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Sample records for solid electrolyte systems

  1. Solid state electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  2. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  3. Solid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, H. S.

    Progress in the development of functioning solid electrolyte fuel cells is summarized. The solid electrolyte cells perform at 1000 C, a temperature elevated enough to indicate high efficiencies are available, especially if the cell is combined with a steam generator/turbine system. The system is noted to be sulfur tolerant, so coal containing significant amounts of sulfur is expected to yield satisfactory performances with low parasitic losses for gasification and purification. Solid oxide systems are electrically reversible, and are usable in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Employing zirconium and yttrium in the electrolyte provides component stability with time, a feature not present with other fuel cells. The chemical reactions producing the cell current are reviewed, along with materials choices for the cathodes, anodes, and interconnections.

  4. Ceramic solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B. [Center for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-02-15

    Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems associated with stoichiometric and doped compounds are compared. In the illustration of design principles, emphasis is given to oxide-ion electrolytes for use in solid-oxide fuel cells, oxygen pumps, and oxygen sensors

  5. CONDUCTIVITY STUDIES OF (PEO +KHCO3 SOLID ELECTROLYTE SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION AS AN ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. VIJAY KUMAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid polymer electrolyte system, polyethylene oxide (PEO complexed with potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3 salt was prepared by solution-cast technique. Several experimental techniques such as infrared radiation (IR, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, and composition dependence conductivity, temperature dependence conductivity in the temperature range of 308–368 K and transport number measurements were employed to characterize this polymer electrolyte system. The conductivity of the (PEO+KHCO3 electrolyte was found to be about 3 times larger than that of pure PEO at room temperature. The transference data indicated that the charge transport in these polymer electrolyte systems is predominantly due to K+ ions. Using this polymer electrolyte an electrochemical cell with configuration K+/(PEO+KHCO3/(I2+C+electrolyte was fabricated and its discharge characteristics are studied. A number of other cell parameters associated with the cell were evaluated and are reported in this paper.

  6. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  7. Modeling of vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium in gas - aqueous electrolyte systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for the description of vapor-liquid-solid equilibria is introduced. This model is a combination of the extended UNIQUAC model for electrolytes and the Soave-Redlich-Kwong cubic equation of state. The model has been applied to aqueous systems containing ammonia and/or carbon ...

  8. Solid polymer electrolyte on the basis of polyethylene carbonate-lithium perchlorate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukhanin, G.P.; Dumler, S.A.; Sablin, A.N.; Novakov, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reaction in the system polyethylene carbonate-lithium perchlorate was investigated by IR spectroscopy, differential thermal and X-ray structural analyses. Specific electric conductivity of the prepared composition has been measured. Solid polymer electrolytes on the basis of polyethylene carbonate have conducting properties as electrolytes on the basis of unmodified polyethylene oxide. Compositions of polyethylene carbonate : LiClO 4 =10 : 1Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 possess maximum value of electrical conductivity. Activation energies of the process is calculated for all investigated compositions, and dependence of these values from concentration of lithium perchlorate is established

  9. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  10. Materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells based on doped lanthanum-gallate electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenquan

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this work was to identify a materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). Towards this goal, alternating current complex impedance spectroscopy was employed as a tool to study electrode polarization effects in symmetrical cells employing strontium and magnesium doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte. Several cathode materials were investigated including strontium doped lanthanum manganite (LSM), Strontium and iron doped lanthanum cobaltate (LSCF), LSM-LSGM, and LSCF-LSGM composites. Investigated Anode materials included nickel-gadolinium or lanthanum doped cerium oxide (Ni-GDC, or Ni-LDC) composites. The ohmic and the polarization resistances of the symmetrical cells were obtained as a function of temperature, time, thickness, and the composition of the electrodes. Based on these studies, the single phase LSM electrode had the highest polarization resistance among the cathode materials. The mixed-conducting LSCF electrode had polarization resistance orders of magnitude lower than that of the LSM-LSGM composite electrodes. Although incorporating LSGM in the LSCF electrode did not reduce the cell polarization resistance significantly, it could reduce the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the LSCF electrodes and LSGM electrolyte. Moreover, the polarization resistance of the LSCF electrode decreased asymptotically as the electrode thickness was increased thus suggesting that the electrode thickness needed not be thicker than this asymptotic limit. On the anode side of the IT-SOFC, Ni reacted with LSGM electrolyte, and lanthanum diffusion occurred from the LSGM electrolyte to the GDC barrier layer, which was between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-composite anode. However, LDC served as an effective barrier layer. Ni-LDC (70 v% Ni) anode had the largest polarization resistance, while all other anode materials, i.e. Ni-LDC (50 v% Ni), Ni-GDC (70 v% NO, and Ni-GDC (50 v% Ni), had similar polarization

  11. [A toxicologic hygiene evaluation of electrolytic oxygen obtained from the water in a system with a solid polymeric electrolyte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardov, V G; Koziarin, I P; Suk, V G; Maslenko, A A; Shmuter, G M

    1990-01-01

    The authors evaluated the problems of hygienic aspects of oxygen obtained by the method of electrolytic decomposition of water with a different content of chemical substances in the system with a hard polymere electrolyte. On the basis of sanitary-chemical qualities and toxicological properties electrolysis gaseous oxygen may be recommended for use in creating an artificial gaseous atmosphere in hermetically sealed compartments in mixture with gaseous nitrogen (ratio 1:4).

  12. Development status of solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis for manned spacecraft life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, L. J.; Titterington, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the design and system verification test results are presented for a six-man-rated oxygen generation system. The system configuration incorporates components and instrumentation for computer-controlled operation with automatic start-up/shutdown sequencing, fault detection and isolation, and with self-contained sensors and controls for automatic safe emergency shutdown. All fluid and electrical components, sensors, and electronic controls are designed to be easily maintainable under zero-gravity conditions. On-board component spares are utilized in the system concept to sustain long-term operation (six months minimum) in a manned spacecraft application. The system is centered on a 27-cell solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis module which, combined with the associated system components and controls, forms a total system envelope 40 in. high, 40 in. wide, and 30 in. deep.

  13. Solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis system development. [to generate oxygen for manned space station applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte technology used in a water electrolysis system (WES) to generate oxygen and hydrogen for manned space station applications was investigated. A four-man rated, low pressure breadboard water electrolysis system with the necessary instrumentation and controls was fabricated and tested. A six man rated, high pressure, high temperature, advanced preprototype WES was developed. This configuration included the design and development of an advanced water electrolysis module, capable of operation at 400 psig and 200 F, and a dynamic phase separator/pump in place of a passive phase separator design. Evaluation of this system demonstrated the goal of safe, unattended automated operation at high pressure and high temperature with an accumulated gas generation time of over 1000 hours.

  14. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  15. Electrolyte for batteries with regenerative solid electrolyte interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2017-08-01

    An energy storage device comprising: an anode; and a solute-containing electrolyte composition wherein the solute concentration in the electrolyte composition is sufficiently high to form a regenerative solid electrolyte interface layer on a surface of the anode only during charging of the energy storage device, wherein the regenerative layer comprises at least one solute or solvated solute from the electrolyte composition.

  16. Ion beam irradiation as a tool to improve the ionic conductivity in solid polymer electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunatha, H., E-mail: h-manjunath@blr.amrita.edu; Kumaraswamy, G. N. [Department of Physics, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Bengaluru-560 035 (India); Damle, R. [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bengaluru-560 056 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have potential applications in solid state electronic and energy devices. The optimum conductivity of SPEs required for such applications is about 10{sup −1} – 10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1}, which is hard to achieve in these systems. It is observed that ionic conductivity of SPEs continuously increase with increasing concentration of inorganic salt in the host polymer. However, there is a critical concentration of the salt beyond which the conductivity of SPEs decreases due to the formation of ion pairs. In the present study, solid polymer thin films based on poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) complexed with NaBr salt with different concentrations have been prepared and the concentration at which ion pair formation occurs in PEO{sub x}NaBr is identified. The microstructure of the SPE with highest ionic conductivity is modified by irradiating it with low energy O{sup +1} ion (100 keV) of different fluencies. It is observed that the ionic conductivity of irradiated SPEs increases by one order in magnitude. The increase in ionic conductivity may be attributed to the enhanced segmental motion of the polymer chains due to radiation induced micro structural modification.

  17. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hagenmuller, Paul

    1978-01-01

    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in

  18. A New Miniaturized Inkjet Printed Solid State Electrolyte Sensor for Applications in Life Support Systems - First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christine; Stefanos Fasoulas, -; Eberhart, Martin; Berndt, Felix

    New generations of integrated closed loop systems will combine life support systems (incl. biological components) and energy systems such as fuel cell and electrolysis systems. Those systems and their test beds also contain complex safety sensor monitoring systems. Especially in fuel cells and electrolysis systems, the hydrogen and oxygen flows and exchange into other areas due to diffusion processes or leaks need to be monitored. Knowledge of predominant gas concentrations at all times is essential to avoid explosive gas mixtures. Solid state electrolyte sensors are promising for use as safety sensors. They have already been developed and produced at various institutes, but the power consumption for heating an existing solid state electrolyte sensor element still lies between 1 to 1.5 W and the operational readiness still takes about 20 to 30 s. This is partially due to the current manufacturing process for the solid state electrolyte sensor elements that is based on screen printing technology. However this technology has strong limitations in flexibility of the layout and re-designs. It is therefore suitable for mass production, but not for a flexible development and the production of specific individual sensors, e.g. for space applications. Moreover a disadvantage is the relatively high material consumption, especially in combination with the sensors need of expensive noble metal and ceramic pastes, which leads to a high sensor unit price. The Inkjet technology however opens up completely new possibilities in terms of dimensions, geometries, structures, morphologies and materials of sensors. This new approach is capable of printing finer high-resolution layers without the necessity of meshes or masks for patterning. Using the Inkjet technology a design change is possible at any time on the CAD screen. Moreover the ink is only deposited where it is needed. Custom made sensors, as they are currently demanded in space sensor applications, are thus realized simply

  19. Investigation of a nanoconfined, ceramic composite, solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasekara, Indumini; Poyner, Mark; Teeters, Dale

    2017-01-01

    The challenges for further development of lithium rechargeable batteries are finding electrolyte materials that are safe, have mechanical and thermal stability and have sufficiently high ionic conduction. Polymer electrolytes have many of these advantages, but suffer with low ionic conduction. This study involves the use of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes having nanochannels filled with polymer electrolyte to make composite solid electrolytes having ionic conductivity several orders of magnitude higher (10 −4 Ω ‐1 cm −1 ) than non-confined polymer. SEM, ac impedance spectroscopy, temperature dependence studies, XRD, ATR- FTIR and DSC studies were done in order to characterize and understand the behavior of nanoconfined polymer electrolytes. The composite polymer electrolyte was found to be more amorphous with polymer chains aligned in the direction of the nanochannels, which is felt to promote ion conduction. The electrolyte systems, confined in nanoporous membranes, can be used as electrolytes for the fabrication of a room temperature all solid state battery.

  20. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  1. Response behaviour of oxygen sensing solid electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Scharenborg, A.H.A.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The response time (t r) after a step change in oxygen partial pressure was investigated for some solid electrolytes used in Nernst type oxygen sensors. The electrolyte as well as the (porous) electrode material affect the value oft r. Stabilized Bi2O3 materials exhibit slower response rates (largert

  2. Neutron scattering studies of solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    The role which neutron scattering can play in determining the nature of the disorder and the conducting mechanism in the solid electrolytes is discussed. First, some of the general formalism for elastic and inelastic neutron scattering is reviewed, and the quantities which can be measured are pointed out. Then the application of neutron scattering to the studies of three different problems is examined; the anion disorder in the fluorite system, the dynamical behavior in beta-alumina, and the cation diffusion in αAgI are discussed. 8 figures

  3. Electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as compared to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), improves tolerance to impurities in the fuel, but also creates challenges in the development of suitable materials for the various fuel cell components. In response to these challenges, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) are being developed to reduce high-temperature material requirements, which will extend useful lifetime, improve durability and reduce cost, while maintaining good fuel flexibility. A major challenge in reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs is the development of solid electrolyte materials with sufficient conductivity to maintain acceptably low ohmic losses during operation. In this paper, solid electrolytes being developed for solid oxide fuel cells, including zirconia-, ceria- and lanthanum gallate-based materials, are reviewed and compared. The focus is on the conductivity, but other issues, such as compatibility with electrode materials, are also discussed.

  4. Electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2006-11-08

    The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as compared to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), improves tolerance to impurities in the fuel, but also creates challenges in the development of suitable materials for the various fuel cell components. In response to these challenges, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) are being developed to reduce high-temperature material requirements, which will extend useful lifetime, improve durability and reduce cost, while maintaining good fuel flexibility. A major challenge in reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs is the development of solid electrolyte materials with sufficient conductivity to maintain acceptably low ohmic losses during operation. In this paper, solid electrolytes being developed for solid oxide fuel cells, including zirconia-, ceria- and lanthanum gallate-based materials, are reviewed and compared. The focus is on the conductivity, but other issues, such as compatibility with electrode materials, are also discussed. (author)

  5. New Polymer Electrolyte Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrl, William H.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent; Pappenfus, T.; Henderson, W.

    2004-01-01

    PAPERS PUBLISHED: 1. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Complexes of Lithium Imide Salts with Tetraglyme and Their Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials. Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2004), 15 1 (2), A209-A2 15. 2. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Ionic-liquidlpolymer electrolyte composite materials for electrochemical device applications. Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering (2003), 88 302. 3. Pappenfus, Ted R.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; and Smyrl, William H. Ionic Conductivity of a poly(vinylpyridinium)/Silver Iodide Solid Polymer Electrolyte System. Solid State Ionics (in press 2004). 4. Pappenfus Ted M.; Mann, Kent R; Smyrl, William H. Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials with LiPFs and Tetraglyme. Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, (2004), 7(8), A254.

  6. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauzi, Iqbal, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Groups, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup −6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup −4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup −3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  7. Impedance spectroscopy of ceramic solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.; Cosentino, I.C.; Florio, D.Z. de; Franca, Y.V.

    1996-01-01

    The Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) technique has been used to the study of Th O 2 :Y 2 O 3 , Zr O 2 :La 2 O 3 and Zr O 2 :Y 2 O 3 solid electrolytes. The results show that solid solution has been attained, grain boundaries act as oxygen-ion blockers, and the importance of the IS technique to study phase transformation in ceramics. (author)

  8. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohit; Gur, Ilan; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2012-09-18

    The present invention relates generally to electrolyte materials. According to an embodiment, the present invention provides for a solid polymer electrolyte material that is ionically conductive, mechanically robust, and can be formed into desirable shapes using conventional polymer processing methods. An exemplary polymer electrolyte material has an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.6 Pa at 90 degrees C. and is characterized by an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm-1 at 90 degrees C. An exemplary material can be characterized by a two domain or three domain material system. An exemplary material can include material components made of diblock polymers or triblock polymers. Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher energy density, better thermal and environmental stability, lower rates of self-discharge, enhanced safety, lower manufacturing costs, and novel form factors.

  9. How Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Forms in Aqueous Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Liumin; Oh, Dahyun; Lin, Yuxiao; Zhuo, Zengqing; Borodin, Oleg; Gao, Tao; Wang, Fei; Kushima, Akihiro; Wang, Ziqiang; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Qi, Yue; Yang, Wanli; Pan, Feng; Li, Ju; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-12-27

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) is the key component that enables all advanced electrochemical devices, the best representative of which is Li-ion battery (LIB). It kinetically stabilizes electrolytes at potentials far beyond their thermodynamic stability limits, so that cell reactions could proceed reversibly. Its ad hoc chemistry and formation mechanism has been a topic under intensive investigation since the first commercialization of LIB 25 years ago. Traditionally SEI can only be formed in nonaqueous electrolytes. However, recent efforts successfully transplanted this concept into aqueous media, leading to significant expansion in the electrochemical stability window of aqueous electrolytes from 1.23 V to beyond 4.0 V. This not only made it possible to construct a series of high voltage/energy density aqueous LIBs with unprecedented safety, but also brought high flexibility and even "open configurations" that have been hitherto unavailable for any LIB chemistries. While this new class of aqueous electrolytes has been successfully demonstrated to support diversified battery chemistries, the chemistry and formation mechanism of the key component, an aqueous SEI, has remained virtually unknown. In this work, combining various spectroscopic, electrochemical and computational techniques, we rigorously examined this new interphase, and comprehensively characterized its chemical composition, microstructure and stability in battery environment. A dynamic picture obtained reveals how a dense and protective interphase forms on anode surface under competitive decompositions of salt anion, dissolved ambient gases and water molecule. By establishing basic laws governing the successful formation of an aqueous SEI, the in-depth understanding presented in this work will assist the efforts in tailor-designing better interphases that enable more energetic chemistries operating farther away from equilibria in aqueous media.

  10. Low temperature solid oxide electrolytes (LT-SOE): A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B.; Ghosh, S.; Aich, S.; Roy, B.

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LT-SOFC) can be a source of power for vehicles, online grid, and at the same time reduce system cost, offer high reliability, and fast start-up. A huge amount of research work, as evident from the literature has been conducted for the enhancement of the ionic conductivity of LT electrolytes in the last few years. The basic conduction mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages of different LT oxide ion conducting electrolytes {BIMEVOX systems, bilayer systems including doped cerium oxide/stabilised bismuth oxide and YSZ/DCO}, mixed ion conducting electrolytes {doped cerium oxides/alkali metal carbonate composites}, and proton conducting electrolytes {doped and undoped BaCeO3, BaZrO3, etc.} are discussed here based on the recent research articles. Effect of various material aspects (composition, doping, layer thickness, etc.), fabrication methods (to achieve different microstructures and particle size), design related strategies (interlayer, sintering aid etc.), characterization temperature & environment on the conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the fuel cells made from these electrolytes are shown in tabular form and discussed. The conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the corresponding fuel cells are compared. Other applications of the electrolytes are mentioned. A few considerations regarding the future prospects are pointed.

  11. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  12. Sulfide-conducting solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinina, L.A.; Shirokova, G.I.; Murin, I.V.; Ushakova, Yu.N.; Fominykh, E.G.; Lyalina, M.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    Feasibility of sulfide transfer in phases on the basis of BaZrS 3 and MLn 2 S 4 ( M = Ca, Ba; Ln = La, Y, Tm, Nd, Sm, Pr) is considered. Solid solution regions on the basis of ternary compounds are determined. Systematic study of the phases is carried out making use of the methods of conductometry, emf in chemical concentration chains without/with transfer, potentiostatic chronoamperometry. Possible mechanism of defect formation during successive alloying of ternary sulfides by binary ones in suggested [ru

  13. Solid electrolyte batteries and fast ion conducting glasses, factors affecting a proposed merger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlmann, D R; Tuller, H L; Button, D P; Valez, M [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1983-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with advanced battery systems employing glass as a solid electrolyte. After an initial discussion of battery systems employing solid electrolytes, and of the attractive features offered by glass electrolytes, consideration is given to batteries fabricated with such electrolytes and to their performance characteristics. Subsequent discussion is directed to the two principal characteristics of glasses which are critical to their use as solid electrolytes - viz., their electrical conductivity and resistance to corrosive attack. The present state of knowledge in each of these areas is summarized, with particular focus on glasses with exceptionally high ionic conductivities - so-called fast ion conductors or FIC's.

  14. Anti-perovskite solid electrolyte compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Daemen, Luc Louis

    2015-12-26

    Solid electrolyte antiperovskite compositions for batteries, capacitors, and other electrochemical devices have chemical formula Li.sub.3OA, Li.sub.(3-x)M.sub.x/2OA, Li.sub.(3-x)N.sub.x/3OA, or LiCOX.sub.zY.sub.(1-z), wherein M and N are divalent and trivalent metals respectively and wherein A is a halide or mixture of halides, and X and Y are halides.

  15. Technical Update: Johnson Space Center system using a solid electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure oxygen fugacities in CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Williams, R. J.; Le, L.; Wagstaff, J.; Lofgren, G.; Lanier, A.; Carter, W.; Roshko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Details are given for the design and application of a (one atmosphere) redox-control system. This system differs from that given in NASA Technical Memorandum 58234 in that it uses a single solid-electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure the oxygen fugacities of multiple CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces. This remote measurement extends the range of sample-furnace conditions that can be measured using a solid-electrolytic cell, and cuts costs by extending the life of the sensors and by minimizing the number of sensors in use. The system consists of a reference furnace and an exhaust-gas manifold. The reference furnace is designed according to the redox control system of NASA Technical Memorandum 58234, and any number of CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces can be attached to the exhaust-gas manifold. Using the manifold, the exhaust gas from individual CO/CO2 controlled atmosphere furnaces can be diverted through the reference furnace, where a solid-electrolyte cell is used to read the ambient oxygen fugacity. The oxygen fugacity measured in the reference furnace can then be used to calculate the oxygen fugacity in the individual CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnace. A BASIC computer program was developed to expedite this calculation.

  16. Preparation of thoria calcia solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental procedures for the preparation of thoria-calcia solid electrolytes are described. Cold-pressed specimens pre-sintered at 1400 0 C and sintered at 2000 0 C have been used for thermally stimulated depolarization currents measurements in the temperature range 100 K - 300 K as well as for ionic conductivity measurements in the temperature range RT - 900 K. The detection of a relaxation peak probably due to the reorientation of the Ca'' sub(Th) - V sup(..) sub(O) complex shows that solid solution has been attained. Preliminary results of electrical conductivity are also reported. (Author) [pt

  17. Lithium carbon batteries with solid polymer electrolyte; Accumulateur lithium carbone a electrolyte solide polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieu, X.; Boudin, F. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium carbon batteries studied in this paper use plasticized polymer electrolytes made with passive polymer matrix swollen by a liquid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup -3} S/cm at 25 deg. C). The polymers used to prepare the gels are polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and vinylidene poly-fluoride (PVdF). The electrochemical and physical properties of these materials are analyzed according to their composition. The behaviour of solid electrolytes with different materials of lithium ion insertion (graphite and LiNiO{sub 2}) are studied and compared to liquid electrolytes. The parameters taken into account are the reversible and irreversible capacities, the cycling performance and the admissible current densities. Finally, complete lithium ion batteries with gelled electrolytes were manufactured and tested. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  18. Lithium carbon batteries with solid polymer electrolyte; Accumulateur lithium carbone a electrolyte solide polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieu, X; Boudin, F [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lithium carbon batteries studied in this paper use plasticized polymer electrolytes made with passive polymer matrix swollen by a liquid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup -3} S/cm at 25 deg. C). The polymers used to prepare the gels are polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and vinylidene poly-fluoride (PVdF). The electrochemical and physical properties of these materials are analyzed according to their composition. The behaviour of solid electrolytes with different materials of lithium ion insertion (graphite and LiNiO{sub 2}) are studied and compared to liquid electrolytes. The parameters taken into account are the reversible and irreversible capacities, the cycling performance and the admissible current densities. Finally, complete lithium ion batteries with gelled electrolytes were manufactured and tested. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  19. Solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, L.; Pozio, A.

    1995-05-01

    The report summarizes the state of art of systems for energy production in electrical vehicles, looking into the general characteristics of electrodes and membranes. The water and thermal balance of the cell in relation to operative conditions, the pressure and temperature influence on the performance are examined. Special emphasis is given to the electrode characteristics-fabrication techniques and assembly of membrane electrodes. The problems related to the oxygen reduction kinetics at the cathode are examined, in relation to the fabrication techniques and to operative conditions of the cells. Finally, the possible alternative catalyzers for anode and cathode are reviewed

  20. Extended UNIQUAC model for correlation and prediction of vapour-liquid-solid equilibria in aqueous salt systems containing non-electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliuta, Maria C.; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    to aqueous salt systems containing non-electrolytes in order to demonstrate its ability in representing solid-liquid-vapour (SLV) equilibrium and thermal property data for these strongly non-ideal systems. The model requires only pure component and binary temperature-dependent interaction parameters....... The calculations are based on an extensive database consisting of salt solubility data in pure and mixed solvents, VLE data for solvent mixtures and mixed solvent-electrolyte systems and thermal properties for mixed solvent solutions. Application of the model to the methanol-water system in the presence of several...... ions (Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, CO2- and HCO3-) shows that the Extended UNIQUAC model is able to give an accurate description of VLE and SLE in ternary add quaternary mixtures, using the name set of binary interaction parameters. The capability of the model to predict accurately the phase...

  1. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2014-01-01

    of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid

  2. 3D-Printing Electrolytes for Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwen, Dennis W; Xu, Shaomao; Gong, Yunhui; Wen, Yang; Godbey, Griffin L; Gritton, Jack E; Hamann, Tanner R; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Gregory T; Hu, Liangbing; Wachsman, Eric D

    2018-05-01

    Solid-state batteries have many enticing advantages in terms of safety and stability, but the solid electrolytes upon which these batteries are based typically lead to high cell resistance. Both components of the resistance (interfacial, due to poor contact with electrolytes, and bulk, due to a thick electrolyte) are a result of the rudimentary manufacturing capabilities that exist for solid-state electrolytes. In general, solid electrolytes are studied as flat pellets with planar interfaces, which minimizes interfacial contact area. Here, multiple ink formulations are developed that enable 3D printing of unique solid electrolyte microstructures with varying properties. These inks are used to 3D-print a variety of patterns, which are then sintered to reveal thin, nonplanar, intricate architectures composed only of Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 solid electrolyte. Using these 3D-printing ink formulations to further study and optimize electrolyte structure could lead to solid-state batteries with dramatically lower full cell resistance and higher energy and power density. In addition, the reported ink compositions could be used as a model recipe for other solid electrolyte or ceramic inks, perhaps enabling 3D printing in related fields. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. High-temperature solid electrolyte interphases (SEI) in graphite electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F.; Sayed, Farheen N.; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2018-03-01

    Thermal fragility of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is a major source of performance decay in graphite anodes, and efforts to overcome the issues offered by extreme environments to Li-ion batteries have had limited success. Here, we demonstrate that the SEI can be extensively reinforced by carrying the formation cycles at elevated temperatures. Under these conditions, decomposition of the ionic liquid present in the electrolyte favored the formation of a thicker and more protective layer. Cells in which the solid electrolyte interphase was cast at 90 °C were significantly less prone to self-discharge when exposed to high temperature, with no obvious damages to the formed SEI. This additional resilience was accomplished at the expense of rate capability, as charge transfer became growingly inefficient in these systems. At slower rates, however, cells that underwent SEI formation at 90 °C presented superior performances, as a result of improved Li+ transport through the SEI, and optimal wetting of graphite by the electrolyte. This work analyzes different graphite hosts and ionic liquids, showing that this effect is more pervasive than anticipated, and offering the unique perspective that, for certain systems, temperature can actually be an asset for passivation.

  4. Formation of Reversible Solid Electrolyte Interface on Graphite Surface from Concentrated Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Dongping; Tao, Jinhui; Yan, Pengfei; Henderson, Wesley A.; Li, Qiuyan; Shao, Yuyan; Helm, Monte L.; Borodin, Oleg; Graff, Gordon L.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong-Min; Engelhard, Mark; Zhang, Ji-Guang; De Yoreo, James J.; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2017-02-10

    Interfacial phenomena have always been key determinants for the performance of energy storage technologies. The solid electrolyte interfacial (SEI) layer, pervasive on the surfaces of battery electrodes for numerous chemical couples, directly affects the ion transport, charge transfer and lifespan of the entire energy system. Almost all SEI layers, however, are unstable resulting in the continuous consumption of the electrolyte. Typically, this leads to the accumulation of degradation products on/restructuring of the electrode surface and thus increased cell impedance, which largely limits the long-term operation of the electrochemical reactions. Herein, a completely new SEI formation mechanism has been discovered, in which the electrolyte components reversibly self-assemble into a protective surface coating on a graphite electrode upon changing the potential. In contrast to the established wisdom regarding the necessity of employing the solvent ethylene carbonate (EC) to form a protective SEI layer on graphite, a wide range of EC-free electrolytes are demonstrated for the reversible intercalation/deintercalation of Li+ cations within a graphite lattice, thereby providing tremendous flexibility in electrolyte tailoring for battery couples. This novel finding is broadly applicable and provides guidance for how to control interfacial reactions through the relationship between ion aggregation and solvent decomposition at polarized interfaces.

  5. Chemical Passivation of Li(exp +)-Conducting Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; Lim, James

    2008-01-01

    Plates of a solid electrolyte that exhibits high conductivity for positive lithium ions can now be passivated to prevent them from reacting with metallic lithium. Such passivation could enable the construction and operation of high-performance, long-life lithium-based rechargeable electrochemical cells containing metallic lithium anodes. The advantage of this approach, in comparison with a possible alternative approach utilizing lithium-ion graphitic anodes, is that metallic lithium anodes could afford significantly greater energy-storage densities. A major impediment to the development of such cells has been the fact that the available solid electrolytes having the requisite high Li(exp +)-ion conductivity are too highly chemically reactive with metallic lithium to be useful, while those solid electrolytes that do not react excessively with metallic lithium have conductivities too low to be useful. The present passivation method exploits the best features of both extremes of the solid-electrolyte spectrum. The basic idea is to coat a higher-conductivity, higher-reactivity solid electrolyte with a lower-conductivity, lower-reactivity solid electrolyte. One can then safely deposit metallic lithium in contact with the lower-reactivity solid electrolyte without incurring the undesired chemical reactions. The thickness of the lower-reactivity electrolyte must be great enough to afford the desired passivation but not so great as to contribute excessively to the electrical resistance of the cell. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in experiments on plates of a commercial high-performance solid Li(exp +)- conducting electrolyte. Lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) was the solid electrolyte used for passivation. LiPON-coated solid-electrolyte plates were found to support electrochemical plating and stripping of Li metal. The electrical resistance contributed by the LiPON layers were found to be small relative to overall cell impedances.

  6. Recent advances in solid polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingqing Zhang; Kai Liu; Fei Ding; Xingjiang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are light-weight,flexible,and non-flammable and provide a feasible solution to the safety issues facing lithium-ion batteries through the replacement of organic liquid electrolytes.Substantial research efforts have been devoted to achieving the next generation of solid-state polymer lithium batteries.Herein,we provide a review of the development of solid polymer electrolytes and provide comprehensive insights into emerging developments.In particular,we discuss the different molecular structures of the solid polymer matrices,including polyether,polyester,polyacrylonitrile,and polysiloxane,and their interfacial compatibility with lithium,as well as the factors that govern the properties of the polymer electrolytes.The discussion aims to give perspective to allow the strategic design of state-of-the-art solid polymer electrolytes,and we hope it will provide clear guidance for the exploration of high-performance lithium batteries.

  7. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se -Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-28

    A lithium metal thin-film battery composite structure is provided that includes a combination of a thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18] such as Lipon, designed in use to be in contact with a lithium metal anode layer; and a rapid-deposit solid electrolyte layer [16] such as LiAlF.sub.4 in contact with the thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18]. Batteries made up of or containing these structures are more efficient to produce than other lithium metal batteries that use only a single solid electrolyte. They are also more resistant to stress and strain than batteries made using layers of only the stable, solid electrolyte materials. Furthermore, lithium anode batteries as disclosed herein are useful as rechargeable batteries.

  8. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han [Waltham, MA; LaConti, Anthony B [Lynnfield, MA; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K [Natick, MA; McCallum, Thomas J [Ashland, MA

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  9. New Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Improved Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify, synthesize and incorporate into a working prototype, next-generation solid polymer electrolytes, that allow our pre-existing solid-state lithium battery to function better under extreme conditions. We have synthesized polymer electrolytes in which emphasis was placed on the temperature-dependent performance of these candidate electrolytes. This project was designed to produce and integrate novel polymer electrolytes into a lightweight thin-film battery that could easily be scaled up for mass production and adapted to different applications.

  10. Secondary lithium solid polymer electrolyte cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, K.A.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    A strategy for developing morphologically invariant lithium/solid polymer electrolyte interface is being investigated via the use of lithium intercalated electrodes. Emphasis is being placed upon the rutile material Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ 0.1 < x < 1.0. An absence of shape change at this interface is expected to result in both long cycle life electrochemical cells and the simultaneous maintenance of small interelectrode spacing so that low IR losses can be maintained. During fabrication of cells investigated here both electrochemical and chemical lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2/ was pursued. In the case of larger WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially prepared for fully discharged state cells, electrochemical intercalation during cell charge was found to require significant time, and the reproducible achievement of complete uniform intercalation across the negative electrode became an issue. Emphasis was consequently placed upon cells fabricated using Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially chemically intercalated by lithium prior to cell assembly. Previous work has demonstrated direct lithium intercalation of metal dichalcogenides using n-BuLi. Lithium activity in n-BuLi is, however, insufficient to achieve lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2//sup 4/. However, recent work has shown that WO/sub 2/ can be directly lithium intercalated upon immersion in lithium naphthalide. Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes prepared in this work were intercalated using lithium naphthalide (0.8M) in 2MeTHF. Lithium intercalation was found to readily occur at room temperature, being initially rapid and slowing as bulk intercalation within the electrode proceeded. For electrodes intercalated in this manner, a relationship was identified between the degree of lithium intercalation and initial open-circuit potential in liquid non-aqueous electrolyte

  11. Failure analysis of electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhauer, Felix; Tiefenauer, Andreas; Graule, Thomas; Danzer, Robert; Mai, Andreas; Kuebler, Jakob

    2014-07-01

    For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) one key aspect is the structural integrity of the cell and hence its thermo mechanical long term behaviour. The present study investigates the failure mechanisms and the actual causes for fracture of electrolyte supported SOFCs which were run using the current μ-CHP system of Hexis AG, Winterthur - Switzerland under lab conditions or at customer sites for up to 40,000 h. In a first step several operated stacks were demounted for post-mortem inspection, followed by a fractographic evaluation of the failed cells. The respective findings are then set into a larger picture including an analysis of the present stresses acting on the cell like thermal and residual stresses and the measurements regarding the temperature dependent electrolyte strength. For all investigated stacks, the mechanical failure of individual cells can be attributed to locally acting bending loads, which rise due to an inhomogeneous and uneven contact between the metallic interconnect and the cell.

  12. All-solid-state lithium batteries – The Mg2FeH6-electrode LiBH4-electrolyte system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huen, Priscilla; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.

    2018-01-01

    The complex hydride Mg2FeH6 is investigated as conversion type anode in a solid-state all-hydride Li-battery employing LiBH4 as solid-state electrolyte. In the solid-state battery, Mg2FeH6 exhibits improvements in the capacity retention and initial Coulombic efficiency of > 3 and > 2.5 times......, respectively, compared to the conventional liquid-electrolyte battery. Through investigations of the conversion reactions of Mg2FeH6, formation of MgH2 as intermediate in the conversion to Mg is discovered the first time. In addition, the effect of mixing procedure for the electrode-electrolyte composite...... on the battery performance is discussed....

  13. PEO nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for solid state symmetric

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Physical and electrochemical properties of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based nanocomposite solid polymer electrolytes (NPEs) were investigated for symmetric capacitor applications. Nanosize fillers, i.e., Al2O3 and SiO2 incorporated polymer electrolyte exhibited higher ionic conductivity than those with filler-free composites ...

  14. Materials Development for All-Solid-State Battery Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin

    Solid electrolytes in all solid-state batteries, provide higher attainable energy density and improved safety. Ideal solid electrolytes require high ionic conductivity, a high elastic modulus to prevent dendrite growth, chemical compatibility with electrodes, and ease of fabrication into thin films. Although various materials types, including polymers, ceramics, and composites, are under intense investigation, unifying design principles have not been identified. In this thesis, we study the key ion transport mechanisms in relation to the structural characteristics of polymers and glassy solids, and apply derived material design strategies to develop polymer-silica hybrid materials with improved electrolyte performance characteristics. Poly(ethylene) oxide-based solid electrolytes containing ceramic nanoparticles are attractive alternatives to liquid electrolytes for high-energy density Li batteries. We compare the effect of Li1.3Al0.3Ti 1.7(PO4)3 active nanoparticles, passive TiO 2 nanoparticles and fumed silica. Up to two orders of magnitude enhancement in ionic conductivity is observed for composites with active nanoparticles, attributed to cation migration through a percolating interphase region that develops around the active nanoparticles, even at low nanoparticle loading. We investigate the structural origin of elastic properties and ionic migration mechanisms in sodium borosilicate and sodium borogermanate glass electrolyte system. A new statistical thermodynamic reaction equilibrium model is used in combination with data from nuclear magnetic resonance and Brillouin light scattering measurements to determine network structural unit fractions. The highly coordinated structural units are found to be predominantly responsible for effective mechanical load transmission, by establishing three-dimensional covalent connectivity. A strong correlation exists between bulk modulus and the activation energy for ion conduction. We describe the activated process in

  15. Solid polymer composite electrolytes for PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, S M.J.; Mikhailenko, S D; Kaliaguine, S

    1998-07-01

    Composite electrolyte membranes for fuel cell technology were prepared from solid state proton conductors and polymer binders. The polymers were partially sulfonated and non-sulfonated polysulfone (PS), porous polyetherimide (PEI) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). As proton conductors H-chabazite, tungstophosphoric acid and its Na-salt and non-stoichiometric boron phosphate were employed. All membranes prepared using sulfonated PS as a binder with sulfonation degree higher than 50% were found to be mechanically unstable. They possess however reasonably high conductivity up to 6{times}10{sup {minus}3} S/cm. Introducing the tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) into the nonsulfonated porous PS makes possible to obtain strong and flexible membranes with s=4{times}10{sup {minus}3} S/cm, while use of boron phosphate in that case results in the conductivity of about 10{sup {minus}5} S/cm. Porous PEI impregnated with aqueous solution of TPA retains its original tensile strength and exhibited the conductivity s=2{times}10{sup {minus}4} S/cm. It however fell to 3{times}10{sup {minus}5} S/cm when the binder was modified with 2% of propionic acid, which caused a decrease in polymer pore size. Incorporation of the sodium acid salt of TPA into PEI allows one to obtain a composite with reasonably good mechanical properties and a conductivity of ca 10{sup {minus}5} S/cm for membranes prepared by the cast method. Using the phase inversion technique for preparation of the membranes of the same composition makes possible to increase their conductivity up to 10{sup {minus}4} S/cm. When boron phosphate was used in lieu of TPA salt the conductivity obtained is still higher reaching 3{times}10{sup {minus}5} and 3{times}10{sup {minus}4} S/cm for membranes prepared by cast and phase inversion techniques respectively. The PMMA based membranes were mechanically stable even when a solid content reached 55wt.%. Among PMMA membranes the highest conductivity of 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm was registered for

  16. DC ionic conductivity of NaNO3: γ-Al2O3 composite solid electrolyte system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhava Rao, M.V.; Narender Reddy, S.; Sadananda Chary, A.

    2005-01-01

    We present DC ionic conductivity measurements on composites formed between Na + ion conductor (NaNO 3 ) and dispersed insulating oxide (alumina). Enhancement of conductivity is noticed to increase with mole percent (m/o) of the dispersoid. The maximum enhancement observed is more than two orders of magnitude with respect to the host material. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry studies ruled out the formation of solid solutions between the host material and the dispersoid. The experimental data indicating higher conductivity in dispersed system is interpreted in terms of the formation of space charge layer between the host material and the dispersoid in which defect concentration increases and that is thought to be the possible mechanism of conductivity enhancement. Activation energies obtained from the conductivity data in the extrinsic conduction region indicated least value for the systems at threshold mole percentage

  17. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm−3 at 0.8 A cm−3 with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm−3, representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors. PMID:27225484

  18. Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2012-10-01

    The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

  19. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  20. Design and Characterisation of Solid Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    The development of all-solid-state lithium batteries, in which the currently used liquid electrolytes are substituted for solid electrolyte materials, could lead to safer batteries offering higher energy densities and longer cycle lifetimes. Designing suitable solid electrolytes with sufficient...... chemical and electrochemical stability, high lithium ion conduction and negligible electronic conduction remains a challenge. The highly lithium ion conducting LiBH4-LiI solid solution is a promising solid electrolyte material. Solid solutions with a LiI content of 6.25%-50% were synthesised by planetary......-rich microstructures during ball milling is found to significantly influence the conductivity of the samples. The long-range diffusion of lithium ions was measured using quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The solid solutions are found to exhibit two-dimensional conduction in the hexagonal plane of the crystal structure...

  1. Solid-state electrolyte for supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Sabin

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy has become a primary focus for scientific community since last decade. Great interesting investigations and creative works have been carried out to develop technology for powering our society, including disrupt technology for efficient energy storage and power manage. Supercapacitors (SP) also known as electrochemical double layer capacitors uses high surface area active electrode materials and various electrolytes to achieve capacitance of several order magnitude greater tha...

  2. Graphene quantum dots as the electrolyte for solid state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su; Li, Yutong; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Hong, Song; Huang, Minglu

    2016-01-01

    We propose that graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with a sufficient number of acidic oxygen-bearing functional groups such as -COOH and -OH can serve as solution- and solid- type electrolytes for supercapacitors. Moreover, we found that the ionic conductivity and ion-donating ability of the GQDs could be markedly improved by simply neutralizing their acidic functional groups by using KOH. These neutralized GQDs as the solution- or solid-type electrolytes greatly enhanced the capacitive performance and rate capability of the supercapacitors. The reason for the enhancement can be ascribed to the fully ionization of the weak acidic oxygen-bearing functional groups after neutralization. PMID:26763275

  3. Thermodynamic properties of ternary oxides in the system Ba-Fe-O using solid-state electrochemical cells with oxide and fluoride ion conducting electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, S. K.; Parida, S. C.; Singh, Ziley; Prasad, R.; Venugopal, V.

    2004-04-01

    The standard molar Gibbs energy of formations of BaFe 12O 19(s), BaFe 2O 4(s), Ba 2Fe 2O 5(s), Ba 3Fe 2O 6(s) and Ba 5Fe 2O 8(s) have been determined using solid-state electrochemical technique employing CaF 2(s) as an electrolyte. The reversible e.m.f. values have been measured in the temperature range from 970 to 1151 K. The oxygen chemical potential corresponding to three phase equilibria involving technologically important compound BaFe 12O 19(s) has been determined using solid-state electrochemical technique employing CSZ as an electrolyte from 1048 to 1221 K. The values of Δ fGm0( T) for the above ternary oxides are given by ΔfG m0( BaFe12O19, s)/ kJ mol -1(±0.6)=-5431.3+1.5317 (T/ K) (970⩽T/ K⩽1151) ΔfG m0( BaFe2O4, s)/ kJ mol -1(±1.3)=-1461.4+0.3745 (T/ K) (970⩽T/ K⩽1151) ΔfG m0( Ba2Fe2O5, s)/ kJ mol -1(±1.4)=-2038.3+0.4433 (T/ K) (970⩽T/ K⩽1149) ΔfG m0( Ba3Fe2O6, s)/ kJ mol -1(±1.5)=-2700.1+0.6090 (T/ K) (969⩽T/ K⩽1150) and ΔfG m0( Ba5Fe2O8, s)/ kJ mol -1(±1.6)=-3984.1+0.9300 (T/ K) (973⩽T/ K⩽1150) The uncertainty estimates for Δ fGm0 includes the standard deviation in the e.m.f. and uncertainty in the data taken from the literature. An isothermal oxygen potential diagram for the system Ba-Fe-O was constructed at 1100 K based on the thermodynamic data obtained in this study.

  4. Fuel cells with solid polymer electrolyte and their application on vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fateev, V.

    1996-04-01

    In Russia, solid polymer electrolyte MF-4-SK has been developed for fuel cells. This electrolyte is based on perfluorinated polymer with functional sulfogroups. Investigations on electrolyte properties and electrocatalysts have been carried out.

  5. Extended UNIQUAC Model for Correlation and Prediction of Vapor-Liquid-Liquid-Solid Equilibria in Aqueous Salt Systems Containing Non-Electrolytes. Part B. Alcohol (Ethanol, Propanols, Butanols) - Water-salt systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Iliuta, Maria Cornelia; Rasmussen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The Extended UNIQUAC model for electrolyte solutions is an excess Gibbs energy function consisting of a Debye-Huckel term and a term corresponding to the UNIQUAC equation. For vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations, the fugacities of gas-phase components are calculated with the Soave-Redlich-Kwong......The Extended UNIQUAC model for electrolyte solutions is an excess Gibbs energy function consisting of a Debye-Huckel term and a term corresponding to the UNIQUAC equation. For vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations, the fugacities of gas-phase components are calculated with the Soave...... solid-liquid-vapor equilibrium and thermal property data for strongly non-ideal systems. In this work, the model is extended to aqueous salt systems containing higher alcohols. The calculations are based on an extensive database consisting of salt solubility data, vapor liquid equilibrium data...

  6. Solid oxide fuel cells with bi-layered electrolyte structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinge; Robertson, Mark; Deces-Petit, Cyrille; Xie, Yongsong; Hui, Rob; Qu, Wei; Kesler, Olivera; Maric, Radenka; Ghosh, Dave [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council Canada, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5 (Canada)

    2008-01-10

    In this work, we have developed solid oxide fuel cells with a bi-layered electrolyte of 2 {mu}m SSZ and 4 {mu}m SDC using tape casting, screen printing, and co-firing processes. The cell reached power densities of 0.54 W cm{sup -2} at 650 C and 0.85 W cm{sup -2} at 700 C, with open circuit voltage (OCV) values larger than 1.02 V. The electrical leaking between anode and cathode through an SDC electrolyte has been blocked in the bi-layered electrolyte structure. However, both the electrolyte resistance (R{sub el}) and electrode polarization resistance (R{sub p,a+c}) increased in comparison to cells with single-layered SDC electrolytes. The formation of a solid solution of (Ce, Zr)O{sub 2-x} during sintering process and the flaws in the bi-layered electrolyte structure seem to be the main causes for the increase in the R{sub el} value (0.32 {omega} cm{sup 2}) at 650 C, which is almost one order of magnitude higher than the calculated value. (author)

  7. A model problem concerning ionic transport in microstructured solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto Sillamoni, Ignacio J.; Idiart, Martín I.

    2015-11-01

    We consider ionic transport by diffusion and migration through microstructured solid electrolytes. The assumed constitutive relations for the constituent phases follow from convex energy and dissipation potentials which guarantee thermodynamic consistency. The effective response is determined by homogenizing the relevant field equations via the notion ofmulti-scale convergence. The resulting homogenized response involves several effective tensors, but they all require the solution of just one standard conductivity problem over the representative volume element. A multi-scale model for semicrystalline polymer electrolytes with spherulitic morphologies is derived by applying the theory to a specific class of two-dimensional microgeometries for which the effective response can be computed exactly. An enriched model accounting for a random dispersion of filler particles with interphases is also derived. In both cases, explicit expressions for the effective material parameters are provided. The models are used to explore the effect of crystallinity and filler content on the overall response. Predictions support recent experimental observations on doped poly-ethylene-oxide systems which suggest that the anisotropic crystalline phase can actually support faster ion transport than the amorphous phase along certain directions dictated by the morphology of the polymeric chains. Predictions also support the viewpoint that ceramic fillers improve ionic conductivity and cation transport number via interphasial effects.

  8. Polarization behavior of lithium electrode in polymetric solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Yoshiharu (Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan)); Morita, Masayuki (Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan)); Tsutsumi, Hiromori (Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan))

    1993-04-15

    Complexes of novel polymer matrices and lithium salts have been prepared as polymeric solid electrolytes for lithium batteries. Poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted poly(methylmethacrylate) (PEO-PMMA) and poly(methylsiloxane) (PMS) were used as the matrices. The conductance behavior of the complexes and the basic polarization characteristics of the lithium electrode in the polymeric electrolytes were studied. As high conductivities as 10[sup -3] S cm[sup -1] were obtained at room temperature for the PMMA-based electrolytes containing some liquid plasticizer. Limiting current densities of 3 to 5 mA cm[sup -2] were observed for the anodic and cathodic polarization of the lithium electrode. The transport number of Li[sup +] was approximately unity in 'single-ion type' PMS-based electrolyte, in which the polarization curve of the lithium electrode showed no current hysteresis. (orig.)

  9. A solid state actuator based on polypyrrole (PPy) and a solid electrolyte NBR working in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Misuk; Nam, Jaedo; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Jachoon; Lee, Youngkwan

    2005-05-01

    The solid polymer electrolyte based conducting polymer actuator was presented. In the preparation of acutuator module, an ionic liquid impregnated a synthetic rubber (NBR) and PPy were used as a solid polymer electrolyte and conducting polymer, respectively. An ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)imide (BMITFSI) is gradually dispersed into the NBR film and the conducting polymer, PPy was synthesized on the surface of NBR. The ionic conductivity of new type solid polymer electrolyte as a function of the immersion time was investigated. The cyclic voltammetry responsed and the redox switching dynamics of PEDOT in NBR matrix were studied. The displacement of the actuator was measured by laser beam.

  10. Electrochemical Synthesis of Ammonia in Solid Electrolyte Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garagounis, Ioannis; Kyriakou, Vasileios; Skodra, Aglaia; Vasileiou, Eirini; Stoukides, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Developed in the early 1900s, the “Haber–Bosch” synthesis is the dominant NH 3 synthesis process. Parallel to catalyst optimization, current research efforts are also focused on the investigation of new methods for ammonia synthesis, including the electrochemical synthesis with the use of solid electrolyte cells. Since the first report on Solid State Ammonia Synthesis (SSAS), more than 30 solid electrolyte materials were tested and at least 15 catalysts were used as working electrodes. Thus far, the highest rate of ammonia formation reported is 1.13 × 10 -8 mol s -1 cm -2 , obtained at 80°C with a Nafion solid electrolyte and a mixed oxide, SmFe 0.7 Cu 0.1 Ni 0.2 O 3 , cathode. At high temperatures (>500°C), the maximum rate was 9.5 × 10 −9 mol s -1 cm -2 using Ce 0.8 Y 0.2 O 2-δ –[Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 –K 3 PO 4 ] as electrolyte and Ag–Pd as cathode. In this paper, the advantages and the disadvantages of SSAS vs. the conventional process and the requirements that must be met in order to promote the electrochemical process into an industrial level are discussed.

  11. Zinc composite anode for batteries with solid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedjar, F.; Melki, T.; Zerroual, L.

    A new negative composite anode for batteries with a solid electrolyte is studied. Using a complex of zinc ammonium chloride mixed with zinc metal powder, the advantage of the Zn/Zn 2+ electrode ( e = -760 mV) is kept while the energy density and the shelf-life of the battery are increased.

  12. Zinc composite anode for batteries with solid electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedjar, F.; Melki, T.; Zerroual, L. (Setif Univ. (Algeria). Unite de Recherche Electrochimie)

    1992-05-01

    A new negative composite anode for batteries with a solid electrolyte is studied. Using a complex of zinc ammonium chloride mixed with zinc metal powder, the advantage of the Zn/Zn[sup 2+] electrode (e = -760 mV) is kept while the energy density and the shelf-life of the battery are increased. (orig.).

  13. PEO nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for solid state symmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cells/supercapacitors) to electro-chromic displays, smart windows and ... electrolytes and their usage in lithium ion rechargeable solid state batteries are well .... the experimental plot using the Arrhenius relationship σ = σ0exp(−Ea/kT) where ...

  14. Electrochemical Synthesis of Ammonia in Solid Electrolyte Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garagounis, Ioannis; Kyriakou, Vasileios [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Chemical Processes and Energy Resources Institute, Center for Research and Technology Hellas, Thessaloniki (Greece); Skodra, Aglaia [Chemical Processes and Energy Resources Institute, Center for Research and Technology Hellas, Thessaloniki (Greece); Vasileiou, Eirini; Stoukides, Michael, E-mail: stoukidi@cperi.certh.gr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Chemical Processes and Energy Resources Institute, Center for Research and Technology Hellas, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-01-17

    Developed in the early 1900s, the “Haber–Bosch” synthesis is the dominant NH{sub 3} synthesis process. Parallel to catalyst optimization, current research efforts are also focused on the investigation of new methods for ammonia synthesis, including the electrochemical synthesis with the use of solid electrolyte cells. Since the first report on Solid State Ammonia Synthesis (SSAS), more than 30 solid electrolyte materials were tested and at least 15 catalysts were used as working electrodes. Thus far, the highest rate of ammonia formation reported is 1.13 × 10{sup -8} mol s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, obtained at 80°C with a Nafion solid electrolyte and a mixed oxide, SmFe{sub 0.7}Cu{sub 0.1}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}, cathode. At high temperatures (>500°C), the maximum rate was 9.5 × 10{sup −9} mol s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} using Ce{sub 0.8}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-δ}–[Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}–K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}] as electrolyte and Ag–Pd as cathode. In this paper, the advantages and the disadvantages of SSAS vs. the conventional process and the requirements that must be met in order to promote the electrochemical process into an industrial level are discussed.

  15. Electrochemical Synthesis of Ammonia in Solid Electrolyte Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis eGaragounis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developed in the early 1900's, the Haber-Bosch synthesis is the dominant NH3 synthesis process. Parallel to catalyst optimization, current research efforts are also focused on the investigation of new methods for ammonia synthesis, including the electrochemical synthesis with the use of solid electrolyte cells. Since the first report on Solid State Ammonia Synthesis (SSAS, more than 30 solid electrolyte materials were tested and at least 15 catalysts were used as working electrodes. Thus far, the highest rate of ammonia formation reported is 1.13×10−8 mol s−1 cm−2, obtained at 80°C with a Nafion solid electrolyte and a mixed oxide, SmFe0.7Cu0.1Ni0.2O3, cathode. At high temperatures (>500oC the maximum rate was 9.5*10-9 mol s−1 cm−2 using Ce0.8Y0.2O2-δ -[Ca3(PO42 -K3PO4] as electrolyte and Ag-Pd as cathode. In this paper, the advantages and the disadvantages of SSAS vs the conventional process and the requirements that must be met in order to promote the electrochemical process into an industrial level, are discussed.

  16. Solid-state graft copolymer electrolytes for lithium battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qichao; Caputo, Antonio; Sadoway, Donald R

    2013-08-12

    Battery safety has been a very important research area over the past decade. Commercially available lithium ion batteries employ low flash point (battery costs and can malfunction which can lead to battery malfunction and explosions, thus endangering human life. Increases in petroleum prices lead to a huge demand for safe, electric hybrid vehicles that are more economically viable to operate as oil prices continue to rise. Existing organic based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries are not applicable to high temperature automotive applications. A safer alternative to organic electrolytes is solid polymer electrolytes. This work will highlight the synthesis for a graft copolymer electrolyte (GCE) poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate (POEM) to a block with a lower glass transition temperature (Tg) poly(oxyethylene) acrylate (POEA). The conduction mechanism has been discussed and it has been demonstrated the relationship between polymer segmental motion and ionic conductivity indeed has a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) dependence. Batteries containing commercially available LP30 organic (LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC):dimethyl carbonate (DMC) at a 1:1 ratio) and GCE were cycled at ambient temperature. It was found that at ambient temperature, the batteries containing GCE showed a greater overpotential when compared to LP30 electrolyte. However at temperatures greater than 60 °C, the GCE cell exhibited much lower overpotential due to fast polymer electrolyte conductivity and nearly the full theoretical specific capacity of 170 mAh/g was accessed.

  17. On the theory of the electroreduction of solid oxide electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebotin, V.N.; Brajnin, M.I.; Solov'eva, L.M.; Pakhnutov, I.A.; Lukach, Yu.S.

    1986-01-01

    The process of direct current passage through the cell with MOsub(2)+MeOsub(r) solid electrolyte (M-Zr, Hf, Ce, Th; Me-Ca, Sr, Sc, Y, lanthanides), a blockage cathode and a reversible anode is considered; it leads to electrolyte deviation from stoichiometric composition to insufficient oxygen content. The degree of this deviation and n-type electron conductivity proportional to it, depending on coordinate and time, is described by the nonlinear differential equation of the diffusion type. Electron conductivity of the electrolyte near the cathode increases in time approximating to the limiting value proportional to current conducted. As the distance to the cathode increases electron conductivity reduces by the exponential law, which transforms to a linear one in due course

  18. Alkaline solid polymer electrolytes and their application to rechargeable batteries; Electrolytes solides polymeres alcalins application aux generateurs electrochimiques rechargeables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinot, S

    1996-03-15

    A new family of solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) based on polyoxyethylene (POE), KOH and water is investigated in view of its use in rechargeable batteries. After a short review on rechargeable batteries, the preparation of various electrolyte compositions is described. Their characterization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and microscopy confirm a multi-phasic structure. Conductivity measurements give values up to 10 sup -3 S cm sup -1 at room temperature. Their use in cells with nickel as negative electrode and cadmium or zinc as positive electrode has been tested; cycling possibility has been shown to be satisfactory. (C.B.) 113 refs.

  19. Evaluation of apatite silicates as solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero-Lopez, D. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martin-Sedeno, M.C.; Aranda, M.A.G. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, J. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto de Energias Renovables, Parque Tecnologico, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Ruiz-Morales, J.C.; Nunez, P. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2010-05-01

    Apatite-type silicates have been considered as promising electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC); however studies on the potential use of these materials in SOFC devices have received relatively little attention. The lanthanum silicate with composition La{sub 10}Si{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.75} has been evaluated as electrolyte with the electrode materials commonly used in SOFC, i.e. manganite, ferrite and cobaltite as cathode materials and NiO-CGO composite, chromium-manganite and Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} as anode materials. Chemical compatibility, area-specific resistance and fuel cell studies have been performed. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis did not reveal any trace of reaction products between the apatite electrolyte and most of the aforementioned electrode materials. However, the area-specific polarisation resistance (ASR) of these electrodes in contact with apatite electrolyte increased significantly with the sintering temperature, indicating reactivity at the electrolyte/electrode interface. On the other hand, the ASR values are significantly improved using a ceria buffer layer between the electrolyte and electrode materials to prevent reactivity. Maximum power densities of 195 and 65 mWcm{sup -2} were obtained at 850 and 700 C, respectively in H{sub 2} fuel, using an 1 mm-thick electrolyte, a NiO-Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} composite as anode and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} as cathode materials. This fuel cell was tested for 100 h in 5%H{sub 2}-Ar atmosphere showing stable performance. (author)

  20. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2014-08-10

    Rechargeable lithium, sodium and aluminium metal-based batteries are among the most versatile platforms for high-energy, cost-effective electrochemical energy storage. Non-uniform metal deposition and dendrite formation on the negative electrode during repeated cycles of charge and discharge are major hurdles to commercialization of energy-storage devices based on each of these chemistries. A long-held view is that unstable electrodeposition is a consequence of inherent characteristics of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid electrolytes reinforced with halogenated salt blends exhibit stable long-term cycling at room temperature, often with no signs of deposition instabilities over hundreds of cycles of charge and discharge and thousands of operating hours. We rationalize these observations with the help of surface energy data for the electrolyte/lithium interface and impedance analysis of the interface during different stages of cell operation. Our findings provide support for an important recent theoretical prediction that the surface mobility of lithium is significantly enhanced in the presence of lithium halide salts. Our results also show that a high electrolyte modulus is unnecessary for stable electrodeposition of lithium.

  1. Modeling of ionic transport in solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheang, P L; Teo, L L; Lim, T L

    2010-01-01

    A Monte Carlo model describing the ionic trans port in solid polyme relectrolyte is developed. Single cation simulation is carried out using hopping rate to study the transport mechanism of a thermally activated ion in solid polymer electrolyte. In our model, the ion is able to hop along a polymer chain and to jump between different chains, surmounting energy barriers that consist of polymer's activation energy and the externally applied electric field. The model is able to trace the motion of ion across polymer electrolyte. The mean hopping distance is calculated based on the available open bond in the next nearest side. Random numbers are used to determine the hopping distances, free flight times, final energy and direction of the cation after successful hop. Drift velocity and energy of cation are simulated in our work. The model is expected to be able to simulate the lithium-polymer battery in future.

  2. Moessbauer studies of microscopic disorder in solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, M.

    1987-01-01

    We implement for the first time Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) to investigate short-range properties of disorder in solid electrolytes. MS in 129 I and 119 Sn was carried out in RbAg 4 I 5 and as impurity in Ag 2 Se, respectively. Measurements were performed both in the superionic and the normal phases. It is shown that localized cation hopping is an inherent feature of the α-AgI-type solid electrolytes. In RbAg 4 I 5 , at temperatures far below T c , a small fraction of Ag is still locally mobile and at T>T c , its concentration increases exponentially. A strong linear temperature dependence of the point-charge electric field gradient is observed and explained in terms of local hopping. With 119 Sn in Ag 2 Se we observe the onset of 'local melting' of the Ag surroundingt the SnSe 4 cluster at 50 K below the bulk superionic phase transition. The characteristic features of MS related to microscopic studies of solid electrolytes are fully described. (orig.)

  3. Internal-reference solid-electrolyte oxygen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new solid-electrolyte oxygen sensor has been developed that eliminates the conventional oxygen reference in previous solid-electrolyte oxygen sensor designs and is, therefore, ideally suited as an insertion device for remote oxygen monitoring applications. It is constructed with two cells of stabilized zirconia sealed into a small unit using a new high-temperature platinum-zirconia seal. One electrochemical cell monitors the ratio of oxygen partial pressures inside and outside the sensor while the other solid-electrolyte cell is used for quantitative electrochemical pumping of oxygen. The internal oxygen reference is generated by initially pumping all oxygen out of the known internal volume of the sensor and then quantitatively pumping oxygen back in until oxygen partial pressures are equal inside and out. This information is used with the ideal gas law to calculate oxygen partial pressures. Tests were conducted from 400 to 1000 0 C in mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen spanning approximately 0.2 to 21 percent oxygen concentration range. Sensors with sputtered platinum and porous platinum paste electrodes were compared

  4. Review on solid electrolytes for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feng; Kotobuki, Masashi; Song, Shufeng; Lai, Man On; Lu, Li

    2018-06-01

    All-solid-state (ASS) lithium-ion battery has attracted great attention due to its high safety and increased energy density. One of key components in the ASS battery (ASSB) is solid electrolyte that determines performance of the ASSB. Many types of solid electrolytes have been investigated in great detail in the past years, including NASICON-type, garnet-type, perovskite-type, LISICON-type, LiPON-type, Li3N-type, sulfide-type, argyrodite-type, anti-perovskite-type and many more. This paper aims to provide comprehensive reviews on some typical types of key solid electrolytes and some ASSBs, and on gaps that should be resolved.

  5. Nonlinear ionic transport through microstructured solid electrolytes: homogenization estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto Sillamoni, Ignacio J.; Idiart, Martín I.

    2016-10-01

    We consider the transport of multiple ionic species by diffusion and migration through microstructured solid electrolytes in the presence of strong electric fields. The assumed constitutive relations for the constituent phases follow from convex energy and dissipation potentials which guarantee thermodynamic consistency. The effective response is heuristically deduced from a multi-scale convergence analysis of the relevant field equations. The resulting homogenized response involves an effective dissipation potential per species. Each potential is mathematically akin to that of a standard nonlinear heterogeneous conductor. A ‘linear-comparison’ homogenization technique is then used to generate estimates for these nonlinear potentials in terms of available estimates for corresponding linear conductors. By way of example, use is made of the Maxwell-Garnett and effective-medium linear approximations to generate estimates for two-phase systems with power-law dissipation. Explicit formulas are given for some limiting cases. In the case of threshold-type behavior, the estimates exhibit non-analytical dilute limits and seem to be consistent with fields localized in low energy paths.

  6. Ceramic membrane fuel cells based on solid proton electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Guangyao; Ma, Qianli; Peng, Ranran; Liu, Xingqin [USTC Lab. for Solid State Chemistry and Inorganic Membranes, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ma, Guilin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2007-04-15

    The development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has reached its new stage characterized with thin electrolytes on porous electrode support, and the most important fabrication techniques developed in which almost all are concerned with inorganic membranes, and so can be named as ceramic membrane fuel cells (CMFCs). CMFCs based on proton electrolytes (CMFC-H) may exhibit more advantages than CMFCs based on oxygen-ion electrolytes (CMFC-O) in many respects, such as energy efficiency and avoiding carbon deposit. Ammonia fuelled CMFC with proton-conducting BaCe{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2.9} (BCGO) electrolyte (50 {mu}m in thickness) is reported in this works, which showed the open current voltage (OCV) values close to theoretical ones and rather high power density. And also, we have found that the well known super oxide ion conductor, La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{alpha}} (LSGM), is a pure proton conductor in H{sub 2} and mixed proton and oxide ion conductor in wet air, while it is a pure oxide ion conductor in oxygen or dry air. To demonstrate the CMFC-H concept to get high performance fuel cells the techniques for thin membranes, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), particularly novel CVD techniques, should be given more attention because of their many advantages. (author)

  7. Rebalancing electrolytes in redox flow battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, On Kok; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2014-12-23

    Embodiments of redox flow battery rebalancing systems include a system for reacting an unbalanced flow battery electrolyte with a rebalance electrolyte in a first reaction cell. In some embodiments, the rebalance electrolyte may contain ferrous iron (Fe.sup.2+) which may be oxidized to ferric iron (Fe.sup.3+) in the first reaction cell. The reducing ability of the rebalance reactant may be restored in a second rebalance cell that is configured to reduce the ferric iron in the rebalance electrolyte back into ferrous iron through a reaction with metallic iron.

  8. Interactions between lanthanum gallate based solid electrolyte and ceria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrovat, M.; Ahmad-Khanlou, A.; Samardzija, Z.; Holc, J.

    1999-10-01

    Possible interactions between La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 2.85} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped CeO{sub 2} (solid electrolyte and anode binding materials, respectively, for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)) at 1,300 C were studied with diffusion couples and fired powder mixtures. The SrLaGa{sub 3}O{sub 7} compound was detected and its formation was attributed to the diffusion of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} from La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 2.85} into Ce{sub 1{minus}x}La{sub x}O{sub 2{minus}x/2} solid solution. As the resistivity of SrLaGa{sub 3}O{sub 7} is rather high, around 1 M{center_dot}ohm at 800 C, its presence in the solid electrolyte/anode interface could significantly increase the internal resistivity of an SOFC.

  9. Electrochemical hydrogen isotope sensor based on solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Iwahara, Hiroyasu

    2002-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor of hydrogen isotopes based on solid electrolytes for determining the hydrogen isotope ratios and/or total hydrogen pressures in gases has been developed. This paper describes the methodology of the hydrogen isotope sensing together with experimental results. When hydrogen isotope gases are introduced to an electrochemical cell using a proton-conducting electrolyte (hydrogen isotope cell), the electromotive force (EMF) of the cell agrees with that theoretically estimated. The EMF signals can be used for the determination of the hydrogen isotope ratio in gases if the total hydrogen pressure is predetermined. By supplementary use of an oxide ion conductor cell, both the ratio and total pressure of the hydrogen isotopes can be simultaneously determined. (author)

  10. Complex hydrides as room-temperature solid electrolytes for rechargeable batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, P. E. de; Blanchard, D.; Matsuo, M.

    2016-01-01

    A central goal in current battery research is to increase the safety and energy density of Li-ion batteries. Electrolytes nowadays typically consist of lithium salts dissolved in organic solvents. Solid electrolytes could facilitate safer batteries with higher capacities, as they are compatible...... electrolytes, discussing in detail LiBH4, strategies towards for fast room-temperature ionic conductors, alternative compounds, and first explorations of implementation of these electrolytes in all-solid-state batteries....

  11. Bioinspired Ultrastrong Solid Electrolytes with Fast Proton Conduction along 2D Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangwei; Xu, Mingzhao; Zhao, Jing; Jiang, Shengtao; Wang, Shaofei; Li, Zhen; He, Xueyi; Huang, Tong; Cao, Moyuan; Wu, Hong; Guiver, Michael D; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2017-07-01

    Solid electrolytes have attracted much attention due to their great prospects in a number of energy- and environment-related applications including fuel cells. Fast ion transport and superior mechanical properties of solid electrolytes are both of critical significance for these devices to operate with high efficiency and long-term stability. To address a common tradeoff relationship between ionic conductivity and mechanical properties, electrolyte membranes with proton-conducting 2D channels and nacre-inspired architecture are reported. An unprecedented combination of high proton conductivity (326 mS cm -1 at 80 °C) and superior mechanical properties (tensile strength of 250 MPa) are achieved due to the integration of exceptionally continuous 2D channels and nacre-inspired brick-and-mortar architecture into one materials system. Moreover, the membrane exhibits higher power density than Nafion 212 membrane, but with a comparative weight of only ≈0.1, indicating potential savings in system weight and cost. Considering the extraordinary properties and independent tunability of ion conduction and mechanical properties, this bioinspired approach may pave the way for the design of next-generation high-performance solid electrolytes with nacre-like architecture. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. High temperature fuel cell with ceria-based solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, H.; Eguchi, K.; Yahiro, H.; Baba, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Cation-doped ceria is investigated as an electrolyte for the solid oxide fuel cell. As for application to the fuel cells, the electrolyte are desired to have high ionic conductivity in deriving a large electrical power. A series of cation-doped ceria has higher ionic conductivity than zirconia-based oxides. In the present study, the basic electrochemical properties of cation-doped ceria were studied in relation to the application of fuel cells. The performance of fuel cell with yttria-doped ceria electrolyte was evaluated. Ceria-based oxides were prepared by calcination of oxide mixtures of the components or calcination of co-precipitated hydroxide mixtures from the metal nitrate solution. The oxide mixtures thus obtained were sintered at 1650 0 C for 15 hr in air into disks. Ionic transference number, t/sub i/, was estimated from emf of oxygen concentration cell. Electrical conductivities were measured by dc-4 probe method by varying the oxygen partial pressure. The fuel cell was operated by oxygen and hydrogen

  13. Solid-State NMR Study of New Copolymers as Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Daigle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the analysis of comb-like polymers by solid-state NMR. The polymers were previously evaluated as solid-polymer-electrolytes (SPE for lithium-polymer-metal batteries that have suitable ionic conductivity at 60 °C. We propose to develop a correlation between 13C solid-state NMR measurements and phase segregation. 13C solid-state NMR is a perfect tool for differentiating polymer phases with fast or slow motions. 7Li was used to monitor the motion of lithium ions in the polymer, and activation energies were calculated.

  14. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-01-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  15. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartini, Evvy [Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Materials – National Nuclear Energy Agency, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan15314, Banten (Indonesia); Manawan, Maykel [Post Graduate Program of Materials Science, University of Indonesia, Jl.Salemba Raya No.4, Jakarta 10430 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  16. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  17. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID ELECTROLYTES: FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambabu Bobba; Josef Hormes; T. Wang; Jaymes A. Baker; Donald G. Prier; Tommy Rockwood; Dinesha Hawkins; Saleem Hasan; V. Rayanki

    1997-12-31

    Electrolytes. Ionically conducting solid electrolytes are successfully used for battery, fuel cell and sensor applications.

  18. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising a porous support and a solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K; Norman, Timothy J; Griffith, Arthur E; LaConti, Anthony B

    2015-02-24

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a thin, rigid, dimensionally-stable, non-electrically-conducting support, the support having a plurality of cylindrical, straight-through pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores are unevenly distributed, with some or no pores located along the periphery and more pores located centrally. The pores are completely filled with a solid polymer electrolyte, the solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide. The solid polymer electrolyte may also be deposited over the top and/or bottom surfaces of the support.

  19. All-solid-state Al-air batteries with polymer alkaline gel electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Zuo, Chuncheng; Liu, Zihui; Yu, Ying; Zuo, Yuxin; Song, Yu

    2014-04-01

    Aluminum-air (Al-air) battery is one of the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems because of its high capacity and energy density, and abundance. The polyacrylic acid (PAA)-based alkaline gel electrolyte is used in all-solid-state Al-air batteries instead of aqueous electrolytes to prevent leakage. The optimal gel electrolyte exhibits an ionic conductivity of 460 mS cm-1, which is close to that of aqueous electrolytes. The Al-air battery peak capacity and energy density considering only Al can reach 1166 mAh g-1-Al and 1230 mWh g-1-Al, respectively, during constant current discharge. The battery prototype also exhibits a high power density of 91.13 mW cm-2. For the battery is a laminated structure, area densities of 29.2 mAh cm-2 and 30.8 mWh cm-2 are presented to appraise the performance of the whole cell. A novel design to inhibit anodic corrosion is proposed by separating the Al anode from the gel electrolyte when not in use, thereby effectively maintaining the available capacity of the battery.

  20. Robust solid polymer electrolyte for conducting IPN actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festin, Nicolas; Maziz, Ali; Plesse, Cédric; Teyssié, Dominique; Chevrot, Claude; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) as first component and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as second component were synthesized and used as a solid polymer electrolyte film in the design of a mechanically robust conducting IPN actuator. IPN mechanical properties and morphologies were mainly investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis and transmission electron microscopy. For 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide (EMITFSI) swollen IPNs, conductivity values are close to 1 × 10 −3 S cm −1 at 25 ° C. Conducting IPN actuators have been synthesized by chemical polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) within the PEO/NBR IPN. A pseudo-trilayer configuration has been obtained with PEO/NBR IPN sandwiched between two interpenetrated PEDOT electrodes. The robust conducting IPN actuators showed a free strain of 2.4% and a blocking force of 30 mN for a low applied potential of ±2 V. (paper)

  1. Robust solid polymer electrolyte for conducting IPN actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festin, Nicolas; Maziz, Ali; Plesse, Cédric; Teyssié, Dominique; Chevrot, Claude; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) as first component and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as second component were synthesized and used as a solid polymer electrolyte film in the design of a mechanically robust conducting IPN actuator. IPN mechanical properties and morphologies were mainly investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis and transmission electron microscopy. For 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide (EMITFSI) swollen IPNs, conductivity values are close to 1 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 ° C. Conducting IPN actuators have been synthesized by chemical polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) within the PEO/NBR IPN. A pseudo-trilayer configuration has been obtained with PEO/NBR IPN sandwiched between two interpenetrated PEDOT electrodes. The robust conducting IPN actuators showed a free strain of 2.4% and a blocking force of 30 mN for a low applied potential of ±2 V.

  2. Development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at higher temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkous, C.A. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This report describes efforts in developing new solid polymer electrolytes that will enable operation of proton exchange membrane electrolyzers at higher temperatures than are currently possible. Several ionomers have been prepared from polyetheretherketone (PEEK), polyethersulfone (PES), and polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) by employing various sulfonation procedures. By controlling the extent of sulfonation, a range of proton conductivities could be achieved, whose upper limit actually exceeded that of commercially available perfluoralkyl sulfonates. Thermoconductimetric analysis of samples at various degrees of sulfonation showed an inverse relationship between conductivity and maximum operating temperature. This was attributed to the dual effect of adding sulfonate groups to the polymer: more acid groups produce more protons for increased conductivity, but they also increase water uptake, which mechanically weakens the membrane. This situation was exacerbated by the limited acidity of the aromatic sulfonic acids (pK{sub A} {approx} 2-3). The possibility of using partial fluorination to raise the acid dissociation constant is discussed.

  3. Electrode-electrolyte BIMEVOX system for moderate temperature oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivin, J.C.; Pirovano, C.; Nowogrocki, G.; Mairesse, G. [Laboratoire de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide, URA CNRS 452, USTL-ENSCL BP 108, 59652 Villeneuve d`Ascq (France); Labrune, Ph.; Lagrange, G. [Centre de recherches Claude Delorme, Air Liquide, Jouy en Josas (France)

    1998-12-01

    Electrochemical separation of oxygen from air is a promising application for oxide conductor solid electrolytes. However, several important specifications are required in order to obtain an efficient separation device. First of all, the electrolyte material must exhibit a high conductivity at moderate temperature. From this point of view, a new family of materials called BIMEVOX ideally fulfils this condition. Secondly, a typical separation device must comport two electrodes on opposite faces of the electrolyte. These electrodes must act as electronic collectors but also, at the cathodic side, as an oxygen dissociation catalyst. BIMEVOX electrolytes exhibit ionic conductivity values that can allow work at temperature below 500C. The classical electrode approach, like in solid oxide fuel cells, consists in using a specific mixed oxide, for instance strontium lanthanum manganite or cobaltite. However, the lower the temperature, the lower the efficiency of these electrodes which quickly appears as the limiting factor. In previous work on bismuth lead oxide electrolytes, we proposed a new approach that consists of using the surface of the bismuth-based electrolyte itself as the catalyst, the electron collection being then performed by a co-sintered metallic grid. This `in-situ` electrode system provides many advantages, particularly it eliminates the problem of the chemical compatibility between electrode and electrolyte materials. Taking into account the presence of both catalytic vanadium and bismuth cations in BIMEVOX, we checked under these conditions the separation of oxygen from air for different electrolytes (BICOVOX, BICUVOX, BIZNVOX) at various temperatures in the range 430-600C. For instance, using a BICOVOX pellet with a gold grid inserted on each side makes it possible to separate oxygen with nearly 100% efficiency for current density values up to 1000 mA/cm{sup -2}. For higher intensity values, the faradic efficiency progressively but reversibly decreases

  4. Weighted-density functional approach for the solid-liquid interfaces in electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepanova, T.A.; Stekolnikov, A.V.

    1991-09-01

    A weighted-density functional method is proposed to describe the atomic structure of the crystal-melt interface in electrolytes based on a charged-hard-sphere model of salt. The contribution of long-range Coulomb interaction is taken into account in the field formulation: the electrostatic field potential is determined from the Poisson equation. The ion density profiles and crystalline order parameter at the crystal-melt interface in the 1:1 symmetric electrolytes are calculated. The structurization of liquid near the solid surface is described. The results are compared to those for the neutral hard sphere system. The impurity distributions of extremely small concentrations are calculated both for the neutral and charged hard sphere systems. (author). 24 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  5. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S.

    2016-01-01

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  6. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S., E-mail: kawasaki.shinji@nitech.ac.jp [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2016-07-06

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  7. Cross-Linked Solid Polymer Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben youcef, Hicham; Garcia-Calvo, Oihane; Lago, Nerea; Devaraj, Shanmukaraj; Armand, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Semi-interpenetrated network Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) were fabricated by UV-induced cross-linking of poly(ethyleneglycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and divinylbenzene (DVB) within a poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO) matrix (M v = 5 × 10 6 g mol −1 ), comprising lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide salt (LiTFSI), at a molar ratio of EO:Li ∼ 30:1. The influence of the DVB content on the final SPE properties was investigated in detail. An increase of DVB concentration resulted in self-standing polymer electrolytes. The DVB cross-linker incorporation was found to decrease the crystallinity of the PEO matrix from 34% to 23%, with a decrease in the melting temperature (T m ) of the membrane from 50 °C to 34 °C. Moreover, the influence of the DVB concentration on the ionic conductivity was determined for polymer electrolytes with 0, 10, 20 and 45% DVB from room temperature (RT) to 80 °C. The resulting SPEs showed a high electrochemical stability of 4.3 V as well as practical conductivity values exceeding 10 −4 S cm −1 at 70 °C. Cycling performance of these semi-interpenetrated SPE’s have been shown with a Li metal polymer battery and all solid -state Li sulphur battery.

  8. Single- and double-ion type cross-linked polysiloxane solid electrolytes for lithium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Hiromori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Morita, Masayuki; Matsuda, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Asai, Hiroyuki

    Polymeric solid electrolytes, that have poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PMS) backbone and cross-linked network, were applied to a rechargeable lithium battery system. Single- (PMS-Li) and double-ion type (PMS-LiClO 4) electrolytes were prepared from the same prepolymers. Lithium electrode in the both electrolytes showed reversible stripping and deposition of lithium. Intercalation and deintercalation processes of lithium ion between lithium-manganese composite oxide (Li xMnO 2) electrode and the electrolytes were also confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, however, peak current decreased with several cycles in both cases. The model cell, Li/PMS-Li/Li xMnO 2 cell had 1.4 mA h g -1 (per 1 g of active material, current density: 3.77 μA cm -2), and the Li/PMS-LiClO 4/Li xMnO 2 cell had 1.6 mA h g -1 (current density: 75.3 μA cm -2).

  9. Fabrication of All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Cells Using Three-Dimensionally Structured Solid Electrolyte Li7La3Zr2O12 Pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Mao; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries using Li + -ion conducting ceramic electrolytes have been focused on as attractive future batteries for electric vehicles and renewable energy conversion systems because high safety can be realized due to non-flammability of ceramic electrolytes. In addition, a higher volumetric energy density than that of current lithium-ion batteries is expected since the all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries can be made in bipolar cell configurations. However, the special ideas and techniques based on ceramic processing are required to construct the electrochemical interface for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries since the battery development has been done so far based on liquid electrolyte system over 100 years. As one of the promising approaches to develop practical all-solid-state batteries, we have been focusing on three-dimensionally (3D) structured cell configurations such as an interdigitated combination of 3D pillars of cathode and anode, which can be realized by using solid electrolyte membranes with hole-array structures. The application of such kinds of 3D structures effectively increases the interface between solid electrode and solid electrolyte per unit volume, lowering the internal resistance of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. In this study, Li 6.25 Al 0.25 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 (LLZAl), which is a Al-doped Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 (LLZ) with Li + -ion conductivity of ~10 –4 S ⋅cm −1 at room temperature and high stability against lithium-metal, was used as a solid electrolyte, and its pellets with 700 μm depth holes in 700 μm × 700 μm area were fabricated to construct 3D-structured all-solid-state batteries with LiCoO 2 /LLZAl/lithium-metal configuration. It is expected that the LiCoO 2 –LLZAl interface is formed by point-to-point contact even when the LLZAl pellet with 3D hole-array structure is applied. Therefore, Li 3 BO 3 , which is a mechanically soft solid electrolyte with a low melting point at around 700

  10. Fermi Potential across Working Solid Oxide Cells with Zirconia or Ceria Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    A solid electrolyte will always possess a finite electronic conductivity, in particular electrolytes like doped ceria that easily get reduced and become mixed ionic and electronic conductors. This given rise too high leak currents through the solid oxide cell (SOC). Especially, problems have been...... driving the O2-ions is not the Fermi potential, which is the potential of the electrons, but the Galvani potential (or inner potential) (1). The concepts of potentials describing the electrical situation of a solid electrolyte is shown i Fig. 1, and an example of the Fermi potential (π) and Galvani...

  11. Challenges and perspectives of garnet solid electrolytes for all solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Geng, Zhen; Han, Cuiping; Fu, Yongzhu; Li, Song; He, Yan-bing; Kang, Feiyu; Li, Baohua

    2018-06-01

    Garnet Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) solid electrolytes recently have attracted tremendous interest as they have the potential to enable all solid-state lithium batteries (ASSLBs) owing to high ionic conductivity (10-3 to 10-4 S cm-1), negligible electronic transport, wide potential window (up to 9 V), and good chemical stability. Here we present the key issues and challenges of LLZO in the aspects of ion conduction property, interfacial compatibility, and stability in air. First, different preparation methods of LLZO are reviewed. Then, recent progress about the improvement of ionic conductivity and interfacial property between LLZO and electrodes are presented. Finally, we list some emerging LLZO-based solid-state batteries and provide perspectives for further research. The aim of this review is to summarize the up-to-date developments of LLZO and lead the direction for future development which could enable LLZO-based ASSLBs.

  12. Electrocatalysis in Water Electrolysis with Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasten, Egil

    2001-10-01

    Development and optimization of the electrodes in a water electrolysis system using a polymer membrane as electrolyte have been carried out in this work. A cell voltage of 1.59 V (energy consumption of about 3.8 kWh/Nm{sub 3} H{sub 2}) has been obtained at practical operation conditions of the electrolysis cell (10 kA . m2, 90{sup o}C) using a total noble metal loading of less than 2.4 mg.cm{sub 2} and a Nafion -115 membrane. It is further shown that a cell voltage of less than 1.5 V is possible at the same conditions by combination of the best electrodes obtained in this work. The most important limitation of the electrolysis system using polymer membrane as electrolyte has proven to be the electrical conductivity of the catalysts due to the porous backing/current collector system, which increases the length of the current path and decreases the cross section compared to the apparent one. A careful compromise must therefore be obtained between electrical conductivity and active surface area, which can be tailored by preparation and annealing conditions of the metal oxide catalysts. Anode catalysts of different properties have been developed. The mixed oxide of Ir-Ta (85 mole% Ir) was found to exhibit highest voltage efficiency at a current density of 10 kA.m{sub 2} or below, whereas the mixed oxide of Ir and Ru (60-80 mole% Ir) was found to give the highest voltage efficiency for current densities of above 10 kA.m{sub 2}. Pt on carbon particles, was found to be less suitable as cathode catalyst in water electrolysis. The large carbon particles introduced an unnecessary porosity into the catalytic layer, which resulted in a high ohmic drop. Much better voltage efficiency was obtained by using Pt-black as cathode catalyst, which showed a far better electrical conductivity. Ru-oxide as cathode catalyst in water electrolysis systems using a polymer electrolyte was not found to be of particular interest due to insufficient electrochemical activity and too low

  13. Phenomenological theory of current-producing processes at the solid oxide electrolyte/gas electrode interface: steady-state polarization of fuel-cell electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murygin, I.V.; Chebotin, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    The polarization of fuel-cell electrodes (mixtures CO + CO 2 and H 2 + H 2 O) in systems with solid oxide electrolytes is discussed. The theory is based upon a process model where the electrode reaction zone can spread along the line of three-phase contact by diffusion of reaction partners and products across the electrolyte/electrode and electrolyte/gas interface

  14. Zirconium oxide based ceramic solid electrolytes for oxygen detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caproni, Erica

    2007-01-01

    Taking advantage of the high thermal shock resistance of zirconia-magnesia ceramics and the high oxide ion conductivity of zirconia-yttria ceramics, composites of these ceramics were prepared by mixing, pressing and sintering different relative concentrations of ZrO 2 : 8.6 mol% MgO and ZrO 2 : 3 mol% Y 2 O 3 solid electrolytes. Microstructural analysis of the composites was carried out by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The thermal behavior was studied by dilatometric analysis. The electrical behavior was evaluated by the impedance spectroscopy technique. An experimental setup was designed for measurement the electrical signal generated as a function of the amount of oxygen at high temperatures. The main results show that these composites are partially stabilized (monoclinic, cubic and tetragonal) and the thermal behavior is similar to that of ZrO 2 : 8.6 mol% MgO materials used in disposable high temperature oxygen sensors. Moreover, the results of analysis of impedance spectroscopy show that the electrical conductivity of zirconia:magnesia is improved with zirconia-yttria addition and that the electrical signal depends on the amount of oxygen at 1000 deg C, showing that the ceramic composites can be used in oxygen sensors. (author)

  15. Chitosan-gold-Lithium nanocomposites as solid polymer electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, S N Suraiya; Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Aswal, Vinod K; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal

    2014-08-01

    Lithium micro batteries are emerging field of research. For environmental safety biodegradable films are preferred. Recently biodegradable polymers have gained wide application in the field of solid polymer electrolytes. To make biodegradable polymers films plasticizers are usually used. However, use of plasticizers has disadvantages such as inhomogenities in phases and mechanical instability that will affect the performance of Lithium micro batteries. We have in this research used gold nanoparticles that are environmentally friendly, instead of plasticizers. Gold nanoparticles were directly template upon chitosan membranes by reduction process so as to enhance the interactions of Lithium with the polymer. In this article, for the first time the characteristics of Chitosan-gold-Lithium nanocomposite films are investigated. The films were prepared using simple solution casting technique. We have used various characterization tools such as Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), XRD, FTIR, Raman, FESEM, and AFM, Light scattering, Dielectric and electrical conductivity measurements. Our investigations show that incorporation of gold results in enhancement of conductivity in Lithium containing Chitosan films. Also it affects the dielectric characteristics of the films. We conclude through various characterization tools that the enhancement in the conductivity was due to the retardation of crystal growth of lithium salt in the presence of gold nanoparticles. A model is proposed regarding the formation of the new nanocomposite. The conductivity of these biodegradable films is comparable to those of the current inorganic Lithium micro batteries. This new chitosan-Au-Li nanocomposite has potential applications in the field of Lithium micro batteries.

  16. Diffusion welding of ZrO2 solid electrolyte cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, W.; Schmidberger, R.

    1980-01-01

    Zirconia based solid-electrolyte-cells can be applied as electrolysis-cells or fuel cells at high temperatures. Scaling up to technical aggregates must be realized by a gastight electrical series-connection of many tubular single cells. A suitable process for connecting single cells is diffusion welding. Starting materials were sintered zirconia-tubes (16 mm diameter, 10 mm length) and gastight interconnecting rings (16 mm diameter, 0.5-2mm length) from gold, platinum or electrically conducting mixed oxides. ZrO 2 -tubes and interconnecting rings were mounted in alternating sequence and diffusion welded under axial pressure at high temperatures. From economic reasons noble metals cannot be used for technical aggregates. The developments were therefore concentrated on the connection with mixed oxides. Optimized welding parameters are: 1400-1500 0 C welding temperature, 2 hours welding time and an axial pressure of approximately 1 Nmm 2 . Up to now gastight tubes consisting of 20 single cells were preparated by diffusion-welding in one step. The process will be further developed for the production of 50-cell-tubes with a total length of about 60 cm. (orig.) [de

  17. Quantum dot doped solid polymer electrolyte for device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pramod K.; Kim, Kang Wook; Rhee, Hee-Woo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea)

    2009-06-15

    ZnS capped CdSe quantum dots embedded in PEO:KI:I{sub 2} polymer electrolyte matrix have been synthesized and characterized for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The complex impedance spectroscopy shows enhance in ionic conductivity ({sigma}) due to charges provide by quantum dots (QD) while AFM affirm the uniform distribution of QD into polymer electrolyte matrix. Cyclic voltammetry revealed the possible interaction between polymer electrolyte, QD and iodide/iodine. The photovoltaic performances of the DSSC containing quantum dots doped polymer electrolyte was also found to improve. (author)

  18. Investigation of the Reversible Lithiation of an Oxide Free Aluminum Anode by a LiBH4 Solid State Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Weeks

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze and compare the physical and electrochemical properties of an all solid-state cell utilizing LiBH4 as the electrolyte and aluminum as the active anode material. The system was characterized by galvanostatic lithiation/delithiation, cyclic voltammetry (CV, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, Raman spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Constant current cycling demonstrated that the aluminum anode can be reversibly lithiated over multiple cycles utilizing a solid-state electrolyte. An initial capacity of 895 mAh/g was observed and is close to the theoretical capacity of aluminum. Cyclic voltammetry of the cell was consistent with the constant current cycling data and showed that the reversible lithiation/delithiation of aluminum occurs at 0.32 V and 0.38 V (vs. Li+/Li respectively. XRD of the aluminum anode in the initial and lithiated state clearly showed the formation of a LiAl (1:1 alloy. SEM-EDS was utilized to examine the morphological changes that occur within the electrode during cycling. This work is the first example of reversible lithiation of aluminum in a solid-state cell and further emphasizes the robust nature of the LiBH4 electrolyte. This demonstrates the possibility of utilizing other high capacity anode materials with a LiBH4 based solid electrolyte in all-solid-state batteries.

  19. Lithiated and sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) solid state electrolyte films for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, K.-F.; Su, S.-H., E-mail: minimono42@gmail.com

    2013-10-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been synthesised and used as solid-state electrolytes for supercapacitors. In order to increase their ion conductivity, the PEEK films were sulphonated by sulphuric acid, and various amounts of LiClO{sub 4} were added. The solid-state electrolyte films were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ionic conductivities of the electrolyte films were analysed by performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained electrolyte films can be sandwiched or directly coated on activated carbon electrodes to form solid-state supercapacitors. The electrochemical characteristics of these supercapacitors were investigated by performing cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge tests. Under an optimal content of LiClO{sub 4}, the supercapacitor can provide a capacitance as high as 190 F/g. After 1000 cycles, the supercapacitors show almost no capacitance fading, indicating high stability of the solid-state electrolyte films. - Highlights: • Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been used as solid-state electrolytes. • LiClO4 addition can efficiently improve the ionic conductivity. • Supercapacitors using PEEK electrolyte films deliver high capacitance.

  20. Recent progress in sulfide-based solid electrolytes for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D., E-mail: liu.dongqiang@ireq.ca; Zhu, W.; Feng, Z.; Guerfi, A.; Vijh, A.; Zaghib, K.

    2016-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Li{sub 2}S-GeS{sub 2}-P{sub 2}S{sub 5} ternary diagram showing various sulphide compounds as solid electrolytes for Li-ion batteries. - Highlights: • Recent progress of sulfide-based solid electrolytes is described from point of view of structure. • Thio-LISICON type electrolytes exhibited high ionic conductivity due to their bcc sublattice and unique Li{sup +} diffusion pathway. • “Mixed-anion effect” is also an effective way to modify the energy landscape as well as the ionic conductivity. - Abstract: Sulfide-based ionic conductors are one of most attractive solid electrolyte candidates for all-solid-state batteries. In this review, recent progress of sulfide-based solid electrolytes is described from point of view of structure. In particular, lithium thio-phosphates such as Li{sub 7}P{sub 3}S{sub 11}, Li{sub 10}GeP{sub 2}S{sub 12} and Li{sub 11}Si{sub 2}PS{sub 12} etc. exhibit extremely high ionic conductivity of over 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at room temperature, even higher than those of commercial organic carbonate electrolytes. The relationship between structure and unprecedented high ionic conductivity is delineated; some potential drawbacks of these electrolytes are also outlined.

  1. Lithiated and sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) solid state electrolyte films for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, K.-F.; Su, S.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been synthesised and used as solid-state electrolytes for supercapacitors. In order to increase their ion conductivity, the PEEK films were sulphonated by sulphuric acid, and various amounts of LiClO 4 were added. The solid-state electrolyte films were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ionic conductivities of the electrolyte films were analysed by performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained electrolyte films can be sandwiched or directly coated on activated carbon electrodes to form solid-state supercapacitors. The electrochemical characteristics of these supercapacitors were investigated by performing cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge tests. Under an optimal content of LiClO 4 , the supercapacitor can provide a capacitance as high as 190 F/g. After 1000 cycles, the supercapacitors show almost no capacitance fading, indicating high stability of the solid-state electrolyte films. - Highlights: • Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been used as solid-state electrolytes. • LiClO4 addition can efficiently improve the ionic conductivity. • Supercapacitors using PEEK electrolyte films deliver high capacitance

  2. Status of solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology and potential for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J. F.; Nuttall, L. J.

    The solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell represents the first fuel cell technology known to be used operationally. Current activities are mainly related to the development of a space regenerative fuel cell system for energy storage on board space stations, or other large orbiting vehicles and platforms. During 1981, a study was performed to determine the feasibility of using SPE fuel cells for automotive or other vehicular applications, using methanol as the fuel. The results of this study were very encouraging. Details concerning a conceptual automotive fuel cell power plant study are discussed, taking into account also a layout of major components for compact passenger car installation.

  3. Theoretical performance of hydrogen-bromine rechargeable SPE fuel cell. [Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinell, R. F.; Fritts, S. D.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.

  4. Recent Developments of All-Solid-State Lithium Secondary Batteries with Sulfide Inorganic Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruochen; Zhang, Shengzhao; Wang, Xiuli; Xia, Yan; Xia, Xinhui; Wu, Jianbo; Gu, Changdong; Tu, Jiangping

    2018-04-20

    Due to the increasing demand of security and energy density, all-solid-state lithium ion batteries have become the promising next-generation energy storage devices to replace the traditional liquid batteries with flammable organic electrolytes. In this Minireview, we focus on the recent developments of sulfide inorganic electrolytes for all-solid-state batteries. The challenges of assembling bulk-type all-solid-state batteries for industrialization are discussed, including low ionic conductivity of the present sulfide electrolytes, high interfacial resistance and poor compatibility between electrolytes and electrodes. Many efforts have been focused on the solutions for these issues. Although some progresses have been achieved, it is still far away from practical application. The perspectives for future research on all-solid-state lithium ion batteries are presented. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Molecular motion in polymer electrolytes. An investigation of methods for improving the conductivity of solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Mark Ian

    2002-01-01

    Three methods were explored with a view to enhancing the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes; namely the addition of an inert, inorganic filler, the addition of a plasticizer and the incorporation of the electrolyte in the pores of silica matrices. There have been a number of reports, which suggest the addition of nanocrystalline oxides to polymer electrolytes increases the ionic conductivities by about a factor of two. In this thesis studies of the polymer electrolyte NaSCN.P(EO) 8 with added nanocrystalline alumina powder are reported which show no evidence of enhanced conductivity. The addition of a plasticizer to polymer electrolytes will increase the ionic conductivity. A detailed study was made of the polymer electrolytes LiT.P(EO) 10 and LiClO 4 .P(EO) 10 with added ethylene carbonate plasticizer. The conductivities showed an enhancement, however this disappeared on heating under vacuum. The present work suggests that the plasticised system is not thermodynamically stable and will limit the applications of the material. A series of samples were prepared from the polymer electrolyte LiT.P(EO) 8 and a range of porous silicas. The silicas were selected to give a wide range of pore size and included Zeolite Y, ZSM5, mesoporous silica and a range of porous glasses. This gave pore sizes from less than one nm to 50 nm. A variety of experiments, including X-ray diffraction, DSC and NMR, showed that the polymer electrolyte entered to pores of the silica. As a result the polymer was amorphous and the room temperature conductivity was enhanced. The high temperature conductivity was not increased above that for the pure electrolyte. The results suggest that this could be employed in applications, however would require higher conducting electrolytes to be of practical benefit. (author)

  6. Modulation of solid electrolyte interphase of lithium-ion batteries by LiDFOB and LiBOB electrolyte additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiqiang; Wang, Shuwei; Hu, Guohong; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Shen, Cai

    2018-05-01

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer is an organic-inorganic composite layer that allows Li+ transport across but blocks electron flow across and prevents solvent diffusing to electrode surface. Morphology, thickness, mechanical and chemical properties of SEI are important for safety and cycling performance of lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we employ a combination of in-situ AFM and XPS to investigate the effects of two electrolyte additives namely lithium difluoro(oxalate)borate (LiDFOB) and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) on SEI layer. LiDFOB is found to result in a thin but hard SEI layer containing more inorganic species (LiF and LiCO3); meanwhile LiBOB promotes formation of a thick but soft SEI layer containing more organic species such as ROCO2Li. Findings from present study will help development of electrolyte additives that promote formation of good SEI layer.

  7. TRANSPORT MECHANISM STUDIES OF CHITOSAN ELECTROLYTE SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navaratnam, S.; Ramesh, K.; Ramesh, S.; Sanusi, A.; Basirun, W.J.; Arof, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of ion-conduction mechanisms in polymers is important for designing better polymer electrolytes for electrochemical devices. In this work, chitosan-ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate (chitosan-EC/PC) system with lithium acetate (LiCH 3 COO) and lithium triflate (LiCF 3 SO 3 ) as salts were prepared and characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the ion-conduction mechanism. It was found that the electrolyte system using LiCF 3 SO 3 salt had a higher ionic conductivity, greater dielectric constant and dielectric loss value compared to system using LiCH 3 COO at room temperature. Hence, it may be inferred that the system incorporated with LiCF 3 SO 3 dissociated more readily than LiCH 3 COO. Conductivity mechanism for the systems, 42 wt.% chitosan- 28 wt.% LiCF 3 SO 3 -30 wt.% EC/PC (CLT) and 42 wt.% chitosan-28 wt.% LiCH 3 COO-30 wt.% EC/PC (CLA) follows the overlapping large polaron tunneling (OLPT) model. Results show that the nature of anion size influences the ionic conduction of chitosan based polymer electrolytes. The conductivity values of the CLA system are found to be higher than that of CLT system at higher temperatures. This may be due to the vibration of bigger triflate anions would have hindered the lithium ion movements. FTIR results show that lithium ions can form complexation with polymer host which would provide a platform for ion hopping

  8. Zinc polymer electrolytes in battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, W.P.; Latham, R.J.; Linford, R.G.; Vickers, S.L. (Dept. of Chemistry, School of Applied Sciences, De Montfort Univ., Leicester (United Kingdom))

    1994-06-01

    We have previously reported results of our studies of structure-conductivity relationships for polymer electrolytes of the form PEO[sub n][center dot]ZnX[sub 2]. In this paper we report the results of investigations of battery systems based on these electrolytes. Results will be presented for OCV and discharge curves for loaded cells of the type: Zn/polymer electrolyte/MnO[sub 2]. We are particularly interested in the speciation between oxidation states of manganese as a function of the degree of cell discharge, and have carried out determinations by chemical methods based on polarography. Preliminary studies indicate the presence of Mn[sup II] in cells discharged at various rates. The discharge times for a series of optimised cells show an exponential decrease with increasing load. This is consistent with a low electrolyte conductivity and less than ideal cathode conductivity, which leads to an increased 'front face' reaction with increasing load

  9. Local Structure and Ionic Conduction at Interfaces of Electrode and Solid Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Hirotsohi; Oga, Yusuke; Saruwatari, Isamu; Moriguchi, Isamu

    2012-01-01

    All solid state batteries are attracting interests as next generation energy storage devices. However, little is known on interfaces between active materials and solid electrolytes, which may affect performance of the devices. In this study, interfacial phenomena between electrodes and solid electrolytes of all solid state batteries were investigated by using nano-composites of Li 2SiO 3-TiO 2, Li 2SiO 3-LiTiO 2, and Li 2SiO 3-FePO 4. Studies on ionic conductivity of these composites revealed...

  10. Solid State Multinuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Electrolyte Decomposition Products on Lithium Ion Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva, J .H. S. R.; Udinwe, V.; Sideris, P. J.; Smart, M. C.; Krause, F. C.; Hwang, C.; Smith, K. A.; Greenbaum, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation in lithium ion cells prepared with advanced electrolytes is investigated by solid state multinuclear (7Li, 19F, 31P) magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of electrode materials harvested from cycled cells subjected to an accelerated aging protocol. The electrolyte composition is varied to include the addition of fluorinated carbonates and triphenyl phosphate (TPP, a flame retardant). In addition to species associated with LiPF6 decomposition, cathode NMR spectra are characterized by the presence of compounds originating from the TPP additive. Substantial amounts of LiF are observed in the anodes as well as compounds originating from the fluorinated carbonates.

  11. Crystalline structure and microstructural characteristics of the cathode/electrolyte solid oxide half-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Rubens; Vargas, Reinaldo Azevedo; Andreoli, Marco; Santoro, Thais Aranha de Barros; Seo, Emilia Satoshi Miyamaru

    2009-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an electrochemical device generating of electric energy, constituted of cathode, electrolyte and anode; that together they form a unity cell. The study of the solid oxide half-cells consisting of cathode and electrolyte it is very important, in way that is the responsible interface for the reduction reaction of the oxygen. These half-cells are ceramic materials constituted of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) for the cathode and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) for the electrolyte. In this work, two solid oxide half-cells have been manufactured, one constituted of LSM cathode thin film on YSZ electrolyte substrate (LSM - YSZ half-cell), and another constituted of LSM cathode and LSM/YSZ composite cathode thin films on YSZ electrolyte substrate (LSM - LSM/YSZ - YSZ half cell). The cathode/electrolyte solid oxide half-cells were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results have been presented with good adherence between cathode and electrolyte and, LSM and YSZ phases were identified. (author)

  12. Accessing the bottleneck in all-solid state batteries, lithium-ion transport over the solid-electrolyte-electrode interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, C.; Ganapathy, S.; van Eck, Ernst R H; Wang, H.; Basak, S.; Li, Z.; Wagemaker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Solid-state batteries potentially offer increased lithium-ion battery energy density and safety as required for large-scale production of electrical vehicles. One of the key challenges toward high-performance solid-state batteries is the large impedance posed by the electrode-electrolyte

  13. Solid State Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Over the past decade,Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been intensively investigated as potential alternatives to conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices due to their low production cost and high energy conversion[1-4]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive energy conversion efficiency of over 10%,whose electrolyte is a voltaic organic liquid solvent containing iodide/triiodide as redox couple.However,the use of a liquid electrolyte brings difficulties in the practi...

  14. Properties of ENR-50 Based Electrolyte System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainal, N.; Mohamed, N.S.; Zainal, N.; Idris, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, epoxidized natural rubber 50 (ENR-50) has been used as a host polymer for the preparation of electrolyte system. Attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses showed the presence of lithium salt-ENR interactions. The glass transition temperature displayed an increasing trend with the increase in salt concentration indicating that the ionic conductivity was not influenced by segmental motion of the ENR-50 chains. The increase in glass transition temperature with the addition of salt was due to the formation of transient cross-linking between ENR-50 chains via the coordinated interaction between ENR-50 chains and salt. The highest room temperature ionic conductivity obtained was in the order of 10 -5 S cm -1 for the film containing 50 wt % of lithium salt. The ionic conductivity of this electrolyte system increased with increasing temperature and obeyed the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher behavior. The increase in ionic conductivity of the electrolyte system with salt concentration could also be correlated to the charge carriers concentration and/ or migration rate of charge carriers. (author)

  15. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte: Effect of lithium salt addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, G. P.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Performance characteristics of the solid-state supercapacitors fabricated with ionic liquid (IL) incorporated gel polymer electrolyte and acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have been studied. The effect of Li-salt (LiPF6) addition in the IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate, EMImFAP) based gel electrolyte on the performance of supercapacitors has been specifically investigated. The LiPF6/IL/poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte film possesses excellent electrochemical window of 4 V (from -2.0 to 2.0 V), high ionic conductivity ∼2.6 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 20 °C and high enough thermal stability. The comparative performance of supercapacitors employing electrolytes with and without lithium salt has been evaluated by impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies. The acid-treated MWCNT electrodes show specific capacitance of ∼127 F g-1 with IL/LiPF6 containing gel polymer electrolyte as compared to that with the gel polymer electrolyte without Li-salt, showing the value of ∼76 F g-1. The long cycling stability of the solid state supercapacitor based on the Li-salt containing gel polymer electrolyte confirms the electrochemical stability of the electrolyte.

  16. Block Copolymer Electrolytes: Thermodynamics, Ion Transport, and Use in Solid- State Lithium/Sulfur Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran, Alexander Andrew

    Nanostructured block copolymer electrolytes containing an ion-conducting block and a modulus-strengthening block are of interest for applications in solid-state lithium metal batteries. These materials can self-assemble into well-defined microstructures, creating conducting channels that facilitate ion transport. The overall objective of this dissertation is to gain a better understanding of the behavior of salt-containing block copolymers, and evaluate their potential for use in solid-state lithium/sulfur batteries. Anionically synthesized polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) copolymers doped with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt were used as a model system. This thesis investigates the model system on several levels: from fundamental thermodynamic studies to bulk characterization and finally device assembly and testing. First, the thermodynamics of neat and salt-containing block copolymers was studied. The addition of salt to these materials is necessary to make them conductive, however even small amounts of salt can have significant effects on their phase behavior, and consequently their iontransport and mechanical properties. As a result, the effect of salt addition on block copolymer thermodynamics has been the subject of significant interest over the last decade. A comprehensive study of the thermodynamics of block copolymer/salt mixtures over a wide range of molecular weights, compositions, salt concentrations and temperatures was conducted. Next, the effect of molecular weight on ion transport in both homopolymer and copolymer electrolytes were studied over a wide range of chain lengths. Homopolymer electrolytes show an inverse relationship between conductivity and chain length, with a plateau in the infinite molecular weight limit. This is due to the presence of two mechanisms of ion conduction in homopolymers; the first mechanism is a result of the segmental motion of the chains surrounding the salt ions, 2 creating a liquid

  17. Electrochemical testing of suspension plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbillig, D.; Kesler, O.

    Electrochemical performance of metal-supported plasma sprayed (PS) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was tested for three nominal electrolyte thicknesses and three electrolyte fabrication conditions to determine the effects of electrolyte thickness and microstructure on open circuit voltage (OCV) and series resistance (R s). The measured OCV values were approximately 90% of the Nernst voltages, and electrolyte area specific resistances below 0.1 Ω cm 2 were obtained at 750 °C for electrolyte thicknesses below 20 μm. Least-squares fitting was used to estimate the contributions to R s of the YSZ bulk material, its microstructure, and the contact resistance between the current collectors and the cells. It was found that the 96% dense electrolyte layers produced from high plasma gas flow rate conditions had the lowest permeation rates, the highest OCV values, and the smallest electrolyte-related voltage losses. Optimal electrolyte thicknesses were determined for each electrolyte microstructure that would result in the lowest combination of OCV loss and voltage loss due to series resistance for operating voltages of 0.8 V and 0.7 V.

  18. The effects of functional ionic liquid on properties of solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Yongxin; Cheng Xinqun; Zuo Pengjian; Liao Lixia; Yin Geping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The functional ionic liquid(IL)-polymer electrolytes were successfully prepared. → The ionic conductivity of PEO electrolytes was raised to above 10-4 S.cm-1 at room temperature by functional IL. → The cells using functional IL-PEO electrolyte show higher reversible capacity and long cycle life. - Abstract: Polyethylene oxide (PEO) based solid state electrolytes have been thought as promising electrolytes to replace the organic liquid electrolyte for lithium ion batteries. But the lower ionic conductivities at room temperature restrict their application. In this paper, functional ionic liquid and polymer mixed electrolytes are prepared from N-methyoxymethyl-N-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PP1.1O1TFSI) and polyethylene oxide. The PP1.1O1TFSI, a kind of room-temperature molten salt, was added to the conventional P(EO) 20 LiTFSI polymer electrolyte and resulted in a significant improvement of the ionic conductivity at room temperature. LiFePO 4 /Li and Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /Li cells using this kind of electrolyte show high reversible capacity and stable cycle performance.

  19. Comparison of activity coefficient models for electrolyte systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yi; ten Kate, Antoon; Mooijer, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Three activity coefficient models for electrolyte solutions were evaluated and compared. The activity coefficient models are: The electrolyte NRTL model (ElecNRTL) by Aspentech, the mixed solvent electrolyte model (MSE) by OLI Systems Inc., and the Extended UNIQUAC model from the Technical Univer...

  20. Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells from hydrophobic poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate/glycerin)/polyaniline gel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qinghua [National Defence Key Discipline Laboratory of Light Alloy Processing Science and Technology, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Tang, Qunwei, E-mail: tangqunwei@hotmail.com [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Shandong Province, Qingdao 266100 (China); Chen, Haiyan [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Shandong Province, Qingdao 266100 (China); Xu, Haitao; Qin, Yuancheng [National Defence Key Discipline Laboratory of Light Alloy Processing Science and Technology, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); He, Benlin, E-mail: blhe@ouc.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Shandong Province, Qingdao 266100 (China); Liu, Zhichao; Jin, Suyue; Chu, Lei [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Shandong Province, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Hydrophobic poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate/glycerin) [poly(HEMA/GR)] gel with a three-dimensional (3D) framework was successfully fabricated and employed to integrate with polyaniline (PANi). The resultant poly(HEMA/GR)/PANi gel electrolyte exhibited interconnective porous structure for holding I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −}, giving a similar conduction mechanism and ionic conductivity to that of liquid system but a much enhanced retention of I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −} redox couple. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, cyclic voltammograms as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to evaluate the molecular structure, crystallinity, and the electrochemical behaviors, showing that the combination of PANi with poly(HEMA/GR) caused a lower charge-transfer resistance and higher electrocatalytic activity for the I{sub 3}{sup −}/I{sup −} redox reaction in the gel electrolyte. An efficiency of 6.63% was recorded from the quasi-solid-state DSSC assembled with the poly(HEMA/GR)/PANi gel electrolyte at 100 mW cm{sup −2}. - Graphical abstract: A poly(HEMA/GR)/PANi gel electrolyte is synthesized through in situ polymerization of PANi in 3D framework of poly(HEMA/GR) hydrophobic hydrogel. The recorded ionic conductivity and electrochemical performances are significantly enhanced by integrating with PANi The resultant overall photo-to-electric conversion efficiency is 6.63%. The high ionic conductivity, along with good electrolyte retention ability, reasonable DSSC performance, low cost, simple and scalable synthesis procedure, and competitive cost, promises the electrolyte to find applications in quasi-solid-state DSSCs. - Highlights: • Poly(HEMA/GR) was employed to combine with PANi in the 3D framework. • The conductivity and electrochemical performances were enhanced. • The conversion efficiency of the quasi-solid-state DSSC was 6.63%.

  1. A novel thermosetting gel electrolyte for stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Z.; Lin, J.M.; Huang, M.L.; Hao, S.C. [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, 362021 (China); Sato, T.; Yin, S. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1-1 Katahira 2-Chome, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Wu, J.H.

    2007-11-19

    Using poly(acrylic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid-absorbing liquid electrolyte, we prepare a novel thermosetting gel electrolyte (TSGE) with ionic conductivity of 6.12 mS cm{sup -1}. Based on the TSGE, a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with a good long-term stability and light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 6.10 % is attained under AM 1.5 irradiation. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Functional Polymer Electrolytes for Multidimensional All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Pressing demands for high power and high energy densities in novel electrical energy storage units have caused reconsiderations regarding both the choice of battery chemistry and design. Practical concerns originating in the conventional use of flammable liquid electrolytes have renewed the interests of using solvent-free polymer electrolytes (SPEs) as solid ionic conductors for safer batteries. In this thesis work, SPEs developed from two polymer host structures, polyethers and polycarbonate...

  3. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Alkaline Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Addition of Bamboo Charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Lidan Fan; Mengyue Wang; Zhen Zhang; Gang Qin; Xiaoyi Hu; Qiang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Natural bamboo charcoal (BC) powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE) by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm) distributed inside a...

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced via very low pressure suspension plasma spray and electrophoretic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, James D.

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a promising element of comprehensive energy policies due to their direct mechanism for converting the oxidization of fuel, such as hydrogen, into electrical energy. Both very low pressure plasma spray and electrophoretic deposition allow working with high melting temperature SOFC suspension based feedstock on complex surfaces, such as in non-planar SOFC designs. Dense, thin electrolytes of ideal composition for SOFCs can be fabricated with each of these processes, while compositional control is achieved with dissolved dopant compounds that are incorporated into the coating during deposition. In the work reported, sub-micron 8 mole % Y2O3-ZrO2 (YSZ) and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC), powders, including those in suspension with scandium-nitrate dopants, were deposited on NiO-YSZ anodes, via very low pressure suspension plasma spray (VLPSPS) at Sandia National Laboratories' Thermal Spray Research Laboratory and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) at Purdue University. Plasma spray was carried out in a chamber held at 320 - 1300 Pa, with the plasma composed of argon, hydrogen, and helium. EPD was characterized utilizing constant current deposition at 10 mm electrode separation, with deposits sintered from 1300 -- 1500 °C for 2 hours. The role of suspension constituents in EPD was analyzed based on a parametric study of powder loading, powder specific surface area, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) content, polyethyleneimine (PEI) content, and acetic acid content. Increasing PVB content and reduction of particle specific surface area were found to eliminate the formation of cracks when drying. PEI and acetic acid content were used to control suspension stability and the adhesion of deposits. Additionally, EPD was used to fabricate YSZ/GDC bilayer electrolyte systems. The resultant YSZ electrolytes were 2-27 microns thick and up to 97% dense. Electrolyte performance as part of a SOFC system with screen printed LSCF cathodes was evaluated with peak

  5. Microwave assisted sintering of gadolinium doped barium cerate electrolyte for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Arumugam Senthil, E-mail: senthu.ramp@gmail.com [Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 004, Tamilnadu (India); Balaji, Ramamoorthy [Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 004, Tamilnadu (India); Jayakumar, Srinivasalu [Department of Physics, PSG Institute of Technology and Applied Research, Coimbatore, 641 062, Tamilnadu (India); Pradeep, Chandran [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, 600 036, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-10-01

    In Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), electrolyte plays a vital role to increase the energy conversion efficiency. The main hurdle of such electrolyte in fuel cell is its higher operating temperature (1000 °C) which results in design limitation and higher fabrication cost. In order to reduce the operating temperature of SOFC, a suitable electrolyte has been prepared through co-precipitation method followed by microwave sintering of solid ceramic. The calcination temperature for the as-prepared powder was identified using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The crystal structure of the sample was found to exhibit its orthorhombic perovskite structure. The particle size was determined using High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope with uniform in shape and size, match with XRD results and confirmed from structural analysis. Thus, the sample prepared via co-precipitation method and the solid ceramic sintered through microwave can be a promising electrolyte for fuel cells operated at intermediate temperature. - Highlights: • To synthesis the composite electrolyte by chemical method and sinter using microwave. • To reduce the operating temperature of electrolyte for high ionic conductivity in SOFC's. • To study the phase purity and to develop nanocomposite at reduced temperature.

  6. Demonstration of high efficiency intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell based on lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Toru; Nishiwaki, Futoshi; Kanou, Jirou; Yamasaki, Satoru; Hosoi, Kei; Miyazawa, Takashi; Yamada, Masaharu; Komada, Norikazu

    2006-01-01

    The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEPCO) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) have been jointly developing intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The operation temperatures between 600 and 800 o C were set as the target, which enable SOFC to use less expensive metallic separators for cell-stacking and to carry out internal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. The electrolyte-supported planar-type cells were fabricated using highly conductive lanthanum gallate-based electrolyte, La(Sr)Ga(Mg,Co)O 3-δ , Ni-(CeO 2 ) 1-x (SmO 1.5 ) x cermet anode, and Sm(Sr)CoO 3-δ cathode. The 1 kW-class power generation modules were fabricated using a seal-less stack of the cells and metallic separators. The 1 kW-class prototype power generation system with the module was developed with the high performance cell, which showed the thermally self-sustainability. The system included an SOFC module, a dc-ac inverter, a desulfurizer, and a heat recovery unit. It provided stable ac power output of 1 kW with the electrical efficiency of 45% LHV based on ac output by using city gas as a fuel, which was considered to be excellent for such a small power generation system. And the hot water of 90 o C was obtained using high temperature off-gas from SOFC

  7. Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell based on lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Toru; Nishiwaki, Futoshi; Yamasaki, Satoru [The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-choume, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Akbay, Taner; Hosoi, Kei [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Corporate Technology and Development Division, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc. (KEPCO) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) have been developing intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) which are operable at a temperature range between 600 and 800 C. There are some significant features in IT-SOFC of KEPCO-MMC: (1) highly conductive lanthanum gallate-based oxide is adopted as an electrolyte to realize high-performance disk-type electrolyte-supported cells; (2) the cell-stacks with seal-less structure using metallic separators allow residual fuel to burn around the stack and the combustion heat is utilized for thermally self-sustainable operation; (3) the separators have flexible arms by which separate compressive forces can be applied for manifold parts and interconnection parts. We are currently participating in the project by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) to develop 10 kW-class combined heat and power (CHP) systems. In FY2006, a 10 kW-class module was developed, with which the electrical efficiency of 50%HHV was obtained based on DC 12.6 kW. In the first quarter of FY2007, the 10 kW-class CHP system using the module gave the electrical efficiency of 41%HHV on AC 10 kW and the overall efficiency of 82%HHV when exhaust heat was recovered as 60 C hot water. Currently, the operation has been accumulated for about 2500 h to evaluate the long-term stability of the system. (author)

  8. Demonstration of high efficiency intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell based on lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Toru [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-chome, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan)]. E-mail: inagaki@rdd.kepco.co.jp; Nishiwaki, Futoshi [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-chome, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Kanou, Jirou [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-chome, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Yamasaki, Satoru [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-chome, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Hosoi, Kei [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Central Research Institute, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan); Miyazawa, Takashi [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Central Research Institute, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan); Yamada, Masaharu [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Central Research Institute, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan); Komada, Norikazu [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Central Research Institute, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEPCO) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) have been jointly developing intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The operation temperatures between 600 and 800 {sup o}C were set as the target, which enable SOFC to use less expensive metallic separators for cell-stacking and to carry out internal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. The electrolyte-supported planar-type cells were fabricated using highly conductive lanthanum gallate-based electrolyte, La(Sr)Ga(Mg,Co)O{sub 3-{delta}}, Ni-(CeO{sub 2}){sub 1-x}(SmO{sub 1.5}) {sub x} cermet anode, and Sm(Sr)CoO{sub 3-{delta}} cathode. The 1 kW-class power generation modules were fabricated using a seal-less stack of the cells and metallic separators. The 1 kW-class prototype power generation system with the module was developed with the high performance cell, which showed the thermally self-sustainability. The system included an SOFC module, a dc-ac inverter, a desulfurizer, and a heat recovery unit. It provided stable ac power output of 1 kW with the electrical efficiency of 45% LHV based on ac output by using city gas as a fuel, which was considered to be excellent for such a small power generation system. And the hot water of 90 {sup o}C was obtained using high temperature off-gas from SOFC.

  9. Electrolyte bi-layering strategy to improve the performance of an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shri Prakash, B.; Pavitra, R.; Senthil Kumar, S.; Aruna, S. T.

    2018-03-01

    Lowering of operation temperature has become one of the primary goals of solid oxide fuel (SOFC) research as reduced temperature improves the prospects for widespread commercialization of this energy system. Reduced operational temperature also mitigates the issues associated with high temperature SOFCs and paves way not only for the large scale stationary power generation but also makes SOFCs viable for portable and transport applications. However, there are issues with electrolyte and cathode materials at low temperatures, individually as well as in association with other components, which makes the performance of the SOFCs less satisfactory than expected at lowered temperatures. Bi-layering of electrolytes and impregnation of cathodes have emerged as two important strategies to overcome these issues and achieve higher performance at low temperatures. This review article provides the perspective on the strategy of bi-layering of electrolyte to achieve the desired high performance from SOFC at low to intermediate temperatures.

  10. Kinetics of aging of metastable, zirconium-dioxide-based solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, A.N.; Inozemtsev, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of aging of zirconium-dioxide-based metastable solid oxide electrolytes stabilized with 8 to 10 mole % of yttrium, holmium, or scandium oxide were studied over the temperature range from 1200 to 1373 0 K. Kinetic equations were proposed which describe the conduction behavior of two-phase solid electrolytes in a wide time range. The processes were found to occur independently at the initial stage of aging in the cubic solution, viz., an increase in the number of nuclei of the new phase, and a growth in volume of nuclei of the new phase. After a long time the former process ceases, and the kinetics of aging of the electrolyte only are determined by the kinetics of volume growth of the inclusions of new phase. The time-dependent behavior of two-phase solid solutions is discussed theoretically and examined experimentally

  11. Kinetics of aging of metastable solid electrolytes based on zirconium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, A.N.; Inozemtsev, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    Kinetics of aging of metastable solid electrolytes on the base of zirconium dioxide stabilized with 8-10 mol.%of yttrium, holmium, and scandium oxides has been studied within the 1200-1373 K temperature range. Kinetic equations describibg behaviour of electric conductivity of two-phase solid electrolytes within a wide temperature interval have been suggested. It has been established that at the initial stage of ageing in cubic solid solution two processes proceed independently of one another: growth of a number of new phase centres and of a volume of new phase centres. At large times growth of a number of new phase centres stops, and kinetics of electrolyte aging is defined only by the growth kinetics of a volume of new phase inclusions

  12. Screening possible solid electrolytes by calculating the conduction pathways using Bond Valence method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Chu, Geng; He, Meng; Zhang, Shu; Xiao, RuiJuan; Li, Hong; Chen, LiQuan

    2014-08-01

    Inorganic solid electrolytes have distinguished advantages in terms of safety and stability, and are promising to substitute for conventional organic liquid electrolytes. However, low ionic conductivity of typical candidates is the key problem. As connective diffusion path is the prerequisite for high performance, we screen for possible solid electrolytes from the 2004 International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) database by calculating conduction pathways using Bond Valence (BV) method. There are 109846 inorganic crystals in the 2004 ICDD database, and 5295 of them contain lithium. Except for those with toxic, radioactive, rare, or variable valence elements, 1380 materials are candidates for solid electrolytes. The rationality of the BV method is approved by comparing the existing solid electrolytes' conduction pathways we had calculated with those from experiments or first principle calculations. The implication for doping and substitution, two important ways to improve the conductivity, is also discussed. Among them Li2CO3 is selected for a detailed comparison, and the pathway is reproduced well with that based on the density functional studies. To reveal the correlation between connectivity of pathways and conductivity, α/ γ-LiAlO2 and Li2CO3 are investigated by the impedance spectrum as an example, and many experimental and theoretical studies are in process to indicate the relationship between property and structure. The BV method can calculate one material within a few minutes, providing an efficient way to lock onto targets from abundant data, and to investigate the structure-property relationship systematically.

  13. Cathode solid electrolyte interface’s function originated from salt type additives in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yu; Park, Juyeon; Yokotsuji, Hokuto; Odawara, Makoto; Takase, Hironari; Ue, Makoto; Lee, Maeng-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Our chemical analysis determines the important functional groups of cathode’s solid electrolyte interface originated from salt type additives. • Our quantum chemical calculation reveals the redox character of the additives and their candidate chemical components of the solid electrolyte interface. • Our molecular dynamics simulation reproduces the selective lithium ion translocation and protective layer formation as the solid electrolyte interface function. - Abstract: This is the study about the cathode’s solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation mechanism of salt type additives (STAs) and its function. To address this issue, we performed several types of chemical analysis and computer simulation techniques. In order to reveal the redox nature and oxidative decomposition dynamics, the electrolyte (EL) solution dynamics by Quantum mechanics and Molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method was applied. The estimation of SEI chemical components agrees with our chemical analyses data and other group’s reports. The molecular dynamics simulation of sub micro second sampling indicates that the SEI phase induced from STAs functions as a lithium ion selective translocation media and protective coating layer against the degradation of the solvent molecules. The results give us an insight how to design additive’s chemical structure to improve longevity of the cell in the high voltage regime.

  14. Theoretical voltammetric response of electrodes coated by solid polymer electrolyte membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Marín, Ana M; Hernández-Ortíz, Juan P

    2014-09-24

    A model for the differential capacitance of metal electrodes coated by solid polymer electrolyte membranes, with acid/base groups attached to the membrane backbone, and in contact with an electrolyte solution is developed. With proper model parameters, the model is able to predict a limit response, given by Mott-Schottky or Gouy-Chapman-Stern theories depending on the dissociation degree and the density of ionizable acid/base groups. The model is also valid for other ionic membranes with proton donor/acceptor molecules as membrane counterions. Results are discussed in light of the electron transfer rate at membrane-coated electrodes for electrochemical reactions that strongly depend on the double layer structure. In this sense, the model provides a tool towards the understanding of the electro-catalytic activity on modified electrodes. It is shown that local maxima and minima in the differential capacitance as a function of the electrode potential may occur as consequence of the dissociation of acid/base molecular species, in absence of specific adsorption of immobile polymer anions on the electrode surface. Although the model extends the conceptual framework for the interpretation of cyclic voltammograms for these systems and the general theory about electrified interfaces, structural features of real systems are more complex and so, presented results only are qualitatively compared with experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development status of oxygen solid electrolyte sensors in HLMC in respect to monoblock reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynov, P.N.; Askhadullin, R.Sh.; Storozhenko, A.N.; Shelemet'ev, V.M.; Sadovnichij, R.P.; Ivanov, I.I.

    2014-01-01

    The results of developing sensors on the base of solid electrolytes to control oxygen in lead and lead-bismuth coolants are considered. It is found out that ceramic detecting elements on the base of solid electrolytes from oxide ceramics are able to work a long time in conditions of high temperatures and thermal shocks in molten metals (in gases). They show stable conducting and mechanical properties, thermal resistance, low gas permeability. Using considered detecting elements different sensors, including ones for monoblock reactors and facilities, are developed and manufactured. The given sensors can be used for both continuous and periodical oxygen control in heavy liquid metal coolants [ru

  16. Design of high quality doped CeO2 solid electrolytes with nanohetero structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, T.; Ou, D.R.; Ye, F.; Drennan, J.

    2006-01-01

    Doped cerium (CeO 2 ) compounds are fluorite related oxides which show oxide ionic conductivity higher than yttria-stabilized zirconia in oxidizing atmosphere. As a consequence of this, a considerable interest has been shown in application of these materials for low (400-650 o C) temperature operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). In this paper, our experimental data about the influence of microstructure at the atomic level on electrochemical properties were reviewed in order to develop high quality doped CeO 2 electrolytes in fuel cell applications. Using this data in the present paper, our original idea for a design of nanodomain structure in doped CeO 2 electrolytes was suggested. The nanosized powders and dense sintered bodies of M doped CeO 2 (M:Sm,Gd,La,Y,Yb, and Dy) compounds were fabricated. Also nanostructural features in these specimens were introduced for conclusion of relationship between electrolytic properties and domain structure in doped CeO 2 . It is essential that the electrolytic properties in doped CeO 2 solid electrolytes reflect in changes of microstructure even down to the atomic scale. Accordingly, a combined approach of nanostructure fabrication, electrical measurement and structure characterization was required to develop superior quality doped CeO 2 electrolytes in the fuel cells. (author)

  17. Novel chemically cross-linked solid state electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xiong; Tan Weiwei; Xiang Wangchun; Lin Yuan; Zhang Jingbo; Xiao Xurui; Li Xueping; Zhou Xiaowen; Fang Shibi

    2010-01-01

    Poly(vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (P(VP-co-MEOMA)) and α,ω-diiodo poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) (I[(EO) 0.8 -co-(PO) 0.2 ] y I) were synthesized and used as chemically cross-linked precursors of the electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells. Meanwhile, α-iodo poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) methyl ether (CH 3 O[(EO) 0.8 -co-(PO) 0.2 ] x I) was synthesized and added into the electrolyte as an internal plasticizer. Novel polymer electrolyte resulting from chemically cross-linked precursors was obtained by the quaterisation at 90 o C for 30 min. The characteristics for this kind of electrolyte were investigated by means of ionic conductivity, thermogravimetric and photocurrent-voltage. The ambient ionic conductivity was significantly enhanced to 2.3 x 10 -4 S cm -1 after introducing plasticizer, modified-ionic liquid. The weight loss of the solid state electrolyte at 200 o C was 1.8%, and its decomposition temperature was 287 o C. Solid state dye-sensitized solar cell based on chemically cross-linked electrolyte presented an overall conversion efficiency of 2.35% under AM1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm -2 ). The as-fabricated device maintained 88% of its initial performance at room temperature even without sealing for 30 days, showing a good stability.

  18. A new percolation model for composite solid electrolytes and dispersed ionic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risyad Hasyim, Muhammad; Lanagan, Michael T.

    2018-02-01

    Composite solid electrolytes (CSEs) including conductor/insulator composites known as dispersed ionic conductors (DICs) have motivated the development of novel percolation models that describe their conductivity. Despite the long history, existing models lack in one or more key areas: (1) rigorous foundation for their physical theory, (2) explanation for non-universal conductor-insulator transition, (3) classification of DICs, and (4) extension to frequency-domain. This work describes a frequency-domain effective medium approximation (EMA) of a bond percolation model for CSEs. The EMA is derived entirely from Maxwell’s equations and contains basic microstructure parameters. The model was applied successfully to several composite systems from literature. Simulations and fitting of literature data address these key areas and illustrate the interplay between space charge layer properties and bulk microstructure.

  19. Development of oxygen sensors using zirconia solid electrolyte for fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiura, Nobuo; Endou, Yasuichi; Yamaura, Takayuki; Matui, Yoshinori; Niimi, Motoji; Hoshiya, Taiji; Kobiyama, Mamoru; Motohashi, Yoshinobu

    1999-01-01

    The oxygen potential in oxide fuel pellet is an important parameter to understand behavior of high burn up fuel and its integrity. Zirconia solid electrolyte which is durable under irradiation and high temperature is considered as candidate material for the oxygen potential. Combined use of solid electrolyte and Ni/NiO as a solid standard electrode will realize small size oxygen sensor which can be easily loaded in the fuel rod. Prototypes of the oxygen sensor made of these materials were irradiated with neutrons the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), and characteristics of electromotive force (EMF) by sensors were examined under irradiation. For a prototype using zirconia solid electrolyte stabilized by Y 2 O 3 (YSZ), measured EMF under irradiation was nearly equivalent to the value under unirradiated condition, and very stable within a range of neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) up to 1.52 x 10 23 m -2 and for the time of 600 h. However, the measured EMFs were slightly smaller than the theoretical values. The reason for this decrease of the EMF was thought as due to insufficient adhesion forces between solid electrolyte and standard electrode. After modification of the sensor to increase adhesion force, EMF was measured again under irradiation. The results showed improvement of the characteristics of the sensor in which measured EMFs were almost equivalent to the theoretical values. (author)

  20. Effect of substrate and cathode parameters on the properties of suspension plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldbillig, D.; Tang, Z.; Burgess, A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kesler, O. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An axial injection suspension plasma spray system has been used to produce layers of fully stabilized yttriastabilized zirconia (YSZ) that could be used as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolytes. Suspension plasma spraying is a promising technique for the rapid production of coatings with fine microstructures and controlled porosity without requiring a post-deposition heat treatment. This new manufacturing technique to produce SOFC active layers requires the build up of a number of different plasma sprayed SOFC functional layers (cathode, electrolyte and anode) sequentially on top of each other. To understand the influence of the substrate and previouslydeposited coating layers on subsequent coating layer properties, YSZ layers were deposited on top of plasma sprayed composite lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM)/YSZ cathode layers that were first deposited on porous ferritic stainless steel substrates. Three layer half cells consisting of the porous steel substrate, composite cathode, and suspension plasma sprayed electrolyte layer were then characterized. A systematic study was performed in order to investigate the effect of parameters such as substrate and cathode layer roughness, substrate surface pore size, and cathode microstructure and thickness on electrolyte deposition efficiency, cathode and electrolyte permeability, and layer microstructure. (orig.)

  1. Solidification of liquid electrolyte with imidazole polymers for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Miao; Lin Yuan; Zhou Xiaowen; Xiao Xurui; Yang Lei; Feng Shujing; Li Xueping

    2008-01-01

    Quasi-solid-state electrolytes were prepared by employing the imidazole polymers to solidify the liquid electrolyte containing lithium iodide, iodine and ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) mixed solvent. The ionic conductivity and diffusion behavior of triiodide in the quasi-solid-state electrolytes were examined in terms of the polymer content. Application of the quasi-solid-state electrolytes to the dye-sensitized solar cells, the maximum energy conversion efficiency of 7.6% (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm -2 ) was achieved. The dependence of the photovoltaic performance on the polymer content and on the different anions of the imidazole polymers was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The results indicate the charge transfer behaviors occurred at nanocrystalline TiO 2 /electrolyte and Pt/electrolyte interface play an important role in influencing the photovoltaic performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

  2. High temperature mechanical properties of zirconia tapes used for electrolyte supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhauer, Felix; Bermejo, Raul; Danzer, Robert; Mai, Andreas; Graule, Thomas; Kuebler, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Solid-Oxide-Fuel-Cell systems are efficient devices to convert the chemical energy stored in fuels into electricity. The functionality of the cell is related to the structural integrity of the ceramic electrolyte, since its failure can lead to drastic performance losses. The mechanical property which is of most interest is the strength distribution at all relevant temperatures and how it is affected with time due to the environment. This study investigates the impact of the temperature on the strength and the fracture toughness of different zirconia electrolytes as well as the change of the elastic constants. 3YSZ and 6ScSZ materials are characterised regarding the influence of sub critical crack growth (SCCG) as one of the main lifetime limiting effects for ceramics at elevated temperatures. In addition, the reliability of different zirconia tapes is assessed with respect to temperature and SCCG. It was found that the strength is only influenced by temperature through the change in fracture toughness. SCCG has a large influence on the strength and the lifetime for intermediate temperature, while its impact becomes limited at temperatures higher than 650 °C. In this context the tetragonal 3YSZ and 6ScSZ behave quite different than the cubic 10Sc1CeSZ, so that at 850 °C it can be regarded as competitive compared to the tetragonal compounds.

  3. Multi-layer thin-film electrolytes for metal supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Markus; Ortner, Kai; Franco, Thomas; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Menzler, Norbert H.; Stöver, Detlev; Bräuer, Günter; Venskutonis, Andreas; Sigl, Lorenz S.; Buchkremer, Hans-Peter; Vaßen, Robert

    2014-06-01

    A key to the development of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (MSCs) is the manufacturing of gas-tight thin-film electrolytes, which separate the cathode from the anode. This paper focuses the electrolyte manufacturing on the basis of 8YSZ (8 mol.-% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2). The electrolyte layers are applied by a physical vapor deposition (PVD) gas flow sputtering (GFS) process. The gas-tightness of the electrolyte is significantly improved when sequential oxidic and metallic thin-film multi-layers are deposited, which interrupt the columnar grain structure of single-layer electrolytes. Such electrolytes with two or eight oxide/metal layers and a total thickness of about 4 μm obtain leakage rates of less than 3 × 10-4 hPa dm3 s-1 cm-2 (Δp: 100 hPa) at room temperature and therefore fulfill the gas tightness requirements. They are also highly tolerant with respect to surface flaws and particulate impurities which can be present on the graded anode underground. MSC cell tests with double-layer and multilayer electrolytes feature high power densities more than 1.4 W cm-2 at 850 °C and underline the high potential of MSC cells.

  4. Performance of a novel type of electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cell with honeycomb structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Morales, Juan Carlos; Savvin, Stanislav N.; Nunez, Pedro [Departmento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 Tenerife (Spain); Marrero-Lopez, David [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, Juan; Canales-Vazquez, Jesus [Instituto de Energias Renovables-Universidad de Castilla la Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Roa, Joan Josep; Segarra, Merce [DIOPMA, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    A novel design, alternative to the conventional electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is presented. In this new design, a honeycomb-electrolyte is fabricated from hexagonal cells, providing high mechanical strength to the whole structure and supporting the thin layer used as electrolyte of a SOFC. This new design allows a reduction of {proportional_to}70% of the electrolyte material and it renders modest performances over 320 mW cm{sup -2} but high volumetric power densities, i.e. 1.22 W cm{sup -3} under pure CH{sub 4} at 900 C, with a high OCV of 1.13 V, using the standard Ni-YSZ cermet as anode, Pt as cathode material and air as the oxidant gas. (author)

  5. Stability of the solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}OBr to common battery solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, D.J. [Department of Engineering Technology, College of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Northern Illinois University, 301B Still Gym, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hubaud, A.A. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Vaughey, J.T., E-mail: vaughey@anl.gov [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The stability of the anti-perovskite phase Li{sub 3}OBr has been assessed in a variety of battery solvents. - Highlights: • Lithium stable solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}OBr unstable to polar organic solvents. • Solvation with no dissolution destroys long-range structure. • Ion exchange with protons observed. - Abstract: Recently a new class of solid lithium ion conductors was reported based on the anti-perovskite structure, notably Li{sub 3}OCl and Li{sub 3}OBr. For many beyond lithium-ion battery uses, the solid electrolyte is envisioned to be in direct contact with liquid electrolytes and lithium metal. In this study we evaluated the stability of the Li{sub 3}OBr phase against common battery solvents electrolytes, including diethylcarbonate (DEC) and dimethylcarbonate (DMC), as well as a LiPF{sub 6} containing commercial electrolyte. In contact with battery-grade organic solvents, Li{sub 3}OBr was typically found to be insoluble but lost its crystallinity and reacted with available protons and in some cases with the solvent. A low temperature heat treatment was able to restore crystallinity of the samples; however evidence of proton ion exchange was conserved.

  6. Point Electrode Studies of the Solid Electrolyte-Electrode Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben

    the equivalent capacity, $C^{1/\\alpha}$, plotted against the contact area during an experimental period of 2 weeks. The contact area is calculated from the electrolyte resistance as $A=1/(4\\pi(\\sigma R_{YSZ})^2)$. After the electrode has been allowed to touch the electrolyte an increasing capacity proportional......$C in air. The different perturbations are indicated on the graph by numbers. 1-2\\hfill\\parbox[t]{7.3cm}{Thermal cycle at equilibrium. Determination of activation energies.} 3-4\\hfill\\parbox[t]{7.3cm}{ Potential step to -0.150\\,V for 5 hours. Activation.} 5-6\\hfill\\parbox[t]{7.3cm}{ Potential staircase 0...... $\\rightarrow$ -0.150 $\\rightarrow$ 0.050$\\rightarrow$ -0.150 0V. Potential dependence of parameters.} 6-7\\hfill\\parbox[t]{7.3cm}{ Potential step to 0.050\\,V for 4 hours. Activation.} 8-9\\hfill\\parbox[t]{7.3cm}{ As 5-6.} 9-10\\hfill\\parbox[t]{7.3cm}{Thermal cycle at -0.150\\,V. Activation energies.} 11-12\\hfill...

  7. Interaction between cobalt-containing materials and solid electrolyte on the basis of lanthanum gallate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronin, D.I.; Kuzin, B.L.; Sokolova, Yu.V.; Polyakova, N.V.

    2000-01-01

    High-temperature interaction of solid electrolyte La 0.88 Sr 0.12 Mg 0.18 Ga 0.82 O 3-α with material of oxygen electrode La 0.7 Sr 0.3 CoO 3-δ (LSC) and with Co 3 O 4 and its influence on electrochemical activity of oxygen electrodes made of LSO and Pt were studied using the methods of X-ray microanalysis, conductometry and impedance-spectroscopy. It was ascertained that the surface of the solid electrolyte contacting LSC or Co 3 O 4 at a temperature of 1100 Deg C and higher is enriched by cobalt. Electric conductivity of the electrolyte layer modified by cobalt is noticeably higher than that of the initial one. Electrochemical activity of oxygen electrodes made of LSC is 1-2 ordered higher than the one characteristic of platinum electrode [ru

  8. Three-dimensional ionic conduction in the strained electrolytes of solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yupei; Zou, Minda; Lv, Weiqiang; He, Weidong; Mao, Yiwu; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Flexible power sources including fuel cells and batteries are the key to realizing flexible electronic devices with pronounced foldability. To understand the bending effects in these devices, theoretical analysis on three-dimensional (3-D) lattice bending is necessary. In this report, we derive a 3-D analytical model to analyze the effects of electrolyte crystal bending on ionic conductivity in flexible solid-state batteries/fuel cells. By employing solid oxide fuel cells as a materials' platform, the intrinsic parameters of bent electrolyte materials, including lattice constant, Young's modulus, and Poisson ratio, are evaluated. Our work facilitates the rational design of highly efficient flexible electrolytes for high-performance flexible device applications.

  9. Solid electrolyte membranes and the system to produce hydrogen from thermally decomposed water by solar energy; Taiyo energy riyo ni yoru mizu no chokusetsu netsubunkai kara no suiso seizoyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigara, K; Watanabe, K; Kawamura, K; Kawada, T; Mizusaki, J; Ishigame, M [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Research Institute for Scientific Measurements

    1996-10-27

    For conversion of solar heat to transportable energy, hydrogen production by direct thermal decomposition of water using concentrated high-temperature solar heat was studied. Water vapor is injected into the tubular target with high melting point and high oxygen permeability at high temperature while heating the target by concentrated solar heat over 2000K. Oxygen in decomposed gas is discharged through an oxygen permeable membrane to extract hydrogen. Solid electrolyte is used as one of the target materials. Oxygen gas in the high-oxygen partial pressure site changes into oxygen ion by accepting two electrons at the target surface, and returns to neutral oxygen gas in the low-oxygen partial pressure site by discharging two electrons at the surface after permeation through oxygen vacancy. In the case of n-type solid electrolyte, to obtain constant permeation of a large amount of oxygen, flow of a large amount of electrons is indispensable in the opposite direction to oxygen ion. Among [(ZrO2)(1-x)(CeO2)x](0.9)(CaO)(0.1), materials of 0.4-0.5 in x seems to be useful as the target material. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Thermal expansion of proton solid electrolytes on the basis of BaCeO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelov, V.P.; Arestova, N.V.; Kurumchin, Eh.Kh.; Vdovin, G.K.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal expansion of BaCeO 3 base ceramics is under study. It is shown that within the range of 600-800 deg C solid electrolytes on barium cerate basis exhibity the anomaly of thermal expansion. This fact makes their application difficult. 9 refs., 3 figs

  11. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  12. Nitrogen dissociation during RF sputtering of Lipon electrolyte for all-solid-states batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Holtappels, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Small size and high power density secondary batteries are desired for a large number of applications based on miniature wireless devices and sensors that need to be compatible with the microelectronic fabrication technology. This fact resulted in the development of solid electrolytes, like lithium...

  13. Proton-conducting solid acid electrolytes based upon MH(PO3H)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, W.

    2011-01-01

    Solid acids, such as CsHSO4 and CsH2PO4, are a novel class of anhydrous proton-conducting compounds that can be used as electrolyte in H2/O2 and direct methanol fuel cells. The disordering of the hydrogen-bonded network above the so-called superprotonic phase transition results in an increase of the

  14. Thermal battery. [solid metal halide electrolytes with enhanced electrical conductance after a phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.

    1973-03-06

    The patent describes an improved thermal battery whose novel design eliminates various disadvantages of previous such devices. Its major features include a halide cathode, a solid metal halide electrolyte which has a substantially greater electrical conductance after a phase transition at some temperature, and a means for heating its electrochemical cells to activation temperature.

  15. About Error in Measuring Oxygen Concentration by Solid-Electrolyte Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates additional errors while measuring oxygen concentration in a gas mixture by a solid-electrolyte cell. Experimental dependences of additional errors caused by changes in temperature in a sensor zone, discharge of gas mixture supplied to a sensor zone, partial pressure in the gas mixture and fluctuations in oxygen concentrations in the air.

  16. Perovskite solid electrolytes: Structure, transport properties and fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, N.; Knight, K.S.; Ellis, B.

    1995-01-01

    Doped barium cerate perovskites, first investigated by Iwahara and co-workers, have ionic conductivities of the order of 20 mS/cm at 800 degrees C making them attractive as fuel cell electrolytes for this temperature region. They have been used to construct laboratory scale fuel cells, which...... vapour transfer in a cell in which the perovskite is exposed to wet hydrogen on both sides. The evolution of transport properties with temperature is discussed in relation to structure. Neutron diffraction studies of doped and undoped barium cerate are reported, revealing a series of phase transitions...... between ambient temperature and 1000 degrees C. The available literature on chemical stability of cerate perovskites to reduction and attack by carbon dioxide is reviewed in brief....

  17. Review on modeling of the anode solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiping; Kadam, Sanket; Li, Hong; Shi, Siqi; Qi, Yue

    2018-03-01

    A passivation layer called the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed on electrode surfaces from decomposition products of electrolytes. The SEI allows Li+ transport and blocks electrons in order to prevent further electrolyte decomposition and ensure continued electrochemical reactions. The formation and growth mechanism of the nanometer thick SEI films are yet to be completely understood owing to their complex structure and lack of reliable in situ experimental techniques. Significant advances in computational methods have made it possible to predictively model the fundamentals of SEI. This review aims to give an overview of state-of-the-art modeling progress in the investigation of SEI films on the anodes, ranging from electronic structure calculations to mesoscale modeling, covering the thermodynamics and kinetics of electrolyte reduction reactions, SEI formation, modification through electrolyte design, correlation of SEI properties with battery performance, and the artificial SEI design. Multi-scale simulations have been summarized and compared with each other as well as with experiments. Computational details of the fundamental properties of SEI, such as electron tunneling, Li-ion transport, chemical/mechanical stability of the bulk SEI and electrode/(SEI/) electrolyte interfaces have been discussed. This review shows the potential of computational approaches in the deconvolution of SEI properties and design of artificial SEI. We believe that computational modeling can be integrated with experiments to complement each other and lead to a better understanding of the complex SEI for the development of a highly efficient battery in the future.

  18. Behavior of strontium- and magnesium-doped gallate electrolyte in direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Li; Xiao, Jie; Xie, Yongmin; Tang, Yubao; Liu, Jiang; Liu, Meilin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • La 0.9 Sr 0.1 Ga 0.8 Mg 0.2 O 3−δ (LSGM) can be used as electrolyte of direct carbon SOFCs. • DC-SOFC with LSGM electrolyte gives higher performance than that with YSZ. • LSGM-electrolyte DC-SOFC gives maximum power density of 383 mW cm −2 at 850 °C. • Operation of LSGM-DC-SOFC at 210 mA cm −2 lasts 72 min, with fuel utilization of 60%. - Abstract: Perovskite-type La 0.9 Sr 0.1 Ga 0.8 Mg 0.2 O 3−δ (LSGM) is synthesized by conventional solid state reaction. Its phase composition, microstructure, relative density, and oxygen-ionic conductivity are investigated. Tubular electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are prepared with the LSGM as electrolyte and gadolinia doped ceria (GDC) mixed with silver as anode. The SOFCs are operated with Fe-loaded activated carbon as fuel and ambient air as oxidant. A typical single cell gives a maximum power density of 383 mW cm −2 at 850 °C, which is nearly 1.3 times higher than that of the similar cell with YSZ as electrolyte. A stability test of 72 min is carried out at a constant current density of 210 mA cm −2 , with a fuel utilization of 60%, indicating that LaGaO 3 -based electrolyte is promising to be applied in direct carbon SOFCs (DC-SOFCs)

  19. Behavior of strontium- and magnesium-doped gallate electrolyte in direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li; Xiao, Jie; Xie, Yongmin [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Tang, Yubao [Key Laboratory of Sensor Analysis of Tumor Marker Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao o 266042 (China); Liu, Jiang, E-mail: jiangliu@scut.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); New Energy Research Institute, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Meilin [New Energy Research Institute, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3−δ} (LSGM) can be used as electrolyte of direct carbon SOFCs. • DC-SOFC with LSGM electrolyte gives higher performance than that with YSZ. • LSGM-electrolyte DC-SOFC gives maximum power density of 383 mW cm{sup −2} at 850 °C. • Operation of LSGM-DC-SOFC at 210 mA cm{sup −2} lasts 72 min, with fuel utilization of 60%. - Abstract: Perovskite-type La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3−δ} (LSGM) is synthesized by conventional solid state reaction. Its phase composition, microstructure, relative density, and oxygen-ionic conductivity are investigated. Tubular electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are prepared with the LSGM as electrolyte and gadolinia doped ceria (GDC) mixed with silver as anode. The SOFCs are operated with Fe-loaded activated carbon as fuel and ambient air as oxidant. A typical single cell gives a maximum power density of 383 mW cm{sup −2} at 850 °C, which is nearly 1.3 times higher than that of the similar cell with YSZ as electrolyte. A stability test of 72 min is carried out at a constant current density of 210 mA cm{sup −2}, with a fuel utilization of 60%, indicating that LaGaO{sub 3}-based electrolyte is promising to be applied in direct carbon SOFCs (DC-SOFCs)

  20. Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell based on lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Toru; Nishiwaki, Futoshi; Yamasaki, Satoru; Akbay, Taner; Hosoi, Kei

    The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc. (KEPCO) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) have been developing intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) which are operable at a temperature range between 600 and 800 °C. There are some significant features in IT-SOFC of KEPCO-MMC: (1) highly conductive lanthanum gallate-based oxide is adopted as an electrolyte to realize high-performance disk-type electrolyte-supported cells; (2) the cell-stacks with seal-less structure using metallic separators allow residual fuel to burn around the stack and the combustion heat is utilized for thermally self-sustainable operation; (3) the separators have flexible arms by which separate compressive forces can be applied for manifold parts and interconnection parts. We are currently participating in the project by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) to develop 10 kW-class combined heat and power (CHP) systems. In FY2006, a 10 kW-class module was developed, with which the electrical efficiency of 50%HHV was obtained based on DC 12.6 kW. In the first quarter of FY2007, the 10 kW-class CHP system using the module gave the electrical efficiency of 41%HHV on AC 10 kW and the overall efficiency of 82%HHV when exhaust heat was recovered as 60 °C hot water. Currently, the operation has been accumulated for about 2500 h to evaluate the long-term stability of the system.

  1. Theoretical voltammetric response of electrodes coated by solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Marín, Ana M.; Hernández-Ortíz, Juan P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Discretized model for an interface of covered electrodes. • Two limiting behaviors are capture: double-layer and conductive interfaces. • Additional phenomena are included easily: acid/base equilibrium, ion mobility. • The model provides explanations to observed phenomena that is vaguely explained in the literature. • Implications on electrodes in fuel cells are given and it opens avenues to understand and design such systems. - Abstract: A model for the differential capacitance of metal electrodes coated by solid polymer electrolyte membranes, with acid/base groups attached to the membrane backbone, and in contact with an electrolyte solution is developed. With proper model parameters, the model is able to predict a limit response, given by Mott–Schottky or Gouy–Chapman–Stern theories depending on the dissociation degree and the density of ionizable acid/base groups. The model is also valid for other ionic membranes with proton donor/acceptor molecules as membrane counterions. Results are discussed in light of the electron transfer rate at membrane-coated electrodes for electrochemical reactions that strongly depend on the double layer structure. In this sense, the model provides a tool towards the understanding of the electro-catalytic activity on modified electrodes. It is shown that local maxima and minima in the differential capacitance as a function of the electrode potential may occur as consequence of the dissociation of acid/base molecular species, in absence of specific adsorption of immobile polymer anions on the electrode surface. Although the model extends the conceptual framework for the interpretation of cyclic voltammograms for these systems and the general theory about electrified interfaces, structural features of real systems are more complex and so, presented results only are qualitatively compared with experiments

  2. Monitoring electrolyte concentrations in redox flow battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, On Kok; Sopchak, David Andrew; Pham, Ai Quoc; Kinoshita, Kimio

    2015-03-17

    Methods, systems and structures for monitoring, managing electrolyte concentrations in redox flow batteries are provided by introducing a first quantity of a liquid electrolyte into a first chamber of a test cell and introducing a second quantity of the liquid electrolyte into a second chamber of the test cell. The method further provides for measuring a voltage of the test cell, measuring an elapsed time from the test cell reaching a first voltage until the test cell reaches a second voltage; and determining a degree of imbalance of the liquid electrolyte based on the elapsed time.

  3. Studies on the Properties of Plasticizer and Lithium Salt on PMMA-based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, K. W.; Tan, C. G.; Osman, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of plasticizer and lithium salt on PMMA-based solid polymer electrolyte have been investigated. In current project, three system samples consisted of pure poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA) system, plasticized poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA-EC) system and the LiCF 3 SO 3 salted-poly(methyl methacrylate) containing a fixed amount of plasticizer ([PMMA-EC]-LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system have been prepared using solution casting technique. The conductivities of the films from each system are characterized by impedance spectroscopy and infrared spectrum. With the addition of plasticizer, results show improvement on the ionic conductivity value where the value of 6.25x10 -10 Scm -1 is obtained. This may be due to the nature of plasticizer that softens the polymer and hence enhanced the ionic transportation across the polymer. The room temperature conductivity for the highest conducting sample in the ([PMMA-EC]-LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system is 1.36x10 -5 Scm -1 . Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicates complexation between the polymer and the plasticizer and the polymer, the plasticizer and the salts, and the result of XRD further supports the observation.

  4. Structural and optical characterization of PVA:KMnO4 based solid polymer electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omed Gh. Abdullah

    Full Text Available Solid polymer electrolyte films of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA doped with a different weight percent of potassium permanganate (KMnO4 were prepared by standard solution cast method. XRD and FTIR techniques were performed for structural study. Complex formation between the PVA polymer and KMnO4 salt was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The description of crystalline nature of the solid polymer electrolyte films has been confirmed by XRD analysis. The UV-Visible absorption spectra were analyzed in terms of absorption formula for non-crystalline materials. The fundamental optical parameters such as optical band gap energy, refractive index, optical conductivity, and dielectric constants have been investigated and showed a clear dependence on the KMnO4 concentration. The observed value of optical band gap energy for pure PVA is about 6.27 eV and decreases to a value 3.12 eV for the film sample formed with 4 wt% KMnO4 salt. The calculated values of refractive index and the dielectric constants of the polymer electrolyte films increase with increasing KMnO4 content. Keywords: Solid polymer electrolyte, XRD analysis, FTIR study, Optical band gap, Dielectric constant, Refractive index

  5. Ion transport property studies on PEO-PVP blended solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Angesh; Agrawal, R C; Mahipal, Y K

    2009-01-01

    The ion transport property studies on Ag + ion conducting PEO-PVP blended solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membranes, (1 - x)[90PEO : 10AgNO 3 ] : xPVP, where x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 (wt%), are reported. SPE films were caste using a novel hot-press technique instead of the traditional solution cast method. The conventional solid polymeric electrolyte (SPE) film, (90PEO : 10AgNO 3 ), also prepared by the hot-press method and identified as the highest conducting composition at room temperature on the basis of PEO-AgNO 3 -salt concentration dependent conductivity studies, was used as the first-phase polymer electrolyte host into which PVP were dispersed as second-phase dispersoid. A two-fold conductivity enhancement from that of the PEO host could be achieved at room temperature for PVP blended SPE film composition: 98(90PEO : 10AgNO 3 ) : 2PVP. This has been referred to as optimum conducting composition (OCC). The formation of SPE membranes and material characterizations were done with the help of the XRD and DSC techniques. The ion transport mechanism in this SPE OCC has been characterized with the help of basic ionic parameters, namely ionic conductivity (σ), ionic mobility (μ), mobile ion concentration (n) and ionic transference number (t ion ). Solid-state polymeric batteries were fabricated using OCC as electrolyte and the cell-potential discharge characteristics were studied under different load conditions.

  6. Cross-linking of polymer and ionic liquid as high-performance gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xiongwei; Tang, Jun; Cao, Lujie; Kong, Weiguang; Sun, Zheng; Cheng, Hua; Lu, Zhouguang; Pan, Hui; Xu, Baomin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A facile method to prepare gel polymer electrolyte with high conductivity is proposed. •A flexible symmetric capacitor based on the prepared GPE shows ultra-flexibility. •The capacitor with high voltage can power up a 3.0 V LED even bended to a angle of 180°. -- Abstract: It is highly desirable to develop flexible solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) with non-liquid electrolyte. However, it is still a great challenge to prepare gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) possessing high ionic conductivity and good mechanical property. In this work, a simple and novel method to improve the conductivity and mechanical properties of GPE film for their applications as electrolyte and separator in EDLC is presented. The GPE film is prepared by cross-linking ionic liquid (IL) with poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and benzophenone (Bp) followed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Then, a non-woven cellulose separator (FPC) is used to absorb the GPE. By tuning the mass ratio (n) between IL and PEO, the flexible EDLC cooperated with low-cost active carbon and the electrolyte film with n = 10 has a high capacitance of 70.84 F∙g −1 , a wide and stable electrochemical window of 3.5 V, an energy density of 30.13 Wh∙kg −1 and a power density of 874.8 W∙kg −1 at a current density of 1 A∙g −1 , which can drive a 3.0 V light-emitting diode (LED). Importantly, the excellent performance of the flexible and low-cost EDLC can be maintained at a bending angle up to 180°, indicating the ultra-flexibility. It is expected that the IL-PEO-FPC electrolyte film is a promising candidate of GPE for flexible devices and energy storage systems.

  7. Further studies on the lithium phosphorus oxynitride solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichonat, Tristan; Lethien, Christophe; Tiercelin, Nicolas; Godey, Sylvie; Pichonat, Emmanuelle; Roussel, Pascal; Colmont, Marie; Rolland, Paul Alain

    2010-01-01

    First step in the way to the fabrication of an all-solid microbattery for autonomous wireless sensor node, amorphous thin solid films of lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) were prepared by radio-frequency sputtering of a mixture target of P 2 O 5 /Li 2 O in ambient nitrogen atmosphere. The morphology, composition, and ionic conductivity were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and A.C. impedance spectroscopy. With a thickness of 1.4 μm, the obtained LiPON amorphous layer provided an ionic conductivity close to 6 x 10 -7 S cm -1 at room temperature. MicroRaman UV spectroscopy study was successfully carried out for the first time on LiPON thin films to complete the characterization and bring further information on LiPON structure.

  8. Nanoarchitectonics for Controlling the Number of Dopant Atoms in Solid Electrolyte Nanodots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Alpana; Unayama, Satomi; Tai, Seishiro; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Waser, Rainer; Aono, Masakazu; Valov, Ilia; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi

    2018-02-01

    Controlling movements of electrons and holes is the key task in developing today's highly sophisticated information society. As transistors reach their physical limits, the semiconductor industry is seeking the next alternative to sustain its economy and to unfold a new era of human civilization. In this context, a completely new information token, i.e., ions instead of electrons, is promising. The current trend in solid-state nanoionics for applications in energy storage, sensing, and brain-type information processing, requires the ability to control the properties of matter at the ultimate atomic scale. Here, a conceptually novel nanoarchitectonic strategy is proposed for controlling the number of dopant atoms in a solid electrolyte to obtain discrete electrical properties. Using α-Ag 2+ δ S nanodots with a finite number of nonstoichiometry excess dopants as a model system, a theory matched with experiments is presented that reveals the role of physical parameters, namely, the separation between electrochemical energy levels and the cohesive energy, underlying atomic-scale manipulation of dopants in nanodots. This strategy can be applied to different nanoscale materials as their properties strongly depend on the number of doping atoms/ions, and has the potential to create a new paradigm based on controlled single atom/ion transfer. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Current limit diagrams for dendrite formation in solid-state electrolytes for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, R.; Wolfenstine, J.

    2017-03-01

    We build upon the concept that nucleation of lithium dendrites at the lithium anode-solid state electrolyte interface is instigated by the higher resistance of grain boundaries that raises the local electro-chemical potential of lithium, near the lithium-electrode. This excess electro-chemo-mechanical potential, however, is reduced by the mechanical back stress generated when the dendrite is formed within the electrolyte. These parameters are coalesced into an analytical model that prescribes a specific criterion for dendrite formation. The results are presented in the form of current limit diagrams that show the "safe" and "fail" regimes for battery function. A higher conductivity of the electrolyte can reduce dendrite formation.

  10. Modification of a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolyser to ensure tritium compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichelhardt, F.; Cristescu, I.; Michling, R.; Welte, S.

    2010-01-01

    A Water Detritiation System (WDS) is required for the ITER Tritium Plant in order to process tritiated water which is accumulated in various subsystems (e.g. the hall ventilation systems). For the ITER-WDS, the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process with an electrolyser unit as one of the major components is envisaged. An experimental WDS was built and commissioned at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) for the investigation of various subsystems of the CECE process in tritium environment. The TLK-WDS consists of an 8 m Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange column and two Solid Polymer Electrolyte electrolysers, each with a maximum hydrogen output of 1 m 3 /h. The commercially available Hogen40 electrolyser units from Proton Energy Systems are not tritium compatible concerning materials, joints and quality documentation (e.g. necessary certificates). In order to process tritiated water with tritium concentrations up to 370 GBq/kg, tritium compatibility had to be ensured by appropriate modifications. Up to now, the modified system has been operated with tritiated water for 3500 h, the maximum tritium concentration in the electrolysers being 190 GBq/kg. This contribution reports on the necessary modifications of the electrolyser units and the experiences gained thereby. The results are equally important for the ITER-WDS, where the maximum tritium concentration in the feed water of the electrolyser units will be even higher with 11 TBq/kg.

  11. Electrolytic polishing system for space age materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coons, W.C.; Iosty, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    A simple electrolytic polishing technique was developed for preparing Cr, Co, Hf, Mo, Ni, Re, Ti, V, Zr, and their alloys for structural analysis on the optical microscope. The base electrolyte contains 5g ZnCl 2 and 15g AlCl 3 . 6H 2 O in 200 ml methyl alcohol, plus an amount of H 2 SO 4 depending on the metal being polished. Five etchants are listed

  12. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Alkaline Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Addition of Bamboo Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan Fan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural bamboo charcoal (BC powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm distributed inside and on the surface of the membranes, indicating a three-dimension network formed in the polymer framework. The ionic conductivity was measured by the alternating-current (AC impedance method, and the highest conductivity value of 6.63 × 10−2 S·cm−1 was obtained with 16 wt % of BC content and mKOH:mPVA = 2:1.5 at 30 °C. The contents of BC and KOH could significantly influence the conductivity. The temperature dependence of the bulk electrical conductivity displayed a combination of Arrhenius nature, and the activation energy for the ion in polymer electrolyte has been calculated. The electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte membrane was over 1.6 V. The thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the degradation temperatures of PVA-BC-KOH ASPE membranes shifted toward higher with adding BC. A simple nickel-hydrogen battery containing PVA-BC-KOH electrolyte membrane was assembled with a maximum discharge capacity of 193 mAh·g−1.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Alkaline Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Addition of Bamboo Charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lidan; Wang, Mengyue; Zhang, Zhen; Qin, Gang; Hu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Qiang

    2018-04-26

    Natural bamboo charcoal (BC) powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE) by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm) distributed inside and on the surface of the membranes, indicating a three-dimension network formed in the polymer framework. The ionic conductivity was measured by the alternating-current (AC) impedance method, and the highest conductivity value of 6.63 × 10 −2 S·cm −1 was obtained with 16 wt % of BC content and m KOH : m PVA = 2:1.5 at 30 °C. The contents of BC and KOH could significantly influence the conductivity. The temperature dependence of the bulk electrical conductivity displayed a combination of Arrhenius nature, and the activation energy for the ion in polymer electrolyte has been calculated. The electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte membrane was over 1.6 V. The thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the degradation temperatures of PVA-BC-KOH ASPE membranes shifted toward higher with adding BC. A simple nickel-hydrogen battery containing PVA-BC-KOH electrolyte membrane was assembled with a maximum discharge capacity of 193 mAh·g −1 .

  14. Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Fernando A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Yan, Pengfei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Marzouk, Asma [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Wang, Chongmin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Guiliang [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Balbuena, Perla B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Li, Xiaolin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA

    2017-03-07

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films with controllable properties are highly desirable for improving battery performance. In this paper, a combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to study SEI films formed on hard carbon in Li- and Na-ion batteries. It is shown that a stable SEI layer can be designed by precycling an electrode in a desired Li- or Na-based electrolyte, and that ionic transport can be kinetically controlled. Selective Li- and Na-based SEI membranes are produced using Li- or Na-based electrolytes, respectively. The Na-based SEI allows easy transport of Li ions, while the Li-based SEI shuts off Na-ion transport. Na-ion storage can be manipulated by tuning the SEI layer with film-forming electrolyte additives, or by preforming an SEI layer on the electrode surface. The Na specific capacity can be controlled to < 25 mAh g(-1); approximate to 1/10 of the normal capacity (250 mAh g(-1)). Unusual selective/ preferential transport of Li ions is demonstrated by preforming an SEI layer on the electrode surface and corroborated with a mixed electrolyte. This work may provide new guidance for preparing good ion-selective conductors using electrochemical approaches.

  15. Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Fernando A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Yan, Pengfei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Marzouk, Asma [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Wang, Chongmin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Guiliang [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Balbuena, Perla B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Li, Xiaolin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA

    2017-03-07

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) with controllable properties are highly desirable to improve battery performance. In this paper, we use a combined experimental and simulation approach to study the SEI formation on hard carbon in Li and Na-ion batteries. We show that with proper additives, stable SEI can be formed on hard carbon by pre-cycling the electrode materials in Li or Na-ion electrolyte. Detailed mechanistic studies suggest that the ion transport in the SEI layer is kinetically controlled and can be tuned by the applied voltage. Selective Na and Li-ion SEI membranes are produced using the Na or Li-ion based electrolytes respectively. The large Na ion SEI allows easy transport of Li ions, while the small Li ion SEI shuts off the Na-ion transport. Na-ion storage can be manipulated by tuning the SEI with film-forming electrolyte additives or preforming a SEI on the electrodes’ surface. The Na specific capacity can be controlled to <25 mAh/g, ~1/10 of the normal capacity (250 mAh/g). Unusual selective/preferential transport of Li-ion is demonstrated by preforming a SEI on the electrode’s surface and corroborated with a mixed electrolyte. This work may provide new guidance for preparing good ion selective conductors using electrochemical approaches in the future.

  16. Lanthanum gallate and ceria composite as electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuai; Li Zhicheng; Bergman, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The composite of doped lanthanum gallate (La 0.9 Sr 0.1 Ga 0.8 Mg 0.2 O 2.85 , LSGM) and doped ceria (Ce 0.8 Sm 0.2 O 1.9 , CSO) was investigated as an electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The LSGM-CSO composite was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the sintered LSGM-CSO composite contains mainly fluorite CeO 2 phase and a minority impurity phase, Sm 3 Ga 5 O 12 . The LSGM-CSO composite electrolyte shows a small grain boundary response in the impedance spectroscopy as compared to LSGM and CSO pellets. The composite electrolyte exhibits the highest conductivity in the temperature range of 250-600 o C, compared to LSGM and CSO. The LSGM-CSO composite can be expected to be an attractive intermediate temperature electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cells.

  17. Lanthanum gallate and ceria composite as electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shuai, E-mail: shuail@kth.s [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, SE 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Li Zhicheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, 410083 Changsha, Hunan (China); Bergman, Bill [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, SE 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-03-04

    The composite of doped lanthanum gallate (La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 2.85}, LSGM) and doped ceria (Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}, CSO) was investigated as an electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The LSGM-CSO composite was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the sintered LSGM-CSO composite contains mainly fluorite CeO{sub 2} phase and a minority impurity phase, Sm{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12}. The LSGM-CSO composite electrolyte shows a small grain boundary response in the impedance spectroscopy as compared to LSGM and CSO pellets. The composite electrolyte exhibits the highest conductivity in the temperature range of 250-600 {sup o}C, compared to LSGM and CSO. The LSGM-CSO composite can be expected to be an attractive intermediate temperature electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cells.

  18. Composite electrolyte with proton conductivity for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, Rizwan, E-mail: razahussaini786@gmail.com [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden); Ahmed, Akhlaq; Akram, Nadeem; Saleem, Muhammad; Niaz Akhtar, Majid; Ajmal Khan, M.; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Alvi, Farah; Yasir Rafique, M. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Sherazi, Tauqir A. [Department of Chemistry, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbotabad 22060 (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran [Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET) center, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO-BOX 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Mohsin, Munazza [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, 54000 (Pakistan); Javed, Muhammad Sufyan [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhu, Bin, E-mail: binzhu@kth.se, E-mail: zhubin@hubu.edu.cn [Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Physics and Electronic Science/Faculty of Computer and Information, Hubei University, Wuhan, Hubei 430062 (China)

    2015-11-02

    In the present work, cost-effective nanocomposite electrolyte (Ba-SDC) oxide is developed for efficient low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs). Analysis has shown that dual phase conduction of O{sup −2} (oxygen ions) and H{sup +} (protons) plays a significant role in the development of advanced LTSOFCs. Comparatively high proton ion conductivity (0.19 s/cm) for LTSOFCs was achieved at low temperature (460 °C). In this article, the ionic conduction behaviour of LTSOFCs is explained by carrying out electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Further, the phase and structure analysis are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Finally, we achieved an ionic transport number of the composite electrolyte for LTSOFCs as high as 0.95 and energy and power density of 90% and 550 mW/cm{sup 2}, respectively, after sintering the composite electrolyte at 800 °C for 4 h, which is promising. Our current effort toward the development of an efficient, green, low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell with the incorporation of high proton conductivity composite electrolyte may open frontiers in the fields of energy and fuel cell technology.

  19. Fabrication of WO3-based electrochromic displays using solid or gel-like organic electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilopoulou, M; Aspiotis, G; Kostis, I; Argitis, P; Davazoglou, D

    2005-01-01

    New all solid-state electrochromic displays were fabricated by chemically vapor depositing and patterning a tungsten oxide film on SnO 2 :F covered glass substrates. Aluminum sheets were used as counter electrodes to form electrochromic displays using solid or gel-like organic electrolytes. These ionically conductive and electronically insulating electrolytes were based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(2-hydrohyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) into which phospho-tungstic acid was added at various concentrations. In some devices the electrolyte was formed by addition of photoacid generator into the polymeric matrix and exposure at deep UV light. It was found that displays exhibit an intense, reversible electrochromic effect with reflectivity varying by a factor of five between the uncolored to the colored state. The coloring voltage depends strongly on the polymeric matrix, the thickness of the electrolyte and post-apply baking conditions and is of the order of 6-9 V. The response time was found to be of the order of 500 ms; coloration and bleaching times were comparable

  20. Composite electrolyte with proton conductivity for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Rizwan; Ahmed, Akhlaq; Akram, Nadeem; Saleem, Muhammad; Niaz Akhtar, Majid; Sherazi, Tauqir A.; Ajmal Khan, M.; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Shakir, Imran; Mohsin, Munazza; Alvi, Farah; Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Yasir Rafique, M.; Zhu, Bin

    2015-11-01

    In the present work, cost-effective nanocomposite electrolyte (Ba-SDC) oxide is developed for efficient low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs). Analysis has shown that dual phase conduction of O-2 (oxygen ions) and H+ (protons) plays a significant role in the development of advanced LTSOFCs. Comparatively high proton ion conductivity (0.19 s/cm) for LTSOFCs was achieved at low temperature (460 °C). In this article, the ionic conduction behaviour of LTSOFCs is explained by carrying out electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Further, the phase and structure analysis are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Finally, we achieved an ionic transport number of the composite electrolyte for LTSOFCs as high as 0.95 and energy and power density of 90% and 550 mW/cm2, respectively, after sintering the composite electrolyte at 800 °C for 4 h, which is promising. Our current effort toward the development of an efficient, green, low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell with the incorporation of high proton conductivity composite electrolyte may open frontiers in the fields of energy and fuel cell technology.

  1. Systems and methods for rebalancing redox flow battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Chang, On Kok

    2015-03-17

    Various methods of rebalancing electrolytes in a redox flow battery system include various systems using a catalyzed hydrogen rebalance cell configured to minimize the risk of dissolved catalyst negatively affecting flow battery performance. Some systems described herein reduce the chance of catalyst contamination of RFB electrolytes by employing a mediator solution to eliminate direct contact between the catalyzed membrane and the RFB electrolyte. Other methods use a rebalance cell chemistry that maintains the catalyzed electrode at a potential low enough to prevent the catalyst from dissolving.

  2. Some regularities in aging of solid oxide electrolytes ZrO2+Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made on the temperature effect on the rate and depth of aging of solid oxide electrolytes ZrO 2 +Y 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 +Ho 2 O 3 , stabilized by 10-15 mol.% R 2 O 3 following isothermal hold-up during 2000-3000 h in the 725-1550 deg C range in oxidizing medium. It was shown that solid electrolyte aging proceeds only at temperatures below a certain boundary value. The depth of complete aging at that increases with the R 2 O 3 concentration and a temperature decrease. The aging rate depends substantially on both temperature and concentration of a stabilizing addition. A decrease in the electric conductivity with time is accompanied by an increase in the conductivity activation energy

  3. Synthesis of new solid polymer electrolyte and actuator based on PEDOT/NBR/ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M. S.; Seo, H. J.; Nam, J. D.; Choi, H. R.; Koo, J. C.; Lee, Y.

    2006-03-01

    The conducting polymer actuator was presented. The solid polymer electrolyte based on nitrile rubber (NBR) activated with different ionic liquids was prepared. The three different grades of NBR films were synthesized by emulsion polymerization with different amount of acrylonitrile, 23, 35, and 40 mol. %, respectively. The effect of acrylonitrile content on the ionic conductivity and dielectric constant of solid polymer electrolytes was characterized. A conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), was synthesized on the surface of the NBR layer by using a chemical oxidation polymerization technique, and room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) based on imidazolium salts, e.g. 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium X [where X= BF 4 -, PF 6 -, (CF 3SO II) IIN -], were absorbed into the composite film. The effects of the anion size of the ionic liquids on the displacement of the actuator were examined. The displacement increased with increasing the anion-size of the ionic liquids.

  4. Modifying zirconia solid electrolyte surface property to enhance oxide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, B.Y.; Song, S.Y. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper oxide (Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}, BSCCO) is known for its high T{sub c} superconducting behavior and mixed conducting property. The applicability of similar high T{sub c} cuprates for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) application has been studied recently. We investigated the electrochemical behavior of several Ag{vert_bar}BSCCO{vert_bar}10 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ){vert_bar}Ag and Ag{vert_bar}YSZ{vert_bar}Ag cells using complex impedance spectroscopy. A highly uniform and porous microstructure was observed at the interface of the YSZ and BSCCO. The ionic conductivity determined from the Nyquest plots in the temperature range of 200-700{degrees}C agrees with the values reported in the literature. The specific resistance of the BSCCO{vert_bar}YSZ interface was also determined to be lower than those of the conventional manganite electrode, suggesting that BSCCO seems attractive for cathode applications in SOFC.

  5. Development of Sulfide Solid Electrolytes and Interface Formation Processes for Bulk-Type All-Solid-State Li and Na Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Akitoshi, E-mail: hayashi@chem.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Sakuda, Atsushi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Department of Energy and Environment, Research Institute of Electrochemical Energy, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ikeda, Osaka (Japan); Tatsumisago, Masahiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    All-solid-state batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs) are recognized as an ultimate goal of rechargeable batteries because of their high safety, versatile geometry, and good cycle life. Compared with thin-film batteries, increasing the reversible capacity of bulk-type all-solid-state batteries using electrode active material particles is difficult because contact areas at solid–solid interfaces between the electrode and electrolyte particles are limited. Sulfide SEs have several advantages of high conductivity, wide electrochemical window, and appropriate mechanical properties, such as formability, processability, and elastic modulus. Sulfide electrolyte with Li{sub 7}P{sub 3}S{sub 11} crystal has a high Li{sup +} ion conductivity of 1.7 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at 25°C. It is far beyond the Li{sup +} ion conductivity of conventional organic liquid electrolytes. The Na{sup +} ion conductivity of 7.4 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} is achieved for Na{sub 3.06}P{sub 0.94}Si{sub 0.06}S{sub 4} with cubic structure. Moreover, formation of favorable solid–solid interfaces between electrode and electrolyte is important for realizing solid-state batteries. Sulfide electrolytes have better formability than oxide electrolytes. Consequently, a dense electrolyte separator and closely attached interfaces with active material particles are achieved via “room-temperature sintering” of sulfides merely by cold pressing without heat treatment. Elastic moduli for sulfide electrolytes are smaller than that of oxide electrolytes, and Na{sub 2}S–P{sub 2}S{sub 5} glass electrolytes have smaller Young’s modulus than Li{sub 2}S–P{sub 2}S{sub 5} electrolytes. Cross-sectional SEM observations for a positive electrode layer reveal that sulfide electrolyte coating on active material particles increases interface areas even with a minimum volume of electrolyte, indicating that the energy density of bulk-type solid-state batteries is enhanced. Both surface coating

  6. Fabrication of thin yttria-stabilized-zirconia dense electrolyte layers by inkjet printing for high performing solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, Vincenzo; Gadea, Christophe; Hjelm, Johan

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present how a low-cost HP Deskjet 1000 inkjet printer was used to fabricate a 1.2 mm thin, dense and gas tight 16 cm2 solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) electrolyte. The electrolyte was printed using an ink made of highly diluted (

  7. Designable ultra-smooth ultra-thin solid-electrolyte interphases of three alkali metal anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Wang, Wei-Wei; Li, Yi-Juan; Wu, Qi-Hui; Tang, Shuai; Yan, Jia-Wei; Zheng, Ming-Sen; Wu, De-Yin; Fan, Chun-Hai; Hu, Wei-Qiang; Chen, Zhao-Bin; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Qing-Hong; Dong, Quan-Feng; Mao, Bing-Wei

    2018-04-09

    Dendrite growth of alkali metal anodes limited their lifetime for charge/discharge cycling. Here, we report near-perfect anodes of lithium, sodium, and potassium metals achieved by electrochemical polishing, which removes microscopic defects and creates ultra-smooth ultra-thin solid-electrolyte interphase layers at metal surfaces for providing a homogeneous environment. Precise characterizations by AFM force probing with corroborative in-depth XPS profile analysis reveal that the ultra-smooth ultra-thin solid-electrolyte interphase can be designed to have alternating inorganic-rich and organic-rich/mixed multi-layered structure, which offers mechanical property of coupled rigidity and elasticity. The polished metal anodes exhibit significantly enhanced cycling stability, specifically the lithium anodes can cycle for over 200 times at a real current density of 2 mA cm -2 with 100% depth of discharge. Our work illustrates that an ultra-smooth ultra-thin solid-electrolyte interphase may be robust enough to suppress dendrite growth and thus serve as an initial layer for further improved protection of alkali metal anodes.

  8. The conductivity and stability of polymer composite solid electrolyte upon addition of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Farzana Abd.; Salleh, Fauzani Md.; Mohamed, Nor Sabirin

    2017-12-01

    The effect of graphene composition on the conductivity and stability of polymer composite solid electrolyte was studied. These polymer composite solid electrolytes were synthesized by sol gel method and prepared via the solution-casting technique. The compositions of graphene were varied between 10 wt% to 70 wt%. The changes in the functional group of polymer composite after the addition of graphene were characterized by Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was conducted at ambient temperature in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz to study the conductivity of the polymer composite. The highest conductivity was obtained at 60 wt% graphene with the value of 2.85×10-4 Scm-1. Sample without the addition of graphene showed the lowest conductivity value of 1.77×10-7 Scm-1 and acts as an insulator. The high conductivity at 60 wt% graphene loading is related to dehydration of cellulose. This is supported by the FTIR spectrum where the absorption peaks of C-O stretching vibrations of polymer composite is weakened and the hydroxyl group is slightly shifted compared to the FTIR spectrum without the addition of graphene. Linear sweep voltammetry results demonstrated that the polymer composite solid electrolyte exhibited electrochemical stability up to 3.2 V.

  9. Polymerizable Ionic Liquid Crystals Comprising Polyoxometalate Clusters toward Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Solid Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeru Ito

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid electrolytes are crucial materials for lithium-ion or fuel-cell battery technology due to their structural stability and easiness for handling. Emergence of high conductivity in solid electrolytes requires precise control of the composition and structure. A promising strategy toward highly-conductive solid electrolytes is employing a thermally-stable inorganic component and a structurally-flexible organic moiety to construct inorganic-organic hybrid materials. Ionic liquids as the organic component will be advantageous for the emergence of high conductivity, and polyoxometalate, such as heteropolyacids, are well-known as inorganic proton conductors. Here, newly-designed ionic liquid imidazolium cations, having a polymerizable methacryl group (denoted as MAImC1, were successfully hybridized with heteropolyanions of [PW12O40]3− (PW12 to form inorganic-organic hybrid monomers of MAImC1-PW12. The synthetic procedure of MAImC1-PW12 was a simple ion-exchange reaction, being generally applicable to several polyoxometalates, in principle. MAImC1-PW12 was obtained as single crystals, and its molecular and crystal structures were clearly revealed. Additionally, the hybrid monomer of MAImC1-PW12 was polymerized by a radical polymerization using AIBN as an initiator. Some of the resulting inorganic-organic hybrid polymers exhibited conductivity of 10−4 S·cm−1 order under humidified conditions at 313 K.

  10. Carbonate-linked poly(ethylene oxide) polymer electrolytes towards high performance solid state lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Weisheng; Cui, Zili; Liu, Xiaochen; Cui, Yanyan; Chai, Jingchao; Zhou, Xinhong; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei

    2017-01-01

    The classic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) based solid polymer electrolyte suffers from poor ionic conductivity of ambient temperature, low lithium ion transference number and relatively narrow electrochemical window (<4.0 V vs. Li + /Li). Herein, the carbonate-linked PEO solid polymer such as poly(diethylene glycol carbonate) (PDEC) and poly(triethylene glycol carbonate) (PTEC) were explored to find out the feasibility of resolving above issues. It was proven that the optimized ionic conductivity of PTEC based electrolyte reached up to 1.12 × 10 −5 S cm −1 at 25 °C with a decent lithium ion transference number of 0.39 and a wide electrochemical window about 4.5 V vs. Li + /Li. In addition, the PTEC based Li/LiFePO 4 cell could be reversibly charged and discharged at 0.05 C-rates at ambient temperature. Moreover, the higher voltage Li/LiFe 0.2 Mn 0.8 PO 4 cell (cutoff voltage 4.35 V) possessed considerable rate capability and excellent cycling performance even at ambient temperature. Therefore, these carbonate-linked PEO electrolytes were demonstrated to be fascinating candidates for the next generation solid state lithium batteries simultaneously with high energy and high safety.

  11. Dextran based highly conductive hydrogel polysulfide electrolyte for efficient quasi-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lin, Ling; Yu, Xiao-Yun; Qiu, Kang-Qiang; Lü, Xian-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dextran based hydrogel is first used to prepare quasi-solid-state polysulfide electrolyte for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells. ► The ion conductivity of hydrogel electrolyte shows almost the same value as the liquid electrolyte. ► The liquid state at elevated temperature of hydrogel electrolyte allows for a good contact between electrolyte and CdS/CdSe co-sensitized TiO 2 photoanode. ► The hydrogel electrolyte based cell exhibits slightly lower power conversion efficiency than that of liquid electrolyte based cell. ► The dynamic electron transfer mechanism in hydrogel electrolyte based cell is examined in detail by EIS and CIMPS/IMVS. -- Abstract: Highly conductive hydrogel polysulfide electrolyte is first fabricated using dextran as gelator and used as quasi-solid-state electrolyte for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The hydrogel electrolyte with gelator concentration of 15 wt% shows almost the same conductivity as the liquid one. Moreover, its liquid state at elevated temperature allow for the well penetration into the pores in electrodeposited CdS/CdSe co-sensitized TiO 2 photoanode. This gel electrolyte based QDSSC exhibits power conversion efficiency (η) of 3.23% under AG 1.5 G one sun (100 mW cm −2 ) illumination, slightly lower than that of liquid electrolyte based cell (3.69%). The dynamic electron transfer mechanism of the gel and liquid electrolyte based QDSSC are examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (CIMPS/IMVS). It is found that the electron transport in gel electrolyte based cell is much faster than the liquid electrolyte based cell but it tends to recombine more easily than the latter. However, these differences fade away with increasing the light intensity, showing declining electron collection efficiency at higher light intensity illumination. As a result, a conversion efficiency of 4.58% is obtained for the gel

  12. Atomic layer deposition of lithium phosphates as solid-state electrolytes for all-solid-state microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biqiong; Liu, Jian; Sun, Qian; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2014-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been shown as a powerful technique to build three-dimensional (3D) all-solid-state microbattery, because of its unique advantages in fabricating uniform and pinhole-free thin films in 3D structures. The development of solid-state electrolyte by ALD is a crucial step to achieve the fabrication of 3D all-solid-state microbattery by ALD. In this work, lithium phosphate solid-state electrolytes were grown by ALD at four different temperatures (250, 275, 300, and 325 °C) using two precursors (lithium tert-butoxide and trimethylphosphate). A linear dependence of film thickness on ALD cycle number was observed and uniform growth was achieved at all four temperatures. The growth rate was 0.57, 0.66, 0.69, and 0.72 Å/cycle at deposition temperatures of 250, 275, 300, and 325 °C, respectively. Furthermore, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the compositions and chemical structures of lithium phosphates deposited by ALD. Moreover, the lithium phosphate thin films deposited at 300 °C presented the highest ionic conductivity of 1.73 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 323 K with ∼0.51 eV activation energy based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity was calculated to be 3.3 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 26 °C (299 K). (paper)

  13. Impedance spectroscopy of ceramic solid electrolytes; Espectroscopia de impedancia de eletrolitos solidos ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muccillo, R.; Cosentino, I.C.; Florio, D.Z. de; Franca, Y.V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    1996-12-31

    The Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) technique has been used to the study of Th O{sub 2}:Y{sub 2} O{sub 3}, Zr O{sub 2}:La{sub 2} O{sub 3} and Zr O{sub 2}:Y{sub 2} O{sub 3} solid electrolytes. The results show that solid solution has been attained, grain boundaries act as oxygen-ion blockers, and the importance of the IS technique to study phase transformation in ceramics. (author) 6 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Synthesis and ceramic processing of zirconia alumina composites for application as solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari

    2007-01-01

    The global warmness and the necessity to obtain clean energy from alternative methods than petroleum raises the importance of developing cleaner and more efficient systems of energy generation, among then, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Cubic stabilized zirconia (CSZ) has been the most studied material as electrolyte in SOFC, due to its ionic conductivity and great stability at operation conditions. However, its low fracture toughness difficulties its application as a thin layer, what could lead to an improvement of cell efficiency. In this sense, the alumina addition in CSZ forms a composite, which can shift its mechanical properties, without compromising its electrical properties. In this work, coprecipitation synthesis route and ceramic processing of zirconia-alumina composites were studied, in order to establish optimum conditions to attain high density, homogeneous microstructure, and better mechanical properties than CSZ, without compromising ionic conductivity. For this purpose, composites containing up to 40 wt % of alumina, in a 9 mol % yttria-stabilized zirconia (9Y-CSZ) matrix were evaluated. In order to optimize the synthesis of the composites, a preliminary study of powder obtaining and processing were carried out, at compositions containing 20 wt % of alumina, in 9Y-CSZ. The ceramic powders were characterized by helium picnometry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, granulometry by laser diffraction and gas adsorption (BET). The characterization of sinterized compacts were performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, density measurements, Vickers indentation and impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results show that the alumina addition, in the 9Y-CSZ matrix powders, raises the specific surface area, promotes deagglomeration of powders and elevates the oxides crystallization temperature, requiring higher

  15. Surface chemistry and morphology of the solid electrolyte interphase on silicon nanowire lithium-ion battery anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Candace K.; Ruffo, Riccardo; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have the potential to perform as anodes for lithium-ion batteries with a much higher energy density than graphite. However, there has been little work in understanding the surface chemistry of the solid electrolyte

  16. Power and Thermal Technologies for Air and Space. Delivery Order 0001: Single Ionic Conducting Solid-State Electrolyte

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turner, Allen

    2005-01-01

    This report focuses on the development of a lithium-ion conducting channel as a solid-state electrolyte for rechargeable lithium batteries through the use of thin films of dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc...

  17. The LiBH4-LiI Solid Solution as an Electrolyte in an All-Solid-State Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Viskinde, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    The charge and discharge performance of an all-solid-state lithium battery with the LiBH4-LiI solid solution as an electrolyte is reported. Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) was used as the positive electrode and lithium metal as the negative electrode. The performance of the all-solid-state cell...

  18. Polycarbonate-based polyurethane as a polymer electrolyte matrix for all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Junjie; Shi, Gaojian; Tao, Can; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Chen; Cheng, Liang; Qian, Gang; Chen, Chunhua

    2018-06-01

    Four kinds of polycarbonate-based polyurethane with 8-14 wt% hard segments content are synthesized via reactions of polycarbonatediol, hexamethylene diisocyanate and diethylene glycol. The mechanical strength of the polyurethanes increase with the increase of hard segments content. Solid polymer electrolytes composed of the polycarbonate-based polyurethanes and LiTFSI exhibits fascinating characteristics for all-solid-state lithium batteries with a high ionic conductivity of 1.12 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 80 °C, an electrochemical stability window up to 4.5 V (vs. Li+/Li), excellent mechanical strength and superior interfacial stability against lithium metal. The all-solid-state batteries using LiFePO4 cathode can deliver high discharge capacities (161, 158, 134 and 93 mAh g-1 at varied rates of 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 C) at 80 °C and excellent cycling performance (with 91% capacity retention after 600 cycles at 1 C). All the results indicate that such a polyurethane-based solid polymer electrolyte can be a promising candidate for all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  19. Analytic-metallurgical application of solid-electrolyts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundermann, H.

    1976-08-01

    The measurement principle and devations are discussed. The activity and distribution coefficients are represented in multinary systems and the appropriate electrochemical-thermodynamical relationships are given of the EMF vs temperature, EMF vs concentration and EMF vs T-C plots in order to restrict the number of chemical calibrations. To define chemically the EMF-T-fields a potentio-coulometric method was established and electronic systems were developed allowing automatic recording of measured values with direct transformation into required analytical data. (orig.) [de

  20. Ionic conductivity in polyethylene-b-poly(ethylene oxide)/lithium perchlorate solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilherme, L.A.; Borges, R.S.; Moraes, E. Mara S.; Silva, G. Goulart; Pimenta, M.A.; Marletta, A.; Silva, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    The ionic conductivity and phase arrangement of solid polymeric electrolytes based on the block copolymer polyethylene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PE-b-PEO) and LiClO 4 have been investigated. One set of electrolytes was prepared from copolymers with 75% of PEO units and another set was based on a blend of copolymer with 50% PEO units and homopolymers. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results, for electrolytes based on the copolymer with 75% of PEO units, were dominated by the PEO phase. The PEO block crystallinity dropped and the glass transition increased with salt addition due to the coordination of the cation by PEO oxygen. The conductivity for copolymers 75% PEO-based electrolyte with 15 wt% of salt was higher than 10 -5 S/cm at room temperature and reached to 10 -3 S/cm at 100 deg. C on a heating measurement. The blend of PE-b-PEO (50% PEO)/PEO/PE showed a complex thermal behavior with decoupled melting of the blocks and the homopolymers. Upon salt addition the endotherms associated with PEO domains disappeared and the PE crystals remained untouched. The conductivity results were limited at 100 deg. C to values close to 10 -4 S/cm and at room temperature values close to 3 x 10 -6 S/cm were obtained for the 15 wt% salt electrolyte. Raman study showed that the ionic association of the highly concentrated blend electrolytes at room temperature is not significant. Therefore, the lower values of conductivity in the case of the blend with 50% PEO can be assigned to the higher content of PE domains leading to a morphology with lower connectivity for ionic conduction both in the crystalline and melted state of the PE domains

  1. Fabrication of All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Cells Using Three-Dimensionally Structured Solid Electrolyte Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Mao; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi, E-mail: kanamura@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Urban Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-08-30

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries using Li{sup +}-ion conducting ceramic electrolytes have been focused on as attractive future batteries for electric vehicles and renewable energy conversion systems because high safety can be realized due to non-flammability of ceramic electrolytes. In addition, a higher volumetric energy density than that of current lithium-ion batteries is expected since the all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries can be made in bipolar cell configurations. However, the special ideas and techniques based on ceramic processing are required to construct the electrochemical interface for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries since the battery development has been done so far based on liquid electrolyte system over 100 years. As one of the promising approaches to develop practical all-solid-state batteries, we have been focusing on three-dimensionally (3D) structured cell configurations such as an interdigitated combination of 3D pillars of cathode and anode, which can be realized by using solid electrolyte membranes with hole-array structures. The application of such kinds of 3D structures effectively increases the interface between solid electrode and solid electrolyte per unit volume, lowering the internal resistance of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. In this study, Li{sub 6.25}Al{sub 0.25}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} (LLZAl), which is a Al-doped Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} (LLZ) with Li{sup +}-ion conductivity of ~10{sup –4} S ⋅cm{sup −1} at room temperature and high stability against lithium-metal, was used as a solid electrolyte, and its pellets with 700 μm depth holes in 700 μm × 700 μm area were fabricated to construct 3D-structured all-solid-state batteries with LiCoO{sub 2}/LLZAl/lithium-metal configuration. It is expected that the LiCoO{sub 2}–LLZAl interface is formed by point-to-point contact even when the LLZAl pellet with 3D hole-array structure is applied. Therefore, Li{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, which is a

  2. Preparation and characterization of plasticized palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, Farah Nadia; Ahmad, Azizan; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2013-01-01

    Palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte was prepared via prepolymerization method between palm kernel oil based polyols (PKO-p) and 2,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (2,4’-MDI) in acetone at room temperature with the vary amount of lithium trifuoromethanesulfonate (LiCF 3 SO 3 ) salt and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The film was analyzed using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). EIS result indicated ionic conductivity obtained with 30 wt% LiCF3SO3 increased to 6.55 × 10 −6 S cm −1 when 10 wt.% of plasticizer was added into the system. FTIR analysis showed the interaction between lithium ions and amine (-N-H) at 3600–3100 cm −1 , carbonyl (-C=O) at 1750–1650 cm −1 and ether (-C-O-C-) at 1150–1000 cm −1 of the polyurethane forming polymer-salt complexes. The XRD result confirmed that LiCF 3 SO 3 salt completely dissociated within the polyurethane film with the absence of crystalline peaks of LiCF 3 SO 3

  3. Preparation and characterization of plasticized palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, Farah Nadia; Ahmad, Azizan; Badri, Khairiah Haji [School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte was prepared via prepolymerization method between palm kernel oil based polyols (PKO-p) and 2,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (2,4’-MDI) in acetone at room temperature with the vary amount of lithium trifuoromethanesulfonate (LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) salt and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The film was analyzed using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). EIS result indicated ionic conductivity obtained with 30 wt% LiCF3SO3 increased to 6.55 × 10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} when 10 wt.% of plasticizer was added into the system. FTIR analysis showed the interaction between lithium ions and amine (-N-H) at 3600–3100 cm{sup −1}, carbonyl (-C=O) at 1750–1650 cm{sup −1} and ether (-C-O-C-) at 1150–1000 cm{sup −1} of the polyurethane forming polymer-salt complexes. The XRD result confirmed that LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} salt completely dissociated within the polyurethane film with the absence of crystalline peaks of LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}.

  4. Optical and Electrical Characteristics of Silver Ion Conducting Nanocomposite Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shujahadeen B.; Rasheed, Mariwan A.; Abidin, Zul H. Z.

    2017-10-01

    Optical and electrical properties of nanocomposite solid polymer electrolytes based on chitosan have been investigated. Incorporation of alumina nanoparticles into the chitosan:silver triflate (AgTf) system broadened the surface plasmon resonance peaks of the silver nanoparticles and shifted the absorption edge to lower photon energy. A clear decrease of the optical bandgap in nanocomposite samples containing alumina nanoparticles was observed. The variation of the direct-current (DC) conductivity and dielectric constant followed the same trend with alumina concentration. The DC conductivity increased by two orders of magnitude, which can be attributed to hindrance of silver ion reduction. Transmission electron microscopy was used to interpret the space-charge and blocking effects of alumina nanoparticles on the DC conductivity and dielectric constant. The ion conduction mechanism was interpreted based on the dependences of the electrical and dielectric parameters. The dependence of the DC conductivity on the dielectric constant is explained empirically. Relaxation processes associated with conductivity and viscoelasticity were distinguished based on the incomplete semicircular arcs in plots of the real and imaginary parts of the electric modulus.

  5. Gradiently Polymerized Solid Electrolyte Meets with Micro/Nano-Structured Cathode Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Zeng, Xian-Xiang; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Li, Jin-Yi; Shi, Ji-Lei; Xiao, Yao; Shi, Yang; Wen, Rui; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wang, Tai-Shan; Wang, Chun-Ru; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2018-05-02

    The poor contact between the solid-state electrolyte and cathode materials leads to high interfacial resistance, severely limiting the rate capability of solid Li metal batteries. Herein, an integrative battery design is introduced with a gradiently polymerized solid electrolyte (GPSE), a micro-channel current collector array and nano-sized cathode particles. In-situ formed GPSE encapsulates cathode nanoparticles in the micro-channel with ductile inclusions to lower interfacial impedance, and the stiff surface layer of GPSE toward anode suppresses Li dendrites growth. Li metal batteries based on GPSE and Li-free hydrogenated V2O5 (V2O5-H) cathode exhibit an outstanding high-rate response of up to 5 C (the capacity ratio of 5 C / 1 C is 90.3%) and an ultralow capacity fade rate of 0.07% per cycle over 300 cycles. Other Li-containing cathodes as LiFePO4 and LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 can also operate effectively at 5 C and 2 C rate, respectively. Such an ingenious design may provide new insights into other solid metal batteries through interfacial engineering manipulation at micro and nano level.

  6. Amperometric detector for gas chromatography based on a silica sol-gel solid electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinecker, William H; Miecznikowski, Krzysztof; Kulesza, Pawel J; Sandlin, Zechariah D; Cox, James A

    2017-11-01

    An electrochemical cell comprising a silica sol-gel solid electrolyte, a working electrode that protrudes into a gas phase, and reference and counter electrodes that contact the solid electrolyte comprises an amperometric detector for gas chromatography. Under potentiostatic conditions, a current related to the concentration of an analyte in the gas phase is produced by its oxidation at the three-phase boundary among the sol-gel, working electrode, and the gas phase. The sol-gel is processed to contain an electrolyte that also serves as a humidistat to maintain a constant water activity even in the presence the gas chromatographic mobile phase. Response was demonstrated toward a diverse set of analytes, namely hydrogen, 1,2-ethandithiol, phenol, p-cresol, and thioanisole. Using flow injection amperometry of hydrogen with He as the carrier gas, 90% of the steady-state current was achieved in < 1s at a flow rate of 20mLmin -1 . A separation of 1,2-ethandithiol, phenol, p-cresol, and thioanisole at a 2.2mLmin -1 flow rate was achieved with respective detection limits (k = 3 criterion) of 4, 1, 3, and 70 ppmv when the working electrode potential was 800mV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. New Insights of Graphite Anode Stability in Rechargeable Batteries: Li-Ion Coordination Structures Prevail over Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun

    2018-01-04

    Graphite anodes are not stable in most noncarbonate solvents (e.g., ether, sulfoxide, sulfone) upon Li ion intercalation, known as an urgent issue in present Li ions and next-generation Li–S and Li–O2 batteries for storage of Li ions within the anode for safety features. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is commonly believed to be decisive for stabilizing the graphite anode. However, here we find that the solvation structure of the Li ions, determined by the electrolyte composition including lithium salts, solvents, and additives, plays a more dominant role than SEI in graphite anode stability. The Li ion intercalation desired for battery operation competes with the undesired Li+–solvent co-insertion, leading to graphite exfoliation. The increase in organic lithium salt LiN(SO2CF3)2 concentration or, more effectively, the addition of LiNO3 lowers the interaction strength between Li+ and solvents, suppressing the graphite exfoliation caused by Li+–solvent co-insertion. Our findings refresh the knowledge of the well-known SEI for graphite stability in metal ion batteries and also provide new guidelines for electrolyte systems to achieve reliable and safe Li–S full batteries.

  8. Electron transfer through solid-electrolyte-interphase layers formed on Si anodes of Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, L.; Cristancho, D.; Seminario, J.M.; Martinez de la Hoz, J.M.; Balbuena, P.B.

    2014-01-01

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films are formed on the electrode surfaces due to aggregation of products of reduction or oxidation of the electrolyte. These films may grow to thicknesses in the order of 50-100 nm and contain a variety of organic and inorganic products but their structure is not well defined. Although in some cases the films exert a passivating role, this is not always the case, and these phenomena are particularly more complex on Silicon anodes due to swelling and cracking of the electrode during lithiation and delithiation. Since the driving force for SEI growth is electron transfer, it is important to understand how electron transfer may keep occurring through the heterogeneous film once the bare electron surface is covered. Here we introduce a novel approach for studying electron transfer through model films and show preliminary results for the analysis of electron transfer through model composite interfacial systems integrated by electrode/SEI layer/electrolyte. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to identify deposition of SEI components, and a density functional theory/Green's function approach is utilized for characterizing electron transfer. Three degrees of lithiation are modeled for the electrodes, the SEI film is composed by LiF or Li 2 O, and the ethylene carbonate reduction is studied. An applied potential is used as driving force for the leakage current, which is evaluated as a function of the applied potential. Comparative analyses are done for LiF and Li 2 O model SEI layers

  9. Thin film galvanic cell with RbAg4I5 solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodnaruk, L.I.; Danilov, A.V.; Kulinkovich, V.E.; Aleskovskij, V.B.

    1975-01-01

    In order to decrease the size and weight and to increase the specific capacity and energy of galvanic cells, some solid electrolytes in the form of thin films are proposed. The galvanic cells were prepared by a combined method: the cathodic and anodic materials (Te and Ag) were evaporated under vacuo to cover an electrolyte layer, the latter being obtained by impregnating the porous materials with RbAg 4 I 5 acetonic solution. The most specific charge curves of the galvanic cells at various current densities are given: specific energy of the samples was 0.2 to 0.7 watt-h/kg, their capacity being 0.1 to 0.2 mah. Behaviour of the cells when stored (that of Ag(RbAg 4 I 5 ) interface in particular) was investigated, namely, the effect of the storage time on the capacity and internal resistance of the galvanic cell

  10. Preparation and characterization of novel solid polymer blend electrolytes based on poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) with various concentrations of lithium perchlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavan, K., E-mail: kesavanphysics@gmail.com [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India); Mathew, Chithra M. [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India); Rajendran, S., E-mail: sraj54@yahoo.com [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India); Ulaganathan, M. [Energy Research Institute @ NTU, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637 553 (Singapore)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The maximum ionic conductivity value was found to be 0.2307 × 10{sup −5} S cm{sup −1} for PEO(90 wt%)/PVP(10 wt%)/LiClO{sub 4}(8 wt%) based electrolyte at room temperature. • The structural and functional groups were studied by XRD and FTIR. • Both direct and indirect optical band gap values were evaluated from UV–vis analysis. • The change in viscosity of the polymer electrolytes was studied by photoluminescence spectra. - Abstract: A series of conducting novel solid polymer blend electrolytes (SPE) based on the fixed ratio of poly (ethylene oxide)/poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PEO/PVP) and various concentrations of salt lithium perchlorate (LiClO{sub 4}) were prepared by solvent casting technique. Structural and complex formation of the prepared electrolytes was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and FTIR analyses. The maximum ionic conductivity value was found to be 0.2307 × 10{sup −5} S cm{sup −1} for 8 wt% of LiClO{sub 4} based system at ambient temperature. Thermal stability of the present system was studied by thermo gravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). Surface morphology of the sample having maximum ionic conductivity was studied by atomic force microscope (AFM). Optical properties like direct and indirect band gaps were investigated by UV–vis analysis. The change in viscosity of the polymer complexes were also identified using photoluminescence emission spectra. PEO(90)/PVP(10)/LiClO{sub 4}(8) has the highest conductivity which is supported by the lowest optical band gap and lowest intensity in photoluminescence spectroscopy near 400–450 nm.

  11. Novel polymeric systems for lithium-ion batteries gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appetecchi, G.B.; Alessandrini, F.; Passerini, S.; Caporiccio, G.; Boutevin, B.; Guida-Pietrasanta, F.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of chemically cross-linked, self-supporting gel-type electrolyte membranes, based on hybrid polyfluorosilicone polymers reinforced with nanosized silica, for lithium-ion battery systems is reported. The polyfluorosilicone materials were selected on the basis of their high chemical and thermal stabilities. The precursors were synthesized with functional groups capable to form inter-molecular cross-linking, thus obtaining three-dimensional polymer matrices. The latter were undergone to swelling processes in (non-aqueous, lithium salt containing) electrolytic solutions to obtain gel-type polymer electrolytes. Several kinds of membranes, based on different types of polyfluorosilicone precursor, were prepared and characterized in terms of swelling behavior, ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability. The properties of the swelled matrices were evaluated as a function of dipping time, temperature, kind of electrolytic solution and cross-linking initiator content

  12. Facilely solving cathode/electrolyte interfacial issue for high-voltage lithium ion batteries by constructing an effective solid electrolyte interface film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jingjing; Xia, Qingbo; Chen, Fangyuan; Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Cheng, Xueyuan; Lu, Wei; Wu, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    The cathode/electrolyte interface stability is the key factor for the cyclic performance and the safety performance of lithium ion batteries. Suppression of consuming key elements in the electrode materials is essential in this concern. In this purpose, we investigate a facile strategy to solve interfacial issue for high-voltage lithium ion batteries by adding an oxidable fluorinated phosphate, Bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) Phosphite (BTFEP), as a sacrificial additive in electrolyte. We demonstrate that BTFEP additive could be oxidized at slightly above 4.28 V which is a relatively lower voltage than that of solvents, and the oxidative products facilitate in-situ forming a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film on the cathode surface. The results manifest the SEI film validly restrains the generation of HF and the interfacial side reaction between high-voltage charged LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 (LNMO) and electrolyte, hence, the dissolution of Mn and Ni is effectively suppressed. Finally, the cyclic performance of LNMO after 200 cycles was remarkably improved from 68.4% in blank electrolyte to 95% in 1 wt% BTFEP-adding electrolyte.

  13. Improvement of ionic conductivity and performance of quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aram, E.; Ehsani, M.; Khonakdar, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Reduced interfacial resistance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell with PEO/PMMA blend gel electrolytes. - Highlights: • A new polymer gel electrolyte containing PEO/PMMA was developed for DSSCs. • Optimization of polymer gel electrolyte was done for dye sensitized solar cell. • The best ionic conductivity was found in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. • The DSSC with the PEO/PMMA based electrolyte showed good photovoltaic performance. • Significant stability improvement for quasi-solid state DSSC was obtained. - Abstract: Polymer blend gel electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as host polymers with various weight ratios, LiI/I 2 as redox couple in electrolyte and 4-tert-butyl pyridine as additive were prepared by solution method. The introduction of PMMA in the PEO gel electrolyte reduced the degree of crystallinity of PEO, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Complexation and ionic conductivity as a function of temperature were investigated with Fourier transform infrared and ionic conductometry, respectively. A good correlation was found between the degree of crystallinity and ionic conductivity. The reduction in crystallinity, governed by blending ratio, led to improvement of ionic conductivity. The best ionic conductivity was attained in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. The performance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using the optimized polymer gel electrolyte was investigated. The optimized system of high ionic conductivity of 7 mS cm −1 , with fill factor of 0.59, short-circuit density of 11.11 mA cm −2 , open-circuit voltage of 0.75 V and the conversion efficiency of 4.9% under air mass 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm −2 ) was obtained. The long-term stability of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) during 600 h was improved by using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte relative to a liquid type electrolyte

  14. Improvement of ionic conductivity and performance of quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aram, E. [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, 14965/115 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, M., E-mail: m.ehsani@ippi.ac.ir [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, 14965/115 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khonakdar, H.A. [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, 14965/115 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research, D-01067 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-09-10

    Graphical abstract: Reduced interfacial resistance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell with PEO/PMMA blend gel electrolytes. - Highlights: • A new polymer gel electrolyte containing PEO/PMMA was developed for DSSCs. • Optimization of polymer gel electrolyte was done for dye sensitized solar cell. • The best ionic conductivity was found in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. • The DSSC with the PEO/PMMA based electrolyte showed good photovoltaic performance. • Significant stability improvement for quasi-solid state DSSC was obtained. - Abstract: Polymer blend gel electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as host polymers with various weight ratios, LiI/I{sub 2} as redox couple in electrolyte and 4-tert-butyl pyridine as additive were prepared by solution method. The introduction of PMMA in the PEO gel electrolyte reduced the degree of crystallinity of PEO, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Complexation and ionic conductivity as a function of temperature were investigated with Fourier transform infrared and ionic conductometry, respectively. A good correlation was found between the degree of crystallinity and ionic conductivity. The reduction in crystallinity, governed by blending ratio, led to improvement of ionic conductivity. The best ionic conductivity was attained in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. The performance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using the optimized polymer gel electrolyte was investigated. The optimized system of high ionic conductivity of 7 mS cm{sup −1}, with fill factor of 0.59, short-circuit density of 11.11 mA cm{sup −2}, open-circuit voltage of 0.75 V and the conversion efficiency of 4.9% under air mass 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm{sup −2}) was obtained. The long-term stability of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) during 600 h was improved by using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte relative to a liquid type

  15. Synthesis and characterization of novel electrolyte materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaubey, Nityanand; Chattopadhyaya, M.C.; Wani, B.N.; Bharadwaj, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The high operating temperature of SOFCs using zirconia based electrolyte have several restrictions on materials used as interconnect and sealing and also requires use of expensive ceramics. Lowering the operating temperature of SOFCs to 600-800 deg C will enable to use cheaper materials and reduce the cost of fabrication while keeping the high power density. Lanthanide gallates are considered to be very promising solid electrolytes for intermediate temperature (600-800 deg C) solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) due to their high ionic conductivity at lower temperatures. Phase purity of this material is a concern for the researchers for a long time. These materials are prepared at very high temperature (∼1400 deg C), since it is known that at around 1100 deg C, solubilities of Sr and Mg in LaGaO 3 were close to zero. Hence in the present work perovskite oxides of Ln 1-x Sr x Ga 1-y Mg y O 3-δ (Ln= Sm, Gd and x = 0.10, y=0.20) have been prepared by different methods i.e. solid state reaction, gel combustion and co-precipitation methods

  16. Polarization characteristics of composite electrodes in electrochemical cells with solid electrolytes based on CeO2 and LaGaO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaroslavtsev, I. Yu.; Kuzin, B. L.; Bronin, D. I.; Bogdanovich, N. M.

    2005-01-01

    For two types of electrochemical cells with oxygen-conducting solid electrolytes based on lanthanum gallate (LSGM) and cerium oxide (SDC) studied are the temperature dependences of the polarization conductivity of air electrodes prepared from lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) and composites LSM-LSGM, LSM-SDC, and LSM-SSZ (SSZ is zirconium dioxide-based electrolyte). Effect of praseodymium oxide, added into these electrodes as a modifier, on their electrochemical properties is examined. Electrochemical systems with an LSM/LSGM interface exhibit low electrochemical activity toward the oxygen reaction, because during the formation of electrodes, LSM interacts with LSGM to form a poorly conducting product [ru

  17. All-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Battery based on a nanoconfined LiBH 4 Electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Supti; Ngene, Peter; Norby, Poul; Vegge, Tejs; de Jongh, P.E.; Blanchard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In this work we characterize all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries based on nano-confined LiBH4in mesoporous silica as solid electrolytes. The nano-confined LiBH4has fast ionic lithium conductivity at room temperature, 0.1 mScm-1, negligible electronic conductivity and its cationic transport

  18. Yttria-doped zirconia as solid electrolyte for fuel-cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butz, Benjamin

    2009-11-27

    7.3-10 mol% yttria-doped zirconia (YDZ) was studied with emphasis on its long-term stability as solid electrolyte. The decomposition of common 8.5YDZ (950 C) was detected by analytical TEM. As second issue, the microstructural and chemical properties of nanocrystalline 7.3YDZ thin films were investigated. Metastable t''-YDZ was found to precipitate in nanoscaled regions in YDZ up to 10 mol% yttria. Furthermore, a revised boundary of the c+t phase field, in which YDZ decomposes, is presented. (orig.)

  19. Yttria-doped zirconia as solid electrolyte for fuel-cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butz, Benjamin

    2009-11-27

    7.3-10 mol% yttria-doped zirconia (YDZ) was studied with emphasis on its long-term stability as solid electrolyte. The decomposition of common 8.5YDZ (950 C) was detected by analytical TEM. As second issue, the microstructural and chemical properties of nanocrystalline 7.3YDZ thin films were investigated. Metastable t''-YDZ was found to precipitate in nanoscaled regions in YDZ up to 10 mol% yttria. Furthermore, a revised boundary of the c+t phase field, in which YDZ decomposes, is presented. (orig.)

  20. TAMOAS: In Situ Gasometry in the Atmosphere with Solid Electrolyte Sensors on BEXUS-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronowski, A.; Clemens, R.; Jaster, T.; Kosel, F.; Matyash, I.; Westphal, A.

    2015-09-01

    A student experiment developed for testing gas sensors in the stratosphere is described. The setup consists of a measurement electronic running miniaturized in situ amperiometric gas sensors based on different solid state electrolytes dedicated for oxygen, ozone and atomic oxygen. The experiment took place at Esrange Space Center in October 2014. The setup was attached to the high-altitude balloon BEXUS-19 and reached an altitude of 27 km at night. The primary objective was to test the prototype sensors and to gain data during flight.

  1. Effects of Sublattice Symmetry and Frustration on Ionic Transport in Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozinsky, Boris; Akhade, Sneha A.; Hirel, Pierre; Hashibon, Adham; Elsässer, Christian; Mehta, Prateek; Logeat, Alan; Eisele, Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    We use rigorous group-theoretic techniques and molecular dynamics to investigate the connection between structural symmetry and ionic conductivity in the garnet family of solid Li-ion electrolytes. We identify new ordered phases and order-disorder phase transitions that are relevant for conductivity optimization. Ionic transport in this materials family is controlled by the frustration of the Li sublattice caused by incommensurability with the host structure at noninteger Li concentrations, while ordered phases explain regions of sharply lower conductivity. Disorder is therefore predicted to be optimal for ionic transport in this and other conductor families with strong Li interaction.

  2. Sensing sulfur oxides and other sulfur bearing pollutants with solid electrolyte pellets. I. Gas concentration cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberland, A M; Gauthier, J M

    1977-01-01

    A new sensing technique using a solid electrolyte has been demonstrated for sulfur-bearing pollutants. Based on potentiometric measurements across a pellet of potassium sulfate, this sensor allows concentrations of sulfur dioxides, sulfur trioxide, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and carbonyl sulfide in air to be measured with accuracy. Its operational concentration range at the present time is 0.1 ppM up to at least 10,000 ppM. The presence of other common pollutants such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide does not interfere with the measurement of air samples containing sulfur-bearing pollutants.

  3. Properties of solid polymer electrolyte fluorocarbon film. [used in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The ionic fluorocarbon film used as the solid polymer electrolyte in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells was found to exhibit delamination failures. Polarized light microscopy of as-received film showed a lined region at the center of the film thickness. It is shown that these lines were not caused by incomplete saponification but probably resulted from the film extrusion process. The film lines could be removed by an annealing process. Chemical, physical, and tensile tests showed that annealing improved or sustained the water contents, spectral properties, thermo-oxidative stability, and tensile properties of the film. The resistivity of the film was significantly decreased by the annealing process.

  4. Effect of epoxidation level on thermal properties and ionic conductivity of epoxidized natural rubber solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harun, Fatin; Chan, Chin Han; Winie, Tan [Faculty of Applied Sciences, UniversitiTeknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Sim, Lai Har; Zainal, Nurul Fatahah Asyqin [Center of Foundation Studies, PuncakAlam Campus, UniversitiTeknologi MARA, 40430 Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    Effect of epoxide content on the thermal and conductivity properties of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes was investigated. Commercial available epoxidized natural rubber having 25 (ENR25) and 50 mole% (ENR50) epoxide, respectively were incorporated with lithium perchlorate (LiClO{sub 4}) salt and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanofiller via solution casting method. The solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) for their thermal properties and conductivity, respectively. It was evident that introduction of LiClO{sub 4} causes a greater increase in glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and ionic conductivity of ENR50 as compared to ENR25. Upon addition of TiO{sub 2} in ENR/LiClO{sub 4} system, a remarkable T{sub g} elevation was observed for both ENRs where ENR50 reveals a more pronounced changes. It is interesting to note that they exhibit different phenomenon in ionic conductivity with TiO{sub 2} loading where ENR25 shows enhancement of conductivity while ENR50 shows declination.

  5. Nanostructured TiO2 microspheres for dye-sensitized solar cells employing a solid state polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hun-Gi; Nagarajan, Srinivasan; Kang, Yong Soo; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Bimodal mesoporous, anatase TiO 2 microspheres with particle sizes ranging from 0.3 to 2 μm were synthesized using a facile solvothermal method. The photovoltaic performance of TiO 2 microspheres in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using a solid state electrolyte was investigated. The solid state electrolyte DSSC device based on the TiO 2 microspheres exhibits an energy conversion efficiency of 4.2%, which is greater than that of commercial P25 TiO 2 (3.6%). The higher photocurrent density was primarily achieved as a result of the greater specific surface area and pore size, which resulted in an increase in the dye uptake of the TiO 2 microspheres and easy transport of solid electrolyte through mesopores. In addition, the greater electron lifetime and superior light scattering ability also enhanced the photovoltaic performance of the TiO 2 microsphere-based, solid state DSSCs

  6. Degradation of the solid electrolyte interphase induced by the deposition of manganese ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hosop; Park, Jonghyun; Sastry, Ann Marie; Lu, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The deposition of manganese ions dissolved from the cathode onto the interface between the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and graphite causes severe capacity fading in manganese oxide-based cells. The evolution of the SEI layer containing these Mn compounds and the corresponding instability of the layer are thoroughly investigated by artificially introducing soluble Mn ions into a 1 mol L-1 LiPF6 electrolyte solution. Deposition of dissolved Mn ions induces an oxygen-rich SEI layer that results from increased electrolyte decomposition, accelerating SEI growth. The spatial distribution of Mn shows that dissolved Mn ions diffuse through the porous layer and are deposited mostly at the inorganic layer/graphite interface. The Mn compound deposited on the anode, identified as MnF2, originates from a metathesis reaction between LiF and dissolved Mn ion. It is confirmed that ion-exchange reaction occurs in the inorganic layer, converting SEI species to Mn compounds. Some of the Mn is observed inside the graphite; this may cause surface structural disordering in the graphite, limiting lithium-ion intercalation. The continuous reaction that occurs at the inorganic layer/graphite interfacial regions and the modification of the original SEI layer in the presence of Mn ions are critically related to capacity fade and impedance rise currently plaguing Li-ion cells.

  7. Stability study of cermet-supported solid oxide fuel cells with bi-layered electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinge; Gazzarri, Javier; Robertson, Mark; Deces-Petit, Cyrille [National Research Council, Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kesler, Olivera [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-12-01

    Performance and stability of five cermet-supported button-type solid oxide fuel cells featuring a bi-layered electrolyte (SSZ/SDC), an SSC cathode, and a Ni-SSZ anode, were analyzed using polarization curves, impedance spectroscopy, and post-mortem SEM observation. The cell performance degradation at 650 C in H{sub 2}/air both with and without DC bias conditions was manifested primarily as an increase in polarization resistance, approximately at a rate of 2.3 m{omega} cm{sup 2} h{sup -1} at OCV, suggesting a decrease in electrochemical kinetics as the main phenomenon responsible for the performance decay. In addition, the initial series resistance was about ten times higher than the calculated resistance corresponding to the electrolyte, reflecting a possible inter-reaction between the electrolyte layers that occurred during the sintering stage. In situ and ex situ sintered cathodes showed no obvious difference in cell performance or decay rate. The stability of the cells with and without electrical load was also investigated and no significant influence of DC bias was recorded. Based on the experimental results presented, we preliminarily attribute the performance degradation to electrochemical and microstructural degradation of the cathode. (author)

  8. Stability study of cermet-supported solid oxide fuel cells with bi-layered electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinge; Gazzarri, Javier; Robertson, Mark; Decès-Petit, Cyrille; Kesler, Olivera

    Performance and stability of five cermet-supported button-type solid oxide fuel cells featuring a bi-layered electrolyte (SSZ/SDC), an SSC cathode, and a Ni-SSZ anode, were analyzed using polarization curves, impedance spectroscopy, and post-mortem SEM observation. The cell performance degradation at 650 °C in H 2/air both with and without DC bias conditions was manifested primarily as an increase in polarization resistance, approximately at a rate of 2.3 mΩ cm 2 h -1 at OCV, suggesting a decrease in electrochemical kinetics as the main phenomenon responsible for the performance decay. In addition, the initial series resistance was about ten times higher than the calculated resistance corresponding to the electrolyte, reflecting a possible inter-reaction between the electrolyte layers that occurred during the sintering stage. In situ and ex situ sintered cathodes showed no obvious difference in cell performance or decay rate. The stability of the cells with and without electrical load was also investigated and no significant influence of DC bias was recorded. Based on the experimental results presented, we preliminarily attribute the performance degradation to electrochemical and microstructural degradation of the cathode.

  9. An all-solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitor based on a plastic crystal electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eaabouimrane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A plastic crystal, solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate salt, (C4H94NPF6, (10 molar % with succinonitrile, SCN, (N C−CH2−CH2−C N, [SCN-10%TBA-PF6]. The resultant waxy material shows a plastic crystalline phase that extend from -36 °C up to its melting at 23 °C. It shows a high ionic conductivity reaching 4 × 10−5 S/cm in the plastic crystal phase (15 °C and ~ 3 × 10−3 S/cm in the molten state (25 °C. These properties along with the high electrochemical stability rendered the use of this material as an electrolyte in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC. The EDLC was assembled and its performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge methods. Specific capacitance values in the range of 4-7 F/g. (of electrode active material were obtained in the plastic crystal phase at 15 °C, that although compare well with those reported for some polymer electrolytes, can be still enhanced with further development of the device and its components, and only demonstrate their great potential use for capacitors as a new application.

  10. An All-Solid-State Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor Based on a Plastic Crystal Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Belharouak, Ilias [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar); Abu-Lebdeh, Yaser A., E-mail: yaser.abu-lebdeh@nrc.gc.ca [Energy, Mining and Environment Portfolio and Automotive and Surface Transportation Portfolio, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-08-18

    A plastic crystal, solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate salt, (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}-NPF{sub 6}, (10 molar %) with succinonitrile, SCN, (N≡C−CH{sub 2}−CH{sub 2}−C≡N), [SCN-10%TBA-PF{sub 6}]. The resultant waxy material shows a plastic crystalline phase that extends from −36°C up to its melting at 23°C. It shows a high ionic conductivity reaching 4 × 10{sup -5} S/cm in the plastic crystal phase (15°C) and ~ 3 × 10{sup -3} S/cm in the molten state (25°C). These properties along with the high electrochemical stability rendered the use of this material as an electrolyte in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC). The EDLC was assembled, and its performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge–discharge methods. Specific capacitance values in the range of 4–7 F/g (of electrode active material) were obtained in the plastic crystal phase at 15°C, that although compare well with those reported for some polymer electrolytes, can be still enhanced with further development of the device and its components, and only demonstrate their great potential use for capacitors as a new application.

  11. An All-Solid-State Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor Based on a Plastic Crystal Electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Belharouak, Ilias; Abu-Lebdeh, Yaser A.

    2015-01-01

    A plastic crystal, solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate salt, (C 4 H 9 ) 4 -NPF 6 , (10 molar %) with succinonitrile, SCN, (N≡C−CH 2 −CH 2 −C≡N), [SCN-10%TBA-PF 6 ]. The resultant waxy material shows a plastic crystalline phase that extends from −36°C up to its melting at 23°C. It shows a high ionic conductivity reaching 4 × 10 -5 S/cm in the plastic crystal phase (15°C) and ~ 3 × 10 -3 S/cm in the molten state (25°C). These properties along with the high electrochemical stability rendered the use of this material as an electrolyte in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC). The EDLC was assembled, and its performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge–discharge methods. Specific capacitance values in the range of 4–7 F/g (of electrode active material) were obtained in the plastic crystal phase at 15°C, that although compare well with those reported for some polymer electrolytes, can be still enhanced with further development of the device and its components, and only demonstrate their great potential use for capacitors as a new application.

  12. Determination of thermodynamic properties and stability limit from fluorite phase of uranium and lanthanide mixed oxides, using galvanic cells with solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, T.N.

    1980-10-01

    A method for thermodynamic properties determination for oxygen solubility in oxide systems at temperature interval 973 ≤ T [K] ≤ 1773 is described. A galvanic cell using as solid electrolytes zircon dioxide doped with 15% of calcium oxide is presented. This method was used for determining the phase change, temperature dependent, of uranium-lanthanides-oxygen Ln U O 4 stoichiometric system. (C.G.C.)

  13. The Effects of Lithium Triflate (LiCF3SO3) on the PMMA-based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, K. W.; Chen, S. S.; Pang, W. L.; Tan, C. G.; Osman, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Lithium triflate salt (LiCF 3 SO 3 ), on the poly (methyl methacrylate)(PMMA)-based solid polymer electrolytes plasticized with propylene carbonate (PC) solvated in Tetrahydrofuran (THF) have been studied through a.c impedance spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Lithium triflate was incorporated into the predetermined PMMA/PC system that has the highest value of ionic conductivity. In current investigations, four combination systems: Pure PMMA, (PMMA+PC) systems, (PMMA+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) and (PMMA+PC+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) systems were prepared using the solution cast method. Solutions were stirred for numerous hours to obtain a homogenous solution before it is poured into the petri dishes under ambient temperature to form the solid electrolyte thin film. The films were then removed from petri discs and transferred into the dessicator for further drying prior to the different tests. From the characterization done through the a.c impedance spectroscopy, the highest room temperature ionic conductivity in the pure PMMA sample, (PMMA+PC) system and (PMMA+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system is 2.83x10 -12 Scm -1 , 4.39x10 -11 Scm -1 and 3.93x10 -6 Scm -1 respectively. The conductivity for (PMMA+PC+LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system was obtained with the 30 wt% of lithium triflate, which is 2.48x10 -5 Scm -1 . Infrared spectroscopy shows that complexation occurred between the polymer and the plasticizer, and the polymer and plasticizer and salt. The interactions have been studied in the C=O band, C-O-C band and the O-CH 3 band.

  14. Novel Proton Conducting Solid Bio-polymer Electrolytes Based on Carboxymethyl Cellulose Doped with Oleic Acid and Plasticized with Glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, M. N.; Isa, M. I. N.

    2016-06-01

    The plasticized solid bio-polymer electrolytes (SBEs) system has been formed by introducing glycerol (Gly) as the plasticizer into the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) doped with oleic acid (OA) via solution casting techniques. The ionic conductivity of the plasticized SBEs has been studied using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. The highest conductivity achieved is 1.64 × 10-4 S cm-1 for system containing 40 wt. % of glycerol. FTIR deconvolution technique had shown that the conductivity of CMC-OA-Gly SBEs is primarily influenced by the number density of mobile ions. Transference number measurement has shown that the cation diffusion coefficient and ionic mobility is higher than anion which proved the plasticized polymer system is a proton conductor.

  15. Internal shorting and fuel loss of a low temperature solid oxide fuel cell with SDC electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinge; Robertson, Mark; Deces-Petit, Cyrille; Qu, Wei; Kesler, Olivera; Maric, Radenka; Ghosh, Dave [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council Canada, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada)

    2007-02-10

    A solid oxide fuel cell with Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 1.9} (SDC) electrolyte of 10 {mu}m in thickness and Ni-SDC anode of 15 {mu}m in thickness on a 0.8 mm thick Ni-YSZ cermet substrate was fabricated by tape casting, screen printing and co-firing. A composite cathode, 75 wt.% Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} (SSCo) + 25 wt.% SDC, approximately 50 {mu}m in thickness, was printed on the co-fired half-cell, and sintered at 950 C. The cell showed a high electrochemical performance at temperatures ranging from 500 to 650 C. Peak power density of 545 mW cm{sup -2} at 600 C was obtained. However, the cell exhibited severe internal shorting due to the mixed conductivity of the SDC electrolyte. Both the amount of water collected from the anode outlet and the open circuit voltage (OCV) indicated that the internal shorting current could reach 0.85 A cm{sup -2} or more at 600 C. Zr content inclusions were found at the surface and in the cross-section of the SDC electrolyte, which could be one of the reasons for reduced OCV and oxygen ionic conductivity. Fuel loss due to internal shorting of the thin SDC electrolyte cell becomes a significant concern when it is used in applications requiring high fuel utilization and electrical efficiency. (author)

  16. Study of gadolinia-doped ceria solid electrolyte surface by XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Pradyot; Majewski, Peter; Aldinger, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    Gadolinia-doped ceria (CGO) is an important material to be used as electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell for intermediate temperature operation. Ceria doped with 10 mol% gadolinia (Ce 0.9 Gd 0.1 O 1.95 ) was prepared by conventional solid state synthesis and found to be single phase by room temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD). The chemical states of the surface of the prepared sample were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Though Gd was present in its characteristic chemical state, Ce was found in both Ce 4+ and Ce 3+ states. Presence of Ce 3+ state was ascribed to the differential yield of oxygen atoms in the sputtering process

  17. A mathematical model of the solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, D.M.; Verbrugge, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of the solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell and apply it to (i) investigate factors that limit cell performance and (ii) elucidate the mechanism of species transport in the complex network of gas, liquid, and solid phases of the cell. Calculations of cell polarization behavior compare favorably with existing experimental data. For most practical electrode thicknesses, model results indicate that the volume fraction of the cathode available for gas transport must exceed 20% in order to avoid unacceptably low cell-limiting current densities. It is shown that membrane dehydration can also pose limitations on operating current density; circumvention of this problem by appropriate membrane and electrode design and efficient water-management schemes is discussed. The authors' model results indicate that for a broad range of practical current densities there are no external water requirements because the water produced at the cathode is enough to satisfy the water requirement of the membrane

  18. Evaluation of solid polymer electrolytes for use in conducting polymer/nanotube actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Trevor W.; Kim, B. C.; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2000-06-01

    The stringent requirements for a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) in solid state devices such as batteries or supercapacitors are even more demanding when used in electromechanical actuators. Not only is the SPE expected to exhibit good conductivity, mechanical properties, adhesion and mechanical/electrical stability, but it must also be flexible, maintained good adhesion while flexing, be easily processible and be able to function in air. In this work polyacrylonitrile and Kynar based non-aqueous SPEs and water based polyacrylamide hydrogel ion source/sinks containing various perchlorate salts were tested for their applicability to polypyrrole and carbon nanotube actuators and supercapacitors. The results indicate that the optimum SPE for both polypyrrole and carbon nanotube actuators would be a polyacrylonitrile plasticized with propylene carbonate and ethylene carbonate containing 1.0M NaClO4. It is also apparent that the same SPE would be the most suitable for supercapacitor applications with these materials.

  19. Electrospinning of Ceramic Solid Electrolyte Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Enhanced Ionic Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting

    Solid electrolytes have great potential to address the safety issues of Li-ion batteries, but better synthesis methods are still required for ceramics electrolytes such as lithium lanthanum titanate (LLTO) and lithium lanthanum zirconate (LLZO). Pellets made from ceramic nanopowders using conventional sintering can be porous due to the agglomeration of nanoparticles (NPs). Electrospinning is a simple and versatile technique for preparing oxide ceramic nanowires (NWs) and was used to prepare electrospun LLTO and LLZO NWs. Pellets prepared from the electrospun LLTO NWs had higher density, less void space, and higher Li+ conductivity compared to those comprised of LLTO prepared with conventional sol-gel methods, which demonstrated the potential that electrospinning can provide towards improving the properties of sol-gel derived ceramics. Cubic phase LLZO was stabilized at room temperature in the form of electrospun NWs without extrinsic dopants. Bulk LLZO with tetragonal structure was transformed to the cubic phase using particle size reduction via ball milling. Heating conditions that promoted particle coalescence and grain growth induced a transformation from the cubic to tetragonal phase in both types of nanostructured LLZO. Composite polymer solid electrolyte was fabricated using LLZO NWs as the filler and showed an improved ionic conductivity at room temperature. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies show that LLZO NWs partially modify the polymer matrix and create preferential pathways for Li+ conduction through the modified polymer regions. Doping did not have significant effect on improving the overall conductivity as the interfaces played a predominant role. By comparing fillers with different morphologies and intrinsic conductivities, it was found that both NW morphology and high intrinsic conductivity are desired.

  20. The Effect of 1-Pentylamine as Solid Electrolyte Interphase Precursor on Lithium Metal Anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Markus S.; Koch, Stephan L.; Passerini, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Manufacturing of a well-controlled artificial SEI on lithium metal electrodes. • Native SEI-free lithium electrodes. • Lithium electrodes with decreased impedance and overpotential due to artificial SEI. • Process development to remove influence of native SEI. • 1-pentylamine in n-pentane as artificial SEI precursor for lithium metal. - Abstract: In this study, the formation of an artificial primary solid electrolyte interphase on a fresh Li surface, via reaction with 1-pentylamine (PA), is reported, allowing removing the influence of the metal electrode’s prior history. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, galvanostatic cycling, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are used in order to investigate the effect of PA as solid electrolyte interphase precursor on Li metal. It is shown that pretreating native SEI-free Li metal surfaces with 1 M PA in n-pentane sharply decreases the electrode impedance and overpotential with respect to the treatment with only n-pentane. The treatment with 1 M PA in n-pentane results in surface roughening, but no increase of dendrite formation upon cycling. However, the use of higher PA concentration (5 M) increases impedance and overpotential and leads to dendrite growth.

  1. Atomic scale imaging of structural changes in solid electrolyte lanthanum lithium niobate upon annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiaobing; Fisher, Craig A.J.; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Ikuhara, Yumi H.; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Hoshikawa, Keigo; Moriwake, Hiroki; Kohama, Keiichi; Iba, Hideki; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    La (1-x)/3 Li x NbO 3 (LLNbO) is a promising electrolyte material for solid-state lithium-ion batteries because it is stable in contact with Li metal and contains a high concentration of intrinsic Li-ion vacancies. One strategy for improving its ionic conductivity and making it more competitive with other solid-state Li-ion electrolytes is to disorder the Li-ion vacancies by appropriate post-synthesis heat treatment, e.g., annealing. In this study, we examine the effects of annealing on single crystals of LLNbO with Li contents x = 0.07 and 0.13 based on simultaneous atomic resolution high angle annular dark field and annular bright field imaging methods using state-of-the-art aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopes. It is found that La modulation within A1 layers of the cation-deficient layered perovskite structure becomes more diffuse after annealing. In addition, some La atoms move to A-site positions and O4 window positions in the nominally vacant A2 layer, while O atom columns in this layer become rumpled in the [001] p direction, indicating that the NbO 6 octahedra are more heavily distorted after annealing. The observed crystal structure differences between as-prepared and annealed single crystals explain the drop in Li-ion conductivities of LLNbO single crystals after heat treatment.

  2. Development of layered anode structures supported over Apatite-type Solid Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandis P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apatite-type lanthanum silicates (ATLS materials have attracted interest in recent literature as solid electrolytes for SOFCs. The fabrication of an ATLS based fuel cell with the state-of-art electrodes (NiO/YSZ as anode and LSCF or LSM as cathode can show degradation after long operation hours due to Si diffusion mainly towards the anode. In this work, we report a “layer-by-layer anodic electrodes” fabrication by means of spin coating and physical spraying. The overall aim of this work is the successful fabrication of such a layered structure including suitable blocking layers towards the inhibition of Si interdiffusion from the apatite electrolyte to the anode. The results showed that the deposition of 3 layers of LFSO/GDC (3μm, NiO/GDC (4μm and the final NiO/YSZ anode layer provided a stable half-cell, with no solid state reaction occurring among the electrodes and no Si diffusion observed towards the anode after thermal treatment at 800°C for 120h.

  3. Study and development of a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell in solid polymer electrolyte technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosdale, R

    1992-10-29

    The hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell appears today as the best candidate to the replacing of the internal combustion engine for automobile traction. This system uses the non explosive electrochemical recombination of hydrogen and oxygen. It is a clean generator whom only reactive product is water. This thesis shows a theoretical study of this system, the synthesis of different kinds of used electrodes and finally an analysis of water movements in polymer electrolyte by different original technologies. 70 refs., 73 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. A determination, using solid zirconia electrolytes, of the activities of chromium oxide in ferrochromium alloys and slags at 1650 degrees Celsius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellbeloved, D.B.; Finn, C.W.P.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the development of a method in which solid zirconia electrolytes are used in the determination of the activities of chromium and chromium oxide in ferrochromium alloys and slags at 1650 degrees Celsius. Problems related to the cracking of electrolytes as a result of thermal shock, the dissolution of electrolytes in slags, and electrical contacts are discussed. Results for the iron-chromium system at 1650 degrees Celsius are found to be in good agreement with published findings. A limited number of results are reported for slag, but these are inconclusive because there was contamination from container materials. A 'gas-phase' cell is described that overcomes most of the problems encountered

  5. A novel temperature-gradient Na±β-alumina solid electrolyte based SOx gas sensor without gaseous reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, N.; Bleek, C.M. Van den; Schoonman, J.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical SOx ps sensor with a tubular Na+-beta"-alumina solid electrolyte has been fabricated and tested under non-isothermal conditions. The temperature difference between the reference and working electrode of the sensor cell is about 100-degrees-C, which causes a serious deviation...... of the experimental EMF response from the value as calculated using the Nernst equation for an isothermal system. The experimental results are Consistent with the theoretical prediction for a non-isothermal system. The response time is usually less then 10 min. SEM and EDX have been employed to investigate the sensor...... material before and after use, confirming the formation of a glassy phase of Na2SO4 by an electrochemical reaction at the interface of the platinum electrodes and Na+-beta"-alumina. According to this new theoretical derivation, the sensor design could be simplified by applying the same SO2 ps at the two...

  6. Solid state electrolytes for all-solid-state 3D lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, I.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this Ph.D. thesis is to understand the lithium ion motion and to enhance the Li-ionic conductivities in commonly known solid state lithium ion conductors by changing the structural properties and preparation methods. In addition, the feasibility for practical utilization of several

  7. In-situ Mass Spectrometric Determination of Molecular Structural Evolution at the Solid Electrolyte Interphase in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zihua; Zhou, Yufan; Yan, Pengfei; Vemuri, Venkata Rama Ses; Xu, Wu; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Xuelin; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-08-19

    Dynamic molecular evolution at solid/liquid electrolyte interface is always a mystery for a rechargeable battery due to the challenge to directly probe/observe the solid/liquid interface under reaction conditions, which in essence appears to be similarly true for all the fields involving solid/liquid phases, such as electrocatalysis, electrodeposition, biofuel conversion, biofilm, and biomineralization, We use in-situ liquid secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for the first time to directly observe the molecular structural evolution at the solid electrode/liquid electrolyte interface for a lithium (Li)-ion battery under dynamic operating conditions. We have discovered that the deposition of Li metal on copper electrode leads to the condensation of solvent molecules around the electrode. Chemically, this layer of solvent condensate tends to deplete the salt anion and with low concentration of Li+ ions, which essentially leads to the formation of a lean electrolyte layer adjacent to the electrode and therefore contributes to the overpotential of the cell. This unprecedented molecular level dynamic observation at the solid electrode/liquid electrolyte interface provides vital chemical information that is needed for designing of better battery chemistry for enhanced performance, and ultimately opens new avenues for using liquid SIMS to probe molecular evolution at solid/liquid interface in general.

  8. Ab initio investigation of ground-states and ionic motion in particular in zirconia-based solid-oxide electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschfeld, Julian Arndt

    2012-01-01

    Electrolytes with high ionic conductivity at lower temperatures are the prerequisite for the success of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). One candidate is doped zirconia. In the past, the electrical resistance of zirconia based SOFC electrolytes has mainly been decreased by reducing its thickness. But there are limits to reducing the thickness and one can say that nowadays the normal ways are basically exhausted to further enhance the conductivity of well-known electrolyte materials. Hence, new approaches need to be found to discover windows of enhanced ionic conductivity. This can be achieved by understanding the quantum-mechanical oxygen transport in unconventional configurations of doped zirconia. Therefore, such an understanding is of fundamental importance. In this thesis two approaches are pursued, the investigation of the strain dependent ionic migration in zirconia based electrolytes and the designing of an electrolyte material structure with enhanced and strongly anisotropic ionic conductivity. The first approach expands the elementary understanding of oxygen migration in oxide lattices. The migration barrier of the oxygen ion jumps in zirconia is determined by applying the Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in connection with the Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) method. These computations show an unexpected window of decreased migration barriers at high compressive strains. Similar to other publications a decrease in the migration barrier for expansive strain is observed. But, in addition, a migration barrier decrease under high compressive strains is found beyond a maximal height of the migration barrier. A simple analytic model offers an explanation. The drop of the migration barrier at high compressions originates from the elevation of the ground-state energy. This means: Increasing ground state energies becomes an interesting alternative to facilitate ionic mobility. The second approach is based on the idea, that actually, only in the direction of ion

  9. Ab initio investigation of ground-states and ionic motion in particular in zirconia-based solid-oxide electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschfeld, Julian Arndt

    2012-12-11

    Electrolytes with high ionic conductivity at lower temperatures are the prerequisite for the success of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). One candidate is doped zirconia. In the past, the electrical resistance of zirconia based SOFC electrolytes has mainly been decreased by reducing its thickness. But there are limits to reducing the thickness and one can say that nowadays the normal ways are basically exhausted to further enhance the conductivity of well-known electrolyte materials. Hence, new approaches need to be found to discover windows of enhanced ionic conductivity. This can be achieved by understanding the quantum-mechanical oxygen transport in unconventional configurations of doped zirconia. Therefore, such an understanding is of fundamental importance. In this thesis two approaches are pursued, the investigation of the strain dependent ionic migration in zirconia based electrolytes and the designing of an electrolyte material structure with enhanced and strongly anisotropic ionic conductivity. The first approach expands the elementary understanding of oxygen migration in oxide lattices. The migration barrier of the oxygen ion jumps in zirconia is determined by applying the Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in connection with the Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) method. These computations show an unexpected window of decreased migration barriers at high compressive strains. Similar to other publications a decrease in the migration barrier for expansive strain is observed. But, in addition, a migration barrier decrease under high compressive strains is found beyond a maximal height of the migration barrier. A simple analytic model offers an explanation. The drop of the migration barrier at high compressions originates from the elevation of the ground-state energy. This means: Increasing ground state energies becomes an interesting alternative to facilitate ionic mobility. The second approach is based on the idea, that actually, only in the direction of ion

  10. Quasi-solid polymer electrolytes using photo-cross-linked polymers. Lithium and divalent cation conductors and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shoichiro; Mori, Yoichi; Furuhashi, Yuri; Masuda, Hideki; Yamamoto, Osamu

    In this report, we will present the results on the photo-cross-linked poly-(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) based quasi-solid, i.e. gel, polymer electrolyte systems with lithium, magnesium and zinc trifluoromethanesulfonates [triflate; M n(CF 3SO 3) n] and their preliminary applications to primary cells. The Celgard® membrane-impregnated electrolytes were prepared in the same manner as Abraham et al. [K.M. Abraham, M. Alamgir, D.K. Hoffman, J. Electrochem. Soc. 142 (1995) 683]. The precursor solutions were composed of metal triflates, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, and tetraethylene glycol diacrylate. The Celgard® #3401 membrane was soaked overnight in the precursor solution, then clamped between two Pyrex glass plates and irradiated with UV light to form a gel electrolyte. The maxima of the conductivity obtained were 4.5×10 -4 S cm -1 at 12 mol% for LiCF 3SO 3, 1.7×10 -4 S cm -1 at 1 mol% for Mg(CF 3SO 3) 2, and 2.1×10 -4 S cm -1 at 4 mol% for Zn(CF 3SO 3) 2 system, respectively. The Arrhenius plots of the conductivities are almost linear between 268 and 338 K with 15-25 kJ/mol of activation energy for conduction. The cell, Li|LiCF 3SO 3-SPE+Celgard® #3401|(CH 3) 4NI 5+acetylene black, showed 2.86 V of OCV and could discharge up to 25% with respect to the cathode active material at a discharging current of 0.075 mA/cm 2.

  11. Quasi-solid polymer electrolytes using photo-cross-linked polymers. Lithium and divalent cation conductors and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Shoichiro; Mori, Yoichi; Furuhashi, Yuri; Masuda, Hideki [Nagoya Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Yamamoto, Osamu [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-09-01

    In this report, we will present the results on the photo-cross-linked poly-(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) based quasi-solid, i.e. gel, polymer electrolyte systems with lithium, magnesium and zinc trifluoromethanesulfonates [triflate; M{sup n}(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub n}] and their preliminary applications to primary cells. The Celgard{sup trademark} membrane-impregnated electrolytes were prepared in the same manner as Abraham et al. [K.M. Abraham, M. Alamgir, D.K. Hoffmann, J. Electrochem. Soc. 142 (1995) 683]. The precursor solutions were composed of metal triflates, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, and tetraethylene glycol diacrylate. The Celgard{sup trademark} aa3401 membrane was soaked overnight in the precursor solution, then clamped between two Pyrex glass plates and irradiated with UV light to form a gel electrolyte. The maxima of the conductivity obtained were 4.5 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 12 mol% for LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, 1.7 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 1 mol% for Mg(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and 2.1 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 4 mol% Zn(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} system, respectively. The Arrhenius plots of the conductivities are almost linear between 268 and 338 K with 15-25 kJ/mol of activation energy for conduction. The cell, li vertical stroke LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}-SPE+Celgard{sup trademark} aa3401 vertical stroke (CH{sub 3}){sub 4}NI{sub 5}+acetylene black, showed 2.86 V of OCV and could discharge up to 25% with respect to the cathode active material at a discharging current of 0.075 mA/cm{sup 2}. (orig.)

  12. Theory of bulk and interface constant phase elements in electrode- electrolyte systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the progress gained in the last few years in our understanding of bulk and interface constant-phase-angle (CPA) behavior in electrode-electrolyte systems. It is now fairly well established that the interface constant-phase element originates from the fractal nature of the interface. The complex geometry gives rise to a fractal distribution of parallel current paths, and the competition between these paths results in the fractional power law behavior of the impedance across the interface. On the other hand, the early hope of relating the CPA exponent to the fractal dimension of the interface has been shown to be unattainable. Our understanding of the bulk CPA behavior, which is most prevalent in solid electrolytes, is only tentative. It is illustrated using a simple model that, under nonlinear dynamical laws that govern the flow of ions in the electrolyte, a current in the solid can generate a fractal distribution of vacancies which tend to impede the flow. The current is forced to negotiate a complex path through the solid, and the resulting fluctuation in path length and flow rate could be a source of the CPA behavior. 32 refs., 18 figs

  13. Developments of Electrolyte Systems for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Gaoran; Li, Zhoupeng; Zhang, Bin; Lin, Zhan

    2015-01-01

    With a theoretical specific energy five times higher than that of lithium–ion batteries (2,600 vs. ~500 Wh kg −1 ), lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries have been considered as one of the most promising energy storage systems for the electrification of vehicles. However, both the polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and dendrite formation of the lithium anode are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li–S batteries. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in electrolyte systems. First, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li–S batteries and key challenges associated with traditional liquid cells. We then introduce the most recent progresses in liquid systems, including ether-based, carbonate-based, and ionic liquid-based electrolytes. And then we move on to the advances in solid systems, including polymer and non-polymer electrolytes. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research in both the liquid and solid Li–S batteries are presented.

  14. Developments of Electrolyte Systems for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gaoran; Li, Zhoupeng [College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhang, Bin [Anhui Academy for Environmental Science Research, Hefei, Anhui (China); Lin, Zhan, E-mail: zhanlin@zju.edu.cn [College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2015-02-11

    With a theoretical specific energy five times higher than that of lithium–ion batteries (2,600 vs. ~500 Wh kg{sup −1}), lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries have been considered as one of the most promising energy storage systems for the electrification of vehicles. However, both the polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and dendrite formation of the lithium anode are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li–S batteries. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in electrolyte systems. First, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li–S batteries and key challenges associated with traditional liquid cells. We then introduce the most recent progresses in liquid systems, including ether-based, carbonate-based, and ionic liquid-based electrolytes. And then we move on to the advances in solid systems, including polymer and non-polymer electrolytes. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research in both the liquid and solid Li–S batteries are presented.

  15. Developments of Electrolyte Systems for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan eLin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries (2,600 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1, lithium-sulfur (Li-S batteries have been considered as one of the most promising energy storage systems for the electrification of vehicles. However, both the polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and dendrite formation of the lithium anode are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in electrolyte systems. First we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with traditional liquid cells. We then introduce the most recent progresses in liquid systems, including ether-based, carbonate-based, and ionic liquid-based electrolytes. And then we move on to the advances in solid systems, including polymer and non-polymer electrolytes. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research in both the liquid and solid Li-S batteries are presented.

  16. Study of strontium- and magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate solid electrolyte surface by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Pradyot; Majewski, Peter; Aldinger, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    The chemical states of the surface of the oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte La 0.9 Sr 0.1 Ga 0.85 Mg 0.15 O 3-δ (LSGM 1015) as prepared by solid-state synthesis was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that adventitious carbon did not interact with any of the constituent elements of LSGM 1015. Ga and La were found to exist in trivalent states. But, due to ionic bombardment presence of Mg could not be detected in the electrolyte surface

  17. All-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery based on a nanoconfined LiBH4 electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Supti; Ngene, Peter; Norby, Poul

    2016-01-01

    In this work we characterize all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries based on nano-confined LiBH4 in mesoporous silica as solid electrolytes. The nano-confined LiBH4 has fast ionic lithium conductivity at room temperature, 0.1 mScm-1, negligible electronic conductivity and its cationic transport...... number (t+ = 0.96), close to unity, demonstrates a purely cationic conductor. The electrolyte has an excellent stability against lithium metal. The behavior of the batteries is studied by cyclic voltammetry and repeated charge/discharge cycles in galvanostatic conditions. The batteries show very good...

  18. Characterization of plasticized PEO-PAM blend polymer electrolyte system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Gargi; Kanchan, Dinesh

    2017-05-01

    Present study reports characterization studies of NaCF3SO3 based PEO-PAM Blend Polymer Electrolyte (BPE) system with varying amount of EC+PC as plasticizer prepared by solution cast technique. Structural analysis and surface topography have been performed using FTIR and SEM studies. To understand, thermal properties, DSC studies have been undertaken in the present paper

  19. Present status of solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells and dye sensitized solar cells using PEO-based polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar; Nagarale, R K; Pandey, S P; Rhee, H W

    2011-01-01

    Due to energy crises in the future, much effort is being directed towards alternate sources. Solar energy is accepted as a novel substitute for conventional sources of energy. Out of the long list of various types of solar cells available on the market, solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells (SSPECs) and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are proposed as an alternative to costly crystalline solar cell. This review provides a common platform for SSPECs and DSSCs using polymer electrolyte, particularly on polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes. Due to numerous advantageous properties of PEO, it is frequently used as an electrolyte in both SSPECs as well as DSSCs. In DSSCs, so far high efficiency (more than 11%) has been obtained only by using volatile liquid electrolyte, which suffers many disadvantages, such as corrosion, leakage and evaporation. The PEO-based solid polymer proves its importance and could be used to solve the problems stated above. The recent developments in SSPECs and DSSCs using modified PEO electrolytes by adding nano size inorganic fillers, blending with low molecular weight polymers and ionic liquid (IL) are discussed in detail. The role of ionic liquid in modifying the electrical, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of PEO polymer electrolytes is also described. (review)

  20. Present status of solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells and dye sensitized solar cells using PEO-based polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Nagarale, R. K.; Pandey, S. P.; Rhee, H. W.; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar

    2011-06-01

    Due to energy crises in the future, much effort is being directed towards alternate sources. Solar energy is accepted as a novel substitute for conventional sources of energy. Out of the long list of various types of solar cells available on the market, solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells (SSPECs) and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are proposed as an alternative to costly crystalline solar cell. This review provides a common platform for SSPECs and DSSCs using polymer electrolyte, particularly on polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes. Due to numerous advantageous properties of PEO, it is frequently used as an electrolyte in both SSPECs as well as DSSCs. In DSSCs, so far high efficiency (more than 11%) has been obtained only by using volatile liquid electrolyte, which suffers many disadvantages, such as corrosion, leakage and evaporation. The PEO-based solid polymer proves its importance and could be used to solve the problems stated above. The recent developments in SSPECs and DSSCs using modified PEO electrolytes by adding nano size inorganic fillers, blending with low molecular weight polymers and ionic liquid (IL) are discussed in detail. The role of ionic liquid in modifying the electrical, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of PEO polymer electrolytes is also described.

  1. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-24

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li 6.4 La 3 Zr 1.4 Ta 0.6 O 12 , LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li 2 CO 3 . Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g -1 carbon at 20 μA cm -2 . Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g -1 carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g -1 carbon at 20 μA cm -2 and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage.

  2. Efficient and Stable Photovoltaic Characteristics of Quasi-Solid State DSSC using Polymer Gel Electrolyte Based on Ionic Liquid in Organosiloxane Polymer Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiarti, H.; Arsyad, W. S.; Shobih; Muliani, L.; Hidayat, R.

    2018-04-01

    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is still one of the promising solar cell types among the third generation of solar cells because of easiness of fabrication and variety of available materials. In this type of solar cell, the electrolyte is one of the important components for regenerating excited dyes and transporting electric charge carriers to the counter electrode. Indeed, the power conversion efficiency of DSSC can be then significantly affected by the chemical and physical properties of the electrolyte. The simplest electrolyte system of an I-/I3 - redox couple in an organic solvent, however, has some drawbacks due to corrosive properties, volatile and leakage problem. Use of solid phase or gel phase electrolyte may overcome those problems, but it is often considered to suppress the efficiency due to low ion diffusion. Here, we report the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSC using polymer gel electrolyte (PGE), which is composed of ionic liquid and an organosiloxane polymer gel. The better cell performance with power conversion efficiency of about 6% has been obtained by optimizing the mesoporous size of the TiO2 layer and the PGE viscosity.

  3. Development of novel strategies for enhancing the cycle life of lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, Digby D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Allcock, Harry; Engelhard, George; Bomberger, N.; Gao, L.; Olmeijer, D.

    2001-04-30

    Lithium/solid polymer electrolyte (Li/SPE) secondary batteries are under intense development as power sources for portable electronic devices as well as electric vehicles. These batteries offer high specific energy, high energy density, very low self-discharge rates, and flexibility in packaging; however, problems have inhibited their introduction into the marketplace. This report summarizes findings to examine processes that occur with Li/SPE secondary batteries upon cyclic charging/discharging. The report includes a detailed analysis of the impedance measured on the Li/SPE/IC and IC/SPE/IC systems. The SPE was a derivative of methoxyethoxyethoxyphosphazene (MEEP) with lithium triflate salt as the electrolyte, while the intercalated cathodes (IC) comprised mixtures of manganese dioxide, carbon powder, and MEEP as a binder. Studies on symmetrical Li/SPE/Li laminates show that cycling results in a significant expansion of the structure over the first few tens of cycles; however, no corresponding increase in the impedance was noted. The cycle life of the intercalation cathode was found to be very sensitive to the method of fabrication. Results indicate that the cycle life is due to the failure of the IC, not to the failure of the lithium/SPE interface. A pattern recognition neural network was developed to predict the cycle life of a battery from the charge/discharge characteristics.

  4. A New All-Solid-State Hyperbranched Star Polymer Electrolyte for Lithium Ion Batteries: Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ailian; Xu, Hao; Zhou, Qian; Liu, Xu; Li, Zhengyao; Gao, Rui; Wu, Na; Guo, Yuguo; Li, Huayi; Zhang, Liaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hyperbranched multi-arm star polymer was successfully synthesized. • The star polymer electrolyte has good thermal stability and forming-film property. • The ion conductivity electrolyte can reach 8.3 × 10"−"5 S cm"−"1 at room temperature. • The star polymer electrolyte has wide electrochemical windows of 4.7 V. - Abstract: A new hyperbranched multi-arm star polymer with hyperbranched polystyrene (HBPS) as core and polymethyl methacrylate-block-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate(PMMA-b-PPEGMA) as arms was firstly synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization. The obtained hyperbranched multi-arm star polymer (HBPS-(PMMA-b-PPEGMA)_x) exhibited good thermal stability with a thermal decomposition temperature of 372 °C. The transparent, free-standing, flexible polymer electrolyte film of the blending of HBPS-(PMMA-b-PPEGMA)_x and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) was successfully fabricated by a solution casting method. The ionic conductivity of the hyperbranched star polymer electrolyte with a molar ratio of [EO]/[Li] of 30 could reach 8.3 × 10"−"5 S cm"−"1 at 30 °C (with the content of PPEGMA of 83.7%), and 2.0 × 10"−"4 S cm"−"1 at 80 °C (with the content of PPEGMA of 51.6%). The effect of the concentration of lithium salts on ionic conductivity was also investigated. The obtained all-solid-state polymer electrolyte possessed a wide electrochemical stability window of 4.7 V (vs. Li"+/Li), and a lithium-ion transference number (t_L_i"+) up to 0.31. The interfacial impedance of the fabricated LiÔöépolymer electrolyteÔöéLi symmetric cell based on hyperbranched star multi-arm polymer electrolyte exhibited good interfacial compatibility between all-solid-state polymer electrolyte and electrodes. The excellent properties of the hyperbranched star polymer electrolyte made it attractive as solid-state polymer electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Electrical and morphological analysis of chitosan:AgTf solid electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Shujahadeen B., E-mail: shujaadeen78@yahoo.com [School of Physics, Faculty of Science and Science Education, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Regional Government, Sulaimani (Iraq); Abidin, Zul Hazrin Z. [Centre for Ionics University of Malaya (CIUM), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-04-01

    Solution cast technique is employed to prepare solid polymer electrolyte films based on chitosan (host polymer) and silver triflate (AgCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, doping salt) using (1%) acetic acid as a common solvent. The effect of salt concentration on both EP and bulk materials dielectric properties has been analyzed. Physically the original relationship between the bulk dielectric constant and DC conductivity has been interpreted. It is demonstrated that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss values decrease at higher temperatures due to the reduction of silver ions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) indicate the presence of metallic silver particles. The ac conductivity spectra shows three distinct regions and obeys the Jonscher's power law at high frequency regions. The temperature dependence of frequency exponent (s) shows the crossover from CBH model to SP model. - Highlights: • A strong relationship exists between DC conductivity and dielectric constant. • The decrease of ε′ and ε″ is due to the reduction of silver ions (Ag{sup +} → Ag{sup o}). • The morphological results reveal the formation of silver particles. • The AC conduction models can be applicable for ion conducting polymer electrolytes.

  6. Some laws governing the electrosynthesis of organic compounds with a solid polymetric electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionova, N.A.; Avrutskaya, I.A.; Fioshin, M. Ya.; Khrizolitova, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The electrosynthesis of organic compounds with a solid polymetric electrolyte (SPE) makes it possible to carry out the process in the absence of a supporting electrolyte. This facilitates the recovery of the desired product, eliminates the inorganic waste products, and allows a small interelectrode distance, and the absence of the accumulation of gases lowers the voltage in the cell. Some laws governing syntheses of SPE were studied in the example cases of the electrochemical reduction of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine to 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxy-piperidine, the reduction of triacetonamine oxime and triacetonamine azine to 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4- aminopiperidine and the oxidation of isobutanol to isobutyric acid. The electrolysis with an SPE was carried out under galvanostatic conditions in an electrolyzer of the filter-press type with forced circulation of the catholyte and anolyte. Low reaction rates are found to be characteristic of all the compounds investigated when the electrolysis is carried out with an SPE.

  7. Hydrogen production by electrochemical decomposition of formic acid via solid polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Ebru Oender [KOSGEB Bursa Business Development Center, Besevler Kucuk Sanayi Sitesi 16149 Nilufer/Bursa (Turkey); Koparal, Ali Savas; Oeguetveren, Uelker Bakir [Anadolu University, Iki Eylul Campus, Applied Research Center for Environmental Problems 26555 Eskisehir (Turkey); Anadolu University, Iki Eylul Campus, Department of Environmental Engineering, 26555 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of simultaneous hydrogen production by electrochemical decomposition of formic acid via solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) in an electrochemical reactor. Titanium oxide coated with iridium oxide as anode and carbon fibre with Pt catalyst as cathode were used in the experiments. Effects of applied current density, flow rates and temperature of formic acid solution, concentration of supporting electrolyte and pH of the solution on performance of the process have been investigated. The effect of membrane thickness has also been examined. The results suggest that electrolysis using SPE is a promising method for the treatment of organic pollutants. Hydrogen with purity of 99.999% at ambient temperature by using carbon fibre cathode with Pt catalyst can be produced simultaneously and COD removal efficiency of 95% has been achieved not requiring any chemical addition and temperature increase. Also complete electrochemical oxidation of formic acid at the original pH to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O without production of intermediate has been proved by HPLC analysis. (author)

  8. Long-term Steam Electrolysis with Electrolyte-Supported Solid Oxide Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefold, Josef; Brisse, Annabelle; Poepke, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Steam electrolysis over 11000 h with an electrolyte-supported solid oxide cell is discussed. The cell of 45 cm"2 area consists of a scandia/ceria doped zirconia electrolyte (6Sc1CeSZ), CGO diffusion-barrier/adhesion layers, a lanthanum strontium cobaltite ferrite (LSCF) oxygen electrode, and a nickel steam/hydrogen electrode. After initial 2500 h operation with lower current-density magnitude, the current density was set to j = -0.9 A cm"−"2 and the steam conversion rate to 51%. This led to a cell voltage of 1.185 V at 847 °C cell temperature. Average voltage degradation was 7.3 mV/1000 h ( 100% throughout the test (with an external heat source for evaporation). Impedance spectroscopic measurements revealed a degradation almost entirely due to increasing ohmic resistance. The rate of resistance increase was initially faster (up to 40 mΩ cm"2/1000 h) and stabilised after several 1000 h operation. After 9000 h a small (non-ohmic) electrode degradation became detectable (<2 mV/1000 h), superimposed to ohmic degradation. The small electrode degradation is understood as indication for largely reversible (electrolysis cell/fuel cell) behaviour.

  9. Lithium dendrite and solid electrolyte interphase investigation using OsO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zier, Martin; Scheiba, Frieder; Oswald, Steffen; Thomas, Jürgen; Goers, Dietrich; Scherer, Torsten; Klose, Markus; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Eckert, Jürgen

    2014-11-01

    Osmium tetroxide (OsO4) staining, commonly used to enhance scattering contrast in electron microscopy of biologic tissue and polymer blends, has been adopted for studies of graphite anodes in lithium-ion batteries. OsO4 shows a coordinated reaction with components of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and lithium dendrites, thereby increasing material contrast for scanning electron microscopy investigations. Utilizing the high affinity of lithium metal to react with osmium tetroxide it was possible to localize even small lithium deposits on graphite electrodes. In spite of their reaction with the OsO4 fume, the lithium dendrite morphology remains almost untouched by the staining procedure, offering information on the dendrite growth process. Correlating the quantity of osmium detected with the amount of residual ("dead") lithium of a discharged electrode, it was possible to obtain a practical measure for lithium plating and stripping efficiencies. EDX mappings allowed for a localization of electrochemically stripped lithium dendrites by their residual stained SEI shells. Cross sections, prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) of cycled graphite electrodes treated with OsO4, revealed important information about deposition and distribution of metallic lithium and the electrolyte reduction layer across the electrode.

  10. Low temperature electrochemical cells with sodium β″-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girija, T. C.; Virkar, Anil V.

    Cells of Daniell-type with copper-zinc electrochemical couples and sodium β″-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) were constructed. The cathode consisted of copper in contact with its ions (Cu/Cu 2+) while zinc in contact with its ions (Zn/Zn 2+) constituted the anode. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) containing 1 M NaBF 4 was used as the liquid electrolyte. The configuration of the cell constructed can be written as follows: Zn(s)/ZnCl 2(DMSO)(0.1 M), NaBF 4(1 M)/BASE/NaBF 4(1 M), CuCl 2(DMSO)(0.1 M)/Cu(s). The cell was subjected to charge-discharge cycles at 100 °C. The BASE discs were found to be stable even after the cell was subjected to several electrochemical charge-discharge cycles. Cells were also constructed using BASE discs with porous BASE surface layers introduced to lower the interfacial resistance. Cells with surface modified BASE exhibited a lower resistance in comparison to those using unmodified BASE. XRD and SEM analyses indicated that no detectable degradation of BASE discs occurred after cell testing. Preliminary cell tests were also conducted with NaCF 3SO 3 in place of NaBF 4.

  11. Low temperature electrochemical cells with sodium {beta}''-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girija, T.C.; Virkar, Anil V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 122 S. Central Campus Drive, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Cells of Daniell-type with copper-zinc electrochemical couples and sodium {beta}''-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) were constructed. The cathode consisted of copper in contact with its ions (Cu/Cu{sup 2+}) while zinc in contact with its ions (Zn/Zn{sup 2+}) constituted the anode. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) containing 1 M NaBF{sub 4} was used as the liquid electrolyte. The configuration of the cell constructed can be written as follows: Zn(s)/ZnCl{sub 2}(DMSO)(0.1 M), NaBF{sub 4}(1 M)/BASE/NaBF{sub 4}(1 M), CuCl{sub 2}(DMSO)(0.1 M)/Cu(s) The cell was subjected to charge-discharge cycles at 100 C. The BASE discs were found to be stable even after the cell was subjected to several electrochemical charge-discharge cycles. Cells were also constructed using BASE discs with porous BASE surface layers introduced to lower the interfacial resistance. Cells with surface modified BASE exhibited a lower resistance in comparison to those using unmodified BASE. XRD and SEM analyses indicated that no detectable degradation of BASE discs occurred after cell testing. Preliminary cell tests were also conducted with NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} in place of NaBF{sub 4}. (author)

  12. Temperature dependent dielectric properties and ion transportation in solid polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengwa, R. J., E-mail: rjsengwa@rediffmail.com; Dhatarwal, Priyanka, E-mail: dhatarwalpriyanka@gmail.com; Choudhary, Shobhna, E-mail: shobhnachoudhary@rediffmail.com [Dielectric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur – 342 005 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film consisted of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blend matrix with lithium tetrafluroborate (LiBF{sub 4}) as dopant ionic salt and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as plasticizer has been prepared by solution casting method followed by melt pressing. Dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of the SPE film at different temperatures have been determined by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. It has been observed that the dc ionic conductivity of the SPE film increases with increase of temperature and also the decrease of relaxation time. The temperature dependent relaxation time and ionic conductivity values of the electrolyte are governed by the Arrhenius relation. Correlation observed between dc conductivity and relaxation time confirms that ion transportation occurs with polymer chain segmental dynamics through hopping mechanism. The room temperature ionic conductivity is found to be 4 × 10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} which suggests the suitability of the SPE film for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  13. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: Recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.; Vigreux, B.

    1990-01-01

    Development of processes for leaching solid waste contaminated by alpha or alphaβgamma emitters has been pursued at the Nuclear Research Center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France with the recent active commissioning of two pilot facilities: the Elise glove box system in February 1987 and the Prolixe shielded hot cell in March 1988. The Elise facility is designed to handle alpha waste and the Prolixe facility is designed to handle alphaβgamma waste. The common goal of the studies conducted in these facilities is to define the operating conditions for declassification of solid waste, i.e. to ensure that the alpha concentration of this waste will be less than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg after treatment, packaging and decay prior to storage in surface repositories. The leaching process developed is mainly based on the continuous electrolytic regeneration of an aggressive agent, AgII, which can induce the dissolution of PuO 2 , the most difficult compound to remove from the solid waste. This paper summarizes recent achievements in the development of this process. 11 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.

    1990-01-01

    Development of processes for leaching solid waste contaminated by alpha or alpha/beta/gamma emitters has been pursued at the Nuclear Research Center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France with the recent active commissioning of two pilot facilities: the Elise glove box system in February 1987 and the Prolixe shielded hot cell in March 1988. The Elise facility is designed to handle alpha waste and the Prolixe facility is designed to handle alpha/beta/gamma waste. The common goal of the studies conducted in these facilities is to define the operating conditions for declassification of solid waste, i.e. to ensure that the alpha concentration of this waste will be less than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg after treatment, packaging and decay prior to storage in surface repositories. The leaching process developed is mainly based on the continuous electrolytic regeneration of an aggressive agent, AgII, which can induce the dissolution of PuO 2 , the most difficult compound to remove from the solid waste. This paper summarizes recent achievements in the development of this process

  15. Morphology and conductivity study of solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayogi, Lugas Dwi, E-mail: ldprayodi@gmail.com; Faisal, Muhamad [Engineering Physics, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology ITS Campus, Sukolilo, Surabaya 6011 (Indonesia); Kartini, Evvy, E-mail: kartini@batan.go.id; Honggowiranto, Wagiyo; Supardi [Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, National Nuclear Energy Agency Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan15314, Banten (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    The comparison between two different methods of synthesize of solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} as precursor material for developing lithium ion battery, has been performed. The first method is to synthesize Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} prepared by wet chemical reaction from LiOH and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} which provide facile, abundant available resource, low cost, and low toxicity. The second method is solid state reaction prepared by Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4.} In addition, the possible morphology identification of comparison between two different methods will also be discussed. The composition, morphology, and additional identification phase and another compound of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} powder products from two different reaction are characterized by SEM, EDS, and EIS. The Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} powder produced from wet reaction and solid state reaction have an average diameter of 0.834 – 7.81 µm and 2.15 – 17.3 µm, respectively. The density of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} prepared by wet chemical reaction is 2.238 gr/cm{sup 3}, little bit lower than the sample prepared by solid state reaction which density is 2.3560 gr/cm{sup 3}. The EIS measurement result shows that the conductivity of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is 1.7 x 10{sup −9} S.cm{sup −1} for wet chemical reaction and 1.8 x 10{sup −10} S.cm{sup −1} for solid state reaction. The conductivity of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is not quite different between those two samples even though they were prepared by different method of synthesize.

  16. Solid-state electric double layer capacitors fabricated with plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes: Effective role of electrolyte anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleman, Mohd; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Flexible gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) thick films incorporated with solutions of lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (Li-triflate or LiTf) and lithium bis trifluoromethane-sulfonimide (LiTFSI) in a plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN), entrapped in poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) have been prepared and characterized. The films have been used as electrolytes in the electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Coconut-shell derived activated carbon with high specific surface area (∼2100 m 2 g −1 ) and mixed (micro- and meso-) porosity has been used as EDLC electrodes. The structural, thermal, and electrochemical characterization of the GPEs have been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The high ionic conductivity (∼10 −3 S cm −1 at 25 °C), good electrochemical stability window (>4.0 V) and flexible nature of the free-standing films of GPEs show their competence in the fabrication of EDLCs. The EDLCs have been tested using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and charge–discharge studies. The EDLCs using LiTf based electrolyte have been found to give higher values of specific capacitance, specific energy, power density (240–280 F g −1 , ∼39 Wh kg −1 and ∼19 kW kg −1 , respectively) than the EDLC cell with LiTFSI based gel electrolyte. EDLCs have been found to show stable performance for ∼10 4 charge–discharge cycles. The comparative studies indicate the effective role of electrolyte anions on the capacitive performance of the solid-state EDLCs. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Flexible EDLCs with succinonitrile based gel electrolyte membranes are reported. • Anionic size of salts in gel electrolytes plays important role on capacitive performance. • Li-triflate incorporated gel electrolyte shows better performance over LiTFSI-based gel.

  17. Solid-state electric double layer capacitors fabricated with plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes: Effective role of electrolyte anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suleman, Mohd; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S.A., E-mail: sahashmi@physics.du.ac.in

    2015-08-01

    Flexible gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) thick films incorporated with solutions of lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (Li-triflate or LiTf) and lithium bis trifluoromethane-sulfonimide (LiTFSI) in a plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN), entrapped in poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) have been prepared and characterized. The films have been used as electrolytes in the electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Coconut-shell derived activated carbon with high specific surface area (∼2100 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and mixed (micro- and meso-) porosity has been used as EDLC electrodes. The structural, thermal, and electrochemical characterization of the GPEs have been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The high ionic conductivity (∼10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} at 25 °C), good electrochemical stability window (>4.0 V) and flexible nature of the free-standing films of GPEs show their competence in the fabrication of EDLCs. The EDLCs have been tested using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and charge–discharge studies. The EDLCs using LiTf based electrolyte have been found to give higher values of specific capacitance, specific energy, power density (240–280 F g{sup −1}, ∼39 Wh kg{sup −1} and ∼19 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively) than the EDLC cell with LiTFSI based gel electrolyte. EDLCs have been found to show stable performance for ∼10{sup 4} charge–discharge cycles. The comparative studies indicate the effective role of electrolyte anions on the capacitive performance of the solid-state EDLCs. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Flexible EDLCs with succinonitrile based gel electrolyte membranes are reported. • Anionic size of salts in gel electrolytes plays important role on capacitive performance. • Li-triflate incorporated gel electrolyte shows better

  18. Plasma Membranes Modified by Plasma Treatment or Deposition as Solid Electrolytes for Potential Application in Solid Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane. PMID:24958295

  19. Plasma membranes modified by plasma treatment or deposition as solid electrolytes for potential application in solid alkaline fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-07-30

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane.

  20. Investigations of a zirconia solid electrolyte oxygen sensor in liquid lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivai, Abu Khalid, E-mail: rivai.abukhalid@jaea.go.j [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, N1-18, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Takahashi, Minoru, E-mail: mtakahas@nr.titech.ac.j [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, N1-18, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Investigations of a magnesia-stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte oxygen sensor for oxygen control measurement in liquid lead were carried out. The fluid of Bi/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a reference electrode and a molybdenum wire as a working electrode to detect the output signal of the sensor were used. The Nernst equation was used to estimate the electromotive force (EMF) values theoretically. The temperatures of liquid lead were 500, 550 and 600 deg. C. The results showed that the injection gas temperatures did not affect the detected EMF, the sensor responded well to quick changes of oxygen activity in liquid lead, and the discrepancy between the measured and theoretical EMF of the oxygen sensor output signal was higher at 500 deg. C than at 550 and 600 deg. C.

  1. Optimization of spin-coated electrodes for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, Shayenne Diniz da; Monteiro, Natalia Kondo; Tabuti, Francisco; Fonseca, Fabio Coral; Florio, Daniel Zanetti de

    2017-01-01

    Electrodes for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC’s) were fabricated by spin coating. Strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) cathode and nickel yttria-stabilized zirconia cermet anodes were synthesized and processed for enhanced deposition conditions. The influence of electrode microstructural parameters was investigated by a systematic experimental procedure aiming at optimized electrochemical performance of single cells. Polarization curves showed a strong dependence on both electrode thickness and sintering temperature. By a systematic control of such parameters, the performance of single cells was significantly enhanced due to decreasing of polarization resistance from 26 Ω cm² to 0.6 Ω cm² at 800°C. The results showed that spin-coated electrodes can be optimized for fast and cost effective fabrication of SOFCs. (author)

  2. Toward fast and cost-effective ink-jet printing of solid electrolyte for lithium microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, P.-E.; Riou, B.; Lestriez, B.; Guyomard, D.; Brousse, T.; Le Bideau, J.

    2015-01-01

    Ink-jet printing of ionogel for low-cost microbattery is presented. Such an approach allows to provide liquid-like electrolyte performances for all-solid microdevices. Ink-jet printing process is possible thanks to sol precursor of the ionogel. This full silica based ionogels confining ionic liquid are known to be thermal resistant, serving safety and technologies requiring solder reflow. High ionic conductivity and compatibility with porous composite electrodes allow reaching good electrochemical cycling performance: full Li-ion cell with LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 porous composite electrodes shows a surface capacity of 300 μAh cm-2 for more than 100 cycles. Such surface capacities are very competitive as compared to those obtained for microdevices based on expensive PVD processes.

  3. An electroactive conducting polymer actuator based on NBR/RTIL solid polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M. S.; Seo, H. J.; Nam, J. D.; Choi, H. R.; Koo, J. C.; Lee, Y.

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports the fabrication of a dry-type conducting polymer actuator using nitrile rubber (NBR) as the base material in a solid polymer electrolyte. The conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), was synthesized on the surface of the NBR layer by using a chemical oxidation polymerization technique. Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) based on imidazolium salts, e.g. 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium X (where X = BF4-, PF6-, (CF3SO2)2N-), were absorbed into the composite film. The compatibility between the ionic liquids and the NBR polymer was confirmed by DMA. The effect of the anion size of the ionic liquids on the displacement of the actuator was examined. The displacement increased with increasing anion size of the ionic liquids. The cyclic voltammetry responses and the redox switching dynamics of the actuators were examined in different ionic liquids.

  4. Development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures. Task 3 report; Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkous, C.A.; Anderson, R.; Kopitzke, R.W.

    1995-12-01

    This project is an attempt to synthesize and fabricate proton exchange membranes for hydrogen production via water electrolysis that can take advantage of the better kinetic and thermodynamic conditions that exist at higher temperatures. Current PEM technology is limited to the 125--150 C range. Based on previous work evaluating thermohydrolytic stability, some 5 families of polymers were chosen as viable candidates: polyether ketones, polyether sulfones, fluorinated polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenyl quinoxalines. Several of these have been converted into ionomers via sulfonation and fashioned into membranes for evaluation. In particular, the sulfonated polyetheretherketone, or SPEEK, was tested for water uptake, thermo-conductimetric analysis, and performance as the solid electrolyte material in an electrolysis cell. Results comparable to commercial perfluorocarbon sulfonates were obtained.

  5. Slip casting of thoria-10 mole per cent yttria solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, S.; Rao, S.V.K.

    1990-01-01

    One end closed thoria-yttria solid electrolyte have been fabricated by the slip casting technique. A systematic study of the influence of the process parameters on the characteristics of the final bodies has been carried out. Slips of ThO 2 -10 mole % Y 2 O 3 were prepared; their fluidity and castability were studied as a function of concentration, pH and particle size. The bodies were sintered at 2000degC and the physical properties like density and microstructure were evaluated. Slip cast bodies of bulk densities around 95% T.D. with relatively inhomogenous but predominantly fine grained structure could be obtained by optimizing the process variables. (author). 5 figs., 10 refs

  6. Nanostructured Gd-CeO2 electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell by aqueous tape casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Fakhrabadi, A.; Mangalaraja, R. V.; Sanhueza, Felipe A.; Avila, Ricardo E.; Ananthakumar, S.; Chan, S. H.

    2012-11-01

    Gadolinia-doped ceria (Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95, GDC) electrolyte was fabricated by aqueous-based tape casting method for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The ceramic powder prepared by combustion synthesis was used with poly acrylic acid (PAA), poly vinyl alcohol (PVA), poly ethylene glycol (PEG), Octanol, 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol ethoxylate and double distilled water as dispersant, binder, plasticizer, defoamer, surfactant and solvent respectively, to prepare stable GDC slurry. The conditions for preparing stable GDC slurries were studied and optimized by sedimentation, zeta potential and viscosity measurements. Green tapes with smooth surface, flexibility, thickness in the range of 0.35-0.4 mm and 45% relative green density were prepared. Conventional and flash sintering techniques were used and compared for densification which demonstrated the possibility of surpassing sintering at high temperatures and retarding related grain growth.

  7. Optimization of spin-coated electrodes for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Shayenne Diniz da; Monteiro, Natalia Kondo; Tabuti, Francisco; Fonseca, Fabio Coral, E-mail: shaynnedn@hotmail.com, E-mail: nataliakm@usp.br, E-mail: fntabuti@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiocf@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Florio, Daniel Zanetti de, E-mail: daniel.florio@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Electrodes for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC’s) were fabricated by spin coating. Strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) cathode and nickel yttria-stabilized zirconia cermet anodes were synthesized and processed for enhanced deposition conditions. The influence of electrode microstructural parameters was investigated by a systematic experimental procedure aiming at optimized electrochemical performance of single cells. Polarization curves showed a strong dependence on both electrode thickness and sintering temperature. By a systematic control of such parameters, the performance of single cells was significantly enhanced due to decreasing of polarization resistance from 26 Ω cm² to 0.6 Ω cm² at 800°C. The results showed that spin-coated electrodes can be optimized for fast and cost effective fabrication of SOFCs. (author)

  8. Lithium Azide as an Electrolyte Additive for All-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Judez, Xabier; Li, Chunmei; Bondarchuk, Oleksandr; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M; Zhang, Heng; Armand, Michel

    2017-11-27

    Of the various beyond-lithium-ion battery technologies, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have an appealing theoretical energy density and are being intensely investigated as next-generation rechargeable lithium-metal batteries. However, the stability of the lithium-metal (Li°) anode is among the most urgent challenges that need to be addressed to ensure the long-term stability of Li-S batteries. Herein, we report lithium azide (LiN 3 ) as a novel electrolyte additive for all-solid-state Li-S batteries (ASSLSBs). It results in the formation of a thin, compact and highly conductive passivation layer on the Li° anode, thereby avoiding dendrite formation, and polysulfide shuttling. It greatly enhances the cycling performance, Coulombic and energy efficiencies of ASSLSBs, outperforming the state-of-the-art additive lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Study of the distribution of magnesium in zirconia-magnesia ceramic solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.; Nogueira, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    ZrO 2 : 3%MgO ceramic samples have been prepared according to three different experimental procedures in order to find out the best method for processing powders for the conformation of solid electrolytes for disposable oxygen sensors. These procedures were I) simple mechanical mixing, II) homogeneization in liquid medium, and III) homogeneization of the ceramic pellet by grinding, pressing and sintering. All samples have been analysed by electron microprobe and electrical resistivity measurements. The main results show the same degree of homogeneity and electrical resistivity are obtained for the specimens of the 2nd and 3rd group, whereas the specimens of the 1st group have non-homogeneous distribution of magnesium and scattered values of electrical resistivity. (author) [pt

  10. Magnetorheological technology for fabricating tunable solid electrolyte with enhanced conductivity and mechanical property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gangrou; Ge, Yu; Ding, Jie; Wang, Caiyun; Wallace, Gordon G.; Li, Weihua

    2018-03-01

    Ionogels are a new class of hybrid materials where ionic liquids are immobilized by macromolecular support. The excessive amount of crosslinking polymer enhances the mechanical strength but compromises the conductivity. Here, we report an elastomeric magnetorheological (MR) ionogel with an enhanced conductivity and mechanical strength as well. Following the application of magnetic nanoparticles into an ionic liquid containing minimum cross-linking agent, the formation, thus physical properties, of MR ionogels are co-controlled by simultaneously applied UV light and external magnetic field. The application of MR ionogels as solid electrolytes in supercapacitors is also demonstrated to study electrochemical performance. This work opens a new avenue to synthesize robust ionogels with the desired conductivity and controllable mechanical properties for soft flexible electronic devices. Besides, as a new class of conductive MR elastomers, the proposed MR ionogel also possesses the potential for engineering applications, such as sensors and actuators.

  11. Alkali Influence on Synthesis of Solid Electrolyte Based on Alkali Nitrate-Alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yustinus Purwamargapratala; Purnama, S.; Purwanto, P.

    2008-01-01

    Research of solid electrolyte based on alumina with addition of alkali materials of barium nitrate, calcium nitrate, sodium nitrate and lithium nitrate has been done. Aluminium hydroxide and alkali nitrate were mixed in mole ratio of 1 : 1 in water media and pyrolyzed at 300 o C for 1 hour Pyrolysis result were then mixed with alumina in mole ratio of 1 : 1, compacted and heated at 600 o C for 3 hours. To characterize the sample, XRD (X-Ray Diffractometers) and LCR meter (impedance, capacitance, and resistance) were used for analysis the phase and conductivity properties. The result showed formation of alkali-aluminate in which Li-base have the highest room temperature conductivity of 3.1290 x 10 -5 S.cm -1 , while Ba-base have the lowest conductivity of 5.7266 x 10 -8 S.cm -1 . (author)

  12. The thermal stability of sodium beta'-Alumina solid electrolyte ceramic in AMTEC cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Roger M.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Homer, Margie L.; Lara, Liana; Manatt, Ken; Shields, Virgil; Cortez, Roger H.; Kulleck, James

    1999-01-01

    A critical component of alkali metal thermal-to electric converter (AMTEC) devices for long duration space missions is the beta'-alumina solid electrolyte ceramic (BASE), for which there exists no substitute. The temperature and environmental conditions under which BASE remains stable control operational parameters of AMTEC devices. We have used mass loss experiments in vacuum to 1573K to characterize the kinetics of BASE decomposition, and conductivity and exchange current measurements in sodium vapor filled exposure cells to 1223K to investigate changes in the BASE which affect its ionic conductivity. There is no clear evidence of direct thermal decomposition of BASE below 1273K, although limited soda loss may occur. Reactive metals such as Mn or Cr can react with BASE at temperatures at least as low as 1223K

  13. Elastic Properties of the Solid Electrolyte Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Seungho; Schmidt, Robert D.; Garcia-Mendez, Regina

    2016-01-01

    The oxide known as LLZO, with nominal composition Li7La3Zr2O12, is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-based batteries due to its high Li ion conductivity and chemical stability with respect to lithium. Solid electrolytes may also enable the use of metallic Li anodes by serving as a physical bar...

  14. A Li-Garnet composite ceramic electrolyte and its solid-state Li-S battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Liu, Cai; Lu, Yang; Xiu, Tongping; Jin, Jun; Badding, Michael E.; Wen, Zhaoyin

    2018-04-01

    A high strength Li-Garnet solid electrolyte composite ceramic is successfully prepared via conventional solid state method with Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 and nano MgO powders. Well sintered ceramic pellets and bars are obtained with 0-9 wt.% MgO. Fracture strength is approximately 135 MPa for composite ceramics with 5-9 wt.% MgO, which is ∼50% higher than that of pure Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 (90 MPa). Lithium-ion conductivity of the composite is above 5 × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature; comparable to the pure Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 material. SEM cross-sections of the composite ceramic shows a much more uniform microstructure comparing with pure ones, owing to the grain growth inhibition effect of the MgO second phase. A battery cell consisting of Li/composite ceramics/Sulfur-Carbon at 25 °C exhibits a capacity of 685 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C at the 200th cycle, while maintaining a coulombic efficiency of 100%. These results indicate that the composite ceramic Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12-MgO is promising for the production of electrolyte membrane and fabrication of Li-Sulfur batteries.

  15. A planar, solid-state amperometric sensor for nitrogen dioxide, employing an ionic liquid electrolyte contained in a polymeric matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nádherná, M.; Opekar, F.; Reiter, Jakub; Stulík, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2012), s. 811-817 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523; GA AV ČR KJB200320901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Amperometry * Gas sensor * Solid-state sensor * Planar sensor * Ionic liquid * Solid polymer electrolyte * Gold minigrid electrode * Nitrogen dioxide Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.535, year: 2012

  16. Structural and Electrochemical Consequences of Al and Ga Cosubstitution in Li7La3Zr2O12 Solid Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenwander, Daniel; Redhammer, Günther; Preishuber-Pflügl, Florian; Cheng, Lei; Miara, Lincoln; Wagner, Reinhard; Welzl, Andreas; Suard, Emmanuelle; Doeff, Marca M; Wilkening, Martin; Fleig, Jürgen; Amthauer, Georg

    2016-04-12

    Several "Beyond Li-Ion Battery" concepts such as all solid-state batteries and hybrid liquid/solid systems envision the use of a solid electrolyte to protect Li-metal anodes. These configurations are very attractive due to the possibility of exceptionally high energy densities and high (dis)charge rates, but they are far from being realized practically due to a number of issues including high interfacial resistance and difficulties associated with fabrication. One of the most promising solid electrolyte systems for these applications is Al or Ga stabilized Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 (LLZO) based on high ionic conductivities and apparent stability against reduction by Li metal. Nevertheless, the fabrication of dense LLZO membranes with high ionic conductivity and low interfacial resistances remains challenging; it definitely requires a better understanding of the structural and electrochemical properties. In this study, the phase transition from garnet ( Ia 3̅ d , No. 230) to "non-garnet" ( I 4̅3 d , No. 220) space group as a function of composition and the different sintering behavior of Ga and Al stabilized LLZO are identified as important factors in determining the electrochemical properties. The phase transition was located at an Al:Ga substitution ratio of 0.05:0.15 and is accompanied by a significant lowering of the activation energy for Li-ion transport to 0.26 eV. The phase transition combined with microstructural changes concomitant with an increase of the Ga/Al ratio continuously improves the Li-ion conductivity from 2.6 × 10 -4 S cm -1 to 1.2 × 10 -3 S cm -1 , which is close to the calculated maximum for garnet-type materials. The increase in Ga content is also associated with better densification and smaller grains and is accompanied by a change in the area specific resistance (ASR) from 78 to 24 Ω cm 2 , the lowest reported value for LLZO so far. These results illustrate that understanding the structure-properties relationships in this class of materials

  17. Methods for using novel cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Allan J.; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2016-01-12

    Methods using novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials operating at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes include oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  18. Crosslinked Polymer Ionic Liquid/Ionic Liquid Blends Prepared by Photopolymerization as Solid-State Electrolytes in Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po-Hsin; Wang, Tzong-Liu; Lin, Wen-Churng; Lin, Hung-Yin; Lee, Mei-Hwa; Yang, Chien-Hsin

    2018-04-07

    A photopolymerization method is used to prepare a mixture of polymer ionic liquid (PIL) and ionic liquid (IL). This mixture is used as a solid-state electrolyte in carbon nanoparticle (CNP)-based symmetric supercapacitors. The solid electrolyte is a binary mixture of a PIL and its corresponding IL. The PIL matrix is a cross-linked polyelectrolyte with an imidazole salt cation coupled with two anions of Br - in PIL-M-(Br) and TFSI - in PIL-M-(TFSI), respectively. The corresponding ionic liquids have imidazolium salt cation coupled with two anions of Br - and TFSI - , respectively. This study investigates the electrochemical characteristics of PILs and their corresponding IL mixtures used as a solid electrolyte in supercapacitors. Results show that a specific capacitance, maximum power density and energy density of 87 and 58 F·g - ¹, 40 and 48 kW·kg - ¹, and 107 and 59.9 Wh·kg - ¹ were achieved in supercapacitors based on (PIL-M-(Br)) and (PIL-M-(TFSI)) solid electrolytes, respectively.

  19. Crosslinked Polymer Ionic Liquid/Ionic Liquid Blends Prepared by Photopolymerization as Solid-State Electrolytes in Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po-Hsin; Wang, Tzong-Liu; Lin, Wen-Churng; Lin, Hung-Yin; Lee, Mei-Hwa; Yang, Chien-Hsin

    2018-01-01

    A photopolymerization method is used to prepare a mixture of polymer ionic liquid (PIL) and ionic liquid (IL). This mixture is used as a solid-state electrolyte in carbon nanoparticle (CNP)-based symmetric supercapacitors. The solid electrolyte is a binary mixture of a PIL and its corresponding IL. The PIL matrix is a cross-linked polyelectrolyte with an imidazole salt cation coupled with two anions of Br− in PIL-M-(Br) and TFSI− in PIL-M-(TFSI), respectively. The corresponding ionic liquids have imidazolium salt cation coupled with two anions of Br− and TFSI−, respectively. This study investigates the electrochemical characteristics of PILs and their corresponding IL mixtures used as a solid electrolyte in supercapacitors. Results show that a specific capacitance, maximum power density and energy density of 87 and 58 F·g−1, 40 and 48 kW·kg−1, and 107 and 59.9 Wh·kg−1 were achieved in supercapacitors based on (PIL-M-(Br)) and (PIL-M-(TFSI)) solid electrolytes, respectively. PMID:29642456

  20. Crosslinked Polymer Ionic Liquid/Ionic Liquid Blends Prepared by Photopolymerization as Solid-State Electrolytes in Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hsin Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A photopolymerization method is used to prepare a mixture of polymer ionic liquid (PIL and ionic liquid (IL. This mixture is used as a solid-state electrolyte in carbon nanoparticle (CNP-based symmetric supercapacitors. The solid electrolyte is a binary mixture of a PIL and its corresponding IL. The PIL matrix is a cross-linked polyelectrolyte with an imidazole salt cation coupled with two anions of Br− in PIL-M-(Br and TFSI− in PIL-M-(TFSI, respectively. The corresponding ionic liquids have imidazolium salt cation coupled with two anions of Br− and TFSI−, respectively. This study investigates the electrochemical characteristics of PILs and their corresponding IL mixtures used as a solid electrolyte in supercapacitors. Results show that a specific capacitance, maximum power density and energy density of 87 and 58 F·g−1, 40 and 48 kW·kg−1, and 107 and 59.9 Wh·kg−1 were achieved in supercapacitors based on (PIL-M-(Br and (PIL-M-(TFSI solid electrolytes, respectively.

  1. Using Dark Field X-Ray Microscopy To Study In-Operando Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Electrolyte Supported Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sierra, J. X.; Poulsen, H. F.; Jørgensen, P. S.

    Dark Field X-Ray Microscopy is a promising technique to study the structure of materials in nanometer length scale. In combination with x-ray diffraction technique, the microstructure evolution of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia electrolyte based solid oxide cell was studied running at extreme operating...

  2. Thermostable gel polymer electrolyte based on succinonitrile and ionic liquid for high-performance solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaind P.; Liu, Tao; Hancock, Cody; Li, Yonghui; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan; Li, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A flexible, free-standing, thermostable gel polymer electrolyte based on plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMImBF4) entrapped in copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) is prepared and optimized for application in solvent-free solid-state supercapacitors. The synthesized gel polymer electrolyte exhibits a high ionic conductivity over a wide temperature range (from ∼5 × 10-4 S cm-1 at -30 °C up to ∼1.5 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 80 °C) with good electrochemical stability window (-2.9 to 2.5 V). Thermal studies confirm that the SN containing gel polymer electrolyte remains stable in the same gel phase over a wide temperature range from -30 to 90 °C. The electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have been fabricated using activated carbon as active materials and new gel polymer electrolytes. Electrochemical performance of the EDLCs is assessed through cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling and impedance spectroscopy. The EDLC cells with the proper SN-containing gel polymer electrolyte has been found to give high specific capacitance 176 F g-1 at 0.18 A g-1 and 138 F g-1 at 8 A g-1. These solid-state EDLC cells show good cycling stability and the capability to retain ∼80% of the initial capacitance after 10,000 cycles.

  3. Electrophoretic deposition of 9-YSZ solid electrolyte on Ni- YSZ composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, F.S.; Yoshito, W.K.; Lazar, D.R.R.; Ussui, V.

    2010-01-01

    9-YSZ ceramic and Ni-YSZ metal/ceramic composite are the more commonly used materials for the fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell electrolyte and anode, respectively. The main challenges for these applications are the forming of both materials as superposed double thin layers. In the present work ceramic powder of 9- YSZ was synthesized by a coprecipitation technique and the Ni O-YSZ composite by a combustion technique. The later was formed by uniaxial pressing as cylindrical pellets of 15 mm diameter. Thin ceramic layers of 9-YSZ were deposited on composite pellets from a suspension with 10% solid content by an Electrophoretic Deposition technique. Applied voltage varied in the range of 30 to 200 V and deposition time from 15 to 90 seconds, evaluating the deposited mass, porosity on the interface and adhesion of layers. Resulted ceramics were characterized by X-ray diffraction and were observed in a scanning electron microscope. Results showed that deposited layers are thin (∼20μm), dense and have good adhesion on the surface of composite substrate. (author)

  4. Subcontract Report: Diffusion Mechanisms and Bond Dynamics in Solid Electrolyte Ion-Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zevgolis, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hall, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alvez, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehmedovic, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shea, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Varley, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wood, B. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Adelstein, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-03

    We employ first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and Maximally Localized Wannier Function (MLWF) analysis to explore how halide substitution and nano-phase microstructures affect diffusivity, through the activation energy barrier - Ea and D0, in the solid electrolyte Li3InBr6-xClx. We find that nano-phase microstructures with x=3 (50-50 Br-Cl) mixed composition have a higher diffusivity compared to x=2 and x=3 solid solutions. There is a positive linear relationship between ln(D0.) and Ea, which suggests that for superionic conductivity optimizing both the activation energy and the D0 is important. Bond frustration due to mismatch in crystal geometry and ideal coordination number leads to especially high diffusivity through a high D0 in the x=3 composition.

  5. Eco-friendly Energy Storage System: Seawater and Ionic Liquid Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Kwang; Mueller, Franziska; Kim, Hyojin; Jeong, Sangsik; Park, Jeong-Sun; Passerini, Stefano; Kim, Youngsik

    2016-01-08

    As existing battery technologies struggle to meet the requirements for widespread use in the field of large-scale energy storage, novel concepts are urgently needed concerning batteries that have high energy densities, low costs, and high levels of safety. Here, a novel eco-friendly energy storage system (ESS) using seawater and an ionic liquid is proposed for the first time; this represents an intermediate system between a battery and a fuel cell, and is accordingly referred to as a hybrid rechargeable cell. Compared to conventional organic electrolytes, the ionic liquid electrolyte significantly enhances the cycle performance of the seawater hybrid rechargeable system, acting as a very stable interface layer between the Sn-C (Na storage) anode and the NASICON (Na3 Zr2 Si2 PO12) ceramic solid electrolyte, making this system extremely promising for cost-efficient and environmentally friendly large-scale energy storage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on papers coated with carbon nanotubes and ionic-liquid-based gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yu Jin; Kim, Woong; Chung, Haegeun; Han, Chi-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors were fabricated using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), regular office papers, and ionic-liquid-based gel electrolytes. Flexible electrodes were made by coating CNTs on office papers by a drop-dry method. The gel electrolyte was prepared by mixing fumed silica nanopowders with ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM][NTf 2 ]). This supercapacitor showed high power and energy performance as a solid-state flexible supercapacitor. The specific capacitance of the CNT electrodes was 135 F g −1 at a current density of 2 A g −1 , when considering the mass of active materials only. The maximum power and energy density of the supercapacitors were 164 kW kg −1 and 41 Wh kg −1 , respectively. Interestingly, the solid-state supercapacitor with the gel electrolyte showed comparable performance to the supercapacitors with ionic-liquid electrolyte. Moreover, the supercapacitor showed excellent stability and flexibility. The CNT/paper- and gel-based supercapacitors may hold great potential for low-cost and high-performance flexible energy storage applications. (paper)

  7. Aqueous electrolytes for redox flow battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2017-10-17

    An aqueous redox flow battery system includes an aqueous catholyte and an aqueous anolyte. The aqueous catholyte may comprise (i) an optionally substituted thiourea or a nitroxyl radical compound and (ii) a catholyte aqueous supporting solution. The aqueous anolyte may comprise (i) metal cations or a viologen compound and (ii) an anolyte aqueous supporting solution. The catholyte aqueous supporting solution and the anolyte aqueous supporting solution independently may comprise (i) a proton source, (ii) a halide source, or (iii) a proton source and a halide source.

  8. Performance of solid state supercapacitors based on polymer electrolytes containing different ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruye, Girum Ayalneh; Muñoz-Torrero, David; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2016-09-01

    Four Ionic Liquid based Polymer Electrolytes (IL-b-PE) were prepared by blending a Polymeric Ionic Liquid, Poly(diallyldimethylammonium) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PILTFSI), with four different ionic liquids: 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR14TFSI) (IL-b-PE1), 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PYR14FSI) (IL-b-PE2), 1-(2-hydroxy ethyl)-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (HEMimTFSI) (IL-b-PE3), and 1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, (PYR14DCA) (IL-b-PE4). Physicochemical properties of IL-b-PE such as ionic conductivity, thermal and electrochemical stability were found to be dependent on the IL properties. For instance, ionic conductivity was significantly higher for IL-b-PE2 and IL-b-PE4 containing IL with small size anions (FSI and DCA) than IL-b-PE1 and IL-b-PE3 bearing IL with bigger anion (TFSI). On the other hand, wider electrochemical stability window (ESW) was found for IL-b-PE1 and IL-b-PE2 having ILs with electrochemically stable pyrrolidinium cation and FSI and TFSI anions. Solid state Supercapacitors (SCs) were assembled with activated carbon electrodes and their electrochemical performance was correlated with the polymer electrolyte properties. Best performance was obtained with SC having IL-b-PE2 that exhibited a good compromise between ionic conductivity and electrochemical window. Specific capacitance (Cam), real energy (Ereal) & real power densities (Preal) as high as 150 F g-1, 36 Wh kg-1 & 1170 W kg-1 were found at operating voltage of 3.5 V.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and electrical properties of solid electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell; Preparacao, caracterizacao e propriedades eletricas de eletrolito solido para celula a combustivel de oxido solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berton, Marco Antonio Coelho; Garcia, Carlos Mario; Matos, Jeferson Hrenechen [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], Emails: felsky@latec.org.br, garcia@latec.org.br, jeferson.h@latec.org.br

    2010-04-15

    Solid electrolytes of BaCe{sub 08}Gd{sub O29} were prepared by the polymeric precursor method. X-ray diffraction data shows a single phase with orthorhombic crystalline structure. The densification process was followed by scanning electronic microscopy and apparent density measurements. The apparent density was developed for different temperatures of sintering, reaching > 96% for sintered temperature of 1550 {sup 0}C deg . The electrochemical impedance analysis was development in the temperature of 400-700 deg C, in air atmosphere at 700 deg C a value of 30,6 mS.cm{sup -1} was obtained. The results of conductivity have confirmed the gadolinium doped barium cerate has a great potential for use as solid electrolyte for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell, at experimental controlled conditions. (author)

  10. A calorimeter for the electrolytic cell and other open systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, C.; Papucci, F.; Salvetti, G.; Tognoni, E.; Tombari, E.

    1996-01-01

    It is presented a calorimetric method and the construction details of a differential calorimeter use full for studying the reaction in an electrolytic cell and more generally slow chemico-physical processes occurring in the thermodynamically open systems. The method allows measurements of the heat balance of the cell, from which the enthalpy change of the process under investigation can be calculated. the theoretical description of the calorimetric cell and the results of several studies planned to describe the performances of the instrument up to the boiling point of the electrolytic solution are reported. The features of this calorimeter fulfill most of the requirements of 'cold fusion' experiments, where the heat production is the fundamental and controversial aspect. By controlling both the heat and the matter exchanged, the calorimeter can be utilised also to study bio energetic processes, e. g. fermentation, microbial metabolism and biodegradation, and liquid phase chemical reactions, involving gases as reactants and/or products

  11. 5V-class bulk-type all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries with electrode-solid electrolyte composite electrodes prepared by aerosol deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Wadaguchi, Masaki; Yoshida, Koki; Yamamoto, Yuta; Motoyama, Munekazu; Yamamoto, Takayuki

    2018-05-01

    Composite electrodes (∼9 μm in thickness) composed of 5V-class electrode of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNM) and high Li+ conductive crystalline-glass solid electrolyte (LATP, Ohara Inc.) were prepared at room temperature by aerosol deposition (AD) on platinum sheets. The resultant LNM-LATP composite electrodes were combined with LiPON and Li, and 5V-class bulk-type all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries (SSBs) were prepared. The crystallnity of the LNM in the LNM-LATP composite electrode was improved by annealing. Both thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy analysis and XRD analysis clarified that the side reactions between the LNM and the LATP occurred over 500 °C with oxygen release. From these results, annealing temperature of the LNM-LATP composite electrode system was optimized at 500 °C due to the improved crystallinity of the LNM with avoiding the side-reactions. The SSBs with the composite electrodes (9 μm in thickness, 40 vol% of the LNM) annealed at 500 °C delivered 100 mAh g-1 at 10 μA cm-2 at 100 °C. Degradation of the discharge capacity with the repetition of the charge-discharge reactions was observed, which will originate from large volume change of the LNM (∼6.5%) during the reactions.

  12. The use of poly(vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) in polymer electrolytes for quasi-solid dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Minyu; Feng, Shujing; Fang, Shibi; Xiao, Xurui; Li, Xueping; Zhou, Xiaowen; Lin, Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Poly(vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) (P(VP-co-AN)) was used to form polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effects of P(VP-co-AN) on the photovoltaic performances of DSSCs have been investigated with nonaqueous electrolytes containing alkali-iodide and iodine. It was found that the effect of P(VP-co-AN) on V oc closely related to its amount in the electrolyte. Lower amount of P(VP-co-AN) was benefit for the construction of a solar cell containing P(VP-co-AN) with higher energy conversion efficiency. Chemically crosslinking solidification with backbone polymer P(VP-co-AN) amount of 3% fabricated quasi-solid DSSCs with 10% increased conversion efficiencies with relative to that of the initial liquid DSSCs

  13. Theory of electroreduction of solid oxide electrolytes. Kinetics and mechanism of the galvanostatic process with blocking cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebotin, V.N.; Brainin, M.I.; Lukach, Yu. S.; Pakhnutov, I.A.; Solov'eva, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses dc flow through cells with MO 2 + MeOΓ solid electrolyte (M = Zr, Hf, Ce, or Th; Me = Ca, Sr, Sc, Y, or lanthanides), a blocking cathode, and a reversible anode which leads to departures of the electrolytes from stoichiometry in the direction of oxygen deficiency. A nonlinear differential equation of the diffusion type describes the degree of this departure and the n-type electronic conductivity which is proportional to it, as functions of the coordinate and time. The electrolyte's electronic conductivity increases with time near the cathode, and approaches a limiting value that is proportional to the current being passed. The electronic conductivity falls off exponentially with increasing distance from the cathode; this changes to a linear fall as a function of time

  14. Transport Properties Of PbI2 Doped Silver Oxysalt Based Amorphous Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrisanjaykumar Jayswal, Manishkumar

    Solid electrolytes are a class of materials that conduct electricity by means of motion of ions like Ag+, Na+, Li +, Cu+, H+, F-, O -2 etc. in solid phase. The host materials include crystalline, polycrystalline, glasses, polymers and composites. Ion conducting glasses are one of the most sought after solid electrolytes that are useful in various electrochemical applications like solid state batteries, gas sensors, supercapacitors, electrochromic devices, to name a few. Since the discovery of fast silver ion transport in silver oxyhalide glasses at the end of the 1960s, many glasses showing large ionic conductivity up to 10-4 10-2 S/cm at room temperature have been developed, chiefly silver and copper ion conductors. The silver ion conducting glasses owe their high ionic conductivity mainly to stabilized alpha-AgI. AgI, as we know, undergoes a structural phase transition from wurtzite (beta phase) at room temperature to body centered cubic (alpha phase) structure at temperatures higher than 146 °C. The alpha-AgI possesses approximately six order of higher ionic conductivity than beta-AgI. The high ionic conductivity of alpha-AgI is attributed to its molten sublattice type of structure, which facilitates easy Ag+ ion migration, like a liquid. And hence, several attempts have been made to stabilize it at room temperature in crystalline as well as non-crystalline hosts like oxide and non-oxide glasses. Recently, in order to stabilize AgI in glasses, instead of directly doping it, indirect routes have also been explored. Where, a metal iodide salt along with silver oxide or silver phosphate is taken and an exchange reaction permitted by Hard and Soft, Acid and Base (HSAB) principle occurs between the two and AgI and metal oxide form in the glass forming melt. Work done in the present thesis has been organized in seven chapters as follows: Chapter 1: A review and background information of different solid electrolyte materials and their development is presented. Along

  15. Truly quasi-solid-state lithium cells utilizing carbonate free polymer electrolytes on engineered LiFePO_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Jijeesh R.; Cíntora-Juárez, Daniel; Pérez-Vicente, Carlos; Tirado, José L.; Ahmad, Shahzada; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbonate free truly quasi-solid-state polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries. • Simple and easy up scalable preparation by solvent free thermal curing. • LiFePO_4 cathode engineered by PEDOT:PSS interphase at the current collector. • Direct polymerization over the engineered electrode surface in one pot. • Stable lithium polymer cells operating in a wide temperature range. - Abstract: Stable and safe functioning of a Li-ion battery is the demand of modern generation. Herein, we are demonstrating the application of an in-situ free radical polymerisation process (thermal curing) to fabricate a polymer electrolyte that possesses mechanical robustness, high thermal stability, improved interfacial and ion transport characteristics along with stable cycling at ambient conditions. The polymer electrolyte is obtained by direct polymerization over the electrode surface in one pot starting from a reactive mixture comprising an ethylene oxide-based dimethacrylic oligomer (BDM), dimethyl polyethylene glycol (DPG) and lithium salt. Furthermore, an engineered cathode is used, comprising a LiFePO_4/PEDOT:PSS interface at the current collector that improves the material utilization at high rates and mitigates the corrosive effects of LiTFSI on aluminium current collector. The lithium cell resulting from the newly elaborated multiphase assembly of the composite cathode with the DPG-based carbonate-free polymer electrolyte film exhibits excellent reversibility upon prolonged cycling at ambient as well as elevated temperatures, which is found to be superior compared to previous reports on uncoated electrodes with polymer electrolytes.

  16. In situ electrochemical-mass spectroscopic investigation of solid electrolyte interphase formation on the surface of a carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourdin, Gerald; Zheng, Dong; Smith, Patricia H.; Qu, Deyang

    2013-01-01

    The energy density of an electrochemical capacitor can be significantly improved by utilizing a lithiated negative electrode and a high surface area positive electrode. During lithiation of the negative carbon electrode, the electrolyte reacts with the electrode surface and undergoes decomposition to form a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer that passivates the surface of the carbon electrode from further reactions between Li and the electrolyte. The reduction reactions that the solvent undergoes also form insoluble and gaseous by-products. In this work, those gaseous by-products generated by reductive decomposition of a carbonate-based electrolyte, 1.2 M LiPF 6 in EC/PC/DEC (3:1:4), were analyzed at different stages during the lithiation process of an amorphous carbon electrode. The stages in the generation of gaseous by-products were determined to come as a result of two, 1-electron reduction steps of the cyclic carbonate components of the electrolyte. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was also used to investigate the two distinct electrochemical processes and the development of the two phases of the SEI structure. This is the first time that the state of an electrochemical cell during the formation of the SEI layer has been systematically correlated with theoretical reaction mechanisms through the use of in situ electrochemical-MS and impedance spectroscopy analyses

  17. Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell performance using alkali-impregnated polyvinyl alcohol/functionalized carbon nano-tube solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yi; Lin, Jia-Shiun; Pan, Wen-Han; Shih, Chao-Ming; Liu, Ying-Ling; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the application of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/functionalized carbon nano-tubes (m-CNTs) composite in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFC). The m-CNTs are functionalized with PVA using the ozone mediation method, and the PVA composite containing the modified CNTs is prepared. Adding m-CNT into the PVA matrix enhances the alkaline uptake and the ionic conductivity of the KOH-doped electrolyte. Meanwhile, the m-CNT-containing membrane exhibited a lower swelling ratio and suppressed ethanol permeability compared to the pristine PVA film. The optimal condition for the ADEFC is determined to be under operation at an anode feed of 3 M ethanol in a 5 M KOH solution (at a flow rate of 5 cm3 min-1) with a cathode feed of moisturized oxygen (with a flow rate of 100 cm3 min-1) and the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte. We achieved a peak power density value of 65 mW cm-2 at 60 °C, which is the highest among the ADEFC literature data and several times higher than the proton-exchange direct ethanol fuel cells using sulfonated membrane electrolytes. Therefore, the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte is a suitable solid electrolyte for ADEFCs and has potential for commercialization in alkaline fuel cell applications.

  18. Chemically durable polymer electrolytes for solid-state alkaline water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Joo; Capuano, Christopher B.; Ayers, Katherine E.; Bae, Chulsung

    2018-01-01

    Generation of high purity hydrogen using electrochemical splitting of water is one of the most promising methods for sustainable fuel production. The materials to be used as solid-state electrolytes for alkaline water electrolyzer require high thermochemical stability against hydroxide ion attack in alkaline environment during the operation of electrolysis. In this study, two quaternary ammonium-tethered aromatic polymers were synthesized and investigated for anion exchange membrane (AEM)-based alkaline water electrolyzer. The membranes properties including ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, swelling degree, and anion conductivity were studied. The membranes composed of all C-C bond polymer backbones and flexible side chain terminated by cation head groups exhibited remarkably good chemical stability by maintaining structural integrity in 1 M NaOH solution at 95 °C for 60 days. Initial electrochemical performance and steady-state operation performance were evaluated, and both membranes showed a good stabilization of the cell voltage during the steady-state operation at the constant current density at 200 mA/cm2. Although both membranes in current form require improvement in mechanical stability to afford better durability in electrolysis operation, the next generation AEMs based on this report could lead to potentially viable AEM candidates which can provide high electrolysis performance under alkaline operating condition.

  19. Performance of solid electrolyte type oxygen sensor in flowing lead bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Minoru

    2005-01-01

    A solid electrolyte type oxygen sensor for liquid 45%lead-55%bismuth (Pb-Bi) was developed. The performance of the oxygen sensor in the flowing lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) was investigated. The initial performance of the sensor was not reliable, since the reference fluid of the oxygen saturated bismuth in the sensor cell was not compact initially. The electromotive force (EMF) obtained from the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) cell was the same as that from the magnesia stabilized zirconia (MSZ) cell in the flowing Pb-Bi. The EMF of the sensor in the flowing Pb-Bi was lower than that in the stagnant Pb-Bi. However, the difference was small. The sensor showed repeatability after the long term interruption and the Pb-Bi drain/charge operation. After the performance tests, the corrosion of the sensor cells were investigated metallurgically. The YSZ cell was eroded around the free surface of the flowing Pb-Bi after 3500 hour-exposure in the flowing Pb-Bi. The MSZ cell showed smooth surface without the erosion. Although the YSZ cell worked more stably than the MSZ cell, the mechanical strength of the YSZ cell is weaker than that of the MSZ cell. (author)

  20. Prediction of battery storage ageing and solid electrolyte interphase property estimation using an electrochemical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, T. R.; Barai, A.; Uddin, K.; Somerville, L.; McGordon, A.; Marco, J.

    2018-05-01

    Ageing prediction is often complicated due to the interdependency of ageing mechanisms. Research has highlighted that storage ageing is not linear with time. Capacity loss due to storing the battery at constant temperature can shed more light on parametrising the properties of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI); the identification of which, using an electrochemical model, is systematically addressed in this work. A new methodology is proposed where any one of the available storage ageing datasets can be used to find the property of the SEI layer. A sensitivity study is performed with different molecular mass and densities which are key parameters in modelling the thickness of the SEI deposit. The conductivity is adjusted to fine tune the rate of capacity fade to match experimental results. A correlation is fitted for the side reaction variation to capture the storage ageing in the 0%-100% SoC range. The methodology presented in this paper can be used to predict the unknown properties of the SEI layer which is difficult to measure experimentally. The simulation and experimental results show that the storage ageing model shows good accuracy for the cases at 50% and 90% and an acceptable agreement at 20% SoC.

  1. Enhancement in ionic conductivity on solid polymer electrolytes containing large conducting species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen, D. [Department of Physics, Amrita Viswha Vidyapeetham, Bangalore, India, E-mail: d-praveen@blr.amrita.edu (India); Damle, Ramakrishna [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore, India. E-mail: ramkrishnadamle@bub.ernet.in (India)

    2016-05-23

    Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) lack better conducting properties at ambient temperatures. Various methods to enhance their ionic conductivity like irradiation with swift heavy ions, γ-rays, swift electrons and quenching at low temperature etc., have been explored in the literature. Among these, one of the oldest methods is incorporation of different conducting species into the polymer matrix and/or addition of nano-sized inert particles into SPEs. Various new salts like LiBr, Mg(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}, NH{sub 4}I etc., have already been tried in the past with some success. Also various nanoparticles like Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} etc., have been tried in the past. In this article, we have investigated an SPE containing Rubidium as a conducting species. Rubidium has a larger ionic size compared to lithium and sodium ions which have been investigated in the recent past. In the present article, we have investigated the conductivity of large sized conducting species and shown the enhancement in the ionic conductivity by addition of nano-sized inert particles.

  2. Electrolytic Production of Ti5Si3/TiC Composites by Solid Oxide Membrane Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Zou, Xingli; Xie, Xueliang; Lu, Changyuan; Chen, Chaoyi; Xu, Qian; Lu, Xionggang

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigated the electrolytic production of Ti5Si3/TiC composites from TiO2/SiO2/C in molten CaCl2. The solid-oxide oxygen-ion-conducting membrane tube filled with carbon-saturated liquid tin was served as the anode, and the pressed spherical TiO2/SiO2/C pellet was used as the cathode. The electrochemical reduction process was carried out at 1273 K and 3.8 V. The characteristics of the obtained cathode products and the reaction mechanism of the electroreduction process were studied by a series of time-dependent electroreduction experiments. It was found that the electroreduction process generally proceeds through the following steps: TiO2/SiO2/C → Ti2O3, CaTiO3, Ca2SiO4, SiC → Ti5Si3, TiC. The morphology observation and the elemental distribution analysis indicate that the reaction routes for Ti5Si3 and TiC products are independent during the electroreduction process.

  3. Neutron irradiation characteristic tests of oxygen sensors using zirconia solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiura, Nobuo; Endou, Yasuichi; Yamaura, Takayuki; Niimi, Motoji; Hoshiya, Taiji; Saito, Junichi; Souzawa, Shizuo; Ooka, Norikazu; Kobiyama, Mamoru.

    1997-03-01

    In the Department of JMTR of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the in-situ measuring technique of oxygen potential has been being developed to study the chemical behavior of high burn-up fuel base-irradiated in the Light Water Reactor. In this test for development of the technique, oxygen sensors using zirconia solid electrolyte stabilized by MgO, CaO and Y 2 O 3 , named MSZ, CSZ and YSZ, respectively, were irradiated by neutrons in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) of JAERI and the characteristics of electromotive force of these sensors under and after irradiation were discussed. From the experimental results, the electromotive force of YSZ sample under irradiation decreased with an increase in irradiation fluence within a range of neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) up to 1 x 10 23 m -2 . The electromotive force of MSZ sensor irradiated with neutron fluences (E>1 MeV) up to 9 x 10 21 m -2 was almost equal to the theoretical value of the electromotive force. It was shown that after irradiation, a decrease in the electromotive force of CSZ sensor was smaller than those of MSZ and YSZ sensors, although the electromotive forces of MSZ, CSZ and YSZ sensors were smaller than the theoretical value. (author)

  4. Conductivity and optical studies of plasticized solid polymer electrolytes doped with carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Suriani, E-mail: sue_83@um.edu.my [Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ahmad, Roslina; Johan, Mohd Rafie [Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-01-15

    Solid polymer electrolyte films based on Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) complexed with lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF{sub 6}), ethylene carbonate (EC) and amorphous carbon nanotube ({alpha}CNTs) were prepared by the solution cast technique. The conductivity increases from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -5} Scm{sup -1} upon the addition of salt. The incorporation of EC and {alpha}CNTs to the salted polymer enhances the conductivity significantly to 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3} Scm{sup -1}. The complexation of doping materials with polymer were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and infrared studies. Optical properties like direct band gap and indirect band gap were investigated for pure and doped polymer films in the wavelength range 200-400 nm. It was found that the energy gaps and band edge values shifted to lower energies on doping. - Highlights: > Optical band gap values show the decreasing trend with an increasing dopant concentration. > It is also observed that the absorption edge shifted to longer wavelength on doping. > Results of the optical measurements indicate the presence of a well-defined {pi}{yields}{pi}* transition associated with the formation of a conjugated C=O and/or C=O electronic structure.

  5. Configuring PSx tetrahedral clusters in Li-excess Li7P3S11 solid electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wo Dum Jung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that the Li-ion conductivity can be improved by adding a certain amount of Li (x = 0.25–0.5 as a charge carrier to the composition of glass-ceramic Li7+xP3S11. Structural analysis clarified that the structural changes caused by the ratio of ortho-thiophosphate tetrahedra PS43− and pyro-thiophosphate ditetrahedra P2S74− affect the Li-ion conductivity. The ratio of PS43− and P2S74− varies depending on x and the highest Li-ion conductivity (2.5 × 10−3 S cm−1 at x = 0.25. All-solid-state LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2/Li7.25P3S11/In-metal cell exhibits the discharge capacity of 106.2 mAh g−1. This ion conduction enhancement from excess Li is expected to contribute to the future design of sulfide-type electrolytes.

  6. A Flexible Solid Electrolyte Interphase Layer for Long-Life Lithium Metal Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nian-Wu; Shi, Yang; Yin, Ya-Xia; Zeng, Xian-Xiang; Li, Jin-Yi; Li, Cong-Ju; Wan, Li-Jun; Wen, Rui; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2018-02-05

    Lithium (Li) metal is a promising anode material for high-energy density batteries. However, the unstable and static solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) can be destroyed by the dynamic Li plating/stripping behavior on the Li anode surface, leading to side reactions and Li dendrites growth. Herein, we design a smart Li polyacrylic acid (LiPAA) SEI layer high elasticity to address the dynamic Li plating/stripping processes by self-adapting interface regulation, which is demonstrated by in situ AFM. With the high binding ability and excellent stability of the LiPAA polymer, the smart SEI can significantly reduce the side reactions and improve battery safety markedly. Stable cycling of 700 h is achieved in the LiPAA-Li/LiPAA-Li symmetrical cell. The innovative strategy of self-adapting SEI design is broadly applicable, providing opportunities for use in Li metal anodes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Electrical, thermal and structural properties of plasticized waste cooking oil-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzaizi, Rahmatina Mohd; Tahir, Syuhada Mohd; Mahbor, Kamisah Mohamad

    2017-12-01

    Waste cooking oil-based polyol was synthesized using epoxidation and hydroxylation methods. The polyol was combined with 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate to produce polyurethane (PU) to be used as polymer host in solid polymer electrolyte. 30 wt% LiClO4 was added as doping salt and two types of plasticizers were used; ethylene carbonate (PU-EC) and polyethylene glycol (PU-PEG). The SPE films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The highest conductivity achieved was 8.4 x 10-8 S cm-1 upon addition of 10 wt% EC. The XRD results showed a decrease of crystalline peaks in PU-EC and the increase in PU-PEG. DSC results revealed that the films; PU, PU-EC and PU-PEG had glass transition temperatures of 159.7, 106.0 and 179.7 °C, respectively. The results showed that the addition of EC increased the amorphous region and the free volume in the SPE structure, thus resulted in higher ionic conductivity.

  8. Conductivity and optical studies of plasticized solid polymer electrolytes doped with carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Suriani; Ahmad, Roslina; Johan, Mohd Rafie

    2012-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte films based on Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) complexed with lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6 ), ethylene carbonate (EC) and amorphous carbon nanotube (αCNTs) were prepared by the solution cast technique. The conductivity increases from 10 -10 to 10 -5 Scm -1 upon the addition of salt. The incorporation of EC and αCNTs to the salted polymer enhances the conductivity significantly to 10 -4 and 10 -3 Scm -1 . The complexation of doping materials with polymer were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and infrared studies. Optical properties like direct band gap and indirect band gap were investigated for pure and doped polymer films in the wavelength range 200-400 nm. It was found that the energy gaps and band edge values shifted to lower energies on doping. - Highlights: → Optical band gap values show the decreasing trend with an increasing dopant concentration. → It is also observed that the absorption edge shifted to longer wavelength on doping. → Results of the optical measurements indicate the presence of a well-defined π→π* transition associated with the formation of a conjugated C=O and/or C=O electronic structure.

  9. Enhancement in ionic conductivity on solid polymer electrolytes containing large conducting species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen, D.; Damle, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) lack better conducting properties at ambient temperatures. Various methods to enhance their ionic conductivity like irradiation with swift heavy ions, γ-rays, swift electrons and quenching at low temperature etc., have been explored in the literature. Among these, one of the oldest methods is incorporation of different conducting species into the polymer matrix and/or addition of nano-sized inert particles into SPEs. Various new salts like LiBr, Mg(ClO_4)_2, NH_4I etc., have already been tried in the past with some success. Also various nanoparticles like Al_2O_3, TiO_2 etc., have been tried in the past. In this article, we have investigated an SPE containing Rubidium as a conducting species. Rubidium has a larger ionic size compared to lithium and sodium ions which have been investigated in the recent past. In the present article, we have investigated the conductivity of large sized conducting species and shown the enhancement in the ionic conductivity by addition of nano-sized inert particles.

  10. Selective deposition of nanostructured ruthenium oxide using Tobacco mosaic virus for micro-supercapacitors in solid Nafion electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnerlich, Markus; Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Culver, James N.; Ketchum, Douglas R.; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-10-01

    A three-dimensional micro-supercapacitor has been developed using a novel bottom-up assembly method combining genetically modified Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-1Cys), photolithographically defined micropillars and selective deposition of ruthenium oxide on multi-metallic microelectrodes. The three-dimensional microelectrodes consist of a titanium nitride current collector with two functionalized areas: (1) gold coating on the active electrode area promotes TMV-1Cys adhesion, and (2) sacrificial nickel pads dissolve in ruthenium tetroxide plating solution to produce ruthenium oxide on all electrically connected areas. The microfabricated electrodes are arranged in an interdigitated pattern, and the capacitance per electrode has been measured as high as 203 mF cm-2 with solid Nafion electrolyte. The process integration of bio-templated ruthenium oxide with microfabricated electrodes and solid electrolyte is an important advance towards the energy storage needs of mass produced self-sufficient micro-devices.

  11. Electro-catalytic conversion of ethanol in solid electrolyte cells for distributed hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, HyungKuk; Giddey, Sarbjit; Badwal, Sukhvinder P.S.; Mulder, Roger J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethanol assisted water electrolysis reduces electric energy input by more than 50%. • Partial oxidation of ethanol leads to formation of undesired chemicals. • Degradation occurs due to formation of by-products and poisoning of catalyst. • Better catalyst has the potential to increase ethanol to H_2 conversion efficiency. • A plausible ethanol electro-oxidation mechanism has been proposed - Abstract: The global interest in hydrogen/fuel cell systems for distributed power generation and transport applications is rapidly increasing. Many automotive companies are now bringing their pre-commercial fuel cell vehicles in the market, which will need extensive hydrogen generation, distribution and storage infrastructure for fueling of these vehicles. Electrolytic water splitting coupled to renewable sources offers clean on-site hydrogen generation option. However, the process is energy intensive requiring electric energy >4.2 kWh for the electrolysis stack and >6 kWh for the complete system per m"3 of hydrogen produced. This paper investigates using ethanol as a renewable fuel to assist with water electrolysis process to substantially reduce the energy input. A zero-gap cell consisting of polymer electrolyte membrane electrolytic cells with Pt/C and PtSn/C as anode catalysts were employed. Current densities up to 200 mA cm"−"2 at 70 °C were achieved at less than 0.75 V corresponding to an energy consumption of about 1.62 kWh m"−"3 compared with >4.2 kWh m"−"3 required for conventional water electrolysis. Thus, this approach for hydrogen generation has the potential to substantially reduce the electric energy input to less than 40% with the remaining energy provided by ethanol. However, due to performance degradation over time, the energy consumption increased and partial oxidation of ethanol led to lower conversion efficiency. A plausible ethanol electro-oxidation mechanism has been proposed based on the Faradaic conversion of ethanol and

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies in solid polymeric electrolyte. Estudos por ressonancia magnetica nuclear em eletrolitos polimericos solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, J P; Mattoso, L H.C.; Cavalcante, M G [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Quimica; Gorecki, W; Berthier, C; Armand, M [Universite J. Fourier, Grenoble (France)

    1990-01-01

    Solid complexes formed between Poly (ethylene oxide) and various alkali metal salts, are generally referred to as polymer electrolytes conductivity and NMR properties were investigated in POE - Li Cl sub(7)O sub(4) and POE - Li BF sub(4) complexes. Our sup(1)H, Li and sup(19)F relaxation study suggest that cation motion is controlled by segmental motions of the polymer chain while the anion have additional mobility associated with BG sub(4) rotation. (author).

  13. Solid state double layer capacitor based on a polyether polymer electrolyte blend and nanostructured carbon black electrode composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavall, Rodrigo L.; Borges, Raquel S.; Calado, Hallen D.R.; Welter, Cezar; Trigueiro, Joao P.C.; Silva, Glaura G. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Rieumont, Jacques [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Habana, Habana 10400 (Cuba); Neves, Bernardo R.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2008-03-01

    An all solid double layer capacitor was assembled by using poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene glycol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene glycol)-bis(2-aminopropyl ether) blend (PEO-NPPP) and LiClO{sub 4} as polymer electrolyte layer and PEO-NPPP-carbon black (CB) as electrode film. High molecular weight PEO and the block copolymer NPPP with molecular mass of 2000 Da were employed, which means that the design is safe from the point of view of solvent or plasticizer leakage and thus, a separator is not necessary. Highly conductive with large surface area nanostructured carbon black was dispersed in the polymer blend to produce the electrode composite. The electrolyte and electrode multilayers prepared by spray were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity as a function of temperature was fitted with the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation, which indicates a conductivity mechanism typical of solid polymer electrolyte. AFM images of the nanocomposite electrode showed carbon black particles of approximately 60 nm in size well distributed in a semicrystalline and porous polymer blend coating. The solid double layer capacitor with 10 wt.% CB was designed with final thickness of approximately 130 {mu}m and delivered a capacitance of 17 F g{sup -1} with a cyclability of more than 1000 cycles. These characteristics make possible the construction of a miniature device in complete solid state which will avoid electrolyte leakage and present a performance superior to other similar electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) presented in literature, as assessed in specific capacitance by total carbon mass. (author)

  14. Detection and classification of gaseous sulfur compounds by solid electrolyte cyclic voltammetry of cermet sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kirsten E; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L; Hammond, Mark H; Tillett, Duane; Streckert, Holger H

    2007-02-12

    Electrochemical sensors composed of a ceramic-metallic (cermet) solid electrolyte are used for the detection of gaseous sulfur compounds SO(2), H(2)S, and CS(2) in a study involving 11 toxic industrial chemical (TIC) compounds. The study examines a sensor array containing four cermet sensors varying in electrode-electrolyte composition, designed to offer selectivity for multiple compounds. The sensors are driven by cyclic voltammetry to produce a current-voltage profile for each analyte. Raw voltammograms are processed by background subtraction of clean air, and the four sensor signals are concatenated to form one vector of points. The high-resolution signal is compressed by wavelet transformation and a probabilistic neural network is used for classification. In this study, training data from one sensor array was used to formulate models which were validated with data from a second sensor array. Of the 11 gases studied, 3 that contained sulfur produced the strongest responses and were successfully analyzed when the remaining compounds were treated as interferents. Analytes were measured from 10 to 200% of their threshold-limited value (TLV) according to the 8-h time weighted average (TWA) exposure limits defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). True positive classification rates of 93.3, 96.7, and 76.7% for SO(2), H(2)S, and CS(2), respectively, were achieved for prediction of one sensor unit when a second sensor was used for modeling. True positive rates of 83.3, 90.0, and 90.0% for SO(2), H(2)S, and CS(2), respectively, were achieved for the second sensor unit when the first sensor unit was used for modeling. Most of the misclassifications were for low concentration levels (such 10-25% TLV) in which case the compound was classified as clean air. Between the two sensors, the false positive rates were 2.2% or lower for the three sulfur compounds, 0.9% or lower for the interferents (eight remaining analytes), and 5.8% or lower for

  15. Detection and classification of gaseous sulfur compounds by solid electrolyte cyclic voltammetry of cermet sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Hammond, Mark H.; Tillett, Duane; Streckert, Holger H.

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical sensors composed of a ceramic-metallic (cermet) solid electrolyte are used for the detection of gaseous sulfur compounds SO 2 , H 2 S, and CS 2 in a study involving 11 toxic industrial chemical (TIC) compounds. The study examines a sensor array containing four cermet sensors varying in electrode-electrolyte composition, designed to offer selectivity for multiple compounds. The sensors are driven by cyclic voltammetry to produce a current-voltage profile for each analyte. Raw voltammograms are processed by background subtraction of clean air, and the four sensor signals are concatenated to form one vector of points. The high-resolution signal is compressed by wavelet transformation and a probabilistic neural network is used for classification. In this study, training data from one sensor array was used to formulate models which were validated with data from a second sensor array. Of the 11 gases studied, 3 that contained sulfur produced the strongest responses and were successfully analyzed when the remaining compounds were treated as interferents. Analytes were measured from 10 to 200% of their threshold-limited value (TLV) according to the 8-h time weighted average (TWA) exposure limits defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). True positive classification rates of 93.3, 96.7, and 76.7% for SO 2 , H 2 S, and CS 2 , respectively, were achieved for prediction of one sensor unit when a second sensor was used for modeling. True positive rates of 83.3, 90.0, and 90.0% for SO 2 , H 2 S, and CS 2 , respectively, were achieved for the second sensor unit when the first sensor unit was used for modeling. Most of the misclassifications were for low concentration levels (such 10-25% TLV) in which case the compound was classified as clean air. Between the two sensors, the false positive rates were 2.2% or lower for the three sulfur compounds, 0.9% or lower for the interferents (eight remaining analytes), and 5.8% or lower for

  16. Ion Dynamics Study of Potato Starch + Sodium Salts Electrolyte System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhina Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different anions, namely, SCN−, I−, and ClO4−, on the electrical properties of starch-based polymer electrolytes has been studied. Anion size and conductivity are having an inverse trend indicating systems to be predominantly anionic conductor. Impact of anion size and multiplet forming tendency is reflected in number of charge carriers and mobility, respectively. Ion dynamics study reveals the presence of different mechanisms in different frequency ranges. Interestingly, superlinear power law (SLPL is found to be present at <5 MHz frequency, which is further confirmed by dielectric data.

  17. Ultraflexible and tailorable all-solid-state supercapacitors using polyacrylamide-based hydrogel electrolyte with high ionic conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huili; Lv, Tian; Li, Ning; Yao, Yao; Liu, Kai; Chen, Tao

    2017-11-30

    Hydrogels with high ionic conductivity consisting of a cross-linked polymer network swollen in water are very promising to be used as an electrolyte for all-solid-state supercapacitors. However, there are rather few flexible supercapacitors using ionic conducting hydrogel electrolytes reported to date. In this work, highly flexible and ionic conducting polyacrylamide hydrogels were synthesized through a simple approach. On using the ionic hydrogels as the electrolyte, the resulting supercapacitors not only exhibited a high specific capacitance but also showed a long self-discharge time (over 10 hours to the half of original open-circuit voltage) and a low leakage current. These newly-developed all-solid-state supercapacitors can be bent, knot, and kneaded for 5000 cycles without performance decay, suggesting excellent flexibility and mechanical stability. These all-solid-state supercapacitors can also be easily tailored into strip-like supercapacitors without a short circuit, which provides an efficient approach to fabricate wearable energy storage devices.

  18. Na3Si2Y0.16Zr1.84PO12-ionic liquid hybrid electrolytes: An approach for realizing solid-state sodium-ion batteries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre-Gamarra, Carmen; Appetecchi, Giovanni Battista; Ulissi, Ulderico; Varzi, Alberto; Varez, Alejandro; Passerini, Stefano

    2018-04-01

    Ceramic electrolytes are prepared through sintering processes which are carried out at high temperatures and require prolonged operating times, resulting unwelcome in industrial applications. We report a physicochemical characterization on hybrid, sodium conducting, electrolyte systems obtained by coating NASICON ceramic powders with the N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ionic liquid. The goal is to realize a ceramic-IL interface with improved sodium mobility, aiming to obtain a solid electrolyte with high ion transport properties but avoiding sintering thermal treatment. The purpose of the present work, however, is showing how simply combining NASICON powder and Py14TFSI does not lead to any synergic effect on the resulting hybrid electrolyte, evidencing that an average functionalization of the ceramic powder surface and/or ionic liquid is needed. Also, the processing conditions for preparing the hybrid samples are found to affect their ion transport properties.

  19. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid gel polymer electrolyte based on poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene), carbon nanotubes, and metal oxides nanocomposites for electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Amr M.

    Clean and renewable energy systems have emerged as an important area of research having diverse and significant new applications. These systems utilize different energy storage methods such as the batteries and supercapacitors. Supercapacitors are electrochemical energy storage devices that are designed to bridge the gap between batteries and conventional capacitors. Supercapacitors which store electrical energy by electrical double layer capacitance are based on large surface area structured carbons. The materials systems in which the Faradaic reversible redox reactions store electrical energy are the transition metal oxides and electronically conducting polymers. Among the different types of conducting polymers, poly (3, 4- ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is extensively investigated owing to its chemical and mechanical stability. Due to instability of aqueous electrolytes at high voltages and toxicity of organic electrolytes, potential of supercapacitors has not been fully exploited. A novel aspect of this work is in utilizing the ionic liquid gel polymer electrolyte to design solid-state supercapacitors for energy storage. Various electrochemical systems were investigated including graphene, PEDOT, PEDOT-carbon nanotubes, PEDOT-manganese oxide, and PEDOT-iron oxide nanocomposites. The electrochemical performance of solid-state supercapacitor devices was evaluated based on cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge (CD), prolonged cyclic tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Raman spectroscopy technique was also utilized to analyze the bonding structure of the electrode materials. The graphene solid-state supercapacitor system displayed areal capacitance density of 141.83 mF cm-2 based on high potential window up to 4V. The PEDOT solid-state supercapacitor system was synthesized in acetonitrile and aqueous mediums achieving areal capacitance density of 219.17 mF cm-2. The hybrid structure of solid-state supercapacitors was also

  20. Rational coating of Li7P3S11 solid electrolyte on MoS2 electrode for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R. C.; Wang, X. L.; Zhang, S. Z.; Xia, Y.; Xia, X. H.; Wu, J. B.; Tu, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    Large interfacial resistance between electrode and electrolyte limits the development of high-performance all-solid-state batteries. Herein we report a uniform coating of Li7P3S11 solid electrolyte on MoS2 to form a MoS2/Li7P3S11 composite electrode for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. The as-synthesized Li7P3S11 processes a high ionic of 2.0 mS cm-1 at room temperature. Due to homogeneous union and reduced interfacial resistance, the assembled all-solid-state batteries with the MoS2/Li7P3S11 composite electrode exhibit higher reversible capacity of 547.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and better cycling stability than the counterpart based on untreated MoS2. Our study provides a new reference for design/fabrication of advanced electrode materials for high-performance all-solid-state batteries.

  1. Bubble-Sheet-Like Interface Design with an Ultrastable Solid Electrolyte Layer for High-Performance Dual-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Panpan; Wang, Meng; Li, Na; Zhu, Haili; Ding, Xuan; Tang, Yongbing

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a bubble-sheet-like hollow interface design on Al foil anode to improve the cycling stability and rate performance of aluminum anode based dual-ion battery is reported, in which, a carbon-coated hollow aluminum anode is used as both anode materials and current collector. This anode structure can guide the alloying position inside the hollow nanospheres, and also confine the alloy sizes within the hollow nanospheres, resulting in significantly restricted volumetric expansion and ultrastable solid electrolyte interface (SEI). As a result, the battery demonstrates an excellent long-term cycling stability within 1500 cycles with ≈99% capacity retention at 2 C. Moreover, this cell displays an energy density of 169 Wh kg -1 even at high power density of 2113 W kg -1 (10 C, charge and discharge within 6 min), which is much higher than most of conventional lithium ion batteries. The interfacial engineering strategy shown in this work to stabilize SEI layer and control the alloy forming position could be generalized to promote the research development of metal anodes based battery systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Structural and ionic conductivity studies on proton conducting solid biopolymer electrolyte based on 2hydroxyethyl cellulose incorporated DTAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N. H.; Bakar, N. Y.; Isa, M. I. N.

    2017-09-01

    Solid biopolymer electrolytes (SBEs) based on 2hydroxyethyl cellulose (2HEC) complexes with dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) salt in various composition (wt. %) were successfully prepared by using solution casting technique. The ion - polymer interaction and structural studies have been reported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) supported with X - ray diffraction (XRD) and Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). FTIR spectral shows interaction of 2HEC with DTAB happen at peak 2914cm-1, 2848cm-1, 2353cm-1, 2328cm-1, 1720cm-1, 1437cm-1, 1344cm-1, 1198cm-1 1095cm-1 1051cm-1, 912cm-1 and 872cm-1. The interaction of complexes leads to an increase in number of ion jump into neighboring vacant sites until it reaches the highest conductivity at room temperature which is 2.80 x 10-5 Scm-1 for sample containing 9wt. % of DTAB. The temperature dependence of the SBEs system exhibits Arrhenius behavior and the XRD spectral analysis shows the higher salt loading the crystallinity of the SBEs which also increased.

  3. Phosphorus Enrichment as a New Composition in the Solid Electrolyte Interphase of High-Voltage Cathodes and Its Effects on Battery Cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Kuppan, Saravanan; Li, Qiuyan; Lv, Dongping; Xiao, Jie; Chen, Guoying; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-11-10

    Immersion of a solid into liquid often leads to the modification of both the structure and chemistry of surface of the solid, which subsequently affects the chemical and physical properties of the system. For the case of the rechargeable lithium ion battery, such a surface modification is termed as solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer, which has been perceived to play critical role for the stable operation of the batteries. However, the structure and chemical composition of SEI layer and its spatial distribution and dependence on the battery operating condition remain unclear. By using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with ultra-high sensitive energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, we probed the structure and chemistry of SEI layer on several high voltage cathodes. We show that layer-structured cathodes, when cycled at a high cut off voltage, can form a P-rich SEI layer on their surface, which is a direct evidence of Li-salt (LiPF6) decomposition. Our systematical investigations indicate such cathode/Li-salt side reaction shows strong dependence on structure of the cathode materials, operating voltage and temperature, indicating the feasibility of SEI engineering. These findings provide us valuable insights into the complex interface between the high-voltage cathode and the electrolyte.

  4. The influence of Ferric ion contamination on the solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xunying; Zhang, Linsong; Li, Guangfu; Zhang, Geng; Shao, Zhi-Gang; Yi, Baolian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The cathode possesses higher tolerance for the Fe 3+ contamination than the anode. • Fe 3+ are mostly reduced to Fe 2+ rather than occur underpotential deposition. • Increased electrolysis voltage was mainly attributed to ohmic overpotential. • Voltage lags behind current for minutes in the multi-current-step test. • Poisoned electrolyser is mostly recovered by 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 solution treatment for 13 h. - Abstract: Fe 3+ is a sort of common metal ion contaminant for the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyser. In this paper, the effect of Fe 3+ on the performance of SPE water electrolyser has been investigated by both in-situ and ex-situ characterizations. The electron probe microanalysis and ultraviolet test results showed that Fe 3+ could migrate from the anode to the cathode and mostly be reduced to Fe 2+ in the cathode rather than occurred underpotential deposition as described in the previous report. The in-situ dynamic contamination test showed that the anode voltage increased sharply as soon as the Fe 3+ was fed into the anode, while the cathode voltage kept constant until the contamination time was over 30 minutes, indicating the higher tolerance of the cathode than the anode for the Fe 3+ contamination. The calculation results based on the electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy test results revealed that the striking increase of the electrolysis voltage was mainly attributed to the ohmic overpotential, which was due to the replacement of H + by Fe 3+ in the Nafion resin. Interestingly, the voltage lagged behind the current for several minutes in the multi-current-step test for the contaminated electrolyser, which phenomenon may be used for judging whether the SPE water electrolyser performance degradation is due to the metal ions contamination. Furthermore, recovery strategy has been developed, and it was found that the contaminated electrolyser could be mostly recovered by 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 solution treatment for 13 h

  5. Obtaining of ceria - samaria - gadolinia ceramics for application as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakaki, Alexander Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) when doped with rare earth oxides has its ionic conductivity enhanced, enabling its use as electrolyte for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IT-SOFC), which is operated in temperatures between 500 e 700 degree C. The most effective additives or dopants for ionic conductivity improvement are (samarium oxide - Sm 2 O 3 ) and gadolinia (gadolinium oxide - Gd 2 O 3 ), fixing the concentration between 10 and 20 molar%. In this work, Ce 0,8 (SmGd) 0,2 O 1,9 powders have been synthesized by hydroxide, carbonate and oxalate coprecipitation routes. The hydrothermal treatment has been studied for powders precipitated with ammonium hydroxide. A concentrate of rare earths containing 90wt% of CeO 2 and other containing 51% of Sm 2 O 3 and 30% of Gd 2 O 3 , both prepared from monazite processing, were used as starting materials. These concentrates were used due the lower cost compared to pure commercial materials and the chemical similarity of others rare earth elements. Initially, the coprecipitation and calcination conditions were defined. The process efficiency was verified by ceramic sinterability evaluation. The results showed that powders calcined in the range of 450 and 800 degree C presented high specific surface area (90 - 150 m 2 .g -1 ) and fluorite cubic structure, indicating the solid solution formation. It was observed, by scanning electron microscopy, that morphology of particles and agglomerates is a function of precipitant agent. The dilatometric analysis indicated the higher rate of shrinkage at temperatures around 1300-1350 degree C. High densification values (>95% TD) was obtained at temperatures above 1400 degree C. Synthesis by hydroxides coprecipitation followed by hydrothermal treatment demonstrated to be a promising route for crystallization of ceria nano powders at low temperatures (200 degree C). High values of specific surface area were reached with the employment of hydrothermal treatment (about 100 m 2 .g -1

  6. Formation of nanotubes in poly (vinylidene fluoride): Application as solid polymer electrolyte in DSC fabricated using carbon counter electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthuraaman, B. [Department of Energy, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Maruthamuthu, P., E-mail: pmaruthu@yahoo.com [Department of Energy, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: > Incorporation of a {pi}-electron donor compound as dopant in poly(vinylidene fluoride) along with redox couple (I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -}) which forms brush like nanotubes. > Investigations about the use of conducting carbon coated FTO as a durable counter electrode and its effects in DSC. > High charge separation and the channelized flow of electrons in the nanotubes in electrolyte favors stable performance. - Abstract: In the present work, we report the incorporation of 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) along with the redox couple (I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -}). When ABTS, a {pi}-electron donor, is used to dope PVDF, the polymer composite forms brush-like nanotubes and has been successfully used as a solid polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cells. Under the given conditions, the electrolyte composition forms nanotubes while it is doped with ABTS, a {pi}-electron donor. With this new electrolyte, a dye-sensitized solar cell was fabricated using N3 dye adsorbed over TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as the photoanode and conducting carbon cement coated FTO as counter electrode.

  7. Dense garnet-like Li5La3Nb2O12 solid electrolyte prepared by self-consolidation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengcheng; Xiang, Yu; Xu, Yan; Wen, Yuehua; Zhang, Wenfeng; Zhu, Xiayu; Li, Meng; Zhang, Sontong; Ming, Hai; Jin, Zhaoqing; Cao, Gaoping

    2018-06-01

    Li5La3Nb2O12 (LLNO) is a typical garnet-like solid electrolyte with solitary cubic structure. However, its ionic conductivity is relatively low due to the low relative density when prepared by cold isostatic pressing method, which usually involves high-pressure machines, poor productivity, tedious pressing operations, and low density. In this paper, self-consolidation method is developed to sinter dense LLNO electrolyte. Although not any pressing operations are employed in the entire process, the relative density of LLNO is promoted up to 95%, which is much higher than the reported values of 45-80%. SEM images reveal that the sample is built by huge particles in size of 80 μm indicating that there are few boundaries in the sample. Moreover, a rich content of Li-Al-O compounds is detected out in the boundary areas, which may act as sintering aids for the sample to consolidate automatically. According to the highest density, the bulk ionic conductivity of LLNO sample reaches up to 1.61 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 30 °C, which is in the same order of magnitude as the value of cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 electrolyte. This work verifies the self-consolidation mechanism for the sintering of ceramic electrolytes and could significantly facilitate the development of LLNO membrane technology.

  8. An Approach to Solid-State Electrical Double Layer Capacitors Fabricated with Graphene Oxide-Doped, Ionic Liquid-Based Solid Copolymer Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, N F A; Ng, H M; Mahipal, Y K; Numan, Arshid; Ramesh, S; Ramesh, K

    2016-06-06

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) composed of semi-crystalline poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) [P(VdF-HFP)] copolymer, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl sulphonyl) imide [EMI-BTI] and graphene oxide (GO) was prepared and its performance evaluated. The effects of GO nano-filler were investigated in terms of enhancement in ionic conductivity along with the electrochemical properties of its electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC). The GO-doped SPE shows improvement in ionic conductivity compared to the P(VdF-HFP)-[EMI-BTI] SPE system due to the existence of the abundant oxygen-containing functional group in GO that assists in the improvement of the ion mobility in the polymer matrix. The complexation of the materials in the SPE is confirmed in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies. The electrochemical performance of EDLC fabricated with GO-doped SPE is examined using cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge techniques. The maximum specific capacitance obtained is 29.6 F∙g -1 , which is observed at a scan rate of 3 mV/s in 6 wt % GO-doped, SPE-based EDLC. It also has excellent cyclic retention as it is able keep the performance of the EDLC at 94% even after 3000 cycles. These results suggest GO doped SPE plays a significant role in energy storage application.

  9. An Approach to Solid-State Electrical Double Layer Capacitors Fabricated with Graphene Oxide-Doped, Ionic Liquid-Based Solid Copolymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. A. Fattah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE composed of semi-crystalline poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene [P(VdF-HFP] copolymer, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl sulphonyl imide [EMI-BTI] and graphene oxide (GO was prepared and its performance evaluated. The effects of GO nano-filler were investigated in terms of enhancement in ionic conductivity along with the electrochemical properties of its electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC. The GO-doped SPE shows improvement in ionic conductivity compared to the P(VdF-HFP-[EMI-BTI] SPE system due to the existence of the abundant oxygen-containing functional group in GO that assists in the improvement of the ion mobility in the polymer matrix. The complexation of the materials in the SPE is confirmed in X-ray diffraction (XRD and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA studies. The electrochemical performance of EDLC fabricated with GO-doped SPE is examined using cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge techniques. The maximum specific capacitance obtained is 29.6 F∙g−1, which is observed at a scan rate of 3 mV/s in 6 wt % GO-doped, SPE-based EDLC. It also has excellent cyclic retention as it is able keep the performance of the EDLC at 94% even after 3000 cycles. These results suggest GO doped SPE plays a significant role in energy storage application.

  10. Influence of solvent on the poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) polymer gel electrolyte and the performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jihuai; Lan, Zhang; Lin, Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang; Hao, Shancun; Fang, Leqing

    2007-01-01

    The influence of solvents on the property of poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) polymer gel electrolyte and photovoltaic performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated. Solvents or mixed solvents with large donor number enhance the liquid electrolyte absorbency, which further influences the ionic conductivity of polymer gel electrolyte. A polymer gel electrolyte with ionic conductivity of 4.45 mS cm -1 was obtained by using poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) as polymer matrix, and absorbing 30 vol.% N-methyl pyrrolidone and 70 vol.% γ-butyrolactone with 0.5 M NaI and 0.05 M I 2 . By using this polymer gel electrolyte coupling with 0.4 M pyridine additive, a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with conversion efficiency of 4.74% was obtained under irradiation of 100 mW cm -2 (AM 1.5)

  11. Synthesis and characterization of γ-Bi2O3 based solid electrolyte ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The temperature dependence of the electrical properties of -Bi2O3 solid solution was measured by four-point probe d.c. conductivity method. In the investigated system, the highest value of conductivity was observed for σ T = 0.016 ohm-1 cm-1 at 650 °C on 4 mole% Nb2O5 addition. The electrical conductivity curves of ...

  12. Study of inhomogeneous solid adlayers at electrolyte-solid interfaces using differential reflectance spectroscopy. Progress report, July 1, 1977--February 28, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, S.O.

    1978-03-01

    Differential reflectance spectroscopy has been used to study interactions at liquid-solid and air-solid interfaces. The aim is to examine a number of properties of adsorbed solid and molecular interlayers formed at such boundaries. Differential optical techniques have not previously been used to a large degree to investigate details of interfacial properties. However, in conjunction with x-ray and electron analysis these approaches are important for examining both electronic structure and adsorption-adhesion mechanics of surface coverings even if these are only a few atomic diameters in thickness. Such layers are induced in experiments by electronic circuitry devised to add or subtract controlled amounts of adlayer through reactions at electrolyte-solid interfaces. The purpose is to supply new information of a basic nature concerning interfacial properties. This can be important since crystal phases of some materials exist only in thin surface coverings. Thus, a connection of this work may well be important to new thin-layer technology. Moreover, an important relation seems well established to problems in solar energy. It is known, for example, that interfacial layers modify gas evolution at some electrolyte-oxide boundaries and thus their study is closely relevant to improvement of some new fuel production schemes

  13. New electrodes for hydrogen/oxygen solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosdale, R [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Dept. de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee; Stevens, P [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique

    1993-12-31

    A new method of preparation of Electrode/Membrane/Electrode (EME) assemblies for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) has been developed. The electrodes are deposited directly onto a Nafion electrolyte membrane from a mixture of platinized carbon, Nafion solution, and PTFE by using a spray technique. By this technique, porous electrodes are obtained with an optimized gas/electrolyte/catalyst interface, and electrode/membrane interface.

  14. Flexible poly(ethylene carbonate)/garnet composite solid electrolyte reinforced by poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) for lithium metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zijian; Chen, Long; Zhang, Bochen; Liu, Yongchang; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2018-07-01

    Solid-state electrolytes with high ionic conductivities, great flexibility, and easy processability are needed for high-performance solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. In this work, we synthesize nanosized cubic Li6.25Al0.25La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) by solution combustion method and develop a flexible garnet-based composite solid electrolyte composed of LLZO, poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-HFP) and lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI)). In the flexible composite solid electrolytes, LLZO nanoparticles, as ceramic matrix, have a positive effect on ionic conductivities and lithium ion transference number (tLi+). PEC, as a fast ion-conducting polymer, possesses high tLi+ inherently. P(VdF-HFP), as a binder, can strengthen mechanical properties. Consequently, the as-prepared composite solid electrolyte demonstrates high tLi+ (0.82) and superb thermal stability (remaining LLZO matrix after burning). All-solid-state LiFePO4|Li cells assembled with the flexible composite solid electrolyte deliver a high initial discharge specific capacity of 121.4 mAh g-1 and good cycling stability at 55 °C.

  15. A novel perspective on the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase on the graphite electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jian; Zhang Jian; Su Yuchang; Zhang Xigui; Xia Baojia

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe how the mechanism of formation of a protective film [the solid electrolyte interphase (or interface) (SEI)] on a graphite electrode for Li-ion batteries was investigated from the novel perspective of precipitation of the final decomposition products that arise from the reduction of a nonaqueous electrolyte solution in contact with the graphite electrode. Within the framework of this new perspective, we can elegantly account for the compositional and structural differences between the basal-plane and edge-plane SEIs and for the origins of the multi-layer structure and the parabolic growth law of the SEIs on both the edge-plane and basal-plane surfaces of the graphite electrode.

  16. Determination of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase Structure Grown on a Silicon Electrode Using a Fluoroethylene Carbonate Additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veith, Gabriel M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science & Technology Division; Doucet, Mathieu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Neutron Data Analysis and Visualization Division; Sacci, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science & Technology Division; Vacaliuc, Bogdan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Research Accelerator Division; Baldwin, J. Kevin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Browning, James F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division

    2017-07-24

    In this work we explore how an electrolyte additive (fluorinated ethylene carbonate – FEC) mediates the thickness and composition of the solid electrolyte interphase formed over a silicon anode in situ as a function of state-of-charge and cycle. We show the FEC condenses on the surface at open circuit voltage then is reduced to C-O containing polymeric species around 0.9 V (vs. Li/Li+). The resulting film is about 50 Å thick. Upon lithiation the SEI thickens to 70 Å and becomes more organic-like. With delithiation the SEI thins by 13 Å and becomes more inorganic in nature, consistent with the formation of LiF. This thickening/thinning is reversible with cycling and shows the SEI is a dynamic structure. We compare the SEI chemistry and thickness to 280 Å thick SEI layers produced without FEC and provide a mechanism for SEI formation using FEC additives.

  17. Nanoporous palladium anode for direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cells with nanoscale proton-conducting ceramic electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Wong, Lai Mun; Xie, Hanlin; Wang, Shijie; Su, Pei-Chen

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the operation of micro-solid oxide fuel cells (μ-SOFCs) with nanoscale proton-conducting Y-BaZrO3 (BZY) electrolyte to avoid the fuel crossover problem for direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). The μ-SOFCs are operated with the direct utilisation of ethanol vapour as a fuel and Pd as anode at the temperature range of 300-400 °C. The nanoporous Pd anode is achieved by DC sputtering at high Ar pressure of 80 mTorr. The Pd-anode/BYZ-electrolyte/Pt-cathode cell show peak power densities of 72.4 mW/cm2 using hydrogen and 15.3 mW/cm2 using ethanol at 400 °C. No obvious carbon deposition is seen from XPS analysis after fuel cell test with ethanol fuel.

  18. Structural and electrical properties of NASICON type solid electrolyte nanoscaled glass-ceramic powder by mechanical milling for thin film batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Vaishali; Patil, Arun; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Choi, Ji-Won

    2013-05-01

    During last two decades, lithium-based glasses have been studied extensively as electrolytes for solid-state secondary batteries. For practical use, solid electrolyte must have high ionic conductivity as well as chemical, thermal and electrochemical stability. Recent progresses have focused on glass electrolytes due to advantages over crystalline solid. Glass electrolytes are generally classified into two types oxide glass and sulfide glass. Oxide glasses do not react with electrode materials and this chemical inertness is advantageous for cycle performances of battery. In this study, major effort has been focused on the improvement of the ion conductivity of nanosized LiAlTi(PO4)3 oxide electrolyte prepared by mechanical milling (MM) method. After heating at 1000 degrees C the material shows good crystallinity and ionic conductivity with low electronic conductivity. In LiTi2(PO4)3, Ti4+ ions are partially substituted by Al3+ ions by heat-treatment of Li20-Al2O3-TiO2-P2O5 glasses at 1000 degrees C for 10 h. The conductivity of this material is 1.09 x 10(-3) S/cm at room temp. The glass-ceramics show fast ion conduction and low E(a) value. It is suggested that high conductivity, easy fabrication and low cost make this glass-ceramics promising to be used as inorganic solid electrolyte for all-solid-state Li rechargeable batteries.

  19. About the Compatibility between High Voltage Spinel Cathode Materials and Solid Oxide Electrolytes as a Function of Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, Lincoln; Windmüller, Anna; Tsai, Chih-Long; Richards, William D; Ma, Qianli; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Guillon, Olivier; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-10-12

    The reactivity of mixtures of high voltage spinel cathode materials Li 2 NiMn 3 O 8 , Li 2 FeMn 3 O 8 , and LiCoMnO 4 cosintered with Li 1.5 Al 0.5 Ti 1.5 (PO 4 ) 3 and Li 6.6 La 3 Zr 1.6 Ta 0.4 O 12 electrolytes is studied by thermal analysis using X-ray-diffraction and differential thermoanalysis and thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry. The results are compared with predicted decomposition reactions from first-principles calculations. Decomposition of the mixtures begins at 600 °C, significantly lower than the decomposition temperature of any component, especially the electrolytes. For the cathode + Li 6.6 La 3 Zr 1.6 Ta 0.4 O 12 mixtures, lithium and oxygen from the electrolyte react with the cathodes to form highly stable Li 2 MnO 3 and then decompose to form stable and often insulating phases such as La 2 Zr 2 O 7 , La 2 O 3 , La 3 TaO 7 , TiO 2 , and LaMnO 3 which are likely to increase the interfacial impedance of a cathode composite. The decomposition reactions are identified with high fidelity by first-principles calculations. For the cathode + Li 1.5 Al 0.5 Ti 1.5 (PO 4 ) 3 mixtures, the Mn tends to oxidize to MnO 2 or Mn 2 O 3 , supplying lithium to the electrolyte for the formation of Li 3 PO 4 and metal phosphates such as AlPO 4 and LiMPO 4 (M = Mn, Ni). The results indicate that high temperature cosintering to form dense cathode composites between spinel cathodes and oxide electrolytes will produce high impedance interfacial products, complicating solid state battery manufacturing.

  20. Solid state electrolyte composites based on complex hydrides and metal doped fullerenes/fulleranes for batteries and electrochemical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Teprovich, Jr., Joseph A.; Colon-Mercado, Hector R.; Greenway, Scott D.

    2018-05-01

    A LiBH4--C60 nanocomposite that displays fast lithium ionic conduction in the solid state is provided. The material is a homogenous nanocomposite that contains both LiBH4 and a hydrogenated fullerene species. In the presence of C60, the lithium ion mobility of LiBH4 is significantly enhanced in the as prepared state when compared to pure LiBH4. After the material is annealed the lithium ion mobility is further enhanced. Constant current cycling demonstrated that the material is stable in the presence of metallic lithium electrodes. The material can serve as a solid state electrolyte in a solid-state lithium ion battery.

  1. Preparation and characterization of Jatropha oil-based Polyurethane as non-aqueous solid polymer electrolyte for electrochemical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapa, Siti Rosnah; Aung, Min Min; Ahmad, Azizan; Mansor, Ahmad; TianKhoon, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha-oil based polyurethane is one of the initiative for replacing conventional petroleum based polyurethane. The vegetable oil-based polyurethane is more cost-effective and synthesize from renewable resources. Polyurethane was synthesized through prepolymerization method between jatropha oil-based polyol and diphenylmethane 4, 4’diisocyanate, (MDI) in inert condition. Then, lithium perchloride ion (LiClO 4 ) was added to the polyurethane system to form electrolyte film via solution casting technique. The polymer electrolytes were prepared by varying the amount of LiClO 4 ion 10 wt.% to 30 wt. %. The highest conductivity is achieved at 25 wt.% of LiClO 4 salt content, which is 1.29 × 10 −4 S/cm at room temperature 30 °C. The FTIR results showed the shifting of carbonyl group (C=O) (1750 cm −1 – 1730 cm −1 ), ether and ester group (C-O-C) (1300 cm −1 –1000 cm −1 ) and amine functional groups (N-H) (1650 cm −1 –1500 cm −1 ) in polyurethane electrolytes from the blank polyurethane shows that oxygen and nitrogen atom acts as electron donor in the electrolytes system. It also confirmed that the intermolecular reaction had occurred in the electrolytes system. While, the XRD analysis showed the semi-crystalline properties of polyurethane have been reduced to amorphous phase upon the increasing addition of lithium ion. SEM results revealed the morphology analysis of the polyurethane electrolytes. There is homogenous and smooth surface in polyurethane and the dissociation of salt was observed after the addition of salt indicates there was interaction between salt and the polymer host.

  2. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yi-Fu; Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Qiu; Ruan, Wen-Hong; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gel electrolyte is prepared and used in electric double layer capacitor. • Insertion of boron crosslinks into GO agglomerates opens channels for ion migration. • Solid supercapacitors show excellent specific capacitance and cycle stability. • Nanocomposite electrolyte shows better thermal stability and mechanical properties. - Abstract: A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs

  3. Electrochemical performance of all-solid-state lithium batteries using inorganic lithium garnets particulate reinforced PEO/LiClO4 electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Samson Ho-Sum; He, Kang-Qiang; Liu, Ying; Zha, Jun-Wei; Kamruzzaman, Md; Ma, Robin Lok-Wang; Dang, Zhi-Min; Li, Robert K.Y.; Chung, C.Y.

    2017-01-01

    All-solid-state batteries are proposed to have ultimate safety and higher power and energy densities over conventional lithium ion batteries with liquid electrolytes. The Li ion conductivity and interfacial resistance between electrolyte and electrodes are the major bottleneck of the development of all-solid-state batteries for practical uses. Here, we reported a novel composite electrolyte which is composed of uniform distributed Li ion conducting Li 6.4 La 3 Zr 1.4 Ta 0.6 O 12 (LLZTO) fillers in PEO/LiClO 4 matrix. The EO:Li + ratio of 15:1 is being used to achieve lower interfacial resistance between electrolyte and electrodes through the melting process. The composite electrolyte is fabricated by simple solution casting method, which is more advantageous comparing with high temperature sintering or sol-gel method used in the fabrication of ceramic electrolytes. The composite electrolyte exhibits good Li ion conductivity of 4.8 × 10 −4 Scm −1 at 60 °C and excellent interfacial stability against Li metal. The all-solid-state lithium battery using this composite electrolyte shows a specific capacity of 140mAhg −1 and an unprecedentedly high capacity retention of 83% after 500 cycles at 60 °C and the rate of 1C. It is concluded that good electrode/electrolyte interfacial stability and contact as well as fast Li ion conductivity obtained by the addition of active garnet particulates to PEO/LiClO 4 matrix are essential criteria for good charge/discharge performance of all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  4. Effect of proton-conduction in electrolyte on electric efficiency of multi-stage solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yoshio; Tachikawa, Yuya; Somekawa, Takaaki; Hatae, Toru; Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Kazunari

    2015-07-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising electrochemical devices that enable the highest fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiencies under high operating temperatures. The concept of multi-stage electrochemical oxidation using SOFCs has been proposed and studied over the past several decades for further improving the electrical efficiency. However, the improvement is limited by fuel dilution downstream of the fuel flow. Therefore, evolved technologies are required to achieve considerably higher electrical efficiencies. Here we present an innovative concept for a critically-high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency of up to 85% based on the lower heating value (LHV), in which a high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation is combined with a proton-conducting solid electrolyte. Switching a solid electrolyte material from a conventional oxide-ion conducting material to a proton-conducting material under the high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation mechanism has proven to be highly advantageous for the electrical efficiency. The DC efficiency of 85% (LHV) corresponds to a net AC efficiency of approximately 76% (LHV), where the net AC efficiency refers to the transmission-end AC efficiency. This evolved concept will yield a considerably higher efficiency with a much smaller generation capacity than the state-of-the-art several tens-of-MW-class most advanced combined cycle (MACC).

  5. Detonation nanodiamond introduced into samarium doped ceria electrolyte improving performance of solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Kai; Li, Hongdong; Zou, Guangtian; Yu, Richeng; Zhao, Haofei; Shen, Xi; Wang, Liying; Song, Yanpeng; Qiu, Dongchao

    2017-02-01

    A novel electrolyte materials of introducing detonation nanodiamond (DNDs) into samarium doped ceria (SDC) is reported here. 1%wt. DNDs doping SDC (named SDC/ND) can enlarge the electrotyle grain size and change the valence of partial ceria. DNDs provide the widen channel to accelerate the mobility of oxygen ions in electrolyte. Larger grain size means that oxygen ions move easier in electrolyte, it can also reduce the alternating current (AC) impedance spectra of internal grains. The lower valence of partial Ce provides more oxygen vacancies to enhance mobility rate of oxygen ions. Hence all of them enhance the transportation of oxygen ions in SDC/ND electrolyte and the OCV. Ultimately the power density of SOFC can reach 762 mw cm-2 at 800 °C (twice higher than pure SDC, which is 319 mw cm-2 at 800 °C), and it remains high power density in the intermediate temperature (600-800 °C). It is relatively high for the electrolyte supported (300 μm) cells.

  6. A high performance flexible all solid state supercapacitor based on the MnO2 sphere coated macro/mesoporous Ni/C electrode and ionic conducting electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Jian; Reiser, Oliver; Wang, Youfu; Hu, Aiguo

    2016-06-01

    A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating layer. By employing butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) modified gels as the ionic conducting electrolyte, the utilization efficiency of MnO2 on the specific capacitance was enhanced up to 88% of the theoretical value, delivering a volumetric capacitance of 81 F cm-3, which is the highest value among MnO2 based solid state supercapacitors. Moreover, such a flexible device exhibits exceptional volumetric energy and power density (6.6 Wh L-1 and 549 W L-1, based on the whole device volume) combined with a small capacity loss of 8.5% after 6000 cycles under twisting. These encouraging findings unambiguously overcome the energy bottleneck of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors, and open up a new application of macro/mesoporous materials in flexible devices.A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating

  7. Determination of diffusion coefficients for sulfide ions in solid electrolytes on the basis of BaSm2S4 and CaGd2S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurlov, I.S.; Ushakova, Yu.N.; Medvedeva, O.V.; Kalinina, L.A.; Shirokova, G.I.; Ananchenko, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    Coefficients of self-diffusion and coefficients of diffusion of the sulfur ion in solid electrolytes BaSm 2 S 4 and CaGd 2 S 4 are determined with recourse to methods of conductometry and potentiostatic chronoamperometry. A vacancy mechanism for the defect formation in solid solutions on the basis of barium thiosamarate and calcium thiogadolynate is proposed [ru

  8. Effect of Al2O3 nanoparticles in plasticized PMMA-LiClO4 based solid polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, P.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-05-01

    We have studied the broadband complex conductivity spectra covering a 0.01 Hz-3 GHz frequency range for plasticized PMMA-LiClO4 based solid polymer electrolyte embedded with Al2O3 nanoparticle. We have analyzed the conductivity spectra using the random free-energy barrier model (RBM) coupled with electrode polarization contribution in the low frequency region and at high temperatures. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity obtained from the analysis has been analyzed using Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher equation. The maximum ionic conductivity ˜ 1.93×10-4 S/cm has been obtained for 1 wt% Al2O3 nanoparticle.

  9. Effects of chemical synthesis parameters on the Zr O2: 8% mol Mg O solid electrolytes electric conductivity and microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, D.M.; Muccillo, E.N.S.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical conductivity measurements and scanning electron microscope observations have been done in Zr O 2 - 8 mol % Mg O solid electrolytes. The main purpose was to investigate to what extent some processing variables can influence the electrical behaviour and microstructural characteristics of the sintered ceramic. Zirconia powders have been prepared under different pH and temperature of precipitation, and washing media conditions. The results show that many structural characteristics of the calcined powders are 'lost' during sintering, giving rise to ceramics with similar electrical properties, besides minor differences in the final microstructure. The washing media play the major role on both microstructural development and electrical conductivity. (author)

  10. Ultrahigh-vacuum in situ electrochemistry with solid polymer electrolyte and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of polypyrrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skotheim, T.A.; Florit, M.I.; Melo, A.; O'Grady, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    A new in situ combined electrochemistry and x-ray-photoelectron-spectroscopy (XPS) technique using solid polymer electrolytes has been used to characterize electrically conducting films of polypyrrole perchlorate. The technique allows in situ electrochemical oxidation and reduction (doping and undoping) in ultrahigh vacuum and the simultaneous study of the polymer with XPS as a function of its electrochemical potential. We demonstrate that some anion species interact strongly electrostatically with the nitrogen heteroatoms. We also show conclusively that the electrochemistry of polypyrrole is highly irreversible

  11. Degradation of some ceria electrolytes under hydrogen contact nearby anode in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malta Luiz Fernando Brum

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with thermodynamic analysis of the stability of some ceria electrolytes under contact with hydrogen gas nearby anode in fuel cells. It was considered the following types of ceria-electrolytes: pure ceria, strontium-doped ceria, calcium-doped ceria and calcium-bismuth-doped ceria. The equilibrium Log (pH2O/pH2 vs. T diagrams were constructed for x = 0.1 and 0.01, where x is the fraction of initial ceria converted to Ce2O3 (proportional to the ratio between activities of Ce3+ and Ce4+ in the ceria electrolyte, which is proportional to the fraction of electronic conduction in the electrolyte at a given temperature. The predictions of the diagrams are as follows: (a Ce1.9Ca0.1Bi0.8O5.1 and Ce0.9Sr0.1O1.9 are less stable than pure ceria for the whole temperature range (from 0 to 1000 °C; (b Ce0.9Ca0.1O1.9 is more stable than pure ceria below about 650 °C for x = 0.1 and below about 400 °C for x = 0.01; (c at each temperature in the considered range the pressure ratio pH2O(g/pH2(g has to be higher than thermodynamically predicted in order to keep CeO2 stable in the electrolyte contacting hydrogen gas. Thermodynamic predictions are entirely capable of explaining experimental data published on the subject (irreversible cell degradation in the case of SrO-doped ceria; weight loss from doped-ceria electrolyte above 700 °C; oxygen gas release during sintering of ceria.

  12. Ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of PEO-LiClO4 solid polymer electrolyte plasticized with propylene carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of PEO-LiClO4 solid polymer electrolyte plasticized with propylene carbonate. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies confirm minimum volume fraction of crystalline phase for the polymer electrolyte with 40 wt. % propylene carbonate. The ionic conductivity exhibits a maximum for the same composition. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity has been well interpreted using Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation. Ion-ion interactions in the polymer electrolytes have been studied using Raman spectra and the concentrations of free ions, ion-pairs and ion-aggregates have been determined. The ionic conductivity increases due to the increase of free ions with the increase of propylene carbonate content. But for higher content of propylene carbonate, the ionic conductivity decreases due to the increase of concentrations of ion-pairs and ion-aggregates. To get further insights into the ion dynamics, the experimental data for the complex dielectric permittivity have been studied using Havriliak–Negami function. The variation of relaxation time with temperature obtained from this formalism follows Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation similar to the ionic conductivity.

  13. Ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of PEO-LiClO{sub 4} solid polymer electrolyte plasticized with propylene carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.; Ghosh, A., E-mail: sspag@iacs.res.in [Department of Solid State Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-02-15

    We have studied ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of PEO-LiClO{sub 4} solid polymer electrolyte plasticized with propylene carbonate. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies confirm minimum volume fraction of crystalline phase for the polymer electrolyte with 40 wt. % propylene carbonate. The ionic conductivity exhibits a maximum for the same composition. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity has been well interpreted using Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation. Ion-ion interactions in the polymer electrolytes have been studied using Raman spectra and the concentrations of free ions, ion-pairs and ion-aggregates have been determined. The ionic conductivity increases due to the increase of free ions with the increase of propylene carbonate content. But for higher content of propylene carbonate, the ionic conductivity decreases due to the increase of concentrations of ion-pairs and ion-aggregates. To get further insights into the ion dynamics, the experimental data for the complex dielectric permittivity have been studied using Havriliak–Negami function. The variation of relaxation time with temperature obtained from this formalism follows Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation similar to the ionic conductivity.

  14. Application of atmospheric-pressure plasma jet processed carbon nanotubes to liquid and quasi-solid-state gel electrolyte supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuok, Fei-Hong; Kan, Ken-Yuan; Yu, Ing-Song; Chen, Chieh-Wen; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Cheng, I.-Chun; Chen, Jian-Zhang

    2017-12-01

    We use a dc-pulse nitrogen atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) to calcine carbon nanotubes (CNTs) pastes that are screen-printed on carbon cloth. 30-s APPJ treatment can efficiently oxidize and vaporize the organic binders, thereby forming porous structures. As indicated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), the oxygen content decreases after APPJ treatment owing to the oxidation and vaporization of ethyl cellulose, terpineol, and ethanol. Nitrogen doping was introduced to the materials by the nitrogen APPJ. APPJ-calcination improves the wettability of the CNTs printed on carbon cloth, as evidenced by water contact angle measurement. Raman spectroscopy indicates that reactive species of nitrogen APPJ react violently with CNTs in only 30-s APPJ processing time and introduce defects and/or surface functional groups on CNTs. Carbon cloths with calcined CNT layers are used as electrodes for liquid and quasi-solid-state electrolyte supercapacitors. Under a cyclic voltammetry test with a 2 mV/s potential scan rate, the specific capacitance is 73.84 F/g (areal capacitance = 5.89 mF/cm2) with a 2 M KCl electrolyte and 66.47 F/g (areal capacitance = 6.10 mF/cm2) with a H2SO4/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel electrolyte.

  15. Effects of grain boundaries at the electrolyte/cathode interfaces on oxygen reduction reaction kinetics of solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Min Gi; Koo, Ja Yang; Ahn, Min Woo; Lee, Won Young [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    We systematically investigated the effects of grain boundaries (GBs) at the electrolyte/cathode interface of two conventional electrolyte materials, i.e., yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC). We deposited additional layers by pulsed laser deposition to control the GB density on top of the polycrystalline substrates, obtaining significant improvements in peak power density (two-fold for YSZ and three-fold for GDC). The enhanced performance at high GB density in the additional layer could be ascribed to the accumulation of oxygen vacancies, which are known to be more active sites for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) than grain cores. GDC exhibited a higher enhancement than YSZ, due to the easier formation, and thus higher concentration, of oxygen vacancies for ORR. The strong relation between the concentration of oxygen vacancies and the surface exchange characteristics substantiated the role of GBs at electrolyte/cathode interfaces on ORR kinetics, providing new design parameters for highly performing solid oxide fuel cells.

  16. New Insights on the Structure of Electrochemically Deposited Lithium Metal and Its Solid Electrolyte Interphases via Cryogenic TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Minghao; Alvarado, Judith; Wang, Shen; Sina, Mahsa; Lu, Bingyu; Bouwer, James; Xu, Wu [Energy; Xiao, Jie [Energy; Zhang, Ji-Guang [Energy; Liu, Jun [Energy; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2017-11-02

    Lithium metal has been considered as the “holy grail” anode material for rechargeable batteries though the dendritic growth and low Coulombic efficiency (CE) have crippled its practical use for decades. Its high chemical reactivity and low stability make it difficult to explore the intrinsic chemical and physical properties of the electrochemically deposited lithium (EDLi) and its accompanied solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). To prevent the dendritic growth and enhance the electrochemical reversibility, it is crucial to understand the nano- and meso- structures of EDLi. However, Li metal is very sensitive to beam damage and has low contrast for commonly used characterization techniques such as electron microscopy. Inspired by biological imaging techniques, this work demonstrates the power of cryogenic (cryo)- electron microscopy to reveal the detailed structure of EDLi and the SEI composition at the nano scale while minimizing beam damage during imaging. Surprisingly, the results show that the nucleation dominated EDLi (five minutes at 0.5 mA cm-2) is amorphous while there is some crystalline LiF present in the SEI. The EDLi grown from various electrolytes with different additives exhibits distinctive surface properties. Consequently, these results highlight the importance of the SEI and its relationship with the CE. Our findings not only illustrate the capabilities of cryogenic microscopy for beam (thermal)-sensitive materials, but it yields crucial structural information of the EDLi evolution with and without electrolyte additives.

  17. Application of silver vanadate solid electrolyte mixed with Al2O3 in Ag/I2 batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Karim bin Arof.

    1993-01-01

    The glassy silver vanadate electrolyte of the composition 70AgI-20Ag20-10V205 was added with Al2O3 in varying percentages to form several physical mixtures that will be used to fabricate several solid stare electrochemical cells in order to study the influence of the dispersoid on the silver vanadate cells internal resistance and lifetime of the silver vanadate cells. The internal resistance of the cells increased on addition of Al2O3 but the cell with the mixture of Al2O3 and electrolyte in the weight ratio 2:3 has the lowest internal resistance. The increase in the internal resistance of the cell is attributed to the insulating nature of Al2O3. Although the internal resistance of the cell increased, it was observed that the time needed for the cell potential to drop to 400 mV at a constant discharge current of 30 uA increase in discharge lifetime was also observed when a second cell of the same mixed electrolyte constituents was discharged at 40 uA current drain. We have attempted to explain the increase in discharge lifetime in terms of the space charge layer developed between the insulator and the ionic conductor which results in a dipole region across which a potential difference is developed. This potential difference is responsible in prolonging the discharge lifetime of the cells

  18. Surface chemistry and morphology of the solid electrolyte interphase on silicon nanowire lithium-ion battery anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Candace K.

    2009-04-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have the potential to perform as anodes for lithium-ion batteries with a much higher energy density than graphite. However, there has been little work in understanding the surface chemistry of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on silicon due to the reduction of the electrolyte. Given that a good, passivating SEI layer plays such a crucial role in graphite anodes, we have characterized the surface composition and morphology of the SEI formed on the SiNWs using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We have found that the SEI is composed of reduction products similar to that found on graphite electrodes, with Li2CO3 as an important component. Combined with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the results were used to determine the optimal cycling parameters for good cycling. The role of the native SiO2 as well as the effect of the surface area of the SiNWs on reactivity with the electrolyte were also addressed. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of the thermodynamic properties and defect structure of the binary system Fesub(1-y)O (Wuestite) in the range 0.0467<= y <=0.1103, between 600 deg C and 1050 deg C, using solid electrolyte galvanic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A device, consisting of galvanic cells composed of solid electrolytes, was specially designed and constructed for this study. The most adequate cells for obtaining the thermodynamic data in a fast and accurate way was determined. This experimental set-up can also be used for indirect measurements in gases and liquids. Results of the measurements of the electromotive force versus temperature, performed for different samples, having an O/Fe ratio from 1.049 to 1.124 are given. From the experimental data, the following information was obtained: partial molar quantities corresponding to both Fe and O (enthalpy ΔH; entropy ΔS, and free energy ΔG). The oxide's phase boundaries between 600 and 1050 deg C were determined, showing the existence of a subphase within the range of stability of Fesub(1-y)O. The development of a theoretical model allowed to make a semiquantitative fit of the enthalpies of formation and to advance in the knowledge on the defect structure of this oxided system. According to certain theories, the wuestite, whose crystalline structure is of the NaCl type, with O in excess leads to the formation of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) of spinel structure, this being the main agent causing the corrosion processes in the primary and secondary circuits of the nuclear reactors. Owing to the fact that the wuestite is similar to other transition metal oxides, such as NiO; CoO and MnO, this model may be also applied to these oxides. (M.E.L.) [es

  20. Novel thixotropic gel electrolytes based on dicationic bis-imidazolium salts for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Young [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Kyunggi-do 440-746 (Korea); Functional Polymer Lab., Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea); Kim, Tae Ho [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Kyunggi-do 440-746 (Korea); Kim, Dong Young; Park, Nam-Gyu [Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea); Ahn, Kwang-Duk [Functional Polymer Lab., Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea)

    2008-01-03

    Novel thixotropic gel electrolytes have been successfully prepared by utilizing oligomeric poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based bis-imidazolium diiodide salts and hydrophilic silica nanoparticles for application in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The thixotropic gel-state of the ionic liquid-based composite electrolytes is confirmed by observing the typical hysteresis loop and temporary hydrogen bonding. On using the PEO-based composite electrolyte, a quasi-solid-state DSSC exhibited highly improved properties such as easy penetration of the electrolyte into the cell without leakage, long-term stability, high open-circuit voltage without the use of 4-tert-butylpyridine, and a high energy-conversion efficiency of 5.25% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm{sup -2}). (author)

  1. Novel thixotropic gel electrolytes based on dicationic bis-imidazolium salts for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Dong Young; Park, Nam-Gyu; Ahn, Kwang-Duk

    Novel thixotropic gel electrolytes have been successfully prepared by utilizing oligomeric poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based bis-imidazolium diiodide salts and hydrophilic silica nanoparticles for application in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The thixotropic gel-state of the ionic liquid-based composite electrolytes is confirmed by observing the typical hysteresis loop and temporary hydrogen bonding. On using the PEO-based composite electrolyte, a quasi-solid-state DSSC exhibited highly improved properties such as easy penetration of the electrolyte into the cell without leakage, long-term stability, high open-circuit voltage without the use of 4- tert-butylpyridine, and a high energy-conversion efficiency of 5.25% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm -2).

  2. In-situ Plasticized Cross-linked Polymer Composite Electrolyte Enhanced with Lithium-ion Conducting Nanofibers for Ambient All-Solid-State Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chaoyi; Zhu, Pei; Jia, Hao; Zhu, Jiadeng; Selvan, R. Kalai; Li, Ya; Dong, Xia; Du, Zhuang; Angunawela, Indunil; Wu, Nianqiang; Dirican, Mahmut

    2018-04-29

    Solid electrolytes have been gaining attention recently for the development of next-generation Li-ion batteries due to the substantial improvements in stability and safety. Among various types of solid electrolytes, composite solid electrolytes (CSEs) exhibit both high ionic conductivity and excellent interfacial contact with the electrodes. Incorporating active nanofibers into the polymer matrix demonstrates an effective method to fabricate CSEs. However, current CSEs based on traditional poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer suffer from the poor ionic conductivity of PEO and agglomeration effect of inorganic fillers at high concentrations, which limit further improvements in Li+ conductivity and electrochemical stability. Herein, we synthesize a novel PEO based cross-linked polymer (CLP) as the polymer matrix with naturally amorphous structure and high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 2.40 × 10-4 S cm-1. Li0.3La0.557TiO3 (LLTO) nanofibers incorporated composite solid electrolytes (L-CLPCSE) exhibit enhanced ionic conductivity without showing filler agglomeration. The high content of Li-conductive nanofibers improves the mechanical strength, ensures the conductive networks, and increases the total Li+ conductivity to 3.31 × 10-4 S cm-1. The all-solid-state Li|LiFePO4 batteries with L-CLPCSE are able to deliver attractive specific capacity of 147 mAh g-1 at room temperature, and no evident dendrite is found at the anode/electrolyte interface after 100 cycles.

  3. Alkali-Resistant Quasi-Solid-State Electrolyte for Stretchable Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qianqiu; Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Gengchao

    2016-10-05

    Research on stretchable energy-storage devices has been motivated by elastic electronics, and considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of stretchable electrodes. However, stretchable electrolytes, another critical component in stretchable devices, have earned quite little attention, especially the alkali-resistant ones. Here, we reported a novel stretchable alkali-resistant electrolyte made of a polyolefin elastomer porous membrane supported potassium hydroxide-potassium polyacrylate (POE@KOH-PAAK). The as-prepared electrolyte shows a negligible plastic deformation even after 1000 stretching cycles at a strain of 150% as well as a high conductivity of 0.14 S cm -1 . It also exhibits excellent alkali resistance, which shows no obvious degradation of the mechanical performance after immersion in 2 M KOH for up to 2 weeks. To demonstrate its good properties, a high-performance stretchable supercapacitor is assembled using a carbon-nanotube-film-supported NiCo 2 O 4 (CNT@NiCo 2 O 4 ) as the cathode and Fe 2 O 3 (CNT@Fe 2 O 3 ) as the anode, proving great application promise of the stretchable alkali-resistant electrolyte in stretchable energy-storage devices.

  4. Estimation of energy density of Li-S batteries with liquid and solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Zhang, Heng; Otaegui, Laida; Singh, Gurpreet; Armand, Michel; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M.

    2016-09-01

    With the exponential growth of technology in mobile devices and the rapid expansion of electric vehicles into the market, it appears that the energy density of the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries (LIBs) cannot satisfy the practical requirements. Sulfur has been one of the best cathode material choices due to its high charge storage (1675 mAh g-1), natural abundance and easy accessibility. In this paper, calculations are performed for different cell design parameters such as the active material loading, the amount/thickness of electrolyte, the sulfur utilization, etc. to predict the energy density of Li-S cells based on liquid, polymeric and ceramic electrolytes. It demonstrates that Li-S battery is most likely to be competitive in gravimetric energy density, but not volumetric energy density, with current technology, when comparing with LIBs. Furthermore, the cells with polymer and thin ceramic electrolytes show promising potential in terms of high gravimetric energy density, especially the cells with the polymer electrolyte. This estimation study of Li-S energy density can be used as a good guidance for controlling the key design parameters in order to get desirable energy density at cell-level.

  5. Solid electrolytes based on {1 − (x + y}ZrO2-(xMgO-(yCaO ternary system: Preparation, characterization, ionic conductivity, and dielectric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazli Zeeshan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Different composition of composite material of zirconium dioxide co-doped with magnesium oxide [MgO(x] and calcium oxide [CaO(y] according to the general molecular formula {1 − (x + y}ZrO2-(xMgO-(yCaO were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by different techniques, such as XRD, FTIR, TG-DTA, and SEM. Co-doping was conducted to enhance the ionic conductivity, as mixed system show higher conductivity than the single doped one. Arrhenius plots of the conductance revealed that the co-doped composition “6Mg3Ca” has a higher conductivity with a minimum activation energy of 0.003 eV in temperature range of 50–190 °C. With increasing temperature, dielectric constant value increased; however, with increasing frequency it shows opposite trend. Co-doped composition C2 exhibit higher conductivity compared to C3, owing to the concentration of Mg content (0–6%; the conductivity decreases thereafter. Zirconium oxide was firstly used for medical purpose in orthopaedics, but currently different type of zirconia-ceramic materials has been successfully introduced into the clinic to fix the dental prostheses.

  6. Graphene/activated carbon supercapacitors with sulfonated-polyetheretherketone as solid-state electrolyte and multifunctional binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.-R.; Chiu, K.-F.; Lin, H. C.; Chen, C.-L.; Hsieh, C. Y.; Tsai, C. B.; Chu, B. T. T.

    2014-11-01

    Sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK) has been synthesised by sulphonation process and used as the solid-state electrolyte, binder and surfactant for supercapacitors. Reduced graphene dispersed by SPEEK is used as a high-efficiency conducting additive in solid-state supercapacitors. It is found that SPEEK can improve the stability of the reduced graphene dispersion significantly, and therefore, the solid-state supercapacitors show a large decrease in IR drop and charge-transfer resistance (Rct), resulting in a higher rate capability. The solid-state supercapacitors with the activated carbon/reduced graphene/SPEEK/electrode can be operated from 1 to 8 A/g and exhibit capacity retention of 93%. The noteworthy is more than twice higher value for capacity retention by comparison with the solid-state supercapacitors using activated carbon/reduced graphene/PVDF electrode (capacity retention is 36%). The cell of reduced graphene with SPEEK can be cycled over 5000 times at 5 A/g with no capacitance fading.

  7. Estimation of current constriction losses via 3D tomography reconstructions in electrochemical devices: a case study of a solid oxide cell electrode/electrolyte interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the methodology for accurate estimations of the current constriction resistance in solid state electrochemical devices via 3D tomography reconstructions is developed. The methodology is used to determine the current constriction resistances at the Ni:YSZ anode/YSZ electrolyte...... of the electrolyte thickness. The obtained results on current constriction resistances from numerical calculations on a 3D reconstruction of a Ni:YSZ anode/YSZ electrolyte assembly is compared with existing models with analytical expressions. The comparison shows, that the assumptions of existing models are by far...

  8. Oxides with polyatomic anions considered as new electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin Hassan, Oskar Hasdinor

    2010-10-21

    Materials with Polyatomic anions of [Al{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup -8}, [Ti{sub 2}O{sub 8}]{sup -8} and [P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup -4} were investigated with respect to their ionic conductivity properties as well as its thermal expansion properties with the aim to use them as SOFCs electrolytes. The polyatomic anion groups selected from the oxy-cuspidine family of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} and Gd{sub 4}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 10} as well as from pyrophosphate SnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The pure oxy-cuspidine Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}, the series of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2-x}Mg{sub x}O{sub 9-x/2} with x=0.10-1.0 and Gd{sub 4-x}M{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} (M=Ca, Sr) with x = 0.05-0.5 were prepared successfully by the citrate complexation method. All samples showed the crystal structure of monoclinic oxycuspidine structure with space group of P2{sub 1/c} and Z=4. No solid solution was observed for Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2-x}Mg{sub x}O{sub 9-x/2} where additional phases of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO were presence. XRD semiquantitative analysis together with SEM-EDX analysis revealed that Mg{sup 2+} was not able to substitute the Al{sup 3+} ions even at low Mg{sup 2+} concentration. The solid solution limit of Gd{sub 4-x}Ca{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} and Gd{sub 4-x}Sr{sub x}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9-x/2} was determined between 0.05-0.10 and 0.01-0.05 mol for Ca and Sr, respectively. Beyond the substitution limit Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}, GdAlO{sub 3} and SrGd{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 7} appeared as additional phases. The highest electrical conductivity obtained at 900 C yielded {sigma}= 1.49 x 10{sup -4}Scm{sup -1} for Gd{sub 3.95}Ca{sub 0.05}Al{sub 2}O{sub 8.98}. In comparison, the conductivity of pure Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} was {sigma}= 1.73 x 10{sup -5} Scm{sup -1}. The conductivities determined were in a similar range as those of other cuspidine materials investigated previously. The thermal expansion coefficient of Gd{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} at 1000 C was 7.4 x 10{sup -6}K{sup -1}. The earlier reported

  9. An insight into intrinsic interfacial properties between Li metals and Li10GeP2S12 solid electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingbing; Ju, Jiangwei; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Jianjun; Xiao, Ruijuan; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2017-11-29

    Density functional theory simulations and experimental studies were performed to investigate the interfacial properties, including lithium ion migration kinetics, between lithium metal anode and solid electrolyte Li 10 GeP 2 S 12 (LGPS). The LGPS[001] plane was chosen as the studied surface because the easiest Li + migration pathway is along this direction. The electronic structure of the surface states indicated that the electrochemical stability was reduced at both the PS 4 - and GeS 4 -teminated surfaces. For the interface cases, the equilibrium interfacial structures of lithium metal against the PS 4 -terminated LGPS[001] surface (Li/PS 4 -LGPS) and the GeS 4 -terminated LGPS[001] surface (Li/GeS 4 -LGPS) were revealed based on the structural relaxation and adhesion energy analysis. Solid electrolyte interphases were expected to be formed at both Li/PS 4 -LGPS and Li/GeS 4 -LGPS interfaces, resulting in an unstable state of interface and large interfacial resistance, which was verified by the EIS results of the Li/LGPS/Li cell. In addition, the simulations of the migration kinetics show that the energy barriers for Li + crossing the Li/GeS 4 -LGPS interface were relatively low compared with the Li/PS 4 -LGPS interface. This may contribute to the formation of Ge-rich phases at the Li/LGPS interface, which can tune the interfacial structures to improve the ionic conductivity for future all-solid-state batteries. This work will offer a thorough understanding of the Li/LGPS interface, including local structures, electronic states and Li + diffusion behaviors in all-solid-state batteries.

  10. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.; Buttner, Ulrich; Yi, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  11. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  12. All solid-state polymer electrolytes prepared from a hyper-branched graft polymer using atom transfer radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higa, Mitsuru; Fujino, Yukiko; Koumoto, Taihei; Kitani, Ryousuke; Egashira, Satsuki

    2005-01-01

    We propose an all solid-state (liquid free) polymer electrolyte (SPE) prepared from a hyper-branched graft copolymer. The graft copolymer consisting of a poly(methyl methacrylate) main chain and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate side chains was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization changing the average chain distance between side chains, side chain length and branched chain length of the proposed structure of the graft copolymer. The ionic conductivity of the SPEs increases with increasing the side chain length, branched chain length and/or average distance between the side chains. The ionic conductivity of the SPE prepared from POEM 9 whose POEM content = 51 wt% shows 2 x 10 -5 S/cm at 30 deg. C. The tensile strength of the SPEs decreases with increases the side chain length, branched chain length and/or average distance between the side chains. These results indicate that a SPE prepared from the hyper-branched graft copolymer has potential to be applied to an all-solid polymer electrolyte

  13. Ionic Borate-Based Covalent Organic Frameworks: Lightweight Porous Materials for Lithium-Stable Solid State Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Hayden T; Harrison, Katharine Lee

    2016-10-01

    The synthesis and characterization of the first polyelectrolyte of intrinsic microporosity (PEIM) is described. The novel material was synthesized via reaction between the nitrile group in the polymer backbone and n-butyl lithium, effectively anchoring an imine anion to the porous framework while introducing a mobile lithium counterion. The PEIM was characterized by 13C, 1H, and 7Li NMR experiments, revealing quantitative conversion of the nitrile functionality to the anionic imine. Variable temperature 7Li NMR analysis of the dry PEIM and the electrolyteswollen PEIM revealed that lithium ion transport within the dry PEIM was largely due to interchain hopping of the Li+ ions, and that the mobility of polymer associated Li+ was reduced after swelling in electrolyte solution. Meanwhile, the swollen PEIM supported efficient transport of dissolved Li+ within the expanded pores. These results are discussed in the context of developing novel solid or solid-like lithium ion electrolytes using the new PEIM material.

  14. In situ electron holography of electric potentials inside a solid-state electrolyte: Effect of electric-field leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, Yuka; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Sato, Takeshi [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Murata, Hidekazu [Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468-8502 (Japan); Yoshida, Ryuji; Fisher, Craig A.J. [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Kato, Takehisa; Iriyama, Yasutoshi [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Hirayama, Tsukasa, E-mail: t-hirayama@jfcc.or.jp [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    In situ electron holography is used to observe changes of electric-potential distributions in an amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) solid-state electrolyte when different voltages are applied. 2D phase images are simulated by integrating the 3D potential distribution along the electron trajectory through a thin Cu/LiPON/Cu region. Good agreement between experimental and simulated phase distributions is obtained when the influence of the external electric field is taken into account using the 3D boundary-charge method. Based on the precise potential changes, the lithium-ion and lithium-vacancy distributions inside the LiPON layer and electric double layers (EDLs) are inferred. The gradients of the phase drops at the interfaces in relation to EDL widths are discussed. - Highlights: • Solid-state electrolyte LiPON has been observed by in situ electron holography. • Observed phase distributions are compared with those simulated numerically. • 3D electric fields around the specimen are taken into account in the simulation. • Electric-potential distributions inside LiPON have been obtained. • The lithium-ion and lithium-vacancy distributions inside the LiPON are inferred.

  15. Li-ion site disorder driven superionic conductivity in solid electrolytes: a first-principles investigation of β-Li3PS4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phani Dathar, Gopi Krishna; Balachandran, Janakiraman; Kent, Paul R. C.; Rondinone, Adam J.; Ganesh, P.

    2016-01-01

    The attractive safety and long-term stability of all solid-state batteries has added a new impetus to the discovery and development of solid electrolytes for lithium batteries. Recently several superionic lithium conducting solid electrolytes have been discovered. All the superionic lithium containing compounds (β-Li 3 PS 4 and Li 10 GeP 2 S 12 and oxides, predominantly in the garnet phase) have partially occupied sites. This naturally begs the question of understanding the role of partial site occupancies (or site disorder) in optimizing ionic conductivity in these family of solids. In this paper, we find that for a given topology of the host lattice, maximizing the number of sites with similar Li-ion adsorption energies, which gives partial site occupancy, is a natural way to increase the configurational entropy of the system and optimize the conductivity. For a given topology and density of Li-ion adsorption sites, the ionic conductivity is maximal when the number of mobile Li-ions are equal to the number of mobile vacancies, also the very condition for achieving maximal configurational entropy. We demonstrate applicability of this principle by elucidating the role of Li-ion site disorder and the local chemical environment in the high ionic conductivity of β-Li 3 PS 4 . In addition, for β-Li 3 PS 4 we find that a significant density of vacancies in the Li-ion sub-lattice (~25%) leads to sub-lattice melting at (~600 K) leading to a molten form for the Li-ions in an otherwise solid anionic host. This gives a lithium site occupancy that is similar to what is measured experimentally. We further show that quenching this disorder can improve conductivity at lower temperatures. As a consequence, we discover that (a) one can optimize ionic conductivity in a given topology by choosing a chemistry/composition that maximizes the number of mobile-carriers i.e. maximizing both mobile Li-ions and vacancies, and (b) when the concentration of vacancies becomes significant in

  16. Development of Lithium Stuffed Garnet-Type Oxide Solid Electrolytes with High Ionic Conductivity for Application to All-Solid-State Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Inada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available All-solid-state lithium-ion battery (LiB is expected as one of the next generation energy storage devices because of their high energy density, high safety and excellent cycle stability. Although oxide-based solid electrolyte materials have rather lower conductivity and poor deformability than sulfide-based one, they have other advantages such as their chemical stability and easiness for handling. Among the various oxide-based SEs, lithium stuffed garnet-type oxide with the formula of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZ have been widely studied because of their high conductivity above 10-4 Scm-1 at room temperature, excellent thermal performance and stability against Li metal anode.Here, we present our recent progress for the development of garnet-type solid electrolytes with high conductivity by simultaneous substitution of Ta5+ into Zr4+ site and Ba2+ into La3+ site in LLZ. Li+ concentration was fixed to 6.5 per chemical formulae, so that the formulae of our Li garnet-type oxide is expressed as Li6.5La3-xBaxZr1.5-xTa0.5+xO12 (LLBZT and Ba contents x are changed from 0 to 0.3. As results, all LLBZT samples have cubic garnet structure without containing any secondary phases. The lattice parameters of LLBZT decrease with increasing Ba2+ contents x < 0.10 while increase with x from 0.10 to 0.30, possibly due to the simultaneous change of Ba2+ and Ta5+ substitution levels. Relative densities of LLBZT are in the range between 89% and 93% and not influenced so much by the compositions. From AC impedance spectroscopy measurements, the total (bulk + grain conductivity at 27ºC of LLBZT shows its maximum value of 8.34 x 10-4 S cm-1 at x = 0.10, which is slightly higher than the conductivity (= 7.94 x 10-4 S cm-1 of LLZT without substituting Ba (x = 0. Activation energy of the conductivity tends to become lower by Ba substation, while excess Ba substitution degrades the conductivity in LLBZT. LLBZT has wide electrochemical potential window of 0-6 V vs. Li+/Li and

  17. Designing Artificial Solid-Electrolyte Interphases for Single-Ion and High-Efficiency Transport in Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2017-09-21

    Substrates able to rectify transport of ions based on charge and/or size are ubiquitous in biological systems. Electrolytes and interphases that selectively transport electrochemically active ions are likewise of broad interest in all electrical energy storage technologies. In lithium-ion batteries, electrolytes with single- or near-single-ion conductivity reduce losses caused by ion polarization. In emergent lithium or sodium metal batteries, they maintain high conductivity at the anode and stabilize metal deposition by fundamental mechanisms. We report that 20- to 300-nm-thick, single-ion-conducting membranes deposited at the anode enable electrolytes with the highest combination of cation transference number, ionic conductivity, and electrochemical stability reported. By means of direct visualization we find that single-ion membranes also reduce dendritic deposition of Li in liquids. Galvanostatic measurements further show that the electrolytes facilitate long (3 mAh) recharge of full Li/LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cells with high cathode loadings (3 mAh cm−2/19.9 mg cm−2) and at high current densities (3 mA cm−2).

  18. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  19. Chemical compatibility of alternative perovskite oxide SOFC cathodes with doped lanthanum gallate solid electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostogloudis, G.C.; Ftikos, C. [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou Str., Zografou Campus, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Ahmad-Khanlou, A.; Naoumidis, A.; Stoever, D. [Research Centre Juelich, Institute for Materials and Processes in Energy Systems IWV1, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    This paper reports on the investigations of the chemical compatibility between SOFC cathode materials with compositions Pr{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}}, Pr{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}}, Pr{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.7}O{sub 3-{delta}} and Pr{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} and the electrolyte materials with compositions La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.9}Mg{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}}, and La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}}. The lanthanum gallate electrolyte with 20 mol.% Sr contained two additional phases, namely, LaSrGa{sub 3}O{sub 7} and LaSrGaO{sub 4}, while that with 10 mol.% Sr was formed in nearly single phase. Two types of experiments were performed: (a) reactivity experiments of powder mixtures and (b) diffusion experiments in cathode/electrolyte double-layer pellets. No reaction products were detected by XRD. High Co diffusion into the electrolyte was identified with SEM/EDX in all diffusion experiments examined. The transition metals diffuse in the order Mnelectrolyte La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.9}Mg{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} caused the destabilisation and disappearance of the second phases in the interdiffusion zone. In the case of the A-site deficient cathode, the formation of LaSrGa{sub 3}O{sub 7} second phase was identified on the electrolyte side, near the interdiffusion zone.

  20. Structural and electrical conductivity studies on the solid electrolyte system {sub x}Li2O-(100-x) [0.5B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.5 P{sub 2}O{sub 5}] where 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmasree, K. P.; Diaz-Guillen, M. R.; Diaz-Guillen, J. A.; Mendoza, E. M.; Fuentes, A. F. [Cinvestav, unidad Saltillo, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico)]. E-mail: padma512@yahoo.com

    2009-09-15

    Lithium ion conducting glasses have been extensively investigated due to their potential application as solid state amorphous electrolytes in lithium rechargeable batteries. The use of glassy electrolytes in all solid state devices may provide numerous advantages like increased safety, facility of fabrication and miniaturization and having a higher conductivity than those of the crystalline counterparts. In this work, we prepared and studied the Lithium ion conducting glassy solid electrolytes of the composition {sub x}Li{sub 2}O-(1-x)[0.5B{sub 2}O{sub 3} -0.5P{sub 2}O{sub 5}] where 20solid material is characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential thermal analysis (DTA), and Fourier transform infra-red spectrometry (FTIR) and impedance spectroscopy techniques. The conductivity obtained is of the order of 10-7S/cm at room temperature and IR spectra reveal that the glass matrix undergoes structural modification with the addition of the glass modifier Li{sub 2}O. [Spanish] Los vidrios conductores de ion litio se han investigado ampliamente por su aplicacion potencial como electrolitos amorfos de estado solido en baterias recargables de litio. El uso de electrolitos vitreos en todos los dispositivos de estado solido puede proporcionar numerosas ventajas como mayor seguridad, facilidad de fabricacion y miniaturizacion, asi como tener una conductividad mas alta que la de sus contrapartes cristalinas. En este trabajo, se prepararon y estudiaron los electrolitos solidos vitreos conductores de ion litio de la composicion {sub x}Li2O-(1-x)[0.5B{sub 2}O{sub 3} -0.5P{sub 2}O{sub 5}] donde 20

  1. Measuring oxygen activity in liquid sodium with the use of solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Skvor, F.

    1976-01-01

    Doped Y 2 O 3 (CaO or MgO up to 20 mol.%) was studied as a possible electrolyte. La 2 O 3 did not prove advantageous. The proposed version of an analyzer is described and the problems of calibration discussed. The reduction of the chemical gradient and the increase in material purity of the electrolytical tube significantly reduced the difference between the theoretical and experimentally obtained emf value, so that measurements may be carried out under these conditions even without calibration. The dependence of log σsub(T) on partial O 2 pressure is given for doped La and Y oxides at a temperature of 700 degC. (M.K.)

  2. Performance of Electrolyte Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with STN Anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veltzé, Sune; Reddy Sudireddy, Bhaskar; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2013-01-01

    In order to replace the state of the art Ni-cermet as SOFC anode, electrolyte supported cells comprising CGO/Ni infiltrated Nbdoped SrTiO3 anodes, and LSM/YSZ cathodes have been developed and tested as single 5 x 5 cm2 cells. The initial performance reached 0.4 W/cm2 at 850 C. Further tests under...

  3. Synthesis and microstructural characterization of Sr- and Mg-substituted LaGaO3 solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Pradyot; Majewski, Peter; Aldinger, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    Sr and Mg substituted LaGaO 3 is a solid electrolyte for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell. Phase purity of this material is a concern for the researchers for a long time. In this contribution the secondary phases that are evolved during the synthesis of Sr and Mg doped LaGaO 3 are reported. For that purpose, a series of La 1-x Sr x Ga 1-y Mg y O 3-δ (LSGM) was prepared by solid state synthesis route. Scanning electron microscopic photographs showed secondary phases namely La 4 Ga 2 O 9 , LaSrGa 3 O 7 , LaSrGaO 4 along with the parent perovskite LSGM depending upon the amount of dopant. Amount of secondary phases was estimated from the peak positions of room temperature X-ray diffraction. It was observed that for a fixed amount of Mg dopant increasing the amount of Sr content also increased the amount of secondary phases whereas the reverse was found to be true when Sr content was fixed and Mg content was increased. This behaviour was attributed to the increase in solid solubility of Sr in presence of Mg

  4. Thermal history and polymer electrolyte structure: implications for solid-state battery design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neat, R.; Glasse, M.; Linford, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on PEO/LiCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ polymeric electrolytes using polarising microscopy, SEM/EDX, DSC and complex plane analysis show that thin electrolyte films prepared by slow evaporation from CH/sub 3/CN solution are spherulitic in nature. More than one type of spherulite is present across the composition range and each spherulite type contains both amorphous and crystalline regions. The structural behaviour on heating and cooling is discussed with particular reference to electrolyte films of overall composition PEO/sub 20/:LiCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/. For these high ratio triflate films, in contrast to similar PEO/LiClO/sub 4/ films, high melting salt-rich regions are unexpectedly present in conjunction with low melting, low salt spherulites. No evidence is found for the presence of pure PEO spherulites, but the low melting spherulites may have a crystalline skeleton of pure PEO. Evidence is presented for the dependence of conductivity on thermal history.

  5. Lithiated Nafion as polymer electrolyte for solid-state lithium sulfur batteries using carbon-sulfur composite cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Sun, Chunshui; Xu, Lei; Chen, Jian; Wang, Chong; Guo, Decai; Chen, Hao

    2018-04-01

    Due to flexible property and light weight, the lithiated Nafion membrane swollen with PC (PC-Li-Nafion) has been employed as both solid-state electrolyte and separator to fabricate solid-state Li-S cells. The electrochemical measurements of PC-Li-Nafion membrane show that its Li-ion transference number is 0.928, ionic conductivity of 2.1 × 10-4 S cm-1 can be achieved at 70 °C and its electrochemical window is 0 ∼ +4.1 V vs. Li+/Li. It is observed that the Li dendrites are suppressed by using PC-Li-Nafion membrane due to its single-ion conducting property. The amounts of Li-Nafion resin binder and conductive carbon in the cathode are optimized as 40% and 10% respectively to make a balance of ionic and electronic conductivities. A thin-layer Li-Nafion resin with a thickness of around 2 μm is fabricated between the cathode and PC-Li-Nafion membrane to improve the interfacial contact and further enhance the specific capacity of the cell. When measured at 70 °C, the Li-S cell delivers a reversible specific capacity of 1072.8 mAh g-1 (S) at 0.05 C and 895 mAh g-1 (S) at 1 C. The capacity retention at 1 C is 89% after 100 cycles. These results suggest that high-performance solid-state Li-S cells can be fabricated with the Li-Nafion polymer electrolyte.

  6. A Novel Polymer Electrolyte Using In-situ Quanternization for All Solid-state Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with a mesoporous network of interconnected TiO2 nanocrystals have attracted wide-spread scientific and technological interest over the past decades due to its low cost and high energy conversion efficiency. Meantime, it also has been considered as potential alternative to conventional photovoltaic devices. In 2001, Gratzel group constructed such kind of DSSC with the conversion efficiency of more than 11%[1]. But this system uses liquid electrolyte with...

  7. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    1993-01-01

    -170-degrees-C) depending on melt acidity and anode material. DMTC, being specifically adsorbed and reduced on the tungsten electrode surface, had an inhibiting effect on the aluminum reduction, but this effect was suppressed on the aluminum substrate. An electrochemical process with high current density (tens...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active......The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...

  8. New ion palladium-solid hydroxyl proton conductor heterostructure and features of its electrophysical characteristics in range of phase transformation in electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajkov, Yu.M.; Nikulin, E.I.; Egorov, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    A protic PdH x |KOH · 0.5H 2 O heterojunction is obtained upon electrochemical activation of a new heterostructure based on metallic palladium and an equimolar mixture of solid hydroxides KOH and KOH · H 2 O. The contribution of the obtained heterojunction (∼0.8 V) into the emf of the fuel cell exhibits significant variations at temperatures below 358 K. These variations are correlated with a phase transition in the system and with sharp changes in the diffusion and the chemical activity of protons in the individual KOH · 0.5H 2 O eutectic. The observed correlation is explained by the determining role of the order-disorder transition in orientation of the O-H bonds both in the volume of electrolyte and in the protonic heterojunction [ru

  9. The temperature influence against conductivity of solid state electrolyte of (CuI)0,5(β-Al2O3)0,5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwanto, -P; Kartini, -E; Purnama, Safei

    2004-01-01

    The solid electrolyte (CuI) 0,5 (β-Al 2 O 3 ) 0,5 has been prepared by a solid state reaction, by mixing of CuI with β-Al 2 O 3 powders. The mixture was compacted and heated at the temperature 300 o C for 3 hours. The conductivity values of (CuI) 0,5 (β-Al 2 O 3 ) 0,5 increased with the temperature and frequency. The x ray diffraction peaks of the solid electrolyte (CuI) 0,5 (β-Al 2 O 3 ) 0,5 are dominated by the peaks of CuI than the peaks of β-Al 2 O 3 . The activation energy of the solid electrolyte is relatively stable, with the range from 0.09 eV to 0.13 eV. The conductivities solid electrolyte (CuI) 0,5 (β-Al 2 O 3 ) 0,5 at room temperature and at 300 o C are 1.48 x 10 -5 S/cm and 8.33 x 10 -4 S/cm, respectively

  10. Stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using ionic gel electrolyte with low molecular mass organogelator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Li; Huo, Zhipeng; Dai, Songyuan; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Changneng; Pan, Xu; Huang, Yang; Yang, Shangfeng; Zhang, Bing; Yao, Jianxi

    2015-01-01

    Long-term stability is essential for the application and commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A quasi-solid-state DSC (QS-DSC) with excellent long-term stability is fabricated using ionic gel electrolyte (IGE) with N,N′-methylenebisdodecanamide as low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG). The gel to solution transition temperature (T gel ) of this IGE is 127 °C, well above the working temperature of the device, which contributes to the thermal properties of the IGE and the device. The electrochemical properties of the IGE and the kinetic processes of electron transport and recombination of the QS-DSC are investigated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). Due to the obstructed diffusion of redox species caused by the network of IGE, the electron recombination at the TiO 2 photoelectrode/electrolyte interface in the QS-DSC is accelerated. More importantly, compared with the ionic liquid electrolyte (ILE) based DSC, the QS-DSC based on the IGE exhibits excellent thermal and light-soaking stabilities during the accelerated aging tests for 1000 h. Especially, there is almost no degradation in the short-circuit current density (J sc ) in the IGE based QS-DSC, while the J sc of the ILE based DSC decreased to 85–94% of their initial values. - Highlights: • A novel IGE with high T gel is obtained by using a diamide derivative as LMOG. • The IGE based QS-DSC is very stable during the accelerated aging tests. • The influences of gelation on the electron kinetic processes are investigated

  11. Stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using ionic gel electrolyte with low molecular mass organogelator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Li [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huo, Zhipeng, E-mail: zhipenghuo@163.com [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Dai, Songyuan, E-mail: sydai@ncepu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Changneng; Pan, Xu; Huang, Yang [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Yang, Shangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, Bing; Yao, Jianxi [Beijing Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Long-term stability is essential for the application and commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A quasi-solid-state DSC (QS-DSC) with excellent long-term stability is fabricated using ionic gel electrolyte (IGE) with N,N′-methylenebisdodecanamide as low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG). The gel to solution transition temperature (T{sub gel}) of this IGE is 127 °C, well above the working temperature of the device, which contributes to the thermal properties of the IGE and the device. The electrochemical properties of the IGE and the kinetic processes of electron transport and recombination of the QS-DSC are investigated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). Due to the obstructed diffusion of redox species caused by the network of IGE, the electron recombination at the TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode/electrolyte interface in the QS-DSC is accelerated. More importantly, compared with the ionic liquid electrolyte (ILE) based DSC, the QS-DSC based on the IGE exhibits excellent thermal and light-soaking stabilities during the accelerated aging tests for 1000 h. Especially, there is almost no degradation in the short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) in the IGE based QS-DSC, while the J{sub sc} of the ILE based DSC decreased to 85–94% of their initial values. - Highlights: • A novel IGE with high T{sub gel} is obtained by using a diamide derivative as LMOG. • The IGE based QS-DSC is very stable during the accelerated aging tests. • The influences of gelation on the electron kinetic processes are investigated.

  12. Robust Pinhole-free Li3N Solid Electrolyte Grown from Molten Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithium metal is the ultimate anode choice for high energy density rechargeable lithium batteries. However, it suffers from inferior electrochemical performance and safety issues due to its high reactivity and the growth of lithium dendrites. It has long been desired to develop a materials coating on Li metal, which is pinhole-free, mechanically robust without fracture during Li metal deposition and stripping, and chemically stable against Li metal and liquid electrolytes, all while maintaining adequate ionic conductivity. However, such an ideal material coating has yet to be found. Here we report a novel synthesis method by reacting clean molten lithium foil directly with pure nitrogen gas to generate instantaneously a pinhole-free and ionically conductive α-Li3N film directly bonded onto Li metal foil. The film consists of highly textured large Li3N grains (tens of μm with (001 crystalline planes parallel to the Li metal surface. The bonding between textured grains is strong, resulting in a mechanically robust film which does not crack even when bent to a 0.8 cm curvature radius and is found to maintain pinhole-free coverage during Li metal deposition and stripping. The measured ionic conductivity is up to 5.2 × 10–4 S cm–1, sufficient for maintaining regular current densities for controllable film thicknesses ranging from 2 to 30 μm. This Li3N coating is chemically stable, isolating the reactive metallic lithium from liquid electrolyte, prevents continuous electrolyte consumption during battery cycling, and promotes dendrite-free uniform lithium plating/stripping underneath. We demonstrated Li|Li4Ti5O12 cells with stable and flat potential profiles for 500 cycles without capacity decay or an increase in potential hysteresis.

  13. Fuel cell system with separating structure bonded to electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott; Gudlavalleti, Sauri; Quek, Shu Ching; Hasz, Wayne Charles; Powers, James Daniel

    2010-09-28

    A fuel cell assembly comprises a separating structure configured for separating a first reactant and a second reactant wherein the separating structure has an opening therein. The fuel cell assembly further comprises a fuel cell comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and an electrolyte interposed between the first and second electrodes, and a passage configured to introduce the second reactant to the second electrode. The electrolyte is bonded to the separating structure with the first electrode being situated within the opening, and the second electrode being situated within the passage.

  14. Development and testing of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with slurry-coated electrolyte and cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muccillo, R.; Muccillo, E.N.S.; Fonseca, F.C.; Franca, Y.V.; Porfirio, T.C. [Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, C.P. 11049, Pinheiros, S. Paulo, SP 05422-970 (Brazil); de Florio, D.Z. [Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, R. Prof. Francisco Degni s/n, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Berton, M.A.C.; Garcia, C.M. [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento, DPMA, C.P. 19067, Curitiba, PR 81531-980 (Brazil)

    2006-06-01

    A laboratory setup was designed and put into operation for the development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The whole project consisted of the preparation of the component materials: anode, cathode and electrolyte, and the buildup of a hydrogen leaking-free sample chamber with platinum leads and current collectors for measuring the electrochemical properties of single SOFCs. Several anode-supported single SOFCs of the type (ZrO{sub 2}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}+NiO) thick anode/(ZrO{sub 2}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin electrolyte/(La{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3}+ZrO{sub 2}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin cathode have been prepared and tested at 700 and 800{sup o}C after in situ H{sub 2} anode reduction. The main results show that the slurry-coating method resulted in single-cells with good reproducibility and reasonable performance, suggesting that this method can be considered for fabrication of SOFCs. (author)

  15. A review of the features and analyses of the solid electrolyte interphase in Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Pallavi; Maire, Pascal; Novak, Petr

    2010-01-01

    The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is a protecting layer formed on the negative electrode of Li-ion batteries as a result of electrolyte decomposition, mainly during the first cycle. Battery performance, irreversible charge 'loss', rate capability, cyclability, exfoliation of graphite and safety are highly dependent on the quality of the SEI. Therefore, understanding the actual nature and composition of SEI is of prime interest. If the chemistry of the SEI formation and the manner in which each component affects battery performance are understood, SEI could be tuned to improve battery performance. In this paper key points related to the nature, formation, and features of the SEI formed on carbon negative electrodes are discussed. SEI has been analyzed by various analytical techniques amongst which FTIR and XPS are most widely used. FTIR and XPS data of SEI and its components as published by many research groups are compiled in tables for getting a global picture of what is known about the SEI. This article shall serve as a handy reference as well as a starting point for research related to SEI.

  16. In-Situ Observation of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Ordered Mesoporous Hard Carbon by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, Craig A.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Zhao, Jinkui; Dai, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to better understand the electrochemical processes occurring during the cycling of a lithium-ion half-cell containing ordered mesoporous hard carbon using time-resolved in situ small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Utilizing electrolytes containing mixtures of deuterated (2H) and non-deuterated (1H) carbonates, we have addressed the challenging task of monitoring the formation and evolution of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. An evolution occurs in the SEI layer during discharge from a composition dominated by a higher scattering length density (SLD) lithium salt, to a lower SLD lithium salt for the ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (EC/DMC) mixture employed. By comparing half-cells containing different solvent deuteration levels, we show that it is possible to observe both SEI formation and lithium intercalation occurring concurrently at the low voltage region in which lithium intercalates into the hard carbon. These results demonstrate that SANS can be employed to monitor complicated electrochemical processes occurring in rechargeable batteries, in a manner that simultaneously provides information on the composition and microstructure of the electrode.

  17. Composite electrolytes composed of Cs-substituted phosphotungstic acid and sulfonated poly(ether-ether ketone) for fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Song-Yul, E-mail: ms089203@tutms.tut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Go [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Muto, Hiroyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kurume National College of Technology, 1-1-1 Komorino, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-8555 (Japan); Sakai, Mototsugu [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Matsuda, Atsunori, E-mail: matsuda@tutms.tut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Composite electrolytes composed of cesium hydrogen sulfate containing phosphotungstic acids (CsHSO{sub 4}-H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}) and sulfonated poly(ether-ether ketone) (SPEEK) were prepared by casting the corresponding precursor for application in fuel cells. Partially Cs-substituted phosphotungstic acids (Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}) were formed in the CsHSO{sub 4}-H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} system by mechanochemical treatment. SPEEK was prepared from PEEK by sulfonation using concentrated sulfuric acid. Flexible composite electrolytes were obtained and their electrochemical properties were markedly improved with the addition of Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, into the SPEEK matrix. A maximum power density of 213 mW cm{sup -2} was obtained from the single cell test for 50H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}-50CsHSO{sub 4} in SPEEK (1/5 by weight) composite electrolyte at 80 deg. C and at 80 RH%. Electrochemical properties and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results suggest that three-dimensional cluster particles were formed and homogeneously distributed in the SPEEK matrix. The mechanochemically synthesized Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} incorporated into the SPEEK matrix increased the number of protonate sites in the electrolyte. The composite electrolytes were successfully formed with Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, which consist of hydrogen bonding between surface of inorganic solid acids and not only -HSO{sub 4}{sup -} dissociated from CsHSO{sub 4} but also -SO{sub 3}H groups in the SPEEK.

  18. NMR study of the structure and ion transport in the M1-xRxF2+x diamagnetic solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsulv, A.N.; Nuznik, V.M.; Livshits, A.I.; Fedorov, P.P.; Sobolev, B.P.

    1988-01-01

    Monocrystalline samples of Sr 0.75 La 0.25 F 2.25 and Ba 0.75 Y 0.25 F 2.25 solid electrolytes, which belong to diamagnetic fluorite-like solid solutions, are investigated using 19 F continuous NMR method at 48 MHz frequency. Comparison of theoretical calculations and experimental data has allowed to attach component-spectra to two structural positions - F l main lattice one and F i interstitial one. A technique is suggested, and evaluation of density of structural positions is made on the basis of orientational dependences of spectra secondary moment. Change of spectra form and dispersion on heating is characteristic one for samples with ion diffusive movement. Analysis of experimental data has allowed to determine, that anionic systems of solid solutions are dinamically heterogeneous. At 290-470 K temperatures the florine ions of both types (F l and F i ) contribute to the ionic conductivity. Within this temperature range movement of the bulk of fluorine ions is more, than 10 4 Hz. Measurements, conducted for Sr 0.75 La 0.25 F 2.25 have shown, that fluorine ions in the interstitial positions are more mobile, than in the lattice ones

  19. Electrical properties of Ba doped LSGM for electrolyte material of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghvendra, Singh, Prabhakar; Singh, Rajesh Kumar

    2013-02-01

    We report our investigations on Lanthanum Strontium Magnesium Gallate, LSGM, La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ doped with Barium at Strontium site having composition La0.8(Sr0.1Ba0.1)Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSBGM). The pure cubic phase along with some additional phase was confirmed by XRD pattern. Electrical properties of the Composition LSBGM [La0.8(Sr0.1Ba0.1)Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ] prepared by solid state route, was studied employing impedance spectroscopy in the temperature range 573 K-993 K and frequency range 20 Hz-1MHz. The total ionic conductivity of the composition was found to be 0.072 S.cm-1 at 953 K and the activation energy from Arrhenius plot was found to be 1.16 eV in the measured temperature range. This confirms oxygen ion conductivity in the system. SEM micrograph shows the uniform densed particle morphology with gains of average size 200 nm.

  20. Effect of Zirconium Oxide Nanofiller and Dibutyl Phthalate Plasticizer on Ionic Conductivity and Optical Properties of Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Siti Mariah Mohd; Ibrahim, Suriani

    2014-01-01

    New solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) doped with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) plasticizer, and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanoparticles were prepared by solution-casting technique. The conductivity was enhanced by addition of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) plasticizer and ZrO2 nanofiller with maximum conductivity (1.38 × 10−4 Scm−1). The absorption edge and band gap values showed decreases upon addition of LiSO3CF3, DBP, and ZrO2 due to the formation of localized states in the SPE and the degree of disorder in the films increased. PMID:25133244

  1. Effect of Zirconium Oxide Nanofiller and Dibutyl Phthalate Plasticizer on Ionic Conductivity and Optical Properties of Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mariah Mohd Yasin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New solid polymer electrolytes (SPE based on poly(ethylene oxide (PEO doped with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3, dibutyl phthalate (DBP plasticizer, and zirconium oxide (ZrO2 nanoparticles were prepared by solution-casting technique. The conductivity was enhanced by addition of dibutyl phthalate (DBP plasticizer and ZrO2 nanofiller with maximum conductivity (1.38×10-4 Scm-1. The absorption edge and band gap values showed decreases upon addition of LiSO3CF3, DBP, and ZrO2 due to the formation of localized states in the SPE and the degree of disorder in the films increased.

  2. Electrode of solid state polymer electrolyte type electrochemical cell; Kobunshi kotai denkaisitsugata denki kagaku seru yo denkyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, M [Yamanashi, (Japan); Inoue, M [Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-12

    The solid state polymer electrolyte type electrochemical cell (PEMFC) has such problem that the gas diffusion from the resin surface to the catalyst surface is prevented when the coating thickness of cation exchange resin on the catalyst particle and the number of micropores which conduct the gas flow in the catalyst layer are reduced. Resultingly, a sufficiently large current cannot be taken out of the cell. This invention solves the problem. The catalyst layer of electrode of PEMFC consists of a mixture of the conductive catalyst carrier coated with cation exchange resin and the conductive carrier coated with fluorinated hydrocarbon polymer. Adding the water repellent material to the electrode in this way improves the air-passing porosity. As for the cation exchange resin, perfluorocarbon sulfonate or perfluorocarbon carboxylate can be used. For the fluorinated hydrocarbon polymer, fluorinated polyethylene is preferably used. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Influence of Li10GeP2S12-type solid electrolyte on cell thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jishnu Bhattacharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We elucidate few critical facts about the lithium superionic conductor (Li10GeP2S12 and few other compounds of the same family as the electrolyte in Li-ion cells. The dimensionality of diffusion process and existence of ‘structural’ lithiums are not well understood in this material. From the ab-initio MD simulations, we find that the material transport Li-ions predominantly in the crystallographic c-direction. Nevertheless, the cross-channel diffusion is significant as well. We explored the mobility of individual Li-ions and do not find evidence that supports the proposition of structural Li-ions in LGPS. We find nominal effect of local Ge-P ordering and of Li-concentration change on diffusivity, which not only provides information about the invariance of diffusivity at different conditions of operation, but also ensures that identification of the ground state structure in LGPS having partially occupied Li and Ge/P sublattices should have minimal effect on the diffusion analysis. We computed the dilute Li insertion and extraction voltages for LGPS from ab-initio total energy calculation. The dilute voltages indicate that the material is prone to react by exchanging Li-ions with the electrodes at typical operating range of voltages indicating formation of some interphase at the electrode-electrolyte interface, which necessitates further experimental investigation

  4. Novel polymeric systems for lithium ion batteries gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appetecchi, G.B.; Alessandrini, F.; Passerini, S.; Caporiccio, G.; Boutevin, B.; Guida-PietraSanta, F.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-linked, self-supporting, membranes for lithium ion battery gel electrolytes were obtained by cross-linking a mixture of polyfluorosilicone (PFSi) and polysilicone containing ethylene oxide (EO) units [P(Si-EO)]. The membranes were also reinforced with nanosized silica. The two polymer precursors were synthesized with functional groups capable to form inter-molecular cross-linking, thus obtaining three-dimensional, polymer matrices. The precursors were dissolved in a common solvent and cross-linked to obtain free-standing PFSi/P(Si-EO):SiO 2 composite films. The latter were undergone to swelling processes in (non-aqueous, aprotic, lithium salt containing) electrolytic solutions to obtain gel-type polymer electrolytes. The properties of the swelled PFSi/P(Si-EO):SiO 2 samples were evaluated as a function of the electrolytic solutions and the dipping time. The PFSi/P(Si-EO):SiO 2 membranes exhibited large swelling properties, high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability

  5. The polymer gel electrolyte based on poly(methyl methacrylate) and its application in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongxun; Huang Miaoliang; Wu Jihuai; Lan Zhang; Hao Sancun; Lin Jianming

    2008-01-01

    Using poly(methyl methacrylate) as polymer host, ethylene carbonate, 1,2-propanediol carbonate and dimethyl carbonate as organic mixture solvents, sodium iodide and iodine as source of I - /I 3 - , a polymer gel electrolyte PMMA-EC/PC/DMC-NaI/I 2 with ionic conductivity of 6.89 mS cm -1 was prepared. Based on the polymer gel electrolyte, a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was fabricated. The quasi-solid-state DSSC possessed a good long-term stability and a light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency of 4.78% under irradiation of 100 mW cm -2 simulated sunlight, which is almost equal to that of DSSC with a liquid electrolyte

  6. 1995 Baseline solid waste management system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.S.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1995-09-01

    This provides a detailed solid waste system description that documents the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) strategy for managing Hanford's solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and greater-than-Class III waste. This system description is intended for use by managers of the solid waste program, facility and system planners, as well as system modelers. The system description identifies the TSD facilities that constitute the solid waste system and defines these facilities' interfaces, schedules, and capacities. It also provides the strategy for treating each of the waste streams generated or received by the Hanford Site from generation or receipt through final destination

  7. Solid state radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A solid state radiation flux detector system utilizes a detector element, consisting of a bar of semiconductor having electrical conductance of magnitude dependent upon the magnitude of photon and charged particle flux impinging thereon, and negative feedback circuitry for adjusting the current flow through a light emitting diode to facilitate the addition of optical flux, having a magnitude decreasing in proportion to any increase in the magnitude of radiation (e.g. x-ray) flux incident upon the detector element, whereby the conductance of the detector element is maintained essentially constant. The light emitting diode also illuminates a photodiode to generate a detector output having a stable, highly linear response with time and incident radiation flux changes

  8. System and process for dissolution of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liezers, Martin; Farmer, III, Orville T.

    2017-10-10

    A system and process are disclosed for dissolution of solids and "difficult-to-dissolve" solids. A solid sample may be ablated in an ablation device to generate nanoscale particles. Nanoparticles may then swept into a coupled plasma device operating at atmospheric pressure where the solid nanoparticles are atomized. The plasma exhaust may be delivered directly into an aqueous fluid to form a solution containing the atomized and dissolved solids. The composition of the resulting solution reflects the composition of the original solid sample.

  9. Y-doped BaZrO3 as a chemically stable electrolyte for proton-conducting solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs)

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    A proton-conducting solid oxide electrolysis cell using an Y-doped BaZrO3 electrolyte film, which has been demonstrated to be chemically stable, was successfully fabricated for the first time and showed a promising electrolysis performance.

  10. Steam Electrolysis by Proton-Conducting Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOECs) with Chemically Stable BaZrO3-Based Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei; Traversa, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    BaZrO3-based material was applied as the electrolyte for proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOECs). Compared with the instability of BaCeO3-based proton-conductors, BaZrO3-based material could be a more promising candidate for proton

  11. In operando studies of ScYSZ electrolyte supported symmetric solid oxide cell by X-ray Diffraction at ESRF, ID06 Beamline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sierra, J. X.; Poulsen, H. F.; Jørgensen, P. S.

    Solid Oxide Cells are becoming a promising solution for sustainable and renewable power generation. Scandium doped Yttria Stabilized Zirconia is considered one of the best materials used as electrolyte because of its high ionic conductivity and great mechanical and chemical stability under operat...... evolution at different depths of the cell during operation....

  12. Li-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety and Tolerance to High-Voltage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Prakash, Surya; Krause, Frederick C.

    2013-01-01

    Given that lithium-ion (Li-ion) technology is the most viable rechargeable energy storage device for near-term applications, effort has been devoted to improving the safety characteristics of this system. Therefore, extensive effort has been devoted to developing nonflammable electrolytes to reduce the flammability of the cells/battery. A number of promising electrolytes have been developed incorporating flame-retardant additives, and have been shown to have good performance in a number of systems. However, these electrolyte formulations did not perform well when utilizing carbonaceous anodes with the high-voltage materials. Thus, further development was required to improve the compatibility. A number of Li-ion battery electrolyte formulations containing a flame-retardant additive [i.e., triphenyl phosphate (TPP)] were developed and demonstrated in high-voltage systems. These electrolytes include: (1) formulations that incorporate varying concentrations of the flame-retardant additive (from 5 to 15%), (2) the use of mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) as a co-solvent, and (3) the use of LiBOB as an electrolyte additive intended to improve the compatibility with high-voltage systems. Thus, improved safety has been provided without loss of performance in the high-voltage, high-energy system.

  13. Mixed solid device based on conducting polymer composite and polymer electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Silmara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS derived sol-gel porous films have been utilized as template for the electrochemical polymerization of aniline. Polyaniline-silica composites were obtained and the redox behavior and charge/discharge capacities of a lithium polymeric battery using poly (dimethylsiloxane- co-ethylene oxide as gel polymeric electrolyte, were investigated. The composite presented a high initial capacity (140 mA h g-1 and a reversible capacity of 75 mA h g-1 after 100 charge/discharge cycles. The decrease in the specific capacity was attributed to an increase in charge transfer resistance and a decrease in the diffusion coefficient measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  14. Solid polymeric electrolyte based dye-sensitized solar cell with improved stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narottam; Kumar, Manish; Patel, K. R.; Roy, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    The impact of polymeric electrolyte was investigated over the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell made with Rose Bengal as sensitizer. Further, the selective influence of TiCl4 treatment and pre-sensitizer deoxycholic acid on nc-TiO2 photoanode was determined in terms of improvement in conversion efficiency of the cell. It is found that the effect of TiCl4 treatment was comparatively more than pre-sensitization with de-oxy cholic acid towards improving the efficiency of the cell. The conversion efficiency on TiCl4 treatment was 0.2% whereas on pre-sensitization with deoxy chollic acid it was 0.1%. The combined effect of both TiCl4 treatment & pre-sensitization with deoxycholic acid leads conversion efficiency to 0.33%.

  15. Dual overcharge protection and solid electrolyte interphase-improving action in Li-ion cells containing a bis-annulated dialkoxyarene electrolyte additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Zhang, Shuo; Hu, Bin; Liao, Chen; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Zhang, Lu

    2018-02-01

    1,4-Dialkoxybenzene additives are commonly used as redox active shuttles in lithium-ion batteries in order to prevent runaway oxidation of electrolyte when overcharge conditions set in. During this action the shuttle molecule goes through a futile cycle, becoming oxidized at the cathode and reduced at the anode. Minimizing parasitic reactions in all states of charge is paramount for sustained protective action. Here we demonstrate that recently developed bis-annulated 9,10-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-1,4:5,8-dimethano-anthracene shuttle molecule (that yields exceptionally stable radical cations) survives over 120 cycles of overcharge abuse with 100% overcharge ratio at C/5 rate. Equally remarkably, in the presence of this additive the cell impedance becomes significantly lower compared to the control cells without the additive; this decrease is observed during the formation, normal cycling, and even under overcharge conditions. This unusual dual action has not been observed in other redox shuttle systems, and it presents considerable practical interest.

  16. Structural, morphological, and electrical properties of doped ceria as a solid electrolyte for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Stojmenović, M.

    2015-03-11

    The solid solutions of CeO2 with one or more rare-earth oxides among Yb2O3, Sm2O3, and Gd2O3 are synthesized by either modified glycine nitrate procedure (MGNP) or self-propagating reaction at room temperature (SPRT). The overall mole fraction of rare-earth oxide dopants was x = 0.2. The characterization was committed by XRPD, TEM, BET, and Raman Spectroscopy methods. According to XRPD and Raman spectroscopy, the obtained products presented the single-phase solid solutions with basic fluorite-type CeO2 structure, regardless on the number and the concentration of dopants. Both XRPD and TEM analysis evidenced the nanometer particle dimensions. The defect model was applied to calculate lattice parameters of single-, co-, and multi-doped solids. The sintering of the sample nanopowders was performed at 1550 °C, in air atmosphere. The sintered samples were characterized by XRPD, SEM, and complex impedance methods. The sintering did not affect the concentration ratios of the constituents. The highest conductivity at 700 °C amounting to 2.14 × 10−2 and 1.92 × 10−2 Ω−1 cm−1 was measured for the sample Ce0.8Sm0.08Gd0.12O2−δ, synthesized by SPRT and MGNP methods, respectively. The corresponding activation energies of conductivity, measured in the temperature range 500–700 °C, amounted to 0.24 and 0.23 eV.

  17. Structural, morphological, and electrical properties of doped ceria as a solid electrolyte for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Stojmenović, M.; Zunic, Milan; Gulicovski, J.; Bajuk-Bogdanović, D.; Holclajtner-Antunović, I.; Dodevski, V.; Mentus, S.

    2015-01-01

    The solid solutions of CeO2 with one or more rare-earth oxides among Yb2O3, Sm2O3, and Gd2O3 are synthesized by either modified glycine nitrate procedure (MGNP) or self-propagating reaction at room temperature (SPRT). The overall mole fraction of rare-earth oxide dopants was x = 0.2. The characterization was committed by XRPD, TEM, BET, and Raman Spectroscopy methods. According to XRPD and Raman spectroscopy, the obtained products presented the single-phase solid solutions with basic fluorite-type CeO2 structure, regardless on the number and the concentration of dopants. Both XRPD and TEM analysis evidenced the nanometer particle dimensions. The defect model was applied to calculate lattice parameters of single-, co-, and multi-doped solids. The sintering of the sample nanopowders was performed at 1550 °C, in air atmosphere. The sintered samples were characterized by XRPD, SEM, and complex impedance methods. The sintering did not affect the concentration ratios of the constituents. The highest conductivity at 700 °C amounting to 2.14 × 10−2 and 1.92 × 10−2 Ω−1 cm−1 was measured for the sample Ce0.8Sm0.08Gd0.12O2−δ, synthesized by SPRT and MGNP methods, respectively. The corresponding activation energies of conductivity, measured in the temperature range 500–700 °C, amounted to 0.24 and 0.23 eV.

  18. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yi-Fu; Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Qiu; Ruan, Wen-Hong; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2014-01-01

    A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yi-Fu

    2014-06-01

    A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Chemical characterization of solid polymer electrolyte membrane surfaces in LiFePO4 half-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyu, Thein; He, Ruixuan; Peng, Fang; Dunn, William E.; Kyu's Group Team, Dr.

    High temperature (60 °C) capacity retention of succinonitrile plasticized solid polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) in a LiFePO4 half-cell was investigated with or without lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) modification. Various symmetric cells and half-cells were studied under different thermal and electrochemical conditions. At room temperature cycling, the unmodified PEM in the half-cell appeared stable up to 50 cycles tested. Upon cycling at 60 °C, the capacity decays rapidly and concurrently the cell resistance increased. The chemical compositions of the solid PEM surfaces on both cathode and anode sides were analyzed. New IR bands (including those belonged to amide) were discerned on the unmodified PEM surface of the Li electrode side at 60 °C suggestive of side reaction, but no new bands develop during room temperature cycling. To our astonishment, the side reaction was effectively suppressed upon LiBOB addition (0.4 wt%) into the PEM, contributing to increased high temperature capacity retention at 60°C. Plausible mechanisms of capacity fading and improved cycling performance due to LiBOB modification are discussed.

  1. A chemically stable electrolyte with a novel sandwiched structure for proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei; Traversa, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    A chemically stable electrolyte structure was developed for proton-conducting SOFCs by using two layers of stable BaZr0.7Pr 0.1Y0.2O3 -δ to sandwich a highly-conductive but unstable BaCe0.8Y0.2O 3 -δ electrolyte layer. The sandwiched electrolyte

  2. Preparation of hydroxide ion conductive KOH–layered double hydroxide electrolytes for an all-solid-state iron–air secondary battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Tsuneishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anion conductive solid electrolytes based on Mg–Al layered double hydroxide (LDH were prepared for application in an all-solid-state Fe–air battery. The ionic conductivity and the conducting ion species were evaluated from impedance and electromotive force measurements. The ion conductivity of LDH was markedly enhanced upon addition of KOH. The electromotive force in a water vapor concentration cell was similar to that of an anion-conducting polymer membrane. The KOH–LDH obtained was used as a hydroxide ion conductive electrolyte for all-solid-state Fe–air batteries. The cell performance of the Fe–air batteries was examined using a mixture of KOH–LDH and iron-oxide-supported carbon as the negative electrode.

  3. Beyond the continuum: how molecular solvent structure affects electrostatics and hydrodynamics at solid-electrolyte interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonthuis, Douwe Jan; Netz, Roland R

    2013-10-03

    Standard continuum theory fails to predict several key experimental results of electrostatic and electrokinetic measurements at aqueous electrolyte interfaces. In order to extend the continuum theory to include the effects of molecular solvent structure, we generalize the equations for electrokinetic transport to incorporate a space dependent dielectric profile, viscosity profile, and non-electrostatic interaction potential. All necessary profiles are extracted from atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We show that the MD results for the ion-specific distribution of counterions at charged hydrophilic and hydrophobic interfaces are accurately reproduced using the dielectric profile of pure water and a non-electrostatic repulsion in an extended Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The distributions of Na(+) at both surface types and Cl(-) at hydrophilic surfaces can be modeled using linear dielectric response theory, whereas for Cl(-) at hydrophobic surfaces it is necessary to apply nonlinear response theory. The extended Poisson-Boltzmann equation reproduces the experimental values of the double-layer capacitance for many different carbon-based surfaces. In conjunction with a generalized hydrodynamic theory that accounts for a space dependent viscosity, the model captures the experimentally observed saturation of the electrokinetic mobility as a function of the bare surface charge density and the so-called anomalous double-layer conductivity. The two-scale approach employed here-MD simulations and continuum theory-constitutes a successful modeling scheme, providing basic insight into the molecular origins of the static and kinetic properties of charged surfaces, and allowing quantitative modeling at low computational cost.

  4. High performance electrode for electrochemical oxygen generator cell based on solid electrolyte ion transport membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping; Ran, Ran; Chen, Zhihao; Zeng, Pingying; Gu, Hongxia; Jin, Wanqin; Xu, Nanping [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xin Mofan Road, Nanjing 210009, JiangSu (China)

    2007-06-30

    A double-layer composite electrode based on Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} + Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 1.9} (BSCF + SDC) and BSCF + SDC + Ag was investigated to be a promising cathode and also anode for the electrochemical oxygen generator based on samaria doped ceria electrolyte. The Ag particles in the second layer were not only the current collector but also the improver for the oxygen adsorption at the electrode. a.c. impedance results indicated that the electrode polarization resistance, as low as 0.0058 {omega} cm{sup 2} was reached at 800 C under air. In oxygen generator cell performance test, the electrode resistance dropped to half of the value at zero current density under an applied current density of 2.34 A cm{sup -2} at 700 C, and on the same conditions the oxygen generator cell was continual working for more than 900 min with a Faradic efficiency of {proportional_to}100%. (author)

  5. Elaboration and characterization of solid electrolytes for electrochemical oxygen sensors in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabard, M.

    2013-01-01

    This PhD thesis was prepared within the framework of the research program on 'Generation IV' nuclear reactors with sodium as coolant. One of the main technological problem concerns the control of the corrosion processes of the materials (structural materials, fuel claddings, etc.) by liquid sodium. A key parameter is the dissolved oxygen content in the coolant. This thesis focuses on the development and characterization of ceramic materials based on ThO 2 doped with Y 2 O 3 for making potentiometric oxygen sensor used in liquid sodium. Work has been carried out and probes were tested in the past, however, the probes had at the time, a lack of reliability. The objective of this thesis is to develop and characterize electrolytes based on thorium oxide doped with yttrium oxide using specific synthesis techniques to control purity, grain size, compactness, etc. To develop experimental protocols a ceramic model has been chosen, i.e., yttria-doped ceria. Transport processes were studied using the impedance spectroscopy technique. An interpretation of the blocking phenomena of the ionic conduction in both ceramics as a function of the oxygen partial pressure has been given. (author) [fr

  6. Bilayer electrolyte-anode for solid oxide fuel cell; Obtencao de bicamadas eletrolito-anodo para pilhas a combustivel de oxido solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crochemore, G.B.; Marcomini, R.F.; Souza, D.P.F. de [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (GEMM/UFSCAR), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais], Email: dulcina@ufscar.br; Rabelo, A.A. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell is a high efficient device hence it plays a very important role in the hydrogen economy. However, the cell operation temperature must be lower than 800 deg C, what is attainable for thin Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes. The tape casting process is the most used technique because it allows a very fine tuning of the tape thickness. In this work it were investigated the processing conditions for obtaining electrolyte-anode (YSZ/ YSZ-NiO) bilayers with no lamination after the sintering process. (author)

  7. Solid oxide fuel cells with apatite-type lanthanum silicate-based electrolyte films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Xin; Wang, Sea-Fue; Hsu, Yung-Fu; Wang, Chi-Hua

    2018-03-01

    In this study, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) containing high-quality apatite-type magnesium doped lanthanum silicate-based electrolyte films (LSMO) deposited by RF magnetron sputtering are successfully fabricated. The LSMO film deposited at an Ar:O2 ratio of 6:4 on an anode supported NiO/Sm0.2Ce0·8O2-δ (SDC) substrate followed by post-annealing at 1000 °C reveals a uniform and dense c-axis oriented polycrystalline structure, which is well adhered to the anode substrate. A composite SDC/La0·6Sr0·4Co0·2Fe0·8O3-δ cathode layer is subsequently screen-printed on the LSMO deposited anode substrate and fired. The SOFC fabricated with the LSMO film exhibits good mechanical integrity. The single cell with the LSMO layer of ≈2.8 μm thickness reports a total cell resistance of 1.156 and 0.163 Ωcm2, open circuit voltage of 1.051 and 0.982 V, and maximum power densities of 0.212 and 1.490 Wcm-2 at measurement temperatures of 700 and 850 °C, respectively, which are comparable or superior to those of previously reported SOFCs with yttria stabilized zirconia electrolyte films. The results of the present study demonstrate the feasibility of deposition of high-quality LSMO films by RF magnetron sputtering on NiO-SDC anode substrates for the fabrication of SOFCs with good cell performance.

  8. Solid electrolytes. Extremely fast charge carriers in garnet-type Li{sub 6}La{sub 3}ZrTaO{sub 12} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanje, Bernhard; Breuer, Stefan; Uitz, Marlena [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Lithium Batteries, and Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology (NAWI Graz), Graz (Austria); DFG Research Unit ' ' Mobility of Lithium Ions in Solids' ' , Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Rettenwander, Daniel; Redhammer, Guenther [Department Chemistry and Physics of Materials, University of Salzburg (Austria); Berendts, Stefan; Lerch, Martin [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Chemie (Germany); Uecker, Reinhard [Leibniz Institute for Crystal Growth (Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.), Berlin (Germany); Hanzu, Ilie; Wilkening, Martin [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Lithium Batteries, and Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology (NAWI Graz), Graz (Austria); DFG Research Unit ' ' Mobility of Lithium Ions in Solids' ' , Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Alistore-ERI European Research Institute, Amiens (France)

    2017-12-15

    The development of all-solid-state electrochemical energy storage systems, such as lithium-ion batteries with solid electrolytes, requires stable, electronically insulating compounds with exceptionally high ionic conductivities. Considering ceramic oxides, garnet-type Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} and derivatives, see Zr-exchanged Li{sub 6}La{sub 3}ZrTaO{sub 12} (LLZTO), have attracted great attention due to its high Li{sup +} ionic conductivity of 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at ambient temperature. Despite numerous studies focussing on conductivities of powder samples, only few use time-domain NMR methods to probe Li ion diffusion parameters in single crystals. Here we report on temperature-variable NMR relaxometry measurements using both laboratory and spin-lock techniques to probe Li jump rates covering a dynamic time window spanning several decades. Both techniques revealed a consistent picture of correlated Li ion jump diffusion in the single crystal; the data perfectly mirror a modified BPP-type relaxation response being based on a Lorentzian-shaped relaxation function. The rates measured could be parameterized with a single set of diffusion parameters. Results from NMR are completely in line with ion transport parameters derived from conductivity spectroscopy. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Synthesis, processing and characterization of the solid oxide half-cells cathode/electrolyte of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite/Yttria-stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Rubens

    2010-01-01

    The ceramic films of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) and strontium doped lanthanum manganite/Yttria-stabilized zirconia (LSM/YSZ) are used as cathodes of the high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (HTSOFC). These porous ceramic films had been deposited on the YSZ dense ceramic substrate, used as electrolyte, structural component of the module, thus conferring a configuration of half-cell called auto-support. The study of the half-cell it is basic, therefore in the interface cathode/electrolyte occurs the oxygen reduction reaction, consequently influencing in the performance of the HTSOFC. In this direction, the present work contributes for the processing of thin films, using the wet powder spraying technique, adopted for the conformation of the ceramic films for allowing the attainment of porous layers with thicknesses varied in the order of micrometers. The LSM powders were synthesized by the citrate technique and the LSM/YSZ powders synthesized by the solid mixture technique. In the stage of formation were prepared organic suspensions of LSM and LSM/YSZ fed by gravity in a manual aerograph. For the formation of the YSZ substrate was used a hydraulic uniaxial press. The attainment of solid oxide half-cells cathode/electrolyte was possible of crystalline structures hexagonal for phase LSM and cubic for phase YSZ. The half-cells micrographs show that the YSZ substrate is dense, enough to be used as solid electrolyte, and the LSM and LSM/YSZ films are presented porous with approximately 30 μm of thickness and good adherence between the cathodes and the electrolyte. The presence of composite cathode between the LSM cathode and YSZ substrate, presented an increase in the electrochemical performance in the oxygen reduction reaction. (author)

  10. Modelling of the solid state electrochromic system WO/sub 3//HSbO/sub 3/ x 2H/sub 2/O/Ni(OH)/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagzdons, J L; Bajars, G E; Lusis, A R [AN Litovskoj SSR, Vilnyus. Inst. Fiziki Poluprovodnikov

    1984-08-16

    The problem of compatibility of electrochromic materials (ECM) with the solid electrolyte and the selection of solid electrolytes has been studied by means of modelling. The model electrochromic system (ECS) containing cathodically coloring ECM (WO/sub 3/), anodically coloring ECM (Ni(OH)/sub 2/), and a solid proton electrolyte (HSbO/sub 3/ x 2H/sub 2/O), as well as ECS containing H/sub x/WO/sub 3/ as counterelectrode has been investigated by the aid of cyclic voltammograms. Results show the compatibility of both the cathodic (WO/sub 3/) and anodic (Ni(OH)/sub 2/) ECM with solid proton electrolyte. Effective electrochromic devices can be worked out on their basis.

  11. A chemically stable electrolyte with a novel sandwiched structure for proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei

    2013-11-01

    A chemically stable electrolyte structure was developed for proton-conducting SOFCs by using two layers of stable BaZr0.7Pr 0.1Y0.2O3 -δ to sandwich a highly-conductive but unstable BaCe0.8Y0.2O 3 -δ electrolyte layer. The sandwiched electrolyte structure showed good chemical stability in both CO2 and H2O atmosphere, indicating that the BZPY layers effectively protect the inner BCY electrolyte, while the BCY electrolyte alone decomposed completely under the same conditions. Fuel cell prototypes fabricated with the sandwiched electrolyte achieved a relatively high performance of 185 mW cm- 2 at 700 C, with a high electrolyte film conductivity of 4 × 10- 3 S cm- 1 at 600 C. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  12. FY 1999 Report on research and development of power generation by solid electrolyte fuel cell. Research and development of solid electrolyte fuel cell; 1999 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu kotai denkaishitsugata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu kenkyu seika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    This project is aimed at establishment of the module basic technology and commercialization of the solid electrolyte fuel cell in the early stage by designing, construction, operation and performance evaluation of a several kW-class module which incorporates the cylindrical cell fabricated by the wet process. The FY 1999 R and D efforts include (1) cell performance demonstration study: the cylindrical single cell fabricated by the wet process is demonstration-tested to determine the initial performance and durability for continuous operation, thereby comparing the external reforming with internal reforming in output, with the internal reforming rate as the parameter, (2) development of a several kW-class module: the adequate cell arrangement structure within the module is studied by the computer-aided simulation, and the tests for confirming thermal cycle durability of the modified bundle are conducted using the module power generation unit and the several kW-class module is tested, and (3) development of the technology for designing a thermally supported module: the effects of, e.g., air and fuel supply conditions on the module performance are analyzed using the analytical model as the base. Expansion of the module level to the process simulation model has been completed, based on these results. (NEDO)

  13. Tritium separation from heavy water by electrolysis with solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Y.; Ohtani, N.; Kotaka, M.

    2003-01-01

    A tritium separation from heavy water by electrolysis using a solid polymer electrode layer was specified. The cathode was made of stainless steel or nickel. The electrolysis was performed for 1 hour at 5, 10, 20, and 30 deg C. Using a palladium catalyst, generated hydrogen and oxygen gases were recombined, which was collected with a cold trap. The activities of the samples were measured by a liquid scintillation counter. The apparent tritium separation factors of the heavy and light water at 20 deg C were ∼2 and ∼12, respectively. (author)

  14. Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, B; Granata, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.

  15. Effect of succinonitrile on electrical, structural, optical, and thermal properties of [poly(ethylene oxide)-succinonitrile]/LiI–I2 redox-couple solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Rhee, Hee-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Effect of succinonitrile on electrical, structural, optical, and thermal properties of [poly(ethylene oxide)-succinonitrile]/LiI–I 2 redox-couple solid polymer electrolyte is reported for the first time. For the poly(ethylene oxide)-succinonitrile blend-based electrolyte electrical conductivity was noted as high as ∼3 × 10 −4 S cm −1 at 25 °C, which is an order of magnitude higher than that of pure poly(ethylene oxide)-based electrolyte. It also exhibited relatively better pseudo-activation energy (∼0.08 eV). X-ray diffractometry, polarized optical microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed that succinonitrile is helpful in reducing the poly(ethylene oxide) crystallinity due to its plasticizing property. FT-IR study showed significant modification of the poly(ethylene oxide) chain conformation due to the succinonitrile.

  16. Steam Electrolysis by Proton-Conducting Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOECs) with Chemically Stable BaZrO3-Based Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei

    2015-07-17

    BaZrO3-based material was applied as the electrolyte for proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOECs). Compared with the instability of BaCeO3-based proton-conductors, BaZrO3-based material could be a more promising candidate for proton-conducting SOECs due to its excellent chemical stability under H2O conditions, but few reports on this aspect has been made due to the processing difficulty for BaZrO3. Our recent pioneering work has demonstrated the feasibility of using BaZrO3-based electrolyte for SOECs and the fabricated cell achieves relatively high cell performance, which is comparable or even higher than that for BaCeO3-based SOECs and offers better chemical stability. Cell performance can be further improved by tailoring the electrolyte and electrode. © The Electrochemical Society.

  17. LCA of Solid Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Laurent, Alexis; Clavreul, Julie

    2018-01-01

    The chapter explores the application of LCA to solid waste management systems through the review of published studies on the subject. The environmental implications of choices involved in the modelling setup of waste management systems are increasingly in the spotlight, due to public health...... concerns and new legislation addressing the impacts from managing our waste. The application of LCA to solid waste management systems, sometimes called “waste LCA”, is distinctive in that system boundaries are rigorously defined to exclude all life cycle stages except from the end-of-life. Moreover...... LCA on solid waste systems....

  18. Solid electrolyte gas sensors based on cyclic voltammetry with one active electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinski, G; Jasinski, P, E-mail: gregor@biomed.eti.pg.gda.pl [Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunication and Informatics, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland)

    2011-10-29

    Solid state gas sensors are cost effective, small, rugged and reliable. Typically electrochemical solid state sensors operate in either potentiometric or amperometric mode. However, a lack of selectivity is sometimes a shortcoming of such sensors. It seems that improvements of selectivity can be obtained in case of the electrocatalytic sensors, which operate in cyclic voltammetry mode. Their working principle is based on acquisition of an electric current, while voltage ramp is applied to the sensor. The current-voltage response depends in a unique way on the type and concentration of ambient gas. Most electrocatalytic sensors have symmetrical structure. They are in a form of pellets with two electrodes placed on their opposite sides. Electrochemical reactions occur simultaneously on both electrodes. In this paper results for sensors with only one active electrode exposed to ambient gas are presented. The other electrode was isolated from ambient gas with dielectric sealing. This sensor construction allows application of advanced measuring procedures, which permit sensor regeneration acceleration. Experiments were conducted on Nasicon sensors. Properties of two sensors, one with one active electrode and second with symmetrical structure, used for the detection of mixtures of NO{sub 2} and synthetic air are compared.

  19. Materials space of solid-state electrolytes: unraveling chemical composition-structure-ionic conductivity relationships in garnet-type metal oxides using cheminformatics virtual screening approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeva, Natalia; Pervov, Vladislav S

    2017-08-09

    The organic electrolytes of most current commercial rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LiBs) are flammable, toxic, and have limited electrochemical energy windows. All-solid-state battery technology promises improved safety, cycling performance, electrochemical stability, and possibility of device miniaturization and enables a number of breakthrough technologies towards the development of new high power and energy density microbatteries for electronics with low processing cost, solid oxide fuel cells, electrochromic devices, etc. Currently, rational materials design is attracting significant attention, which has resulted in a strong demand for methodologies that can accelerate the design of materials with tailored properties; cheminformatics can be considered as an efficient tool in this respect. This study was focused on several aspects: (i) identification of the parameters responsible for high Li-ion conductivity in garnet structured oxides; (ii) development of quantitative models to elucidate composition-structure-Li ionic conductivity relationships, taking into account the experimental details of sample preparation; (iii) circumscription of the materials space of solid garnet-type electrolytes, which is attractive for virtual screening. Several candidate compounds have been recommended for synthesis as potential solid state electrolyte materials.

  20. Electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cells having electrolytes made by suspension and solution precursor plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, M.; Kuhn, J.; Metcalfe, C.; Harris, J.; Kesler, O.

    2014-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes were deposited by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) and solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS). The electrolytes were evaluated for permeability, microstructure, and electrochemical performance. With SPS, three different suspensions were tested to explore the influence of powder size distribution and liquid properties. Electrolytes made from suspensions of a powder with d50 = 2.6 μm were more gas-tight than those made from suspensions of a powder with d50 = 0.6 μm. A peak open circuit voltage of 1.00 V was measured at 750 °C with a cell with an electrolyte made from a suspension of d50 = 2.6 μm powder. The use of a flammable suspension liquid was beneficial for improving electrolyte conductivity when using lower energy plasmas, but the choice of liquid was less important when using higher energy plasmas. With SPPS, peak electrolyte conductivities were comparable to the peak conductivities of the SPS electrolytes. However, leak rates through the SPPS electrolytes were higher than those through the electrolytes made from suspensions of d50 = 2.6 μm powder. The electrochemical test data on SPPS electrolytes are the first reported in the literature.

  1. An open circuit voltage equation enabling separation of cathode and anode polarization resistances of ceria electrolyte based solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Chen, Yu; Yan, Mufu

    2017-07-01

    The open circuit voltage (OCV) of solid oxide fuel cells is generally overestimated by the Nernst equation and the Wagner equation, due to the polarization losses at electrodes. Considering both the electronic conduction of electrolyte and the electrode polarization losses, we express the OCV as an implicit function of the characteristic oxygen pressure of electrolyte (p* [atm], at which the electronic and ionic conductivities are the same), and the relative polarization resistance of electrodes (rc = Rc/Ri and ra = Ra/Ri, where Ri/c/a [Ωcm2] denotes the ionic resistance of electrolyte, and the polarization resistances of cathode and anode, respectively). This equation approaches to the Wagner equation when the electrodes are highly active (rc and ra → 0), and approaches to the Nernst equation when the electrolyte is a purely ionic conductor (p* → 0). For the fuel cells whose OCV is well below the prediction of the Wagner equation, for example with thin doped ceria electrolyte, it is demonstrated that the combination of OCV and impedance spectroscopy measurements allows the determination of p*, Rc and Ra. This equation can serve as a simple yet powerful tool to study the internal losses in the cell under open circuit condition.

  2. In-situ preparation of poly(ethylene oxide)/Li3PS4 hybrid polymer electrolyte with good nanofiller distribution for rechargeable solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaojie; Wang, Junye; Zhang, Zhihua; Wu, Linbin; Yao, Lili; Wei, Zhenyao; Deng, Yonghong; Xie, Dongjiu; Yao, Xiayin; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2018-05-01

    Nano-sized fillers in a polymer matrix with good distribution can play a positive role in improving polymer electrolytes in the aspects of ionic conductivity, mechanical property and electrochemical performance of Li-ion cells. Herein, polyethylene oxide (PEO)/Li3PS4 hybrid polymer electrolyte is prepared via a new in-situ approach. The ionic conductivities of the novel hybrid electrolytes with variable proportions are measured, and the optimal electrolyte of PEO-2%vol Li3PS4 presents a considerable ionic conductivity of 8.01 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 60 °C and an electrochemical window up to 5.1 V. The tests of DSC and EDXS reveal that the Li3PS4 nanoparticles with better distribution, as active fillers scattering in the PEO, exhibit a positive effect on the transference of lithium ion and electrochemical interfacial stabilities. Finally, the assembled solid-state LiFePO4/Li battery presents a decent cycling performance (80.9% retention rate after 325 cycles at 60 °C) and excellent rate capacities with 153, 143, 139 and 127 mAh g-1 at the discharging rate of 0.1 C, 0.2 C, 0.5 C and 1 C at 60 °C. It is fully proved that it is an advanced strategy to preparing the new organic/inorganic hybrid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries applications.

  3. Application of sol gel spin coated yttria-stabilized zirconia layers for the improvement of solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced by atmospheric plasma spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Lars [University of British Columbia, Department of Materials Engineering, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); National Research Council, Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1W5 (Canada); Kesler, Olivera [National Research Council, Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1W5 (Canada); University of British Columbia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Tang, Zhaolin; Burgess, Alan [Northwest Mettech Corp., 467 Mountain Hwy, North Vancouver, British Columbia, V7J 2L3 (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    Due to its high thermal stability and purely oxide ionic conductivity, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the most commonly used electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Standard electrolyte fabrication techniques for planar SOFCs involve wet ceramic techniques such as tape-casting or screen printing, requiring sintering steps at temperatures above 1300 C. Plasma spraying (PS) may provide a more rapid and cost efficient method to produce SOFCs without sintering. High-temperature sintering requires long processing times and can lead to oxidation of metal alloys used as mechanical supports, or to detrimental interreactions between the electrolyte and adjacent electrode layers. This study investigates the use of spin coated sol gel derived YSZ precursor solutions to fill the pores present in plasma sprayed YSZ layers, and to enhance the surface area for reaction at the electrolyte-cathode interface, without the use of high-temperature firing steps. The effects of different plasma conditions and sol concentrations and solid loadings on the gas permeability and fuel cell performance have been investigated. (author)

  4. Asymmetric diffusion of Zr, Sc and Ce, Gd at the interface between zirconia electrolyte and ceria interlayer for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Bo, E-mail: Liangbo@gdut.edu.cn; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Silong; Huang, Yongan; Cai, Zhihong; Lu, Shenguo, E-mail: sglu@gdut.edu.cn

    2016-09-15

    The microstructures of cathode interlayer and elemental diffusion behaviors across the interfacial region (electrolyte/interlayer) have been characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning TEM combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS). A densified film about 100 nm is locally formed at the interface of electrolyte/interlayer as the interlayer using dip-coating method and being sintered at 1200 °C. It is observed that the compositional distribution curves across the interface are asymmetric. More amount of the Zr, Sc component is detected in gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) than that of the Ce, Gd component is detected in scandia-stabilized-zirconia (SSZ). XRD and EDS results show that the densified layer might consist of (Zr, Ce)O{sub 2}-based solid solution. The high open circuit voltage of the cell is related to the dense structure of electrolyte, while the increased activation energy in overpotential resistance is attributed to the porous structure of interlayer as well as the high resistance phases locally formed at its interface. - Highlights: • The (Ce−Zr)O{sub 2} based solid solution was locally formed at 1200 °C. • More Zr, Sc elements were detected in GDC than Ce, Gd elements in SSZ. • Zirconia nanodomain was embedded in GDC beside grain boundary. • High OCVs were achieved due to the highly dense electrolyte layer.

  5. Performance of intermediate temperature (600-800 °C) solid oxide fuel cell based on Sr and Mg doped lanthanum-gallate electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenquan; Gopalan, Srikanth; Pal, Uday B.

    The solid electrolyte chosen for this investigation was La 0.9Sr 0.1Ga 0.8Mg 0.2O 3 (LSGM). To select appropriate electrode materials from a group of possible candidate materials, AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600 and 800 °C on symmetrical cells that employed the LSGM electrolyte. Based on the results of the investigation, LSGM electrolyte supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) were fabricated with La 0.6Sr 0.4Co 0.8Fe 0.2O 3-La 0.9Sr 0.1Ga 0.8Mg 0.2O 3 (LSCF-LSGM) composite cathode and nickel-Ce 0.6La 0.4O 2 (Ni-LDC) composite anode having a barrier layer of Ce 0.6La 0.4O 2 (LDC) between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-LDC anode. Electrical performances of these cells were determined and the electrode polarization behavior as a function of cell current was modeled between 600 and 800 °C.

  6. Performance of intermediate temperature (600-800{sup o}C) solid oxide fuel cell based on Sr and Mg doped lanthanum-gallate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Wenquan; Gopalan, Srikanth; Pal, Uday B. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Boston University, MA 02215 (United States)

    2006-09-29

    The solid electrolyte chosen for this investigation was La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSGM). To select appropriate electrode materials from a group of possible candidate materials, AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600 and 800{sup o}C on symmetrical cells that employed the LSGM electrolyte. Based on the results of the investigation, LSGM electrolyte supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) were fabricated with La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSCF-LSGM) composite cathode and nickel-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (Ni-LDC) composite anode having a barrier layer of Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (LDC) between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-LDC anode. Electrical performances of these cells were determined and the electrode polarization behavior as a function of cell current was modeled between 600 and 800{sup o}C. (author)

  7. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of La(Sr)Ga(Mg)O3-δ for electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Enoki, Makiko; Ishihara, Tatsumi; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) of an electrolyte for solid oxide fuel (SOFC), in comparison to a conventional solid-state reaction method (SRM). Doped-lanthanum gallate: La 0.9 Sr 0.1 Ga 0.8 Mg 0.2 O 3-δ (LSGM9182) and LSGM9173 as the SOFC electrolyte, was prepared by the SHS and sintered at different temperatures, for measuring the electrical conductivity of the sintered LSGM and the power generating performance at 1073 K, in comparison to the SRM. In the SHS, the LSGM powders with smaller size were obtained and easily sintered at the 100 K-lower temperature, 1673 K, than in the SRM. Most significantly, the electrical conductivity of the sintered LSGM9182 was as high as 0.11 S cm -1 and its maximum power density was a value of 245 mW cm -2 in the cell configuration of Ni/LSGM9182 (0.501 mm in thickness)/Sm 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 . The conclusion was that the proposed SHS-sintering method with many benefits of minimizing the energy requirement and the processing time in the production, easing temperature restriction for the sintering, and improving the electrolyte performance up to a conventional level is practicable for producing the LSGM-electrolyte of SOFC at an intermediate-temperature application

  8. The Importance of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation for Long Cycle Stability Full-Cell Na-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaolin; Yan, Pengfei; Engelhard, Mark H.; Crawford, Aladsair J.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Wang, Chong M.; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-07-30

    Na-ion battery, as an alternative high-efficiency and low-cost energy storage device to Li-ion battery, has attracted wide interest for electrical grid and vehicle applications. However, demonstration of a full-cell battery with high energy and long cycle life remains a significant challenge. Here, we investigated the role of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation on both cathodes and anodes and revealed a potential way to achieve long-term stability for Na-ion battery full-cells. Pre-cycling of cathodes and anodes leads to preformation of SEI, and hence mitigates the consumption of Na ions in full-cells. The example full-cell of Na0.44MnO2-hard carbon with pre-cycled and capacity-matched electrodes can deliver a specific capacity of ~116 mAh/g based on Na0.44MnO2 at 1C rate (1C = 120 mA/g). The corresponding specific energy is ~313 Wh/kg. Excellent cycling stability with ~77% capacity retention over 2000 cycles was demonstrated at 2C rate. Our work represents a leap forward in Na-ion battery development.

  9. The Buried Carbon/Solid Electrolyte Interphase in Li-ion Batteries Studied by Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciosek Högström, Katarzyna; Malmgren, Sara; Hahlin, Maria; Gorgoi, Mihaela; Nyholm, Leif; Rensmo, Håkan; Edström, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    In cycled Li-ion batteries, the carbon negative electrode is buried under a thin passivating layer referred to as the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). In the present study, the increased depth sensitivity of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) as compared to conventional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to study electrochemical changes at such a buried carbon/SEI. Samples from graphite/LiFePO 4 cells cycled to specific potentials during the first four charge/discharge cycles were studied. The results show dynamic changes in the SEI during cycling. Reversible, state of charge (SOC) dependent changes in the SEI thickness as well as amounts of lithium oxide, lithium fluoride, lithium and carbon active material were discussed. Moreover, the results indicate lithium enrichment close to the carbon active material surface, which could not be explained by intercalation of lithium into carbon with LiC 6 structure or by SEI formation at the surface. Potential dependent shifts in the binding energy of the carbon active material C1s feature showed the importance of internal energy calibration with an SEI feature rather than carbon active material

  10. Reductive dehalogenation in microbial and electrolytic model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criddle, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    This research addresses the principles or reductive dehalogenation, with a focus on microbial processes. Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was selected as a model compound for intensive investigation. Three different experimental systems were studied: pure cultures of Escherichia coli k-12, pure cultures of a denitrifying Pseudomonad isolated from aquifer solids (Pseudomonas sp. strain KC), and an electrolysis cell. The product distributions were consistent with the hypothesis that CT undergoes a rate-limiting reduction to radical species which rapidly react with constituents of the surrounding milieu. In cultures of E. coli k-12, use of oxygen and nitrate as terminal electron acceptors generally prevented CT transformation. At low oxygen levels (∼ 1%), however, transformation of 14 C-CT to 14 C-CO 2 and attachment to cell material did occur in accord with reports of CT fate in mammalian cell cultures. Under fumarate-respiring conditions, 14 C-CT was recovered as 14 C-C 2 , chloroform (CF), and in a non-volatile fraction. In contrast, fermenting conditions resulted in more CF, more cell-bound 14 C, and almost no 14 C-CO 2 . Rates were faster under fermenting conditions than under fumarate-respiring conditions. Rates also decreased over time suggesting the gradual exhaustion of transformation activity. This loss was modeled with a simple exponential decay term. Pseudomonas sp. strain KC converted 14 C-CT to 14 C-CO 2 under denitrifying conditions, without CF production. Strain KC was the only organism of several denitrifiers that transformed CT. Induction of CT transformation by strain KC depended upon the presence of trace metals. Addition of ferrous iron and cobalt inhibited CT transformation. For strain KC, CT transformation is apparently linked to its mechanism for trace metal acquisition

  11. Model for Calculating Electrolytic Shunt Path Losses in Large Electrochemical Energy Conversion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopius, P. R.

    1976-01-01

    Generalized analysis and solution techniques were developed to evaluate the shunt power losses in electrochemical systems designed with a common or circulating electrolyte supply. Sample data are presented for a hypothetical bulk energy storage redox system, and the general applicability of the analysis technique is discussed.

  12. Symmetric supercapacitors using urea-modified lignin derived N-doped porous carbon as electrode materials in liquid and solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keliang; Xu, Ming; Gu, Yan; Gu, Zhengrong; Fan, Qi Hua

    2016-11-01

    N-doped porous carbon materials derived from urea-modified lignin were prepared via efficient KOH activation under carbonization. The synthesized N-doped carbon materials, which displayed a well-developed porous morphology with high specific surface area of 3130 m2 g-1, were used as electrode materials in symmetric supercapacitors with aqueous and solid electrolytes. In consistent with the observed physical structures and properties, the supercapacitors exhibited specific capacitances of 273 and 306 F g-1, small resistances of 2.6 and 7.7 Ω, stable charge/discharge at different current densities for over 5000 cycles and comparable energy and power density in 6 mol L-1 KOH liquid and KOH-PVA solid electrolytes, respectively.

  13. Dual overcharge protection and solid electrolyte interphase-improving action in Li-ion cells containing a bis -annulated dialkoxyarene electrolyte additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Zhang, Shuo; Hu, Bin; Liao, Chen; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Zhang, Lu

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate that 9,10-Bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-1,4:5,8-dimethanoanthracene redox shuttle molecule survives over 120 cycles with 100% overcharge ratio at C/5 rate in litium-ion batteries. Equally remarkably, in the presence of this electrolyte additive, the cell impedance becomes significantly lower compared to the control cells without this additive during the formation, normal cycling, and even under overcharge conditions.

  14. Negative differential electrolyte resistance in a solid-state nanopore resulting from electroosmotic flow bistability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Long; Holden, Deric A; White, Henry S

    2014-03-25

    A solid-state nanopore separating two aqueous solutions containing different concentrations of KCl is demonstrated to exhibit negative differential resistance (NDR) when a constant pressure is applied across the nanopore. NDR refers to a decrease in electrical current when the voltage applied across the nanopore is increased. NDR results from the interdependence of solution flow (electroosmotic and pressure-engendered) with the distributions of K+ and Cl- within the nanopore. A switch from a high-conductivity state to a low-conductivity state occurs over a very narrow voltage window (flow, yielding a true bistability in fluid flow and electrical current at a critical applied voltage, i.e., the NDR "switching potential". Solution pH and Ca2+ were separately employed as chemical stimuli to investigate the dependence of the NDR on the surface charge density. The NDR switching potential is remarkably sensitive to the surface charge density, and thus to pH and the presence of Ca2+, suggesting possible applications in chemical sensing.

  15. Effect of lithium salt concentrations on blended 49% poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber and poly(methyl methacrylate) based solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su’ait, M.S.; Ahmad, A.; Hamzah, H.; Rahman, M.Y.A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of lithium salts (lithium tetrafluoroborate, LiBF 4 and lithium perchlorate, LiClO 4 ) as doping salts in rubber-polymer blends, 49% poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber (MG49) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film for electrochemical devices application was investigated. The electrolyte films were prepared via the solution casting technique using 0–25 wt.% lithium salt. The effect of the lithium salts on chemical interaction, ionic conductivity and structural and morphological studies of (70:30) MG49-PMMA films was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Infrared analysis showed that the interactions between lithium ions and oxygen atoms occur at the ether group (C–O–C) (1500–1100 cm −1 ) on the MMA structure in both MG49 and PMMA. The oxygen atoms in the structure of the polymer host act as electron donor atoms and form a coordinate bond with the lithium ions from the doping salt to form polymer–salt complexes. The ionic conductivity was investigated at room temperature as well as at a temperature range from 303 K to 373 K. The ionic conductivity without the addition of salt was 1.1 × 10 −12 S cm −1 . The highest conductivity at room temperature for (70:30) MG49-PMMA–LiBF 4 was 8.6 × 10 −6 S cm −1 at 25 wt.% of LiBF 4 . The ionic conductivity of (70:30) MG49-PMMA–LiClO 4 was 1.5 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 25 wt.% of LiClO 4 . However, both electrolyte systems do not exhibit Arrhenius-like behavior. Systems with LiBF 4 salt have higher ionic conductivity than those with LiClO 4 salt because of the differences in anionic size and lattice energy of the appropriate salt. The observations from structural and morphology studies showed that complexation and re-crystallization occur in the system. The XRD studies showed a reduction of the MMA peak

  16. Analyses of ionic conductivity and dielectric behavior of solid polymer electrolyte based 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose doped ammonium nitrate plasticized with ethylene carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiza, M. N.; Isa, M. I. N.

    2017-09-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) based 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose (2-HEC) doped ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) plasticized with ethylene carbonate (EC) has been investigated using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The highest ionic conductivity of (1.17±0.01) × 10-3 Scm-1 was obtained for 2-HEC-NH4NO3 plasticized with 16 wt.% EC. Dielectric and modulus study showed non-Debye type of 2-HEC-NH4NO3-EC SPE.

  17. A structural study of solid electrolyte interface on negative electrode of lithium-Ion battery by electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Tadashi; Watanabe, Jiro; Nakao, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Seiichi

    2014-11-01

    For the last decades, the performance of the lithium-ion battery (LIB) has been significantly improved and its applications have been expanding rapidly. However, its performance has yet to be enhanced.In the lithium-ion battery development, it is important to elucidate the electrode structure change in detail during the charge and discharge cycling. In particular, solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formed by decomposition of the electrolytes on the graphite negative electrode surface should play an important role for battery properties. Therefore, it is essential to control the structure and composition of SEI to improve the battery performance. Here, we conducted a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) study to elucidate the structures of the SEI during the charge and discharge process using LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 [1] cathode and graphite anode. [2] Since SEI is a lithium-containing compound with high activity, it was observed without being exposed to the atmosphere. The electrodes including SEI were sampled after dismantling batteries with cutoff voltages of 3V and 4.2V for the charge process and 3V for the discharge process. Fig.1 shows SEM images of the graphite electrode surface during the charge and discharge process. The change of the SEI structure during the process was clearly observed. Further, TEM images showed that the SEI grew thicker during the charge process and becomes thinner when discharged. These results with regard to the reversible SEI structure could give a new insight for the battery development.jmicro;63/suppl_1/i21/DFU056F1F1DFU056F1Fig. 1.SEM images of the graphite electrode surface:(a) before charge process;(b) with charge-cutoff voltage of 3.0V; (c) with charge-cutoff voltage of 4.2V; (d) with discharge-cutoff voltage of 3.0V. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Conductivity, XRD, and FTIR studies of New Mg2+-ion-conducting solid polymer electrolytes: [PEG: Mg(CH3COO)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polu, Anji Reddy; Kumar, Ranveer; Causin, Valerio; Neppalli, Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes based on poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) doped with Mg(CH 3 COO) 2 have been prepared by using the solution-casting method. The X-ray diffraction patterns of PEG with Mg(CH 3 COO) 2 salt indicated a decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing concentration of the salt. The complexation of Mg(CH 3 COO) 2 salt with the polymer was confirmed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies. The ionic conductivity was measured for the [PEG: Mg(CH 3 COO) 2 ] system in the frequency range 50 Hz - 1 MHz. The addition of Mg salt was found to improve the ionic conductivity significantly. The 15-wt-% Mg(CH 3 COO) 2 -doped system had a maximum conductivity of 1.07 x 10 -6 S/cm at 303 K. The conductance spectrum shows two distinct regions: a dc plateau and a dispersive region. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity reveals the conduction mechanism to be an Arrhenius-type thermally activated process.

  19. Stabilized γ-BIMNVOX solid electrolyte: Ethylene glycol–citrate sol–gel synthesis, microwave-assisted calcination, and structural and electrical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Areqi, Niyazi A.S., E-mail: niyazi.alareqi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz University, Taiz, Republic of Yemen (Yemen); Beg, Saba [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Al-Alas, Ahlam [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz University, Taiz, Republic of Yemen (Yemen); Hafeez, Shehla [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •γ-BIMNVOX was synthesized by ethylene glycol–citrate sol–gel route. •γ-BIMNVOX crystallizes by 25-min microwave-assisted calcination. •Smaller particle sizes for microwave calcined BIMNVOX samples. •Best oxide-ion performance for microwave calcined BIMNVOX samples. -- Abstract: Samples of γ-BIMNVOX (Bi{sub 2}V{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 5.5−x/2}; 0.13 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.20) system were synthesized by an ethylene glycol–citrate sol–gel route. The resulting xerogels were then calcined by the microwave heating using a modified domestic microwave oven operated at 2.45 GHz. Microwave-assisted calcination samples in comparison with other conventionally calcined samples were characterized in terms of phase crystallization, stabilization and particle size using simultaneous thermogravimetric–differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The AC impedance spectroscopy was employed for electrical characterization. It was found that the microwave-assisted calcination route successfully produces better crystalline stabilized γ-BIMNVOX samples with appreciably small average particle sizes after only 25 min of microwave heating. The electrical properties of microwave calcined γ-BIMNVOX system make it an advanced low-temperature solid electrolyte suitable for use in oxide-ion based electrochemical applications.

  20. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on research and development of solid electrolyte fuel cells; Kotai denkaishitsugata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu 1997 nendo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1997 on research and development of solid electrolyte fuel cells. Fuji Electric has demonstrated possibilities of film type cells of predominantly metallic flat plate supporting type of a large-area cell lamination system, and seal-less stack structure. Sanyo Electric has discussed making thinner the composite cell lamination type anode, optimization in sintering temperature, and sealing materials. The Fine Ceramic Center has performed a 1,000-hour test on an La(Sr) MnO{sub 3}-YSZ electrode, in which A-site defect amount was decreased to 0.1-0.02 to stabilize micro-structure air electrodes for an extended period of time. Fujikura has discussed functional materials for high dispersion and slanting in a fuel electrode Ni/YSZ. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries has fabricated MgO-based fuel electrodes on a trial basis, and performed internal reformation and power generation tests by using full-size stacks. Murata Manufacturing Company has verified long-term power generation properties and stability of a three-layered co-sintered film of flat plate type. Mitsui Shipbuilding has reached a near final conclusion on the basic structure of gas separator cells. The Central Electric Power Research Institute has completed a conceptual design on a 300-MW class composite power generation system in which SOFC and gas turbines are combined. The Electric Power Development Company has discussed problems in SOFC composite power generation development using coal gasified fuel. (NEDO)