on Faraday effect around 2 μm has not been reported yet to the best of our knowledge.

  19. Analysis of solids by spark-source mass spectrometry; Analyse des solides au spectrometre de masse a etincelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefani, R; Desjardins, M; Brun, J C; Cornu, A; Bourguillot, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Spark source mass spectrometer MS7 has been designed to determine traces of impurities in solids without standards. An atlas of 12 000 lines, assembled in the Grenoble laboratory, allows a quick investigation of mass spectra, notwithstanding their complexity due to multiply charged and polyatomic darkening. Photometric measurements increase accuracy calibration curve is known for each photo-plate. Further, reproducibility is better, if random fluctuations of matrix line darkening are corrected. So far, in a concentration range of 0,01 to 1 000 ppm (atomic), reproducibility is approximately 20 per cent, but absolute value of results depends on 'sensitivity coefficients'. (authors) [French] Le spectrometre de masse a etincelles, de type MS7, est destine a l'analyse chimique de traces dans les solides, sans echantillons etalons. L'emploi de catalogues de 12 000 raies, elabores au laboratoire, permet un depouillement rapide des spectres, malgre leur complexite due aux ionisations multiples et aux associations d'atomes. Le niveau d'apparition d'une impurete donne une estimation de sa teneur, mais la valeur du renseignement depend de la preparation des electrodes et de la connaissance plus ou moins approfondie des processus d'ionisation dans l'etincelle et de noircissement des emulsions photographiques. Les mesures photometriques augmentent la precision des resultats, si l'on determine systematiquement la courbe de noircissement de chaque plaque. De meme la reproductibilite est amelioree si l'on tient compte des fluctuations statistiques du noircissement de l'emulsion par les ions de la matrice. Actuellement, les concentrations mesurees dans le domaine de 0,01 a 1000 ppm atomiques sont reproductibles a 20 pour cent pres, mais leur valeur absolue n'est assuree qu'a un coefficient 3 pres. Des etudes sont en cours pour calibrer l'appareil en valeur absolue, par une determination des coefficients de sensibilite a partir d'echantillons etalons. (auteurs)

  20. Surface-micromachined Bragg Reflectors Based on Multiple Airgap/SiO2 Layers for CMOS-compatible Fabry-perot Filters in the UV-visible Spectral Range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghaderi, M.; Ayerden, N.P.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    In CMOS-compatible optical filter designs, SiO2 is often used as the low-index material, limiting the optical contrast (nHi/nLo) to about 2. Using the air as low-index material improves the optical contrast by about 50%, thus increasing the reflectivity and bandwidth at a given design complexity.

  1. Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 2. High-latitude circulation and interplanetary magnetic field dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmert, J.T.; Hernandez, G.; Jarvis, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze upper thermospheric (similar to 250 km) nighttime horizontal neutral wind patterns, during geomagnetically quiet (Kp S), Halley (76 degrees S, 27 degrees W), Millstone Hill (43 degrees N, 72 degrees W), Sondre...

  2. Absolute measurement of a standard thermal-neutron flux using gold-detector activation; Mesure absolue d'un flux etalon de neutrons thermiques par activation de detecteurs d'or

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paternot, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-02-15

    The density of neutrons in a standard stacking is determined between the zero-energy and the cut-off energy of 1 mm thick cadmium unit using a gold detector. Its absolute activity is measured using a 4 {pi} {beta} counter calibrated for 4 {pi} {beta},{gamma} coincidence by counting strongly active sources. The correction factor F due to the disintegration process for the gold is determined experimentally. {phi}{sub 0} = N{sub 0} {sup E}Cd{sub V0} = 6495 {+-} 1.5 per cent n/cm{sup 2}/s. (author) [French] La densite de neutrons dans un empilement etalon est determinee entre l'energie zero et l'energie de coupure d'un boitier de cadmium de 1 mm d'epaisseur au moyen d'un detecteur d'or. Son activite absolue est mesuree a l'aide d'un compteur 4 {pi} {beta} etalonne en coincidence 4 {pi} {beta},{gamma} par comptage de sources fortement actives. Le facteur de correction F d au schema de desintegration de l'or est determine experimentalement. {phi}{sub 0} = N{sub 0} {sup E}Cd{sub V0} = 6495 {+-} 1.5 pour cent n/cm{sup 2}/s. (auteur)

  3. Environment influence on the solidity of the adhesive joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Válek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper “Environment influence on the solidity of the adhesive joint” I have dealt with the utilization of the bonding metals and practising experimental laboratory tests of adhesive joints depending on different laboratory environments and anticorrosive protection of the samples.For this laboratory tests I have chosen a universal adhesive. It is a two-component epoxy adhesive with suitable conditions for bonding metals. The samples were made from steel and were produced by the standard ČSN EN 1465. After the bonding and the cure procedure the samples were exposed in H20 environment for exact intervals (parts of the samples were painted by anticorrosive painting. After the exposition I have examinated the solidity of the adhesive joint in shearing stress on the measuring instrument Zwick 050. The samples were compared with etalon that were exposed to no environment.Results of the particular measuring were described into the graphs and were recorded the break down maximum force. When the samples were broken down I have taken a photo of it, which is in the appendix.

  4. Nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, H.

    1991-01-01

    Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals, the crystal size of which is a few (typically 1 to 10) nanometres so that 50% or more of the solid consists of incoherent interfaces between crystals of different orientations. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures because the atomic arrangement formed in the core of an interface is known to be an arrangement of minimum energy in the potential field of the two adjacent crystal lattices with different crystallographic orientations on either side of the boundary core. These boundary conditions result in atomic structures in the interfacial cores which cannot be formed elsewhere (e.g. in glasses or perfect crystals). Nanocrystalline solids are of interest for the following four reasons: (1) Nanocrystalline solids exhibit an atomic structure which differs from that of the two known solid states: the crystalline (with long-range order) and the glassy (with short-range order). (2) The properties of nanocrystalline solids differ (in some cases by several orders of magnitude) from those of glasses and/or crystals with the same chemical composition, which suggests that they may be utilized technologically in the future. (3) Nanocrystalline solids seem to permit the alloying of conventionally immiscible components. (4) If small (1 to 10 nm diameter) solid droplets with a glassy structure are consolidated (instead of small crystals), a new type of glass, called nanoglass, is obtained. Such glasses seem to differ structurally from conventional glasses. (orig.)

  5. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  6. A comparison of Doppler lidar wind sensors for Earth-orbit global measurement applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Robert T.

    1985-01-01

    Now, there are four Doppler lidar configurations which are being promoted for the measurement of tropospheric winds: (1) the coherent CO2 Lidar, operating in the 9 micrometer region using a pulsed, atmospheric pressure CO2 gas discharge laser transmitter, and heterodyne detection; (2) the coherent Neodymium doped YAG or Glass Lidar, operating at 1.06 micrometers, using flashlamp or diode laser optical pumping of the solid state laser medium, and heterodyne detection; (3) the Neodymium doped YAG/Glass Lidar, operating at the doubled frequency (at 530 nm wavelength), again using flashlamp or diode laser pumping of the laser transmitter, and using a high resolution tandem Fabry-Perot filter and direct detection; and (4) the Raman shifted Xenon Chloride Lidar, operating at 350 nm wavelength, using a pulsed, atmospheric pressure XeCl gas discharge laser transmitter at 308 nm, Raman shifted in a high pressure hydrogen cell to 350 nm in order to avoid strong stratospheric ozone absorption, also using a high resolution tandem Fabry-Perot filter and direct detection. Comparisons of these four systems can include many factors and tradeoffs. The major portion of this comparison is devoted to efficiency. Efficiency comparisons are made by estimating the number of transmitted photons required for a single pulse wind velocity estimate of + or - 1 m/s accuracy in the middle troposphere, from an altitude of 800 km, which is assured to be reasonable for a polar orbiting platform.

  7. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  8. Isotope analysis by emission spectroscopy; Analyse isotopique par spectroscopie d'emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J; Gerstenkorn, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Blaise, J [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. Aime Cotton, 92 - Meudon-Bellevue (France)

    1959-07-01

    melange d'isotopes d'un meme element sont complexes. Chaque raie spectrale est en realite la resultante de plusieurs raies correspondant respectivement a chacun des isotopes. Ces composantes isotopiques sont proches les unes des autres et leur separation est realisee au moyen de l'etalon FABRY-PEROT, et l'appareil permettant la mesure des abondances est le spectrometre FABRY-PEROT photoelectrique, imagine en 1948 par MM. JACQUINOT et DUFOUR. Cette methode a ete utilisee pour effectuer des mesures d'abondance dans le cas de l'helium, du lithium, du plomb et de l'uranium. Dans le cas du lithium, la raie d'analyse utilisee depend de la composition du melange isotopique etudie. C'est la raie bleue de lithium {lambda} = 4603 angstrom pour des melanges contenant de 7 a 93 pour cent de l'un des isotopes du lithium. Dans les autres cas, la raie rouge {lambda} = 6707 angstrom est preferable, mais elle ne permet de faire aisement que des mesures relatives. L'helium n'offre pas de difficultes particulieres et la raie d'analyse choisie est la raie {lambda} = 6678 angstrom. La raie {lambda}-5201 angstrom du plomb offre la possibilite de doser les quatre isotopes de plomb, malgre l'existence de la structure hyperfine de 207 Pb. Pour l'uranium, en utilisant la raie {lambda} = 5027 angstrom, cette methode permet de doser des melanges isotopiques dont la teneur en {sup 235}U peut descendre jusqu'a 0,1 pour cent. La precision relative est de l'ordre de 2 pour cent pour des teneurs en {sup 235}U superieures a 1 pour cent. Pour des teneurs plus faibles cette raie {lambda} = 5027 angstrom permettra des mesures relatives de meilleure precision, en utilisant des melanges prealablement doses. (auteur)

  9. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  10. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  11. Apparatus and method using a holographic optical element for converting a spectral distribution to image points

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matthew J. (Inventor); Scott, Vibart S. (Inventor); Marzouk, Marzouk (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A holographic optical element transforms a spectral distribution of light to image points. The element comprises areas, each of which acts as a separate lens to image the light incident in its area to an image point. Each area contains the recorded hologram of a point source object. The image points can be made to lie in a line in the same focal plane so as to align with a linear array detector. A version of the element has been developed that has concentric equal areas to match the circular fringe pattern of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The element has high transmission efficiency, and when coupled with high quantum efficiency solid state detectors, provides an efficient photon-collecting detection system. The element may be used as part of the detection system in a direct detection Doppler lidar system or multiple field of view lidar system.

  12. High Resolution Near Infrared Spectrometer to Study the Zodiacal Light Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyrev, Alexander; Arendt, R.; Dwek, E.; Moseley, S. H.; Silverberg, R.; Rapchun, D.

    2007-12-01

    We are developing a near infrared spectrometer for measuring solar absorption lines in the zodiacal light in the near infrared region. R. Reynolds at el. (2004, ApJ 612, 1206) demonstrated that observing single Fraunhofer line can be a powerful tool for extracting zodiacal light parameters based on their measurements of the profile of the Mg I line at 5184 A. We are extending this technique to the near infrared with the primary goal of measuring the absolute intensity of the zodiacal light. This measurement will provide the crucial information needed to accurately subtract zodiacal emission from the DIRBE measurements to get a much higher quality measurement of the extragalactic IR background. The instrument design is based on a dual Fabry-Perot interferometer with a narrow band filter. Its double etalon design allows to achieve high spectral contrast to reject the bright out of band telluric OH emission. High spectral contrast is absolutely necessary to achieve detection limits needed to accurately measure the intensity of the absorption line. We present the design, estimated performance of the instrument with the expected results of the observing program. The project is supported by NASA ROSES-APRA grant.

  13. First Absolutely Calibrated Localized Measurements of Ion Velocity in the MST in Locked and Rotating Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, M.; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Munaretto, S.

    2015-11-01

    An Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS) is used on MST for high time-resolution passive and active measurements of impurity ion emission. Absolutely calibrated measurements of flow are difficult because the spectrometer records data within 0.3 nm of the C+5 line of interest, and commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range . A novel optical system was designed to absolutely calibrate the IDS. The device uses an UV LED to produce a broad emission curve in the desired region. A Fabry-Perot etalon filters this light, cutting transmittance peaks into the pattern of the LED emission. An optical train of fused silica lenses focuses the light into the IDS with f/4. A holographic diffuser blurs the light cone to increase homogeneity. Using this light source, the absolute Doppler shift of ion emissions can be measured in MST plasmas. In combination with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, localized ion velocities can now be measured. Previously, a time-averaged measurement along the chord bisecting the poloidal plane was used to calibrate the IDS; the quality of these central chord calibrations can be characterized with our absolute calibration. Calibration errors may also be quantified and minimized by optimizing the curve-fitting process. Preliminary measurements of toroidal velocity in locked and rotating plasmas will be shown. This work has been supported by the US DOE.

  14. Upper limit to the deuterium abundance and a measurement of the pickering-β line in the low excitation planetary IC 418

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Vaux, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of detecting a weak spectrum line, deuterium alpha, very near in wavelength to H/sub alpha/, assumed to be thousands of times as strong, is discussed from the point of view of optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio. A spectrometer consisting of three pressure scanning Fabry-Perot etalons with low reflectivity coatings was found to be the best instrument for this experiment. While no feature attributable to deuterium was detected in the planetary nebula IC 418, an upper limit relative to hydrogen of 3.4 x 10 -5 was established at the 95% confidence level. The significance of this result is discussed in light of the role played by deuterium in cosmology. The intensity ratio of the Pickering beta line (n'' = 6, n' = 4 transition of ionized helium) relative to H/sub alpha/ was measured to be 6.5 x 10 -5 . Observations of the nebular continuum made at five wavelengths in the red and near infrared are summarized and compared with predicted intensities

  15. Analysis of Detectors and Transmission Curve Correction of Mobile Rayleigh Doppler Wind Lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lei; Shu Zhi-Feng; Dong Ji-Hui; Wang Guo-Cheng; Xu Wen-Jing; Hu Dong-Dong; Wang Yong-Tao; Chen Ting-Di; Dou Xian-Kang; Sun Dong-Song; Cha Hyunki

    2010-01-01

    A mobile molecular Doppler wind lidar (DWL) based on double-edge technique is presented for wind measurement at altitudes from 10km to 40km. A triple Fabry-Perot etalon is employed as a frequency discriminator to determine the Doppler shift proportional to the wind velocity. The lidar operates at 355 nm with a 45-cm aperture telescope and a matching azimuth-over-elevation scanner that can provide full hemispherical pointing. In order to guarantee the wind accuracy, different forms of calibration function of detectors in different count rates response range would be especially valuable. The accuracy of wind velocity iteration is improved greatly because of application of the calibration function of linearity at the ultra low light intensity especially at altitudes from 10km to 40km. The calibration functions of nonlinearity make the transmission of edge channel 1 and edge channel 2 increase 38.9% and 27.7% at about 1 M count rates, respectively. The dynamic range of wind field measurement may also be extended because of consideration of the response function of detectors in their all possible operating range. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  16. Observing the Sun with Coronado telescopes telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The Sun provides amateur astronomers with one of the few opportunities for daytime astronomy. In order to see the major features of our nearest star, special telescopes that have a very narrow visible bandwidth are essential. The bandwidth has to be as narrow as 1 A- 10-10 m (1 Angstrom) and centred on the absorption line of neutral hydrogen. This makes many major features of the Suna (TM)s chromosphere visible to the observer. Such narrow-band "Fabry-Perot etalon filters" are high technology, and until the introduction of the Coronado range of solar telescopes, were too expensive for amateur use. The entry-level Coronado telescope, the PST (Personal Solar Telescope) costs under 500. Solar prominences (vast columns of plasma, best seen at the edge of the solar disk), filaments, flares, sunspots, plage and active regions are all visible and can be imaged to produce spectacular solar photographs. Philip Pugh has assembled a team of contributors who show just how much solar work can be done with Coronado telesco...

  17. Study on the weighing system based on optical fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaona; Yu, Qingxu; Li, Yefang

    2010-10-01

    The optical fiber sensor based on wavelength demodulation such as fiber Bragg grating(FBG), with merits of immunity to electromagnetic interference, low drift and high precision, has been widely used in many areas, such as structural health monitoring and smart materials, and the wavelength demodulation system was also studied widely. In the paper, a weighing system based on FBG was studied. The optical source is broadband Erbium-doped fiber ring laser with a spectral range of 1500~1600nm and optical power of 2mW; A Fabry-Perot Etalon with orientation precision of 1pm was adopted as real-time wavelength calibration for the swept laser; and multichannel high resolution simultaneous sampling card was used in the system to acquire sensing signals simultaneously, thus high-resolution and real-time calibration of sweep-wavelength can be achieved. The FBG was adhered to a cantilever beam and the Bragg wavelength was demodulated with the system. The weighing system was done after calibrated with standard weight. Experimental results show that the resolution of the weighing system is 0.5 g with a full scale of 2Kg.

  18. SCANDI – an all-sky Doppler imager for studies of thermospheric spatial structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Aruliah

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A new all-sky Fabry-Perot Interferometer called the Scanning Doppler Imager (SCANDI was built and installed at Longyearbyen in December 2006. Observations have been made of the Doppler shifts and Doppler broadening of the 630 nm airglow and aurora, from which upper thermospheric winds and temperatures are calculated. SCANDI allows measurements over a field-of-view (FOV with a horizontal radius of nearly 600 km for observations at an altitude of 250 km using a time resolution of 8 min. The instrument provides the ability to observe thermospheric spatial structure within a FOV which overlaps that of the EISCAT Svalbard radar and CUTLASS SuperDARN radars. Coordinating with these instruments provides an important opportunity for studying ion-neutral coupling. The all-sky image is divided into several sectors to provide a horizontal spatial resolution of between 100–300 km. This is a powerful extension in observational capability but requires careful calibration and data analysis, as described here. Two observation modes were used: a fixed and a scanning etalon gap. SCANDI results are corroborated using the Longyearbyen single look direction FPI, and ESR measurements of the ion temperatures. The data show thermospheric temperature gradients of a few Kelvins per kilometre, and a great deal of meso-scale variability on spatial scales of several tens of kilometres.

  19. A new way of controlling NesCOPOs (nested cavity doubly resonant OPO) for faster and more efficient high resolution spectrum measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges des Aulnois, Johann; Szymanski, Benjamin; Grimieau, Axel; Sillard, Léo.

    2018-02-01

    Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) is a well-known solution when wide tunability in the mid-infrared is needed. A specific design called NesCOPO (Nested Cavity doubly resonant OPO) is currently integrated in the X-FLR8 portable gas analyzer from Blue Industry and Science. Thanks to its low threshold this OPO can be pumped by a micro-chip nanosecond YAG (4 kHz repetition rate and a 30 GHz bandwidth). To achieve very high resolution spectra (10 pm of resolution or better), the emitted wavelength has to be finely controlled. Commercial Wavemeter do not meet price and compactness required in the context of an affordable and portable gas analyzer. To overcome this issue, Blue first integrated an active wavelength controller using multiple tunable Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometers. The required resolution was achieved at a 10 Hz measurement rate. We now present an enhanced Wavemeter architecture, based on fixed FP etalons, that is 100 times faster and 2 times smaller. We avoid having FP `blind zones' thanks to one source characteristic: the knowledge of the FSR (Free Spectral Range) of the OPO source and thus, the fact that only discrete wavelengths can be emitted. First results are displayed showing faster measurement for spectroscopic application, and potential future improvement of the device are discussed.

  20. Ultra-thin infrared metamaterial detector for multicolor imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, John A; Tian, Zhao-Bing; Krishna, Sanjay; Padilla, Willie J

    2017-09-18

    The next generation of infrared imaging systems requires control of fundamental electromagnetic processes - absorption, polarization, spectral bandwidth - at the pixel level to acquire desirable information about the environment with low system latency. Metamaterial absorbers have sparked interest in the infrared imaging community for their ability to enhance absorption of incoming radiation with color, polarization and/or phase information. However, most metamaterial-based sensors fail to focus incoming radiation into the active region of a ultra-thin detecting element, thus achieving poor detection metrics. Here our multifunctional metamaterial absorber is directly integrated with a novel mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) detector with an ultra-thin (~λ/15) InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattice (T2SL) interband cascade detector. The deep sub-wavelength metamaterial detector architecture proposed and demonstrated here, thus significantly improves the detection quantum efficiency (QE) and absorption of incoming radiation in a regime typically dominated by Fabry-Perot etalons. Our work evinces the ability of multifunctional metamaterials to realize efficient wavelength selective detection across the infrared spectrum for enhanced multispectral infrared imaging applications.

  1. Solar cycle variations of geocoronal balmer α emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nossal, S.; Reynolds, R.J.; Roesler, F.L.; Scherb, F.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of the geocoronal Balmer in nightglow have been made from Wisconsin for more than a solar cycle with an internally consistent intensity reference to standard astronomical nebulae. These measurements were made with a double etalon, pressure-scanned, 15-cm aperture Fabry-Perot interferometer. The resulting long time data provides an opportunity to examine solar cycle influence on the mid-latitude exosphere and to address accompanying questions concerning the degree to which the exosphere is locally static or changing. The exospheric Balmer α absolute intensity measurements reported here show no statistically significant variations throughout the solar cycle when the variation with viewing geometry is removed by normalizing the data to reference exospheric model predictions by Anderson et al. However, the relative intensity dependence on solar depression angle does show a solar cycle variation. This variation suggests a possible related variation in the exospheric hydrogen density profile, although other interpretations are also possible. The results suggest that additional well-calibrated data taken over a longer time span could probe low-amplitude variations over the solar cycle and test predictions of a slow monotonic increase in exospheric hydrogen arising from greenhouse gases. 21 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Conjugate Etalon Spectral Imager (CESI) & Scanning Etalon Methane Mapper (SEMM), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of the CESI focal plane and optics technology will lead to miniaturized hyperspectral and SWIR-band spectral imaging instrumentation compatible with...

  3. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  4. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  5. ???????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???

    OpenAIRE

    ????????????, ?. ?.; ????????, ?. ?.; ?????, ?. ?.

    2012-01-01

    ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks)/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???. ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks). ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ...

  6. A miniaturized laser-Doppler-system in the ear canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T.; Gerhardt, U.; Kupper, C.; Manske, E.; Witte, H.

    2013-03-01

    Gathering vibrational data from the human middle ear is quite difficult. To this date the well-known acoustic probe is used to estimate audiometric parameters, e.g. otoacoustic emissions, wideband reflectance and the measurement of the stapedius reflex. An acoustic probe contains at least one microphone and one loudspeaker. The acoustic parameter determination of the ear canal is essential for the comparability of test-retest measurement situations. Compared to acoustic tubes, the ear canal wall cannot be described as a sound hard boundary. Sound energy is partly absorbed by the ear canal wall. In addition the ear canal features a complex geometric shape (Stinson and Lawton1). Those conditions are one reason for the inter individual variability in input impedance measurement data of the tympanic membrane. The method of Laser-Doppler-Vibrometry is well described in literature. Using this method, the surface velocity of vibrating bodies can be determined contact-free. Conventional Laser-Doppler-Systems (LDS) for auditory research are mounted on a surgical microscope. Assuming a free line of view to the ear drum, the handling of those laser-systems is complicated. We introduce the concept of a miniaturized vibrometer which is supposed to be applied directly in the ear canal for contact-free measurement of the tympanic membrane surface vibration. The proposed interferometer is based on a Fabry-Perot etalon with a DFB laser diode as light source. The fiber-based Fabry-Perot-interferometer is characterized by a reduced size, compared to e.g. Michelson-, or Mach-Zehnder-Systems. For the determination of the phase difference in the interferometer, a phase generated carrier was used. To fit the sensor head in the ear canal, the required shape of the probe was generated by means of the geometrical data of 70 ear molds. The suggested prototype is built up by a singlemode optical fiber with a GRIN-lens, acting as a fiber collimator. The probe has a diameter of 1.8 mm and a

  7. Solid lubricants and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Braithwaite, E R

    1964-01-01

    Solid Lubricants and Surfaces deals with the theory and use of solid lubricants, particularly in colloidal form. Portions of this book are devoted to graphite and molybdenum disulfides, which are widely used solid lubricants in colloidal form. An extensive literature on the laboratory examination of hundreds of solids as potential lubricants is also provided in this text. Other topics discussed include the metals and solid lubricants; techniques for examining surfaces; other solid lubricants; metal shaping; and industrial uses of solid-lubricant dispersions. This publication is beneficial to e

  8. Heterogeneous Silicon III-V Mode-Locked Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Michael Loehrlein

    Mode-locked lasers are useful for a variety of applications, such as sensing, telecommunication, and surgical instruments. This work focuses on integrated-circuit mode-locked lasers: those that combine multiple optical and electronic functions and are manufactured together on a single chip. While this allows production at high volume and lower cost, the true potential of integration is to open applications for mode-locked laser diodes where solid state lasers cannot fit, either due to size and power consumption constraints, or where small optical or electrical paths are needed for high bandwidth. Unfortunately, most high power and highly stable mode-locked laser diode demonstrations in scientific literature are based on the Fabry-Perot resonator design, with cleaved mirrors, and are unsuitable for use in integrated circuits because of the difficulty of producing integrated Fabry-Perot cavities. We use silicon photonics and heterogeneous integration with III-V gain material to produce the most powerful and lowest noise fully integrated mode-locked laser diode in the 20 GHz frequency range. If low noise and high peak power are required, it is arguably the best performing fully integrated mode-locked laser ever demonstrated. We present the design methodology and experimental pathway to realize a fully integrated mode-locked laser diode. The construction of the device, beginning with the selection of an integration platform, and proceeding through the fabrication process to final optimization, is presented in detail. The dependence of mode-locked laser performance on a wide variety of design parameters is presented. Applications for integrated circuit mode-locked lasers are also discussed, as well as proposed methods for using integration to improve mode-locking performance to beyond the current state of the art.

  9. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Zhezhova, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  10. FIR and sub-mm direct detection spectrometers for spaceborne astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnbergen, Jan J.; de Graauw, Thijs

    1990-12-01

    Candidate spaceborne sub-mm instrumentation proposed for space projects with large passively cooled telescopes are reviewed. Grating instruments and Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) spectrometers are discussed. Particular attention is given to imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometers. The special needs of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) and for the Far InfraRed Space Telescope (FIRST) missions in this area are outlined. Possible Fabry-Perot spectrometer setups are diagrammed and outlined. The use of spherical and multiplex Fabry-Perot spectrometers is discussed.

  11. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  12. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  13. Solid phase radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wide, L.

    1977-01-01

    Solid phase coupled antibodies were introduced to facilitate the separation of bound and free labelled ligand in the competitive inhibition radioimmunoassay. Originally, the solid matrix used was in the form of small particles and since then a number of different matrices have been used such as very fine powder particles, gels, paper and plastic discs, magnetic particles and the inside surface of plastic tubes. The coupling of antibodies may be that of a covalent chemical binding, a strong physical adsorbtion, or an immunological binding to a solid phase coupled antigen. New principles of radioimmunoassay such as the solid phase sandwich techniques and the immunoradiometric assay were developped from the use of solid phase coupled antigens and antibodies. The solid phase sandwich techniques are reagent excess methods with a very wide applicability. Several of the different variants of solid phase techniques are suitable for automation. Advantages and disadvantages of solid phase radioimmunoassays when compared with those using soluble reagents are discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  15. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  16. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  17. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  18. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system

  19. History of Solid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Solid rockets are of interest to the space program because they are commonly used as boosters that provide the additional thrust needed for the space launch vehicle to escape the gravitational pull of the Earth. Larger, more advanced solid rockets allow for space launch vehicles with larger payload capacities, enabling mankind to reach new depths of space. This presentation will discuss, in detail, the history of solid rockets. The history begins with the invention and origin of the solid rocket, and then goes into the early uses and design of the solid rocket. The evolution of solid rockets is depicted by a description of how solid rockets changed and improved and how they were used throughout the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Modern uses of the solid rocket include the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) on the Space Shuttle and the solid rockets used on current space launch vehicles. The functions and design of the SRB and the advancements in solid rocket technology since the use of the SRB are discussed as well. Common failure modes and design difficulties are discussed as well.

  20. Solid Base Catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The importance of solid base catalysts has come to be recognized for their environmentally benign qualities, and much significant progress has been made over the past two decades in catalytic materials and solid base-catalyzed reactions. The book is focused on the solid base. Because of the advantages over liquid bases, the use of solid base catalysts in organic synthesis is expanding. Solid bases are easier to dispose than liquid bases, separation and recovery of products, catalysts and solvents are less difficult, and they are non-corrosive. Furthermore, base-catalyzed reactions can be performed without using solvents and even in the gas phase, opening up more possibilities for discovering novel reaction systems. Using numerous examples, the present volume describes the remarkable role solid base catalysis can play, given the ever increasing worldwide importance of "green" chemistry. The reader will obtain an overall view of solid base catalysis and gain insight into the versatility of the reactions to whic...

  1. Optical metrology techniques for dimensional stability measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Jonathan David

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work is optical metrology techniques to determine material stability. In addition to displacement interferometry, topics such as periodic nonlinearity, Fabry-Perot interferometry, refractometry, and laser stabilization are covered.

  2. Development of High Spectral Resolution Technique for Registration Quasielastic Light Scattering Spectra Including Rayleigh and Brillouin Scattering as a Diagnostic Tool in Materials Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bairamov, Bakhysh

    2004-01-01

    ...: As detailed in an on-line proposal the contractor will: 1) develop and build an optical device, fitted to a Fabry-Perot interferometer, to perform high-resolution quasieleastic light scattering spectroscopy; 2...

  3. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai; Xiao, Bingmu; Wu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  4. 355nm Photon-Recycled Fringe Imager for HSRL, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work is to develop a high-efficiency aircraft-qualified Fabry-Perot-based interferometer for the High Spectral Resolution LIDAR (HSRL). Through this...

  5. A polarisation modulation scheme for measuring vacuum magnetic birefringence with static fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavattini, G.; Ejlli, A. [Universita di Ferrara, Dipt. di Fisica e Scienze della Terra (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); Della Valle, F. [Universita di Trieste, Dipt. di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, TS (Italy); Ruoso, G. [INFN, Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    A novel polarisation modulation scheme for polarimeters based on Fabry-Perot cavities is presented. The application to the measurement of the magnetic birefringence of vacuum with the HERA superconducting magnets in the ALPS-II configuration is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching Held in Incline Village, Nevada on 18-20 March 1987. Technical Digest Series. Volume 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-31

    A 20 mil thick transparent non- magnetic single crystal garnet substrate such as gadolinium gallium garnet (Gd mGamO 1 ) is dipped into a mel+ and a 25...facets that causes Fabry -Perot resonances in the gain spectrum. The amplitude of this variation is determined by the product of the amplifier chip...fiers with large Fabry -Perot resonances will be of much use in photonic switching systems. .r Fortanately, coating technology is advancing rapidly and

  7. Integrated Photonics Research Topical Meeting (1993)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    phase epitaxy on (11 1)-oriented gadolinium -gallium-garnet substrates and were subjected to annealing procedures to ensure near-planar magnetization ...was measured using the Fabry -Perot resonance technique. The propagation losses in the waveguides with and without electrodes were approximately 2.8 and...expected sub-Angstrom range. The high frequency variations present throughout the entire signal are due to Fabry -Perot resonances from the end facets

  8. Electron cyclotron emission measurement in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javon, C.

    1991-06-01

    Electron cyclotron radiation from Tore-Supra is measured with Michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometers. Calibration methods, essential for this diagnostic, are developed allowing the determination of electron temperature in the plasma. In particular the feasibility of Fabry-Perot interferometer calibration by an original method is demonstrated. A simulation code is developed for modelling non-thermal electron population in these discharges using measurements in non-inductive current generation regime [fr

  9. All-optical clock recovery of NRZ-DPSK signals using optical resonator-type filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Seoane, Jorge; Ji, Hua

    2009-01-01

    It is shown how introducing a limited rise time to the driving signal enables all-optical clock recovery of NRZ-DPSK signals generated using a phase modulator. A Fabry-Perot filter is used to generate the optical clock.......It is shown how introducing a limited rise time to the driving signal enables all-optical clock recovery of NRZ-DPSK signals generated using a phase modulator. A Fabry-Perot filter is used to generate the optical clock....

  10. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  11. Nanoscale hydrodynamics near solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Diego; de la Torre, J. A.; Duque-Zumajo, D.; Español, Pep; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Chejne, Farid

    2018-02-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a successful and well-established theory for the study of the structure of simple and complex fluids at equilibrium. The theory has been generalized to dynamical situations when the underlying dynamics is diffusive as in, for example, colloidal systems. However, there is no such a clear foundation for Dynamic DFT (DDFT) for the case of simple fluids in contact with solid walls. In this work, we derive DDFT for simple fluids by including not only the mass density field but also the momentum density field of the fluid. The standard projection operator method based on the Kawasaki-Gunton operator is used for deriving the equations for the average value of these fields. The solid is described as featureless under the assumption that all the internal degrees of freedom of the solid relax much faster than those of the fluid (solid elasticity is irrelevant). The fluid moves according to a set of non-local hydrodynamic equations that include explicitly the forces due to the solid. These forces are of two types, reversible forces emerging from the free energy density functional, and accounting for impenetrability of the solid, and irreversible forces that involve the velocity of both the fluid and the solid. These forces are localized in the vicinity of the solid surface. The resulting hydrodynamic equations should allow one to study dynamical regimes of simple fluids in contact with solid objects in isothermal situations.

  12. Utilisation of solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balu, K

    1978-07-01

    The prime solution to the present energy crisis is the recovery of latent energy from waste materials, for solid waste contains recoverable energy and it merely needs to be released. The paper is concerned with classification of solid waste, energy content of waste, methods of solid waste disposal, and chemical processing of solid waste. Waste disposal must be performed in situ with energy recovery. Scarcity of available land, pollution problem, and unrecovered latent energy restrict the use of the land-filling method. Pyrolysis is an effective method for the energy recovery and disposal problems. Chemical processing is suitable for the separated cellulosic fraction of the waste material.

  13. Multivalent ion conducting solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, N. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    Solid electrolytes possess important characteristics for industrial applications. Only a single ionic species can macroscopically migrate in these solids. This paper described a the new NASICON (M-Zr-Nb-P-O) type system, exhibiting an exceptionally high level of trivalent M3+ ion conductivity on polycrystalline solids. The partial substitution of the smaller higher valent Nb5+ ion for Zr4+ stabilized the NASICON phase and realized the M3+ ion conduction in the NASICON structure. It was concluded that the conductivities of the series are comparable to those of the practically applied solid electrolytes of oxide anion conductors of YSZ and CSZ. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Management of solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. T.; Stinton, L. H.

    1980-04-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were of solid waste. The current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste are highlighted. Capital operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options.

  15. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  16. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  17. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  18. Management of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This chapter introduces the range of solid waste materials produced in the mining and mineral processing industries, with particular reference to Australia. The waste materials are characterised and their important geotechnical engineering properties are discussed. Disposal management techniques for metalliferous, coal, heavy mineral sand, fly ash and bauxite solid wastes are described. Geo-technical techniques for the management of potential contaminants are presented. Minimisation and utilisation of solid wastes, and the economics of solid waste management, are discussed from the perspectives of policy, planning, costing and rehabilitation. 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Universal decoherence in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M

    2004-03-26

    Symmetry implications for the decoherence of quantum oscillations of a two-state system in a solid are studied. When the oscillation frequency is small compared to the Debye frequency, the universal lower bound on the decoherence due to the atomic environment is derived in terms of the macroscopic parameters of the solid, with no unknown interaction constants.

  20. Ceramic solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B. [Center for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-02-15

    Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems associated with stoichiometric and doped compounds are compared. In the illustration of design principles, emphasis is given to oxide-ion electrolytes for use in solid-oxide fuel cells, oxygen pumps, and oxygen sensors

  1. Applied mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  2. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  3. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Primary energy production from solid biomass (wood, wood waste and other solid vegetal and animal materials) reached 62,4 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) in 2006, i-e 3,1 more than in 2005. The primary energy coming from the direct combustion of renewable origin solid urban waste in incineration unit scan also be added to this figure. In 2006 this represented a production of 5,3 Mtoe, i-e 0,1 Mtoe more than in 2005. (author)

  4. Applications in solid mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.

    2012-01-01

    Problems in solid mechanics constitute perhaps the largest field of application of finite element methods. The vast majority of solid mechanics problems involve the standard momentum balance equation, posed in a Lagrangian setting, with different models distinguished by the choice of nonlinear...... or linearized kinematics, and the constitutive model for determining the stress. For some common models, the constitutive relationships are rather complex. This chapter addresses a number of canonical solid mechanics models in the context of automated modeling, and focuses on some pertinent issues that arise...

  5. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  6. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  7. Sheared solid materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ingredient, solving the equations yields formation of dislocation dipoles or slips. In plastic ... We expect that m is a key order parameter for amorphous solids or glasses. .... It satisfies the mechanical equilibrium condition and can be calculated ...

  8. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  9. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  10. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  11. Organic Molecular Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Schwoerer, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.

  12. Laser cooling of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushkin, S V

    2009-01-01

    Laser cooling is an important emerging technology in such areas as the cooling of semiconductors. The book examines and suggests solutions for a range of problems in the development of miniature solid-state laser refrigerators, self-cooling solid-state lasers and optical echo-processors. It begins by looking at the basic theory of laser cooling before considering such topics as self-cooling of active elements of solid-state lasers, laser cooling of solid-state information media of optical echo-processors, and problems of cooling solid-state quantum processors. Laser Cooling of Solids is an important contribution to the development of compact laser-powered cryogenic refrigerators, both for the academic community and those in the microelectronics and other industries. Provides a timely review of this promising field of research and discusses the fundamentals and theory of laser cooling Particular attention is given to the physics of cooling processes and the mathematical description of these processes Reviews p...

  13. Planoconcave optical microresonator sensors for photoacoustic imaging: pushing the limits of sensitivity (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, James A.; Zhang, Edward Z.; Beard, Paul C.

    2016-03-01

    Most photoacoustic scanners use piezoelectric detectors but these have two key limitations. Firstly, they are optically opaque, inhibiting backward mode operation. Secondly, it is difficult to achieve adequate detection sensitivity with the small element sizes needed to provide near-omnidirectional response as required for tomographic imaging. Planar Fabry-Perot (FP) ultrasound sensing etalons can overcome both of these limitations and have proved extremely effective for superficial (beam. However, this has the disadvantage that beam walk-off due to the divergence of the beam fundamentally limits the etalon finesse and thus sensitivity - in essence, the problem is one of insufficient optical confinement. To overcome this, novel planoconcave micro-resonator sensors have been fabricated using precision ink-jet printed polymer domes with curvatures matching that of the laser wavefront. By providing near-perfect beam confinement, we show that it is possible to approach the maximum theoretical limit for finesse (f) imposed by the etalon mirror reflectivities (e.g. f=400 for R=99.2% in contrast to a typical planar sensor value of fbeam walk-off, viable sensors can be made with significantly greater thickness than planar FP sensors. This provides an additional sensitivity gain for deep tissue imaging applications such as breast imaging where detection bandwidths in the low MHz can be tolerated. For example, for a 250 μm thick planoconcave sensor with a -3dB bandwidth of 5MHz, the measured NEP was 4 Pa. This NEP is comparable to that provided by mm scale piezoelectric detectors used for breast imaging applications but with more uniform frequency response characteristics and an order-of-magnitude smaller element size. Following previous proof-of-concept work, several important advances towards practical application have been made. A family of sensors with bandwidths ranging from 3MHz to 20MHz have been fabricated and characterised. A novel interrogation scheme based on

  14. Infrared suppression by hybrid EUV multilayer - IR lossy etalon structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medvedev, Viacheslav; Yakshin, Andrey; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Krivtsun, V.M.; Yakunin, A.M.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Many optical applications demand high reflectivity in a particular wavelength range and, simultaneously, suppression of radiation outside this prime range. Such parasitic radiation can lead to image distortions in imaging applications, or poor signal-noise ratios in spectroscopy. When working with

  15. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The European (EU 25) wish to substitute solid biomass origin energy consumption (principally wood and wood waste, but also straw, crop harvest residues, vegetal and animal waste) for a part of that of fossil fuel origin (petrol, gas and coal) is beginning to pay off. 58,7 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) of solid biomass was produced in 2005, i.e. a 3.1 Mtoe increase with respect to 2004. Production of primary energy coming from direct combustion of renewable municipal solid waste in incineration plants should also be added on to this figure. The 0,2 Mtoe increase in this production with respect to 2004 brings valorization of this type of waste up to 5,3 Mtoe in 2005. (author)

  16. Solid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, H. S.

    Progress in the development of functioning solid electrolyte fuel cells is summarized. The solid electrolyte cells perform at 1000 C, a temperature elevated enough to indicate high efficiencies are available, especially if the cell is combined with a steam generator/turbine system. The system is noted to be sulfur tolerant, so coal containing significant amounts of sulfur is expected to yield satisfactory performances with low parasitic losses for gasification and purification. Solid oxide systems are electrically reversible, and are usable in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Employing zirconium and yttrium in the electrolyte provides component stability with time, a feature not present with other fuel cells. The chemical reactions producing the cell current are reviewed, along with materials choices for the cathodes, anodes, and interconnections.

  17. Line Profile Measurements of the Lunar Exospheric Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Line, Michael R.; Roesler, Fred L.; Lupie, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    We report ongoing results of a program to measure the lunar sodium exospheric line profile from near the lunar limb out to two lunar radii (approx 3500 km). These observations are conducted from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce telescope using a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,600 (1.7 km/s) to measure line widths and velocity shifts of the Na D2 (5889 950 A) emission line in equatorial and polar regions at different lunar phases. The typical field of view (FOV) is 3 arcmin (approx 360 km) with an occasional smaller 1 arcmin FOV used right at the limb edge. The first data were obtained from full Moon to 3 days following full Moon (waning phase) in March 2009 as part of a demonstration run aimed at establishing techniques for a thorough study of temperatures and velocity variations in the lunar sodium exosphere. These data indicate velocity displacements from different locations off the lunar limb range between 150 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/- 20 to +/- 50 m/s depending on brightness. The measured Doppler line widths for observations within 10.5 arcmin of the east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 deg and 40 deg lunar phase imply temperatures ranging decreasing from 3250 +/- 260K to 1175 +/- 150K. Additional data is now being collected on a quarterly basis since March 2011 and preliminary results will be reported.

  18. Completion of the Southern African Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. A. H.; Charles, P. A.; O'Donoghue, D.; Nordsieck, K. H.

    2006-08-01

    The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) is a low cost (19.7M), innovative, 10-m class optical telescope, which was inaugurated on 10 November 2005, just 5 years after ground-breaking. SALT and its first-light instruments are currently being commissioned, and full science operations are expected to begin later this year. This paper describes the design and construction of SALT, including the first-light instruments, SALTICAM and the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS). A rigorous Systems Engineering approach was adopted to ensure that SALT was built to specification, on budget, close to the original schedule and using a relatively small project team. The design trade-offs, which include an active spherical primary mirror array in a fixed altitude telescope with a prime focus tracker, although restrictive in comparison to conventional telescopes, have resulted in an affordable and capable 10-m class telescope for South Africa and its ten partners. Coupled with an initial set of two seeing-limited instruments that concentrate on the UV-visible region (320 - 900nm) and featuring some unique observational capabilities, SALT will have an ability to conduct a wide range of science programs. These will include high time resolution studies, for which some initial results have already been obtained and are presented here. Many of the versatile modes available with the RSS will provide unparalleled opportunities for imaging polarimetry and spectropolarimetry. Likewise, Multi-Object Spectroscopy (using laser cut graphite slit masks) and imaging spectroscopy with the RSS, the latter using Fabry-Perot etalons and interference filters, will extend the multiplex advantage over resolutions from R = 300 to 9000 over fields of view of 2 to 8 arcminutes. Future instrumentation plans include an extremely stable, fibre-fed, high resolution échelle spectrograph and a near-IR (possibly to 1.7 μm) extension to the RSS. Future development possibilities include phasing the primary mirror

  19. High-Resolution Spectroscopic Observations of Potassium Emissions in the Lunar Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sarena D.; Oliversen, Ronald J.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Kuruppuaratchi, Dona Chathuni P.; Derr, Nicholas James; Gallant, Margaret A.; McFarland, Christina G.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2018-01-01

    We investigate lunar exospheric potassium D1 emissions (7698.9646 Å) using high-resolution (R = 180,000 or 1.7 km/s) spectroscopy with our dual-etalon Fabry-Perot instrument to measure line widths and radial velocities. The Field of View (FOV) is 2 arcmins (~224 km at the mean lunar distance of 384,400 km) positioned tangent to the sunlit limb. The FOV placements are at cardinal directions from a variety of reference craters. All observations are collected at the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce Telescope in Kitt Peak, Arizona. The data are from several observations from 2014 through 2017 at various times of the year. Results are produced via a newly created automated data reduction using Python. Python was chosen as an open-source alternative to the previously used IDL and MATLAB scripts to decrease the cost of software licenses and maintenance. The potassium spectral line profiles provide a direct method to track exospheric effective temperatures and velocities. By monitoring the state of the potassium emissions over different lunar phases, solar activity, and the influx of meteor streams, we can constrain physical processes of sources and sinks at the lunar surface. Mechanisms that create the exosphere include photon-stimulated desorption, thermal evaporation, meteoroid impact vaporization, and ion sputtering via solar wind. In contrast, the exosphere is diminished due to the low lunar escape velocity, solar radiation pressure, and neutral gas being ionized and swept away by the interplanetary and terrestrial magnetic field. Preliminary analysis of 2017 data (January through June, excluding February) indicates an average potassium temperature of 1140 K but varying over the range of 550 K to 2000 K. Preliminary results from 2014 data depict a similar range of temperatures to that of 2017. Further analysis is expected for additional data from 2014 to later observations in 2017 that were not included in the initial set of models.

  20. Optimizing Ti:Sapphire laser for quantitative biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jeemol; Thomsen, Hanna; Hanstorp, Dag; Alemán Hérnandez, Felipe Ademir; Rothe, Sebastian; Enger, Jonas; Ericson, Marica B.

    2018-02-01

    Ti:Sapphire lasers are powerful tools in the field of scientific research and industry for a wide range of applications such as spectroscopic studies and microscopic imaging where tunable near-infrared light is required. To push the limits of the applicability of Ti:Sapphire lasers, fundamental understanding of the construction and operation is required. This paper presents two projects, (i) dealing with the building and characterization of custom built tunable narrow linewidth Ti:Sapphire laser for fundamental spectroscopy studies; and the second project (ii) the implementation of a fs-pulsed commercial Ti:Sapphire laser in an experimental multiphoton microscopy platform. For the narrow linewidth laser, a gold-plated diffraction grating with a Littrow geometry was implemented for highresolution wavelength selection. We demonstrate that the laser is tunable between 700 to 950 nm, operating in a pulsed mode with a repetition rate of 1 kHz and maximum average output power around 350 mW. The output linewidth was reduced from 6 GHz to 1.5 GHz by inserting an additional 6 mm thick etalon. The bandwidth was measured by means of a scanning Fabry Perot interferometer. Future work will focus on using a fs-pulsed commercial Ti:Sapphire laser (Tsunami, Spectra physics), operating at 80 MHz and maximum average output power around 1 W, for implementation in an experimental multiphoton microscopy set up dedicated for biomedical applications. Special focus will be on controlling pulse duration and dispersion in the optical components and biological tissue using pulse compression. Furthermore, time correlated analysis of the biological samples will be performed with the help of time correlated single photon counting module (SPCM, Becker&Hickl) which will give a novel dimension in quantitative biomedical imaging.

  1. Photochemistry on solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, T

    1989-01-01

    The latest developments in photochemistry on solid surfaces, i.e. photochemistry in heterogeneous systems, including liquid crystallines, are brought together for the first time in a single volume. Distinguished photochemists from various fields have contributed to the book which covers a number of important applications: molecular photo-devices for super-memory, photochemical vapor deposition to produce thin-layered electronic semiconducting materials, sensitive optical media, the control of photochemical reactions pathways, etc. Photochemistry on solid surfaces is now a major field and this

  2. Proton tunneling in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-10-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  3. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun

    2011-06-26

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun; Wu, Ying; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Zhaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. Solid phase assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.R.; Ransom, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    In a solid phase assay for quantitative determination of biological and other analytes, a sample such as serum is contacted with a receptor for the analyte being assayed, the receptor being supported on a solid support. No tracer for the analyte is added to the sample before contacting with the receptor; instead the tracer is contacted with the receptor after unbound analyte has been removed from the receptor. The assay can be otherwise performed in a conventional manner but can give greater sensitivity. (author)

  6. Proton tunneling in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-01-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  7. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  8. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  9. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  10. Optical properties of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Wooten, Frederick

    1972-01-01

    Optical Properties of Solids covers the important concepts of intrinsic optical properties and photoelectric emission. The book starts by providing an introduction to the fundamental optical spectra of solids. The text then discusses Maxwell's equations and the dielectric function; absorption and dispersion; and the theory of free-electron metals. The quantum mechanical theory of direct and indirect transitions between bands; the applications of dispersion relations; and the derivation of an expression for the dielectric function in the self-consistent field approximation are also encompassed.

  11. Optical remote sensing of properties and concentrations of atmospheric trace constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladutescu, Daniela Viviana

    , molecules can absorb light from an infrared source (such as the sun or an artificial source such as a glow rod) and therefore, if the source spectrum is known, the absorption spectra of the sample can be measured. Therefore, any spectroscopy method needs a well characterized infrared source as well as an accurate high resolution spectrometer. In the fifth chapter of the paper is presented a standard technique for open-path detection of greenhouse gases which is based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). A MIDAC open path FTIR instrument is presented along with measurements and analyses. In the group of spectrometers with a high spatial spectral resolution is found as well the Fabry Perot Interferometer that is presented in chapter 6. A visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR) scanning Fabry Perot Imager design is proposed based on combinations of Fabry Perot etalons and/or broadband interference filters that can in principle be used as a hyperspectral sensors from geostationary spaceborne platforms. Keywords. Lidar, Raman, Mie, water vapor mixing ratio, backscatter, extinction, relative humidity, aerosol hygroscopic properties, atmospheric model, FTIR, FPI, green house gases

  12. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  13. Physical properties of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies

  14. Current Solid Mechanics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....

  15. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  16. Solid biomass barometer 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The winter of 2011 was exceptionally mild, even in Northern Europe, with unusually warm temperatures. As a result the demand for firewood and solid biomass fuel was low. The European Union's primary energy production from solid biomass contracted by 2.9% slipping to 78.8 Mtoe. The first 4 countries are Germany (11.690 Mtoe), France (9.223 Mtoe), Sweden (8.165 Mtoe) and Finland (7.476 Mtoe) and when the production is relative to the population the first 4 countries become: Finland (1.391 toe/inhab.), Sweden (0.867 toe/inhab.), Latvia (0.784 toe/inhab.) and Estonia (0.644 toe/inhab.). Solid biomass electricity production continued to grow, driven by the additional take-up of biomass co-firing, to reach 72.800 TWh at the end of 2011, it means +2.6% compared to 2010. The energy policy of various states concerning solid biomass is analyzed

  17. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  18. Solid-Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  19. Continuous mixing of solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raouf, M.S.

    1963-01-01

    The most important literature on theoretical aspects of mixing solids was reviewed.

    Only when the mixed materials showed no segregation it was possible to analyse the mixing process quantitatively. In this case the mixture could be described by the 'χ' Square test. Longitudinal mixing could be

  20. Physical properties of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M. K.; Young, Jr, F. W.

    1977-10-01

    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies. (GHT)

  1. A pulsated weak-resonant-cavity laser diode with transient wavelength scanning and tracking for injection-locked RZ transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gong-Ru; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Liao, Yu-Sheng; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Liao, Zhi-Wang; Wang, Hai-Lin; Lin, Gong-Cheng

    2012-06-18

    By spectrally slicing a single longitudinal-mode from a master weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode with transient wavelength scanning and tracking functions, the broadened self-injection-locking of a slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode is demonstrated to achieve bi-directional transmission in a 200-GHz array-waveguide-grating channelized dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network system. Both the down- and up-stream slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diodes are non-return-to-zero modulated below threshold and coherently injection-locked to deliver the pulsed carrier for 25-km bi-directional 2.5 Gbits/s return-to-zero transmission. The master weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode is gain-switched at near threshold condition and delivers an optical coherent pulse-train with its mode linewidth broadened from 0.2 to 0.8 nm by transient wavelength scanning, which facilitates the broadband injection-locking of the slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diodes with a threshold current reducing by 10 mA. Such a transient wavelength scanning induced spectral broadening greatly releases the limitation on wavelength injection-locking range required for the slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode. The theoretical modeling and numerical simulation on the wavelength scanning and tracking effects of the master and slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diodes are performed. The receiving power sensitivity for back-to-back transmission at bit-error-rate transmission is less than 2 dB for all 16 channels.

  2. SolidWorks Administration Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lombard, Matt

    2009-01-01

    What you need to prepare, install, and maintain SolidWorks. It's not enough to know how to use SolidWorks, if your job also requires you to install or maintain it, train new users, and implement standards. This in-depth guide was written for those of you who have to actually manage your company's SolidWorks system. From hardware selection to helping users to licensing and more, this is the everyday, bread-and-butter SolidWorks administration resource that IT and CAD managers have been seeking.:; SolidWorks is a powerful 3D solid modeling system that is popular with CAD users everywhere, but of

  3. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  4. Solid residues; Os residuos solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This chapter gives a general overview on the general effects of the solid waste pollution, the principal pollutants emitted by the oil refineries, control actions for the solid waste emissions, the minimization actions, and the effluent treatment.

  5. Acoustics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Beltzer, Abraham I

    1988-01-01

    Technological developments in composite materials, non-destructive testing, and signal processing as well as biomedical applications, have stimulated wide-ranging engineering investigations of heterogeneous, anisotropic media and surface waves of different types. Wave propagation in solids is now of considerable importance in a variety of applications. The book presents many of the key results in this field and interprets them from a unified engineering viewpoint. The conceptual importance and relevance for applications were the prevailing criteria in selecting the topics. Included are body and surface waves in elastic, viscoelastic, and piezoelectric media and waveguides, with emphasis on the effects of inhomogeneity and anisotropy. The book differs in many aspects from the other monographs dealing with wave propagation in solids. It focuses on physically meaningful theoretical models, a broad spectrum of which is covered, and not on mathematical techniques. Some of the results, particularly those dealing wi...

  6. Edge remap for solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

    2013-12-01

    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  7. Thin Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  8. Probing solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    The wide application of scattering experiments in the study of the structures of solids and liquids is surveyed. Part 1 of the review (Martin. Contemp. Phys.;vol. 18, No. 1: Jan. 1977:pp. 81-98) showed how the angular distribution of a scattered beam of photons or neutrons is related by Fourier transform to the space and time-dependent distributions of electrons and nuclei in the scattering target. The use of x-rays and of neutrons in determining time-averaged density distributions was examined. In this part the time-dependent aspects of the distributions for solids and liquids, including helium, are discussed. The dynamical distributions of magnetism (or angular momentum) density are considered, and the present limitations and future possibilities of scattering experiments are examined. (U.K.)

  9. Solid propellant impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.

    1976-03-01

    Future space missions, as in the past, call for the continued use of radioisotopes as heat sources for thermoelectric power generators. In an effort to minimize the risk of radioactive contamination of the environment, a complete safety analysis of each such system is necessary. As a part of these analyses, the effects on such a system of a solid propellant fire environment resulting from a catastrophic launch pad abort must be considered. Several impact tests were conducted in which either a simulant MHW-FSA or a steel ball was dropped on the cold, unignited or the hot, burning surface of a block of UTP-3001 solid propellant. The rebound velocities were measured for both surface conditions of the propellant. The resulting coefficient of restitution, determined as the ratio of the components of the impact and rebound velocities perpendicular to the impact surface of the propellant, were not very dependent on whether the surface was cold or hot at the time of impact

  10. Diffusion in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, G.P.; Kale, G.B.; Patil, R.V.

    1999-01-01

    The article presents a brief survey of process of diffusion in solids. It is emphasised that the essence of diffusion is the mass transfer through the atomic jumps. To begin with formal equations for diffusion coefficient are presented. This is followed by discussions on mechanisms of diffusion. Except for solutes which form interstitial solid solution, diffusion in majority of cases is mediated through exchange of sites between an atom and its neighbouring vacancy. Various vacancy parameters such as activation volume, correlation factor, mass effect etc are discussed and their role in establishing the mode of diffusion is delineated. The contribution of dislocations and grain boundaries in diffusion process is brought out. The experimental determination of different types of diffusion coefficients are described. Finally, the pervasive nature of diffusion process in number of commercial processes is outlined to show the importance of diffusion studies in materials science and technology. (author)

  11. Solid phase extraction membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  12. Solid waste handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.)

  13. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  14. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  15. Determination of solid angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, S.; Amano, H.; Kasai, A.

    1988-01-01

    The solid angle in extended alpha source measurement for a series of counting geometries has been obtained by two methods: (1) calculated by means of the Nelson Blachmen series; (2) interpolated from the data table given by Gardner. A particular consequence of the application of the Nelson Blachmen series was deduced which was different from that given by the original author. The applicability of these two methods, as well as an experimentally measured method, is also evaluated. (author)

  16. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The economic and financial crisis has not brought solid biomass energy growth to a standstill. Primary energy production in the European Union member states increased in 2008 by 2,3%, which represents a gain of 1,5% million tonnes of oil equivalent over 2007. This growth was particularly marked in electricity production which increased output by 10,8% over 2007, an additional 5,6 TWh. (A.L.B.)

  17. Solid waste management: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The source, effect and characterization of solid wastes are discussed. Constituents of municipal solid wastes and a comparative compositions of municipal solid waste with some data on Lebanon are given. Collection, transport and processing practices are next introduced. Finally treatment and disposal techniques are presented with emphasis on the solid waste as energy source and as material source. Methods of recycling are evaluated in respect with their environmental impact. 7 refs. 2 tabs

  18. Solid waste study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ''Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel

  19. Conformal solids and holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, A.; Garcia-Saenz, S.; Nicolis, A.; Penco, R.

    2017-12-01

    We argue that a SO( d) magnetic monopole in an asymptotically AdS space-time is dual to a d-dimensional strongly coupled system in a solid state. In light of this, it would be remiss of us not to dub such a field configuration solidon. In the presence of mixed boundary conditions, a solidon spontaneously breaks translations (among many other symmetries) and gives rise to Goldstone excitations on the boundary — the phonons of the solid. We derive the quadratic action for the boundary phonons in the probe limit and show that, when the mixed boundary conditions preserve conformal symmetry, the longitudinal and transverse sound speeds are related to each other as expected from effective field theory arguments. We then include backreaction and calculate the free energy of the solidon for a particular choice of mixed boundary conditions, corresponding to a relevant multi-trace deformation of the boundary theory. We find such free energy to be lower than that of thermal AdS. This suggests that our solidon undergoes a solid-to-liquid first order phase transition by melting into a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as the temperature is raised.

  20. Volatiles from solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughrey, C T

    1939-08-24

    To remove volatiles from solids, such as oil shale, gases, and/or vapours are passed through a mass of the materials, the vapours and gases separated, and the vapours condensed. The volatile-containing solid materials are fed to a retort, and a shaft is driven to rotate an impeller so as to displace the liquid and create a vortex tube, which draws in gas from the atmosphere through an intake, twyer, interstices in the material in the retort, a conduit, chamber, tubes, another chamber and cylinder. This gas is carried outwardly and upwardly by the vortices in the liquid and is carried to discharge through three conduits. The vapours entrained by the gas are part condensed in the liquid and the remainder directed to a condenser. Steam may be delivered to the twyer through a nozzle of a pipe, with or without air, and combustible hydrocarbon fuel may be fed through the burner nozzle or solid fuel may be directed from feeder and combusted in the twyer.

  1. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  2. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  3. SOLID WASTE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAUL G. ORTIZ - COLEMAN RESEARCH CORP/COMPA INDUSTRIES

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ``Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel.

  4. Solid targetry for compact cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comor, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors present experimental results of solid targetry for compact cyclotrons. It is concluded: Solid targetry is not restricted to large accelerator centers anymore; Small and medium scale radioisotope production is feasible with compact cyclotrons; The availability of versatile solid target systems is expected to boost the radiochemistry of 'exotic' positron emitters

  5. Separation of oils from solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Slyke, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for cleaning oil-contaminated particulate solids. It comprises: contacting contaminated solids with a non-aqueous liquid composition comprising a carboxylic acid; then contacting the solids with an aqueous wash containing a reagent for converting the carboxylic acid to a water-soluble carboxylate salt; and removing an aqueous phase containing carboxylate salt and entrained oil

  6. Solid waste containing method and solid waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1997-01-01

    Solid wastes are filled in a sealed vessel, and support spacers are inserted to the gap between the inner wall of a vessel main body and the solid wastes. The solid wastes comprise shorn pieces (crushed pieces) of spent fuel rod cladding tubes, radioactively contaminated metal pieces and miscellaneous solids pressed into a disk-like shape. The sealed vessel comprises, for example, a stainless steel. The solid wastes are filled while being stacked in a plurality of stages. A solidifying filler is filled into the gap between the inner wall and the solid wastes in the vessel main body by way of an upper opening, and the upper opening is closed by a closing lid to provide an entirely sealed state. Alumina particles having high heat conductivity and excellent heat durability are used for the solid filler. It is preferable to fill an inert gas such as a dried nitrogen gas in the sealed vessel. (I.N.)

  7. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  8. Injector of solid indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshev, G.I.; Luk' yanov, E.P.; Pruslin, Y.A.; Zabrodin, P.I.

    1981-04-25

    The injector can be used with remote introduction of indicators into a borehole for study in an oil well of the parameters of movement of fluid currents, control of the state of the equipment, and study of the properties of the rocks. Proposed is a method of increasing the reliability of operation of the injector by stabilizing the rate of its dispersing. Introduced to the injector of a solid indicator are auxiliary brackets and a cathode made from nonmetallic electrical conducting material and reinforced at the end by an elastic bracket. The auxillary cathode is attached to the end surface of the anode and cathode.

  9. Atomic mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    MacPherson, A K

    1990-01-01

    This volume brings together some of the presently available theoretical techniques which will be useful in the design of solid-state materials. At present, it is impossible to specify the atomic composition of a material and its macroscopic physical properties. However, the future possibilities for such a science are being laid today. This is coming about due to the development of fast, cheap computers which will be able to undertake the calculations which are necessary.Since this field of science is fairly new, it is not yet quite clear which direction of analysis will eventually prov

  10. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  11. Physics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive text covers the basic physics of the solid state starting at an elementary level suitable for undergraduates but then advancing, in stages, to a graduate and advanced graduate level. In addition to treating the fundamental elastic, electrical, thermal, magnetic, structural, electronic, transport, optical, mechanical and compositional properties, we also discuss topics like superfluidity and superconductivity along with special topics such as strongly correlated systems, high-temperature superconductors, the quantum Hall effects, and graphene. Particular emphasis is given to so-called first principles calculations utilizing modern density functional theory which for many systems now allow accurate calculations of the electronic, magnetic, and thermal properties.

  12. Contacting solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    A solids/liquid (or slurry/liquid) contactor is described comprising a container through which the phases flow, rotatable discs with a rotor dividing the container into a series of interconnected compartments and, in at least some of the compartments, receptacles extending between the discs to effect phase transfer. At least one of the compartments is free of receptacles or has receptacles arranged on a smaller diameter than in other compartments to form a settling chamber. The contactor may be used in the extraction of oil-sands or uranium or purification of china clay. (author)

  13. Advanced solid state batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, A; Delmas, C; Menetrier, M; Hagenmuller, P

    1984-01-01

    Direct electrochemical storage of electricity is attractive because of its adaptability to vehicle traction as well as to stationary applications. Important advancements are necessary to improve primary or secondary batteries so far used. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize materials for the next generation of advanced, rechargeable solid state batteries for vehicle transport and stationary storage applications. One of the best electricity storage systems was the lithium/intercalation compound secondary battery, though up to now the behavior of liquid organic electrolytes did not allow for good recycling in such systems. The research program for these batteries is described.

  14. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  15. Hopping transport in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, M

    1991-01-01

    The hopping process, which differs substantially from conventional transport processes in crystals, is the central process in the transport phenomena discussed in this book. Throughout the book the term ``hopping'' is defined as the inelastic tunneling transfer of an electron between two localized electronic states centered at different locations. Such processes do not occur in conventional electronic transport in solids, since localized states are not compatible with the translational symmetry of crystals.The rapid growth of interest in hopping transport has followed in the footsteps of the

  16. Solid state mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Solid State Mechanics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program domains are the following: investigations concerning the stability and bifurcation of the reversible or irreversible mechanical systems, the problems related to the theoretical and experimental determination of the materials rheological properties, the fatigue crack formation and propagation in multiple-axial stress conditions, the expert systems, and the software applied in the reinforced earth structures dimensioning. Moreover, the published papers, the books, the congress communications, the thesis, and the patents are listed [fr

  17. Solid phase transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Čermák, J

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic book, devoted to ""Solid Phase Transformations"" , covers a broad range of phenomena which are of importance in a number of technological processes. Most commercial alloys undergo thermal treatment after casting, with the aim of imparting desired compositions and/or optimal morphologies to the component phases. In spite of the fact that the topic has lain at the center of physical metallurgy for a long time, there are numerous aspects which are wide open to potential investigative breakthroughs. Materials with new structures also stimulate research in the field, as well as n

  18. Solid substrate fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengerdy, R P

    1985-04-01

    Solid Substrate Fermentation (SSF) describes the microbiological tranformation of biological materials in their natural state, in contrast with liquid or submerged fermentations which are carried out in dilute solutions or slurries. The most important industrial microorganisms used in SSF are filamentous fungi and the critical factors in their growth are the control of the moisture level and the temperature. Traditionally, most SSFs are conducted in shallow trays (so that heat build up is avoided) and stacked in a moist chamber, however, the modern SSF should be able to mix large amounts of substrate for a uniform fermentation, maximum automization scale-up of the process, continuous operation and fermentation control and a promising new design is the Helical screw fermenter. At the present time SSF is used in the production of foods (e.g. mushrooms and oriental foods) in municipal, agricultural and industrial solid waste disposal and in the production of enzymes and speciality chemicals but it does not seem likely that it will replace prevalent liquid fermentation technologies. 29 references.

  19. Solid-phase spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brykina, G.D.; Marchenko, D.Yu.; Shpigun, O.A.

    1995-01-01

    Solid-phase spectrophotometry (SPS), which is based on the direct measurement of light absorption of an ion exchanger containing a substance of interest, was reviewed. Since 1976, it has been known that aborbance of an ion exchanger is directly proportional to the concentration of a particular ion in solution. A similar dependence can also be followed for other sorbents, as well as for foams, membranes, films, etc., which do not exhibit ion exchange properties. One can use absorption, diffuse reflection, and luminescence spectra parameters as an analytical signal. Thus, SPS of ion exchangers is among the analytical techniques that combine the sorption concentration and surface determination of the substance of interest. This review summarizes the advancements in SPS over the last six years and demonstrates the prospects for its development. Special attention is paid to experimental methods for measuring solid-phase absorption and to the basic procedures of sample preparation, including new ones. These two facets are of great importance for obtaining precise results and extending the capabilities of SPS

  20. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    The primary energy production from solid biomass in the European Union reached 79.3 Mtoe in 2010 which implies a growth rate of 8% between 2009 and 2010. The trend, which was driven deeper by Europe's particularly cold winter of 2009-2010, demonstrates that the economic down-turn failed to weaken the member states' efforts to structure the solid biomass sector. Heat consumption rose sharply: the volume of heat sold by heating networks increased by 18% and reached 6.7 Mtoe and if we consider the total heat consumption (it means with and without recovery via heating networks) the figure is 66 Mtoe in 2010, which amounts to 10.1% growth. The growth of electricity production continued through 2010 (8.3% up on 2009) and rose to 67 TWh but at a slower pace than in 2009 (when it rose by 11.3% on 2008). The situation of the main producer countries: Sweden, Finland, Germany and France is reviewed. It appears that cogeneration unit manufacturers and biomass power plant constructors are the main beneficiaries of the current biomass energy sector boom. There is a trend to replace coal-fired plants that are either obsolete or near their end of life with biomass or multi-fuel plants. These opportunities will enable the industry to develop and further exploit new technologies such as gasification, pyrolysis and torrefaction which will enable biomass to be turned into bio-coal. (A.C.)

  1. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  2. Studies on the irradiated solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesueur, D.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Irradiated Solids laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory activities concern the investigations on disordered solids (chemical or structural disorder). The disorder itself, its effects on the material physical properties and the particle-matter interactions, are investigated. The research works are performed in the following fields: solid state physics, irradiation and stoechiometric defects, and nuclear materials. The scientific reviews, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  3. Characterisation of bulk solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. McGlinchey [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Centre for Industrial Bulk Solids Handling

    2005-07-01

    Handling of powders and bulk solids is a critical industrial technology across a broad spectrum of industries, including minerals processing. With contributions from leading authors in their respective fields, this book provides the reader with a sound understanding of the techniques, importance and application of particulate materials characterisation. It covers the fundamental characteristics of individual particles and bulk particulate materials, and includes discussion of a wide range of measurement techniques, and the use of material characteristics in design and industrial practice. Contents: Characterising particle properties; Powder mechanics and rheology; Characterisation for hopper and stockpile design; Fluidization behaviour; Characterisation for pneumatic conveyor design; Explosiblility; 'Designer' particle characteristics; Current industrial practice; and Future trends. 130 ills.

  4. Solid state detector module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    A solid state detector in which each scintillator is optimally configured and coupled with its associated sensing diode in a way which exploits light piping effects to enhance efficiency, and at the same time provide a detector which is modular in nature. To achieve light piping, the scintillator crystal is oriented such that its sides conform with the crystal cleavage plane, and the sides are highly polished. An array of tungsten collimator plates define the individual channels. Multi-channel scintillator/diode modules are mounted behind and in registry with the plurality of collimator plates. A plurality of scintillators are bonded together after coating the surfaces thereof to minimize optical crosstalk. After lapping the face of the scintillator module, it is then bonded to a diode module with individual scintillators in registration with individual diodes. The module is then positioned in the detector array with collimator plates at the junctions between the scintillators

  5. Solid phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawliszyn, J

    2001-01-01

    Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) uses a small volume of sorbent dispersed typically on the surface of small fibres, to isolate and concentrate analytes from sample matrix. After contact with sample, analytes are absorbed or adsorbed by the fibre phase (depending on the nature of the coating) until an equilibrium is reached in the system. The amount of an analyte extracted by the coating at equilibrium is determined by the magnitude of the partition coefficient of the analyte between the sample matrix and the coating material. After the extraction step, the fibres are transferred, with the help of a syringe-like handling device, to analytical instrument, for separation and quantitation of target analytes. This technique integrates sampling, extraction and sample introduction and is a simple way of facilitating on-site monitoring. Applications of this technique include environmental monitoring, industrial hygiene, process monitoring, clinical, forensic, food, flavour, fragrance and drug analyses, in laboratory and on-site analysis.

  6. Solid Oxide Electrolyser Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) produced at Risø National Laboratory was tested as steam electrolysers under various current densities, operating temperatures and steam partial pressures. At 950 °C and a cell voltage of 1.48V the current density was -3.6A/cm2 with app. 30% H2 + 70% H2O in the inlet...... it is possible to achieve a production price of 0.7 US$/kg H2 with an electricity price of 1.3 US¢/kWh. The cell voltage was measured as function of time. In test ofabout two month of duration a long-term degradation was observed. At 850 °C, -0.5 A/cm2 with 50 vol% H2 the degradation rate was app. 20 mV/1000h...

  7. Solid medical waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udofia, Emilia Asuquo; Gulis, Gabriel; Fobil, Julius

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar...... waste in households is often untreated and co-mingled with household waste which ends up in landfills and open dumps in many African countries. In Ghana, the management of this potentially hazardous waste stream at household and community level has not been widely reported. The objective of this study...... likely to report harm in the household (OR 2.75, 95%CI 1.15-6.54). CONCLUSION: The belief that one can be harmed by diseases associated with SMW influenced reporting rates in the study area. Disposal practices suggest the presence of unwanted medicines and sharps in the household waste stream conferring...

  8. Solid hydrogen structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, G.W.; Unites, W.G.; Mapoles, E.R.; Magnotta, F.; Bernat, T.P.

    1994-11-01

    The J=0->2 Raman signal from solid J=0 D 2 or H 2 reveals HCP structure when deposited at a rate 0.1 ≤ R(μ/min) ≤ 40 onto MgF 2 at T d /T tp > 0.3, a mixture of HCP and FCC crystals at 0.2 d /T tp d /T tp tp is the triple point temperature. Non-HCP crystals transform to HCP continuously and irreversibly with increasing T. Finally, the crystal size decreases with decreasing T d and increasing R, from ∼ 1 mm at T d ∼ 0.8 T tp and R ∼ 2 μ/min to ∼ 1 μm at 0.25 T tp and R ∼ 40 μ/min

  9. Solid-phase microextraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Torben

    The objective of this study has been to develop new analytical methods using the rapid, simple and solvent-free extraction technique solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the quantitative analysis of organic pollutants at trace level in drinking water and environmental samples. The dynamics...... of SPME were examined for halogenated and non-halogenated volatile hydrocarbons, and a standard method for their quantitative analysis in aqueous samples was developed and validated in inter-laboratory studies on the basis of reference material and in comparison with the traditional methods....... The influences of some possible interferences on the SPME process were examined, and new SPME probes were tested for the in situ monitoring of groundwater pollutants. Inter-laboratory studies were carried out also for the validation of SPME for the quantitative analysis of organochlorine, organonitrogen...

  10. Atomistic Properties of Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Sirdeshmukh, Dinker B; Subhadra, K G

    2011-01-01

    The book deals with atomistic properties of solids which are determined by the crystal structure, interatomic forces and atomic displacements influenced by the effects of temperature, stress and electric fields. The book gives equal importance to experimental details and theory. There are full chapters dedicated to the tensor nature of physical properties, mechanical properties, lattice vibrations, crystal structure determination and ferroelectricity. The other crystalline states like nano-, poly-, liquid- and quasi crystals are discussed. Several new topics like nonlinear optics and the Rietveld method are presented in the book. The book lays emphasis on the role of symmetry in crystal properties. Comprehensiveness is the strength of the book; this allows users at different levels a choice of chapters according to their requirements.

  11. Solid state chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Lesley E

    2012-01-01

    ""Smart and Moore are engaging writers, providing clear explanations for concepts in solid-state chemistry from the atomic/molecular perspective. The fourth edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelves. … What I like most about Solid State Chemistry is that it gives simple clear descriptions for a large number of interesting materials and correspondingly clear explanations of their applications. Solid State Chemistry could be used for a solid state textbook at the third or fourth year undergraduate level, especially for chemistry programs. It is also a useful resource for beginning graduate

  12. The electronic structures of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, B R

    2013-01-01

    The Electronic Structures of Solids aims to provide students of solid state physics with the essential concepts they will need in considering properties of solids that depend on their electronic structures and idea of the electronic character of particular materials and groups of materials. The book first discusses the electronic structure of atoms, including hydrogen atom and many-electron atom. The text also underscores bonding between atoms and electrons in metals. Discussions focus on bonding energies and structures in the solid elements, eigenstates of free-electron gas, and electrical co

  13. Solid state electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  14. Bridging “green gap” of LEDs: Giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Yu-Lin; Liu, Che-Yu; Krishnan, Chirenjeevi; Lin, Da-Wei; Chu, You-Chen; Chen, Tzu-Pei; Shen, Tien-Lin; Kao, Tsung-Sheng; Charlton, Martin; Yu, Peichen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    Green LEDs do not show the same level of performance as their blue and red cousins, greatly hindering the solid-state lighting development, which is so-called “green gap”. In this work, nano-void photonic crystals (NVPCs) were fabricated to embed within the GaN/InGaN green LEDs by using epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) and nano-sphere lithography techniques. The NVPCs act as an efficient scattering back-reflector to outcouple the guided and downward photons, which not only boosting light extraction efficiency of LEDs with an enhancement of 78% but also collimating the view angle of LEDs from 131.5゜to 114.0゜. This could be because the highly scattering nature of NVPCs which reduce the interference giving rise to Fabry-Perot resonance. Moreover, due to the threading dislocation suppression and strain relief by the NVPCs, the internal quantum efficiency was increased by 25% and droop behavior was reduced from 37.4% to 25.9%. The enhancement of light output power can be achieved as high as 151% at a driving current of 350 mA. Giant light output enhancement and directional control via NVPCs points the way towards a promising avenue of solid-state lighting.

  15. Bridging “green gap” of LEDs: Giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Yu-Lin

    2015-11-23

    Green LEDs do not show the same level of performance as their blue and red cousins, greatly hindering the solid-state lighting development, which is so-called “green gap”. In this work, nano-void photonic crystals (NVPCs) were fabricated to embed within the GaN/InGaN green LEDs by using epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) and nano-sphere lithography techniques. The NVPCs act as an efficient scattering back-reflector to outcouple the guided and downward photons, which not only boosting light extraction efficiency of LEDs with an enhancement of 78% but also collimating the view angle of LEDs from 131.5゜to 114.0゜. This could be because the highly scattering nature of NVPCs which reduce the interference giving rise to Fabry-Perot resonance. Moreover, due to the threading dislocation suppression and strain relief by the NVPCs, the internal quantum efficiency was increased by 25% and droop behavior was reduced from 37.4% to 25.9%. The enhancement of light output power can be achieved as high as 151% at a driving current of 350 mA. Giant light output enhancement and directional control via NVPCs points the way towards a promising avenue of solid-state lighting.

  16. Improving the efficiency and directivity of THz photoconductive antennas by using a defective photonic crystal substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Ehsan; Ahmadi-Boroujeni, Mehdi

    2018-04-01

    One of the shortcomings of photoconductive (PC) antennas in terahertz (THz) generation is low effective radiated power in the desirable direction. In this paper, we propose a defective photonic crystal (DPC) substrate consisting of a customized 2D array of air holes drilled into a solid substrate in order to improve the radiation characteristics of THz PC antennas. The effect of the proposed structure on the performance of a conventional THz PC antenna has been examined from several aspects including radiation efficiency, directivity, and field distribution. By comparing the radiation performance of the THz antenna on the proposed DPC substrate to that of the conventional solid substrate, it is shown that the proposed technique can significantly improve the efficiency and directivity of the THz PC antenna over a wide frequency range. It is achieved by reducing the amount of power coupled to the substrate surface waves and limiting the radiation in undesirable directions. In addition, it is found that the sensitivity of directivity to the substrate thickness is considerably decreased and the adverse Fabry-Perot effects of the thick substrate are reduced by the application of the proposed DPC substrate.

  17. Theoretical simulations of protective thin film Fabry-Pérot filters for integrated optical elements of diode pumped alkali lasers (DPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Quarrie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The lifetime of Diode-Pumped Alkali Lasers (DPALs is limited by damage initiated by reaction of the glass envelope of its gain medium with rubidium vapor. Rubidium is absorbed into the glass and the rubidium cations diffuse through the glass structure, breaking bridging Si-O bonds. A damage-resistant thin film was developed enhancing high-optical transmission at natural rubidium resonance input and output laser beam wavelengths of 780 nm and 795 nm, while protecting the optical windows of the gain cell in a DPAL. The methodology developed here can be readily modified for simulation of expected transmission performance at input pump and output laser wavelengths using different combination of thin film materials in a DPAL. High coupling efficiency of the light through the gas cell was accomplished by matching the air-glass and glass-gas interfaces at the appropriate wavelengths using a dielectric stack of high and low index of refraction materials selected to work at the laser energies and protected from the alkali metal vapor in the gain cell. Thin films as oxides of aluminum, zirconium, tantalum, and silicon were selected allowing the creation of Fabry-Perot optical filters on the optical windows achieving close to 100% laser transmission in a solid optic combination of window and highly reflective mirror. This approach allows for the development of a new whole solid optic laser.

  18. Study on improvement of laser system performance for uranium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    For the purpose of reducing the cost of Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), I developed the following laser technologies. (1) I developed a solid-state pulse power supply, of which output power was the almost highest value achieved for a copper vapor laser in 1989, using a GTO as a switching device and a magnetic pulse compression circuit. (2) I developed a new technique of tuning the laser wavelength to an atomic absorption band using high-speed wavelength shift of a laser diode by direct modulation. (3) I developed a new technique of stabilizing the laser wavelength at an absorption band of a target atom, by locking the sideband generated by phase modulation of a laser beam to a Fabry-Perot interferometer. (4) I proposed the Cr 4+ -doped forsterite laser system as an all solid-state laser system for the AVLIS. I obtained the slope efficiency of 25%, which was the highest value achieved in the case of pulse operation of the Cr 4+ -doped forsterite laser in 1995, using the forsterite with high Cr 4+ -ion concentration. (author)

  19. Solid State Studies Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-12-31

    Research is summarized on fuel, fertile, and cladding materials. Results of studies in the field of solid state sciences are also reported. It was found during the studies on the thermal diffusion release of /sup 133/Xe from irradiated thoria--urania powders that during prolonged annealing at high temperatures, there were several sudden burst releases of /sup 133/Xe as a function of time. These sudden bursts appear to be related to the particle size of the powders. Studies on the phase composition of U/sub 3/O/sub 8//su established that the phase obtained at room temperature after heating at 850 deg K is always oxygen deficient. Results of studies on the different modifications of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ indicated that the so-called delta-phase has a crystal structure almost identical with the beta-phase, yet there were differences in the heats of transition of each of these phases to the alpha-U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ phase at 130 deg C. Studies on fast neutron damage in stainless steel were initiated and results related to damage by void formation were obtained even when the fluencies were only moderately high. Studies on the phase transformations in solids brought out the unusual phase transition behavior of KNO/sub 3/. It was established that the phase transformation attributed to the orthorhombic (II) to the trigonal (I) transition at 129 deg C is essentially a 2-step transition. Results of differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) studies also revealed a peculiar feature which is as yet not understood, namely that on cooling, differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed a III to II phase transition; this is not seen in the DSC. The capabilities of the DSC technique to delineate temperatures of magnetic transitions were demonstrated by studying the transitions in a number of standard substances (metals, alloys, and compounds). In studies on KMnF/sub 3/, it was further demonstrated that the DSC technique is superior in measuring and detecting the heats of crystallographic and

  20. From Solid Waste to Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisely, F. E.; And Others

    A project designed to convert solid waste to energy is explained in this paper. In April, 1972, an investor-owned utility began to burn municipal solid waste as fuel for the direct production of electric power. This unique venture was a cooperative effort between the City of St. Louis, Missouri, and the Union Electric Company, with financial…

  1. Solid waste management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadzri Yahaya

    2010-01-01

    All of the countries over the world have their own policies about how waste were managed. Malaysia as one of the developing country also faces this problems. So, the government was established Department of National Solid Waste Management under Ministry of Housing and Local Government to control and make sure all of these problem on waste will managed systematically. Guiding principle on these issues was mentioned in 3rd Outline Perspective Plan (2000 until 2010), National Policy on Solid Waste Management, National Strategic Plan on Solid Waste Management and also 10th Malaysian Plan. In 10th Malaysian Plan, the government will complete restructuring efforts in this Solid Waste Management sector with the federalization of solid waste management and public cleansing and full enforcement of the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007. The key outcomes of these efforts will include providing support to local authorities, delivering comprehensive and sanitary services and ensuring that waste is managed in a sustainable manner. These presentations cover all aspect of solid waste management in Malaysia. What are guiding principle, paradigm shift, strategies approach, monitoring and enforcement and also mention about some issues and constraint that appear in Solid waste management in Malaysia.

  2. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...

  3. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  4. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In the distillation of solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery by direct heating with a gas such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gas which is passed in counter-flow to the materials, the volume of the gas used is such as to lower the vapor tension of the volatiles to enable the oil vapor to be liberated at temperatures not exceeding 450 to 500/sup 0/C and so that the gaseous mixture may be cooled to from 80 to 100/sup 0/C without causing the highest boiling oil fraction to condense. Coking coals may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment with gases containing an oxygen content of from 2 to 8 percent to reduce their coking properties, and oxygen may be added to the heating gases to assist the polymerization of resinous bodies. Lubricating oil may be obtained by treating the primary oil with caustic soda to remove tar acids, refining the residue with sulfuric acid, distilling off 25 percent of the refined oil and passing the remainder through a filter press at -5/sup 0/C to extract the paraffin wax. The residue of wax-free oil is distilled to yield a lubricating oil which at normal temperatures has a static coefficient of friction of from .1 to .185. Other specifications are referred to.

  5. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In a process of distilling solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery, the time factor and the temperature gradient during the distillation period are so controlled that a temperature difference exceeding 150/sup 0/C is avoided between the temperatures at the center and periphery of any suitable size of material or thickness of fuel bed. The material is heated by direct contact with an inert gas, such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gases, which is passed in counterflow to the material and whose volume is such as to lower the vapor tension or partial pressure of the volatilizable oils and to withdraw the oils without cracking of the oil vapors. The material may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment by gases containing 2 to 3 percent of free oxygen to reduce its coking properties, and free oxygen may be added either to the heating gases during the heat treatment, or to the retort and heating gases and vapors to polymerize resinous bodies prior to condensation or during condensation and while the oils are still wholly or partially in the vapor state.

  6. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Anca Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black, is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03, indicates a good linearity.

  7. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  8. Advanced mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bruhns, Otto T

    2003-01-01

    Mechanics, and in particular, the mechanics of solids, forms the basis of all engi­ neering sciences. It provides the essential foundations for understanding the action of forces on bodies, and the effects of these forces on the straining of the body on the one hand, and on the deformation and motion of the body on the other. Thus, it provides the solutions of many problems with which the would-be engineer is going to be confronted with on a daily basis. In addition, in engineering studies, mechanics has a more vital importance, which many students appreciate only much later. Because of its clear, and analyt­ ical setup, it aids the student to a great extent in acquiring the necessary degree of abstraction ability, and logical thinking, skills without which no engineer in the practice today would succeed. Many graduates have confirmed to me that learning mechanics is generally per­ ceived as difficult. On the other hand, they always also declared that the preoccu­ pation with mechanics made an essential c...

  9. Concepts in solids lectures on the theory of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Philip Warren

    1964-01-01

    These lecture notes constitute a course on a number of central concepts of solid state physics - classification of solids, band theory, the developments in one-electron band theory in the presence of perturbation, effective Hamiltonian theory, elementary excitations and the various types of collective elementary excitation (excitons, spin waves and phonons), the Fermi liquid, ferromagnetic spin waves, antiferromagnetic spin waves and the theory of broken symmetry. The book can be used in conjunction with a survey course in solid state physics, or as the basis of a first graduate-level course.

  10. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holubcik, Michal; Jandacka, Jozef; Kolkova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  11. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holubcik, Michal, E-mail: michal.holubcik@fstroj.uniza.sk; Jandacka, Jozef, E-mail: jozef.jandacka@fstroj.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia); Kolkova, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.kolkova@rc.uniza.sk [Research centre, University of Žilina, Univerzitna 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)

    2016-06-30

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  12. Isostructural solid-solid transition of (colloidal) simple fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero, C.F.; Daanoun, A.; Lakkerkerker, H.N.W.; Baus, M.

    1995-01-01

    A variational approach based on the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality is used in order to evaluate the free energy of simple fluids described by a double-Yukawa pair potential. A hard-sphere reference fluid is used to describe the fluid phases, and an Einstein reference crystal to describe the solid phases. Apart from the usual type of phase diagram, typical of atomic simple fluids with long-ranged attractions, we find two types of phase diagrams, specific to colloidal systems with intermediate and short-ranged attractions. One of the latter phase diagrams exhibits an isostructural solid-solid transition, which has not yet been observed experimentally

  13. Solid - solid and solid - liquid phase transitions of iron and iron alloys under laser shock compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmand, M.; Krygier, A.; Appel, K.; Galtier, E.; Hartley, N.; Konopkova, Z.; Lee, H. J.; McBride, E. E.; Miyanishi, K.; Nagler, B.; Nemausat, R.; Vinci, T.; Zhu, D.; Ozaki, N.; Fiquet, G.

    2017-12-01

    An accurate knowledge of the properties of iron and iron alloys at high pressures and temperatures is crucial for understanding and modelling planetary interiors. While Earth-size and Super-Earth Exoplanets are being discovered in increasingly large numbers, access to detailed information on liquid properties, melting curves and even solid phases of iron and iron at the pressures and temperatures of their interiors is still strongly limited. In this context, XFEL sources coupled with high-energy lasers afford unique opportunities to measure microscopic structural properties at far extreme conditions. Also the achievable time resolution allows the shock history and phase transition mechanisms to be followed during laser compression, improving our understanding of the high pressure and high strain experiments. Here we present recent studies devoted to investigate the solid-solid and solid-liquid transition in laser-shocked iron and iron alloys (Fe-Si, Fe-C and Fe-O alloys) using X-ray diffraction and X-ray diffuse scattering. Experiment were performed at the MEC end-station of the LCLS facility at SLAC (USA). Detection of the diffuse scattering allowed the identification of the first liquid peak position along the Hugoniot, up to 4 Mbar. The time resolution shows ultrafast (between several tens and several hundreds of picoseconds) solid-solid and solid-liquid phase transitions. Future developments at XFEL facilities will enable detailed studies of the solid and liquid structures of iron and iron alloys as well as out-of-Hugoniot studies.

  14. Small-scale kinematic structures in ring nebulae around Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.H.

    1988-01-01

    Four ring nebulas around galactic Wolf-Rayet stars have been observed with echelle spectrographs in the long-slit mode: NGC 2359, NGC 3199, NGC 6888, and RCW 58. The spatial resolution of these observations is seeing limited at about 1-3 arcsec, which is almost a two orders of magnitude improvement from the previous Fabry-Perot scanner observations. To avoid large geometric corrections, the slit positions were placed as close to the central stars as possible. The results show that the ejecta-type nebula RCW 58 is a clumpy shell expanding regularly at about 110 km/s, as opposed to the chaotic expansion concluded from the earlier Fabry-Perot observations. For the three windblown bubbles, NGC 2359, NGC 3199, and NGC 6888, the small-scale structures revealed in the echelle data can explain the apparently discrepant expansion velocities derived from the previous large-aperture Fabry-Perot observations. 20 references

  15. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Style, Robert W.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Allen, Benjamin; Jensen, Katharine E.; Foote, Henry P.; Wettlaufer, John S.; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and synthetic materials. Eshelby’s inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite’s bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby’s theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet’s deformation is strongly size-dependent, with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straightforward extension of Eshelby’s theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive stiffening of solids by fluid inclusions is expected whenever inclusion radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young’s modulus of the solid matrix. These results suggest that surface tension can be a simple and effective mechanism to cloak the far-field elastic signature of inclusions.

  16. 31P NMR imaging of solid bone with solid echoes combined with refocused gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT; Kruger, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    This note on 31 p NMR imaging presents some observations of the solid echoes acquired from solid bone and how the proposed solid echo imaging method can be employed to obtain the 31 images of solid bone. (UK)

  17. optimisation of solid optimisation of solid state fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    from banana peels via solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger. ermentation ... [7,8], apple pomace [9], banana peels [4], date palm. [10], carob ... powder, jams, juice, bar, biscuits, wine etc results in ... Yeast extract was taken as nitrogen.

  18. The Oxford solid state basics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    The study of solids is one of the richest, most exciting, and most successful branches of physics. While the subject of solid state physics is often viewed as dry and tedious this new book presents the topic instead as an exciting exposition of fundamental principles and great intellectual breakthroughs. Beginning with a discussion of how the study of heat capacity of solids ushered in the quantum revolution, the author presents the key ideas of the field while emphasizing the deepunderlying concepts. The book begins with a discussion of the Einstein/Debye model of specific heat, and the Drude

  19. Solid state physics for metallurgists

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in

  20. Solid fiber Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1989-01-01

    One- and two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic computations have been performed to study the behavior of solid deuterium fiber Z-pinch experiments performed at Los Alamos and the Naval Research Laboratory. The computations use a tabulated atomic data base and ''cold-start'' initial conditions. The computations predict that the solid fiber persists longer in existing experiments than previously expected and that the discharge actually consists of a relatively low-density, hot plasma which has been ablated from the fiber. The computations exhibit m = 0 behavior in the hot, exterior plasma prior to complete ablation of the solid fiber. The m = 0 behavior enhances the fiber ablation rate. 10 refs., 5 figs

  1. Solid State Theory An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields.

  2. Quantitative and Isolated Measurement of Far-Field Light Scattering by a Single Nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyeong; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Kim, Jinhyung; Ee, Ho-Seok; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Park, Hong-Gyu; Seo, Min-Kyo

    2017-11-01

    Light scattering by nanostructures has facilitated research on various optical phenomena and applications by interfacing the near fields and free-propagating radiation. However, direct quantitative measurement of far-field scattering by a single nanostructure on the wavelength scale or less is highly challenging. Conventional back-focal-plane imaging covers only a limited solid angle determined by the numerical aperture of the objectives and suffers from optical aberration and distortion. Here, we present a quantitative measurement of the differential far-field scattering cross section of a single nanostructure over the full hemisphere. In goniometer-based far-field scanning with a high signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 27.4 dB, weak scattering signals are efficiently isolated and detected under total-internal-reflection illumination. Systematic measurements reveal that the total and differential scattering cross sections of a Au nanorod are determined by the plasmonic Fabry-Perot resonances and the phase-matching conditions to the free-propagating radiation, respectively. We believe that our angle-resolved far-field measurement scheme provides a way to investigate and evaluate the physical properties and performance of nano-optical materials and phenomena.

  3. Solid oxide electrolyser cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejgaard Jensen, S.

    2006-12-15

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) produced at Riso National Laboratory was tested as steam electrolysers under various current densities, operating temperatures and steam partial pressures. At 950 deg. C and a cell voltage of 1.48V the current density was -3.6 A/cm{sup 2} with app. 30% H{sub 2} + 70% H{sub 2}O in the inlet gas and a H{sub 2}O utilization of app. 40%. The tested SOECs were also used for CO{sub 2} electrolysis. Economy studies of CO and H2 production show that especially H{sub 2} production can be competitive in areas with cheap electricity. Assuming the above described initial performance and a lifetime of 10 years it is possible to achieve a production price of 0.7 US dollar/kg H{sub 2} with an electricity price of 1.3 US cent/kWh. The cell voltage was measured as function of time. In test of about two month of duration a long-term degradation was observed. At 850 deg. C, -0.5 A/cm{sup 2} with 50 vol% H{sub 2} the degradation rate was app. 20 mV/1000h. It was shown that the degradation happens at Ni/YSZ-electrode. The long term degradation is probably caused by coarsening of the Ni-particles. After onset of electrolysis operation a transient passivation/reactivation phenomena with duration of several days was observed. It was shown that the phenomenon is attributed to the SiO{sub 2} contamination at the Ni/YSZ electrode-electrolyte interface. The SiO{sub 2} arises from the albite glass sealing (NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}) that surrounds the electrode. Si may enter the Ni/YSZ electrode via the reaction Si(OH){sub 4}(g) {r_reversible} SiO{sub 2}(l)+H{sub 2}O(g). At the active sites of the Ni/YSZ electrode steam is reduced via the reaction H{sub 2}O - 2e {yields} H{sub 2}+O{sup 2-} . This shifts the equilibrium of the first reaction to form SiO{sub 2}(l) at the active sites. After a certain time the sealing crystallizes and the SiO{sub 2}(l) evaporates from the active sites and the cell reactivates. The passivation is shown to relate to a build up of a

  4. Cosserat modeling of cellular solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onck, P.R.

    Cellular solids inherit their macroscopic mechanical properties directly from the cellular microstructure. However, the characteristic material length scale is often not small compared to macroscopic dimensions, which limits the applicability of classical continuum-type constitutive models. Cosserat

  5. Solid mechanics a variational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive L

    2013-01-01

    Solid Mechanics: A Variational Approach, Augmented Edition presents a lucid and thoroughly developed approach to solid mechanics for students engaged in the study of elastic structures not seen in other texts currently on the market. This work offers a clear and carefully prepared exposition of variational techniques as they are applied to solid mechanics. Unlike other books in this field, Dym and Shames treat all the necessary theory needed for the study of solid mechanics and include extensive applications. Of particular note is the variational approach used in developing consistent structural theories and in obtaining exact and approximate solutions for many problems.  Based on both semester and year-long courses taught to undergraduate seniors and graduate students, this text is geared for programs in aeronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering, and in engineering science. The authors’ objective is two-fold: first, to introduce the student to the theory of structures (one- and two-dimensional) as ...

  6. Radiation damage of nonmetallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goland, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    A review of data and information on radiation damage in nonmetallic solids is presented. Discussions are included on defects in nonmetals, radiation damage processes in nonmetals, electronic damage processes, physical damage processes, atomic displacement, photochemical damage processes, and ion implantation

  7. Contact angles on stretched solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Liz; Snoeijer, Jacco

    2017-11-01

    The surface energy of solid interfaces plays a central role in wetting, as they dictate the liquid contact angle. Yet, it has been challenging to measure the solid surface energies independently, without making use of Young's law. Here we present Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations by which we measure the surface properties for all interfaces, including the solids. We observe change in contact angles upon stretching the solid substrates, showing that the surface energy is actually strain dependent. This is clear evidence of the so-called Shuttleworth effect, making it necessary to distinguish surface energy from surface tension. We discuss how this effect gives rise to a new class of elasto-capillary phenomena. ERC Consolidator Grant No. 616918.

  8. The laboratory of irradiated solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    After a brief recall of results obtained these last twenty years researches in progress are described. Are studied: Solid state physics, particle-matter interactions, crystal defects, nuclear materials. A list of main projects is given [fr

  9. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  10. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials, and nonlinear crystals. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  11. Solid Waste Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of the Solid Waste Management Program Plan (SWMPP) is to provide a summary level comprehensive approach for the storage, treatment, and disposal of current and future solid waste received at the Hanford Site (from onsite and offsite generators) in a manner compliant with current and evolving regulations and orders (federal, state, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)). The Plan also presents activities required for disposal of selected wastes currently in retrievable storage. The SWMPP provides a central focus for the description and control of cost, scope, and schedule of Hanford Site solid waste activities, and provides a vehicle for ready communication of the scope of those activities to onsite and offsite organizations. This Plan represents the most complete description available of Hanford Site Solid Waste Management (SWM) activities and the interfaces between those activities. It will be updated annually to reflect changes in plans due to evolving regulatory requirements and/or the SWM mission. 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Solid Waste Management in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Aljaradin, Mohammad; Persson, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste became one of the major environmental problems in Jordan, which has been aggravated over the past 15 years by the sharp increase in the volume of waste generated as well as qualitative changes in its composition. The challenges face solid waste management (SWM) in Jordan are numerous. Financial constraints, shortage of proper equipment and limited availability of trained and skilled manpower together with massive and sudden population increases due to several waves of forced mi...

  13. Solid Waste Management in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste became one of the major environmental problems in Jordan, which has been aggravated over the past 15 years by the sharp increase in the volume of waste generated as well as qualitative changes in its composition. The challenges face solid waste management (SWM) in Jordan are numerous. Financial constraints, shortage of proper equipment and limited availability of trained and skilled manpower together with massive and sudden population increases due to several waves of forced migra...

  14. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  15. Drawing plan for solid works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kuk Hwan; Kim, Hyung Seop; Yu, Dae Won

    2004-02-01

    This book deals with beginning solid works 2003, setting system option, setting tool group, setting document and storing part template file. It also introduces works of basic solid works modeling such as making of square, circuit, plate washer, square column, block I, block II, link, cover plate, position block and housing. The last part explains drawing of fix block, stopper plate III, bracket, cover, belt pulley, circle plate, square, block, stopper block, angle block, washer, circle block and link.878

  16. Studies in solid state ionics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Rosenkranz, J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies performed over 10 years by the high temperature chemistry group are reviewed. Attention was paid to different aspects of ionic solids from the point of view of practical as well as theoretical needs of nuclear technology. Thus ceramic fuel compound like uranates, urania-thoria system, solid electrolytes based on oxides and ionics transformations were studied under reactor irradiation. (author) 13 figs., 3 tabs., 46 refs

  17. Design and Optimization of Dual Optical Fiber MEMS Pressure Sensor For Biomedical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagang, Guo; Po, Samuel Ng Choon; Hock, Francis Tay Eng; Rongming, Lin

    2006-01-01

    A novel Single Deeply Corrugated Diaphragm (SDCD) based dual optical fiber Fabry-Perot pressure sensor for blood pressure measurement is proposed. Both mechanical and optical simulations are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and superior performance of the proposed sensor. Result shows that less than 2% nonlinearity can be achieved for the proposed sensor using optimal Fabry-Perot microcavity. Also, the fabrication process of the proposed sensor is given, instead of complicated fusion bonding process, only bulk and surface micromachining techniques are required which facilitate the mass production of such biocompatible and disposable pressure sensors

  18. Measurements of the Michigan Airglow Observatory from 1971 to 1973 at Ester Dome Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcwatters, K. D.; Meriwether, J. W.; Hays, P. B.; Nagy, A. F.

    1973-01-01

    The Michigan Airglow Observatory (MAO) was located at Ester Dome Observatory, College, Alaska (latitude: 64 deg 53'N, longitude: 148 deg 03'W) since October, 1971. The MAO houses a 6-inch Fabry-Perot interferometer, a 2-channel monitoring photometer and a 4-channel tilting filter photometer. The Fabry-Perot interferometer was used extensively during the winter observing seasons of 1971-72 and 1972-73 to measure temperature and mass motions of the neutral atmosphere above approximately 90 kilometers altitude. Neutral wind data from the 1971-72 observing season as measured by observing the Doppler shift of the gamma 6300 A atomic oxygen emission line are presented.

  19. Semi solid metal processing: The fraction solid dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafisi, S.; Emadi, D.; Ghomashchi, R.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects in semi solid metal (SSM) processing is to determine the actual volume fraction of the solid at the processing temperature. The fraction has great impact on the SSM slurry viscosity and the subsequent filling of the mold in the casting stage. Three methods, namely quantitative metallography, thermodynamic calculation, and thermal analysis are employed to investigate and clarify the contradictory open literature reports about the real value of the volume fraction of primary particles. It is reported that the discrepancies between the results obtained by different methods are caused mainly by variations in cooling rates and by coarsening of the primaries during the quenching process

  20. Semi solid metal processing: The fraction solid dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafisi, S. [EVRAZ Inc. NA 100 Armour Road, Regina, SK, S4P 3C7 (Canada)], E-mail: Shahrooz.Nafisi@evrazincna.com; Emadi, D. [CEPG, CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 1M1 (Canada); Ghomashchi, R. [Advanced Materials and Processing Research Institute, Suite 122, A7-1390 Major MacKenzie, ON, L4S 0A1 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    One of the most challenging aspects in semi solid metal (SSM) processing is to determine the actual volume fraction of the solid at the processing temperature. The fraction has great impact on the SSM slurry viscosity and the subsequent filling of the mold in the casting stage. Three methods, namely quantitative metallography, thermodynamic calculation, and thermal analysis are employed to investigate and clarify the contradictory open literature reports about the real value of the volume fraction of primary particles. It is reported that the discrepancies between the results obtained by different methods are caused mainly by variations in cooling rates and by coarsening of the primaries during the quenching process.

  1. Systems for production of polymer encapsuated solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, William L.; Aines, Roger D.; Baker, Sarah E.; Duoss, Eric B.; Maiti, Amitesh; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Vericella, John J.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Hardin, IV, James O.; Floyd, III, William C.

    2017-11-21

    Encapsulated solids are made by first encapsulating precursor materials in a polymer shell. The precursors are some combination of solids, liquids, gases, and/or gels. The precursors are then transformed into solids by emplacement of the capsule in an environment where gas or fluid transport into or out of the polymer shell causes transformation into solids.

  2. The SoLid experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalousis, L. N.; SoLid Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The SoLid experiment is a short-baseline project, probing the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos using a novel detector design. Installed at a very short distance of ˜ 5.5 - 10 m from the BR2 research reactor at SCK·CEN in Mol (Belgium) it will be able to search for active-to-sterile neutrino oscillations, exploring most of the allowed parameter region. SoLid will make use of a highly segmented detector, built from 5 cm PVT cubes, interleaved with 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) screens, and read out by optical fibers and Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). The detector granularity allows for the localization of the positron and neutron signals from antineutrino interactions and the robust neutron identification capabilities, offered by the 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) inorganic scintillator, provide background suppression to an unparalleled level. This paper reviews the experimental layout and current status of SoLid. Emphasis is put on the challenges one faces towards this measurement, focusing on the decisions and strategy adapted by the SoLid collaboration. The analysis scheme and the details of the oscillation framework are also presented, highlighting the sensitivity contour and physics potential of SoLid. Finally, other physics topics, such as, reactor monitoring or measurement of the 235U spectrum are also covered.

  3. Boundary determinations for trivariate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchaineau, M; Joy, K I

    1999-01-01

    The trivariate tensor-product B-spline solid is a direct extension of the B-spline patch and has been shown to be useful in the creation and visualization of free-form geometric solids. Visualizing these solid objects requires the determination of the boundary surface of the solid, which is a combination of parametric and implicit surfaces. This paper presents a method that determines the implicit boundary surface by examination of the Jacobian determinant of the defining B-spline function. Using an approximation to this determinant, the domain space is adaptively subdivided until a mesh can be determined such that the boundary surface is close to linear in the cells of the mesh. A variation of the marching cubes algorithm is then used to draw the surface. Interval approximation techniques are used to approximate the Jacobian determinant and to approximate the Jacobian determinant gradient for use in the adaptive subdivision methods. This technique can be used to create free-form solid objects, useful in geometric modeling applications

  4. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  5. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

    2010-09-01

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  6. Method of melting solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Katsuyuki; Mizuno, Ryokichi; Kuwana, Katsumi; Sawada, Yoshihisa; Komatsu, Fumiaki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the volume reduction treatment of a HEPA filter containing various solid wastes, particularly acid digestion residue, or an asbestos separator at a relatively low temperature range. Method: Solid waste to be heated and molten is high melting point material treated by ''acid digestion treatment'' for treating solid waste, e.g. a HEPA filter or polyvinyl chloride, etc. of an atomic power facility treated with nitric acid or the like. When this material is heated and molten by an electric furnace, microwave melting furnace, etc., boron oxide, sodium boride, sodium carbonate, etc. is added as a melting point lowering agent. When it is molten in this state, its melting point is lowered, and it becomes remarkably fluid, and the melting treatment is facilitated. Solidified material thus obtained through the melting step has excellent denseness and further large volume reduction rate of the solidified material. (Yoshihara, H.)

  7. IPNS grooved, solid methane moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.; Schulke, A.W.; Scott, T.L.; Wozniak, D.G.; Benson, B.E.; Leyda, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    There are two motives for using cold moderators in pulsed neutron sources, to provide higher fluxes of long-wavelength neutrons, and to extend the epithermal range with its short pulse structure to lower energies. For both these purposes solid methane, operated at the lowest possible temperatures, is the best material we know of. Two problems accompany the use of solid methane in high power sources, namely heat transport in view of the low thermal conductivity of solid methane, and deterioration due to radiation damage. We have designed a system suitable to operate in IPNS, subject to nuclear heating of about 25 W, which incorporates an aluminum foam matrix to conduct the heat from within the moderator. We report the results of the first few months' operation and of a few tests that we have performed

  8. Geometrical setting of solid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiala, Zdenek

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solid mechanics within the Riemannian symmetric manifold GL (3, R)/O (3, R). → Generalized logarithmic strain. → Consistent linearization. → Incremental principle of virtual power. → Time-discrete approximation. - Abstract: The starting point in the geometrical setting of solid mechanics is to represent deformation process of a solid body as a trajectory in a convenient space with Riemannian geometry, and then to use the corresponding tools for its analysis. Based on virtual power of internal stresses, we show that such a configuration space is the (globally) symmetric space of symmetric positive-definite real matrices. From this unifying point of view, we shall analyse the logarithmic strain, the stress rate, as well as linearization and intrinsic integration of corresponding evolution equation.

  9. Organic solid-state lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources, potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. Appeared in the mid 60’s as solid-state alternatives for liquid dye lasers, they recently gained a new dimension after the demonstration of organic semiconductor lasers in the 90's. More recently, new perspectives appeared at the nanoscale, with organic polariton and surface plasmon lasers. After a brief reminder to laser physics, a first chapter exposes what makes organic solid-state organic lasers specific. The laser architectures used in organic lasers are then reviewed, with a state-of-the-art review of the performances of devices with regard to output power, threshold, lifetime, beam quality etc. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments with a special focus on the challenges remaining for achieving direct electrical pumping of organic semiconductor lasers. A last chapter covers the applications of organic solid-state lasers.

  10. Muonium localization in solid krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storchak, V.; Cox, S.F.J.; Brewer, J.H.; Morris, G.D.

    1995-06-01

    Muonium spin relaxation in zero, longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields has been studied in solid and liquid krypton in the temperature range from 2 K to 120 K. In the solid at low temperatures, the spin dynamics exhibit features characteristic of a magnetically dilute crystal, permitting measurements of exceptionally low muonium diffusion rates. At the lowest temperatures, a static Kubo-Toyabe relaxation function has been observed for the first time for the atomic muonium state, indicating strong interstitial localization in the Kr lattice at low temperatures; muonium is determined to be localized at the tetrahedral interstitial position. At high temperatures, muonium diffusion in solid Kr exhibits a non-classical behaviour. (author). 31 refs., 6 figs

  11. Electrons and Disorder in Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, VF

    2005-01-01

    This book has been written for those who study or professionally deal with solid state physics. It contains modern concepts about the physics of electrons in solids. It is written using a minimum of mathematics. The emphasis is laid on various physical models aimed at stimulating creative thinking. The book helps the reader choose the most efficient scheme of an experiment or the optimal algorithm of a calculation. Boltzmann and hopping types of conductivity are compared. Thequalitative theory of weak localization is presented and its links with the true localization and metal-insulator transi

  12. Onsager Reciprocity in Premelting Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, S. S. L.; Spannuth, M. J.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    The diffusive motion of foreign particles dispersed in a premelting solid is analyzed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. We determine the mass diffusion coefficient, thermal diffusion coefficient and Soret coefficient of the particles in the dilute limit, and find good agreement with experimental data. In contrast to liquid suspensions, the unique nature of premelting solids allows us to derive an expression for the Dufour coefficient and independently verify the Onsager reciprocal relation coupling diffusion to the flow of heat. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. Continuum mechanics of electromagnetic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, GA

    1988-01-01

    This volume is a rigorous cross-disciplinary theoretical treatment of electromechanical and magnetomechanical interactions in elastic solids. Using the modern style of continuum thermomechanics (but without excessive formalism) it starts from basic principles of mechanics and electromagnetism, and goes on to unify these two fields in a common framework. It treats linear and nonlinear static and dynamic problems in a variety of elastic solids such as piezoelectrics, electricity conductors, ferromagnets, ferroelectrics, ionic crystals and ceramics. Chapters 1-3 are introductory, describing the e

  14. Onsager Reciprocity in Premelting Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, S. S. L.

    2009-02-01

    The diffusive motion of foreign particles dispersed in a premelting solid is analyzed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. We determine the mass diffusion coefficient, thermal diffusion coefficient and Soret coefficient of the particles in the dilute limit, and find good agreement with experimental data. In contrast to liquid suspensions, the unique nature of premelting solids allows us to derive an expression for the Dufour coefficient and independently verify the Onsager reciprocal relation coupling diffusion to the flow of heat. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  15. Introduction to solid state electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY

    1989-01-01

    This textbook is specifically tailored for undergraduate engineering courses offered in the junior year, providing a thorough understanding of solid state electronics without relying on the prerequisites of quantum mechanics. In contrast to most solid state electronics texts currently available, with their generalized treatments of the same topics, this is the first text to focus exclusively and in meaningful detail on introductory material. The original text has already been in use for 10 years. In this new edition, additional problems have been added at the end of most chapters. These proble

  16. Power generation from solid fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Spliethoff, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Power Generation from Solid Fuels introduces the different technologies to produce heat and power from solid fossil (hard coal, brown coal) and renewable (biomass, waste) fuels, such as combustion and gasification, steam power plants and combined cycles etc. The book discusses technologies with regard to their efficiency, emissions, operational behavior, residues and costs. Besides proven state of the art processes, the focus is on the potential of new technologies currently under development or demonstration. The main motivation of the book is to explain the technical possibilities for reduci

  17. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  18. Solid-phase peptide synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an introduction to and overview of peptide chemistry with a focus on solid-phase peptide synthesis. The background, the most common reagents, and some mechanisms are presented. This chapter also points to the different chapters and puts them into perspective.......This chapter provides an introduction to and overview of peptide chemistry with a focus on solid-phase peptide synthesis. The background, the most common reagents, and some mechanisms are presented. This chapter also points to the different chapters and puts them into perspective....

  19. Polymer liquids fracture like solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Hassager, Ole

    2017-01-01

    While fracture in brittle solids has been studied for centuries until today, there are few studies on fracture in polymer liquids. Recent developments in experimental techniques, especially the combination of controlled filament stretching rheometry and high speed imaging, have opened new windows...... into the detailed study of fracture processes for polymer liquids. High speed imaging shows that polymer liquids fracture like solids with initiation and propagation of an edge fracture. However, remarkable features such as highly reproducible critical stress, independent appearance of multiple fractures...

  20. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo S Caram; Natalie Foster

    1998-01-01

    The strain-stress behavior of a wet granular media was measured using a split Parfitt tensile tester. In all cases the stress increases linearly with distance until the maximum uniaxial tensile stress is reached. The stress then decreases exponentially with distance after this maximum is reached. The linear region indicates that wet solids behave elastically for stresses below the tensile stresses and can store significant elastic energy. The elastic deformation cannot be explained by analyzing the behavior of individual capillary bridges and may require accounting for the deformation of the solids particles. The elastic modulus of the wet granular material remains unexplained

  1. Wave propagation in elastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, Jan

    1984-01-01

    The propagation of mechanical disturbances in solids is of interest in many branches of the physical scienses and engineering. This book aims to present an account of the theory of wave propagation in elastic solids. The material is arranged to present an exposition of the basic concepts of mechanical wave propagation within a one-dimensional setting and a discussion of formal aspects of elastodynamic theory in three dimensions, followed by chapters expounding on typical wave propagation phenomena, such as radiation, reflection, refraction, propagation in waveguides, and diffraction. The treat

  2. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    A must-have textbook for any undergraduate studying solid state physics. This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t foll

  3. Impulse approximation in solid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyde, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    The incoherent dynamic form factor S/sub i/(Q, ω) is evaluated in solid helium for comparison with the impulse approximation (IA). The purpose is to determine the Q values for which the IA is valid for systems such a helium where the atoms interact via a potential having a steeply repulsive but not infinite hard core. For 3 He, S/sub i/(Q, ω) is evaluated from first principles, beginning with the pair potential. The density of states g(ω) is evaluated using the self-consistent phonon theory and S/sub i/(Q,ω) is expressed in terms of g(ω). For solid 4 He resonable models of g(ω) using observed input parameters are used to evaluate S/sub i/(Q,ω). In both cases S/sub i/(Q, ω) is found to approach the impulse approximation S/sub IA/(Q, ω) closely for wave vector transfers Q> or approx. =20 A -1 . The difference between S/sub i/ and S/sub IA/, which is due to final state interactions of the scattering atom with the remainder of the atoms in the solid, is also predominantly antisymmetric in (ω-ω/sub R/), where ω/sub R/ is the recoil frequency. This suggests that the symmetrization procedure proposed by Sears to eliminate final state contributions should work well in solid helium

  4. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Positron annhilation in nonmetallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizek, A.; Sob, M.; Dekhtyar, I. Ya.

    1979-01-01

    In positron annihilation investigations of nonmetallic solids, the standard deviation of the gaussian component of the angular correlation curve is elucidated as material constant. It is related to the apparent radius of the chemical unit of the substance in question. (Auth.)

  6. Environmental pollution from solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.; Krishnan, S.S.; Accetone, P.; Arifin, N.; Ko, M.M.C.; Nhan, C.; Nguyen, L.; Vela, L.; Yee, T.

    1992-01-01

    Research completed under the CRP during the past two years has encompassed several related aspects of environmental problems associated with solid wastes: assessment of major sources of toxic elements in a variety of solid waste forms, their leachability by simulated groundwater or rain/acid rain and the determination of the contribution of hospital incinerator to atmospheric releases. The summary of the findings of these investigations are given in this report. Unexpected high levels of cadmium have been found in many solid wastes. Leaching tests indicate that, in some cases, over 70% of this can be leached out into the nearby waterways. Combustibility tests indicated that 35 to 45% of it is emitted to the atmosphere during burning. This explains the increased levels of cadmium in air particulates sampled downwind from waste incinerators. Plastic items in municipal and hospital wastes were particularly elevated in Cd, Cl, Cr, Ba and Zn. Up to 1300 μg/g of Cd was found in some domestic items. By inference, Pb also is found in some common plastics but the current studies did not permit Pb determination in solid wastes, but only in aerosols. (author). 8 tabs

  7. Multiple solid-phase microextraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, EHM; de Jong, GJ

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of multiple solid-phase microextraction are described and the principle is illustrated with the extraction of lidocaine from aqueous solutions. With multiple extraction under non-equilibrium conditions considerably less time is required in order to obtain an extraction yield that

  8. Thermotransport in interstitial solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogel'son, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of literature data the problem of thermotransport of impurities (H, N, O, C) in interstitial solid solutions is considered. It is shown that from experimental data on the thermotransport an important parameter of dissolved atoms can be found which characterizes atom state in these solutions-enthalpy of transport

  9. Machine for compacting solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.

    1981-11-01

    Machine for compacting solid residues, particularly bulky radioactive residues, constituted of a horizontally actuated punch and a fixed compression anvil, in which the residues are first compacted horizontally and then vertically. Its salient characteristic is that the punch and the compression anvil have embossments on the compression side and interpenetrating plates in the compression position [fr

  10. Solids recycling in solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    In an extraction process for extracting values from a first stream into a substantially immiscible second stream using a multi-compartmental rotary contactor, unwanted solids formed in the contactor and discharged at least partly with the the first stream are separated and re-entered into the contactor intermediate the points at which the streams are discharged. (author)

  11. Radiation sensitive solid state devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.M.; Ralph, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A solid state radiation sensitive device is described employing JFETs as the sensitive elements. Two terminal construction is achieved by using a common conductor to capacitively couple to the JFET gate and to one of the source and drain connections. (auth)

  12. Geometrical setting of solid mechanics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 326, č. 8 (2011), s. 1983-1997 ISSN 0003-4916 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : solid mechanics * Lagrangian system * time-discrete approximation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.857, year: 2011

  13. Contacting particulate solids with liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, T.D.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for contacting particulate solids with a fluid. The particular applications described are 1) an acid dissolver for dissolving plutonium from plutonium contaminated ash produced by the incineration of waste such as rubber gloves, tissue paper etc. and 2) apparatus for dissolving gel spheres of nuclear fuel material. The liquid, e.g. acid for use in a leaching process flows through a vertical conduit and past a series of baffles spaced along the axis of the conduit. Each baffle defines a mixing chamber and provides a small gap around its perimeter between the baffle and the wall of the conduit. The baffles are provided with sloping top surfaces for preventing solid particles from settling on the baffles and sloping undersurfaces to improve mixing of the liquid and the solid particles. The liquid flows upwards in the conduit but solid particles may be fed from the top or from the bottom of the conduit to mix with the liquid. Gas may be introduced to promote improved flow conditions. (U.K.)

  14. Solid waste as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave

    2004-01-01

    The solid wastes as sources of heat and electrical energy were analysed. Typical structure of solid waste and organic products from: municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes and agricultural wastes for some developed countries are presented. Some dates of agricultural wastes for R. Macedonia are presented. The structure and percentage of organic products and energy content of solid wastes are estimated. The quantity of heat from solid wastes depending of the waste mass is presented. The heat quantity of some solid wastes component and the mixed municipal waste is presented. (Original)

  15. System and process for dissolution of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liezers, Martin; Farmer, III, Orville T.

    2017-10-10

    A system and process are disclosed for dissolution of solids and "difficult-to-dissolve" solids. A solid sample may be ablated in an ablation device to generate nanoscale particles. Nanoparticles may then swept into a coupled plasma device operating at atmospheric pressure where the solid nanoparticles are atomized. The plasma exhaust may be delivered directly into an aqueous fluid to form a solution containing the atomized and dissolved solids. The composition of the resulting solution reflects the composition of the original solid sample.

  16. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  17. Assessing total and volatile solids in municipal solid waste samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste is broadly generated in everyday activities and its treatment is a global challenge. Total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) are typical control parameters measured in biological treatments. In this study, the TS and VS were determined using the standard methods, as well as introducing some variants: (i) the drying temperature for the TS assays was 105°C, 70°C and 50°C and (ii) the VS were determined using different heating ramps from room tempature to 550°C. TS could be determined at either 105°C or 70°C, but oven residence time was tripled at 70°C, increasing from 48 to 144 h. The VS could be determined by smouldering the sample (where the sample is burnt without a flame), which avoids the release of fumes and odours in the laboratory. However, smouldering can generate undesired pyrolysis products as a consequence of carbonization, which leads to VS being underestimated. Carbonization can be avoided using slow heating ramps to prevent the oxygen limitation. Furthermore, crushing the sample cores decreased the time to reach constant weight and decreased the potential to underestimate VS.

  18. Methods and machinery for pulverising solid wastes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpkins, MJ

    1976-11-01

    Full Text Available This report is published on behalf of the South African Committee for Solid Wastes which in turn advises the National Committee for Environmental Sciences on problems concerned with Solid Wastes in South Africa. It is particularly concerned...

  19. Characterization of Carbamazepine-Loaded Solid Lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loaded solid lipid nanoparticles by RESS as well as their characterization has been achieved in this study. Keywords: Rapid expansion of supercritical fluid, Stearic acid, Solid lipid nanoparticles, Carbamazepine, Co-precipitation ...

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, gives researchers access to models and simulations that predict how solid oxide fuel cells...

  1. Durability of Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knibbe, Ruth; Hauch, Anne; Hjelm, Johan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years extended focus has been placed on monitoring and understanding degradation mechanisms in both solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide electrolysis cells. The time-consuming nature of degradation experiments and the disparate conclusions from experiment reproductions indicates...... that not all degradation mechanisms are fully understood. Traditionally, cell degradation has been attributed to the materials, processing and cell operating conditions. More recently, focus has been placed on the effect of raw material and gas impurities and their long-term effect on cell degradation. Minor...... impurities have been found to play a significant role in degradation and in some cases can overshadow the cell operation condition related degradation phenomenon. In this review, several degradation diagnostic tools are discussed, a benchmark for a desirable degradation rate is proposed and degradation...

  2. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    Details of the design, operation, testing and recovery procedures of the reusable solid rocket boosters (SRB) are given. Using a composite PBAN propellant, they will provide the primary thrust (six million pounds maximum at 20 s after ignition) within a 3 g acceleration constraint, as well as thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle. The drogues were tested to a load of 305,000 pounds, and the main parachutes to 205,000. Insulation in the solid rocket motor (SRM) will be provided by asbestos-silica dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber ('asbestos filled NBR') except in high erosion areas (principally in the aft dome), where a carbon-filled ethylene propylene diene monomer-neopreme rubber will be utilized. Furthermore, twenty uses for the SRM nozzle will be allowed by its ablative materials, which are principally carbon cloth and silica cloth phenolics.

  3. Krypton retention on solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental laboratory program was conducted to develop economical solid adsorbents for the retention of krypton from a dissolver off-gas stream. The study indicates that a solid adsorbent system is feasible and competitive with other developing systems which utilize fluorocarbon absorption nd cryogenic distillation. This technology may have potential applications not only in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, but also in nuclear reactors and in environmental monitoring. Of the 13 prospective adsorbents evaluated with respect to adsorption capacity and cost, the commercially available hydrogen mordenite was the most cost-effective material at subambient temperatures (-40 0 to -80 0 C). Silver mordenite has a higher capacity for krypton retention, but is 50 times more expensive than hydrogen mordenite

  4. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  5. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This book is written from an industrial perspective and provides a detailed discussion of solid-state lasers, their characteristics, design and construction. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations. The book is aimed mainly at the practicing scientist or engineer who is interested in the design or use of solid-state lasers, but the comprehensive treatment of the subject will make the work useful also to students of laser physics who seek to supplement their theoretical knowledge with engineering information. In order to present the subject as clearly as possible, phenomenological descriptions using models have been used rather than abstract mathematical descriptions. This results in a simplified presentation. The descriptions are enhanced by the inclusion of numerical and technical data, tables and graphs. This new edition has been updated and revised to take account of important new developments, concepts, and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first and second...

  6. Nanoscale Mixing of Soft Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Sangwoo; Soto, Haidy E.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the state of mixing on the molecular scale in soft solids is challenging. Concentrated solutions of micelles formed by self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers in squalane (C 30 H 62 ) adopt a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, with glassy PS cores. Utilizing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and isotopic labeling ( 1 H and 2 H (D) polystyrene blocks) in a contrast-matching solvent (a mixture of squalane and perdeuterated squalane), we demonstrate quantitatively the remarkable fact that a commercial mixer can create completely random mixtures of micelles with either normal, PS(H), or deuterium-labeled, PS(D), cores on a well-defined bcc lattice. The resulting SANS intensity is quantitatively modeled by the form factor of a single spherical core. These results demonstrate both the possibility of achieving complete nanoscale mixing in a soft solid and the use of SANS to quantify the randomness.

  7. Clustering fossils in solid inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhshik, Mohammad, E-mail: m.akhshik@ipm.ir [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    In solid inflation the single field non-Gaussianity consistency condition is violated. As a result, the long tenor perturbation induces observable clustering fossils in the form of quadrupole anisotropy in large scale structure power spectrum. In this work we revisit the bispectrum analysis for the scalar-scalar-scalar and tensor-scalar-scalar bispectrum for the general parameter space of solid. We consider the parameter space of the model in which the level of non-Gaussianity generated is consistent with the Planck constraints. Specializing to this allowed range of model parameter we calculate the quadrupole anisotropy induced from the long tensor perturbations on the power spectrum of the scalar perturbations. We argue that the imprints of clustering fossil from primordial gravitational waves on large scale structures can be detected from the future galaxy surveys.

  8. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The present volume 46 of Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft which was held from 27 to 31 March 2006 in Dresden, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The topis range from zero-dimensional physics in quantum dots, molecules and nanoparticles over one-dimensional physics in nanowires and 1d systems to more applied subjects like optoelectronics and materials science in thin films. The contributions span the whole width of solid-state physics from truly basic science to applications.

  9. Mathematical modelling in solid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sofonea, Mircea; Steigmann, David

    2017-01-01

    This book presents new research results in multidisciplinary fields of mathematical and numerical modelling in mechanics. The chapters treat the topics: mathematical modelling in solid, fluid and contact mechanics nonconvex variational analysis with emphasis to nonlinear solid and structural mechanics numerical modelling of problems with non-smooth constitutive laws, approximation of variational and hemivariational inequalities, numerical analysis of discrete schemes, numerical methods and the corresponding algorithms, applications to mechanical engineering numerical aspects of non-smooth mechanics, with emphasis on developing accurate and reliable computational tools mechanics of fibre-reinforced materials behaviour of elasto-plastic materials accounting for the microstructural defects definition of structural defects based on the differential geometry concepts or on the atomistic basis interaction between phase transformation and dislocations at nano-scale energetic arguments bifurcation and post-buckling a...

  10. Executable Operational Semantics of Solidity

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Jiao; Kan, Shuanglong; Lin, Shang-Wei; Sanan, David; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Bitcoin has attracted everyone's attention and interest recently. Ethereum (ETH), a second generation cryptocurrency, extends Bitcoin's design by offering a Turing-complete programming language called Solidity to develop smart contracts. Smart contracts allow creditable execution of contracts on EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) without third parties. Developing correct smart contracts is challenging due to its decentralized computation nature. Buggy smart contracts may lead to huge financial lo...

  11. Solid state and materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Surface and sub-surface regions of solids are modified by rapid melting and quenching, using a high-powered, pulsed (30 ns) ruby laser. The main emphasis of this work is on laser annealing, epitaxy and doping of silicon. Computer programs have been developed to calculate the heat-flow which takes place during pulsed laser irradiation. From such calculations, information can be obtained about temperature profiles, melt depths, recrystallization velocities and quench rates. 13 figs., 9 refs., 1 tab

  12. Solid waste electron beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The possible applications of electron accelerators for solid waste treatment are discussed in the report. The elaborated technologies allow to recycle of materials (e.g. cellulosic materials in municipal waste), improve their hygienic standards (agricultural usage of sludge from municipal waste water treatment) and reduce harmful to environment chemical usage (cellulose degradation). These are environment friendly advanced technologies which meets demands waste recycling. (author)

  13. Solid waste electron beam treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A G

    1998-07-01

    The possible applications of electron accelerators for solid waste treatment are discussed in the report. The elaborated technologies allow to recycle of materials (e.g., cellulosic materials in municipal waste), improve their hygienic standards (agricultural usage of sludge from municipal waste water treatment) and reduce harmful to environment chemical usage (cellulose degradation). These are environment friendly advanced technologies which meets demands waste recycling. (author)

  14. Division of solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, O.

    1983-09-01

    This report gives a survey of the present research projects at the division of solid state physics, Inst. of Technology, Uppsala University. The projects fall within the fields of magnetism, i.e. spin glasses, ordered magnetic structures and itinerant electron magnetism, and optics, i.e. properties of crystalline and amorphous materials for selective transmission and absorption in connection with energy-related research. (author)

  15. Introduction to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Philip

    2013-01-01

    A compact introduction to solid-state physics for students of physics, material,and engineering sciences - ideal for a one- to two-semestral course. In easily understable form the author introduces to phenomena and concepts. Thereby he avoids expensive mathematical derivations and refers to outgoing literature. The successful didactical preparation makes an easy access to the theme possible. Numerous illustrations clarify the connections and make the explained well understandable. With about 170 questions and exercise problems.

  16. Solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, J.A.; Carvalho, M.L.C.P. de

    1992-12-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are dielectric materials, crystalline or vitreous, which registers tracks of charged nuclear particles, like alpha particles or fission fragments. Chemical etching of the detectors origin tracks that are visible at the optical microscope: track etching rate is higher along the latent track, where damage due to the charged particle increase the chemical potential, and etching rate giving rise to holes, the etched tracks. Fundamental principles are presented as well as some ideas of main applications. (author)

  17. New materials for solid state electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferloni, P.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia; Magistris, A.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia

    1994-01-01

    Solid state electrochemistry is an interdisciplinary area, undergoing nowadays a fast development. It is related on the one hand to chemistry, and on the other hand to crystallography, solid state physics and materials science. In this paper structural and electrical properties of some families of new materials interesting for solid state electrochemistry are reviewed. Attention is focused essentially on ceramic and crystalline materials, glasses and polymers, displaying high ionic conductivity and potentially suitable for various applications in solid state electrochemical devices. (orig.)

  18. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hagenmuller, Paul

    1978-01-01

    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in

  19. SoLid Detector Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labare, Mathieu

    2017-09-01

    SoLid is a reactor anti-neutrino experiment where a novel detector is deployed at a minimum distance of 5.5 m from a nuclear reactor core. The purpose of the experiment is three-fold: to search for neutrino oscillations at a very short baseline; to measure the pure 235U neutrino energy spectrum; and to demonstrate the feasibility of neutrino detectors for reactor monitoring. This report presents the unique features of the SoLid detector technology. The technology has been optimised for a high background environment resulting from low overburden and the vicinity of a nuclear reactor. The versatility of the detector technology is demonstrated with a 288 kg detector prototype which was deployed at the BR2 nuclear reactor in 2015. The data presented includes both reactor on, reactor off and calibration measurements. The measurement results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The 1.6t SoLid detector is currently under construction, with an optimised design and upgraded material technology to enhance the detector capabilities. Its deployement on site is planned for the begin of 2017 and offers the prospect to resolve the reactor anomaly within about two years.

  20. Radiation treatment of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, W.; Rugg, B.; Rogers, C.

    1977-01-01

    Solid waste is now generally recognized as both a major problem and an underutilized renewable resource for materials and energy recovery. Current methods for dealing with solid wastes are admittedly inadequate for cost effective utilization of the latest material and energy values, especially of cellulose and other organics. Processes for production of energy from organic wastes including incineration, pyrolysis and biodegradation, are receiving considerable attention even though the heating value of dried organic wastes is substantially less than that of fossil fuels. An attractive alternative approach is conversion into chemical feedstocks for use as fuels, intermediates for plastics, rubbers, fibers etc., and in the preparation of foods. Radiation treatment of solid wastes offers attractive possibilities for upgrading the value of such organic waste components as cellulose and putrescible matter. The latter can be cold sterilized by radiation treatments for the production of animal feed supplements. The wide availability of cellulosic wastes warrants their consideration as an alternate feedstock to petrochemicals for fuels, intermediates and synthesis of single cell protein. The crucial step in this developing technology is optimizing the conversion of cellulose to its monomer glucose which can be accomplished by either acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. A combination pretreatment consisting of radiation of hydropulped cellulosic wastes has shown considerable promise in improving the yields of glucose for acid hydrolysis reactions at substantially lower cost than presently used methods such as grinding. Data are presented to compare the effectiveness of this pretreatment with other techniques which have been investigated. (author)

  1. Therapy-associated Solid Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, Lois B.

    2002-01-01

    As survival after a diagnosis of cancer improves, characterization of the late sequelae of treatment becomes critical. The development of second malignant neoplasms represents one of the most serious side effects of treatment with radiation and chemotherapy. Although secondary leukemia was the first reported carcinogenic effect resulting from cancer treatment, solid tumors now comprise the largest second tumor burden in some populations of survivors. It should be recognized, however, that solid cancers do not necessarily represent an adverse effect of therapy, but may also reflect the operation of shared etiologic factors, host determinants, gene-environment interactions, and other influences. Quantification of second cancer risk is important in terms of patient management, enabling clinicians to make informed decisions with regard to optimal treatment of the initial cancer, balancing efficacy against acute and chronic sequelae. This article focuses on selected highlights and recent developments in treatment-associated solid malignancies, with emphasis on radiotherapy and chemotherapy in adults, and summarizes areas for future research. Although cancer therapy represents a double-edged sword, it should always be recognized that it is advances in treatment that are largely responsible for the tremendous improvement in patient survival. Thus, the benefit derived from many cancer therapies far outweighs any risk of developing a second cancer

  2. Krypton retention on solid adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive krypton-85 is released to the atmosphere in the off-gas from nuclear reprocessing plants. Three main methods have been suggested for removal of krypton from off-gas streams: cryogenic distillation; fluorocarbon absorption; and adsorption on solid sorbents. Use of solid adsorbents is the least developed of these methods, but offers the potential advantages of enhanced safety and lower operating costs. An experimental laboratory program was developed that will be used to investigate systematically many solid adsorbents (such as zeolites, i.e., mordenites) for trapping krypton in air. The objective of this investigation is to find an adsorbent that is more economical than silver-exchanged mordenite. Various physical and chemical characteristics such as adsorption isotherms, decontamination factors, co-adsorption, regeneration, and the mechanism and kinetics of noble gas adsorption were used to characterize the adsorbents. In the experimental program, a gas chromatograph using a helium ionization detector was used to measure the krypton in air before and after the adsorbent bed. This method can determine directly decontamination factors greater than 100

  3. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The present volume 47 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2007 Spring Meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik which was held in Regensburg, Germany, from March 26 to 30, 2007 in conjunction with the 71st Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.It gives an overview of the present status of solid state physics where low-dimensional systems such as quantum dots and quantum wires are dominating. The importance of magnetic materials is reflected by the large number of contributions in the part dealing with ferromagnetic films and particles. One of the most exciting achievements of the last couple of years is the successful application of electrical contacts to and the investigation of single layers of graphene. This exciting physics is covered in Part IV of this book. Terahertz physics is another rapidly moving field which is presented here by five contributions. Achievements in solid state physics are only rarely...

  4. Solid phase syntheses of oligoureas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, K.; Linthicum, D.S.; Russell, D.H.; Shin, H.; Shitangkoon, A.; Totani, R.; Zhang, A.J.; Ibarzo, J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-02-19

    Isocyanates 7 were formed from monoprotected diamines 3 or 6, which in turn can be easily prepared from commercially available N-BOC- or N-FMOC-protected amino acid derivatives. Isocyanates 7, formed in situ, could be coupled directly to a solid support functionalized with amine groups or to amino acids anchored on resins using CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} as solvent and an 11 h coupling time at 25 {degree}C. Such couplings afforded peptidomimetics with an N-phthaloyl group at the N-terminus. The optimal conditions identified for removal of the N-phthaloyl group were to use 60% hydrazine in DMF for 1-3 h. Several sequences of amino acids coupled to ureas (`peptidic ureas`) and of sequential urea units (`oligoureas`) were prepared via solid phase syntheses and isolated by HPLC. Partition coefficients were measured for two of these peptidomimetics, and their water solubilities were found to be similar to the corresponding peptides. A small library of 160 analogues of the YGGFL-amide sequence was prepared via Houghten`s tea bag methodology. This library was tested for binding to the anti-{beta}-endorphin monoclonal antibody. Overall, this paper describes methodology for solid phase syntheses of oligourea derivatives with side chains corresponding to some of the protein amino acids. The chemistry involved is ideal for high-throughput syntheses and screening operations. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  6. Solid Waste Activity Packet for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This solid waste activity packet introduces students to the solid waste problem in Illinois. Topics explore consumer practices in the market place, packaging, individual and community garbage generation, and disposal practices. The activities provide an integrated approach to incorporating solid waste management issues into subject areas. The…

  7. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included

  8. Solid lipid nanoparticles for parenteral drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissing, S.A.; Kayser, Oliver; Muller, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    This review describes the use of nanoparticles based on solid lipids for the parenteral application of drugs. Firstly, different types of nanoparticles based on solid lipids such as "solid lipid nanoparticles" (SLN), "nanostructured lipid carriers" (NLC) and "lipid drug conjugate" (LDC)

  9. Solid lubricants in the power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaensheimer, J.

    1981-01-01

    Example application are first outlined, followed by descriptions of inorganic solid lubricants and plastics. Waxes, soaps and salts are discussed. Notes for usage are given. Solid lubricants in oils and greases are comprehensively described, followed by the sections entitled Solid lubricants for gearboxes . References to samples, tests, standards and bibliography make up the conclusion. (orig.) [de

  10. Suspended Solids Profiler Shop Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Suspended Solids Profiler (SSP) Instrument is planned to be installed in the AZ-101 tank to measure suspended solids concentrations during mixer pump testing. The SSP sensor uses a reflectance measurement principle to determine the suspended solids concentrations. The purpose of this test is to provide a documented means of verifying that the functional components of the SSP operate properly

  11. Density-functional theory for fluid-solid and solid-solid phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Atul S; Singh, Yashwant

    2017-03-01

    We develop a theory to describe solid-solid phase transitions. The density functional formalism of classical statistical mechanics is used to find an exact expression for the difference in the grand thermodynamic potentials of the two coexisting phases. The expression involves both the symmetry conserving and the symmetry broken parts of the direct pair correlation function. The theory is used to calculate phase diagram of systems of soft spheres interacting via inverse power potentials u(r)=ε(σ/r)^{n}, where parameter n measures softness of the potential. We find that for 1/nfcc) structure while for 1/n≥0.154 the body-centred-cubic (bcc) structure is preferred. The bcc structure transforms into the fcc structure upon increasing the density. The calculated phase diagram is in good agreement with the one found from molecular simulations.

  12. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  13. Characterization of carbonaceous solids by oxygen chemisorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Palmer, A.; Duguay, D.G.; McConnell, D.G.; Henson, D.E.

    1988-06-01

    Oxygen chemisorption of high and low carbon carbonaceous solids was measured in an electro-microbalance at 200 degrees C in air. A linear correlation between the amount of chemisorbed oxygen and H/C ratio as well as aromaticity was established for the high carbon solids. For the low carbon solids a linear correlation was established between the amount of chemisorbed oxygen and the content of organic matter. Experimental observations are discussed in terms of structural aspects of the solids. Oxygen chemisorption is a suitable technique for a rapid characterization of carbonaceous solids including coal. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Utilization of heat of finely divided solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1951-11-05

    A method pr preconditioning subdivided solids subjected to a high-temperature treatment in a high-temperature treating zone, comprises transferring a portion of the sensible heat of hot, subdivided, treated solids withdrawn from said treating zone, at a relatively high temperature level to said subdivided solids to be preconditioned, transferring another portion of said sensible heat at a relatively low temperature level to a material vaporizable at said low temperature level to generate a fluidizing medium and fluidizing said subdivided withdrawn solids by means of said fluidizing medium to improve the heat-transfer characteristics of said withdrawn solids.

  15. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Hideshi

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  16. Imaging spectrophotometry of the nuclear outflow of NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    This observational program (in conjunction with R. B. Tully (IfA, Honolulu), and J. Bland (Rice U., Houston)) aims to constrain the kinematic organization and dominant excitation mechanisms of ionized gas in active galaxies. More generally, researchers are interested in the dynamics of radiative, supersonic flows in the Interstellar Medium (ISM). Imaging Fabry-Perot interferometers and low-noise Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) are used for complete spatial coverage of the complex gas distribution in circumnuclear narrow-line regions (NLRs). Extranuclear emission line widths in NLRs can exceed 3000 km s(-1), so to avoid inter-order confusion researchers use an etalon of 4000 km s(-1) free spectral range to map (N II) lambda lambda 6548, 6583 and H alpha. To maximize spatial resolution, researchers select nearby active systems independent of luminosity but known to possess interesting morphologies and/or high-velocity extranuclear ionized gas. Monochromatic images Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) approx. 65 km s(-1) have thus far been obtained in 1 second or better seeing at the U. Hawaii 2.2m, CFH 3.6m, and CTIO 4.0m telescopes. These are stacked into grids of line profiles, of spectrophotometric quality, at sub-arcsecond increments across a 3 second field. To handle the approx. 20,000 to 300,000 useful spectra that arise from a typical night's work, researchers have developed a complete analysis and reduction package for VAX and Sun image workstations. Reduction involves parametrization of approx. 10 to the 8th raw data points to a few maps (e.g., velocities of each kinematic subsystem, continuum-free line fluxes) containing approx. 10 to the 5th pixels. Researchers identify kinematic and structural symmetries by examining these maps and the point to point variations of the synthesized line profiles. The combination of monochromatic images and full spatial sampling of line profiles has allowed them to isolate such symmetries and has led to reliable kinematic

  17. Design and performance simulation of 532 nm Rayleigh-Mie Doppler lidar system for 5-50 km wind measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fahua; Wang, Bangxin; Shi, Wenjuan; Zhuang, Peng; Zhu, Chengyun; Xie, Chenbo

    2018-04-01

    A novel design of the 532 nm Rayleigh-Mie Doppler lidar receiving system is carried out. The use of polarization isolation technology to effectively improve the receiving system optical reception efficiency, suppress the background noise, not only improves the system wind field detection accuracy, while achieving a high-accuracy temperature measurement. The wind speed and temperature measurement principle of the system are discussed in detail, and the triple Fabry-Perot etalon parameters are optimized. Utilizing the overall design parameters of the system, the system detection performance is simulated. The simulation results show that from 5 to 50 km altitude with vertical resolution of 0.1 km@5 ∼20 km, 0.5 km@20 ∼40 km, 1 km@40 ∼50 km, by using the laser with single pulse energy of 600 mJ, repetition frequency of 50 Hz and the receiving telescope with aperture of 0.8 m, with 2min integration time and in ±50 m/s radial wind speed range, the radial wind speed measurement accuracies of our designed lidar in the day and night are better than 2.6 m/s and 0.9 m/s respectively, and its performance is obviously superior to that of traditional system 5.6 m/s and 1.4 m/s wind speed accuracies; with 10min integration time and in 210 ∼280 K temperature range, the temperature measurement accuracies of the system in the day and night are better than 3.4 K and 1.2 K respectively; since the wind speed sensitivities of the Mie and Rayleigh scattering signals are not exactly the same, in ±50 m/s radial wind speed range, the wind speed bias induced by Mie signal is less than 1 m/s in the temperature range of 210-290 K and in the backscatter ratio range of 1-1.5 for pair measurement.

  18. SolidWorks 2011 Assemblies Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lombard, Matt

    2011-01-01

    A fan of the SolidWorks Bible, but want more detail on assemblies? Here you go. SolidWorks fans have long sought more detail on SolidWorks topics, and now you have it. We took our popular SolidWorks Bible, divided it into two books (SolidWorks 2011 Assemblies Bible and SolidWorks 2011 Parts Bible) and packed each new book with a host of items from your wish lists, such as more extensive coverage of the basics, additional tutorials, and expanded coverage of topics largely ignored by other books. This SolidWorks 2011 Assemblies Bible shows you how to organize parts data to create assemblies or s

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Solid Waste Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.

    1993-09-01

    In fiscal year 1992 (FY-92), a Solid Waste Initiative was undertaken within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This action was partly in response to a perceived increase in the frequency and severity of impacts associated with solid waste issues at all levels. It also recognized the limited attention of previous efforts in addressing the broader impacts resulting from solid waste and, thus, dealing with solid waste issues in a holistic fashion. This paper provides a description of the Solid Waste Initiative at PNL, including a historical perspective on PNL's involvement in solid waste issues, the goals and objectives of the Solid Waste Initiative, and a discussion of selected activities being conducted under the Initiative

  20. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

    2003-12-08

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.